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Sample records for lepidoptera nymphalidae electronic

  1. External morphology of the adult of Dynamine postverta (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Biblidinae and patterns of morphological similarity among species from eight tribes of Nymphalidae

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    Luis Anderson Ribeiro Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the adult of Dynamine postverta (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Biblidinae and patterns of morphological similarity among species from eight tribes of Nymphalidae. The external structure of the integument of Dynamine postverta postverta (Cramer, 1779 is based on detailed morphological drawings and scanning electron microscopy. The data are compared with other species belonging to eight tribes of Nymphalidae, to assist future studies on the taxonomy and systematics of Neotropical Biblidinae.

  2. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  3. Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: a new parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: um novo parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae is recorded as parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae é registrado como parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  4. The mitochondrial genome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

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    Xin, Tianrong; Li, Lei; Yao, Chengyi; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We present the complete mitogenome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in this article. The mitogenome was a circle molecular consisting of 15,286 nucleotides, 37 genes, and an A + T-rich region. The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The overall base composition of the genome is A (37.41%), T (42.80%), C (11.87%), and G (7.91%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5, ND4, ND6, and ND1, but COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4L, and Cob genes employing ATG. The stop codon was TAA in all the protein-coding genes. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et). The phylogenetic relationships of Lepidoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes using the neighbor-joining method. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Lepidoptera species.

  5. Sighting of Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in West Bengal, eastern India

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    A.B. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tawny Palmfly butterfly, Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, is a Malayan species that is also known from the Nicobar Islands. Here we report sighting of E. panthera from the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal, eastern India. This is the first sighting of the species from mainland India, and is a possible range extension of the species into northeastern India.

  6. The first record of the butterfly Memphis d. dia(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in Costa Rica

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    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Memphis diain Costa Rica (Godman & Salvin, 1884 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae is reported herein, based on a specimen collected El Rodeo (09 ° 54’ 76.6”N; 84 ° 16’ 89.5”W on April 4, 2012.

  7. On the status and position of Melitaea minerva var. palamedes Groum-Grshimailo, 1890 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

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    Korb, S. K.; Fric, Zdeněk; Bartoňová, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 177 (2017), s. 17-22 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Nymphalidae * Melitaea palamedes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.264, year: 2016

  8. External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The biology of the Andean silverspot butterfly Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861 is still poorly known. This species is restricted to high elevations in the Andes, where the immature stages are found in close association with species of Passiflora belonging to the section Tacsonia (Juss. Harms, especially P. tripartida var. mollissima (Kunth, which is grown for subsistence by villagers. Herein we describe and illustrate the external features of the egg, larva and pupa of D. glycera, based on light and scanning electron microscopy.

  9. Naropini Stichel, taxonomia e imaturos (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Brassolinae Naropini Stichel, taxonomy and immatures (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Brassolinae

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    Mirna M. Casagrande

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of Naropini (Stichel, 1925 Casagrande, 1996 is presented. The species of this tribe occur exclusively in the Neotropical Region. All the known species of Aponarope Casagrande, 1982, and Narope Doubleday, [1849] are redescribed, new species are described and all of them are illustrated. Immatures of Narope cyllene C. Felder & R. Felder, 1859 are redescribed. Head chaetotaxy of the first instar larva is illustrated with electron micrographies. Both, the head and body chaetotaxy of this instar is also interpreted. The following are new species: Narope minor Casagrande, Oaxaca, Mexico; Panama, Veraguas, Panama; San Jose, Costa Rica. - Narope obidos Casagrande, Pará, Mato Grosso, Espírito Santo, Brazil; Madre de Dios, Peru. - Narope ybyra Casagrande, Bolivia. - Narope cauca Casagrande, Cauca Valley, Colombia. Lectotypes are designated for the following species or subspecies: Narope cyllastros Doubleday, [1849]; Narope cyllarus Westwood, 1851; Narope panniculus piccatus Stichel, 1916; Narope nesope Hewitson, 1869; Narope testacea Godman & Salvin, 1878; Narope cyllabarus Westwood, 1851; Narope anartes Hewitson, 1874; Narope marmorata Schaus, 1902, and Narope pluto Tessmann, 1928. Narope denticulalus Talbot, 1928 is a stat. n. Narope syllabus stygius Staudinger, 1887 is a ssp. rev., comb. n. Narope testacea Godman & Salvin, 1878 is a stat. rev. Narope marmorata Shaus, 1902 is a stat. rev. The following are syn. n.; Narope pusilla Röber, 1929 of Narope nesope Hewitson, 1869; Narope sarastro Staudinger (1886 and Narope sarastro disyllus Fruhstorfer, 1912 of Narope anartes Hewitson, 1874, and Narope panniculus piccata Stichel, 1916 of Narope panniculus Stichel, 1904.

  10. O estágio de ovo dos Heliconiini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil The egg stage of Heliconiini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Rafael Dell'Erba

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se da microscopia de luz e de varredura, são descritos e ilustrados os ovos dos seguintes Heliconiini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil: Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Stichel, 1907, Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779, Dione moneta moneta Hübner, 1825, Dryadula phaetusa (Linnaeus, 1758, Dryas iulia alcionea (Cramer, 1779, Philaethria wernickei (Röber, 1906, Eueides isabella dianasa (Hübner, 1806, Eueides aliphera aliphera (Godart, 1819, Heliconius ethilla narcaea Godart, 1819, Heliconius besckei Ménétriés, 1857 e Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775. Com base em diferenças morfológicas genéricas e ultraestruturais, associadas aos padrões de uso das plantas hospedeiras, elaborou-se uma chave dicotômica para a identificação das espécies.Based upon light and scanning electron microscopy, the external morphology of the egg stage is described and illustrated for the following Heliconiini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae from Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Stichel, 1907, Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779, Dione moneta moneta Hübner, 1825, Dryadula phaetusa (Linnaeus, 1758, Dryas iulia alcionea (Cramer, 1779, Philaethria wernickei (Röber, 1906, Eueides isabella dianasa (Hübner, 1806, Eueides aliphera aliphera (Godart, 1819, Heliconius ethilla narcaea Godart, 1819, Heliconius besckei Ménétriés, 1857, and Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775. A dichotomic key is provided for their identification, based upon differences at the levels of generic and ultrastructural morphology, and variation in host-plant use.

  11. More complex than expected: Cold hardiness and the concentration of cryoprotectants in overwintering larvae of five Erebia butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

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    Vrba, Pavel; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Zahradníčková, Helena; Konvička, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, NOV 02 (2017), s. 470-480 E-ISSN 1802-8829 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-33733S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Nymphalidae * Satyrinae Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016 https://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2017/01/60.pdf

  12. Espécies de Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Rocco Alfredo Di Mare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae occurring in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Based on literature, collections and sampled butterflies, a list of twelve species of Adelpha Hübner occurring in Rio Grande do Sul State is presented, including host plants. Adelpha epizygis Fruhstorfer, [1916], Adelpha falcipennis Fruhstorfer, [1916], Adelpha goyama Schaus, 1902 and Adelpha isis (Drury, 1782 are new reports to Rio Grande do Sul. The species are illustrated and keyed.

  13. Histological and electron microscopy observations on the testis and spermatogenesis of the butterfly Dione juno (Cramer, 1779) and Agraulis vanillae (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

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    Mari, Isabelle Pereira; Gigliolli, Adriana Aparecida Sinópolis; Nanya, Satiko; Portela-Castro, Ana Luiza de Brito

    2018-03-20

    Lepidopteran species present an interesting case of sperm polymorphism and testicular fusion. The study of these features are of great importance in understanding the reproductive biology of these insects, especially in the case of those considered pests. Dione juno and Agraulis vanillae stand out as the most important pests of passion fruit (Passiflora sp.) crops in Brazil. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to characterize the testes and germ cells of Dione juno and Agraulis vanillae at different life stages, using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy, to understand the maturation mechanisms of the male gametes in these species. The study showed that the larvae of both species have a pair of brown kidney-shaped testes, covered by epithelial cells which divide the organ into four follicles. The testes are full of spermatogonia which begin to differentiate in the third larval instar. In the fifth larval instar, spermatozoa can be observed. When they enter the prepupal stage the testes begin a fusion process that is completed in the adult insects, where they present as spherical organs divided into eight follicles, containing all the cells of the germ line. Spermatogenesis occurs centripetally, and in both species, sperm dimorphism is observed, where two different types of spermatozoa are formed, eupyrene (nucleated) and apyrene (anucleate), which differ in morphology and function. Apart from contributing to scientific basic research on the reproductive biology of these insects, the present study provides important data that can aid in research on the physiology, systematics, and control of these species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas].

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    Monteagudo Sabaté, David; Luis Martínez, Moisés Armando

    2013-09-01

    Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas. Butterflies constitute an useful group to investigate biodiversity patterns in specific geographic areas. The aim of this study was to describe the altitudinal patterns distribution and to recognize the main grouping factors of these families. We conducted a comparative study between the butterfly fauna (Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae) of five Mexican mountain ranges (Sierra de Manantlán, Sierra de Atoyac de Alvarez, Loxicha Region, Teocelo-Xalapa and Sierra de Juárez), that included 34 sites of altitudinal ranges from 100 to 2 820m. Data was obtained from the Zoology Museum of the National University of Mexico, and comprised more than 60 000 butterfly records of 398 taxa (subspecies level) proceeding during the last 35 years. Fauna similarity between localities were analyzed using a cluster analysis by Sorensen similarity coefficient. Species richness showed a general tendency to decrease with altitude; the main difference was found between the locality with higher altitude and the rest of the sites. The principal factors affecting the identified clusters followed this order: the location in Pacific or Atlantic slope, and location on a particular mountain range. Three altitudinal levels (low elevations, up to 1 200m; intermediate elevations, from 1200 to 1800 m; and high elevations, from 1800 to 2500 m) were described in accordance to their main characteristic taxa. While Neartic elements were common in the highest altitudinal floor, Neotropical taxa were common in the lowest one. It was more difficult to characterize the intermediate level in which a high number of localities were clustered; this intermediate level was characterized by the presence of some endemic species. The results suggest that historical factors are preeminent in butterfly fauna composition in these areas. Future studies may include other Mexican mountain areas to obtain

  15. Mechanitis polymnia casabranca and Ithomia lichyi lichyi (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae damaging tree of Solanum granuloso-leprosum (Solanaceae

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    Wagner de Souza Tavares

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Zona da Mata region is located in southeastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil with fauna and flora diversified, including herbivorous insects and Solanaceae plants. Ithomiinae caterpillars were observed damaging tree of Solanum granuloso-leprosum Dunal (Solanaceae, used for different purposes and abundant in secondary forest. The objective of this study was to identify defoliating caterpillars of S. granuloso-leprosum at the campus of Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil and review host plants of Mechanitis polymnia L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae. Thirteen caterpillars found damaging a tree of S. granuloso-leprosum at the campus of UFV were collected and maintained in the Laboratório de Controle Biológico de Insetos (LCBI from UFV until adult emergence. These caterpillars were of two species, being ten of the first and three of the second species. Adult specimens of the latter species were identified as Ithomia lichyi lichyi D'Almeida, 1939 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in the Departamento de Zoologia of Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil and of the group of ten caterpillars as Mechanitis polymnia casabranca Haensch, 1905 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in the Museu de Zoologia of Universidade de São Paulo (USP in São Paulo State, Brazil. This is the first report of M. polymnia casabranca and I. lichyi lichyi together damaging plant of S. granuloso-leprosum in the Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil and 57 plants are recorded as host of M. polymnia.

  16. Host plant use among closely related Anaea butterfly species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae

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    QUEIROZ J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great number of Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae species in the tropics whose larvae feed on several plant families. However the genus Anaea is almost always associated with Croton species (Euphorbiaceae. This work describes patterns of host plant use by immature and adult abundance on different vertical strata of sympatric Anaea species in a forest of Southeastern Brazil. Quantitative samples of leaves were taken in April/1999 and May/2000 to collect eggs and larvae of four Anaea species on C.alchorneicarpus, C. floribundus and C. salutaris in a semideciduous forest. Sampled leaves were divided into three classes of plant phenological stage: saplings, shrubs and trees. The results showed that the butterfly species are segregating in host plant use on two scales: host plant species and plant phenological stages. C. alchorneicarpus was used by only one Anaea species, whereas C. floribundus was used by three species and C. salutaris by four Anaea species. There was one Anaea species concentrated on sapling, another on sapling/shrub and two others on shrub/tree leaves. Adults of Anaea were more frequent at canopy traps but there were no differences among species caught in traps at different vertical positions. This work supplements early studies on host plant use among Charaxinae species and it describes how a guild of closely related butterfly species may be organized in a complex tropical habitat.

  17. Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    María-José Sanzana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. When the environmental conditions change locally, the organisms and populations may also change in response to the selection pressure, so that the development of individuals may become affected in different degrees. There have been only a few studies in which the patterns of wing morphology variation have been looked into along a latitudinal gradient by means of geometric morphometrics. The aim of this work was to assess the morphologic differentiation of wing among butterfly populations of the species Auca coctei. For this purpose, 9 sampling locations were used which are representative of the distribution range of the butterfly and cover a wide latitudinal range in Chile. The wing morphology was studied in a total of 202 specimens of A. coctei (150 males and 52 females, based on digitization of 17 morphologic landmarks. The results show variation of wing shape in both sexes; however, for the centroid size there was significant variation only in females. Females show smaller centroid size at higher latitudes, therefore in this study the Bergmann reverse rule is confirmed for females of A. coctei. Our study extends morphologic projections with latitude, suggesting that wing variation is an environmental response from diverse origins and may influence different characteristics of the life history of a butterfly.

  18. Taxonomy of Mechanitis (f.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from the west Colombian Andes: an integrative approach.

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    Giraldo, C E; Uribe, S I

    2012-12-01

    Species identification in the butterfly genus Mechanitis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) becomes difficult when it is based only on wing color patterns, a common practice in butterfly taxonomy. Difficulties in Mechanitis taxonomy are related to the widespread mimicry and polymorphism among species belonging to this genus. Species recognition and inventories of Mechanitis genus in geographic areas as the Andean region of Colombia are of particular interest and the use of more than one character for taxonomic identification is desirable. In this study, we included morphological, ecological, and mitochondrial DNA data to identify the occurring species in this region. Species of Mechanitis were studied from ecological, morphological, and molecular perspectives considering host plant identification, oviposition behavior, and life cycles under laboratory conditions. Immature morphology, patterns of wing color, and genital structures of adults were also studied. The genetic barcoding region of the cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial gene was sequenced and used to verify the limits between species previously defined by the other characters and to validate its usefulness for species delimitation in this particular genus. The integrative approach combining independent datasets successfully allowed species identification as compared to the approach based on a single dataset. Three well-differentiated species were found in the studied region, Mechanitis menapis (Hewitson), Mechanitis polymnia (Linnaeus), and Mechanitis lysimnia (Fabricius). New valuable characters that could improve taxonomic identification in this genus are considered.

  19. Genetic structure of Proclossiana eunomia populations at the regional scale (Lepidoptera, nymphalidae).

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    Nève, G; Barascud, B; Descimon, H; Baguette, M

    2000-06-01

    Populations of Proclossiana eunomia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) occur in middle Europe in patchy habitats of hay meadows along valleys or peat bogs. Samples of P. eunomia populations from the Ardennes region (northern France and southern Belgium) were analysed by allozyme electrophoresis. Patches isolated by more than 2 km of mature forests proved genetically distinct from their neighbouring populations. Mantel tests and regression analysis showed that the degree of genetic differentiation between the 26 studied populations is related to the geographical distances between them. Autocorrelation analysis (Moran's I ) showed that allele frequencies are positively correlated for populations up to 13 km apart and that the genetic neighbourhood of individuals is in the range of 0.9 km, which is in accordance with movement studies in this species conducted in the same area. Analysis using Wright's F-statistics revealed that the highest differentiation occurs between populations of the same subregion, whereas the whole Ardennes region is not genetically partitioned into subregions. This is probably because the connectivity of the network of suitable habitats has significantly weakened only since the 1950s, and thus subregional differentiation has not yet occurred.

  20. Acrea wigginsi occidentalis (Bethune-Baker, 1926), a new butterfly for Nigeria, with remarks on its habitat and known distribution (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, Robert; Jansta, P.; Leština, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 161 (2013), s. 163-165 ISSN 0300-5267 Grant - others:Grantová agentura Jihočeské univerzity(CZ) GA JU 144/2010/P; National Geographic Society(US) W163-11 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Nymphalidae * Acraeini Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.304, year: 2013

  1. Ooencyrtus marcelloi sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg parasitoid of Heliconiini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae) on passion vines (Malpighiales: Passifloraceae) in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrieri, E.; Huigens, M.E.; Estrada, C.; Woelke, J.B.; Rijk, de M.; Fatouros, N.E.; Aiello, A.; Noyes, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    A new species belonging to the genus Ooencyrtus Ashmead is described. Ooencyrtus marcelloi sp. nov. has been reared from eggs of Heliconiini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) collected in Panama on Passiflora spp. The new species is compared with its closest Ooencyrtus species, i.e. O. caligo

  2. Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Eliane de Oliveira Borges

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. Our work presents for the first time, the defensive behavior associated with the release of the product of the prosternal paired glands of the larva of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The prosternal glands were first described for larvae of H. erato phyllis. They are formed by two types of glandular structures: the impair gland and the paired glands. The prosternal glands are located within the conical integumentary sac, which in turn is situated on the individual's prosternum. The main goal of this study is to analyze the existence of any secretion from the prosternal paired glands, and check the action mode of this secretion. The methodology used for chemical analysis of the glands included the aeration and, analysis in gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the prosternal glands do not produce volatiles. Bioassays were conducted with simulated and natural attacks and revealed that the prosternal paired glands produce secretions of defense together with silk produced by labials glands as a defense strategy, described for the first time, against ants. The strategy consists in wrapping the ant with silk threads, the entire wrapped object moved to the end of the body, with the aid of the legs and prolegs, and possibly fixed in a nearby place. Evidence for the existence of a conical integumentary sac in larvae of other species and families of Lepidoptera allows us to propose the possibility of occurrence of prosternal paired glands with defensive function in these other groups as well.

  3. Demography of adults of the Marsh fritillary butterfly, Euphydras aurinia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the Czech Republic: Patterns across sites and seasons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zimmermann, Kamil; Blažková, P.; Čížek, O.; Fric, Zdeněk; Hůla, V.; Kepka, Pavel; Novotný, David; Slámová, Irena; Konvička, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 2 (2011), s. 243-254 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Nymphalidae * Euphydryas aurinia Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.061, year: 2011 http://www.eje.cz/scripts/viewabstract.php?abstract=1613

  4. New taxa and new records of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae) from Afghanistan.

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    Tshikolovets, Vadim

    2017-11-28

    Three new species Karanasa naumanni sp. nov., K. pardesi sp. nov. and K. pseudopamira sp. nov. (Nymphalidae), two new subspecies Karanasa pamira biocellata subsp. nov. (Nymphalidae) and Plebejus (Afarsia) sieversii albolunulatus subsp. nov. (Lycaenidae) are described from Afghanistan. First occurrence records for this country are presented for 26 species: one species of Pieridae (Colias thisoa), fifteen species of Lycaenidae (Deudoryx epijarbas, Everes dipora, Glaucopsyche charybdis, Hyrcanana evansii, Iolana gigantea, Lycaena kasyapa, Plebejus ferganus, Polyommatus amandus, P. dagmara, P. farazi, P. kogistanus, P. lehanus armatheus, P. miris, P. selma, and Turanana panaegides,) and ten species of Nymphalidae (Argynnis jainadeva, Coenonympha nolckeni, Hyponephele maureri, Melitaea balbina, Karanasa grumi, K. incerta, K. leechi, K. maureri, Satyrus alaica, and S. ferula).

  5. The taxonomic identity of Heliconius melpomene f. pyritosa var. fumigata Zikán (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

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    André Victor Lucci Freitas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic identity of the butterfly Heliconius melpomene f. pyritosa var. fumigata Zikán, 1937 (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae is discussed based on the discovery of the specimen based on which this name was assigned. The specimen is not a variation of Eueides tales surdus Stichel, 1903, as previously stated, but is in fact a variation of H. melpomene f. pyritosa, which is a synonym of Heliconius erato amalfreda Riffarth, 1901.

  6. Has the currently warming climate affected populations of the mountain ringlet butterfly, Erebia epiphron (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), in low-elevation mountains?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvička, Martin; Beneš, Jiří; Čížek, O.; Kuras, T.; Klečková, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, APR 05 (2016), s. 295-301 E-ISSN 1802-8829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167; GA ČR GAP505/10/2248; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-33733S Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/10/1630 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Nymphalidae * Erebia epiphron Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2016/01/36.pdf

  7. COMPOSICIÓN VEGETAL, PREFERENCIAS ALIMENTICIAS Y ABUNDANCIA DE BIBLIDINAE (LEPIDOPTERA: NYMPHALIDAE) EN UN FRAGMENTO DE BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DEL ATLÁNTICO, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    María Angélica VARGAS- ZAPATA; Carlos José BOOM- URUETA; Leidys Isabel SEÑA-RAMOS; Alba Lucia ECHEVERRY-IGLESIAS; Neis José MARTÍNEZ HERNÁNDEZ

    2015-01-01

    Se analizó la variación espacio-temporal de la abundancia de las mariposas de la subfamilia Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) en un fragmento de Bs-T en la Reserva Campesina La Montaña (RCM), Atlántico, Colombia; desde enero hasta agosto de 2011. Se marcaron cuatro puntos dentro del área de estudio, donde se ubicaron trampas Van Someren–Rydon cebadas con calamar en descomposición, fruta fermentada y con una mezcla de los anteriores cebos. Adicionalmente, se realizó una caracterización de ...

  8. Plant Composition, Feeding Preferences and Abundance of Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in a Tropical Dry Forest Fragment in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    María Angélica Vargas-Zapata; Carlos José Boom-Urueta; Leidys Isabel Seña-Ramos; Alba Lucia Echeverry-Iglesias; Neis José Martínez Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Se analizó la variación espacio-temporal de la abundancia de las mariposas de la subfamilia Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) en un fragmento de Bs-T en la Reserva Campesina La Montaña (RCM), Atlántico, Colombia; desde enero hasta agosto de 2011. Se marcaron cuatro puntos dentro del área de estudio, donde se ubicaron trampas Van Someren–Rydon cebadas con calamar en descomposición, fruta fermentada y con una mezcla de los anteriores cebos. Adicionalmente, se realizó una caracterización de ...

  9. Aspectos biológicos de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae em genótipos de maracujazeiro Biological aspects of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae on passion fruit genotypes

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    Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de genótipos de maracujazeiro no desenvolvimento de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae. O experimento foi conduzido em laboratório, sob condições ambientais controladas (temperatura de 26 ± 1ºC, U. R. de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Lagartas recém-eclodidas foram alimentadas com folhas de genótipos de maracujazeiro: Passiflora edulis Sims., P. alata Dryand., P. serrato-digitata L., P. edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. ('Sul Brasil', P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis f. flavicarpa ('Maguary FB-100' e P. foetida L. Para cada genótipo estudado, utilizaram-se 50 lagartas, provenientes de ovos coletados no campo. Essas lagartas foram mantidas em ramos de maracijazeiro, no interior de tubos de PVC até a pupação. Observações e reposição do alimento (ramos, diárias, foram realizadas. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso das lagartas, peso das pupas e longevidade do adulto. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com sete tratamentos e dez repetições. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância, e quando observadas diferenças, as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os genótipos P. alata, P. serrato-digitata e P. foetida não são adequados ao desenvolvimento de D. juno juno, impossibilitando a sobrevivência das lagartas, o que mostra o alto grau de antibiose desses materiais. Entre os demais, P. edulis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, Maguary FB-100 e Sul Brasil foram mais adequados.It was studied the effect of passion fruit genotypes on Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae development. The experiment was carried out in a laboratory, under controlled conditions (temperature: 26 ± 1°C, RH = 60 ± 10% and photophase of 14 hours. Newly-hatched larvae were fed with leaves from different passion fruit genotypes: Passiflora edulis Sims., P. alata Dryand., P. serrato-digitata L., P

  10. Geographical variation in larval host-plant use by Heliconius erato (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and consequences for adult life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, D; Moreira, G R P

    2002-05-01

    Adult body size, one of the most important life-history components, varies strongly within and between Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) populations. This study determines if this variation is caused by geographical changes in host-plant used by the larval stage, whose reproductive parameters are influenced by female body size, with estimates of the corresponding heritability. The variation in adult body size was determined together with a survey of passion vine species (Passifloraceae) used by the larvae in seven localities in Rio Grande do Sul State: three located in the urban area of Porto Alegre and Triunfo Counties, two within Eucalyptus plantations (Barba Negra Forest, Barra do Ribeiro County, and Aguas Belas Experimental Station-Viamão County), one in a Myrtaceae Forest (Itapuã State Park-Itapuã County) and one in the Atlantic Rain Forest (Maquiné Experimental Station-Maquiné County). Effects of female body size on fecundity, egg size and egg viability were determined in an outdoor insectary. Size heritability was estimated by rearing in the laboratory offspring of individuals maintained in an insectary. The data showed that adults from populations where larvae feed only upon Passiflora suberosa are smaller than those that feed on Passiflora misera. The larvae prefer P. misera even when the dominant passion vine in a given place is P. suberosa. Fecundity increases linearly with the increase in size of females, but there is no size effect on egg size or viability. Size heritability is null for the adult size range occurring in the field. Thus, the geographical variation of H. erato phyllis adult size is primarily determined by the type, corresponding availability and quality of host-plants used by the larval stage. Within the natural size range of H. erato phyllis, the variation related to this character is not genetically based, thus being part of H. erato phyllis phenotypic plasticity.

  11. Geographical variation in larval host-plant use by Heliconius erato (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae and consequences for adult life history

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    RODRIGUES D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult body size, one of the most important life-history components, varies strongly within and between Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae populations. This study determines if this variation is caused by geographical changes in host-plant used by the larval stage, whose reproductive parameters are influenced by female body size, with estimates of the corresponding heritability. The variation in adult body size was determined together with a survey of passion vine species (Passifloraceae used by the larvae in seven localities in Rio Grande do Sul State: three located in the urban area of Porto Alegre and Triunfo Counties, two within Eucalyptus plantations (Barba Negra Forest, Barra do Ribeiro County, and Águas Belas Experimental Station -- Viamão County, one in a Myrtaceae Forest (Itapuã State Park -- Itapuã County and one in the Atlantic Rain Forest (Maquiné Experimental Station -- Maquiné County. Effects of female body size on fecundity, egg size and egg viability were determined in an outdoor insectary. Size heritability was estimated by rearing in the laboratory offspring of individuals maintained in an insectary. The data showed that adults from populations where larvae feed only upon Passiflora suberosa are smaller than those that feed on Passiflora misera. The larvae prefer P. misera even when the dominant passion vine in a given place is P. suberosa. Fecundity increases linearly with the increase in size of females, but there is no size effect on egg size or viability. Size heritability is null for the adult size range occurring in the field. Thus, the geographical variation of H. erato phyllis adult size is primarily determined by the type, corresponding availability and quality of host-plants used by the larval stage. Within the natural size range of H. erato phyllis, the variation related to this caracter is not genetically based, thus being part of H. erato phyllis phenotypic plasticity.

  12. Conspecific mimics and low host plant availability reduce egg laying by Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Elna Mugrabi-Oliveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition response of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae to variation in host plant availability, Passiflora suberosa Linnaeus (Passifloraceae, and to presence of conspecific eggs and larvae was determined through choice experiments performed under insectary conditions. Freeze dried, painted eggs and larvae were used as mimics for testing presence of conspecific effects. Females laid more eggs on intact P. suberosa shoots without conspecifics than on those with H. erato phyllis egg and first instar mimics in both simultaneous and sequential choice trials. Oviposition response to variation in host plant availability was determined through no-choice trials, under host plant densities varying from 0.3 to 8.3 plants per female. Number of eggs laid per plant decreased exponentially with an increase in plant availability. On the contrary, daily oviposition rates (eggs /female/day increased with an increase in plant number, and levelled off when the number of plants available for oviposition was greater than potential fecundity of females. Thus, it is inferred from the results that females assess egg and larval load and prefer to lay eggs on shoots free from conspecifics. It is also inferred that they are able to recognize plant abundance and are unwilling to lay more than one egg per shoot even when host availability is scarce, as judged by reduction in daily oviposition rates under low host plant number. The consequences of laying isolated eggs on P. suberosa shoots are discussed from the viewpoint of intraspecific competition in the larval stage of H. erato phyllis.

  13. Temporal occurrence of two morpho butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): influence of weather and food resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Geraldo; Nascimento, André Rangel; Malinov, Ivan Konstantinov; Diniz, Ivone R

    2014-04-01

    The seasonality of fruit-feeding butterflies is very well known. However, few studies have analyzed the influence of climatic variables and resource availability on the temporal distributions of butterflies. Morpho helenor achillides (C. Felder and R. Felder 1867) and Morpho menelaus coeruleus (Perry 1810) (Nymphalidae) were used as models to investigate the influences of climatic factors and food resources on the temporal distribution of these Morphinae butterflies. These butterflies were collected weekly from January 2005 to December 2006 in the Parque Nacional de Brasília (PNB). In total, 408 individuals were collected, including 274 of M. helenor and 134 of M. menelaus. The relative abundance of the two species was similar in 2005 (n = 220) and 2006 (n = 188). Of the variables considered, only the relative humidity and resource availability measured in terms of phenology of zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants explained a large proportion of the variation in the abundance of these butterflies. Both of the explanatory variables were positively associated with the total abundance of individuals and with the abundances of M. helenor and M. menelaus considered separately. The phenology of anemochorous fruits was negatively associated with butterfly abundance. The temporal distribution of the butterflies was better predicted by the phenology of the zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants than by the climatic predictors.

  14. Morfologia do exoesqueleto de adultos de Memphis moruus stheno (Pritwittz (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae Exoskeleton morphology of the adult of Memphis moruus stheno (Pritwittz (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae

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    Fernando M. S. Dias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa fornecer subsídios para estudos morfológicos comparativos de Charaxinae neotropicais. Memphis moruus stheno (Prittwitz, 1865 é a segunda espécie neotropical de Anaeini e a primeira do gênero Memphis a ter sua morfologia detalhada. A morfologia externa é apresentada com descrições, ilustrações e imagens de microscopia eletrônica de varredura de estruturas da cabeça e apêndices cefálicos, região cervical, tórax e apêndices torácicos, abdome e genitálias masculina e feminina. A morfologia de M. moruus stheno é comparada com uma espécie do gênero proximamente relacionado Zaretis Hübner, [1819].This study is intended to allow further comparative morphological studies on the Neotropical Charaxinae. Memphis moruus stheno (Prittwitz, 1865 is the second species of Anaeini and the first in the genus Memphis to have its morphology published in detail. The external morphology is presented with descriptions, line drawings and scan electron microscopy of the head and its appendages, cervix, thorax and its appendages, abdomen and both male and female genital armatures. Memphis moruus stheno is compared with a species of its closely related genus Zaretis Hübner, [1819].

  15. Colonization of and radiation in South America by butterflies in the subtribe Phyciodina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Freitas, André V L

    2007-09-01

    The historical biogeography of insects in South America is largely unknown, as dated phylogenies have not been available for most groups. We have studied the phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of a subtribe of butterflies, Phyciodina in the family Nymphalidae, based on one mitochondrial gene (COI) and two nuclear gene regions (EF-1alpha and wingless). The subtribe comprises 89 species mainly found in tropical South America, with a few species in North America and the Greater Antilles. We find that the enigmatic genus Antillea is sister to the rest of Phyciodina, and suggest that it should be included in the subtribe. Several genera are found to be polyphyletic or nested within another genus, and are proposed to be synonymised. These are Dagon, Castilia, Telenassa and Janatella, which we propose should be synonymised with Eresia. Brazilian "Ortilia" form an independent lineage and require a new genus name. The diversification of Phyciodina has probably taken place over the past about 34 MYA. The ancestral phyciodine colonised South America from North America through a possible landspan that connected the Greater Antilles to South America about 34MYA. A vicariance event left the ancestral Antillea on the Greater Antilles, while the ancestral 0e on South America colonised the Guyanan Shield and soon after the Brazilian Shield. We hypothesise that the Brazilian Shield was an important area for the diversification of Phyciodina. From there, the ancestor of Anthanassa, Eresia and Tegosa colonised NW South America, where especially Eresia diversified in concert with the rising of the Andes beginning about 20 MYA. Central America was colonised from NW South America about 15 MYA by the ancestors of Anthanassa and Phyciodes. Our study is the first to use a dated phylogeny to study the historical biogeography of a group of South American species of butterflies.

  16. Phylogenetic utility of ribosomal genes for reconstructing the phylogeny of five Chinese satyrine tribes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Mingsheng Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Satyrinae is one of twelve subfamilies of the butterfly family Nymphalidae, which currently includes nine tribes. However, phylogenetic relationships among them remain largely unresolved, though different researches have been conducted based on both morphological and molecular data. However, ribosomal genes have never been used in tribe level phylogenetic analyses of Satyrinae. In this study we investigate for the first time the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes Elymniini, Amathusiini, Zetherini and Melanitini which are indicated to be a monophyletic group, and the Satyrini, using two ribosomal genes (28s rDNA and 16s rDNA and four protein-coding genes (EF-1α, COI, COII and Cytb. We mainly aim to assess the phylogenetic informativeness of the ribosomal genes as well as clarify the relationships among different tribes. Our results show the two ribosomal genes generally have the same high phylogenetic informativeness compared with EF-1α; and we infer the 28s rDNA would show better informativeness if the 28s rDNA sequence data for each sampling taxon are obtained in this study. The placement of the monotypic genus Callarge Leech in Zetherini is confirmed for the first time based on molecular evidence. In addition, our maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian inference (BI trees consistently show that the involved Satyrinae including the Amathusiini is monophyletic with high support values. Although the relationships among the five tribes are identical among ML and BI analyses and are mostly strongly-supported in BI analysis, those in ML analysis are lowly- or moderately- supported. Therefore, the relationships among the related five tribes recovered herein need further verification based on more sampling taxa.

  17. Quantitative evidence for spatial variation in the biennial life cycle of the mountain butterfly Erebia euryale (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klečková, Irena; Vrba, P.; Konvička, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 1 (2015), s. 114-119 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2248; GA ČR GAP505/10/2167 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/10/1630; GA JU(CZ) 135/ 2010 /P; GA JU(CZ) 144/ 2010 /P; GA JU(CZ) 106/ 2010 /P; Motyli Krkonos contract (CZ) CZ.3.22/1.2.00/12.03299 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Nymphalidae * Erebia euryale Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2014 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2015/01/14.pdf

  18. On the reliability of a simple method for scoring phenotypes to estimate heritability: A case study with pupal color in Heliconius erato phyllis , Fabricius 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Adriano Andrejew Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two methods for assessing the degree of melanization of pupal exuviae from the butterfly Heliconius erato phyllis , Fabricius 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiini are compared. In the first method, which was qualitative, the exuviae were classified by scoring the degree of melanization, whereas in the second method, which was quantitative, the exuviae were classified by optical density followed by analysis with appropriate software. The heritability (h 2 of the degree of melanization was estimated by regression and analysis of variance. The estimates of h 2 were similar with both methods, indicating that the qualitative method could be particularly suitable for field work. The low estimates obtained for heritability may have resulted from the small sample size ( n = 7-18 broods, including the parents or from the allocation-priority hypothesis in which pupal color would be a lower priority trait compared to morphological traits and adequate larval development.

  19. Morfologia externa de Thyridia psidii cetoides (Rosenberg & Talbot. I. Cabeça e apêndices (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae External morphology of Thyridia psidii cetoides (Rosenberg & Talbot. I. Cabeça e apêndices (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae

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    Jorge Manuel Saraiva Bizarro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the morphology of the head of Thyridia psidii cetoides (Rosenberg & Talbot, 1914 (Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae adults from both sexes is presented. The material was obtained at the city's plant nursery "Horto Florestal de Curitiba", Paraná, Brazil; mainly by rearing eggs and larvae collected there on Cyphomandra betacea (Canavilles Sendtner, 1845 (Solanaceae. When possible, all the results obtained were compared with those already available in the literature concerning external morphology studies pertinent to other Nymphalidae subfamilies (Brassolinae, Morphinae and Danainae.

  20. Larvas de Siderone marthesia nemesis (Illiger (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae em cerrado de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil Caterpillars of Siderose marthesia nemesis (Illiger (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in cerrado near Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil

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    H.C. Morais

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Caterpillars of Siderone marthesia nemesis (Illiger, 1802 (Nymphalidae, Charaxinae have been found on Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae, during the second half of the rainy season in an area of cerrado near Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. They occurred at very low density and are cryptic at all instars. The pupal stage does not occur on the host plant. Average duration of the pupa under laboratory conditions is 14.4 days.

  1. Comparisons of genetic diversity in captive versus wild populations of the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr; Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Pratt, Gordon F.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Captive populations can play a significant role in threatened and endangered species management. An important consideration when developing and managing captive populations, however, is the maintenance of genetic diversity to ensure that adequate variation exists to avoid the negative consequences of inbreeding. In this investigation, we compared genetic diversity patterns within captive and wild populations of the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr [Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae]), a taxon with a restricted distribution to chaparral and sage shrublands within Riverside and San Diego counties, California. Our analyses revealed that medium to high-frequency alleles from the wild populations were also present in the captive populations. While there was no significant difference in genetic diversity as quantified by expected heterozygosity, the captive populations showed tendencies toward significantly lower allelic richness than their wild counterparts. Given that alleles from the wild populations were occasionally not detected in captive populations, periodic incorporation of new wild specimens into the captive population would help ensure that allelic diversity is maintained to the extent possible. If performed in advance, genetic surveys of wild populations may provide the clearest insights regarding the number of individuals needed in captivity to adequately reflect wild populations.

  2. Size of and damage on shoots of Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae influence oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Elna Mugrabi-Oliveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae was studied when size of and damage on shoots were variable in a natural population of Passiflora suberosa Linnaeus (Passifloraceae, and through sequential and simultaneous choice experiments performed under insectary conditions. Females showed marked oviposition preference for undamaged and largest shoots of P. suberosa. Eggs were mostly laid on the terminal buds of intact shoots under natural conditions. In simultaneous choice trials, females preferred to oviposit on shoots from which leaves (ten were removed but the terminal bud maintained to those where leaves were kept but the terminal bud was cut out. In sequential choice trials, they did not lay eggs on shoots from which the terminal bud was removed. Females preferred to oviposit on large to short intact shoots in both sequential and simultaneous choice trials. Females laid eggs preferentially on shoots with the greatest leaf area when most plants were intact in the field during early spring. Later in fall, when mostly large, old shoots were damaged or in a reproductive stage (less desirable for oviposition, oviposition intensity was highest on the shortest, youngest shoots of P. suberosa. Thus, females might rank these quality attributes higher than size while selecting shoots for oviposition. The consequences of ovipositing selectively on intact, large shoots of P. suberosa are discussed from the view point of H. erato phyllis larval performance.

  3. Morfologia externa de Thyridia psidii cetoides (Rosenberg & Talbot (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae. III. Abdome e apêndices External morphology of Thyridia psidii cetoides (Rosenberg & Talbot. III. Abdomen and appendages (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Manuel Saraiva Bizarro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the abdominal external morphology of both sexes of Thyridia psidii cetoides (Rosenberg & Talbot, 1914 is presented. The material for this research was obtained at the city's plant nursery "Horto Florestal de Curitiba", Paraná, Brazil; mainly by rearing eggs and larvae collected on Cyphomandra betacea (Canavilles Sendtner, 1845 (Solanaceae. When possible, the results obtained were compared with those already available in the literature concerning other Nymphalidae subfamilies morphology (Brassolinae, Morphinae and Danainae; the most striking feature being the asymmetrical valvae of the male and the length and faint sclerotinization of the third abdominal sternite in both sexes. A resume containing the main morphological differences to other nymphalid subfamillies, found throughout this research concerning head, thorax and abdome, is presented.

  4. Plant Composition, Feeding Preferences and Abundance of Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in a Tropical Dry Forest Fragment in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Vargas-Zapata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la variación espacio-temporal de la abundancia de las mariposas de la subfamilia Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae en un fragmento de Bs-T en la Reserva Campesina La Montaña (RCM, Atlántico, Colombia; desde enero hasta agosto de 2011. Se marcaron cuatro puntos dentro del área de estudio, donde se ubicaron trampas Van Someren–Rydon cebadas con calamar en descomposición, fruta fermentada y con una mezcla de los anteriores cebos. Adicionalmente, se realizó una caracterización de la vegetación por punto, para lo cual se tomaron datos de diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP, altura y tamaño de la copa para todas aquellas plantas leñosas con DAP mayor o igual a 2,5 cm. Se capturaron 76 individuos agrupados en seis especies y cuatro géneros; destacándose Hamadryas februa (Hübner como la más dominante con 32 individuos. El mes de marzo presentó la mayor riqueza y abundancia (6 especies y 25 individuos durantes las primeras lluvias en la zona. El punto 3 presentó los valores más altos de diversidad y abundancia de Biblidinae (5 especies y 37 individuos y la mayor densidad de árboles (D= 0,28 individuos/m2. Se demuestra que la estructura de este grupo de mariposas presenta un patrón temporal y espacial en esta reserva. El análisis de componentes principales demostró que el área basal total (ABT y la Densidad (D de plantas leñosas, pueden considerarse como un factor determinante en la distribución y abundancia de las especies de la subfamilia Biblidinae en la RCM.

  5. Cluster biodiversity as a multidimensional structure evolution strategy: checkerspot butterflies of the group Euphydryas aurinia (Rottemburg, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korb, S. K.; Bolshakov, L. V.; Faltýnek Fric, Zdeněk; Bartoňová, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2016), s. 441-457 ISSN 0307-6970 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Euphydryas aurinia * biodiversity * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.474, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/syen.12167/abstract

  6. Frugivorous butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in Irmao Teodoro Luis Botanical Garden, Capao do Leao, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Janaína Madruga Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Rio Grande do Sul, there’s a lack of systematic information on frugivorous butterflies. This paper aimed survey the guild at Irmao Teodoro Luis Botanical Garden, an environment characterized by ecological tension between the semideciduous seasonal forest and the pioneer formations. The collections were made in three areas, each one containing five modified Van Someren-Rydon traps, baited with fermented banana. The traps remained on the field for six consecutive days per month, from September 2010 to August 2011. Within 10.800 hours of sampling effort, 453 individuals were recorded, distributed into 16 species, 15 genera, and 3 Nymphalidae subfamilies. Satyrinae was the richest and most abundant one, and two species from this group are very frequent and dominant. Richness rates indicated between 78% and 93% of the reported fauna, the species accumulation curve matches these values, and the diversity was 2.02 (H’. Prepona pylene Hewitson, [1854] and Archaeoprepona demophoon (Hübner, [1814] constitute new records for the Southern Coast of the state.

  7. Morphological characters are compatible with mitogenomic data in resolving the phylogeny of nymphalid butterflies (lepidoptera: papilionoidea: nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qing-Hui; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yun-Liang; Hao, Jia-Sheng; Yang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Nymphalidae is the largest family of butterflies with their phylogenetic relationships not adequately approached to date. The mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of 11 new nymphalid species were reported and a comparative mitogenomic analysis was conducted together with other 22 available nymphalid mitogenomes. A phylogenetic analysis of the 33 species from all 13 currently recognized nymphalid subfamilies was done based on the mitogenomic data set with three Lycaenidae species as the outgroups. The mitogenome comparison showed that the eleven new mitogenomes were similar with those of other butterflies in gene content and order. The reconstructed phylogenetic trees reveal that the nymphalids are made up of five major clades (the nymphaline, heliconiine, satyrine, danaine and libytheine clades), with sister relationship between subfamilies Cyrestinae and Biblidinae, and most likely between subfamilies Morphinae and Satyrinae. This whole mitogenome-based phylogeny is generally congruent with those of former studies based on nuclear-gene and mitogenomic analyses, but differs considerably from the result of morphological cladistic analysis, such as the basal position of Libytheinae in morpho-phylogeny is not confirmed in molecular studies. However, we found that the mitogenomic phylogeny established herein is compatible with selected morphological characters (including developmental and adult morpho-characters).

  8. Herbivore handling of a Plants trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Márcio Z

    2008-01-01

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plants defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes.

  9. Herbivore handling of a plant's trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Marcio Z.

    2008-01-01

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plant's defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes. (author)

  10. Spatial distribution, territoriality and sound production by tropical cryptic butterflies (Hamadryas, Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: implications for the "industrial melanism" debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    1998-06-01

    more often than trees with resident males. Each marked H. feronia male was seen perching on 1-4 trees daily, without difference between seasons, and each tree used had a minimum daily mean of 1.5 perching butterflies. Most H. feronia interactions occur from 13:00 through 15:00 hours and are more frequent in the rainy season. At night males share perches. Sound emission was studied by using non-destructive experimental methods (N=858 and with a scanning electron microscope. Both sexes emit sound and the sound apparatus, located in the forewing, is percussive, not stridulatory. At the end of the upward wingstroke, the wings are clapped and modified r-m1-2 veins meet at a speed of approximately 1420 mm/s, producing the characteristic clicks. Wingbeat frequency of free-flying individuals is 20-29 Hz. There is some wing deformation during movement. Clicks last a mean of 1.38 ms with mean intervals of 43.74 ms and the component frequencies concentrate around 2.4 kHz, matching Hamadryas hearing capacity and being appropriate for the acoustic conditions of habitat. The swollen Sc vein is present exclusively in Hamadryas; has a serpentine structure inside and probably acts as resonance box. Growth of the sound apparatus may be checked by its effect on flight capacity, physiological costs and ecological reasons. All Hamadryas have a membrane, shaped as an elongated cupola, in the costal cell, that acts as ear. A second and smaller ear has four chambers and may detect predatory bats when the insects are perching at night. Field observations showed that Hamadryas spp. emit audible clicks when approached by potential predators, to defend territories from other Hamadryas and in at least one species also during courtship. Severe wing damage, common in wild Hamadryas almost never affects the section with the sound mechanism. A review of the literature shows that more than 50 species of lepidopterans (11 families emit sound audible to humans and suggests that sound mechanisms evolved

  11. Preferência alimentar, efeito da planta hospedeira e da densidade larval na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae Feeding preference, host-plant and larval density effects on survivorship and growth rates of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidica Bianchi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Dez espécies de passifloraceas ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul foram avaliadas em relação à preferência alimentar e performance larval de Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae: Passifora alata Dryander, 1781; P. amethystina Mikan, 1820; P. caerulea Linnaeus, 1753; P. capsularis Linnaeus, 1753; P. edulis Sims, 1818; P. elegans Masters, 1872; P. misera Humbold, Bonpland et Kunth, 1817; P. suberosa Linnaeus, 1753; P. tenuifila Killip, 1927 e P. warmingii Masters, 1872. O efeito da densidade larval na performance foi também testado em P. edulis: grupos de uma, duas, quatro, oito, dezesseis, trinta e duas, e sessenta e quatro larvas. A preferência das larvas foi avaliada com base em teste utilizando-se discos foliares, com e sem chance de escolha. As larvas obtiveram maior sobrevivência em P. misera, P. tenuifila e P. edulis. Nenhuma sobreviveu em P. alata, P. capsularis, P. amesthystina, P. suberosa e P. warmingii. As larvas escolheram P. edulis nos testes com chance de escolha. Ingeriram quantidades semelhantes de P. tenuifila, P. misera e P. caerulea nos testes sem chance de escolha. A taxa de crescimento larval e o tamanho dos adultos foi maior quando criadas em P. misera, quando comparado com P. edulis. A sobrevivência foi significativamente reduzida nos grupos com uma, duas e quatro larvas, o que pode explicar em parte o comportamento gregário desta espécie. Concluiu-se que poucas espécies de passifloráceas além de P. edulis podem constituir-se em hospedeiras potenciais de D. juno juno no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Numa perspectiva ecológica, no entanto, muitas destas hospedeiras alternativas apresentam limitações a respeito de sua adequabilidade, tamanho ou abundância da planta.Ten passion vine species from Rio Grande do Sul were evaluated regarding larval feeding preference and performance of Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779: Passifora alata Dryander, 1781; P. amethystina Mikan, 1820; P. caerulea Linnaeus

  12. Species richness and relative species abundance of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in three forests with different perturbations in the North-Central Caribbean of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Carolyn; Sánchez, Ragde

    2014-09-01

    Measurements of species richness and species abundance can have important implications for regulations and conservation. This study investigated species richness and abundance of butterflies in the family Nymphalidae at undisturbed, and disturbed habitats in Tirimbina Biological Reserve and Nogal Private Reserve, Sarapiquí, Costa Rica. Traps baited with rotten banana were placed in the canopy and the understory of three habitats: within mature forest, at a river/forest border, and at a banana plantation/forest border. In total, 71 species and 487 individuals were caught and identified during May and June 2011 and May 2013. Species richness and species abundance were found to increase significantly at perturbed habitats (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, respectively). The edge effect, in which species richness and abundance increase due to greater complementary resources from different habitats, could be one possible explanation for increased species richness and abundance.

  13. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, António M. Franquinho; Karsholt, Ole

    2009-01-01

      Being the first of a series dealing with the entomofauna of the Madeira and Selvagens Islands, this catalogue is a list of all Lepidoptera recorded from this region of Macaronesia, with references to the relevant literature. The checklist includes 37 families, 211 genera and 331 species. 31...... species are recorded from Madeira for the first time, and exact data and locality are given for these in the notes. 32 species, which had previously been recorded from Madeira, are removed from the list of Lepidoptera found in the Madeira Islands being misidentifications, doubtful and unconfirmed records......, undetermined species requiring further study and accidentally introduced species which have not established themselves in Madeira. No genus of Lepidoptera is endemic to Madeira, but 81 species are endemic to the Madeira Archipelago, and a further 36 species are considered Macaronesian endemics. One species...

  14. Characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellite markers for an endangered butterfly Argynnis niobe and their cross-species utility in the closely related species A. adippe (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zima, Jan; Leština, D.; Konvička, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2013), s. 383-387 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167 Grant - others:University of South Bohemia(CZ) 04-144/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Carpathian Mts * conservation genetics * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.076, year: 2013 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/110/2/383

  15. Species richness and relative species abundance of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera in three forests with different perturbations in the North-Central Caribbean of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of species richness and species abundance can have important implications for regulations and conservation. This study investigated species richness and abundance of butterflies in the family Nymphalidae at undisturbed, and disturbed habitats in Tirimbina Biological Reserve and Nogal Private Reserve, Sarapiquí, Costa Rica. Traps baited with rotten banana were placed in the canopy and the understory of three habitats: within mature forest, at a river/forest border, and at a banana plantation/forest border. In total, 71 species and 487 individuals were caught and identified during May and June 2011 and May 2013. Species richness and species abundance were found to increase significantly at perturbed habitats (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, respectively. The edge effect, in which species richness and abundance increase due to greater complementary resources from different habitats, could be one possible explanation for increased species richness and abundance. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3: 919-928. Epub 2014 September 01.

  16. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Agassiz, David; Augustin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive overview of those Lepidopteran invasions to Europe that result from increasing globalisation and also review expansion of species within Europe. A total of 97 non-native Lepidoptera species (about 1% of the known fauna), in 20 families and 11 superfamilies have...... established so far in Europe, of which 30 alone are Pyraloidea. In addition, 88 European species in 25 families have expanded their range within Europe and around 23% of these are of Mediterranean or Balkan origin, invading the north and west. Although a number of these alien species have been in Europe...... for hundreds of years, 74% have established during the 20th century and arrivals are accelerating, with an average of 1.9 alien Lepidoptera newly established per year between 2000–2007. For 78 aliens with a known area of origin, Asia has contributed 28.9%, Africa (including Macaronesian islands, Canaries...

  17. Patrones de riqueza altitudinal de Papilionidae, Pieridae y Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera en áreas montañosas de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Las mariposas diurnas integran uno de los grupos más utilizados para el reconocimiento y monitoreo de la diversidad de una biota. Se realizó un estudio comparativo de las faunas de mariposas de las familias Papilionidae, Pieridae y Nymphalidae de cinco áreas montañosas de México, situadas en las vertientes Atlántico y Pacífico: las sierras de Atoyac de Álvarez, Manantlán, Juárez, y las áreas de Teocelo-Xalapa y la región Loxicha, con un total de 34 localidades representativas de los cinco transectos altitudinales, que comprenden de los 300 a los 3 100m de altitud. Se observó una tendencia general a la disminución de la riqueza con la altitud. Se analizó la similitud entre el total de localidades mediante el índice de Sørensen, diferenciándose en primer lugar las dos estaciones de elevaciones superiores (sobre los 2 500msnm, caracterizadas por pobres lepidóptero-faunas. En el grupo principal (32 sitios las principales agrupaciones se dan de acuerdo, en primer lugar, a la pertenencia a la vertiente pacífica o atlántica, evento más histórico que ecológico y, después, las estaciones de una misma sierra o según tres diferentes pisos altitudinales, que se caracterizan de acuerdo con los táxones predominantes.

  18. Biologia de Imaturos e Adultos de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae Alimentados com Lagartas de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, criadas em Diferentes Genótipos de Maracujazeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Angelini

    2015-12-01

    Abstract. The development of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae nymphs fed with Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae larvae reared on leaves of the passion fruit genotypes Passiflora edulis Sims., Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. (Seleção de Jaboticabal, P. edulis f. flavicarpa (cv. Sul Brasil and P. edulis f. flavicarpa (cv. Maguary FB-100, P. alata, P. serrato-digitata and P. foetida. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions (temperature: 26 ± 1°C, RH = 60 ± 10% and photophase of 14 hours. Second instar nymphs of the predator were kept in plastic cups (4.5 cm high and 7.5 cm wide groups of five. Ten-day-old (approx. 2 cm D. juno juno larvae reared on leaves of different passion fruit genotypes were provided daily to P. nigrispinus. The experiment was carried out with 10 replications, totalizing 50 nymphs per treatment. Daily evaluations were performed to measure the duration and viability of each instar, the body mass of nymphs (24 hours after each ecdysis and adults, and the duration and viability of the nymph phase and adult longevity under starvation. Results show the influence of passion fruit genotypes at the third trophic level, since larvae reared with P. edulis f. flavicarpa (Seleção de Jaboticabal have shown to be more adequate for predator development. The results of this experiment show the influence of passion fruit genotypes on the third trophic level. The genotype P. edulis f. flavicarpa cv. Sul Brasil has a less appropriate to the predator, suggesting a negative way the association between host plant resistance and use of biological control. Already P. edulis and genotypes P. edulis f. flavicarpa Jaboticabal Selection can be used along with the predator because these cultivars did not affect the third trophic level. P. edulis f. flavicarpa cv. Maguary FB-100, considered ill-suited to the development of larvae of D. juno juno, affected the predator, resulting in a negative

  19. Herbivore handling of a plant's trichome: the case of Heliconius charithonia (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch. (Passifloraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Marcio Z. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias. Dept. de Botanica, Ecologia e Zoologia]. E-mail: mzc@cb.ufrn.br

    2008-05-15

    Trichomes reduce herbivore attack on plants by physically and/or chemically inhibiting movement or other activities. Despite evidence that herbivores are negatively affected by trichomes there also reports of insect counter-adaptations that circumvent the plant's defense. This paper reports on a study that investigated the likely mechanisms employed by larvae of the nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius charithonia (L.), that allow it to feed on a host that is presumably protected by hooked trichomes (Passiflora lobata (Killip) Hutch). Evidence were gathered using data from direct observations of larval movement and behavior, faeces analysis, scanning electron microscopy of plant surface and experimental analysis of larval movement on plants with and without trichomes (manually removed). The latter involved a comparison with a non specialist congener, Heliconius pachinus Salvin. Observations showed that H. charithonia larvae are capable of freeing themselves from entrapment on trichome tips by physical force. Moreover, wandering larvae lay silk mats on the trichomes and remove their tips by biting. In fact, trichome tips were found in the faeces. Experimental removal of trichomes aided in the movement of the non specialist but had no noticeable effect on the specialist larvae. These results support the suggestion that trichomes are capable of deterring a non specialist herbivore (H. pachinus). The precise mechanisms that allow the success of H. charithonia are not known, but I suggest that a blend of behavioral as well as physical resistance mechanisms is involved. Future studies should ascertain whether larval integument provides physical resistance to trichomes. (author)

  20. Borboletas frugívoras (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae no Horto Botânico Irmão Teodoro Luis, Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Madruga Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n1p87 No Rio Grande do Sul, há carência de informações sistematizadas sobre a fauna de borboletas frugívoras. Este artigo teve por objetivo inventariar a guilda no Horto Botânico Irmão Teodoro Luis, ambiente caracterizado pela tensão ecológica entre a floresta estacional semidecidual e as formações pioneiras. As coletas foram realizadas em três áreas, cada uma contendo cinco armadilhas Van Someren-Rydon modificadas, iscadas com banana fermentada. As armadilhas permaneceram em campo durante seis dias consecutivos por mês, entre setembro de 2010 e agosto de 2011. Em 10.800 horas de esforço amostral, foram registrados 453 indivíduos distribuídos em 16 espécies, 15 gêneros e três subfamílias de Nymphalidae. Satyrinae foi a mais rica e abundante, sendo duas espécies deste grupo muito frequentes e dominantes. Os índices de riqueza indicaram entre 78% e 93% da fauna registrada, a curva de acúmulo de espécies condiz com esses valores e a diversidade foi de 2,02 (H’. Prepona pylene Hewitson, [1854] e Archaeoprepona demophoon (Hübner, [1814] constituem novos registros para o Litoral Sul do estado.

  1. DIVERSIDADE DE LEPIDOPTERA EM UM FRAGMENTO FLORESTAL EM MUZAMBINHO, MINAS GERAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Dirlene Aparecida de Andrade; Isabel Ribeiro do Valle Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring Lepidoptera populations provides important information to assess the dynamics and ecological changes in ecosystems. In this work, it was evaluated and characterized the Lepidoptera fauna of forest fragment of the IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho, MG state. Throughout 12 months, 590 Individuals of 69 species belonging to 10 families were captured. The most abundant family was Nymphalidae (73.56% of subjects). The most abundant ...

  2. The richness and diversity of Lepidoptera species in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The family Nymphalidae was the most dominant one in the parc with 32.48%. The diversity index (H' and H'max) and the equitability (E) calculated for the 6 types of habitats is H'= 2,74 bits, H'max = 4,09 bits and E = 0,67 bits, meaning that the Lepidoptera species are at equilibrium with the different types of habitat which ...

  3. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  4. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva-Rivera Héctor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  5. Effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junheon; Chung, Soon-Oh; Jang, Sin Ae; Jang, Miyeon; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2015-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important and polyphagous pest, which harms various kinds of food crops and important agricultural plants, such as cotton and paprika. Effects of electron beam irradiation at six dose levels between 50 and 350 Gy on the egg (24-48 h old), the larval (4-5th instar), and the pupal (7-d old for female, 5-d old for male) development, and on the adult (1-d old) reproduction were tested to identify a potential quarantine treatment dose. Increased doses of irradiation on eggs decreased egg hatchability, pupation and adult emergence and increased larval period. ED99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation and emergence were 460.6, 236.9 and 197.8 Gy, respectively. When larvae were irradiated with more than 280 Gy, no larvae could develop into pupae. ED99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence were 265.6 and 189.6 Gy, respectively. Even though the irradiation on pupa did not completely inhibit adult emergence, most of the pupae emerged to deformed adults. When adults were irradiated, fecundity was not affected. However, F1 egg hatching was completely inhibited at the dose of 350 Gy. ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence was estimated at 366.5 Gy. Our results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be recommendable as an alternative to MB and as a phytosanitary treatment for quarantine. A treatment dose of less than or equal to 220 Gy is suggested as a potential quarantine treatment to H. armigera egg for prevention of pupation and to larva for prevention of adult emerge.

  6. Cyanogenesis - a general phenomenon in the lepidoptera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witthohn, K.; Naumann, C.M.

    1987-08-01

    There are two different pathways known to be used for the detoxification of hydrocyanic acid in insects, viz., rhodanese and ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine synthase. The authors consider the latter to be indicative for cyanogenesis, while rhodanese might, in general, play a more important role in sulfur transfer for protein synthesis. This paper reports on the distribution of ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine (BCA) in the Lepidoptera. First reports of cyanogenesis are presented for the following families: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae, Notodontidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Cymatophoridae, Noctuidae, Geometridae, and Yponomeutidae. New and old records for three other families, the Nymphalidae, Zygaenidae, and Heterogynidae, are included to complete the present state of knowledge. Special emphasis has been laid on the Nymphalidae, where BCA has been detected in eight subfamilies. Taxonomic, geographic, and seasonal variation has been found in a number of cases. In all cases observed so far, the source of cyanogenesis in the Lepidoptera is most probably the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin, although cyanogenesis based on mustard oil glucosides and cyclopentenoid glucosides might occur as well. BCA has been found in both cryptic and aposematic species, including taxa such as the Pieridae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, and Arctiidae, where the defensive biology is believed to be linked with other compounds, like mustard oil glucosides, cardenolides, or pyrrolizidinie alkaloids. The ecological interaction and significance of such secondary compounds is not yet understood.

  7. Una nueva especie de Actinote (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Acraeinae, para Colombia Una nueva especie de Actinote (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Acraeinae, para Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade C. M. Gonzalo

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Actinote Hübner, 1816, from Colombia is described its genitalia is ilustrated, and photographs of the male and female holotype and allotype are included. Se describe para Colombia una nueva especie del género Actinote Hübner, 1816, se ilustra su genitalia y se anexan fotos del Holótipo y Alótipo.

  8. Catálogo do acervo de borboletas (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea depositadas no Museu de História Natural da Universidade Católica de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Siewert

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. The collection of Papilionoidea (Lepidoptera from Irmãs Figueiredo is deposited on the Universidade Católica de Pelotas and have 166 species distributed in Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae. There were registered first occurrence from Lycaenidae and Riodinidae to physiographic region Encosta do Sudeste from Rio Grande do Sul State.

  9. Molecular analysis of the muscle protein projectin in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayme-Southgate, A J; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as well as a partial characterization in the Carolina sphinx, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), are presented. This study showed that, similar to other insects, projectin's overall modular organization was conserved, but in contrast, the PEVK region had a highly divergent sequence. The analysis of alternative splicing in the PEVK region revealed a small number of possible isoforms and the lack of a flight-muscle specific variant, both characteristics being in sharp contrast with findings from other insects. The possible correlation with difference in flight muscle stiffness and physiology between Lepidoptera and other insect orders is discussed.

  10. Diversification of the silverspot butterflies (Nymphalidae) in the Neotropics inferred from multi-locus DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massardo, Darli; Fornel, Rodrigo; Kronforst, Marcus; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Moreira, Gilson Rudinei Pires

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Heliconiini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) is a diverse group of butterflies distributed throughout the Neotropics, which has been studied extensively, in particular the genus Heliconius. However, most of the other lineages, such as Dione, which are less diverse and considered basal within the group, have received little attention. Basic information, such as species limits and geographical distributions remain uncertain for this genus. Here we used multilocus DNA sequence data and the geographical distribution analysis across the entire range of Dione in the Neotropical region in order to make inferences on the evolutionary history of this poorly explored lineage. Bayesian time-tree reconstruction allows inferring two major diversification events in this tribe around 25mya. Lineages thought to be ancient, such as Dione and Agraulis, are as recent as Heliconius. Dione formed a monophyletic clade, sister to the genus Agraulis. Dione juno, D. glycera and D. moneta were reciprocally monophyletic and formed genetic clusters, with the first two more close related than each other in relation to the third. Divergence time estimates support the hypothesis that speciation in Dione coincided with both the rise of Passifloraceae (the host plants) and the uplift of the Andes. Since the sister species D. glycera and D. moneta are specialized feeders on passion-vine lineages that are endemic to areas located either within or adjacent to the Andes, we inferred that they co-speciated with their host plants during this vicariant event. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. DIVERSIDADE DE LEPIDOPTERA EM UM FRAGMENTO FLORESTAL EM MUZAMBINHO, MINAS GERAIS

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    Dirlene Aparecida de Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring Lepidoptera populations provides important information to assess the dynamics and ecological changes in ecosystems. In this work, it was evaluated and characterized the Lepidoptera fauna of forest fragment of the IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho, MG state. Throughout 12 months, 590 Individuals of 69 species belonging to 10 families were captured. The most abundant family was Nymphalidae (73.56% of subjects. The most abundant species were Godartiana muscosa , Mechanitis lysimnia , Hermeuptychia sp and Mechanitis polymnia casabranca , which are bio-indicators of disturbed and/or urban environments. On the other hand, it was found rare species, such as Notascea brevispula . Different species were constant and others occurred in only a short period of the year. The diversity and abundance were higher in hot and rainy months. The diversity index Shannon-Wiener and Simpsom indicate a median diversity and equitability index point absence of dominance.

  12. Morfologia externa do adulto de Actinote melanisans (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae: Acraeini External morphology of adult A. melanisans (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae: Acraeini

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    Márlon Paluch

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A morfologia externa do adulto de A. melanisans Oberthür, 1917 é descrita e ilustrada. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com outros já publicados para a morfologia externa de Nymphalidae (Danainae, Brassolinae/Brassolini sensu CASAGRANDE (2004, Morphinae/Morphini sensu LAMAS (2004a, Ithomiinae e Charaxinae. É apresentado um padrão para a caracterização morfológica do gênero, sendo esse o primeiro estudo detalhado de morfologia de uma espécie de Acraeini, agregando informações úteis para subsidiar a análise filogenética das espécies Neotropicais.The external morphology of adult A. melanisans Oberthür, 1917 is described and illustrated. The results obtained were compared with other studies already published on the external morphology of Nymphalidae - Danainae: Brassolinae: Brassolini sensu CASAGRANDE (2004, Morphinae: Morphini sensu LAMAS (2004a, Ithomiinae and Charaxinae. A pattern for the morphological characterization of the genus is presented. It is the first detailed study of the morphology of a species of Acraeini, therefore contributing with information on characters useful for the phylogenetic analysis of the Neotropical species.

  13. Density and Habitat Relationships of the Endemic White Mountain Fritillary (Boloria chariclea montinus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

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    Kent P. McFarland

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted point counts in the alpine zone of the Presidential Range of the White Mountains, New Hampshire, USA, to estimate the distribution and density of the rare endemic White Mountain Fritillary (Boloria chariclea montinus. Incidence of occurrence and density of the endemic White Mountain Fritillary during surveys in 2012 and 2013 were greatest in the herbaceous-snowbank plant community. Densities at points in the heath-shrub-rush plant community were lower, but because this plant community is more widespread in the alpine zone, it likely supports the bulk of adult fritillaries. White Mountain Fritillary used cushion-tussock, the other alpine plant community suspected of providing habitat, only sparingly. Detectability of White Mountain Fritillaries varied as a consequence of weather conditions during the survey and among observers, suggesting that raw counts yield biased estimates of density and abundance. Point counts, commonly used to study and monitor populations of birds, were an effective means of sampling White Mountain Fritillary in the alpine environment where patches of habitat are small, irregularly shaped, and widely spaced, rendering line-transect methods inefficient and difficult to implement.

  14. Sound production and hearing in the blue cracker butterfly Hamadryas feronia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) from Venezuela

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yack, J E; Otero, L D; Dawson, J W

    2000-01-01

    Certain species of Hamadryas butterflies are known to use sounds during interactions with conspecifics. We have observed the behaviour associated with sound production and report on the acoustic characteristics of these sounds and on the anatomy and physiology of the hearing organ in one species...... mismatched to the best frequencies of the ear. However, the clicks are broad-banded and even at 1-2 kHz, far from the peak frequency, the energy is sufficient such that the butterflies can easily hear each other at the close distances at which they interact (less than 30 cm). In H. feronia, Vogel's organ...

  15. Revisiting the Andean butterfly Eryphanis zolvizora group (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae: one or several species?

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    Patrick Blandin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eryphanis zolvizora (Hewitson, 1877 is a rare Andean endemic butterfly, described from Bolivia, which has been historically classified either as a unique species, or as part of a group of three allopatric species from Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia. In this paper, the group is revised using more than 200 specimens housed in 34 European, and North and South American public and private collections. For the first time, the presence of the group in Western Ecuador and Venezuela is confirmed, and important data on Peruvian populations are provided. In some populations, individual variations of genitalia are observed. Nevertheless, male genitalia allow the distinction of four geographical groups. Considering also habitus characters, eight taxa are distinguished and considered to be subspecies, of which five are new: Eryphanis zolvizora inca ssp. nov., Eryphanis zolvizora chachapoya ssp. nov., Eryphanis zolvizora casagrande ssp. nov.., Eryphanis zolvizora reyi ssp. nov., and Eryphanis zolvizora isabelae ssp. nov.  In the present state of knowledge, these taxa are allopatric, except for a possible geographic overlap in central Peru, where data are insufficient to prove sympatry. The “several subspecies vs. several species” dilemma is discussed, considering its impact for conservation action and policies.

  16. Brassolis isthmia (LEPIDOPTERA: NYMPHALIDAE, EN PEJIBAYE Y EN COCOTERO EN COSTA RICA

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    Ram\\u00F3n G. Mexz\\u00F3n

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir el ciclo de vida de Brassolis isthmia asociado al pejibaye bajo condiciones de campo y de laboratorio, y su actividad en cocotero. El ciclo de vida de B. isthmia fue estudiado en condiciones de campo y de laboratorio en Guápiles, Limón, Costa Rica, entre setiembre y noviembre de 1994, durante un incremento poblacional del insecto en una plantación de pejibaye. En los años siguientes se realizaron observaciones de las actividades alimentarias de la mariposa en cocotero en varias localidades de la Vertiente Caribeña. Varios centenares de huevos y de larvas de primer estadio fueron recolectadas y colocadas en grupos de diez individuos, y alimentadas con pedazos de hojas de pejibaye, de 30 x 80 mm. El número de larvas necesario para causar defoliaciones de 5% y 20% fue calculado para cada estado de desarrollo larval. El ciclo de vida promedio duró 159 días, distribuidos en las etapas de: huevo: 20, larva: 114, pupa: 20 y adulto: 5 días. Las larvas son gregarias, se alimentan durante la noche y permanecen durante el día en nidos construidos con restos de hojas secas y seda. El consumo promedio durante la etapa larva es de 820,62 cm² de follaje; el séptimo estado larval requiere un 72,8% de éste.

  17. Insights into Population Origins of Neotropical Junonia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae Based on Mitochondrial DNA

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    Edward Pfeiler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI sequences were used to estimate demographic histories of populations of the buckeye butterfly Junonia genoveva (Cramer from Costa Rica and Mexico. Previous studies have revealed significant structure between populations of J. genoveva from coastal regions of northwestern Mexico, which utilize black mangrove Avicennia germinans (Acanthaceae as a larval host plant, and inland populations from Costa Rica that feed on different hosts in the families Acanthaceae and Verbenaceae. The Mexico population of J. genoveva reported on here is located near the Northern limit of black mangrove habitat on the Pacific coast of North America and is hypothesized to have been established by northward migrations and colonization from southern source populations. The mismatch distribution, Bayesian skyline analyses, and maximum likelihood analyses carried out in FLUCTUATE were used to estimate changes in female effective population size (Nef over time in the two populations. Differences found in COI haplotype diversity, present-day Nef, and the timing of population expansions are consistent with the hypothesis that the Mexico population of J. genoveva is the more recently evolved.

  18. Sound production and hearing in the blue cracker butterfly Hamadryas feronia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) from Venezuela

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yack, J E; Otero, L D; Dawson, J W

    2000-01-01

    , Hamadryas feronia, from Venezuela. Our observations confirm previous reports that males of this species will take flight from their tree perch when they detect a passing conspecific (male or female) and, during the chase, produce clicking sounds. Our analyses of both hand-held males and those flying...

  19. Use of fruit bait traps for monitoring of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

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    Jennifer B. Hughes

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available There exists great interest in using fruit-feeding adult nymphalid butterflies to monitor changes in tropical forest ecosystems. We intensively sampled the butterfly fauna of mid-elevation tropical moist forest in southern Costa Rica with fruit bait traps to address a series of practical issues concerning the development of a robust, efficient sampling program. Variation in the number of captures and escapes of butterflies at the traps was better explained by the time of day than by the age of bait. Species’ escape rates varied widely, suggesting that short term, less intensive surveys aimed at determining presence or absence of species may be biased. Individuals did not appear to become "trap-happy" or to recognize the traps as food sources. Considering the tradeoff between numbers of traps and frequency of trap servicing, the most efficient sampling regime appears to be baiting and sampling the traps once every other day.

  20. Stereochemical inversion of pyrrolizidine alkaloids byMechanitis polymnia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae): Specificity and evolutionary significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, J R; Barata, L E; Brown, K S

    1994-11-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), acquired by adults or larvae of Danainae and Ithomiinae butterflies and Arctiidae moths from plants, protect these lepidopterans against predators and are biosynthetic precursors of male sex pheromones. The investigation of PAs in many species of wild-caught adults of Ithomiinae showed lycopsamine (1) [(7R)-OH, (2'S)-OH, (3'S)-OH] as the main alkaloid. In incorporation experiments, PA-free (freshly emerged) adults of the ithomiineMechanitis polymnia were fed seven PAs: lycopsamine and four of its known natural stereoisomers-indicine (2) [(7R)-OH, (2'R)-OH, (3'S)-OH], intermedine (3) [(7R)-OH, (2'S)-OH, (3'R)-OH], rinderine (4) [(7S)-OH, (2'S)-OH, (3'R)-OH], and echinatine (5) [(7S)-OH, (2'S)-OH, (3'S)-OH], and two PAs without the 7-OH: supinine (6) [(2'S)-OH, (3'R)-OH] and amabiline (7) [(2'S)-OH, (3'S)-OH]. Males epimerized PAs 3, 4, and 5 mainly to lycopsamine (1). Females fed these same three PAs changed a smaller proportion to lycopsamine; their lesser capacity to modify PAs corresponds to their normal acquisition of already transformed PAs from males during mating rather than through visits of adults to plant sources of PAs. The alkaloids1 and2, both 7R and 3'S, were incorporated without or with minimum change by males and females. Feeding experiments with6 and7 (males only) showed an inversion at the 3' center of6 and no change in7. The inversion from 7S to 7R (probably via oxyreduction) may be closely related to the evolution of acquisition of PAs by butterflies and moths. Two hypotheses are discussed: (1) The ancestral butterflies are probably adapted to tolerate, assimilate, and use (7R)-PAs (most common in plants; all widespread 1,2-unsaturated macrocyclic PA diesters show this configuration). The development of (7R)-PA receptors in the butterflies could lead to a specialization on this configuration in two ways: to help find PA plants and to utilize these components in sexual chemical communication. A later appearance of (7S)-PAs in plants could have selected an enzymatic system for the inversion of this chiral center in order to continue producing (7R)-PA-derived pheromones. (2) The inversion would be due to the evolution of a enzyme system specialized in the transport of (7R)-PAs to the integument; the failure of this system to carry (7S)-PAs led to an enzymatic system to invert them to transportable (7R)-PAs. In this case, the 7R configuration is an effect and not a cause of (7R)-PA-derived pheromones. In both hypotheses, the partial inversion of the 3'-asymmetric center, when the butterfly was fed intermedine (3), rinderine (4), and supinine (6), could be fortuitous due to the conformation of the molecule and/or the enzymatic system.

  1. Biological aspects of Archaeoprepona demophon muson (Fruhstorfer, 1905 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in the Peruvian Amazon

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    Joel Vásquez Bardales

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to elucidate the life cycle of the butterfly Archaeoprepona demophon muson, determine the species of plants to which it relates, characterize its habitat and contribute to the knowledge about their natural enemies. Fieldwork was conducted in two areas near Iquitos (Peru. For the description of the life cycle 20 eggs laid on leaves of it host plant were used. The cycle from egg to adult lasted 85.40 ± 4.66 days under laboratory conditions. The egg period took 5.60 ± 0.52 days. The larva goes through five stages: the first one lasts 8.61 ± 0.77 days; the second 6.12 ± 0.68; the third 11.44 ± 0.73; the fourth 8.13 ± 0.34; and the fifth 27.37 ± 1.29. The prepupa lasted 3.60 ± 0.51 days and the pupa 14.13 ± 2.62; adults were born approximately between 9:00 to 11:00 h. The female lived 41.00 ± 6.35 days and the male 19.25 ± 4.49 days. The host plants were Siparuna bifida (Poepp. & Endl. A.DC., Pouteria caimito (Ruiz & Pav. Radlk. and Musa × paradisiaca L. We report two natural enemies, a spider and a fungus.

  2. Milkweed Matters: Monarch butterfly (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) survival and development on nine Midwestern milkweed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has experienced a significant decline over the past twenty years. In order to increase monarch numbers in the breeding range, habitat restoration that includes planting milkweed plants is essential. Milkweeds in the genus Asclepias ...

  3. Milkweed Matters: Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Survival and Development on Nine Midwestern Milkweed Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocius, V M; Debinski, D M; Pleasants, J M; Bidne, K G; Hellmich, R L; Brower, L P

    2017-10-01

    The population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has experienced a significant decline over the past 20 yr. In order to increase monarch numbers in the breeding range, habitat restoration that includes planting milkweed plants is essential. Milkweeds in the genus Asclepias and Cynanchum are the only host plants for larval monarch butterflies in North America, but larval performance and survival across nine milkweeds native to the Midwest is not well documented. We examined development and survival of monarchs from first-instar larval stages to adulthood on nine milkweed species native to Iowa. The milkweeds included Asclepias exaltata (poke milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias hirtella (tall green milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias speciosa (showy milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias sullivantii (prairie milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), and Cynanchum laeve (honey vine milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae). In greenhouse experiments, fewer larvae that fed on Asclepias hirtella and Asclepias sullivantii reached adulthood compared with larvae that fed on the other milkweed species. Monarch pupal width and adult dry mass differed among milkweeds, but larval duration (days), pupal duration (days), pupal mass, pupal length, and adult wet mass were not significantly different. Both the absolute and relative adult lipids were different among milkweed treatments; these differences are not fully explained by differences in adult dry mass. Monarch butterflies can survive on all nine milkweed species, but the expected survival probability varied from 30 to 75% among the nine milkweed species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  4. [Dipteran parasitoidism on larvae of Caligo atreus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Renin

    2004-12-01

    Parasitoids on larvae of Caligo atreus were studied at the Estación de Biologia Tropical in Rio Macho, Cartago, Costa Rica. (1 600 masl), from March through July 2000. Fifth instar larvae of C. atreus were placed on Heliconia tortuosa Griggs var. Red Twist (Heliconiaceae) host plants at a mean temperature of 16.7 degrees C. The parasitoids obtained belong to an unidentified species of the genus Winthemia (Diptera: Tachinidae). Most flies emerge some 40 days after the eggs were laid (maximum 68 days). They make an orifice on the upper ventral part of the lepidopteran pupa. Winthemia is used commercially as biological control of cotton and banana.

  5. Pseudochazara amymone (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in Albania: Variability analysis, androconial scales and new distributional data

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    Sylvain Cuvelier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time a comparison of variable external characters of a series of males and females of Pseudochazara amymone (Brown, 1976 from southern Albania is conducted. Pseudochazara amymone, flying together with P. mniszechii tisiphone (Brown, 1980, was local and quite common in steep valleys on ophiolite substrate on two separate mountains, one of which is a recently discovered locality by Eckweiler (2012, while the other one is a new locality. An analysis of external characters of all specimens from the two localities suggests no statistically significant differences. In the field, patrolling P. amymone males are easily distinguished from P. mniszechii tisiphone males but this is not the case for females, and therefore we provide determination keys for males and females of these two species. These are based on a statistical analysis of a specimen series from one Albanian P. mniszechii tisiphone population compared with all P. amymone in this study. Photographs of androconia, copula and some extreme forms of P. amymone are presented. To encourage further research in this poorly explored country a map is included, showing all historical records of Papilionoidea from literature, including our own observations.

  6. Taxonomic considerations on the genera Moneuptychia Forster and Carminda Dias, reval. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae

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    MM Dias

    Full Text Available Euptychia soter Butler, 1877, the type species of Moneuptychia Forster, 1964, is compared to Satyrus paeon Godart, 1824, the type species of Carminda Dias, 1998. The male genitalia and wing design patterns of these species are dealt with. Some additional data from other species from both genera are also presented. The morphological comparisons carried out in this study indicate that Carminda is not a junior synonym of Moneuptychia. Thus, Carminda is revalidated.

  7. Seasonality of Fruit-Feeding Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) in a Brazilian Semiarid Area

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, Carlos Eduardo Beserra; Iannuzzi, Luciana; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    A survey of 6,000 trap/hours using fruit-bait traps was conducted, in order to characterize the community of fruit-feeding butterflies and their seasonal variation in a semiarid area of NE Brazil, which exhibits a highly seasonal rainfall regime. The community was composed of 15 species, the four most abundant comprising more than 80% of the total individuals. In the first sampling month, 80% of the species had already been recorded. A strong positive correlation was found between butterfly a...

  8. Development of Idea leuconoe Erichson 1834 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae reared on Parsonia sp. leaves

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    Analyn Anzano Cabras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepidopterans are among the most ecologically and economically important insect taxon in the biosphere. However, due to habitat loss majority of these species are now threatened. Rearing and studying the life development of this insect is important in conservation especially ex-situ conservation. Idea leuconoe Erichson, 1834 which is commonly known as mangrove tree nymph, paper kite and rice paper is one of the common attractions displayed in butterfly sanctuaries and whose population in the wild is threatened due to habitat loss. This paper investigates the complete developmental life cycle (42 days of Idea leuconoe reared on the leaves of Parsonia sp. mimicking natural environmental conditions.

  9. Why do the ithomiines (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) aggregate? Notes on a butterfly pocket in central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro,Carlos E. G.; Medri,Ísis Meri; Salcedo,Ana Karina Moreyra

    2008-01-01

    This study provides information on the species composition and the number of butterflies in different phases of an ithomiine aggregation during the 2004 dry season in central Brazil, and tests some hypotheses concerning the pocket formation. The results obtained suggest that ithomiine pockets constitute primarily an adaptation of butterflies to the adverse climatic conditions of the dry season, such as high temperatures and low air relative humidity, rather than the occurrence of large concen...

  10. Gene flow rise with habitat fragmentation in the bog fritillary butterfly (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nève, Gabriel; Barascud, Bernard; Descimon, Henri; Baguette, Michel

    2008-03-17

    The main components of the spatial genetic structure of the populations are neighbourhood size and isolation by distance. These may be inferred from the allele frequencies across a series of populations within a region. Here, the spatial population structure of Proclossiana eunomia was investigated in two mountainous areas of southern Europe (Asturias, Spain and Pyrenees, France) and in two areas of intermediate elevation (Morvan, France and Ardennes, Belgium). A total of eight polymorphic loci were scored by allozyme electrophoresis, revealing a higher polymorphism in the populations of southern Europe than in those of central Europe. Isolation by distance effect was much stronger in the two mountain ranges (Pyrenees and Asturias) than in the two areas of lower elevation (Ardennes and Morvan). By contrast, the neighbourhood size estimates were smaller in the Ardennes and in the Morvan than in the two high mountain areas, indicating more common movements between neighbouring patches in the mountains than in plains. Short and long dispersal events are two phenomena with distinct consequences in the population genetics of natural populations. The differences in level of population differentiation within each the four regions may be explained by change in dispersal in lowland recently fragmented landscapes: on average, butterflies disperse to a shorter distance but the few ones which disperse long distance do so more efficiently. Habitat fragmentation has evolutionary consequences exceeding by far the selection of dispersal related traits: the balance between local specialisation and gene flow would be perturbed, which would modify the extent to which populations are adapted to heterogeneous environments.

  11. Gene flow rise with habitat fragmentation in the bog fritillary butterfly (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

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    Descimon Henri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main components of the spatial genetic structure of the populations are neighbourhood size and isolation by distance. These may be inferred from the allele frequencies across a series of populations within a region. Here, the spatial population structure of Proclossiana eunomia was investigated in two mountainous areas of southern Europe (Asturias, Spain and Pyrenees, France and in two areas of intermediate elevation (Morvan, France and Ardennes, Belgium. Results A total of eight polymorphic loci were scored by allozyme electrophoresis, revealing a higher polymorphism in the populations of southern Europe than in those of central Europe. Isolation by distance effect was much stronger in the two mountain ranges (Pyrenees and Asturias than in the two areas of lower elevation (Ardennes and Morvan. By contrast, the neighbourhood size estimates were smaller in the Ardennes and in the Morvan than in the two high mountain areas, indicating more common movements between neighbouring patches in the mountains than in plains. Conclusion Short and long dispersal events are two phenomena with distinct consequences in the population genetics of natural populations. The differences in level of population differentiation within each the four regions may be explained by change in dispersal in lowland recently fragmented landscapes: on average, butterflies disperse to a shorter distance but the few ones which disperse long distance do so more efficiently. Habitat fragmentation has evolutionary consequences exceeding by far the selection of dispersal related traits: the balance between local specialisation and gene flow would be perturbed, which would modify the extent to which populations are adapted to heterogeneous environments.

  12. Immature stages of the butterfly Diaethria clymena janeira (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae

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    Eduardo P. Barbosa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The immature stages (egg, larva, and pupa morphology, larval and oviposition behavior, and host plant of the "eighty-eight" butterfly Diaethria clymena janeira (C. Felder, 1862 are described. Eggs are laid singly under leaf, and have pronounced vertical ribs ending up in a crown. Larvae of early instars construct stick-like frass chains where they rest when not feeding. Late instars are green with reduced body scoli and long branched head scoli. Pupae are entirely green, and pupation occurs on the upper leaf surface. In general, morphology and behavior of immature stages are similar to those of related species in the tribe Callicorini.

  13. Notes on three species of Palaearctic satyrinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae from northwestern Himalaya, India

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    Arun P. Singh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Observations are presented on local abundance, habitat and distribution of three species of lesser known Satyrinae butterflies in India, namely the Oriental Meadowbrown Hyponephele cheena Moore, 1865 from Chamba district in Himachal Pradesh, the Yellow Wall Kirinia eversmanni cashmierensis Moore, 1874 from Handwara, Jammu & Kashmir and the  comparison of the Tawny Meadowbrown, Hyponephele pulchella Felder & Felder, 1867  from Gulmarg, Jammu & Kashmir with its congeners (Hyonephele pulchra, H.astorica, H. Baroghila, H.sylvia & H. coenonympha. 

  14. Description of a new genus for Euptychia hilara (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Shinichi; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie; Espeland, Marianne

    2015-09-04

    Based on external morphology, food plant records for caterpillars, and molecular analysis, Euptychia hilara (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867) is removed from Euptychia Hübner 1818. A new genus, Inbio Nakahara & Espeland gen. nov., is proposed for this taxon. Inbio hilara comb. nov. is a member of a monophyletic clade containing Cyllopsis Felder, 1869, Paramacera Butler, 1868, and Atlanteuptychia Freitas, Barbosa & Mielke, 2013, although it can be morphologically distinguished from these genera. Lectotypes for Neonympha hilara C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867 and Euptychia anacleta Butler, 1877 (a synonym of E. hilara) are designated herein.

  15. Systematic revision of the Andean butterfly genus Orophila Staudinger, 1886 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubek, Anna; Pyrcz, Tomasz; Lorenc-Brudecka, Jadwiga; Boyer, Pierre; Cerdeña, Jose; Mahecha-Jiménez, Oscar; Huertas, Blanca

    2017-05-02

    A systematic review of the Neotropical butterfly genus Orophila Staudinger, 1886 based on morphological characters and geographical distribution is presented. Four species are recognized: O. campaspe (Hewitson, 1869) stat. rest., O. cardases (Hewitson, 1869), O. cecidas (Hewitson, 1869) stat. rest. and O. diotima (Hewitson, 1852). Other changes proposed include treating Orophila diotima footei (Lamas, 2003) syn. n. and O. cardases zurita (Fruhstorfer, 1916) syn. n. as synonyms of other taxa. Illustrations of adult males and male genitalia of all taxa are presented and the importance of morphological characters in both males and females is evaluated. Female specimens and genitalia are illustrated for the first time for O. c. cardases, O. cecidas and O. diotima. Lectotypes are designated for two nominal taxa.

  16. Natural occurrence of baculoviruses in populations of some Heliconiini (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae with symptomatological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. S. Andrade

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural occurrence of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses were detected in populations of some Heliconiini in the field as well as in the laboratory. The epizootics appeared under field conditions in populations of Dione juno juno, D. moneta and Agraulis vanillae maculosa. In the laboratory, however, larvae of Heliconius numata mirus, H. hecale vetustus and H. erato phyllis in addition to two hybrids and Eueides Isabella dianasa, all suffered the same disease. The effect of several factors which might contribute to the occurrence of the disease are discussed. Symptoms, histopathology and description of viral particles and polyhedra are given.

  17. Revised species definitions and nomenclature of the rose colored Cithaerias butterflies (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penz, Carla M; Alexander, Laura G; Devries, Philip J

    2014-10-20

    This study provides updated species definitions for five rose-colored Cithaerias butterflies, starting with a historical overview of their taxonomy. Given their mostly transparent wings, genitalia morphology yielded the most reliable characters for species definition and identification. Genitalic divergence is more pronounced when multiple species occur in sympatry than between parapatric taxa. Cithaerias aurorina is granted full species status, C. cliftoni is reinstated as a full species, and one new combination is proposed, i.e. C. aurora tambopata. Two new synonyms are proposed, Callitaera phantoma and Callitaera aura = Cithaerias aurora. 

  18. A contribution key for identification of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies are the useful bio-indicators of an ecosystem, sensitive to any change in environment, such as temperature, microclimate and solar radiation etc, however, they utilize host plants for their oviposition and larval development. Therefore, the present study was conducted to prepare the contribution key for identification of butterflies of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014-May, 2015. The specimens (ni = 506 were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. However, the collected butterflies were comprised of families Nymphalidae 50%> Pieridae 43%> Papilionidae 7%. The family Nymphalidae were primarily, blue, pale brown or orange and antennae-tips with large conspicuous knobs, while, family Pieridae were mostly creamy, white, yellow or light orange, although, the family Papilionidae were multi-colours, i.e., yellow, blackish-brown, white or orange and antennae-tips with or without knobs. The largest butterfly was great black mormon, Papilio polytes Linnaeus (Family: Papilionidae with body length 26.0±0.0 (nP. polytes = 1; M±SD mm, while the smallest butterflies Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval (Family: Pieridae with body length 11.5±0.6 (nC. etrida = 4; M±SD mm. The key of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan has been established in this paper. It is recommended to evaluate the butterfly fauna of District Charsadda to educate and create awareness in the local community for conservation and protestation of their habitats.

  19. sur Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera : Plutellidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité d'extraits de feuilles de neem Azadirachta indica (Sapindale) sur Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera : Plutellidae), Hellula undalis (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) et Lipaphis erysimi (Hemiptera : Aphididae) du chou Brassica oleracea (Brassicaceae) da.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genomes of five skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Wang, Ah Rha; Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-10-01

    We sequenced mitogenomes of five skippers (family Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera) to obtain further insight into the characteristics of butterfly mitogenomes and performed phylogenetic reconstruction using all available gene sequences (PCGs, rRNAs, and tRNAs) from 85 species (20 families in eight superfamilies). The general genomic features found in the butterflies also were found in the five skippers: a high A+T composition (79.3%-80.9%), dominant usage of TAA stop codon, similar skewness pattern in both strands, consistently length intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Gln) and ND2 (64-87 bp), conserved ATACTAA motif between tRNA(Ser (UCN)) and ND1, and characteristic features of the A+T-rich region (the ATAGA motif, varying length of poly-T stretch, and poly-A stretch). The start codon for COI was CGA in four skippers as typical, but Lobocla bifasciatus evidently possessed canonical ATG as start codon. All species had the ancestral arrangement tRNA(Asn)/tRNA(Ser (AGN)), instead of the rearrangement tRNA(Ser (AGN))/tRNA(Asn), found in another skipper species (Erynnis). Phylogenetic analyses using all available genes (PCGs, rRNAS, and tRNAs) yielded the consensus superfamilial relationships ((((((Bombycoidea+Noctuoidea+Geometroidea)+Pyraloidea)+Papilionoidea)+Tortricoidea)+Yponomeutoidea)+Hepialoidea), confirming the validity of Macroheterocera (Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, and Geometroidea in this study) and its sister relationship to Pyraloidea. Within Rhopalocera (butterflies and skippers) the familial relationships (Papilionidae+(Hesperiidae+(Pieridae+((Lycaenidae+Riodinidae)+Nymphalidae)))) were strongly supported in all analyses (0.98-1 by BI and 96-100 by ML methods), rendering invalid the superfamily status for Hesperioidea. On the other hand, current mitogenome-based phylogeny did not find consistent superfamilial relationships among Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, and Bombycoidea and the familial relationships within Bombycoidea between analyses, requiring further

  1. Organization of the olfactory system of nymphalidae butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Mikael A; Schäpers, Alexander; Nässel, Dick R; Janz, Niklas

    2013-05-01

    Olfaction is in many species the most important sense, essential for food search, mate finding, and predator avoidance. Butterflies have been considered a microsmatic group of insects that mainly rely on vision due to their diurnal lifestyle. However, an emerging number of studies indicate that butterflies indeed use the sense of smell for locating food and oviposition sites. To unravel the neural substrates for olfaction, we performed an anatomical study of 2 related butterfly species that differ in food and host plant preference. We found many of the anatomical structures and pathways, as well as distribution of neuroactive substances, to resemble that of their nocturnal relatives among the Lepidoptera. The 2 species differed in the number of one type of olfactory sensilla, thus indicating a difference in sensitivity to certain compounds. Otherwise no differences could be observed. Our findings suggest that the olfactory system in Lepidoptera is well conserved despite the long evolutionary time since butterflies and moths diverged from a common ancestor.

  2. Assessment of electron beam-induced abnormal development and DNA damage in Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seon-Woo; Koo, Hyun-Na; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2014-03-01

    The armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) is a polyphagous and important agricultural pest worldwide. In this study, we examined the effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages, reproduction, and DNA damage of S. litura. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (3rd instar), pupae (3 days old after pupation), and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with electron beam irradiation of six levels between 30 and 250 Gy. When eggs were irradiated with 100 Gy, egg hatching was completely inhibited. When the larvae were irradiated, the larval period was significantly delayed, depending on the doses applied. At 150 Gy, the fecundity of adults that developed from irradiated pupae was entirely inhibited. However, electron beam irradiation did not induce the instantaneous death of S. litura adults. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated moths demonstrated that females were more radiosensitive than males. We also conducted the comet assay immediately after irradiation and over the following 5 days period. Severe DNA fragmentation in S. litura cells was observed just after irradiation and the damage was repaired during the post-irradiation period in a time-dependent manner. However, at more than 100 Gy, DNA damage was not fully recovered.

  3. Anholts sommerfugle (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Bygebjerg, Rune; Meedom, Peter

    2008-01-01

      The Lepidoptera fauna of the Danish island of Anholt is surveyed, and 1160 species are recorded. Anholt is situated in Kattegat 44 km from Denmark and 47 km from Sweden. The history and environment of the island are briefly discussed, with special focus on the flora, and earlier studies...... of the Lepidopterera fauna of Anholt are dealt with. The present study is in first hand based on material collected by the late Ebbe Schmidt Nielsen and the authors, partly in the 1970's and partly in more recent years. The material do not permit a general comparison between the status of the Lepidoptera fauna...

  4. Estrutura floral das angiospermas usadas por Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Flower structure of angiosperms used by Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine A. Corrêa

    Full Text Available A field survey of flowering plants used as food resource by the adults of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 was carried out in four sites located in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Samples were taken in preserved areas of the Atlantic Rain and Myrtaceae forests, an Eucalyptus plantation, and an urban park. Adult feeding frequencies on flowers were registered monthly from December 1996 to May 1997, on plants located on previously marked 200 m long transects. Flowers on which H. erato phyllis fed in the field were collected, drawn and morphometrically characterized. Feeding was registered on flowers of twenty-three species, of which seventeen are new records for H. erato in Brazil . The use of a given plant varied among localities, as a function of its corresponding abundance. The most visited flowers were those of Lantana camara L. and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, followed by Dahliapinnata Voss in the urban site. The data suggest the existence of size and shape convergence between the proboscis and the small, tubular flowers upon which H. eratophyllis feeds. They also indicate that H. eratophyllis adults have an opportunistic nectar feeding / pollen gathering habit, using several of those flowers available in a given time and locality that fit such a morphometrical pattern. Since plant species of both primitive and derived families are used, there is no indication that phylogenetic constraints play a major role in this association, nor that color of flowers, growth pattern or size of the plants are relevant in determining their use by H. erato phyllis.

  5. Why do the ithomiines (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae aggregate? Notes on a butterfly pocket in central Brazil Por que os Ithomiinae (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae se agregam? Observações sobre um bolsão de borboletas no Brasil central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. G. Pinheiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides information on the species composition and the number of butterflies in different phases of an ithomiine aggregation during the 2004 dry season in central Brazil, and tests some hypotheses concerning the pocket formation. The results obtained suggest that ithomiine pockets constitute primarily an adaptation of butterflies to the adverse climatic conditions of the dry season, such as high temperatures and low air relative humidity, rather than the occurrence of large concentrations of adult food resources (flowers visited for nectar were not found in the pocket site or defense against visually hunting predators (contrary to the prediction tested, the frequency of butterflies bearing birds beak marks on the wings significantly increased along the period of pocket formation, especially in the case of Mechanitis polymnia, the most abundant species in the pocket. Other hypotheses concerning the pocket formation are also discussed.Este trabalho apresenta dados sobre a composição de espécies e o número de indivíduos encontrados em diferentes fases de formação de um bolsão de Ithomiinae investigado na estação seca de 2004 em uma floresta de galeria do Brasil central, e testa algumas hipóteses relacionadas à formação do bolsão. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o bolsão constitui primariamente uma adaptação das borboletas às condições adversas da estação seca, tais como altas temperaturas e baixa umidade relativa do ar, e não como conseqüência de grande concentração de recursos alimentares dos adultos (flores visitadas para obtenção de néctar não foram encontradas na área do bolsão, ou simples defesa contra predadores visualmente orientados (contrariamente à predição testada, a freqüência de borboletas apresentando marcas de bicadas de aves sobre as asas aumentou significativamente ao longo do período de formação do bolsão, especialmente no caso de Mechanitis polymnia, a borboleta mais abundante. Outras hipóteses relacionadas à formação do bolsão são também discutidas.

  6. Tampão genital de Actinote Hübner, como caráter taxonômico (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Acraeinae Sphragis of Actinote Hübner, as a taxonomic character (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Acraeinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márlon Paluch

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The sphragis morphology of seven species of Actinote Hübner, [1819] from south Brazil are presented and discussed comparatively. Their significant differences and scales were revealed with SEM photographs. They can be usable as characters to identify species.

  7. Preferência alimentar de Dione juno juno (CRAMER, 1779 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae por genótipos de maracujazeiro Feeding preference of Dione juno juno (CRAMER, 1779 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae to passion fruit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Robles Angelini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o efeito de genótipos de maracujazeiro quanto à atratividade e à não-preferência para alimentação de lagartas de Dione juno juno, em diferentes idades, através de testes com e sem chance de escolha. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP de Jaboticabal-SP, sob condições ambientais controladas (T=26=±=1°C=U.=R.= 60 ± 10% e fotofase = 14 horas, utilizando-se dos genótipos Passiflora edulis, P. gibertii, P. alata, Sul Brasil, IAC-275, Flora FB 300, P. serrato-digitata, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, Maguary FB-100 e P. foetida. Para o teste com chance de escolha, foram utilizadas placas de Petri, onde foram distribuídos, de forma eqüidistante, um disco foliar (3,2 cm de cada genótipo estudado e liberando-se em seguida, no centro da placa, 5 lagartas recém-eclodidas ou uma lagarta com 10 dias de idade por material. No teste sem chance de escolha, foi colocado apenas um disco de cada genótipo por placa de Petri (9 cm de diâmetro, mantendo-se o mesmo padrão de infestação utilizado no teste com chance. As avaliações foram realizadas em duas etapas, sendo que, na primeira, avaliou-se a atratividade, contando o número de lagartas em cada material a 1; 3; 5; 10; 15; 30; 60; 120; 240 minutos e 24 horas após a liberação das mesmas. Na segunda etapa, observou-se o consumo foliar 24 horas após o início do teste. O genótipo menos atrativo às lagartas recém-eclodidas e de 10 dias de idade foi P. alata em testes com e sem chance de escolha. O genótipo P. alata foi o menos consumido em teste com chance de escolha, sendo que, no teste sem chance, P. alata e P. foetida destacaram-se como os menos consumidos para as duas fases larvais.This aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of passion fruit genotypes on the attractiveness and feeding non-preference of D. juno juno larvae, through free-choice and no-choice tests. The experiments were carried out at FCAV/UNESP in Jaboticabal-SP, under lab conditions (T=26 ± 1°C, RH = 60 ± 10% and photophase = 14 hours, with Passiflora edulis, P. gibertii, P. alata, Sul Brasil, IAC-275, Flora FB 300, P. serrato-digitata, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, Maguary FB-100 and P. foetida genotypes. In free-choice test, Petri dishes with leaf disks (3.2 cm of each genotype were used and distributed at equal distance from the center, and 5 new hatched larvae or one 10-day old larva per genotype were released. In choice test was placed only one leaf disk of each genotype per dish (9 cm in diameter at the same infestation utilized in free-choice test. Evaluations were carried out in two stages, being first verified the attractiveness, by counting the number of insects on each disk at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240 minutes and 24 hours after releasing. In the second stage, leaf consumption was measured 24 hours after beginning the test. P. alata was the least attractive genotype to both new-hatched and 10-day old larvae in free-choice and no-choice tests. P. alata and P. foetida were the least consumed, to both larvae stages.

  8. RNA interference in Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terenius, Ole; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S.

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive...... is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success...

  9. European checkerspots (Melitaeini: Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) are not aposematic – the point of view of great tits (Parus major)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesařová, M. (ed.); Fric, Zdeněk; Veselý, P.; Konvička, Martin; Fuchs, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2013), s. 155-163 ISSN 0307-6946 Grant - others:University of South Bohemia(CZ) 144/2010/P; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA601410803 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Euphydryas * Melitaea * Parus major Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.967, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/een.12001/pdf

  10. Selection of perching site background color by Hamadryas feronia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in Costa Rica: Implications for industrial melanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ricardo Murillo-Hiller

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the increased frequency of melanic forms in moths of the genus Biston in Great Britain after the industrial revolution lead to the development of the theory of industrial Melanism. Nonetheless, arguments against that interpretation of the experimental evidence have polarized acceptance of the concept. New evidence based on diurnal butterflies is more credible because it involves behavior that can be seen in action, during daylight, and because the natural history of the selected species is well known. An experiment was carried out in which three substrate colors (white, black, and gray were employed to test the landing preferences of Hamadryas feronia. A marked preference was observed for landing on white and gray, and a chi-square (N=644 tests showed evidence of a preference by males to land on white, and for females to land on gray. Black was rejected perhaps because it provides very little background matching with the butterfly’s colors. The butterfly habit of perching selectively on particular color substrates is a genetically fixed behavior, where the males possibly choose white as a tactic to be noticed by females and attract them, whereas females prefer gray to enhance crypsis and avoid attracting predators.Observaciones en el incremento de la frecuencia de las formas melánicas de la polilla Biston de Gran Bretaña después de la revolución industrial, llevó al desarrollo de la teoría del melanismo industrial. Sin embargo, se originaron argumentos en contra de la interpretación experimental de dicho fenómeno que llevaron a polarizar su aceptación general. Nueva evidencia basada en mariposas diurnas genera nuevas perspectivas puesto que incluye el comportamiento, que puede ser apreciado durante el día. Además, la especie seleccionada es bien conocida desde el punto de vista de su historia natural. El experimento que desarrolle consiste en tres sustratos de diferente color (blanco, negro y gris en donde se pone a prueba la preferencia de Hamadryas feronia para posarse. Se encontró una marcada tendencia a posarse sobre el blanco y el gris, chi-cuadrado (N=644, donde los machos prefirieron el blanco y las hembras el gris. El negro fue rechazado probablemente porque ofrece muy poca defensa visual al disminuir el efecto de la coloración críptica de esta especie. El habito por parte de esta mariposa de posarse selectivamente sobre sustratos de distinto color esta fijado genéticamente, los machos posiblemente prefieren blanco como una táctica para atraer hembras y las hembras prefieren gris para aumentar el efecto de su coloración críptica y así evitar ser detectadas por los depredadores

  11. From the phylogeny of the Satyrinae butterflies to the systematics of Euptychiina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): history, progress and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, M.A.; Uribe, S.I.; Pena, C.; Freitas, A.V.L.; Wahlberg, N.

    2011-01-01

    We review the various proposals of evolutionary and classification schemes for Satyrinae and particularly Euptychiina butterflies, assessing progress and prospects of research for the group. Among the highlights is the proposal to include Morphini, Brassolini and Amathusiini as part of Satyrinae. Although it is clear that this hypothesis requires further investigation, phylogenetic studies recently conducted recover this clade as part of Satyrinae with high support. The phylogenetic analyses for Euptychiina carried out to date recover the monophyly of the group and have identified a variety of genera as non-monophyletic. Further work is necessary to resolve the position of the subtribe and the evolutionary relationships of several genera. (author)

  12. Isolated Asian steppe element in the Balkans: habitats of Proterebia afra (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) and associated butterfly communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoňová, Alena; Kolář, Vojtěch; Marešová, Jana; Šašić, M.; Šlancarová, Jana; Sucháček, P.; Konvička, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2017), s. 559-571 ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-33733S Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 04-168/2013/P; GA JU(CZ) 152/2016/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Proterebia afra * Proterebia phegea * butterfly communities Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.462, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10841-017-9995-x

  13. New records of Athyma whitei Tytler, 1940 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidinae from northeastern India: a recently reported species from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. Gogoi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tytler’s Sergeant, Atyma whitei was described by Tytler from Chin Hills, Myanmar in 1940. The taxon was not reported in India untill the record from Phura, Mizoram in November 2012. Recent surveys in northeastern India recorded the species four times in the forest of North Cachar (N.C. Hills and E. Jaintia Hills. The new sightings are approximately 223km from Chin-type locality. These recent records of the rare insect gives an insight into the distribution range and habitat of the rare taxon in northeast India.

  14. Loss of genetic diversity through spontaneous colonization in the bog fritillary butterfly, Proclossiana eunomia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Néve, G.; Pavlíčko, A.; Konvička, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 1 (2009), s. 11-19 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : allozyme electrophoresis * conservation * genetic polymorphism Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.783, year: 2009 http://www.eje.cz/scripts/viewabstract.php?abstract=1420

  15. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF FRUIT-FEEDING BUTTERFLIES (LEPIDOPTERA: NYMPHALIDAE) IN AN EASTERN AMAZONIAN FOREST

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINS, LUCAS PEREIRA; ARAUJO JUNIOR, ELIAS DA COSTA; MARTINS, ANANDA REGINA PEREIRA; DUARTE, MARCELO; AZEVEDO, GISELE GARCIA

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Deforestation has negative impacts on diversity and community patterns of several taxa. In the eastern Amazon, where much deforestation is predicted for the coming years, forests patches may be essential to maintain the local biodiversity. Despite increasing concerns about the conservation of threatened areas, few studies have been performed to analyze the communities of diversified groups, such as insects, in the eastern Amazon. Here, we investigated species diversity and community ...

  16. Spatial distribution, territoriality and sound production by tropical cryptic butterflies (Hamadryas, Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): implications for the "industrial melanism" debate

    OpenAIRE

    Julián Monge-Nájera; Francisco Hernández; María Isabel González; Javier Soley; José Araya; Stefano Zolla

    1998-01-01

    Neotropical butterflies of the genus Hamadryas, noted by the emission of sound, spend much time perching on trees and are believed to be cryptically patterned and colored with respect to tree trunks and branches they use as perching sites, but the subject had not been studied previously. This paper describes spatial distribution, territoriality and sound production in five species, under natural conditions: Hamadryas amphinome (Lucas, 1853), H. februa (Godart, 1824), H. feronia (Fruhstorfer, ...

  17. Mechanitis polymnia casabranca and Ithomia lichyi lichyi (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) damaging tree of Solanum granuloso-leprosum (Solanaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares,Wagner de Souza; Pereira,Alexandre Igor de Azevedo; Mielke,Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Serrão,José Eduardo; Zanuncio,José Cola

    2014-01-01

    The Zona da Mata region is located in southeastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil with fauna and flora diversified, including herbivorous insects and Solanaceae plants. Ithomiinae caterpillars were observed damaging tree of Solanum granuloso-leprosum Dunal (Solanaceae), used for different purposes and abundant in secondary forest. The objective of this study was to identify defoliating caterpillars of S. granuloso-leprosum at the campus of Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV) in Viçosa, Minas Ger...

  18. Feeding Behaviour on Host Plants May Influence Potential Exposure to Bt Maize Pollen of Aglais Urticae Larvae (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-target butterfly larvae may be harmed by feeding on host plants dusted with Bt maize pollen. Feeding patterns of larvae and their utilization of host plants can affect the adverse Bt impact because the maize pollen is distributed unequally on the plant. In a field study, we investigated the feeding of larvae of the Small Tortoiseshell, Aglais urticae, on nettles, Urtica dioica. Young larvae used smaller host plants than older larvae. In general, the position of the larvae was in the top part of the host plant, but older larvae showed a broader vertical distribution on the nettles. Leaf blades and leaf tips were the plant parts most often consumed. Leaf veins were consumed but midribs were fed on to a lesser extent than other plant veins, particularly by young larvae. The feeding behavior of the larvae may increase possible exposure to Bt maize pollen because pollen densities are expected to be higher on the top parts and along leaf veins of nettles.

  19. Graphita gen. nov., a New Genus for Neonympha griphe C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, S; Barbosa, E P; Marín, M A; Freitas, A V L; Pomerantz, T; Willmott, K R

    2016-12-01

    A new genus is described for Neonympha griphe C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867, to contribute toward a revision of the polyphyletic genus Euptychoides Forster, 1964. Based on DNA sequence data, Graphita Nakahara, Marín & Barbosa, gen. nov. is strongly supported as a member of a clade of predominantly southeastern Brazilian taxa, in which it is weakly supported as sister to a well-supported clade containing Pharneuptychia Forster, 1964, Moneuptychia Forster, 1964 and the E. castrensis (Schaus, 1902) species complex. The data show that Graphita griphe comb. nov. is not related to other Euptychoides and not very closely related to any other sampled euptychiines, and thus support the description of this new genus. In addition, we provide morphological illustrations and a distribution map for this taxon based on museum specimens.

  20. Revisión del género de mariposas Forsterinaria Gray, 1973 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae

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    Carlos Peña

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión taxonómica de las mariposas satírinas neotropicales incluidas en el género Forsterinaria Gray, 1973, comprendiendo una discusión de la clasificación y distribución geográfica de sus especies componentes, ilustraciones de los adultos de todos los taxones y de sus genitalias masculinas, así como descripciones de 12 especies y dos subespecies nuevas: Forsterinaria antje sp. n., F. coipa sp. n., F. enjuerma sp. n., F. falcata sp. n., F. guaniloi sp. n., F. itatiaia sp. n., F. pallida sp. n., F. pallida aurita ssp. n., F. pichita sp. n., F. pilosa sp. n., F. punctata sp. n., F. pyrczi sp. n., F. rotunda sp. n. y F. rustica glendita ssp. n. Euptychia stelligera Butler y E. fabiana Butler son considerados sinónimos (syn. n. de Forsterinaria quantius (Godart. Euptychia magdalena Hayward y E. pseudonecys Strand son considerados sinónimos (syn. n. de F. inornata (C. Felder & R. Felder y F. necys (Godart, respectivamente. Se designa lectotipos para 14 taxones nominales. Se reconoce un total de 23 especies. Se ofrece una clave para la identificación de todos los taxones.

  1. Sighting of Branded Yeoman Algia fasciata fasciata (Felder & Felder, 1860 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae in Jaintia and Cachar Hills, northeastern India

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    Rajkamal Goswami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report Branded Yeoman (Algia fasciata fasciata from the Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya and Barail Hills of Assam in India which represents a significant range extension from its known distribution across South and South East Asia including Andaman Islands. We consolidate other record of the species posted on social media website and personal communications to update the current extent and status of the species in India. 

  2. Population demography of alpine butterflies: Boloria pales and Boloria napaea (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and their specific adaptations to high mountain environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehl, Stefan; Ebertshäuser, Marlene; Gros, Patrick; Schmitt, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    High mountain ecosystems are extreme habitats, and adaptation strategies to this ecosystem are still poorly understood in most groups. To unravel such strategies, we performed a MRR study in the Hohe Tauern National Park (Salzburg, Austria) with two nymphalid butterfly species, Boloria pales and B. napaea. We analysed their population structure over one flight period by studying the development of population size and wing wear. B. pales had more individuals and a higher survival probability than B. napaea; the sensitivity to extreme weather conditions or other external influences was higher in B. napaea. We only observed proterandry in B. pales. Imagines of both species survived under snow for at least some days. Additionally, we observed a kind of risk-spreading, in that individuals of both species, and especially B. pales, have regularly emerged throughout the flight period. This emergence pattern divided the population's age structure into three phases: an initial phase with decreasing wing quality (emergence > mortality), followed by an equilibrium phase with mostly constant average wing condition (emergence = mortality) and a final ageing phase with strongly deteriorating wing condition (mortality » emergence). Consequently, neither species would likely become extinct because of particularly unsuitable weather conditions during a single flight period. The observed differences between the two species suggest a better regional adaptation of B. pales, which is restricted to high mountain systems of Europe. In contrast, the arctic-alpine B. napaea might be best adapted to conditions in the Arctic and not the more southern high mountain systems. However, this needs to be examined during future research in the Arctic.

  3. Sound production and hearing in the blue cracker butterfly Hamadryas feronia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) from Venezuela

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yack, J E; Otero, L D; Dawson, J W

    2000-01-01

    of exoskeleton (the tympanum) bordered by a rigid chitinous ring; associated with its inner surface are three chordotonal sensory organs and enlarged tracheae. The largest chordotonal organ attaches to a sclerite positioned near the center of the eardrum and possesses more than 110 scolopidial units. The two...

  4. Palaeo island-affinities revisited--biogeography and systematics of the Indo-Pacific genus Cethosia Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C J; Beheregaray, L B

    2010-10-01

    The Indo-Pacific is a very complex region encompassing several micro-continents with unique tectonic and geomorphologic histories. Unsurprisingly, the biogeographic history of Indo-Pacific biota is generally poorly known, especially that of organisms found in the heart of the region, the biodiversity hotspot known as Wallacea. Here, we explore the biogeographic history of the Indo-Pacific butterfly genus Cethosia using all known species and many distinctive subspecies. Cethosia butterflies span the Indo-Pacific tropics, including several lineages with localized endemism that are critically important when reconstructing biogeographic history of the Indo-Pacific and, in particular, of Wallacea. A phylogenetic hypothesis is proposed, based on sequences of the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase 5 (ND5), and the nuclear wingless gene. Both Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian analyses showed that the genus is monophyletic and consistently recovered seven, generally very well supported, clades, namely the cydippe, leschenault, biblis, nietneri, hypsea, penthesilea and cyane clades. Species group relationships are largely concordant with general morphology (i.e., wing pattern and colouration) and, based on the phylogeny, we propose a revised systematic classification at the species level. The evolution of the genus appears associated with the inferred geological history of the region, in particular with respect to the expanding Wallacea theory, whereby ancient connected terranes were fragmented during the mid Miocene to early Pliocene, approximately 14-3 Mya. Recent diversification events in Cethosia were likely promoted by climatic fluctuations during the Pliocene and, to a lesser extent, the Pleistocene. Our results support the view that, while dispersal has been important for Cethosia throughout much of the region, the high levels of island endemism and the essentially allopatric radiations recovered in Cethosia in Wallacea are better explained by vicariant processes linked to the history of formation of micro-continent and associated palaeo islands. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Selection of perching site background color by Hamadryas feronia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in Costa Rica: Implications for industrial melanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ricardo Murillo-Hiller

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the increased frequency of melanic forms in moths of the genus Biston in Great Britain after the industrial revolution lead to the development of the theory of industrial Melanism. Nonetheless, arguments against that interpretation of the experimental evidence have polarized acceptance of the concept. New evidence based on diurnal butterflies is more credible because it involves behavior that can be seen in action, during daylight, and because the natural history of the selected species is well known. An experiment was carried out in which three substrate colors (white, black, and gray were employed to test the landing preferences of Hamadryas feronia. A marked preference was observed for landing on white and gray, and a chi-square (N=644 tests showed evidence of a preference by males to land on white, and for females to land on gray. Black was rejected perhaps because it provides very little background matching with the butterfly’s colors. The butterfly habit of perching selectively on particular color substrates is a genetically fixed behavior, where the males possibly choose white as a tactic to be noticed by females and attract them, whereas females prefer gray to enhance crypsis and avoid attracting predators.

  6. Immature Stages of Six Species of Adelpha Hübner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidinae) from Southern Brazil Coastal Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Neto, J F; Dias, F M S; Pawoski, E L; Oliveira, P; Casagrande, M M; Mielke, O H H

    2016-10-01

    Six species of Adelpha Hübner from Balneário Barra do Sul (Santa Catarina) and Morretes (Paraná) were collected as eggs or larvae and reared in captivity, aiming to provide descriptions and photography of the immature stages and imagoes. The species studied were Adelpha radiata radiata Fruhstorfer; Adelpha serpa serpa (Boisduval); Adelpha plesaure plesaure Hübner; Adelpha thesprotia (C. Felder & R. Felder); Adelpha lycorias lycorias (Godart); and Adelpha capucinus velia (C. Felder & R. Felder). Two new records of host plants were provided, Tapirira guianensis Aubl. for A. radiata radiata and Heteropterys for A. capucinus velia. This study provides a summary of host plants and the seasonality of occurrence of immature stages of these species. Data were organized in photographic plates that could be useful for the identification process.

  7. [PLASTICITY OF THE THERMAL REACTION NORMS FOR DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN PEACOCK BUTTERLY INACHIS IO (LEPIDOPTERA, NYMPHALIDAE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkova, M V; Lopatina, E B

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the plasticity of the thermal reaction norms for development in the European Peacock butterfly Inachis io under the effect of different photoperiodic conditions and group versus individual maintenance. The overwintered imagoes were collected in Old Peterhof (near Saint-Petersburg) in May, 2010 and 2012-2013. 12 experimental regimens were used: 4 temperatures (16, 18, 20 and 22 degrees C) and 3 photoperiods (12, 18 and 22 h of light a day). It was found that under short-day conditions (12 h) the caterpillars developed a little faster than under long-day ones (22 h). The developmental temperature thresholds in these two cases did not differ. A linear regression coefficient characterizing thermal sensitivity of development was significantly higher only in males with their development affected by short-day photoperiod stronger than in females. At 18-h day length, the caterpillar development was less temperature-sensitive and characterized by a lower threshold than in shorter and longer days. The influence of short-day photoperiod on the caterpillar development manifested itself most distinctly in the emerging pupae' weight changes: in all the temperature regimens the pupae were lighter at short than at long days. The pupal weight increased as the temperature rose. The found dependence does not agree with the "temperature-size rule". Individual rearing led to a longer duration and lower thermal sensitivity of caterpillar and pupal development as well as to a reduced weight of the pupae. Individual rearing had a stronger impact on the mineral of females than males.

  8. From the phylogeny of the Satyrinae butterflies to the systematics of Euptychiina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): history, progress and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, M.A.; Uribe, S.I., E-mail: mamarin0@bt.unal.edu.c [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Grupo de Investigacion en Sistematica Molecular; Pena, C. [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima (Peru). Museo de Historia Natural; Freitas, A.V.L. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IB/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Animal e Museu de Zoologia; Wahlberg, N. [University of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology. Lab. of Genetics

    2011-01-15

    We review the various proposals of evolutionary and classification schemes for Satyrinae and particularly Euptychiina butterflies, assessing progress and prospects of research for the group. Among the highlights is the proposal to include Morphini, Brassolini and Amathusiini as part of Satyrinae. Although it is clear that this hypothesis requires further investigation, phylogenetic studies recently conducted recover this clade as part of Satyrinae with high support. The phylogenetic analyses for Euptychiina carried out to date recover the monophyly of the group and have identified a variety of genera as non-monophyletic. Further work is necessary to resolve the position of the subtribe and the evolutionary relationships of several genera. (author)

  9. DNA barcodes and citizen science provoke a diversity reappraisal for the "ring" butterflies of Peninsular Malaysia (Ypthima: Satyrinae: Nymphalidae: Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jisming-See, Shi-Wei; Sing, Kong-Wah; Wilson, John-James

    2016-10-01

    The "rings" belonging to the genus Ypthima are amongst the most common butterflies in Peninsular Malaysia. However, the species can be difficult to tell apart, with keys relying on minor and often non-discrete ring characters found on the hindwing. Seven species have been reported from Peninsular Malaysia, but this is thought to be an underestimate of diversity. DNA barcodes of 165 individuals, and wing and genital morphology, were examined to reappraise species diversity of this genus in Peninsular Malaysia. DNA barcodes collected during citizen science projects-School Butterfly Project and Peninsular Malaysia Butterfly Count-recently conducted in Peninsular Malaysia were included. The new DNA barcodes formed six groups with different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) representing four species reported in Peninsular Malaysia. When combined with public DNA barcodes from the Barcode Of Life Datasystems, several taxonomic issues arose. We consider the taxon Y. newboldi, formerly treated as a subspecies of Y. baldus, as a distinct species. DNA barcodes also supported an earlier suggestion that Y. nebulosa is a synonym under Y. horsfieldii humei. Two BINs of the genus Ypthima comprising DNA barcodes collected during citizen science projects did not correspond to any species previously reported in Peninsular Malaysia.

  10. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF FRUIT-FEEDING BUTTERFLIES (LEPIDOPTERA: NYMPHALIDAE IN AN EASTERN AMAZONIAN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCAS PEREIRA MARTINS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Deforestation has negative impacts on diversity and community patterns of several taxa. In the eastern Amazon, where much deforestation is predicted for the coming years, forests patches may be essential to maintain the local biodiversity. Despite increasing concerns about the conservation of threatened areas, few studies have been performed to analyze the communities of diversified groups, such as insects, in the eastern Amazon. Here, we investigated species diversity and community structure of fruit-feeding butterflies, a well-known bioindicator group, in a threatened remnant of an eastern Amazonian forest located on Maranhão Island, northeastern Brazil. Fruit-feeding butterflies were sampled monthly for one year. Diversity and evenness indices, richness estimators, rarefaction curve, and rank-abundance plot were used to describe community structure in the study area. We captured 529 fruit-feeding butterflies in four subfamilies, 23 genera and 34 species. The three most abundant species, Hamadryas februa, Hamadryas feronia, and Hermeuptychia cf. atalanta are indicators of disturbed habitats and represented more than half of the collected individuals. Richness estimators revealed that between 87 and 94% of the fruit-feeding butterfly species were sampled, suggesting few additional records would be made for the area. Our results indicate that human-caused disturbances have altered local community patterns and provide baseline data for future research in threatened regions of the eastern Amazon.

  11. Two new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 from the upper Amazon basin (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neild, Andrew F E; Nakahara, Shinichi; Zacca, Thamara; Fratello, Steven; Lamas, Gerardo; Le Crom, Jean-François; Dolibaina, Diego R; Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H; Espeland, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 are described from the upper Amazon basin: Euptychia attenboroughi Neild, Nakahara, Fratello & Le Crom, sp. n. (type locality: Amazonas, Venezuela), and Euptychia sophiae Zacca, Nakahara, Dolibaina & Dias, sp. n. (type locality: Acre, Brazil). Their unusual facies prompted molecular and phylogenetic analyses of one of the species resulting in support for their classification in monophyletic Euptychia. Diagnostic characters for the two species are presented based on wing morphology, wing pattern, presence of androconial patches on the hindwing, and genitalia. Our results indicate that the projection of the tegumen above the uncus, previously considered a synapomorphy for Euptychia, is not shared by all species in the genus. The adults and their genitalia are documented, and distribution data and a map are provided.

  12. Keanekaragaman dan Kelimpahan Jenis Kupu-kupu (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera di Sekitar Kampus Pinang Masak Universitas Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestia Dewi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui keanekaragaman dan kelimpahan jenis kupu-kupu (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera di sekitar Kampus Pinang Masak Universitas Jambi. Sampel  diambil dari 5 stasiun yang ditentukan secara purposif. Pada Masing-masing stasiun dibuat transek sepanjang 140 m, lalu dibuat 10 plot dengan ukuran 5x5 m dengan jarak antar plot yang sama (10 m. Parameter pengamatan meliputi keanekaragaman dan kelimpahan jenis. Selain itu diamati pula kondisi lingkungan yang meliputi intensitas cahaya, suhu udara dan kelembaban udara. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, ditemukan 143 individu dari 5 famili yaitu famili Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae dan Hesperiidae dengan indeks keanekaragaman jenis yaitu 2,153. Hasil perhitungan kelimpahan jenis menunjukkan banyak jenis yang ditemukan dengan kelimpahan yang rendah yaitu dengan nilai kelimpahan jenis 0,006 (1 individu. Adapun jenis kupu-kupu yang ditemukan melimpah adalah jenis Junonia orithya dengan nilai kelimpahan jenis 0,160  (23 individu, diikuti oleh Acraea terpsicore dengan nilai kelimpahan jenis 0,132(19 individu dan Eurema hecabe dengan nilai kelimpahan jenis 0,118 (17 individu. Kondisi lingkungan yaitu intensitas cahaya (16780-92170 Lux, suhu udara (31,6-34,2 oC dan kelembaban udara (63,8-80,8%. Dari hasil penelitian, keanekaragaman jenis kupu-kupu (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera di sekitar Kampus Pinang Masak Universitas Jambi menunjukkan tingkat yang sedang dengan nilai berkisar antara 1,5-3,5. Disarankan untuk dapat dilakukan penelitian sejenis dengan lokasi yang lebih luas, dan dengan berbagai kondisi musim sehingga mendapatkan hasil yang lebih luas.   Kata kunci: kupu-kupu, keanekaragaman, kelimpahan, Universitas Jambi.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Teinopalpus aureus guangxiensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and related phylogenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Zhou, Shan-Yi

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Teinopalpus aureus guangxiensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), which is considered as an endemic species in China. It is listed as a vulnerable species by International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Red List and also a first class endangered species in China. The complete mtDNA from T. aureus guangxiensis was 15,235 base pairs in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The T. aureus guangxiensis genes were in the same order and orientation as the completely sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopteran species. All PCGs of T. aureus guangxiensis mitogenome start with a typical ATN codon and terminate in the common stop codon TAA, except that ND1 gene uses TTA, ND3 gene uses ATT, and ND4 and ND4L gene use TAA. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed with the concatenated sequences of the 13 PCGs of the mitochondrial genome, and phylogenetic results confirmed that Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae are monophyletic clades.

  14. Diversidad del orden Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea y Papilionoidea de la ciudad Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Lazzeri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de urbanización representa una de las amenazas más importantes a la biodiversidad. Los lepidópteros son uno de los grupos taxonómicos utilizados como indicadores de la diversidad y calidad del ambiente. El objetivo del presente trabajo es conocer los Lepidoptera (Papilionoidea y Hesperioidea de la ciudad de Corrientes. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos al azar en un parche de bosque nativo situado en el barrio Santa Catalina y en un área antropizada, el Parque Mitre. Las recolectas se realizaron en las cuatro estaciones climáticas entre enero y octubre de 2007 con redes entomológicas. El total de ejemplares capturados asciende a 1 114, los que se distribuyen en seis familias: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae y Riodinidae y 18 subfamilias. Se identificaron 59 géneros y 75 especies. Anartia jatrophae jatrophae fue la especie más abundante en ambas unidades. Esta especie junto a Urbanus procne, Phoebis sennae marcellina, Pyrgus orcus y Dryas iulia alcionea se capturaron en todas las estaciones. El mayor número de ejemplares se colectó en las estaciones más cálidas. La abundancia (n=701, riqueza (S=74 y diversidad (H’=3.87 fueron superiores en Santa Catalina. Las unidades exploradas exhiben una elevada riqueza de especies y alta similitud.

  15. The chemistry of antipredator defense by secondary compounds in neotropical lepidoptera: facts, perspectives and caveats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trigo José R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical defense against predation in butterflies and moths has been studied since nineteenth century. A classical example is that of the larvae of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, which feed on leaves of Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae, sequestering cardenolides. The adults are protected against predation by birds. Several other substances may be involved in chemical defense, such as iridoid glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids, aristolochic acids, glycosidase inhibitors and pyrazines. The acquisition of these substances by lepidopterans can be due to sequestration from larval or adult host plants or de novo biosynthesis. Many Lepidoptera are known to be unpalatable, including the butterflies Troidini (Papilionidae, Pierinae (Pieridae, Eurytelinae, Melitaeinae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, Heliconiinae and Acraeinae (Nymphalidae, and Arctiidae moths, but knowledge of the chemical substances responsible for property is often scarce. This review discusses mainly three topics: field and laboratory observations on rejection of butterflies and moths by predators, correlation between unpalatability and chemicals found in these insects, and bioassays that test the activity of these chemicals against predators. Perspectives and future directions are suggested for this subject.

  16. Analysis of evolution in the lower Lepidoptera (Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Lower Lepidoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Mutuura, Akira

    1991-01-01

    The evolutionary mechanism in Lepidoptera is discussed. As a result of the comparison of evolution between the Microptergidae and the typical Lepidoptera, two different kinds of evolution are recognized. ・・・

  17. Description of new mitochondrial genomes (Spodoptera litura, Noctuoidea and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, Pyraloidea) and phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera with the comment on optimization schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xinlong; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Iksoo

    2013-11-01

    We newly sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Spodoptera litura and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis belonging to Lepidoptera to obtain further insight into mitochondrial genome evolution in this group and investigated the influence of optimal strategies on phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera. Estimation of p-distances of each mitochondrial gene for available taxonomic levels has shown the highest value in ND6, whereas the lowest values in COI and COII at the nucleotide level, suggesting different utility of each gene for different hierarchical group when individual genes are utilized for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analyses mainly yielded the relationships (((((Bombycoidea + Geometroidea) + Noctuoidea) + Pyraloidea) + Papilionoidea) + Tortricoidea), evidencing the polyphyly of Macrolepidoptera. The Noctuoidea concordantly recovered the familial relationships (((Arctiidae + Lymantriidae) + Noctuidae) + Notodontidae). The tests of optimality strategies, such as exclusion of third codon positions, inclusion of rRNA and tRNA genes, data partitioning, RY recoding approach, and recoding nucleotides into amino acids suggested that the majority of the strategies did not substantially alter phylogenetic topologies or nodal supports, except for the sister relationship between Lycaenidae and Pieridae only in the amino acid dataset, which was in contrast to the sister relationship between Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae in Papilionoidea in the remaining datasets.

  18. Protected species of butterflies (Lepidoptera in the National Nature Park “Velyky Lug”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Goloborodko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Velyky Lug is a unique natural complex which has a large biogeographical, ecological, environmental, historical and recreational value. The National Nature Park “Velyky Lug” was only created as recently as 2006.The park is located in Zaporizhzhya region, 15–18 km south of the city Zaporizhzhya, within the limits of floodplain area of the Dnepr river, which broadens to a width of over 20 kmbetween Bilen’ke and Vasilivka (north-eastern part of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. This enormous expansion of the floodplain (about 80,000 ha which is situated between the Dnepr river and its tributary the Kins’ka was in historical times was called the Kin’ski Floodplain or Great Meadow. In modern times this territory is almost completely flooded by the waters of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. Remnants of natural habitats have been preserved along the river banks – in the form of little valleys and ravines which extend all the shore and also islands which appeared in 1956 when the reservoir was flooded. The overall area of the park “Velyky Lug” is 16,756 ha. Within the territory of the park “Velyky Lug” we have recorded 27 species of Lepidoptera which have various levels of conservation status. The taxonomical structure of the complex varies and included representatives of all basic families of moth and day butterflies which have species that are protected by law. In a taxonomical relation this complex is formed by the representatives of 11 families (Zygaenidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Noctuidae, Arctiidae, Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Satyridae, Lycaenidae. Zoogeographical analysis of the species that are protected in the territory of the park can be classified into 5 basic groups (Palearctic – 26%, Pontokazach – 26%, Mediterranean– 22%, Eurosiberian – 15%, European – 11%. Analysis of the biotopic advantages of the protected Lepidoptera species present in the territory of the park showed representatives from all

  19. Diversidad del orden Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea y Papilionoidea de la ciudad Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Lazzeri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de urbanización representa una de las amenazas más importantes a la biodiversidad. Los lepidópteros son uno de los grupos taxonómicos utilizados como indicadores de la diversidad y calidad del ambiente. El objetivo del presente trabajo es conocer los Lepidoptera (Papilionoidea y Hesperioidea de la ciudad de Corrientes. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos al azar en un parche de bosque nativo situado en el barrio Santa Catalina y en un área antropizada, el Parque Mitre. Las recolectas se realizaron en las cuatro estaciones climáticas entre enero y octubre de 2007 con redes entomológicas. El total de ejemplares capturados asciende a 1 114, los que se distribuyen en seis familias: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae y Riodinidae y 18 subfamilias. Se identificaron 59 géneros y 75 especies. Anartia jatrophae jatrophae fue la especie más abundante en ambas unidades. Esta especie junto a Urbanus procne, Phoebis sennae marcellina, Pyrgus orcus y Dryas iulia alcionea se capturaron en todas las estaciones. El mayor número de ejemplares se colectó en las estaciones más cálidas. La abundancia (n=701, riqueza (S=74 y diversidad (H’=3.87 fueron superiores en Santa Catalina. Las unidades exploradas exhiben una elevada riqueza de especies y alta similitud.Diversity of the order Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea from Corrientes city, Argentina. Urbanization is one of the most important threats for biodiversity. Among many different organisms, butterflies are useful indicators of environment diversity and quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the Lepidoptera from Corrientes city. Random samplings were performed at two sites: a native forest situated in Santa Catalina district and an urban area, Parque Mitre. The captures were carried out using entomological nets, at four seasons between January to October 2007. A total of 1 114 butterflies, represented by six families: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae

  20. BORBOLETAS (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONOIDEA DE MACAPÁ, AMAPÁ, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ramos de Jesus Barros

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Os registros sobre a fauna de borboletas que ocorre no Estado do Amapá são antigos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo fazer um levantamento da fauna de borboletas que ocorrem em Macapá, AP. No período de setembro de 2009 a maio de 2010 foram realizadas coletas de borboletas com rede entomológica e armadilha modificada do tipo Van Someren-Rydon. As coletas foram realizadas nos bairros de Macapá e através de amostragens mensais no Parque Zoobotânico Municipal de Macapá. Nas coletas realizadas com armadilha foram obtidos exemplares de 13 espécies de Nymphalidae. Com rede entomológica foram capturados 133 exemplares de 39 espécies pertencentes à Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae e Riodinidae.

  1. Distribución de las mariposas diurnas (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea y Papilionoidea del Estado de México, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hernández-Mejía

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El Estado de México posee características geográfico-ecológicas que lo hacen una región de gran diversidad biológica; respecto a Hesperioidea y Papilionoidea posee el 15% de las especies registradas para México, del cual el 17% son endémicas para el país. Con base en la información bibliográfica y la consulta de la base de datos del Museo de Zoología de la Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM, se integró la lista de las dos superfamilias para el Estado de México; esta se compone de seis familias, 22 subfamilias, 197 géneros y 325 especies (95 Hesperiidae, 19 Papilionidae, 35 Pieridae, 54 Lycaenidae, 20 Riodinidae y 102 Nymphalidae. De cada especie se anexó la lista de localidades de recolecta, vuelo, la colección donde están depositados los ejemplares, o la cita de la cual se tomó el dato.Distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea from Mexico State, Mexico. The State of Mexico is a region with great biological diversity, owing to its geographical and ecological features. Regarding Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea, 15 % of the Mexican species are recorded in the State of Mexico, 17 % of which are endemic to the country. A checklist of the two superfamilies for the State of Mexico was integrated, based on published literature and databases at the Museo de Zoología of the Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM. The checklist is composed by six families, 22 subfamilies, 197 genera and 325 species (95 Hesperiidae, 19 Papilionidae, 35 Pieridae, 54 Lycaenidae, 20 Riodinidae, and 102 Nymphalidae. A list of each species is presented, including collecting localities, flight month, and whether data correspond to scientific collection records or literature. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1309-1341. Epub 2008 September 30.

  2. Species richness and abundance of hesperioidea and papilionoidea (lepidoptera) in Las Delicias natural reserve, Santa Marta, Magdalena, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Zapata, Maria A; Martinez Hernandez, Neis Jose; Gutierrez Moreno, Luis C and others

    2011-01-01

    In the foothills of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, are formations of dry tropical secondary forest hosting a fauna representative of lepidoptera, which can be used as an indicator of group condition, because of their sensitivity to intervention and specificity in the use of resources; in the present study the changes in richness and abundance of butterflies hesperioidea papilionoidea in nature reserve Las Delicias were evaluated. Two sampling sites with different degrees of intervention were selected. The first site is located between 400- 550 over sea level, while the second at 200 m. We performed four samples, from April to July 2008; using two networks lepidopterist and 10 van someren rydon traps baited with macerated fruit and fish. We captured 432 individuals belonging to 66 species, distributed in 52 genera. Nymphalidae were the most rich family (42) and abundance (250); highlighting the species mechanitis lysimnia fabricius (41 specimens), typical in forest with very good coverage. Site 2, was the most diverse (48) and abundance (236), because in this place there was a greater stratification and tree coverage, and the presence of water resources during the sampling. With the arrival of rain in June and July, there was greater flowering and fruiting of vegetation in the area, increasing the availability of resources and therefore a greater richness and abundance of papilionoidea and hesperioidea in the study area.

  3. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  4. Developmental and hormone-induced changes of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activities during the last instar larval development of maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    VenkatRao, V; Chaitanya, R K; Naresh Kumar, D; Bramhaiah, M; Dutta-Gupta, A

    2016-12-01

    The energy demand for structural remodelling in holometabolous insects is met by cellular mitochondria. Developmental and hormone-induced changes in the mitochondrial respiratory activity during insect metamorphosis are not well documented. The present study investigates activities of enzymes of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) namely, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I, Succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex II, Ubiquinol:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase or complex III, cytochrome c oxidase or complex IV and F 1 F 0 ATPase (ATPase), during Chilo partellus development. Further, the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) analog, methoprene, and brain and corpora-allata-corpora-cardiaca (CC-CA) homogenates that represent neurohormones, on the ETC enzyme activities was monitored. The enzymatic activities increased from penultimate to last larval stage and thereafter declined during pupal development with an exception of ATPase which showed high enzyme activity during last larval and pupal stages compared to the penultimate stage. JH analog, methoprene differentially modulated ETC enzyme activities. It stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities, but did not alter the activities of complex II, III and ATPase. On the other hand, brain homogenate declined the ATPase activity while the injected CC-CA homogenate stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities. Cumulatively, the present study is the first to show that mitochondrial ETC enzyme system is under hormone control, particularly of JH and neurohormones during insect development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on soybean treated with resistance inducers. P Vinicius de Souza, BR Machado, M Mueller de Freitas, F Correa, A Cirilo de Sousa Almeida, FG de Jesus ...

  6. Phylogeny and Evolution of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Charles; Davis, Donald R; Cummings, Michael P

    2017-01-31

    Until recently, deep-level phylogeny in Lepidoptera, the largest single radiation of plant-feeding insects, was very poorly understood. Over the past two decades, building on a preceding era of morphological cladistic studies, molecular data have yielded robust initial estimates of relationships both within and among the ∼43 superfamilies, with unsolved problems now yielding to much larger data sets from high-throughput sequencing. Here we summarize progress on lepidopteran phylogeny since 1975, emphasizing the superfamily level, and discuss some resulting advances in our understanding of lepidopteran evolution.

  7. Diversity dynamics in Nymphalidae butterflies: effect of phylogenetic uncertainty on diversification rate shift estimates.

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    Carlos Peña

    Full Text Available The species rich butterfly family Nymphalidae has been used to study evolutionary interactions between plants and insects. Theories of insect-hostplant dynamics predict accelerated diversification due to key innovations. In evolutionary biology, analysis of maximum credibility trees in the software MEDUSA (modelling evolutionary diversity using stepwise AIC is a popular method for estimation of shifts in diversification rates. We investigated whether phylogenetic uncertainty can produce different results by extending the method across a random sample of trees from the posterior distribution of a Bayesian run. Using the MultiMEDUSA approach, we found that phylogenetic uncertainty greatly affects diversification rate estimates. Different trees produced diversification rates ranging from high values to almost zero for the same clade, and both significant rate increase and decrease in some clades. Only four out of 18 significant shifts found on the maximum clade credibility tree were consistent across most of the sampled trees. Among these, we found accelerated diversification for Ithomiini butterflies. We used the binary speciation and extinction model (BiSSE and found that a hostplant shift to Solanaceae is correlated with increased net diversification rates in Ithomiini, congruent with the diffuse cospeciation hypothesis. Our results show that taking phylogenetic uncertainty into account when estimating net diversification rate shifts is of great importance, as very different results can be obtained when using the maximum clade credibility tree and other trees from the posterior distribution.

  8. Regulação populacional em Ithomiinae (Lep.: Nymphalidae) : ecologia da interação parasitoide x hospedeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Ferreira Monteiro

    1981-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho procurou analisar a influência do parasitismo na regulação de populações de quatro espécies da sub-família Ithomiinae (Lepidóptera ' Nymphalidae) no Horto Florestal de Sumaré, São Paulo. Foram feitas coletas mensais de imaturos de Mcclungia salonina, Mechanitis lysimnia, Mechanitis polymnia e Hypothyris ninonia, e verificadas as taxas de parasitismo, o número de adultos por hospedeiro, razão sexual e tempo de desenvolvimento dos parasitóides. O parasitismo de ovo exerceu...

  9. Status and Trend of Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in the 4th of July Butterfly Count Program in 1977–2014

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    Scott R. Swengel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia primarily inhabits prairie, a native grassland of central North America, and occurs rarely in nonprairie grasslands further east. This butterfly has experienced widespread decline and marked range contraction. We analyze Regal Fritillary incidence and abundance during 1977–2014 in 4th of July Butterfly Counts, an annual census of butterflies in North America. Volunteers count within the same 24 km diameter circle each year. Only 6% of counts in range reported a Regal, while 18% of counts in core range in the Midwest and Great Plains did. 99.9% of Regal individuals occurred in core range. Only four circles east of core range reported this species, and only during the first half of the study period. All individuals reported west of its main range occurred in two circles in Colorado in the second half of the study. The number of counts per year and survey effort per count increased during the study. During 1991–2014, >31 counts occurred per year in core Regal range, compared to 0–23 during 1975–1990. During 1991–2014, all measures of Regal presence and abundance declined, most significantly. These results agree with other sources that Regal Fritillary has contracted its range and declined in abundance.

  10. Species extinction risk might increase out of reserves: allowances for conservation of threatened butterfly Actinote quadra (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) under global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Sobral-Souza, Thadeu; Francini, Ronaldo Bastos; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus Souza

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is an important factor affecting species dispersal and distribution through time and the accelerated global warming has currently concerned decision makers and conservationists. Because protected areas are spatially static, species extinction risk is generally expected to increase under climate change scenarios as a consequence of range shift and decrease. This study aims to understand the current conservation status of Actinote quadra, a neotropical threatened butterfly specie...

  11. A century later the Manipur Argus Callerebia suroia Tytler, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) recorded in its type locality in Manipur, India

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Irungbam, Jatishwor; Huidrom, H.; Soibam, B. S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2017), s. 9866-9869 ISSN 0974-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 152/2016/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Callerebia suroia * Manipur * India Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology http://threatenedtaxa.org/index.php/JoTT/article/view/2931/3941

  12. Effect of nitrogen on Passiflora suberosa L. (Passifloraceae) and consequences for larval performance and oviposition in Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerpel, Solange M; Soprano, Eliséo; Moreira, Gilson R P

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the influence of nitrogen on growth rates, morphological and nutritional characteristics of Passiflora suberosa L., and the corresponding consequences for Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius) growth and oviposition. The treatments consisted of different nitrogen doses (0, 150 and 300 mg L(-1)) applied to the soil. Newly emerged larvae were individually reared in the laboratory (25+/-1 degree C) on branches of P. suberosa obtained from plants grown under the three nitrogen levels, and field collected females were submitted to oviposition choice tests. P. suberosa growth rates, leaf area and internode length increased significantly when grown with nitrogen enriched soil. P. suberosa presented significantly greater leaf toughness when grown without nitrogen addition. Leaves of this species also presented lower water content and toughness. Nitrogen addition increased the concentration of nitrogen and potassium on plant leaf tissues. The greater nitrogen concentration on plants did not affect H. erato phyllis larval survival, but led to a reduction in larval development time and increased adult size. Females significantly preferred to lay eggs in plants cultivated in nitrogen enriched soil. This choice was positively correlated with larval performance, which could be a possible explanation for the maintenance of that behaviour, as well as the choice of larger branches as reported in previous studies.

  13. Complex Messages in Long-Term Monitoring of Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in the State of Wisconsin, USA, 1988–2015

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    Ann B. Swengel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The regal fritillary (“regal” (Speyeria idalia is endangered in Wisconsin, USA, and declining and at risk range-wide. During 1988–2015, we surveyed 24 known regal sites and >100 areas of potential habitat in Wisconsin. We recorded 9037 individuals in 742.7 km on the peak survey per year at occupied sites. At six sites surveyed over 5–25 years, we found regal fritillaries in only one year, mostly in the latter half of the study. The three populations in the state with more favorable trends than the median had a never-burned refugium and/or infrequent fire management. They also all had substantial amounts of grazing, haying, and/or mowing managements. Sites with trends below the regional median trend had frequent or moderate fire management, and either a diminishing never-burned refugium or none at all. Regal populations at sites with ≤15 ha of grassland have become undetectable. Nonetheless, Hogback, a slightly larger than 15 ha site, had the most favorable trend, a significant increase. Nearly all Wisconsin Regal populations known before 1990 declined to consistent non-findability, even though these were conserved sites. More favorable trends at more recently discovered populations may be attributable to species-specific habitat management protocols implemented in the 1990s. Two sites with better than median long-term trends represent the longest consistent land ownership of known Regal populations in the state. This wide range of population outcomes illustrates both the need for long-term monitoring and the challenges of explaining the outcomes. Despite evidence of increasing Regal dispersal, this species remains very localized, indicating the unsuitability of the wider landscape as regal habitat. The number of significantly declining or no longer detectable populations in Wisconsin indicates an ever more adverse landscape for this species. Sites will need to have habitat characteristics that are ever more optimal in a wide range of climatic conditions for Regal populations to persist.

  14. Hypandrium as a key character in resolving species-level taxonomy on the example of Perisama oppelii (Latreille) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Biblidinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubek, Anna; Lorenc-Brudecka, Jadwiga; Pyrcz, Tomasz W

    2015-07-23

    A detailed comparative study of the subspecies of Perisama oppelii (Latreille, [1809]) is carried out. Ten out of eleven subspecies are illustrated, including the females of P. o. bleuzeni Attal & Crosson du Cormier, 1996 and P. o. cristal Attal & Crosson du Cormier, 1996 for the first time. Male genitalia of P. o. amalia Oberthür, 1916, P. o. bleuzeni, P. o. cristal, P. o. erebina Oberthür, 1916, P. o. oppelii (Latreille, [1809]), P. o. viridinota Butler, 1873, and P. o. xanthica (Hewitson, 1868), as well as female genitalia of P. o. bleuzeni, P. o. cristal and P. o. oppelii are also presented for the first time. Based on the characters of hypandrium, a separate specific status is proposed for P. bleuzeni stat. n. Taxonomical value of the hypandrium is evaluated. The co-evolution of male and female genitalia is discussed.

  15. Poor sequestration of toxic host plant cardenolides and their rapid loss in the milkweed butterfly Danaus chrysippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae: Danaini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebs, Dietrich; Wunder, Cora; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-06-01

    Butterflies of the genus Danaus are known to sequester toxic cardenolides from milkweed host plants (Apocynaceae). In particular, Danaus plexippus efficiently sequesters and stores these compounds, whereas D. chrysippus, is considered to poorly sequester cardenolides. To estimate its sequestration capability compared with that of D. plexippus, larvae of both species were jointly reared on Asclepias curassavica and the major cardenolides of the host plant, calotropin and calactin, were analyzed in adults sampled at different time intervals after eclosion. Both cardenolides were detected in body and wings of D. plexippus. Whereas the calotropin-concentration remained constant over a period of 24 days, that of calactin steadily decreased. In the body, but not in the wings of D. chrysippus, calactin only was detected in low amounts, which was then almost completely lost during the following 8 days after eclosion, suggesting that in contrast to D. plexippus, cardenolides seem to be less important for that butterfly's defence against predators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. External morphology of immature stages of Zaretis strigosus (Gmelin and Siderone galanthis catarina Dottax and Pierre comb. nov., with taxonomic notes on Siderone (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Charaxinae

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    Fernando Maia Silva Dias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The external morphology of immature stages of Zaretis strigosus (Gmelin, [1790] and Siderone galanthis catarina Dottax and Pierre, 2009 comb. nov. from southern Brazil are described. Additionally, morphology of the adults and sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase, subunit I, were analyzed in order to evaluate the taxonomy of Siderone galanthis Hübner, [1823]. Immatures were collected on Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae in Curitiba, Paraná, and Balneário Barra do Sul, Santa Catarina, Brazil, and reared at the laboratory. Morphological descriptions and illustrations are provided, based on observations through stereoscopic and optic microscopes attached to camera lucida; results are compared and discussed and immature stages of some other species of Charaxinae. The results indicates that the morphology of the immature stages of the studied species differ greatly from other Anaeini, representing a distinct lineage of leafwings butterflies. Morphology and molecular evidence indicate that S. nemesis mexicana Dottax and Pierre, 2009 and S. nemesis catarina Dottax and Pierre, 2009 are conspecific with S. galanthis (Cramer, 1775; additionally, S. thebais C. Felder and R. Felder 1862, S. nemesis var. confluens Staudinger, 1887, S. nemesis f. leonora Bargmann, 1928 and S. nemesis f. exacta Bargmann, 1929 are synonymized with S. galanthis galanthis (Cramer, 1775.

  17. High Andean butterflies from southern Peru, I. Dry puna Satyrinae, with the description of two new taxa and three new records from Peru (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Cerdeña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a series of contributions to the knowledge of the high Andean butterfly fauna in southern Peru. In this work the butterfly species of the subfamily Satyrinae present in the dry puna of Peru are reviewed. A new species, Pampasatyrus gorkyi sp. nov. and a new subspecies Argyrophorus lamna cuzcoensis ssp. nov. are described from the department Cusco, Peru. Three species are recorded for the first time for Peru, Argyrophorus gustavi Staudinger, Faunula euripides (Weymer and Faunula eleates (Weymer previously reported from Chile and Bolivia. Ecological and biogeographical data are provided.

  18. On the occurrence of Common Baron (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidinae: Euthalia aconthea Cramer, 1777 in the Delhi area and analysis of abiotic factors affecting its distribution in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajv K. Singh Bais

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives details of the occurrence of Euthalia aconthea from Delhi area situated in the Indo-Gangetic plains.  Occurrence records of this species suggest that it is most frequent in five zones of India, despite the fact that its main larval food plant Mango Mangifera indica is abundantly available almost throughout India.  Possible abiotic factors are hypothesized for this distribution. 

  19. Habitat of pre-hibernating larvae of the endangered butterfly Euphydryas aurinia (Lepidoptera : Nymphalidae): What can be learned from vegetation composition and architecture?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvička, Martin; Hula, V.; Fric, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 100, - (2003), s. 313-322 ISSN 1210-5759 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Melitaeini * butterfly conservation * Succisa pratensis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.741, year: 2003

  20. Complex Messages in Long-Term Monitoring of Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the State of Wisconsin, USA, 1988–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swengel, Ann B.; Swengel, Scott R.

    2017-01-01

    The regal fritillary (“regal”) (Speyeria idalia) is endangered in Wisconsin, USA, and declining and at risk range-wide. During 1988–2015, we surveyed 24 known regal sites and >100 areas of potential habitat in Wisconsin. We recorded 9037 individuals in 742.7 km on the peak survey per year at occupied sites. At six sites surveyed over 5–25 years, we found regal fritillaries in only one year, mostly in the latter half of the study. The three populations in the state with more favorable trends than the median had a never-burned refugium and/or infrequent fire management. They also all had substantial amounts of grazing, haying, and/or mowing managements. Sites with trends below the regional median trend had frequent or moderate fire management, and either a diminishing never-burned refugium or none at all. Regal populations at sites with ≤15 ha of grassland have become undetectable. Nonetheless, Hogback, a slightly larger than 15 ha site, had the most favorable trend, a significant increase. Nearly all Wisconsin Regal populations known before 1990 declined to consistent non-findability, even though these were conserved sites. More favorable trends at more recently discovered populations may be attributable to species-specific habitat management protocols implemented in the 1990s. Two sites with better than median long-term trends represent the longest consistent land ownership of known Regal populations in the state. This wide range of population outcomes illustrates both the need for long-term monitoring and the challenges of explaining the outcomes. Despite evidence of increasing Regal dispersal, this species remains very localized, indicating the unsuitability of the wider landscape as regal habitat. The number of significantly declining or no longer detectable populations in Wisconsin indicates an ever more adverse landscape for this species. Sites will need to have habitat characteristics that are ever more optimal in a wide range of climatic conditions for Regal populations to persist. PMID:28075377

  1. Early-spring floods decrease the survival of hibernating larvae of a wetland-inhabiting population of neptis rivularis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvička, Martin; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Fric, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2002), s. 79-88 ISSN 1217-8837 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : butterfly * floodplain ecology * inundation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.132, year: 2002

  2. A Potentially Endangered New Species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from the Atlantic Coastal Forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, S; Barbosa, E P; Freitas, A V L

    2017-06-01

    A new satyrine species in the subtribe Euptychiina, Euptychia atlantica Nakahara & Freitas sp. nov., is described from the Atlantic coastal forest of Brazil. Based on the existing museum specimens, E. atlantica sp. nov. is known from the coastal montane forests of Rio de Janeiro to south Bahia, a unique biogeographical region which is undergoing rapid degradation. Illustrations of adults and their genitalia, as well as a distribution map, are provided herein, in addition to a discussion of the relationships and conservation status of the new species.

  3. Beyond the Colours: Discovering Hidden Diversity in the Nymphalidae of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico through DNA Barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Blanca R.; Pozo, Carmen; Valdez-Moreno, Martha; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of DNA barcoding in the discovery of overlooked species and in the connection of immature and adult stages. In this study, we use DNA barcoding to examine diversity patterns in 121 species of Nymphalidae from the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. Our results suggest the presence of cryptic species in 8 of these 121 taxa. As well, the reference database derived from the analysis of adult specimens allowed the identification of nymphalid caterpillars providing new details on host plant use. Methodology/Principal Findings We gathered DNA barcode sequences from 857 adult Nymphalidae representing 121 different species. This total includes four species (Adelpha iphiclus, Adelpha malea, Hamadryas iphtime and Taygetis laches) that were initially overlooked because of their close morphological similarity to other species. The barcode results showed that each of the 121 species possessed a diagnostic array of barcode sequences. In addition, there was evidence of cryptic taxa; seven species included two barcode clusters showing more than 2% sequence divergence while one species included three clusters. All 71 nymphalid caterpillars were identified to a species level by their sequence congruence to adult sequences. These caterpillars represented 16 species, and included Hamadryas julitta, an endemic species from the Yucatan Peninsula whose larval stages and host plant (Dalechampia schottii, also endemic to the Yucatan Peninsula) were previously unknown. Conclusions/Significance This investigation has revealed overlooked species in a well-studied museum collection of nymphalid butterflies and suggests that there is a substantial incidence of cryptic species that await full characterization. The utility of barcoding in the rapid identification of caterpillars also promises to accelerate the assembly of information on life histories, a particularly important advance for hyperdiverse tropical insect assemblages. PMID:22132140

  4. Beyond the colours: discovering hidden diversity in the Nymphalidae of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico through DNA barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca R Prado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of DNA barcoding in the discovery of overlooked species and in the connection of immature and adult stages. In this study, we use DNA barcoding to examine diversity patterns in 121 species of Nymphalidae from the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. Our results suggest the presence of cryptic species in 8 of these 121 taxa. As well, the reference database derived from the analysis of adult specimens allowed the identification of nymphalid caterpillars providing new details on host plant use. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We gathered DNA barcode sequences from 857 adult Nymphalidae representing 121 different species. This total includes four species (Adelpha iphiclus, Adelpha malea, Hamadryas iphtime and Taygetis laches that were initially overlooked because of their close morphological similarity to other species. The barcode results showed that each of the 121 species possessed a diagnostic array of barcode sequences. In addition, there was evidence of cryptic taxa; seven species included two barcode clusters showing more than 2% sequence divergence while one species included three clusters. All 71 nymphalid caterpillars were identified to a species level by their sequence congruence to adult sequences. These caterpillars represented 16 species, and included Hamadryas julitta, an endemic species from the Yucatan Peninsula whose larval stages and host plant (Dalechampia schottii, also endemic to the Yucatan Peninsula were previously unknown. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This investigation has revealed overlooked species in a well-studied museum collection of nymphalid butterflies and suggests that there is a substantial incidence of cryptic species that await full characterization. The utility of barcoding in the rapid identification of caterpillars also promises to accelerate the assembly of information on life histories, a particularly important advance for hyperdiverse tropical insect

  5. (JE Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) annually cause enormous loss to the producers and their combat has become a worldwide challenge mainly due to several reports of pesticides resistance. Today, one of the best alternatives used in this combat is the application of natural insecticides such ...

  6. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, C.E.; Zwaan, B.J.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and

  7. Genetics of host-plant preference in the comma butterfly Polygonia c-album (Nymphalidae), and evolutionary implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylin, S.; Nygren, G.H.; Windig, J.J.; Janz, N.; Bergstrom, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the Lepidoptera, sex-linked genes have been found to be of importance for species differences in, for example, hostplant preference, and have been implicated in ecological speciation. Variation within species is typically not sexlinked. However, in the comma butterfly Polygonia c-album

  8. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz-Santos, Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell’Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources. The aim of this study is to assemble the biodiversity information of the butterfly fauna of the state of Mato Grosso based on historical and recent literature data and collections carried out in the southwest of the state from 2007–2009. Records without precise locality data or taxonomic information were not included. Species identification was based on literature and comparison with specimens in collections; higher and species-level taxonomy were updated based on the Neotropical Checklist of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea and recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic works. In total, 901 species were recorded in 2,820 occurrence records. This represents 148 species of Hesperiidae, 29 Papilionidae, 28 Pieridae, 77 Lycaenidae, 238 Riodinidae, and 381 Nymphalidae. Of these, 207 species records are from the type specimens of species described in the state. Based on the results and literature records for other Brazilian states and biomes, probably the figures for Mato Grosso are underestimated, particularly in the families Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, in that order. Future collecting efforts should be directed towards certain areas of the state, especially in less sampled areas and biomes, as the north of the state and Pantanal. PMID:27408571

  9. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  10. On genitalia of some southern African Phycitinae (Lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The male and female genitalia of 28 previously known species of sothern Africa phycilinae (Lepidoptera pyralidae) are describe. Two new species, characterized by their gentalia, are described; Epicrocis varri, and Trachypteryx victoriota.

  11. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...... to the dorsal chamber. The ear is tuned to ultrasonic frequencies between 30 and 65 kHz, with a best threshold of around 52 dB SPL at 40 kHz, and no apparent difference between genders. Thus, drepanid hearing resembles that of other moths, indicating that the main function is bat detection. Two sensory cells...

  12. Gut microbiota of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Maxi; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Claassens, Sarina; van den Berg, Johnnie

    2016-07-01

    Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a stemborer pest that attacks maize (Zea mays) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetically modified maize has been shown to be effective against B. fusca. However, resistance of B. fusca against Bt-maize has developed and spread throughout South Africa. Previous studies suggested that gut microbiota contribute to mortality across a range of Lepidoptera. To fully assess the role of microbiota within the gut, it is essential to understand the microbiota harboured by natural B. fusca populations. This study aimed to identify the gut-associated bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 78 bacterial strains were characterised from the midgut of B. fusca larvae that were collected from 30 sites across the maize producing region of South Africa. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxonomic distribution placed these isolates into 15 different genera representing 20 species. The majority of bacteria identified belong to the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella. The B. fusca gut represents an intriguing and unexplored niche for analysing microbial ecology. The study could provide opportunities for developing new targets for pest management and contribute to understanding the phenomenon of resistance evolution of this species.

  13. Gustatory receptors in Lepidoptera: chemosensation and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, A R; Roy, A A; Joshi, R S

    2016-10-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread insect orders and includes several agriculturally important insect species. Ecological success of the lepidopteran insects partly depends on their adaptive chemoreception tactics, which play an important role in the selection of hosts, egg-laying sites and mates. Members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, gustatory receptors (GRs), are an integral part of the Lepidoptera chemosensory machinery. They are expressed in chemosensory neurones and are known to detect different environmental stimuli. Here, we discuss various aspects of the lepidopteran GRs with an emphasis on their roles in different processes such as chemosensation, host selection and adaptation. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the large diversity of GR genes may have been generated through gene duplication and positive selection events, which also show lineage- and tissue-specific expression. Moreover, lepidopteran GR proteins are diverse and demonstrate broad ligand selectivity for several molecules including sugars, deterrents, salts and CO2 . Binding of ligands to GRs generates multiple downstream changes at the cellular level, which are followed by changes in behaviour. GRs play a critical role in chemosensation and influence the insect's behaviour. Overall, insect GRs are potential targets in the design of effective insect control strategies. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  14. Use of molecular markers in biochemical taxonomy of Tischeriidae (Lepidoptera: Tischerioidea) and Elachistidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulavičiūtė, Brigita

    2010-01-01

    The field of molecular biology has expanded greatly in the last ten years and currently many entomologists want to use this technology since it is a new level of carrying out studies of insect ecological systems and taxonomy. The study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences has become the method for a wide range of taxonomic, population and evolutionary investigations in Lepidoptera (Lunt et al, 1996). The increasing popularity of molecular taxonomy will undoubtedly exert a major impact on co...

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of true butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) inferred from COI, 16S rRNA and EF-1α sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man Il; Wan, Xinlong; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Heon Cheon; Ahn, Neung-Ho; Kim, Ki-Gyoung; Han, Yeon Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2010-11-01

    The molecular phylogenetic relationships among true butterfly families (superfamily Papilionoidea) have been a matter of substantial controversy; this debate has led to several competing hypotheses. Two of the most compelling of those hypotheses involve the relationships of (Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae) + (Pieridae + Papilionidae) and (((Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae) + Pieridae) + Papilionidae). In this study, approximately 3,500 nucleotide sequences from cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA), and elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) were sequenced from 83 species belonging to four true butterfly families, along with those of three outgroup species belonging to three lepidopteran superfamilies. These sequences were subjected to phylogenetic reconstruction via Bayesian Inference (BI), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Maximum Parsimony (MP) algorithms. The monophyletic Pieridae and monophyletic Papilionidae evidenced good recovery in all analyses, but in some analyses, the monophylies of the Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae were hampered by the inclusion of single species of the lycaenid subfamily Miletinae and the nymphalid subfamily Danainae. Excluding those singletons, all phylogenetic analyses among the four true butterfly families clearly identified the Nymphalidae as the sister to the Lycaenidae and identified this group as a sister to the Pieridae, with the Papilionidae identified as the most basal linage to the true butterfly, thus supporting the hypothesis: (Papilionidae + (Pieridae + (Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae))).

  16. Multisensory integration in Lepidoptera: Insights into flower-visitor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Stewart, Finlay J; Ômura, Hisashi

    2017-04-01

    As most work on flower foraging focuses on bees, studying Lepidoptera can offer fresh perspectives on how sensory capabilities shape the interaction between flowers and insects. Through a combination of innate preferences and learning, many Lepidoptera persistently visit particular flower species. Butterflies tend to rely on their highly developed sense of colour to locate rewarding flowers, while moths have evolved sophisticated olfactory systems towards the same end. However, these modalities can interact in complex ways; for instance, butterflies' colour preference can shift depending on olfactory context. The mechanisms by which such cross-modal interaction occurs are poorly understood, but the mushroom bodies appear to play a central role. Because of the diversity seen within Lepidoptera in terms of their sensory capabilities and the nature of their relationships with flowers, they represent a fruitful avenue for comparative studies to shed light on the co-evolution of flowers and flower-visiting insects. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  17. LepNet: The Lepidoptera of North America Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltmann, Katja C; Cobb, Neil S; Gall, Lawrence F; Bartlett, Charles R; Basham, M Anne; Betancourt, Isabelle; Bills, Christy; Brandt, Benjamin; Brown, Richard L; Bundy, Charles; Caterino, Michael S; Chapman, Caitlin; Cognato, Anthony; Colby, Julia; Cook, Stephen P; Daly, Kathryn M; Dyer, Lee A; Franz, Nico M; Gelhaus, Jon K; Grinter, Christopher C; Harp, Charles E; Hawkins, Rachel L; Heydon, Steve L; Hill, Geena M; Huber, Stacey; Johnson, Norman; Kawahara, Akito Y; Kimsey, Lynn S; Kondratieff, Boris C; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Leblanc, Luc; Lee, Sangmi; Marshall, Christopher J; McCabe, Lindsie M; McHugh, Joseph V; Menard, Katrina L; Opler, Paul A; Palffy-Muhoray, Nicole; Pardikes, Nick; Peterson, Merrill A; Pierce, Naomi E; Poremski, Andre; Sikes, Derek S; Weintraub, Jason D; Wikle, David; Zaspel, Jennifer M; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2017-03-23

    The Lepidoptera of North America Network, or LepNet, is a digitization effort recently launched to mobilize biodiversity data from 3 million specimens of butterflies and moths in United States natural history collections (http://www.lep-net.org/). LepNet was initially conceived as a North American effort but the project seeks collaborations with museums and other organizations worldwide. The overall goal is to transform Lepidoptera specimen data into readily available digital formats to foster global research in taxonomy, ecology and evolutionary biology.

  18. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, David

    2013-02-25

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed.

  19. Blood, sweat, and tears: a review of the hematophagous, sudophagous, and lachryphagous Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, David; Goddard, Jerome

    2013-12-01

    Although adult Lepidoptera are not often considered medically relevant, some butterflies and moths are notorious for their consumption of mammalian body fluids. These Lepidoptera can be blood-feeding (hematophagous), tear-feeding (lachryphagous), or sweat-feeding (we use the term "sudophagous"). Blood-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed piercing the skin of their hosts during feeding, while tear-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed frequenting the eyes of hosts in order to directly obtain lachrymal fluid. These behaviors have negative human health implications and some potential for disease transmission. In this study, articles concerning feeding behavior of blood, sweat, and tear-feeding Lepidoptera were reviewed, with emphasis on correlations between morphological characters and feeding behaviors. Harmful effects and vector potential of these Lepidoptera are presented and discussed. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  20. Huevo, larva en primer estadio y aparato genital femenino de la mariposa Chabuata castanea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela A Rodríguez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el huevo, larva de primer estadio y aparato genital de la hembra de Chabuata castanea con material proveniente de Talcahuano, VIII región, Chile y de huevos obtenidos en laboratorio. Se fotografiaron los huevos con microscopia electrónica de barrido para analizar las variaciones entre micropila, celdas primarias y secundarias, concluyéndose que las diferencias permiten una identificación al nivel de especie.Egg, first larval stage and female genitalia of the moth Chabuata castanea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Egg, first larval stage, and female genitalia of the widely distributed moth Chabuata castanea are described, based on material from Talcahuano, VIII region, Chile. Egg microestructures are illustrated with scannig electron microscope images which show that egg morphology allows identification to species level. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 659-664. Epub 2007 June, 29.

  1. north indian fauna of genus macrobathra meyrick (lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gs

    Lepidopterorum Catalogus, 79: 630p. Meyrick E. 1910. Descriptions of Indian microlepidoptera. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 20: 143–168, 435–462, 706–736. Meyrick E. 1914a. Descriptions of Indian microlepidoptera. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 23: 18–130. Meyrick E. 1914b. Lepidoptera : Heterocera,. Family Heliodinidae.

  2. Conservation of silk genes in Trichoptera and Lepidoptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yonemura, N.; Mita, K.; Tamura, T.; Sehnal, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2009), s. 641-653 ISSN 0022-2844 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5007402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : silk evolution * Trichoptera * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2009

  3. Male secondary sexual characters in Aphnaeinae wings (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bálint, Zsolt; Heath, Alan; Katona, Gergely; Kertész, Krisztián; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2017-01-01

    Male secondary sexual characters have been discovered on the hindwing verso of genera Aphnaeus Hübner, [1819], Cigaritis Donzel, 1847, Lipaphnaeus Aurivillius, 1916 and Pseudaletis Druce, 1888 representing the Palaeotropical subfamily Aphnaeinae Lycaenidae: Lepidoptera). Relevant wing parts are illustrated, described, and some observations on the organs are briefly annotated. With an appendix and 14 figures.

  4. DNA Barcodes of Lepidoptera Reared from Yawan, Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miller, S. E.; Rosati, M. E.; Gewa, B.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Weiblen, G. D.; Herbert, P. D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 2 (2015), s. 247-250 ISSN 0013-8797 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04258S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : DNA barcodes * Lepidoptera * Papua New Guinea Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.593, year: 2015

  5. Response of Males of Maruca vitrata Fabricius(Lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a key pest of bean in Mauritius. Their larvae feed within flowers and pods and are thus well protected from insecticidal sprays. To achieve effective control, farmers spray their bean fields on a prophylactic basis. This has consequently led to undesirable problems that ...

  6. The Tortricidae described by J. C. Fabricius (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baixeras, Joaquin; Karsholt, Ole

    2011-01-01

    The identity and nomenclature of the 88 species of Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) described by J. C. Fabricius are reviewed. Type material deposited in the Natural History Museum Denmark is illustrated. Lectotypes for Tinea compositella (Fabricius, 1775), Pyralis rivellana (Fabricius, 1775) and P...

  7. Two new Gelechiidae for the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Vives Moreno, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Gelechiidae, Chrysoesthia hispanica Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Neofriseria hitadoella Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Portugal are described. The adults and male and female genitalia are illustrated. The generic assignment of C. hispanica is discussed. KEY ...... WORD: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, new species, Iberian peninsula....

  8. Six new species of Metarbelidae (Lepidoptera: Cossoidea) from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six new species of Metarbelidae (Lepidoptera: Cossoidea) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania, including one new species from Marenji Forest in southeast ... Journal of East African Natural History ... from Morogoro (Uluguru Mountains) and Ortharbela cliftoni spec. nov. from Amani (East Usambara Mountains).

  9. Male secondary sexu al characters in Aphnaeinae wings (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint, Zsolt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Male secondary sexual characters have been discovered on the hindwing verso of genera Aphnaeus Hübner, [1819], Cigaritis Donzel, 1847, Lipaphnaeus Aurivillius, 1916 and Pseudaletis Druce, 1888 representing the Palaeotropical subfamily Aphnaeinae Lycaenidae: Lepidoptera. Relevant wing parts are illustrated, described, and some observations on the organs are briefly annotated. With an appendix and 14 figures.

  10. Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7

  11. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  12. Identification to Lepidoptera Superfamily-under the microscope (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth, although it is estimated that the number is closer to 500,000 species. Many moths from all over the world are intercepted at U.S. ports on a wide variety of economically important commodities. The purpose of t...

  13. Antibiosis in Ascia monuste orseis Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascia monuste orseis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) is one of the main insect pests of kale. The study was done to identify kale varieties resistant to A. monuste orseis by the antibiosis resistance mechanism. Kale genotypes (26) were evaluated in experiments performed at the Laboratory of Agricultural Entomology of Goiano ...

  14. Dagvlinders in 1998: nog steeds onder druk (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, K.

    1999-01-01

    Butterflies in the Netherlands still under pressure (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) New information on the Dutch Rhopalocera fauna since the distribution atlas of Tax (1989) is presented. Coenonympha pamphilus was common in large parts of the Netherlands, but has declined dramatically. C. arcania is now

  15. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  16. Lonomia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: hemostasis implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviane Maggi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary In southern Brazil, since 1989, several cases of accidents produced by unwilling contact with the body of poisonous caterpillars of the moth species Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, were described. L. obliqua caterpillars have gregarious behavior and feed on leaves of host trees during the night, staying grouped in the trunk during the day, which favors the occurrence of accidents with the species. This caterpillar has the body covered with bristles that on contact with the skin of individuals, breaks and release their contents, inoculating the venom into the victim. The basic constitution of the venom is protein and its components produce physiological changes in the victim, which include disturbances in hemostasis. Hemorrhagic syndrome associated with consumption coagulopathy, intravascular hemolysis and acute renal failure are some of the possible clinical manifestations related to poisoning by L. obliqua. Specific laboratory tests for diagnosis of poisoning have not been described previously. The diagnosis of poisoning is made based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, erythrocyte levels, and, primarily, parameters that evaluate blood coagulation. Treatment is performed with the use of supportive care and the administration of specific hyperimmune antivenom. Poisoning can be serious and even fatal.

  17. Species of Lepidoptera defoliators of Eucalyptus as new host for the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Pupae of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll and Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae were obtained from Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake plants, respectively. Specimens of a parasitoid emerged from T. arnobia pupae and also found parasitising T. leucoceraea pupae in the field were identified as Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. This is the first report on P. elaeisis parasitizing T. arnobia and T. leucoceraea pupae in natural conditions in Brazil. P. elaeisis also parasitized these hosts and Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae and Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae in the laboratory. The production and release of P. elaeisis could be an efficient alternative for controlling Lepidoptera defoliators in eucalyptus plantations.Pupas de Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll e Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae foram coletadas em Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, respectivamente. Espécimes de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae emergiram de T. arnobia e foram encontrados sobre pupas de T. leucoceraea em plantas de eucalipto no campo. Esse é o primeiro relato de P. elaeisis parasitando pupas de T. arnobia e T. leucoceraea em condições naturais no Brasil. Além desses hospedeiros, P. elaeisis parasitou em laboratório Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae e Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae. A produção de P. elaeisis e sua liberação em eucaliptais podem representar uma alternativa eficiente de controle de lagartas

  18. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  19. The apparent influence of climatic change on recent changes of range by European insects (Lepidoptera, Orthoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The apparent influence of climatic change on recent changes of range by European insects (Lepidoptera, Orthoptera) For several years I have been collecting data concerning changes in the ranges of European insects, especially Lepidoptera and Orthoptera. The vast majority of those species which have

  20. Trophic ecology of Lepidoptera larvae associated with woody vegetation in a savanna ecosystem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholtz, CH

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a quantitative survey of a Lepidoptera community and deals with the trophic ecology of the 27 species of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera on the eight dominant woody plants in the Burkea africana-Eragrostis pallens savanna...

  1. A distribution list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera of Tian-Shan within the boundaries of the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Korb

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A distributive list of butterflies of Tian-Shan in borders of former Soviet Union is compiled, it contains 289 species: Hesperiidae – 21 species, Papilionidae – 21 species; Pieridae – 38 species, Satyridae – 67 species, Lybitheidae – 1 species, Danaidae – 1 species, Nymphalidae – 42 species, Riodinidae – 2 species, Lycaenidae – 96 species. New synonyms are established.

  2. The mitochondrial genome of Prays oleae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Praydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Blibech, Imen; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2016-05-01

    Prays oleae is one of the most important olive tree pests and a species of interest in evolutionary studies, as it belongs to one of the oldest extant superfamilies of Ditrysian Lepidoptera. We determined its mitogenome sequence, and found it has common features for Lepidoptera, e.g. an >80% A + T content, an apparent CGA start codon for COX1 and an ATAGA(T)n motif in the control region, which also contains several copies of a 163-164 bp repeat. Importantly, the mitogenome displays the Met-Ile-Gln tRNA gene order typical of Ditrysia, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a synapomorphy of that clade.

  3. A new case constructing adelid moth from Chile (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Parra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new case constructing adelid moth from Chile (Lepidoptera. The adult and larva of Ceromitia tubulifolia sp. nov. are described and illustrated. The larvae seem to be associated with sclerophyllous forest of central Chile. The larvae make a protective case from of a piece of leaf. The name phylloikos is proposed for this form of larval case. A review of the morphology and bionomics of this species are provided.Uma nova mariposa Adelidae (Lepidoptera construtora de casulo do Chile. O adulto e a larva de Ceromitia tubulifolia sp. nov. são descritos e ilustrados. As larvas parecem estar associadas à mata esclerófila do Chile central. A larva utiliza um pedaço de folha para construir uma estrutura protetora denominada phylloikos. Comentários sobre aspectos morfológicos e bionômicos da espécie são apresentados.

  4. A unique guild of Lepidoptera associated with the glacial relict populations of Labrador tea (Ledum palustre Linnaeus, 1753) in Central European peatlands (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 166 (2014), s. 319-327 ISSN 0300-5267 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Insecta * Lepidoptera * relict peat bogs Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2014

  5. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems ...

  6. DNA barcodes of caterpillars (Lepidoptera) from Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miller, S. E.; Hrček, Jan; Novotný, Vojtěch; Weiblen, G. D.; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 1 (2013), s. 107-109 ISSN 0013-8797 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0115 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0515678 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2013

  7. Notes on the life history of Acraea encedon l. (Lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life cycle of Acraea encedon (Lepidoptera: Acraeidae) was completed in 40.3 + 2.64 days at a mean daily temperature of 27.91 + 0.440C and relative humidity of 84.8 + 2.62%. The duration of the developmental period of the different life stages of the insect are: embryonic development, 7.5 + 0.54 days; 1st instar, 10.4 + ...

  8. New data on the Pterophoridae fauna of Liberia (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustjuzhanin, Petr; Kovtunovich, Vasily; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2017-03-27

    There have been no special studies on plume moths of Liberia until recently. In the World Catalogue of Insects (Gielis 2003) only two species are reported from Liberia: Agdistis tamaricis (Zeller, 1847) and Megalorhipida leucodactyla (Fabricius, 1794) despite its well-known richness for other Lepidoptera groups (Fox et al. 1965, Larsen 2005) and its biogeographic position in the centre of the Upper Guinean biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000).

  9. An annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Greg; Anweiler, Gary; Schmidt, Christian; Kondla, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This checklist documents the 2367 Lepidoptera species reported to occur in the province of Alberta, Canada, based on examination of the major public insect collections in Alberta and the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes. Records from relevant literature sources published since 1950 and from selected older works are also included. The entry for each species includes the scientific name, the author and year of publication of the original description, occurrence s...

  10. Launching and steering flagship Lepidoptera for conservation benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. New

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera, particularly butterflies and large moths, are popular targets for conservation efforts and as flagship species can help to publicize the need for habitat and resource protection and the ecological value of invertebrates. Here I present an overview of the relevant issues in selecting and promoting flagship species, and discuss how local community support for conservation may be encouraged, using examples from Australia.

  11. Host plants of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Specht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work has the objective to catalogue the information of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858] (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Plusiinae host plants. The list of plants comprehends new reports of host plants in Brazil and information from literature review around the world. It is listed 174 plants which are from 39 botanic families. The higher number of host plants of C. includens are in Asteraceae (29, Solanaceae (21, Fabaceae (18 and Lamiaceae (12.

  12. Taxonomy and distribution pattern of the African rain forest butterfly genus Euphaedra Hübner sensu stricto with the description of three new subspecies of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer and one of E. sarcoptera (Butler (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae, Adoliadini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pyrcz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Updated data on the distribution, ecology and taxonomy of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer and Euphaedra sarcoptera (Butler are presented. Three new subspecies of E. cyparissa and one of E. sarcoptera are described and their geographic distribution is presented. The monophyly of the genus Euphaedra sensu Hecq is assessed based on morphological, in particular male and female genitalia, and behavioural traits. Possible evolutionary reasons for the convergence of colour pattern between the sympatric subspecies of E. cyparissa and E. sarcoptera are discussed.

  13. FLUTUAÇÃO POPULACIONAL DE Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae EM MARACUJAZEIROS (Passiflora spp., MÉTODOS DE AMOSTRAGEM E RESISTÊNCIA DE GENÓTIPOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiça Júnior Arlindo Leal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi desenvolvida por um período de três anos (1991/94, em condições de campo, em Jaboticabal, SP, objetivando-se verificar a época do ano de maior ocorrência de Dione juno juno, avaliar métodos de amostragem e a resistência de genótipos de maracujazeiro (Passiflora spp. ao seu ataque. Utilizaram-se doze genótipos entre espécies e híbridos. Os levantamentos foram realizados quinzenalmente, anotando-se o número de lagartas, o número total de folhas e o número de folhas atacadas por 0,25 m2 , e também em 1,5 m linear de espaldeira. Os resultados mostraram que a ocorrência de D. juno juno foi maior no inverno, com pico populacional em julho, seguindo-se da primavera e o verão, com pico em dezembro. As amostragens do número de folhas atacadas por D. juno juno/0,25 m2 e porcentagem de folhas atacadas pelas lagartas/0,25 m2 foram mais adequadas para a avaliação da infestação de genótipos de maracujazeiro pela praga; os genótipos P. alata, P. setacea, P. coccinea, P. nitida, P. alata2 x P. macrocarpa não foram atacados pela praga e o P. edulis x P. setacea foi muito pouco atacado, enquanto P. cincinnata, P. edulis, P. edulis x P. alata, P. edulis x P. giberti e P. caerulea foram os mais infestados.

  14. Páramo de Belmira as an important centre of endemism in the northern Colombian Andes: new evidence from Pronophilina butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae, Satyrini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrcz, Tomasz W; Clavijo, Alejandra; Uribe, Sandra; Marin, Mario A; Alvarez, Carlos F; Zubek, Anna

    2016-10-28

    Páramo de Belmira (Páramo de Santa Inés) is the highest part of the Andean Central Cordillera in the Colombian department of Antioquia. It harbours a pocket of highlands grassland vegetation isolated from the nearest southerly other large paramo extensions by some 150 km. Butterflies sampling was carried out for over three years in the cloud forest-paramo mosaic and open grassland at 2650-3350 m. As a result, several new taxa of various butterflies groups were identified, including three species and two subspecies belonging to the Satyrinae subtribe Pronophilina, described herein: Lymanopoda casneri n. sp., L. ionius lilliput n. ssp., Panyapedaliodes rojasi n. sp., Pedaliodes nutabe n. sp. and Apexacuta orsedice mariadelmarae n. ssp. L. casneri is particularly interesting from the biogeographical perspective as its nearest relative is L. hazelana Brown, found in south-central Ecuador, some 1000 km southwards. Overall, 48 species of Pronophilina were identified. Considering the occurrence of several endemic species and subspecies of butterflies in the extremely restricted paramo grasslands in the study area, and the anthropogenic pressure from surrounding locations, it is worth attributing the Páramo de Belmira a protection area status.

  15. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-10-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems for studying the role of phenotypic plasticity within generations. As ectotherms, they are highly sensitive to environmental variation, and indeed many butterflies show adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions. Here, we synthesize what is known about trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera, compile evidence for different environmental cues that are important drivers of trans-generational effects, and point out which offspring traits are mainly impacted. Finally, we emphasize directions for future research that are needed for better understanding of the adaptive nature of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera in particular, but potentially also in other organisms.

  16. Impact of Lateral Transfers on the Genomes of Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezen, Jean-Michel; Josse, Thibaut; Bézier, Annie; Gauthier, Jérémy; Huguet, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Transfer of DNA sequences between species regardless of their evolutionary distance is very common in bacteria, but evidence that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) also occurs in multicellular organisms has been accumulating in the past few years. The actual extent of this phenomenon is underestimated due to frequent sequence filtering of “alien” DNA before genome assembly. However, recent studies based on genome sequencing have revealed, and experimentally verified, the presence of foreign DNA sequences in the genetic material of several species of Lepidoptera. Large DNA viruses, such as baculoviruses and the symbiotic viruses of parasitic wasps (bracoviruses), have the potential to mediate these transfers in Lepidoptera. In particular, using ultra-deep sequencing, newly integrated transposons have been identified within baculovirus genomes. Bacterial genes have also been acquired by genomes of Lepidoptera, as in other insects and nematodes. In addition, insertions of bracovirus sequences were present in the genomes of certain moth and butterfly lineages, that were likely corresponding to rearrangements of ancient integrations. The viral genes present in these sequences, sometimes of hymenopteran origin, have been co-opted by lepidopteran species to confer some protection against pathogens. PMID:29120392

  17. Impact of Lateral Transfers on the Genomes of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Drezen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of DNA sequences between species regardless of their evolutionary distance is very common in bacteria, but evidence that horizontal gene transfer (HGT also occurs in multicellular organisms has been accumulating in the past few years. The actual extent of this phenomenon is underestimated due to frequent sequence filtering of “alien” DNA before genome assembly. However, recent studies based on genome sequencing have revealed, and experimentally verified, the presence of foreign DNA sequences in the genetic material of several species of Lepidoptera. Large DNA viruses, such as baculoviruses and the symbiotic viruses of parasitic wasps (bracoviruses, have the potential to mediate these transfers in Lepidoptera. In particular, using ultra-deep sequencing, newly integrated transposons have been identified within baculovirus genomes. Bacterial genes have also been acquired by genomes of Lepidoptera, as in other insects and nematodes. In addition, insertions of bracovirus sequences were present in the genomes of certain moth and butterfly lineages, that were likely corresponding to rearrangements of ancient integrations. The viral genes present in these sequences, sometimes of hymenopteran origin, have been co-opted by lepidopteran species to confer some protection against pathogens.

  18. Butterflies of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Barbosa; Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Butterflies and moths are found in all terrestrial environments and require efforts for a better understanding of its mega-diversity. These taxa have been the subject of several studies involving phylogeny, ecology and environmental impacts. Nevertheless, several areas in the tropics remain unexplored, resulting in gaps in the taxonomic composition and distribution of butterflies in endemic environments. Therefore, a survey of the butterfly fauna of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil was conducted. This area consists of tropical Atlantic Forests, with marginal influences of Savannah, Chaco and Pantanal. Sampling was carried out in 20 locations using Van Someren Rydon traps and insect nets between November 2009 and April 2015. Active collection of individuals was conducted from 9:00 to 17:00h, totaling 240 hours of sampling effort. In total, we registered 768 individuals belonging to 146 species of 98 genera, six families and 18 subfamilies. Nymphalidae was the richest family (84 species), followed by Hesperiidae (22 species), Riodinidae (14 species), Pieridae (12) Papilionidae (11 species) and Lycaenidae (five species). We sampled 239 nymphalids in traps, with 48 species, 30 genera, 15 tribes and five subfamilies. The most common species were Eunica macris (Godart, 1824), Dynamine artemisia (Fabricius, 1793) and Memphis moruus (Fabricius, 1775). Therefore, this study contributes to the knowledge of the Neotropical butterfly diversity and distribution, providing 37 new records and supporting the use of wildlife inventories as important tools for the knowledge of tropical forests biodiversity and conservation. PMID:26798308

  19. Butterflies of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Barbosa; Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer

    2015-01-01

    Butterflies and moths are found in all terrestrial environments and require efforts for a better understanding of its mega-diversity. These taxa have been the subject of several studies involving phylogeny, ecology and environmental impacts. Nevertheless, several areas in the tropics remain unexplored, resulting in gaps in the taxonomic composition and distribution of butterflies in endemic environments. Therefore, a survey of the butterfly fauna of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil was conducted. This area consists of tropical Atlantic Forests, with marginal influences of Savannah, Chaco and Pantanal. Sampling was carried out in 20 locations using Van Someren Rydon traps and insect nets between November 2009 and April 2015. Active collection of individuals was conducted from 9:00 to 17:00h, totaling 240 hours of sampling effort. In total, we registered 768 individuals belonging to 146 species of 98 genera, six families and 18 subfamilies. Nymphalidae was the richest family (84 species), followed by Hesperiidae (22 species), Riodinidae (14 species), Pieridae (12) Papilionidae (11 species) and Lycaenidae (five species). We sampled 239 nymphalids in traps, with 48 species, 30 genera, 15 tribes and five subfamilies. The most common species were Eunica macris (Godart, 1824), Dynamine artemisia (Fabricius, 1793) and Memphis moruus (Fabricius, 1775). Therefore, this study contributes to the knowledge of the Neotropical butterfly diversity and distribution, providing 37 new records and supporting the use of wildlife inventories as important tools for the knowledge of tropical forests biodiversity and conservation.

  20. A review of the occurrence and diversity of the sphragis in butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Paula S; Orr, Albert G; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2017-01-01

    Males of many butterfly species secrete long-lasting mating plugs to prevent their mates from copulating with other males, thus ensuring their sperm will fertilize all future eggs laid. Certain species have further developed a greatly enlarged, often spectacular, externalized plug, termed a sphragis. This distinctive structure results from complex adaptations in both male and female genitalia and is qualitatively distinct from the amorphous, internal mating plugs of other species. Intermediate conditions between internal plug and external sphragis are rare. The term sphragis has often been misunderstood in recent years, hence we provide a formal definition based on accepted usage throughout most of the last century. Despite it being a highly apparent trait, neither the incidence nor diversity of the sphragis has been systematically documented. We record a sphragis or related structure in 273 butterfly species, representing 72 species of Papilionidae in 13 genera, and 201 species of Nymphalidae in 9 genera. These figures represent respectively, 13% of Papilionidae, 3% of Nymphalidae, and 1% of known butterfly species. A well-formed sphragis evolved independently in at least five butterfly subfamilies, with a rudimentary structure also occurring in an additional subfamily. The sphragis is probably the plesiomorphic condition in groups such as Parnassius (Papilionidae: Parnassiinae) and many Acraeini (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae). Some butterflies, such as those belonging to the Parnassius simo group, have apparently lost the structure secondarily. The material cost of producing the sphragis is considerable. It is typically offset by production of a smaller spermatophore, thus reducing the amount of male-derived nutrients donated to the female during mating for use in oogenesis and/or somatic maintenance. The sphragis potentially represents one of the clearest examples of mate conflict known. Investigating its biology should yield testable hypotheses to further our

  1. A review of the occurrence and diversity of the sphragis in butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula S. Carvalho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Males of many butterfly species secrete long-lasting mating plugs to prevent their mates from copulating with other males, thus ensuring their sperm will fertilize all future eggs laid. Certain species have further developed a greatly enlarged, often spectacular, externalized plug, termed a sphragis. This distinctive structure results from complex adaptations in both male and female genitalia and is qualitatively distinct from the amorphous, internal mating plugs of other species. Intermediate conditions between internal plug and external sphragis are rare. The term sphragis has often been misunderstood in recent years, hence we provide a formal definition based on accepted usage throughout most of the last century. Despite it being a highly apparent trait, neither the incidence nor diversity of the sphragis has been systematically documented. We record a sphragis or related structure in 273 butterfly species, representing 72 species of Papilionidae in 13 genera, and 201 species of Nymphalidae in 9 genera. These figures represent respectively, 13% of Papilionidae, 3% of Nymphalidae, and 1% of known butterfly species. A well-formed sphragis evolved independently in at least five butterfly subfamilies, with a rudimentary structure also occurring in an additional subfamily. The sphragis is probably the plesiomorphic condition in groups such as Parnassius (Papilionidae: Parnassiinae and many Acraeini (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae. Some butterflies, such as those belonging to the Parnassius simo group, have apparently lost the structure secondarily. The material cost of producing the sphragis is considerable. It is typically offset by production of a smaller spermatophore, thus reducing the amount of male-derived nutrients donated to the female during mating for use in oogenesis and/or somatic maintenance. The sphragis potentially represents one of the clearest examples of mate conflict known. Investigating its biology should yield testable hypotheses

  2. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  3. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  4. Interrelation of mating, flight, and fecundity in navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) females

    Science.gov (United States)

    The navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an economically important pest of nut crops in California. Improved management will require better understanding of insect dispersal, particularly relative to when mating occurs. A previous study demonstrated a more robus...

  5. Parasitoid communities attacking externally feeding folivorous Lepidoptera in New Guinea rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    HRČEK, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The host - parasitoid community of externally feeding folivorous Lepidoptera and their parasitoids was studied on 45 focal tree species in a New Guinea rainforest. The patterns of parasitation rate, parasitoid species richness and parasitoid host specificity are described.

  6. De valkruidmineervlinder Digitivalva arnicella in Nederland: herontdekking en behoud (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae: Acrolepiinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Koster, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of Digitivalva arnicella in the Netherlands: rediscovery and conservation (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae: Acrolepiinae) Digitivalva arnicella (Heyden, 1863), previously only known from two localities before 1902, has been rediscovered in eight localities in the northern part of the

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Acleris fimbriana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Liang; Wu, Yu-Peng; Su, Tian-Juan; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2016-05-01

    The yellow tortrix, Acleris fimbriana belongs to Tortricidae in Lepidoptera. We described the complete mitogenome of A. fimbriana, which is typical circular duplex molecules and 15,933 bp in length containing the standard metazoan set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and an A + T-rich region with macro-repeat sequences. All the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern, with the exception of trnS1(AGN) which lacks the DHU arm. The A. fimbriana mitochondrial genome has the same gene order with other lepidopterans.

  8. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) parasitóides de larvas de Lepidoptera associadas a Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luciana Bueno dos Reis; Dias Filho, Manoel Martins; Fernandes, Marcelo Adorna; Penteado-Dias, Angelica Maria

    2010-01-01

    Parasitoids of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) were obtained during an inventory of Lepidoptera larvae caught feeding in the wild on Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae). The Lepidoptera larvae were collected from host plants along trails inside three preserved forest areas in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Fifteen different species of Ichneumonidae belonging to five subfamilies (Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Mesochorinae and Metopiinae) were obtained. Seven species of Ichneu...

  9. Materiały do znajomości Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) Wielkopolskiego Parku Narodowego

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraniak, Edward; Walczak, Urszula; Karsholt, Ole

    2014-01-01

    A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland.......A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland....

  10. Extinction cascades partially estimate herbivore losses in a complete Lepidoptera--plant food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Ian S; Altermatt, Florian

    2013-08-01

    The loss of species from an ecological community can have cascading effects leading to the extinction of other species. Specialist herbivores are highly diverse and may be particularly susceptible to extinction due to host plant loss. We used a bipartite food web of 900 Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) herbivores and 2403 plant species from Central Europe to simulate the cascading effect of plant extinctions on Lepidoptera extinctions. Realistic extinction sequences of plants, incorporating red-list status, range size, and native status, altered subsequent Lepidoptera extinctions. We compared simulated Lepidoptera extinctions to the number of actual regional Lepidoptera extinctions and found that all predicted scenarios underestimated total observed extinctions but accurately predicted observed extinctions attributed to host loss (n = 8, 14%). Likely, many regional Lepidoptera extinctions occurred for reasons other than loss of host plant alone, such as climate change and habitat loss. Ecological networks can be useful in assessing a component of extinction risk to herbivores based on host loss, but further factors may be equally important.

  11. The Lepidoptera associated with forestry crop species in Brazil: a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuck, Manoela; Carneiro, E; Casagrande, M M; Mielke, O H H

    2012-10-01

    Despite the long history of forestry activity in Brazil and its importance to the national economy, there is still much disorder in the information regarding pests of forestry species. Considering the importance of the entomological knowledge for the viability of silvicultural management, this work aimed to gather information on the species of Lepidoptera associated with forestry crops within Brazil using a historical approach. Through a literature review, all registered species of Lepidoptera related to forestry crops in Brazil from 1896 to 2010 were identified. The historical evaluation was based on the comparison of the number of published articles, species richness, and community similarities of the Lepidoptera and their associated forest crops, grouped in 10-year samples. A total of 417 occurrences of Lepidoptera associated with forestry species were recorded, from which 84 species are related with 40 different forestry crops. The nocturnal Lepidoptera were dominant on the records, with Eacles imperialis magnifica Walker as the most frequent pest species cited. Myrtaceae was the most frequent plant family, with Cedrela fissilis as the most cited forestry crop species. A successional change in both Lepidoptera species and their host plants was observed over the decades. The richness of lepidopteran pest species increased over the years, unlike the richness of forestry crop species. This increase could be related to the inefficient enforcement of sanitary barriers, to the increase of monoculture areas, and to the adaptability of native pests to exotic forestry species used in monoculture stands.

  12. New Fossil Lepidoptera (Insecta: Amphiesmenoptera) from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiting; Shih, Chungkun; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Davis, Donald R.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Flint, Oliver; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background The early history of the Lepidoptera is poorly known, a feature attributable to an inadequate preservational potential and an exceptionally low occurrence of moth fossils in relevant mid-Mesozoic deposits. In this study, we examine a particularly rich assemblage of morphologically basal moths that contribute significantly toward the understanding of early lepidopteran biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Our documentation of early fossil moths involved light- and scanning electron microscopic examination of specimens, supported by various illumination and specimen contrast techniques. A total of 20 moths were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Northeastern China. Our principal results were the recognition and description of seven new genera and seven new species assigned to the Eolepidopterigidae; one new genus with four new species assigned to the Mesokristenseniidae; three new genera with three new species assigned to the Ascololepidopterigidae fam. nov.; and one specimen unassigned to family. Lepidopteran assignment of these taxa is supported by apomorphies of extant lineages, including the M1 vein, after separation from the M2 vein, subtending an angle greater than 60 degrees that is sharply angulate at the junction with the r–m crossvein (variable in Trichoptera); presence of a foretibial epiphysis; the forewing M vein often bearing three branches; and the presence of piliform scales along wing veins. Conclusions/Significance The diversity of these late Middle Jurassic lepidopterans supports a conclusion that the Lepidoptera–Trichoptera divergence occurred by the Early Jurassic. PMID:24278142

  13. Two new Brazilian isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic to Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    LM. Fiuza

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium used for biopesticides production and pest-resistant plants due to the synthesis of protein crystals by cry genes, which are effective in controlling several insect orders such as Lepidoptera. This work aimed at the evaluation and characterisation of two new B. thuringiensis isolates active against A. gemmatalis (Hübner 1818 larvae, which is the soybean major pest. The results showed that Bt117-4 isolate amplified fragments corresponding to cry2 and cry9 genes, and synthesised protein fragments equivalent to 130, 90 and 45 kDa. The Bt3146-4 isolate amplified DNA fragments corresponding to cry9 gene and synthesised protein fragments of 70, 58 and 38 kDa. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of protein crystals in both isolates. CL50 with Cry purified proteins from Bt117-4 and Bt3146-4, corresponded to 0.195 and 0.191 µg larvae-1, respectively. The two B. thuringiensis isolates selected in this study were effective to control velvetbean caterpillar at laboratory conditions. Field tests should be carried on to develop new biopesticides formulation as well for cry genes resource for Anticarsia gemmatalis resistant transgenic plants.

  14. Aquatic respiration as a potential survival mechanism of Brephidium pseudofea (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) larvae to intertidal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, V; Daniels, J C; Hahn, D A

    2011-10-01

    The eastern pygmy blue, Brephidium pseudofea (Morrison) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatinae), inhabits intertidal environments that are periodically flooded. The immature stages are subject to salt or brackish water inundation during this time and therefore must endure many stressors, including respiratory limitation and salt exposure. Our goal was to investigate possible mechanisms used by the larval stages of B. pseudofea to endure periodic tidal inundation by using physiological and morphological analyses in comparison with several species of terrestrial lepidopteran larvae. A review of tidal charts showed that the immature stages of B. pseudofea would be prone to complete inundation two to five times per month during the summer months (May to August) and partial submersion for up to 20 d per month during the rest of the year. Larvae of several terrestrial lepidopteran species studied consumed oxygen under water for a limited period, but B. pseudofea demonstrated substantially higher oxygen consumption. Light microscopy of B. pseudofea larvae revealed small air pockets in and around the spiracles when submerged in tap water; these air pockets disappeared when exposed to detergent solution. The resulting air pockets may function as a diffusion layer for oxygen to be absorbed from the surrounding water or may act in conjunction with trans-cuticular gas exchange to meet the larva's respiratory needs. Morphological examination by scanning electron microscopy showed that B. psudofea larvae have distinctively small, clavate setae that appear insufficient to effectively support a functional plastron.

  15. Squamocin induce histological and ultrastructural changes in the midgut cells of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaz, Muhammad; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Costa, Marilza da Silva; Cossolin, Jamile Fernanda Silva; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Gonçalves, Wagner Gonzaga; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2018-07-30

    Annonaceous acetogenins (Annona squamosa Linnaeus) comprises of a series of natural products which are extracted from Annonaceae species, squamocin proved to be highly efficient among those agents. Squamocin is mostly referred as a lethal agent for midgut cells of different insects, with toxic effects when tested against larva of some insects. In present study, LC 50 and LC 90 of squamocin for A. gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were calculated using probit analysis. Morphological changes in midgut cells were analyzed under light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopes when larvae were treated with LC 50 and LC 90 of squamocin for 24, 48 and 72 h. Results revealed that the maximum damage to midgut cells was found under LC 90 where it showed digestive cells with enlarged basal labyrinth, highly vacuolated cytoplasm, damaged apical surface, cell protrusions to the gut lumen, autophagy and cell death. The midgut goblet cells showed a strong disorganization of their microvilli. Likewise, in insects treated with squamocin, mitochondria were not marked with Mitotracker fluorescent probe, suggesting some molecular damage in these organelles, which was reinforced by decrease in the respiration rate in these insects. These results demonstrate that squamocin has potential to induce enough morphological changes in midgut through epithelial cell damage in A. gemmatalis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transgenic Bt rice does not challenge host preference of the target pest of rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.

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    Xiao Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transgenic Bt rice line T2A-1 expresses a synthesized cry2A gene that shows high resistance to Lepidoptera pests, including Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Plant volatile orientation cues and the physical characteristics of the leaf surface play key roles in host location or host-plant acceptance of phytophagous insects. These volatile compounds and physical traits may become altered in Bt rice and it is not known whether this influences the behavior of C. medinalis when searching for oviposition sites. RESULTS: The results of electronic nose analysis showed that the Radar map of Bt rice cultivars was analogous to the non- Bt rice cultivars at each growing stage. PCA analysis was able to partly discriminate between some of the Bt vs. non-Bt rice sensors, but could not to separate Bt cultivars from non-Bt cultivars. The total ion chromatogram between Bt and non-Bt rice cultivars at the seedling, booting and tillering stages were similar and 25 main compounds were identified by GC-MS. For most compounds, there was no significant difference in compound quantities between Bt and non-Bt rice cultivars at equivalent growth stages. The densities of the tubercle papicles and the trichomes on the upper and lower surfaces were statistically equal in Bt and non-Bt rice. The target pest, C. medinalis, was attracted to host rice plants, but it could not distinguish between the transgenic and the isogenic rice lines. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences between the Bt rice line, T2A-1 and the non-Bt rice for volatiles produced or in its physical characteristics and there were no negative impacts on C. medinalis oviposition behavior. These results add to the mounting evidence that Bt rice has no negative impact on the target insect oviposition behavior.

  17. Transgenic Bt Rice Does Not Challenge Host Preference of the Target Pest of Rice Leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Zhou, Wen; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Aijun; Ai, Chao-Ren; Zhou, Shuang-Shuang; Zhou, Chang-Xiang; Wang, Man-Qun

    2013-01-01

    Background Transgenic Bt rice line T2A-1 expresses a synthesized cry2A gene that shows high resistance to Lepidoptera pests, including Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Plant volatile orientation cues and the physical characteristics of the leaf surface play key roles in host location or host-plant acceptance of phytophagous insects. These volatile compounds and physical traits may become altered in Bt rice and it is not known whether this influences the behavior of C. medinalis when searching for oviposition sites. Results The results of electronic nose analysis showed that the Radar map of Bt rice cultivars was analogous to the non- Bt rice cultivars at each growing stage. PCA analysis was able to partly discriminate between some of the Bt vs. non-Bt rice sensors, but could not to separate Bt cultivars from non-Bt cultivars. The total ion chromatogram between Bt and non-Bt rice cultivars at the seedling, booting and tillering stages were similar and 25 main compounds were identified by GC-MS. For most compounds, there was no significant difference in compound quantities between Bt and non-Bt rice cultivars at equivalent growth stages. The densities of the tubercle papicles and the trichomes on the upper and lower surfaces were statistically equal in Bt and non-Bt rice. The target pest, C. medinalis, was attracted to host rice plants, but it could not distinguish between the transgenic and the isogenic rice lines. Conclusions There were no significant differences between the Bt rice line, T2A-1 and the non-Bt rice for volatiles produced or in its physical characteristics and there were no negative impacts on C. medinalis oviposition behavior. These results add to the mounting evidence that Bt rice has no negative impact on the target insect oviposition behavior. PMID:24244410

  18. Structural and Mechanical Properties of Cocoons of Antherina suraka (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera), an Endemic Species Used for Silk Production in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianandrasana, Maminirina; Wu, Wen-Yen; Carney, David A; Wagoner Johnson, Amy J; Berenbaum, May R

    2017-01-01

    Antherina suraka Boisduval (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera) produces a silken cocoon that has been the focus of efforts to create a commercial wild silk industry in Madagascar. In this study, structural and mechanical properties of the cocoon of A. suraka from two sites were measured and compared to the cocoon of Bombyx mori L. (Bombycidae, Lepidoptera) the world's most common source for silk. Results of environmental scanning electron microscopy and mechanical testing showed that the silk sheet of A. suraka cocoon is less compact, with greater thickness and lower tensile strength and stiffness than that of B. mori Confirming these results, stiffness and cell and thread density were found to be negatively correlated with thickness, and the cell and thread volumes were positively correlated with thickness. Antherina suraka showed no major differences between silk sheets from Kirindy and Isalo sites in either structural or mechanical properties, except for mean cell volume, which was greater in cocoons from Kirindy. Comparison between the two layers forming the cocoon showed that the inner layer has greater elastic modulus, denser silk distribution and lower porosity. Cocoons from both Kirindy and Isalo are suitable for sericulture. Although the inner layer of cocoon silk is of higher quality than the outer layer, the fact that both layers are of great but lower tensile strength than B. mori silk suggests that the current practice of sewing the two layers together for making one single layer fabric should be continued in efforts to produce a commercially viable product. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  19. Lepidoptera outbreaks in response to successional changes after the passage of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Torres

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen species of Lepidoptera occurred in large numbers in spring and early summer after the passage of Hurricane Hugo over the north-east of Puerto Rico. Spodoptera eridania (Noctuidae) was the most common of the larvae and fed on 56 plant species belonging to 31 families. All the Lepidoptera fed on early successional vegetation. Some of the plants represent new host...

  20. The second Afrotropical Lepidoptera Workshop in Uganda – A contribution to the Lepidoptera fauna of Kibale National Park and the Mpanga Forest Reserve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baron, T.; Akite, P.; Barnett, M.; Collins, S. C.; Dobson, J.; Fric, Zdeněk; Henning, G.; Kühne, L.; Mey, W.; Ochse, M.; Przybylowicz, L.; Sáfián, S.; Schutte, R.; Selb, H.; Ward, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 2 (2017), s. 77-105 ISSN 0013-8843 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Uganda * Lepidoptera * Afrotropical Region https://www. dropbox .com/s/qqt4jqut03sljqi/Baron_2017_Uganda.pdf?dl=0

  1. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 3. A new species of Aleptina Dyar, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Amphipyrinae, Psaphidini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long-term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Aleptina arenaria sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2008, the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207800

  2. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae

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    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated.

  3. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207801

  4. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukusic Pete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  5. New Records of Seven Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae from Korea

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    Choi, Sei-Woong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eupithecia Curtis is the largest taxon in Lepidoptera (more than 1,500 species worldwide and the adults of the genus are characterized by small in size, cryptically colored grayish and brownish forewing, and indistinct basal, ante- and postmedial transverse lines mostly with a definite discal spot on the forewing. Forty-four species have been reported so far in Korea. Herein, we present the first report on seven species of Eupithecia: Eupithecia rufescens Butler (1878, Eupithecia costiconvexa Inoue (1979, Eupithecia daemionata Dietze (1904, Eupithecia persuastrix Mironov (1990, Eupithecia actaeata Walderdorff (1869, Eupithecia suboxydata Staudinger (1897 and Eupithecia costimacularia Leech (1897. Diagnosis, descriptions and figures of the available species are provided.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gonepteryx mahaguru (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianing; Xu, Chang; Li, Jialian; Lei, Ying; Fan, Cheng; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Chongren; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Gonepteryx mahaguru (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) is 15,221 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (LrRNA and SrRNA) and 1 non-coding A + T-rich region. The nucleotide composition is significantly biased toward A + T (80.9%). All PCGs are initiated by classical ATN codon, with the exception of COI, which begins with TTA codon. Nine PCGs harbor the complete stop codon TAA, whereas COI, COII, ND4 and ND5 stop with incomplete codons, single T or TA. All tRNAs can be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN). The A + T content of AT-rich region is 95.2%, same to the highest one in the known species in Pieridae.

  7. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José Manuel; Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso; Vukusic, Pete

    2011-05-01

    In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  8. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weibin; Zhu, Jianqing; Yang, Qichang; Zhao, Huidong; Chen, Minghan; He, Haiyan; Yu, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) was determined. The 15,392 bp mitogenome with GenBank accession number KM981865 contained 13 protein genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a non-coding control region (D-loop). All the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes were found. The overall base composition was 39.7% A, 40.7% T, 7.7% G and 11.9% C, with a high A + T content (80.4%). This complete mitogenome of P. nascens provides a basic data for studies on species identification, molecular systematics and conservation genetics.

  9. Costs of insecticide resistance in Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Joanna K; Scott, Ian M; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2012-06-01

    The obvious benefits associated with insecticide resistance for pest species may come at a cost to other life-history traits. In this study, we compared the larval and pupal developmental times, pupal mass wing surface area and wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in insecticide resistant and control strains of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), collected from apple (Malus spp.) orchards in central Canada. Resistant strains had significantly longer larval developmental times and lower pupal masses compared with the susceptible strain. Although the forewings of resistant moths were smaller in resistant than control strain, no difference in wing FA was detected. Longer developmental times could increase exposure time to natural enemies, and reduced adult size could affect longevity and total reproductive output.

  10. Mapping global biodiversity connections with DNA barcodes: Lepidoptera of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Akhtar, Saleem; Rafi, Muhammad Athar; Mansoor, Shahid; Hebert, Paul D N

    2017-01-01

    Sequences from the DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene are an effective tool for specimen identification and for the discovery of new species. The Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) (www.boldsystems.org) currently hosts 4.5 million records from animals which have been assigned to more than 490,000 different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), which serve as a proxy for species. Because a fourth of these BINs derive from Lepidoptera, BOLD has a strong capability to both identify specimens in this order and to support studies of faunal overlap. DNA barcode sequences were obtained from 4503 moths from 329 sites across Pakistan, specimens that represented 981 BINs from 52 families. Among 379 species with a Linnaean name assignment, all were represented by a single BIN excepting five species that showed a BIN split. Less than half (44%) of the 981 BINs had counterparts in other countries; the remaining BINs were unique to Pakistan. Another 218 BINs of Lepidoptera from Pakistan were coupled with the 981 from this study before being compared with all 116,768 BINs for this order. As expected, faunal overlap was highest with India (21%), Sri Lanka (21%), United Arab Emirates (20%) and with other Asian nations (2.1%), but it was very low with other continents including Africa (0.6%), Europe (1.3%), Australia (0.6%), Oceania (1.0%), North America (0.1%), and South America (0.1%). This study indicates the way in which DNA barcoding facilitates measures of faunal overlap even when taxa have not been assigned to a Linnean species.

  11. Sobre os tipos de lepidoptera depositados em museus brasileiros: XXIII. Papilionidae, Pieridae e Nymphalidae (Morphinae, Nymphalinae descritos por J.F. Zikán (suplemento e apatelodidae descritos por M. Draudt About the types of Lepidoptera depositated in Brazilian museums: XXIII. Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nympiialidae (Morphinae, Nymphalinae described by J.F. Zikán (supplement and apatelodidae described by M. Draud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf H.H. Mielke

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A supplementary list of lhe Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalinae (Morphinae, Nymphalinae dcscribed by J.F. Zikán, with the repositories of their types, and informes about the Apatelodidae described by M. Draudt, from the Zikán collection, are presented. Lectotypes are designated for Papilio agalhosilaus Zikán, 1938; Phoebis trile race chryseida Zikán, 1940; Phoebis trile race chyseida form ismene Zikán, 1940; and Morpho hércules form irideus Zikán, 1935.

  12. A molecular analysis of the Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea) with an interpretative grouping of its taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Mutanen, Marko; Lee, Sangmi

    2013-01-01

    We re-examine the higher level phylogeny and evolutionary affinities of the family Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) based on DNA sequence data for one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I ) and seven nuclear genes (Elongation Factor-1α, wingless, Ribosomal protein S5, Isocitr......We re-examine the higher level phylogeny and evolutionary affinities of the family Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) based on DNA sequence data for one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I ) and seven nuclear genes (Elongation Factor-1α, wingless, Ribosomal protein S5...

  13. Note on gynandromorphism in the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae

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    Aline S. Bernardino

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The brown moth Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae is an important pest in Brazilian eucalyptus plantations. A gynandromorph individual of T. arnobia was found in a population of this pest in a laboratory rearing and it is described.A mariposa marrom Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae é uma praga importante em plantios de eucalipto no Brasil. Um indivíduo ginandromorfo de T. arnobia foi encontrado em uma população desta praga em criação de laboratório e descrito nesta nota.

  14. The butterfly fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod Region inventarisation experience (Insecta: Lepidoptera and its use for the regional Red Data Book building

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    Stanislav K. Korb

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussed is an inventory of the Lepidoptera fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod region, its current status and prospects of its study. At the moment 1412 species of Lepidoptera are known from this area, but according to preliminary estimates the total number of species of Lepidoptera in this area amounts probably between 1800 and 2000. The necessity of the inclusion of 66 species of Lepidoptera in the Red Data Book of the Nizhny Novgorod region (approximately 4.5% of its current fauna and about 3.2% of its expected fauna is discussed. The necessity of the exception of 49 species of Lepidoptera by the Red Data Book of Nizhny Novgorod region is shown. The prospects for the protection of the Lepidoptera fauna within this area are discussed. Proposed is the usage of the IUCN status criteria for regional Red List with their modification in the area of the species.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Papilio bianor (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), and its phylogenetic position within Papilionidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li-Xia; Ying, She; Yang, Xiao-Wen; Yu, Zhang; Li, Hui-Min; Qin, Xin-Min

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Papilio bianor was determined in the present paper. The complete mtDNA from P. bianor was 15,358 base pairs in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The P. bianor genes were in the same order and orientation as the completely sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopteran species. To determine the phylogentic position of P. bianor with related species within Papilionidae, the Bayesian phylogenetic tree was reconstructed with the concatenated nucleotide dataset of the 13 protein-coding genes. The phylogenetic trees confirmed that P. bianor and four species of Papilionidae clustered into a clade, and shared a close relationship with Papilio maraho. Meanwhile, the molecular phylogenetic trees also confirmed that Papilionidae is a monophyletic group, and Pieridae is closely related with Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae.

  16. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea from two forest fragments in northern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Bonfantti, D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to the knowledge concerning diversity of the butterflies in the Atlantic Rainforest ofthe state of Rio Grande do Sul, a systematic survey was carried out in the city of Frederico Westphalen from November2006 to June 2007, in two sampling localities. The total sampling efforts was 80 h, in which 1.785 samples wererecorded, distributed in 161 species. From the latter, 51.57 % (83 belongs to the Nymphalidae family, Hesperiidae20.49 % (33, Pieridae 8.69 % (14, Riodinidae 6.83 % (11, Papilionidae 6.21 % (10, Lycaenidae 6.21 % (10.Regarding the sampled species, 79.50 % (128 were recorded at both studied sites.

  17. A global phylogeny of leafmining Ectoedemia moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): host plant family shifts and allopatry as drivers of speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenweerd, C.; van Nieukerken, E.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and

  18. A global phylogeny of leafmining Ectoedemia moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): exploring host plant family shifts and allopatry as drivers of speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenweerd, C.; Nieukerken, van E.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and

  19. Combination phenyl propionate/pheromone traps for monitoring navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in almonds in the vicinity of mating disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating...

  20. A new species of Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae from northern Chile Uma nova espécie de Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae do norte do Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Male and female adults of a new species of Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae are described and illustrated. Immature stages are associated with Baccharis scandens (Ruiz & Pav. Pers. (Asteraceae. The species was collected in two localities of northern Chile: near sea level in the Azapa valley, in the coastal desert of Arica Province and at 3000 m elevation in Socoroma, Parinacota Province.Os adultos macho e fêmea de uma nova espécie de Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae são descritos e ilustrados. Os estágios imaturos estão associados com Baccharis scandens (Ruiz & Pav. Pers. (Asteraceae. A espécie foi coletada em duas localidades do norte do Chile: vale de Azapa, perto do nível do mar, no deserto litoral da Província de Arica, e aos 3000 m de altitude em Socoroma, na Província de Parinacota.

  1. Phylogeography of Koramius charltonius (Gray, 1853) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): a case of too many poorly circumscribed subspecies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korb, S. K.; Faltýnek Fric, Zdeněk; Bartoňová, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2016), s. 169-191 ISSN 0342-7536 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Koramius charltonius * Lepidoptera * Central Asia Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. First record of Ectomyelois muriscis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas), a biofuel plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is reported for the first time. Populations of E. muriscis on J. curcas were observed in various parts of the state of Chiapas, souther...

  3. Mass migration of Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper, 1789) in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 125 (2004), s. 19-22 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Noctuidae * Chrysodeixis chalcites Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  4. Impact of temperature and relative humidity on life history parameters of adult Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a pest of stored corn, Zea mays L., and other grains throughout the world. S. cerealella are routinely exposed to temperatures below 20°C in regions of the U.S. where corn is grown, yet there are no data describi...

  5. PECULIARITIES OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE NOCTUIDAE (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE OF THE ISLAND OF CHECHEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the species composition of the noctuidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae of the island of Chechen of the North-West Caspian sea, their spatial distribution,  dissemination  and analysis of the most common and indigenous species.

  6. Een ontdekking in de Peel: de uil Xestia stigmatica nieuw voor Nederland (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, F.A.H.E.

    2007-01-01

    A discovery in De Peel: the noctuid moth Xestia stigmatica new for the Netherlands (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Xestia stigmatica is present all over Europe, but was not recorded in the Netherlands. In 2001 a single female was caught at light, in the commune of Deurne (province of Noord-Brabant). The

  7. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Renata O; Via, Allegra; Brandão, Marcelo M; Tramontano, Anna; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2015-03-01

    Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic L-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A new species of Stenoloba Staudinger, 1892 from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekarsky, Oleg; Saldaitis, Aidas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Stenoloba from the olivacea species group, Stenoloba solaris, sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), is described from Yunnan, China. Illustrations of the male holotype and its genitalia are provided. A diagnostic comparison is made with Stenoloba albistriata Kononenko & Ronkay, 2000, Stenoloba olivacea (Wileman, 1914), and Stenoloba benedeki Ronkay, 2001 (Fig. 4). PMID:23805047

  9. A new species of Stenoloba Staudinger, 1892 from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Pekarsky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Stenoloba from the olivacea species group, S. solaris, sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, is described from Yunnan, China. Illustrations of the male holotype and its genitalia are provided. A diagnostic comparison is made with Stenoloba albistriata Kononenko & Ronkay, 2000, Stenoloba olivacea (Wileman, 1914, and Stenoloba benedeki Ronkay, 2001 (Fig. 4.

  10. Eurema brigitta (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) – a new record of butterfly for Socotra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnek Fric, Zdeněk; Rindoš, Michal; Hula, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2017), s. 221-225 ISSN 0374-1036 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Rhopalocera * Papilionoidea Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2016 https://www.biotaxa.org/AEMNP/article/view/35064

  11. Large-Scale Evolutionary Patterns of Host Plant Associations in the Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menken, S.B.J.; Boomsma, J.J.; van Nieukerken, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    We characterized evolutionary patterns of host plant use across about 2500 species of British Lepidoptera, using character optimization and independent phylogenetic contrasts among 95 operational taxa, and evaluated the extent to which caterpillars are monophagous, use woody host plants, and feed...

  12. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  13. A new species of the genus Acria Stephens, 1834 (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashank, P R; Saravanan, L; Kalidas, P; Phanikumar, T; Ramamurthy, V V; Chandra Bose, N S

    2015-05-14

    A new species, Acria meyricki sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) occurring on oil palm, is described from India. The status and nomenclature of the genus is reviewed and an annotated checklist of species is given. A key to the seven species known so far from the Indian subcontinent is provided.

  14. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2009 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole

    2010-01-01

    ; Coleophoridae 118; Tortricidae 383 and of Pyralidae 196; this results in a total of 1560 species of Microlepidoptera (families Micropterigidae-Pyralidae) found in Denmark. The total amount of Macrolepidoptera mentioned from Denmark is now 962, bringing the number of Danish Lepidoptera to a total of 2522 species....

  15. The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transtilla (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) discovered in northeastern Mexico feeding on Sapindaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the navel orangeworm, is an important pest of a wide variety fruits and their seeds. We discovered and report for the first time A. transitella feeding on Sapindaceae in wild populations of U. speciosa (Endl.) in northeastern Mexico. We provid...

  16. Host range of Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and potential for biological control of Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Ramadan; K. T. Murai; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae), which has invaded over 400 000 acres of rangeland in the Hawaiian Islands and is toxic to cattle and horses. The moth was introduced from southeastern Madagascar...

  17. Laboratory Assessment of the Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis on Native Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Peacock; Dale F. Schweitzer; Jane L. Carter; Normand R. Dubois

    1998-01-01

    The effect of 2 formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Foray 48B and Dipel 8AF) was evaluated on 42 species of native Lepidoptera in laboratory bioassays using instars that are present in the field at the time of gypsy moth suppression applications. Mortality was significant for 27 of the 42 species evaluated...

  18. Current and Future Potential Risk of Establishment of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits in many countries, including the United States. The distribution of this pest is concentrated in areas receiving higher than lower rainfall. It prefers sites where stone fruits and apple...

  19. Additional three new species of Anarsia Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) from Cambodia and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu-Tek; Bae, Yang-Seop

    2017-04-12

    Three new species of the genus Anarsia Zeller (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) are described: A. huensis Park, sp. nov. from Vietnam, and A. pursatica Park, sp. nov. and A. degeneralis Park, sp. nov. from Cambodia. Images of adults and genitalia for the new species are illustrated. A check list of the known species from both countries is provided.

  20. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2010 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole

    2011-01-01

    ; Tortricidae 384; Epermeniidae 7; Pterophoridae 46 and Pyralidae 197; this results in a total of 1574 species of Microlepidoptera (families Micropterigidae-Pyralidae) found in Denmark. The total amount of Macrolepidoptera mentioned from Denmark is now 965, bringing the number of Danish Lepidoptera to a total...

  1. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, Renata O.

    2015-03-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic l-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis of lufenuron-resistant and susceptible strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Antonio Rog?rio Bezerra do; Fresia, Pablo; C?nsoli, Fernando Luis; Omoto, Celso

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The evolution of insecticide resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has resulted in large economic losses and disturbances to the environment and agroecosystems. Resistance to lufenuron, a chitin biosynthesis inhibitor insecticide, was recently documented in Brazilian populations of S. frugiperda. Thus, we utilized large-scale cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq analysis) to compare the pattern of gene expr...

  3. [Accidents due to Lepidoptera: Hylesia nigricans (Berg, 1875) or "mariposa negra"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrerizo, Silvia; Spera, Marina; de Roodt, Adolfo

    2014-04-01

    Lepidoptera (butterflies, caterpillars and moths) biologic features make possible the contact between different instars and humans. The moth Hylesia nigricans is responsible for epidemic outbreaks in our country. It is called erucism when the contact is with caterpillars and lepidopterism when the contact is with moths. We perform an update of these important medical lepidopters.

  4. Postharvest irradiation treatment for quarantine control of the invasive Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development in European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were examined. Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early and late stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 50, 100, 150, or 200 Gy or left untr...

  5. A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera, Geometridae from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile. Male and female adults of a new species of Eupithecia Curtis from the Arica Province, Chile are described and illustrated. The species is compared with E. yubitzae Vargas & Parra, 2004, from the same locality, and E. galapagosata Landry & Rindge 1995, from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.

  6. Evaluation of traps and lures for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the use of several trap – lure combinations to improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple, Malus domestica Bordk. Treatments included the use of clear, orange and white traps baited with one or more of the followin...

  7. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  8. Extrafloral nectar feeding by Strymon jacqueline Nicolay & Robbins, 2005 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Vila

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Adults of the dry area specialist Strymon jacqueline Nicolay & Robbins, 2005 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini are here recorded feeding on extrafloral nectar of the large cactus Neoraimondia arequipensis var. gigantea (Werdermann & Backeberg Ritter. The significance of these observations is discussed in relation to lycaenid survival in a xeric environment, pollination and mate location.

  9. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  10. Post-glacial dispersal strategies of Orthoptera and Lepidoptera in Europe and in the Carpathian basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varga, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Post-glacial dispersal strategies of Orthoptera and Lepidoptera in Europe and in the Carpathian basin Ecologically transitional regions are characterised by high species diversity due to the overlap of species with different geographical origins caused by dispersal processes along gradients, e.g.

  11. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) thrived in gymnosperm forests following the end-Triassic extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Schootbrugge, Bas; van Eldijk, Timo; Wappler, Torsten; Strother, Paul; van der Weijst, Carolien; Rajaei, Hossein; Visscher, Henk

    2017-04-01

    The oldest evidence for Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and the Coelolepida (hollow-scaled moths and butterflies) is presented based on an assemblage of fossilized scales encountered in uppermost Triassic and lowermost Jurassic sediments from a core drilled in northern Germany. The diverse assemblage of scales points to a Triassic origin of the Lepidoptera and a radiation of some lineages just before or right after the end-Triassic mass extinction (201 Ma). These findings confirm molecular clock estimates for splits within the Amphiesmenoptera that led to the evolution of true butterflies. Not only did Lepidoptera survive the end-Triassic extinction, they also appear to have radiated directly following this environmental crisis, which could be related to the dramatic changes in paleoclimate triggered by the eruption of the CAMP, especially an increase in humidity. Seen in combination with high-resolution palynological records that show an Early Jurassic dominance of conifer pollen, the presence of scales derived from angiospermivorous Coelolepida likely signifies a host-shift (for multiple lineages of crown group Lepidoptera) from gymnosperms to angiosperms during the Mesozoic.

  12. Review of Lepidoptera with trophic relationships to Picea abies (L. in the conditions of Czechia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modlinger Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trophic relationships of Lepidoptera (Insecta occurring in the territory of Czechia to the Norway spruce (Picea abies L. was evaluated on the basis of the excerption and critical evaluation of literature. Each species was classified into the following categories – spruce as the host plant, regular development on spruce, narrow trophic relationship, indirect relationship and episodical occurrence. The particular taxa were also characterized according to their distribution and the form of larval life was specified. The development on spruce was documented in 96 species of Lepidoptera, which represented less than 3% of taxa belonging to this group and being reported from Czechia. Of that, spruce was a common host plant for 67 species, 23 species were polyphagous and might develop on spruce, and 6 species belonged to soil species damaging spruce roots, mainly in forest nurseries. Among the species of Lepidoptera, which regularly develop on spruce in the Czech conditions, 55 species were classified. As narrow specialists with special trophic relationship to spruce, 33 taxa could be considered. There were 15 spruce species with forestry importance, which were able to outbreak their populations regularly or irregularly. Among spruce species it was possible to classify 16 taxa as rare. The provided information on Lepidoptera with trophic relationship to spruce is applicable also for other Central European areas. Besides the species with importance for forest pest management, also rare taxa, which can become endangered by climate change or by forest management, were indicated.

  13. Molecular phylogeny of the small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, H.; Lieshout, N.; van Ginkel, W.E.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their

  14. Effect of insecticide on the irradiated tropical warehouse moth,Cadra cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruki, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the synthetic pyrethroids, Fenom(r) on the gamma- irradiated Tropical Warehouse Moth, Cadra cautella (Walker)(Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) larvae have been studied. Both theinsecticide and gamma irradiation either singly or in combination,significantly increased larval mortality and developmental periods.The pupation and adult eclosion, reproductive potential and longevity of the adults from treated larvae were significantly decreased

  15. Development of Sparganothis sulfureana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Cranberry Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Erin E.; Guédot, Christelle

    2018-01-01

    Sparganothis fruitworm (Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a serious pest of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton), a native North American fruit cultivated in northern regions of the United States and southeastern Canada. This study assessed antibiosis in several cranberry cultivars commonly grown in Wisconsin. Five cultivars previously shown to host different levels of populations of S. sulfureana in commercial cranberry were assessed in this study to evaluate the performance of S. sulfureana amongst these cultivars. We measured growth and time to developmental stages of newly emerged larvae to adulthood on selected cranberry cultivars in the laboratory. There was no difference in the rates of survival to pupation and to adult emergence among any of the cultivars tested. Mid-instar larvae that fed on the cultivar ‘Ben Lear’ were heavier than those feeding on ‘GH-1’, ‘Stevens’, or ‘HyRed’, and larvae that fed on ‘Mullica Queen’ were heavier than those feeding on ‘HyRed’. However, there were no significant differences in pupal weights or in the number of days from neonate to adult emergence among varieties. Therefore, this study did not provide evidence of antibiosis among the cultivars tested, and found that larval weight was not correlated with other measurements of performance. PMID:29301287

  16. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Tyspanodes hypsalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Li, Pengfei; You, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The size of Tyspanodes hypsalis (Warren, 1891) mitogenome was 15,329 bp in which the base composition of mitogenome was 40.0% A, 41.4% T, 11.9% G and 7.7% C. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, while COI used CGA as the initial codon. In addition, all PCGs had the common stop codon (TAN), except COI and ND5 respectively used incomplete termination codon T and TA. All tRNAs had the typical cloverleaf structure of mitochondrial tRNAs, with the exception of tRNASer(AGN), the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of which forms a simple loop. The A + T-rich region of 350 bp contains several features common to the Lepidoptera insects. Including the motif "ATAGA" followed by a 17-bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)8 element preceded by the ATTTA motif, and a 12 bp polyA-like stretch (AAATAAAAAAAAA) present immediately upstream tRNAMet.

  18. Evolution of extreme proboscis lengths in Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauder, J. A.-S.; Warren, A. D.; Krenn, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Exaggerated morphologies have evolved in insects as adaptations to nectar feeding by natural selection. For example, the suctorial mouthparts of butterflies enable these insects to gain access to floral nectar concealed inside deep floral tubes. Proboscis length in Lepidoptera is known to scale with body size, but whether extreme absolute proboscis lengths of nectar feeding butterflies result from a proportional or disproportional increase with body size that differs between phylogenetic lineages remains unknown. We surveyed the range of variation that occurs in scaling relationships between proboscis length and body size against a phylogenetic background among Costa Rican Hesperiidae. We obtained a new record holder for the longest proboscis in butterflies and showed that extremely long proboscides evolved at least three times independently within Neotropical Hesperiidae. We conclude that the evolution of extremely long proboscides results from allometric scaling with body size, as demonstrated in hawk moths. We hypothesize that constraints on the evolution of increasingly long butterfly proboscides may come from (1) the underlying scaling relationships, i.e., relative proboscis length, combined with the butterfly’s flight style and flower-visiting behaviour and/or (2) developmental constraints during the pupal phase. Lastly, we discuss why butterflies did not evolve similar scaling relationships as hawk moths. PMID:25937673

  19. An annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Pohl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This checklist documents the 2367 Lepidoptera species reported to occur in the province of Alberta, Canada, based on examination of the major public insect collections in Alberta and the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes. Records from relevant literature sources published since 1950 and from selected older works are also included. The entry for each species includes the scientific name, the author and year of publication of the original description, occurrence status, provincial distribution (according to ecoclimatic region, and adult phenology. The most recent taxonomic references are given, and common names are listed for butterflies and conspicuous moth species. The sources of specimen- and literature-based records are provided for each species. An additional 138 species whose occurrence in Alberta is probable are appended to the list. For 1524 of the listed species and subspecies, annotations are given, with selected information on taxonomy, nomenclature, distribution, habitat, and biology. An additional section provides details on 171 species erroneously reported from Alberta in previous works. Introductory sections to the volume provide a general overview of the order Lepidoptera and review the natural regions of Alberta, the state of knowledge of their Lepidoptera faunas, and the history and current state of knowledge of Alberta Lepidoptera. Each of the 63 families (and selected subfamilies occurring in Alberta is briefly reviewed, with information on distinguishing features, general appearance, and general biology. A bibliography and an index of genus-level, species-level, and subspecies-level names are provided. The list is accompanied by an appendix of proposed nomenclature changes, consisting of revised status for 25 taxa raised from synonymy to species level, and new synonymy for 20 species-level and one genus-level taxa here considered to be subjective synonyms, with resultant revised synonymy for one

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Parnassius imperator (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Parnassiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunliang; Chen, Yanhong; Xia, Chenchen; Xia, Xueqin; Chen, Xiao; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Parnassius imperator (Lepidoptera: Parnassiinae) is a circular molecule of 15,424 bp in length, containing 37 typical insect mitochondrial genes and one non-coding A + T-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to the common type found in most lepidopteran mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for the cox1, which is initiated by the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopteran species. Some PCGs use standard TAA, while others use TAG (nad1) or incomplete codon T (cox1 and cox2), as their termination codons. 15 intergenic spacers (175 bp in total) and 10 overlapping sequences (29 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The 491 bp long A+ T-rich region contains some conserved structures similar to those found in other lepidopteran mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by an 18-bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)6 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. In addition, a 36 bp sequence stretch potential to form stem-loop structures is also found in the A+ T-rich region.

  1. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc.

  2. Morphological outcomes of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahner, Joshua P; Lucas, Lauren K; Wilson, Joseph S; Forister, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    The genitalia of male insects have been widely used in taxonomic identification and systematics and are potentially involved in maintaining reproductive isolation between species. Although sexual selection has been invoked to explain patterns of morphological variation in genitalia among populations and species, developmental plasticity in genitalia likely contributes to observed variation but has been rarely examined, particularly in wild populations. Bilateral gynandromorphs are individuals that are genetically male on one side of the midline and genetically female on the other, while mosaic gynandromorphs have only a portion of their body developing as the opposite sex. Gynandromorphs might offer unique insights into developmental plasticity because individuals experience abnormal cellular interactions at the genitalic midline. In this study, we compare the genitalia and wing patterns of gynandromorphic Anna and Melissa blue butterflies, Lycaeides anna (Edwards) (formerly L. idas anna) and L. melissa (Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), to the morphology of normal individuals from the same populations. Gynandromorph wing markings all fell within the range of variation of normal butterflies; however, a number of genitalic measurements were outliers when compared with normal individuals. From these results, we conclude that the gynandromorphs' genitalia, but not wing patterns, can be abnormal when compared with normal individuals and that the gynandromorphic genitalia do not deviate developmentally in a consistent pattern across individuals. Finally, genetic mechanisms are considered for the development of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  3. Mouthparts and associated sensilla of a South American moth, Synempora andesae (Lepidoptera: Neopseustidae Piezas bucales y sensilios asociados de Synempora andesae, una polilla de Sudamérica (Lepidoptera: Neopseustidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel J. Faucheux

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The mouthparts of Synempora andesae Davis & Nielsen were studied by means of scanning electron microscope. The existence of gustative uniporous sensilla styloconica is demonstrated for the second time on the proboscis of Neopseustidae. It is with this family, and not at a later stage within the Incurvaroidea, that these sensilla appear during the evolution of Lepidoptera. Contrary to common belief, the labial-palp-pit organ, or organ of vom Rath, is present at the distal extremity of the labial palpi of S. andesae. It is made up of a dozen of grooved multiporous sensilla coeloconica whose function is carbon dioxide sensitive. Thus, its presumed absence can no longer be considered as an autapomorphy of Neopseustidae. S. andesae possesses other original characteristics: both short and long bifurcate aporous sensilla chaetica on the labrum, numerous sensilla campaniformia on the first segment of labial palpi, as well as those previously described: the double-tube configuration of the proboscis and the composite and polymorphic multiporous sensilla basiconica on the antennae. Other cephalic sensilla are also described: aporous bifurcate sensilla chaetica on the clypeus, aporous sensilla campaniformia above the mandibles, and on the chaetosemata.Las piezas bucales de Synempora andesae Davis & Nielsen fueron estudiadas con un microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se demuestra, por segunda vez, la existencia de sensilios estilocónicos gustativos uniporosos en la proboscis de Neopseustidae. Es en esta familia, y no en un estadio posterior dentro de Incurvaroidea, que aparecen estos sensilios durante la evolución de Lepidoptera. Contrario a lo que se cree, el órgano sensitivo labial u órgano de Von Rath, se encuentra en la extremidad distal del palpo labial de S. andesae. Está conformado por una docena de sensilios celocónicos multiporosos estriados, cuya función es percibir el dióxido de carbono. Por lo tanto, su supuesta ausencia ya no puede

  4. Mitochondrial genome of the sweet potato hornworm, Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), and comparison with other Lepidoptera species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li-Shang; Li, Sheng; Yu, Hui-Min; Wei, Guo-Qing; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Li, Jun; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and compared it with previously sequenced mitogenomes of lepidopteran species. The mitogenome was a circular molecule, 15 349 base pairs (bp) long, containing 37 genes. The order and orientation of genes in the A. convolvuli mitogenome were similar to those in sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopterans. All 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) were initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which seemed to be initiated by the codon CGA, as observed in other lepidopterans. Three of the 13 PCGs had the incomplete termination codon T, while the remainder terminated with TAA. Additionally, the codon distributions of the 13 PCGs revealed that Asn, Ile, Leu2, Lys, Phe, and Tyr were the most frequently used codon families. All transfer RNAs were folded into the expected cloverleaf structure except for tRNA Ser (AGN), which lacked a stable dihydrouridine arm. The length of the adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region was 331 bp. This region included the motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (TA) 8 element next to the motif ATTTA. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods) showed that A. convolvuli belongs to the family Sphingidae.

  5. New insights on Lepidoptera of Southern Italy with description of the male of Coenotephria antonii Hausmann 2011 (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Infusino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern Italy is of particular biogeographic interest due to the location at the center of the Mediterranean Basin and its great environmental heterogeneity. Despite the faunistic interest of this territory, many insect taxa are still little investigated. Among insects, Lepidoptera have a relatively well known fauna, significantly increased in recent years, but there are still some gaps of knowledge in several habitats. The aim of this work was to contribute to the knowledge of the Macrolepidoptera of Southern Italy, focusing our study in Calabria, and to offer some thoughts on the role played by the Mediterranean mountain forests for the biodiversity conservation. Samplings were carried out in three mountainous areas of Calabria (Pollino Massif, Sila Massif and Serre Mountains in May-November 2015 and in April-November 2016, using UV-LED light traps. We found ten species of high faunistic interest. Three species, Nebula senectaria, Perizoma lugdunaria and Acasis appensata, were for the first time recorded from Southern Italy, while seven were for the first time recorded from Calabria: Coenotephria antonii, Thera obeliscata, Triphosa dubitata, Trichopteryx carpinata, Asteroscopus sphinx, Lithophane semibrunnea and Sideridis reticulata. Of great interest was the discovery of the first male certainly attributable to Coenotephria antonii, endemic of Southern Italy, here described for the first time. The results exposed confirm that the fauna of Southern Italy is of great conservation value, hosting endemisms and several relict populations of European and Asiatic species with differentiated genetic lineages highly vulnerable to the climate change expected for the coming decades.

  6. Chambered cuticle, pellicles, strange sensilla, and extraordinary muscle arrangements: a study of the micropterigid larval trunk (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Steen T K

    2014-07-01

    The larvsal trunk wall of Sabatinca chalcophanes (Meyrick, 1885), representing the "sabatincoid morphotype," is described (brightfield and polarization microscopies, scanning and transmission electron microscopies). Eight sensillum types are identified, including four previously undescribed subventral and ventral kinds. The cuticle is nonsolid, the exocuticle being chambered in a honeycomb-like fashion with chamber walls apparently secreted along epidermal cells boundaries. The chamber contents open to the exterior via minute pores in the chamber roofs. A space between endo and exocuticle communicates with the chamber interiors via pores in the chamber floors; the dense endocuticular surface in places form thickened domes. On the lower trunk region, lateral chamber walls are highly porous (lattice like), hence their contents are continuous; individual chamber roofs here are markedly convex, and the external trunk surface, therefore, papillate. The trunk surface is more or less completely covered by a pellicle, likely formed by exudates from the exocuticular chambers. Unusually for Lepidoptera all trunk muscles are slender strands covering a modest proportion of the inner trunk surface. Conspicuous insertion "nodes" are located at lateral and ventral segmental boundaries, ventromedially near segmental midlengths, and paramedially on the dorsum behind segmental midlengths. Overall similar cuticular specializations are also present in the distantly related Micropterix, strongly supporting micropterigid monophyly. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Segmental duplications: evolution and impact among the current Lepidoptera genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Ma, Dongna; Vasseur, Liette; You, Minsheng

    2017-07-06

    results provide a valuable resource beyond the genetic mutation to explore the genome structure for future Lepidoptera research.

  8. Fossil butterflies, calibration points and the molecular clock (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Rienk DE

    2017-05-25

    Fossil butterflies are extremely rare. Yet, they are the only direct evidence of the first appearance of particular characters and as such, they are crucial for calibrating a molecular clock, from which divergence ages are estimated. In turn, these estimates, in combination with paleogeographic information, are most important in paleobiogeographic considerations. The key issue here is the correct allocation of fossils on the phylogenetic tree from which the molecular clock is calibrated.The allocation of a fossil on a tree should be based on an apomorphic character found in a tree based on extant species, similar to the allocation of a new extant species. In practice, the latter is not done, at least not explicitly, on the basis of apomorphy, but rather on overall similarity or on a phylogenetic analysis, which is not possible for most butterfly fossils since they usually are very fragmentary. Characters most often preserved are in the venation of the wings. Therefore, special attention is given to possible apomorphies in venational characters in extant butterflies. For estimation of divergence times, not only the correct allocation of the fossil on the tree is important, but also the tree itself influences the outcome as well as the correct determination of the age of the fossil. These three aspects are discussed.        All known butterfly fossils, consisting of 49 taxa, are critically reviewed and their relationship to extant taxa is discussed as an aid for correctly calibrating a molecular clock for papilionoid Lepidoptera. In this context some aspects of age estimation and biogeographic conclusions are briefly mentioned in review. Specific information has been summarized in four appendices.

  9. Feeding Mechanisms of Adult Lepidoptera: Structure, Function, and Evolution of the Mouthparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Harald W.

    2014-01-01

    The form and function of the mouthparts in adult Lepidoptera and their feeding behavior are reviewed from evolutionary and ecological points of view. The formation of the suctorial proboscis encompasses a fluid-tight food tube, special linking structures, modified sensory equipment, and novel intrinsic musculature. The evolution of these functionally important traits can be reconstructed within the Lepidoptera. The proboscis movements are explained by a hydraulic mechanism for uncoiling, whereas recoiling is governed by the intrinsic proboscis musculature and the cuticular elasticity. Fluid uptake is accomplished by the action of the cranial sucking pump, which enables uptake of a wide range of fluid quantities from different food sources. Nectar-feeding species exhibit stereotypical proboscis movements during flower handling. Behavioral modifications and derived proboscis morphology are often associated with specialized feeding preferences or an obligatory switch to alternative food sources. PMID:19961330

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bao-Cai; Liu, Wei; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2013-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was determined. The genome is 15,253 bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. All genes are arranged in their conserved positions compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects except for trnM, which was translocated to the upstream of the transfer RNA cluster trnI-trnQ as in all previously reported lepidopteran mitochondiral genomes. Seven portein-coding genes use ATG start codon and five use ATT. However, the cox1 gene uses the CGA start codon as it is found in all previous reported mitochondrial genomes of Lepidoptera. Nine protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA. Four protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codons TA or T. The A+T region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 331 bp.

  11. Parasitism and Food Web Structure in Defoliating Lepidoptera - Parasitoid Communities on Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, D S; Mangeaud, A; Valladares, G R

    2016-12-01

    Food webs are usually regarded as snapshots of community feeding interactions. Here, we describe the yearly and cumulative structure of parasitoid-caterpillar food webs on soybean in central Argentina, analyzing parasitism rates and their variability in relation to parasitoid diversity and food web vulnerability in the system. Lepidoptera larvae were collected along four seasons from soybean crops and reared in laboratory to obtain and identify adults and parasitoids. Eleven species of defoliating Lepidoptera and ten parasitoid species were recorded. Food web statistics showed rather low annual variability, with most variation coefficients in the order of 0.20 and generality showing the most stable values. Parasitism showed the highest variability, which was independent of parasitoid diversity and food web vulnerability, although parasitism rates were negatively related to parasitoid richness. Our study highlights the need to consider food web structure and variability in order to understand the functioning of ecological communities in general and in extensive agricultural ecosystems in particular.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two ghost moths, Thitarodes renzhiensis and Thitarodes yunnanensis: the ancestral gene arrangement in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yong-Qiang; Ma, Chuan; Chen, Ji-Yue; Yang, Da-Rong

    2012-06-22

    Lepidoptera encompasses more than 160,000 described species that have been classified into 45-48 superfamilies. The previously determined Lepidoptera mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are limited to six superfamilies of the lineage Ditrysia. Compared with the ancestral insect gene order, these mitogenomes all contain a tRNA rearrangement. To gain new insights into Lepidoptera mitogenome evolution, we sequenced the mitogenomes of two ghost moths that belong to the non-ditrysian lineage Hepialoidea and conducted a comparative mitogenomic analysis across Lepidoptera. The mitogenomes of Thitarodes renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis are 16,173 bp and 15,816 bp long with an A + T content of 81.28 % and 82.34 %, respectively. Both mitogenomes include 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and the A + T-rich region. Different tandem repeats in the A + T-rich region mainly account for the size difference between the two mitogenomes. All the protein-coding genes start with typical mitochondrial initiation codons, except for cox1 (CGA) and nad1 (TTG) in both mitogenomes. The anticodon of trnS(AGN) in T. renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis is UCU instead of the mostly used GCU in other sequenced Lepidoptera mitogenomes. The 1,584-bp sequence from rrnS to nad2 was also determined for an unspecified ghost moth (Thitarodes sp.), which has no repetitive sequence in the A + T-rich region. All three Thitarodes species possess the ancestral gene order with trnI-trnQ-trnM located between the A + T-rich region and nad2, which is different from the gene order trnM-trnI-trnQ in all previously sequenced Lepidoptera species. The formerly identified conserved elements of Lepidoptera mitogenomes (i.e. the motif 'ATAGA' and poly-T stretch in the A + T-rich region and the long intergenic spacer upstream of nad2) are absent in the Thitarodes mitogenomes. The mitogenomes of T. renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis exhibit unusual features compared with the previously determined

  13. Development of genetic sexing strains in Lepidoptera: from traditional to transgenic approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marec, František; Neven, L. G.; Robinson, A. S.; Vreysen, M.; Goldsmith, M. R.; Nagaraju, J.; Franz, G.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 2 (2005), s. 248-259 ISSN 0022-0493 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007307 Grant - others:IAEA(AT) 12055/R; IAEA(AT) 12619/R Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * codling moth * sterile insect technique Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.205, year: 2005

  14. Parasitoids and Hyperparasitoids of Erannis Defoliaria CL. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) in Oak Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Glavendekić, Milka

    2010-01-01

    The research on biology and ecology of Mottled Umber Moth–Erannis defoliaria Cl. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) was carried out in the period 1985–2009 in oak forests in Serbia. Mottled Umber Moth was mainly in the latency during the investigation. Only at the locality Miroč in East Serbia and in Forest unit Zlatica (National Park Djerdap), it was dominant in the complex of early defoliators. Natural enemies ofE. defoliariaand especially parasitoids and hyperparasitoids are important mortality fa...

  15. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2011 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole

    2012-01-01

    This article reports and comments on interesting Danish Microlepidoptera collected in 2011 and include remarkable findings from previous years. The classification and nomenclature follow the new Danish checklist (Karsholt & Stadel Nielsen, in press). Ten species are reported as new to the Danish ...... the number of Danish Lepidoptera to a total of 2551 species. There are moreover 10 species on the so-called observation list, containing species of uncertain status, which was erected in 2009....

  16. Silk recycling in larvae of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaik, Haq Abdul; Mishra, Archana; Sehnal, František

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, JAN 27 (2017), s. 61-65 E-ISSN 1802-8829 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 907 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Pyralidae * silk recycling Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2017/01/09.pdf

  17. The taxonomic placement and provenance of Hypopyra inconspicua Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera, Thyrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor O. Becker

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic placement and provenance of Hypopyra inconspicua Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera, Thyrididae. Tanyodes inconspicua (Herrich-Schäffer comb. nov. is transferred from Spirama Guenée (Noctuidae, Catocalinae to Striglininae (Thyrididae, as a senior synonym of Ortogramma rufitibia R. Felder & Rogenhofer syn. nov. and Tanyodes ochracea Möschler syn. nov., and from the African to the Neotropical fauna.

  18. Imaturos de Sarsina violascens (Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Lymantriinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Moraes C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaturos de Sarsina violascens (Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Lymantriinae. Sarsina violascens é uma espécie polífaga que eventualmente se alimenta de P. cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae durante sua fase larval. Neste estudo são descritas a morfologia e o comportamento dos imaturos, com ilustrações, fotografias e imagens de microscopia eletrônica de varredura.

  19. Description of male of the rarest European Carpenter-moth Stygioides persephone (Reisser, 1962) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenhöle, Arthur; Friedrich, Egbert; Yakovlev, Roman V

    2017-12-12

    Despite the generally good knowledge of the European fauna of Cossidae, several new species (Lepidoptera) have been described in recent years: Dyspessa kostyuki Yakovlev, 2005 (type locality Ukraine, [Lugansk region], "Proval'skaya Stepp" Naturschutsgebiete), D. aphrodite Yakovlev & Witt, 2007 (type locality Greece, Peloponnes, Mega Spileon), and Stygia nilssoni Saldaitis & Yakovlev, 2008 (type locality Islas Canarias, Gran Canaria, Puerto de Mogan) (Yakovlev 2005; Yakovlev & Witt 2007; Saldaitis & Yakovlev 2008). However, a number of European cossids are still poorly known.

  20. First records of Hypolycaena anara Larsen, 1986 from Cameroon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, Robert; Leština, D.; Janšta, P.; Brattström, O.; Espeland, M.; Sáfián, Sz.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 170 (2015), s. 235-239 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Lycaenidae * faunistics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.408, year: 2015 http://www.redalyc.org/ articulo .oa?id=45541421008

  1. Fate of Ingested Aristolactams from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Urzúa, Alejandro; Olguín, Angel; Santander, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    We performed a sequestration study of aristolactams (ALs) from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) by examining the AL content of the plant, fifth instar larvae, osmeterial secretion, pupae, exuviae and feces. Aristolactam-I (AL-I) and aristolactam-II (AL-II) present in A. chilensis are sequestered by fifth instar larvae of B. polydamas archidamas. There is a preferential sequestration of AL-II, or a more efficient metabolization and excretion of ...

  2. Low host specificity and abundance of frugivorous lepidoptera in the lowland rain forests of Papua New Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Sam

    Full Text Available We studied a community of frugivorous Lepidoptera in the lowland rainforest of Papua New Guinea. Rearing revealed 122 species represented by 1,720 individuals from 326 woody plant species. Only fruits from 52% (171 of the plant species sampled were attacked. On average, Lepidoptera were reared from 1 in 89 fruits and a kilogram of fruit was attacked by 1.01 individuals. Host specificity of Lepidoptera was notably low: 69% (33 of species attacked plants from >1 family, 8% (4 fed on single family, 6% (3 on single genus and 17% (8 were monophagous. The average kilogram of fruits was infested by 0.81 individual from generalist species (defined here as feeding on >1 plant genus and 0.07 individual from specialist species (feeding on a single host or congeneric hosts. Lepidoptera preferred smaller fruits with both smaller mesocarp and seeds. Large-seeded fruits with thin mesocarp tended to host specialist species whereas those with thick, fleshy mesocarp were often infested with both specialist and generalist species. The very low incidence of seed damage suggests that pre-dispersal seed predation by Lepidoptera does not play a major role in regulating plant populations via density-dependent mortality processes outlined by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis.

  3. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K.; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens. PMID:26379286

  4. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidoptera eggs and larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Arthur, Valter; Blackburn, Carl M.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2013-08-01

    The literature on ionizing irradiation of Lepidoptera is critically examined for a dose that could serve as a generic phytosanitary treatment for all eggs and larvae of that order, which contains many quarantine pests that inhibit trade in fresh agricultural commodities. The measure of efficacy used in deriving this dose is the prevention of emergence of normal-looking adults that are assumed not able to fly. A dose of 250 Gy is supported by many studies comprising 34 species in 11 lepidopteran families, including those of significant quarantine importance. Two studies with two different species found that doses >250 Gy were necessary, but both of these are contradicted by other studies showing that 10,000 individuals) testing for families other than Tortricidae (the most important quarantine family in the Lepidoptera). Because several large-scale studies have been done with tortricids a dose of 250 Gy could be justifiable for Tortricidae if it is not acceptable for the entire Lepidoptera at this time.

  5. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth; Herrero, Salvador; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens.

  6. Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae: morphology of egg and last instar larvae Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae: morfologia do ovo e da larva de último ínstar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Poletto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to knowledge of the immature instars of Neotropical Lepidoptera, this study details the morphology of the egg and last instar larvae of Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae, emphasising the structures of the corium and the chaetotaxy. There is also a report of the occurrence of entomopathogenic action of Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow Samson fungi on the larva.Este estudo objetiva contribuir para o conhecimento dos estágios imaturos dos lepidópteros neotropicais. Nele é feito o detalhamento da morfologia das fases de ovo e de larva de Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae, dando ênfase ao estudo das estruturas do córion e da quetotaxia da larva de último ínstar. Além disso é relatada a ocorrência da ação entomopatogênica do fungo Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow Samson sobre suas larvas.

  7. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF BUTTERFLIES (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera IN CAMPUS AREA INDRALAYA SRIWIJAYA UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH SUMATRA

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    Syafrina Lamin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on Diversity and distribution of butterflies, was held at the Campus Indralaya Sriwijaya University of South Sumatra. The purpose of this study was to obtain information species diversity of butterflies at the Sriwijaya University of Inderalaya and distribution of species of butterflies in several different habitat types in the campus area Unsri Indralaya. The study used purposive and collection methods in November 2014-january 2015. Sampling sites were divided into five locations: Arboretum, Science Faculty, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Agriculture and Swamp Cape Disconnect. The parameters used are the index of species diversity, dominance index, and evenness index. The results showed that the diversity of butterflies in the region is classified as moderate. Overall found as many as 40 species of butterflies with a number of 609 individuals consisting of 5 the Papilionidae, Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, and Hesperiidae. Regions Sriwijaya University has a diversity of butterflies that were moderate with criteria (H'1≤H'≤3, in each different habitat types, and not found butterfly species that dominate in every type of habitat in this Unsri region. Distribution of butterflies found in the campus area Unsri Indralaya categorized fairly evenly with a range of values from 0.58 to 0.68. Keywords: Butterflies,  Diversity,  Distribution , Sriwijaya University of Indralaya

  8. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Teinopalpus imperialis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and phylogenetic relationships analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Bin; Zeng, Ju-Ping; Zhou, Shan-Yi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Teinopalpus imperialis, which is a national butterfly of India, and a grade-II protected species in China. The complete mtDNA from T. imperialis was 15 299 base pairs in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and 401 bp non-coding region. The T. imperialis genes were highly similar to those of sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopteran species in the order and orientation. Twelve PCGs (ND2, ATP8, ND3, COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4, ND4L, CytB, ND1, ND5, and ND6) start with a typical ATN codon, only the COI gene starts with CGA codon. Eight PCGs (ND2, COI, ATP8, ATP6, COIII, ND5, ND6, and Cyt B) terminate in the common stop codon TAA, three PCGs (ND4L, ND3, and ND1) terminate in the stop codon TAG, and two PCGs (COII and ND4) terminate in a single T residue. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed with the concatenated sequences of the 13 PCGs of the mitochondrial genome, and phylogenetic results showed that Danaidae, Satyridae, Libytheidae, Nymphalidae, Acraeidae, Pieridae, Hesperiidae, Riodinidae, and Lycaenidae are monophyletic clades.

  9. Checklist of butterfly (Insecta: Lepidoptera fauna of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies (Insecta: Lepidopteraare well known insects, play an important role in the ecosystem as bioindicators and pollinators. They have bright colours, remarkable shapes and supple flight. The present study was conducted to prepare the checklist of butterfly fauna of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014 to May, 2015. A total of 506 specimens were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. The collected species are the common or lemon emigrant, Catopsila ponoma Fabricius; mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; clouded yellow, Colias fieldii Fabricius; common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus; eastern pale clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate Esper; Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Sparrman; Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval; pioneer white or African caper white, Belonias aurota Fabricius; plain tiger, Danaua chrysippus Linnaeus; blue tiger, Tirumala liminniace Cramer; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; Indian fritillary, Argyreus hyperbius Linnaeus; Indian red admiral, Venesa indica Herbst; yellow pansy, Junonia hierta Fabricius; blue pansy, Junonia orytha Linnaeus; white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis Kollar; banded tree brwon, Lethe confuse Aurivillius; common castor, Ariadne merione Cramer; painted lady, Caynthia cardui Linnaeus; Himalayan sailer, Neptis mahendra Moore; common boran, Euthalia garuda Hewitson; lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and great black mormon butterfly, Papilio polytes Linnaeus. It was concluded that the family Nymphalidae has the highest numbers of individuals in the present checklist. It is recommended that butterfly fauna of the study area should be conserved and their habitat should be protected.

  10. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  11. A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique A. Mundaca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica. We propose the new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera Hualpenia lithraeophaga Mundaca, Parra &Vargas gen. nov., sp. nov., leaf miner of Lithraea caustica (Mol. H. et Arn (Anacardiaceae occurring in southern central Chile. Aspects of the life cycle, adult and larval morphology, development and feeding habits of the new genus and species are also presented. We emphasise the uniqueness and importance of this new species for broadening the current knowledge on the Chilean fauna of Gracillariidae.

  12. Fauna Characterization of the Order Lepidoptera (Rhopalocera in Five Different of Localities of the Colombian Llanos Orientales

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    Natalia Fraija Fernández

    2006-01-01

    collection there were used butterfly nets and Vansorem-Rydon traps. Samples were collected in two seasons of years 2003, 2004 and 2005 with four days of visit in each sample. Exists a report of 469 specimens distributed in six families as follows Hesperidae, Papilionidae,  Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae. In total thisfamilies were distributed in 37 genus and 45 species. Because of the composition of ropaloceros' fauna San Antonio, Con Esto Tengo and Loma Linda locations presented the greatest similarities followed by Buena Vista and Cafam, according to UPGMA analysis through Jaccard coefficient. The obtained data reveals the richness in the fauna found in fragments of ecosystems proper of the colombian llanos orientales, and the importance of following and monitoring, them and the necessity of management and conservation plans for this areas.

  13. Ultramorphology of digestive tract of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae at final larval development/ Ultramorfologia do trato digestivo de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae no final do desenvolvimento larval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antônio Toledo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tract of insects is an important natural, physical, and chemical defense barrier against pathogen invasion. Certain lepidopteran caterpillars are serious pests of agricultural crops and their biology has received much attention, but little is known about the larval noctuid gut. The morphological analysis of the digestive tract in Anticarsia gemmatalis under scanning electron microscopy (SEM is a good model for studies about its defense mechanism. The material was fixed (2,5% glutaraldehyde solution; 0.1M-phosphate buffer, pH 7.3, post-fixed (1% osmium tetroxide in the same buffer, dried at critical point, gold coated and analyzed in a SEM 515-Philips. A. gemmatalis digestive tract consists of a straight duct of varying length and diameter, subdivided in three main regions: the foregut formed by the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and crop; the midgut that is the largest portion of the digestive tract without noticeable morphological differentiation along its length; and the hindgut that is morphologically differentiated in pylorus, ileum, colon, and rectum. Although the general morphology of the A. gemmatalis digestive tract is quite similar to the other Lepidoptera species, the anatomical array of the crop muscular layers is quite different comparing with the description for other larval insect.O trato digestivo dos insetos constitui uma importante barreira físico-química natural contra invasão de patógenos. Algumas larvas de lepidópteros são consideradas pragas agrícolas potenciais e sua biologia tem recebido muita atenção; no entanto, pouco se sabe sobre a morfologia do sistema digestivo. A análise morfológica do trato digestivo de Anticarsia gemmatalis em nível ultraestrutural é um método bastante eficaz para o estudo dos seus mecanismos de defesa. Os materiais foram fixados (solução de glutaraldeído 2,5%; 0.1M tampão fosfato, pH 7.3, pós-fixados (tetróxido de ósmio 1% no mesmo tampão, desidratados em

  14. The influence of vegetation and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy farmland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgio, G.; Sommaggio, D.; Marini, M.; Chiarucci, A.; Landi, S.; Fabbri, R.; Pesarini, F.; Genghini, M.; Ferrari, R.; Muzzi, E.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Masetti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera:

  15. Comparative embryogenesis of Mecoptera and Lepidoptera with special reference to the abdominal prolegs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Li-Xuan; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The eruciform larvae of holometabolous insects are primarily characterized by bearing a varying number of abdominal prolegs in addition to three pairs of thoracic legs. However, whether the prolegs are evolutionarily homologous among different insect orders is still a disputable issue. We examined the embryonic features and histological structure of the prolegs of the scorpionfly Panorpa byersi Hua and Huang (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) and the Oriental armyworm Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to investigate whether the prolegs are homologous between these two holometabolous insect orders. In the scorpionfly, paired lateral process primordia arise on abdominal segments I-VIII (A1-A8) in line with the thoracic legs in early embryonic stages, but degenerate into triangular protuberances in later stages, and paired medial processes appear along the midventral line before dorsal closure and eventually develop into unjointed, cone-shaped prolegs. Histological observation showed that the lumina of the prolegs are not continuous with the hemocoel, differing distinctly from that of the basic appendicular plan of thoracic legs. These results suggest that the prolegs are likely secondary outgrowths in Mecoptera. In the armyworm, lateral process primordia appear on A1-A10 in alignment with the thoracic legs in the early embryonic stages, although only the rudiments on A3-A6 and A10 develop into segmented prolegs with the lumina continuous with the hemocoel and others degenerate eventually, suggesting that the prolegs are true segmental appendages serially homologous with the thoracic legs in Lepidoptera. Therefore, we conclude that the larval prolegs are likely not evolutionarily homologous between Mecoptera and Lepidoptera. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera.

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    Sven Sehlmeyer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects

  17. First record Cydia alazon (Diakonoff, 1976) from La Palma Islands (Canary Islands, Spain) with taxonomic and ecological notes (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 136 (2006), s. 371-378 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Tortricidae * Cydia alazon Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  18. Genetic divergence and evidence for sympatric host-races in the highly polyphagous brown tail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, J.F.; Wang, H.L.; Svensson, G.P.; Frago Clols, E.; Anderbrant, O.

    2014-01-01

    The brown tail moth (BTM) Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Linnaeus 1758) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) is a forest and ornamental pest in Europe and the United States. Its extreme polyphagy, and documented phenological shift associated with host use suggest the presence of distinct host-races. To test this

  19. Sphragis in Parnassius mnemosyne (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): male-derived insemination plugs loose efficiency with progress of female flight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlašánek, Petr; Konvička, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2009), s. 1206-1211 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GD206/08/H044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Apollo butterflies * insect behaviour * Lepidoptera ecology Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009

  20. Stress Responses of Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Lepidoptera Point to Limited Conservation of Function across Phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Jincheng; Peng, Yu; Liu, Xiaoxia; Hoffmann, Ary A; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-01-01

    The small heat shock protein (sHsp) family is thought to play an important role in protein refolding and signal transduction, and thereby protect organisms from stress. However little is known about sHsp function and conservation across phylogenies. In the current study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of small Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta. Fourteen small heat shock proteins of OFM clustered with related Hsps in other Lepidoptera despite a high level of variability among them, and in contrast to the highly conserved Hsp11.1. The only known lepidopteran sHsp ortholog (Hsp21.3) was consistently unaffected under thermal stress in Lepidoptera where it has been characterized. However the phylogenetic position of the sHsps within the Lepidoptera was not associated with conservation of induction patterns under thermal extremes or diapause. These findings suggest that the sHsps have evolved rapidly to develop new functions within the Lepidoptera.

  1. Stress Responses of Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Lepidoptera Point to Limited Conservation of Function across Phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    Full Text Available The small heat shock protein (sHsp family is thought to play an important role in protein refolding and signal transduction, and thereby protect organisms from stress. However little is known about sHsp function and conservation across phylogenies. In the current study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of small Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta. Fourteen small heat shock proteins of OFM clustered with related Hsps in other Lepidoptera despite a high level of variability among them, and in contrast to the highly conserved Hsp11.1. The only known lepidopteran sHsp ortholog (Hsp21.3 was consistently unaffected under thermal stress in Lepidoptera where it has been characterized. However the phylogenetic position of the sHsps within the Lepidoptera was not associated with conservation of induction patterns under thermal extremes or diapause. These findings suggest that the sHsps have evolved rapidly to develop new functions within the Lepidoptera.

  2. Phenology of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) laboratory reared on spruce foliage or a newly developed artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Alice Vandel; Oldrich. Pultar

    2010-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. The phenology over the entire life cycle for L. monacha individuals from the Czech Republic was compared on Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) and a newly...

  3. Global warming and the change of butterfly distributions: a new opportunity for species diversity or a severe threat (Lepidoptera)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryrholm, N.

    2003-01-01

    Global warming and the change of butterfly distributions: a new opportunity for species diversity or a severe threat (Lepidoptera)? In order to assess the influence of climatic changes on the distribution of insects, the ranges of nonmigratory European butterfly species have been studied. This study

  4. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the chemical is under increasing regulat...

  5. Mitochondrial DNA Variation and Range Expansion in Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): No Evidence for a Recent Population Bottleneck

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a pest of both corn and dry bean crops. At the beginning of the 21st century, the species began to extend its range out of the Great Plains, eastward through the Corn Belt. This rapid range expansion is remarkable bec...

  6. Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes and Woodlands in Five Eastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, V...

  7. Biology, herbivory, and host specificity of Antiblemma leucocyma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomataceae) in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. R. Badenes-Perez; M. T. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomataceae) is an invasive tree considered one of the greatest threats to natural ecosystems of Hawaii and other Pacific islands. The potential for using the defoliator Antiblemma leucocyma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as a biological control agent of M. calvescens was evaluated in...

  8. Putative nicotinic acetylchloline receptor subunits express differentially through life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The nAChRs mediate the fast actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synaptic tr...

  9. Influence of the irradiated diet on the longevity and reproduction of Cyric cephalonic a (Stain ton, 1865) (Lepidoptera: parlayed)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Graziela dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    The present work aims to irradiate diets with multiple doses, as recommended by the Decree DINAL n.o 09 of 08/03/1985 to disinfestation of insects, which means, the dose of 1,0 kGy and observes the longevity and reproduction of C. cephalonica (Staint., 1865) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae)

  10. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  11. Pheromone-based disruption of Eucosma sonomana and Rhyacionia zozana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using aerially applied microencapsulated pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Gillette; John D. Stein; Donald R. Owen; Jeffrey N. Webster; Sylvia R. Mori

    2006-01-01

    Two aerial applications of microencapsulated pheromone were conducted on five 20.2 ha plots to disrupt western pine shoot borer (Eucosma sonomana Kearfott) and ponderosa pine tip moth (Rhyacionia zowna (Kearfott): Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) orientation to pheromones and oviposition in ponderosa pine plantations in 2002 and 2004...

  12. The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélio R. Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil. The aquatic caterpillar Paracles klagesi (Rothschild, 1910 was collected from the headwaters of a stream in an ecotone between Cerrado and Babaçu forest in northeastern Brazil. The single caterpillar found was observed feeding on the macrophyte Tonina fluviatilis Aubl. (Eriocaulaceae and other aquatic plants of the family Nymphaeaceae present in the area, but also accepted as food Elodea canadensis Michx. (Hydrocharitaceae and Cabomba sp. (Cabombaceae under laboratory conditions.

  13. A morphology based key to the genera of the tribe Nemoriini (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Geometrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viidalepp, Jaan

    2017-02-23

    A diagrammatic key to the genera of the Nemoriini tribe (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) is presented and illustrated. The genera studied exhibit two main character sets, corresponding to the Nemoria lineage and the Phrudocentra lineage. The spatulate type of uncus is associated with multicolor wing markings on both hemispheres. A rod-shaped uncus, often slightly bulbed at its tip, is common in the Neotropics, the genera involved having their wing markings reduced to white lines or brown-grey vein marks on a plain green ground color.

  14. Managing the forest for more than the trees: effects of experimental timber harvest on forest Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerville, Keith S

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the effects of timber harvest on forest insect communities have rarely considered how disturbance from a range of harvest levels interacts with temporal variation in species diversity to affect community resistance to change. Here I report the results of a landscape-scale, before-and-after, treatment-control experiment designed to test how communities of forest Lepidoptera experience (1) changes in species richness and composition and (2) shifts in species dominance one year after logging. I sampled Lepidoptera from 20 forest stands allocated to three harvest treatments (control, even-aged shelterwood or clearcuts, and uneven-aged group selection cuts) within three watersheds at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA. Moths were sampled from all forest stands one year prior to harvest in 2007 and immediately post-harvest in 2009. Species composition was most significantly affected by temporal variation between years, although uneven-aged management also caused significant changes in lepidopteran community structure. Furthermore, species richness of Lepidoptera was higher in 2007 compared to 2009 across all watersheds and forest stands. The decrease in species richness between years, however, was much larger in even-aged and uneven-aged management units compared to the control. Furthermore, matrix stands within the even-aged management unit demonstrated the highest resistance to species loss within any management unit. Species dominance was highly resistant to effects of timber harvest, with pre- and post-harvest values for Simpson diversity nearly invariant. Counter to prediction, however, the suite of dominant taxa differed dramatically among the three management units post-harvest. My results suggest that temporal variation may have strong interactions with timber harvest, precipitating loss of nearly 50% species richness from managed stands regardless of harvest level. Even-aged management, however, appeared to leave the smallest "footprint" on moth

  15. Two new species of Utetheisa Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Arctiinae from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

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    Lazaro Roque-Albelo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species, Utetheisa connerorum and Utetheisa henrii (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Arctiinae are described from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. The latter inhabits the highlands of San Cristobal Island while the former is widely distributed on most of the islands of the archipelago. Their habitus and genitalia are illustrated. Based on a study of the holotype, Utetheisa galapagensis (Wallengren was found to be restricted to San Cristobal Island, contrary to previous reports, and is redescribed here. A key is provided to separate all six Galapagos species of Utetheisa based on external characters.

  16. Rapid assessment of the sex of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs and larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrbová, Iva; Neven, L. G.; Bárcenas, N. M.; Gund, N. A.; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 4 (2009), s. 249-261 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1860 Grant - others:International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 58-5352-4-F004; International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 12055/R; Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food(DE) 05OE023/2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * molecular markers * period gene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2009

  17. Discovery of a third species of Lamproptera Gray, 1832 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-Ji; Zhang, Xin; Cotton, Adam M; Ye, Hui

    2014-04-11

    A newly discovered, third species of the genus Lamproptera (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is described, 183 years after the second currently recognised species was first named. Lamproptera paracurius Hu, Zhang & Cotton sp. n., from N.E. Yunnan, China, is based on marked differences in external morphology and male genital structure. The species is confirmed as a member of the genus, and detailed comparisons are made with other taxa included in the genus. Keys to Lamproptera species based on external characters and male genitalia are included.

  18. Feeding stimulants for larvae of Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Cinnamomum camphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The feeding response of larvae of the swallowtail butterfly, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), is elicited by a methanolic extract from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) leaves. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds, isolated from the methanolic extract of fresh leaves of the camphor tree, were revealed to be involved in a multi-component system of feeding stimulants. Structures of these feeding stimulants were identified as sucrose, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside by NMR and LC-MS.

  19. Elusive Parnassius mnemosyne (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae: habitat selection, sex determination and sex ratio (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlašánek, Petr; Bartoňová, Alena; Marec, František; Konvička, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 180 (2017), s. 561-569 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167; GA AV ČR IAA600960925; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-13713S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 669609 - Diversity6continents Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Papilionidae * habitat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 0.264, year: 2016

  20. Reproducción de Oenomaus ortignus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae en Barva, Heredia, Costa Rica

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    Renán Calvo

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A group of Annona cherimolia (Mill:Annonaceae trees was studied in Barva, Heredia, Costa Rica (June 1991-August 1992 to record egg-laying sites of the butterfly Oenomaus ortignus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae. Used fruits often dehydrated and fell before maturity. Eggs are laid in fruits independently of fruit ontologic state and of height above ground. Tree parts less frequently used to lay eggs are flower primordia, leaves and stems, but the larvae move to fruits when food reserves are depleted. Pupation occurs outside the fruit. Pupae emit sound, possible for defence.

  1. Theoretical study of electromagnetic transport in Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus wing scales

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    J. Sackey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the electromagnetic energies developed in the scales of the Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus. The Green tensor method was used to calculate and simulate the energies at specific wavelengths. Scattering of electromagnetic waves within the scales was simulated at different wavelengths (λ with the corresponding maximum energy occurred at λ = 0.45 μm. The study shows that the design of wing’s cross-ribs maximizes the eigenmode of electromagnetic energy. This shows promising applications in bio-sensors of Solar light and likewise in waveguide for photonic transmission.

  2. Lepidoptera Larvae as an Indicator of Multi-trophic Level Responses to Changing Seasonality in an Arctic Tundra Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, K. M.; Steltzer, H.; Boelman, N.; Weintraub, M. N.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Sullivan, P.; Gough, L.; Rich, M.; Hendrix, C.; Kielland, K.; Philip, K.; Doak, P.; Ferris, C.; Sikes, D.

    2011-12-01

    Earlier snowmelt and warming temperatures in the Arctic will impact multiple trophic levels through the timing and availability of food resources. Lepidoptera are a vital link within the ecosystem; their roles include pollinator, parasitized host for other pollinating insects, and essential food source for migrating birds and their fledglings. Multiple environmental cues including temperature initiate plant growth, and in turn, trigger the emergence of Lepidoptera and the migrations of birds. If snowmelt is accelerated and temperature is increased, it is expected that the Lepidoptera larvae will respond to early plant growth by increasing their abundance within areas that have accelerated snowmelt and warmer conditions. In May of 2011 in a moist acidic tussock tundra system, we accelerated snowmelt by 15 days through the use of radiation-absorbing fabric and warmed air and soil temperatures using open-top chambers, individually and in combination. Every 1-2 days from May 27th to July 8th, 2 minute searches were performed for Lepidoptera larvae in all treatments; when an animal was found, their micro-habitat, surface temperature, behavior, food source, and time of day were noted. The length, body and head width were measured, and the animals were examined for braconid wasp and tachinid fly parasites. Lepidoptera larvae collected in pitfall traps from May 26th to July 7th were also examined and measured. Total density of parasitized larvae accounted for 54% of observed specimens and 50% of pitfall specimens, indicating that Lepidoptera larvae serve an integral role as a host for other pollinators. Total larvae density was highest within the accelerated snowmelt plots compared to the control plots; 66% of observed live specimens and 63% of pitfall specimens were found within the accelerated snowmelt plots. Ninety percent of the total observed animals were found within the open-top warming chambers. Peak density of animals occurred at Solar Noon between 14:00 -15

  3. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera parasitoids of Lepidoptera caterpillars feeding on Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera parasitóides de larvas de Lepidoptera associadas a Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae

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    Luciana Bueno dos Reis Fernandes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoids of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera were obtained during an inventory of Lepidoptera larvae caught feeding in the wild on Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae. The Lepidoptera larvae were collected from host plants along trails inside three preserved forest areas in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Fifteen different species of Ichneumonidae belonging to five subfamilies (Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Mesochorinae and Metopiinae were obtained. Seven species of Ichneumonidae were reared from leaf rollers: Meniscomorpha sp. (Banchinae and Leurus caeruliventris (Cresson (Metopiinae from Dichomeris sp. (Gelechiidae; Mesochorus sp.1 (Mesochorinae [as a parasitoid of Hypomicrogaster sp. (Braconidae, Microgastrinae], Campoplex sp. (Campopleginae and Leurus sp. from Olethreutinae sp. (Tortricidae; Sphelodon annulicornis Morley (Banchinae and Eutanygaster brevipennis Cameron (Cremastinae were also reared from two unidentified species of Gelechiidae. The other eight species were reared from the larvae of exposed feeders: Diradops sp. (Banchinae from Miselia albipuncta Hampson (Noctuidae, Casinaria sp. (Campopleginae from Hymenomima conia Prout (Geometridae, Charops sp. (Campopleginae from Bagisara paulensis Schaus (Noctuidae and Oxydia vesulia (Cramer (Geometridae, two species of Hyposoter Förster (Campopleginae from Semaeopus sp. (Geometridae and H. conia, two species of Microcharops Roman (Campopleginae from B. paulensis and an unidentified species of Limacodidae and Mesochorus sp. 2 [reared from what was probably Aleiodes sp. (Braconidae, Rogadinae] from an unidentified species of Noctuidae.Parasitóides da família Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera foram obtidos durante um inventário de larvas de Lepidoptera sobre Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae. As larvas de Lepidoptera foram coletadas sobre as plantas que ocorrem nas bordas de caminhos em três áreas preservadas de mata do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Quinze esp

  4. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), with a description of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Su Yeon; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-11-01

    We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella, and compared their genome organization and sequence composition to those of available gelechioid mitogenomes for an enhanced understanding of Gelechioidea genomic characteristics. We compared all available lepidopteran mitogenome arrangements, including that of M. albilinella, which is unique in Gelechioidea, to comprehend the extensiveness and mechanisms of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera. The genomes of M. albilinella and D. ustalella are 15,274 and 15,410 bp in size, respectively, with the typical sets of mitochondrial (mt) genes. The COI gene begins with CGA (arginine) in all sequenced gelechioids, including M. albilinella and D. ustalella, reinforcing the feature as a synapomorphic trait, at least in the Gelechioidea. Each 353- and 321-bp long A + T-rich region of M. albilinella and D. ustalella contains one (D. ustalella) or two (M. albilinella) tRNA-like structures. The M. albilinella mitogenome has a unique gene arrangement among the Gelechioidea: ARNESF (the underline signifies an inverted gene) at the ND3 and ND5 junction, as opposed to the ARNSEF that is found in ancestral insects. An extensive search of available lepidopteran mitogenomes, including that of M. albilinella, turned up six rearrangements that differ from those of ancestral insects. Most of the rearrangements can be explained by the tandem duplication-random loss model, but inversion, which requires recombination, is also found in two cases, including M. albilinella. Excluding the MIQ rearrangement at the A + T-rich region and ND2 junction, which is found in nearly all Ditrysia, most of the remaining rearrangements found in Lepidoptera appear to be independently derived in that they are automorphic at several taxonomic scales, although current mitogenomic data are limited, particularly for congeneric data.

  5. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

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    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  6. Identificação e Catalogação de Borboletas (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea e Papilionoidea da Coleção Entomológica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande

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    Ana dos Santos de Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Abstract. Although Rio Grande do Sul State is considered one of the best inventoried States in relation to the butterflies, there are still gaps in the knowledge of their species distribution. One of these gaps is in the southern extreme of the State, where the majority of the inventories does not specify the exact location where the specimens were collected. Thus, the species of the butterflies deposited in the Entomological Collection of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG were identified and cataloged. The 146 butterfly specimens deposited in the Entomological Collection are distributed in 36 species belonging to the families Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae. Nymphalidae was the richest family and had the highest number of individuals, while Lycaenidae had the lowest richness and number of specimens. The most representative species in the Collection were Heraclides thoas brasiliensis (Rothschild & Jordan, Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Stichel and Danaus erippus (Cramer.

  7. Diversity of Butterflies (Lepidoptera) in Manembo-Nembo Wildlife Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneri, Roni; Maabuat, Pience V

    The degradation of a habitat will affect the population of butterflies living in it. This study aims to analyse the diversity of butterflies in the area of Manembo-Nembo Wildlife Reserve, North Sulawesi. Employing purposive sampling, the study was conducted for five months. The collection of butterflies was done by using the sweeping technique, following the transect line applied randomly along 1000 m to three types of habitat (the primary forest, riverside in the forest and agricultural land). The species diversity was determined by using diversity index (Shannon-Wiener). The study identified 4 families, 44 species and 748 individual butterflies. Nymphalidae was a family predominantly found (71.12%), while the species mostly found was Ideopsis juventa tontoliensis (10.16%). Abundance (76.50), richness (20.25), diversity (2.66) and species evenness (0.88) were mostly found in riverside habitats in the forest, while the lowest was found in the primary forest. The similarities of butterfly communities in the different types of habitats indicate that the highest similarity index of butterfly communities is in the habitats of the primary forest and riverside in the forest wi a value of 80%. The highest diversity of butterflies in all types of habitats found in riverside. The high diversity of butterflies in the river is strongly influenced by the presence of vegetation as food and host plants of butterflies and this habitat should be conserved for the survival of the butterfly in a wildlife reserve Manembo-Nembo, North Sulawesi. It is expected that the results of this study could become important data of the diversity of butterflies and effects of changes of habitats on the diversity of butterflies in Manembo-Nembo Wildlife Reserve, North Sulawesi.

  8. Resistance of transgenic eggplant carrying the oryzacystatin gene to Mechanitis polymnia and Mechanitis lysimnia - DOI: 10.4025/actasciagron.v27i4.1345

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula de Oliveira; UFV; Otoni, Wagner Campos; UFV; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho; Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde; Galvan, Tederson Luiz; UFV; Pereira, Eliseu José Guedes; UFV; Picoli, Edgard Augusto de Toledo; UFV; Silva, Derly José Henriques da; UFV

    2008-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the resistance of transgenic eggplant (Solanum melongena) carrying the oryzacystatin gene to Mechanitis polymnia L. and Mechanitis lysimnia Fabr. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). The leaf area consumed, the mortality and duration of the larval and pupal phases of M. polymnia and M. lysimnia were evaluated. Results showed the transgenic eggplant is not resistant to Lepidoptera M. polymnia and M. lysimnia Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar a resistência da berinjela (...

  9. Eucalyptus cloeziana AS A NEW HOST TO Hylesia paulex (LEPIDOPTERA: SATURNIIDAE IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL

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    Alexandre Igor Azevedo Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified Lepidoptera species was found defoliating Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae in a cerrado area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Pupae of this insect, collected in the area, were brought to the laboratory and maintained in Petri dishes (9.0 cm x 1.5 cm under 25 ± 2oC, relative humidity of 60 ± 10% and 12 hours photophase to obtain adults and eggs. This insect was identified as Hylesia paulex Dognin (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, and, in that way, the objective of the present study was to register for the first time its herbivory in E. cloeziana plants. Newly-emerged caterpillars were reared in 10 plastic pots (500ml, with 30 caterpillars per pot and fed, daily, with fresh leaves of Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae. The egg incubation period of H. paulex was 32.00 ± 1.19 days. The total duration of the seven instars of this insect was 67.83 ± 0.84 days. Hylesia paulex completed its life cycle with E. cloeziana plants, what proves its adaptability to this kind of exotic Myrtaceae in Brazil.

  10. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

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    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  11. Variable wing venation in Agathiphaga (Lepidoptera: Agathiphagidae) is key to understanding the evolution of basal moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Details of the ancestral groundplan of wing venation in moths remain uncertain, despite approximately a century of study. Here, we describe a 3-branched subcostal vein, a 5-branched medial vein and a 2-branched cubitus posterior vein on the forewing of Agathiphaga vitiensis Dumbleton 1952 from Vanuatu. Such veins had not previously been described in any Lepidoptera. Because wing veins are typically lost during lepidopteran evolutionary history, rarely—if ever—to be regained, the venation of A. vitiensis probably represents the ancestral character state for moths. Wing venation is often used to identify fossil insects as moths, because wing scales are not always preserved; the presence of a supposedly trichopteran 3-branched subcostal vein in crown Lepidoptera may decrease the certainty with which certain amphiesmenopteran fossils from the Mesozoic can be classified. And because plesiomorphic veins can influence the development of lepidopteran wing patterns even if not expressed in the adult wing, the veins described here may determine the location of wing pattern elements in many lepidopteran taxa. PMID:27853559

  12. De Novo characterization of transcriptomes from two North American Papaipema stem-borers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Sara J; Feindt, Wiebke; DeSalle, Rob; Goldstein, Paul Z

    2018-01-01

    Stem-borers in the genus Papaipema (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) range from highly polyphagous agricultural pests to specialists on more than 20 families of flowering plants, many of them highly toxic. Papaipema is the largest genus of noctuids endemic to North America and provides an excellent study system for the evolution of noctuid host plant use. To improve the availability of genomic resources for such investigations, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly for two specialist Papaipema with unusual larval hosts: P. speciosissima, which is associated with ferns, and the undescribed P. "sp. 4," which is associated with bamboo. The resulting transcriptomes were similar in terms of completeness, gene count, and gene identity, but we identified some 8,000 genes (~17% of each transcriptome) not shared between the two species. While some of these have identifiable orthologs in other Lepidoptera, ~5% of each transcriptome consists of species-specific genes. We examine the function of these genes and find that almost half have retrotransposon-related functional domains. The potential role of species-specific genes is discussed, and the expansion of certain retrotransposon families in Papaipema is examined.

  13. Evolutionary diversification of aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by conserved clade-specific amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin L

    2014-07-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mortality of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae by parasitoids in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina

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    Isabel Bertolaccini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortality of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae by parasitoids in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae larvae cause severe economic damage on cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae, in the horticultural fields in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Overuse of broad spectrum insecticides affects the action of natural enemies of this insect on cabbage. The objectives of this work were to identify the parasitoids of P. xylostella and to determine their influence on larva and pupa mortality. Weekly collections of larvae and pupae were randomly conducted in cabbage crops during spring 2006 and 2007. The immature forms collected were classified according to their developmental stage: L1 and L2 (Ls = small larvae, L3 (Lm = medium larvae, L4 (Ll = large larvae, pre-pupae and pupae (P. Each individual was observed daily in the laboratory until the adult pest or parasitoid emergence. We identified parasitoids, the number of instar and the percentage of mortality of P. xylostella for each species of parasitoid. Parasitoids recorded were: Diadegma insulare (Cresson, 1875 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae and an unidentified species of Chalcididae (Hymenoptera. Besides parasitoids, an unidentified entomopathogenic fungus was also recorded in 2006 and 2007. In 2006, the most successful parasitoids were D. insulare and O. sokolowskii, while in 2007 only D. insulare exerted a satisfactory control and it attacked the early instars of the pest.

  15. Flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species of sugar beet and possibilities their control (Transylvania-Romania

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    Muresanu Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the obtained results regarding the flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species in sugar beet crops in Transylvania (the central part of Romania. In order to limit the appearance of mentioned pests to the economic threshold, Trichogramma spp. were obtained in laboratory conditions at ARDS Turda and SBRDS Brasov. The experiments were conducted in production areas on 0,5 ha minimum for each variant. The variants included four Trichogramma species: T. dendrolimi, T. evanescens, T. maidis, T. buesi that were manually released three times: the first release, 10.000 individuals/ha, the second, 120.000 individuals/ha and the third, 150.000 individuals/ha. The first release was performed at the beginning of the Lepidoptera flight, the second at the maximum flight and the third 5 days after the second. The efficiency of T. maidis was between 75-90%, of T. evanescens, it was between 73-88%, of T. dendrolimi, it was between 85-92% and of T. buesi 79-82%. Among the Trichogramma species utilized, T. dendrolimi and T. evanescens were very efficient in the reduction of mentioned pests. Root production was significantly higher compared to the untreated variant, 4,0-4,7 t/ha more were recorded after the application of biological treatments with T. evanescens and T. dendrolimi.

  16. Monarchs (Danaus plexippus) and milkweeds (Asclepias species): The current situation and methods for propagating milkweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara Luna; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2013-01-01

    An international effort is under way to conserve populations of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L. [Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae]). Monarchs complete an impressive migration each year, flying from winter roosts on the California coast and the central mountains of Mexico to breeding areas throughout North America. Monarchs depend on habitats along their migratory...

  17. Flowering phenology and floral visitors of Piliostigma reticulatum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera), Syrphidae (Diptera), Apidae (Hymenoptera) and Sphecidae (Hymenoptera) were regarded as main potential pollinators of P. reticulatum. Apidae (Apis mellifera) was the most abundant and frequent visitor. We found that August was the peak flowering period for both male and female individuals ...

  18. Species diversity and activity of parasitoids of the sweetpotato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The species range, activity and relative abundance of parasitoids attacking the sweetpotato butterfly, Acraea acerata Hew. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Uganda was investigated. Samples of eggs and larvae of the sweetpotato butterfly were collected from some of the major sweetpotato growing districts of Uganda to ...

  19. The eversible tentacle organs of Polyommatus caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae): Morphology, fine structure, sensory supply and functional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnatzy, W; Jatho, M; Kleinteich, T; Gorb, S N; Hustert, R

    2017-11-01

    In their late (3rd and 4th) larval stages, caterpillars of the myrmecophilous lycaenid (Lepidoptera) species Polyommatus coridon and Polyommatus icarus, possess on their 8th abdominal segment two eversible so called tentacle organs (TOs). Previous histological and behavioural results have proposed that the TOs may release a volatile substance that elicits "excited runs" in attendant ants. In our study we investigated for the first time the temporal in- and eversion pattern of TOs. Using nerve tracing, Micro-CT, light- and electron microscopy techniques we studied (i) the histology of the 8th abdominal segment, (ii) the fine structure of the cuticular and cellular apparatus of the TOs, (iii) the attachment sites of the retractor muscle of each TO and (iv) the fine structure of the long slender tentacle hairs which are exposed to the outside, when the TOs are everted and fold back into the TO-sac during inversion. Our data show that the tentacle hairs are typical insect mechanoreceptors, each innervated by a small bipolar sensory cell with a tubular body in the tip of the outer dendritic segment. The latter is enclosed by a cuticular sheath previously called the "internal cuticular duct" and misinterpreted in earlier studies as the space, where the tentacle hairs actively secrete fluids. However, we found no glandular structures nearby or in the wall of the TO-sac. Also we did not reveal any conspicuous signs of secretory activity in one of the enveloping cells belonging to a tentacle hair. Although highly unusual features for an insect mechanoreceptor are: (a) the hair-shaft lumen of tentacle hairs contains flocculent material as well small vesicles and (b) the thin cuticular wall of the hair-shaft and its spines possess few tiny pores. Our data do not support the assumption of previous studies that volatile substances are released via the tentacle organs during their interactions with ants which in turn are supposed to cause excited runs in ants. Copyright © 2017

  20. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed to ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics on ...

  1. Controle químico da Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae na cultura do pessegueiro Chemical control of Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano João Arioli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa oriental Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae é a principal praga da cultura do pessegueiro no Brasil. O controle do inseto depende basicamente do emprego de inseticidas de alta toxicidade e baixa seletividade aos inimigos naturais. Este trabalho avaliou os inseticidas etofemprox (Trebon 100 SC, 100 e 150mL 100L-1, benzoato de emamectina (Proclaim 5 SG, 10 e 15g 100L-1 + óleo mineral (Assist, 250mL 100L-1, metoxyfenozide (Intrepid 240 SC, 40 e 60mL 100L-1 e spinosad (Tracer 480 SC, 15 e 25mL 100L-1 para o controle da G. molesta na cultura do pessegueiro. No experimento de laboratório, somente o etofemprox apresentou baixa mortalidade (±50% de lagartas. Em pomar comercial, todos os inseticidas e doses testadas reduziram o nível de injúria nos ponteiros em nível superior a 80%. Os inseticidas avaliados apresentam características desejáveis para uso no manejo integrado da G. molesta, destacando-se a baixa toxicidade e reduzida dose de aplicação, o que minimiza os riscos ao homem e ambiente.Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is the most important peach pest in Brazil. Pest management is based on chemical control using insecticides with high toxicity and low selectivity to natural enemies. Etofemprox (Trebon 100 SC, 100 and 150mL 100L-1, emamectin benzoato (Proclaim 5 SG, 10 and 15g 100L-1 associated to mineral oil (Assist, 250mL 100L-1, metoxyfenozide (Intrepid 240 SC 40 and 60mL 100L-1, spinosad (Tracer 480 SC, 15 and 25mL 100L-1 and fosmet (Imidan 500 PM, 200g 100L-1 were evaluated in laboratory and field conditions to G. molesta control. In laboratory, only etofemprox resulted in low mortality (± 50% in residual bioassay. In commercial peach orchards, all insecticides reduced pest damage (> 80%. All insecticides shows characteristics for use in the integrated management of G. molesta including low toxicity and reduced application dose.

  2. Seletividade de inseticidas a três Vespidae predadores de Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae Selectivity of insecticides to three Vespidae predators of Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO FIALHO DE MOURA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os insetos que atacam o maracujazeiro, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae é considerada a praga-chave. Estudou-se a seletividade dos inseticidas fentiom, cartape, malatiom e deltametrina a Dione juno juno, em relação às vespas predadoras Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris e Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Estimaram-se as curvas concentração-mortalidade e mediante o uso da concentração letal do inseticida em 90% dos indivíduos (CL90 calcularam-se os índices de seletividade diferencial e índices de tolerância. A deltametrina foi seletiva à P. scutellaris e P. fastidiosuscula e medianamente seletiva à P. sylveirae e o cartape foi medianamente seletivo às três espécies de vespas predadoras. O malatiom foi seletivo a P. sylveirae e medianamente seletivo a P. fastidiosuscula. As vespas predadoras P. fastidiosuscula eP. scutellaris foram mais tolerantes a deltametrina e ao fentiom do que P. sylveirae, enquanto o P. fastidiosuscula e P. sylveirae toleraram mais o cartape do que P. scutellaris. O malatiom foi mais tolerado pela espécie P. sylveirae do que por P. fastidiosuscula e P. scutellaris.Among insects that attack passion fruit, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae is considered the most dangerous plague. The selectivity of the insecticides fenthion, cartap, malathion and deltamethrin to the predatory wasps Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris and Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae was studied based on these insecticide toxicities to their prey Dione juno juno. Concentration-mortality regression lines were obtained and the estimated lethal concentration of insecticide to 90% (LC90 of the individuals were used for the calculation of the differential selectivity index and tolerance index. Deltamethrin was selective in favor of P. scutellaris and P. fastidiosuscula and showed intermediate selectivity to P. sylveirae, while cartap showed intermediate selectivity to all

  3. Contributions of gut bacteria to Bacillus thuringiensis-induced mortality vary across a range of Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Nichole A; Robinson, Courtney J; McMahon, Matthew D; Holt, Jonathan; Handelsman, Jo; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2009-01-01

    Background Gut microbiota contribute to the health of their hosts, and alterations in the composition of this microbiota can lead to disease. Previously, we demonstrated that indigenous gut bacteria were required for the insecticidal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis to kill the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. B. thuringiensis and its associated insecticidal toxins are commonly used for the control of lepidopteran pests. A variety of factors associated with the insect host, B. thuringiensis strain, and environment affect the wide range of susceptibilities among Lepidoptera, but the interaction of gut bacteria with these factors is not understood. To assess the contribution of gut bacteria to B. thuringiensis susceptibility across a range of Lepidoptera we examined larval mortality of six species in the presence and absence of their indigenous gut bacteria. We then assessed the effect of feeding an enteric bacterium isolated from L. dispar on larval mortality following ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin. Results Oral administration of antibiotics reduced larval mortality due to B. thuringiensis in five of six species tested. These included Vanessa cardui (L.), Manduca sexta (L.), Pieris rapae (L.) and Heliothis virescens (F.) treated with a formulation composed of B. thuringiensis cells and toxins (DiPel), and Lymantria dispar (L.) treated with a cell-free formulation of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII). Antibiotics eliminated populations of gut bacteria below detectable levels in each of the insects, with the exception of H. virescens, which did not have detectable gut bacteria prior to treatment. Oral administration of the Gram-negative Enterobacter sp. NAB3, an indigenous gut resident of L. dispar, restored larval mortality in all four of the species in which antibiotics both reduced susceptibility to B. thuringiensis and eliminated gut bacteria, but not in H. virescens. In contrast, ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII) following antibiotic treatment

  4. Comparative transcriptome analysis of lufenuron-resistant and susceptible strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Antonio Rogério Bezerra; Fresia, Pablo; Cônsoli, Fernando Luis; Omoto, Celso

    2015-11-21

    The evolution of insecticide resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has resulted in large economic losses and disturbances to the environment and agroecosystems. Resistance to lufenuron, a chitin biosynthesis inhibitor insecticide, was recently documented in Brazilian populations of S. frugiperda. Thus, we utilized large-scale cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq analysis) to compare the pattern of gene expression between lufenuron-resistant (LUF-R) and susceptible (LUF-S) S. larvae in an attempt to identify the molecular basis behind the resistance mechanism(s) of S. frugiperda to this insecticide. A transcriptome was assembled using approximately 19.6 million 100 bp-long single-end reads, which generated 18,506 transcripts with a N50 of 996 bp. A search against the NCBI non-redundant database generated 51.1% (9,457) functionally annotated transcripts. A large portion of the alignments were homologous to insects, with the majority (45%) being similar to sequences of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Moreover, 10% of the alignments were similar to sequences of various species of Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with 3% of them being similar to sequences of S. frugiperda. A comparative analysis of the gene expression between LUF-R and LUF-S S. frugiperda larvae identified 940 differentially expressed transcripts (p ≤ 0.05, t-test; fold change ≥ 4). Six of them were associated with cuticle metabolism. Of those, four were overexpressed in LUF-R larvae. The machinery involved with the detoxification process was represented by 35 differentially expressed transcripts; 24 of them belonging to P450 monooxygenases, four to glutathione-S-transferases, six to carboxylases and one to sulfotransferases. RNA-Seq analysis was validated for a number of selected candidate transcripts by using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). The gene expression profile of LUF-R larvae of S. frugiperda differs from LUF-S larvae. In general, gene expression is much

  5. Primer registro de Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae en perales y álamos en la Patagonia First record of Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae on pear trees and poplars in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Dapoto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La región del Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén es la zona más importante de producción de frutas de pepita de la Argentina. La principal plaga de estos cultivos es Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae. Los cambios implementados en las estrategias de control, principalmente la generalización del uso de la Técnica de Confusión Sexual, han causado en los últimos años cambios en la biodiversidad en esos cultivos. Durante la temporada 2008/09, en un establecimiento frutícola de producción orgánica en Vista Alegre (Neuquén, fue detectada Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, produciendo graves daños en frutos y hojas de perales y sobre el follaje de Populus spp. Se cita por primera vez H. indecisa para la Patagonia y el primer hallazgo de esta especie sobre Populus spp. y Pyrus communis L.The Alto Valle of Río Negro and Neuquén is the main production zone of pomme fruits from Argentina. The main pest is Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Changes operated in control strategies in the last years have brought changes in the biodiversity of fruit orchards. During the season 2008/09, Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae was detected in a fruit establishment of Vista Alegre (Neuquén under organic production causing serious damages on fruits and leaves of pear trees and in the leaves of Populus spp. Hypercompe indecisa is reported for the first time in Patagonia and is the first record of this species on Populus spp.and Pyrus communis L.

  6. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  7. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  8. FIELD MONITORING OF TOMATO LEAF MINER TUTA ABSOLUTA (MEYRICK (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE BY PHEROMONE TRAPS IN ZONA 1 OF ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Kutinkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a economically important pest of processed and fresh tomatoes, both in greenhouses and open field crops. Currently, the pest threatens other cultivated solanaceous plants such as eggplant and potato. In this article we review pheromone control strategies for species-specific and environmentally safe management of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. This insect pest originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. In this article we describestrategies used to control T. absoluta including pest detection and population monitoring. Monitoring of Tuta absoluta was carried out in Imbabura Province in Ecuador. The parameters of using the pheromone traps Delta VI are described.

  9. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes, and Woodlands in Five Eastern States

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, J. C.; Leskey, T. C.; Walgenbach, J. F.; Klingeman, W. E.; Kain, D. P.; Zhang, A.

    2017-01-01

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee in 2005 and 2006. The mean total number of moths captured per site in apple orchards was 3,146 ± 644 and 3095 ± 584 SE in 2005 and 2006, respectively, excee...

  11. Global warming and the change of butterfly distributions: a new opportunity for species diversity or a severe threat (Lepidoptera)?

    OpenAIRE

    Ryrholm, N.

    2003-01-01

    Global warming and the change of butterfly distributions: a new opportunity for species diversity or a severe threat (Lepidoptera)? In order to assess the influence of climatic changes on the distribution of insects, the ranges of nonmigratory European butterfly species have been studied. This study revealed that the northern limits of 32 (64%) of 52 species have expanded northwards during the 20th century. The southern limits of ten (25%) of 40 species have retracted northwards. The example ...

  12. Primeira ocorrência de fitofagia de frutos e sementes de Orchidaceae por Hyphilaria thasus Stoll. (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRÉ RODRIGO RECH; YARA BRITO CHAIM JARDIM ROSA; EDGARD JARDIM ROSA JUNIOR

    2008-01-01

    Em um levantamento para identificação de espécies nativas da mata ciliar do Rio Dourados, Dourados (MS), observou-se a fitofagia em frutos de Brassavola cebolleta e Oncidium jonesianum por larvas de Hyphilaria thasus (Stoll, 1780) (Lepidoptera). Este é o primeiro relato da fitofagia de frutos e sementes nessas duas espécies de Orchidaceae no Brasil.

  13. Primeira ocorrência de fitofagia de frutos e sementes de Orchidaceae por Hyphilaria thasus Stoll. (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉ RODRIGO RECH

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Em um levantamento para identificação de espécies nativas da mata ciliar do Rio Dourados, Dourados (MS, observou-se a fitofagia em frutos de Brassavola cebolleta e Oncidium jonesianum por larvas de Hyphilaria thasus (Stoll, 1780 (Lepidoptera. Este é o primeiro relato da fitofagia de frutos e sementes nessas duas espécies de Orchidaceae no Brasil.

  14. Effects of gamma radiation on phases of evolutional cycle of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera pyralidae) in artificial diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, J.A.D.

    1991-04-01

    The effects of the increase in the gamma radiation ( 60 Co) doses on different phases of the evolutional cycle of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera Pyraliade) are studied. A cobalt 60 source type gamma beam 650 was used and the activity was of approximately 2.91 x 10 14 Bq. The experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with temperature at 25 ± 2 0 C and relative humidity of 70 ± 10%. (M.A.C.)

  15. Constancy, Distribution, and Frequency of Lepidoptera Defoliators of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla (Myrtaceae) in Four Brazilian Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, G T; Zanuncio, J C; de S Tavares, W; de S Ramalho, F; Serrão, J E

    2016-12-01

    The growth of the Brazilian forest sector with monocultures favors the adaptation of Arthropoda pests. The Lepidoptera order includes major pests of Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). The aim of this work is to study the population constancy, distribution, and frequency of Lepidoptera primary pests of Eucalyptus spp. Lepidoptera pests in Eucalyptus spp. plantations were collected in Três Marias and Guanhães (state of Minas Gerais), Niquelândia (state of Goiás), and Monte Dourado (state of Pará), Brazil, for a period of 5 years, with light traps and captures, every 15 days, for every region. The number of primary pest species (12) has been similar in the four regions, and even with 1.5 to 2.4% of the total species collected, this group has shown a high frequency, especially in Três Marias, Niquelândia, and Monte Dourado, with 66.3, 54.2, and 40.0% of the individuals collected, respectively, for 5 years. The primary pest species have been constant and frequent in all the regions, with population peaks from February to September in Três Marias, February and May in Niquelândia, and from July to September in Monte Dourado. The highest population peaks of these species have been recorded when the Eucalyptus spp. plants are 3 to 6 years old. The Guanhães region is more stable and, therefore, has a lower possibility of outbreaks of the Lepidoptera primary pest species.

  16. Pengaruh Umur Buah Dan Faktor Iklim Terhadap Serangan Penggerek Buah Jeruk Citripestis Sagitiferella Mr. (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    -, Muryati

    2007-01-01

    . Muryati. 2007. The Effect of Fruit Maturity and Climatic Factors on Damage Intensity of Citrus Fruit by Fruit borer Citripestis sagitiferella (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae).The objective of this research was to understand the effect of fruit maturity and climatic factors on damage intensity of citrus fruit by fruit borer C. sagitiferella. The experiment was conducted at Batu, Malang from August 2001 to July 2002. The experiment to observe the fruit damage by citrus fruit borer on several fruit mat...

  17. Enzymatic activity of α-amylase in alimentary tract Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Characterization and Compartmentalization

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Darvishzadeh; Vahid Hosseininaveh; Siavash Salimian Rizi

    2014-01-01

    The Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) damages a wide variety of crops in Middle East. Their hosts include cotton, alfalfa, eggplant, tomato, lettuce, bean and some ornamental crops. The intensive use of broad-spectrum insecticides against S. littoralis has led to the development of resistance to many registered pesticides use for its control. The purpose of the present study is biochemical characterization of digestive enzymes of this pest to...

  18. First report of Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae on African mahogany Khaya ivorensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Zanetti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The mahogany shoot borer Hypsipyla grandella Zeller is an important economic pest in all American tropical forests, because it prevents monoculture of valuable timber trees species like mahogany and cedar. The shoot borer damages several tree structures, especially the apical shoots, impairing the formation of the commercial stem. This pest can attack the plants during the year and one larva per plant is enough to cause significant damage. In infested areas, the attack can reach up to 100 % of the trees. The Australian cedar and African mahogany have been cultivated in Brazil for timber production, because they are considered resistant to H. grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae attack. However, in this work we report for the first time the H. grandella attack to African mahogany Khaya ivorensis.

  19. Os predadores no controlo natural de Mythimna unipuncta (Haworth) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Jorge R.; Tavares, João; Vieira, Virgílio

    1999-01-01

    IV Encontro Nacional de Protecção Integrada, 3 – 4 Outubro, 1997, Angra do Heroísmo, Açores. Nos Açores, durante as três últimas décadas, o aumento da monocultura de pastagem e as condições abióticas favoráveis ao desenvolvimento de Mythimna unipuncta (Haworth)(Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) contribuíram para que este insecto se tornasse numa das principais pragas agrícolas da região. A utilização da luta biológica depende da instalação de um bom sistema de predição das populações da praga, im...

  20. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bawin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  1. Response of Larval Lepidoptera and Their Avian Predators to Experimental Ice Storms in a Northeastern Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Wendy M.

    Experimental ice storms of varying severity were applied to replicate plots of mature northern hardwoods to quantify effects of this extreme weather event on forests. I investigated effects of ice storm treatments on larval Lepidoptera and their avian predators, both key contributors to ecosystem function. I conducted feeding assays to assess caterpillar growth and used point counts to measure insectivorous bird activity. Plasticine model caterpillars were deployed to estimate predation. Caterpillar growth rates positively correlated with treatment severity. Birds responded to ice storm treatments as a single diffuse disturbance. Caterpillar predation was not affected by treatments. I conclude that ice storms increased food quality for caterpillars and increased avian habitat use in the treated area. I created a lesson plan based on the plasticine caterpillar experiment. This lesson is simple and accessible for students to investigate ecological principles and scientific inquiry, and has been successfully implemented at two schools.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese skipper, Polytremis jigongi (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qichang; Zhao, Huidong; Chang, Yuan; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Jianqing; Yu, Weidong; Jiang, Weibin

    2016-07-01

    The sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Polytremis jigongi (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) has been presented in this article. It is 15,353 bp in length, with an A + T content of 80.9% containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a noncoding control region (D-loop). All of the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes were found. All protein-coding genes started with ATN as a start codon except for the gene COX1 that uses CGA as in other lepidopteran species. Five protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codon TA or T, while the others use TAA as stop codons. Most of the tRNA genes can be folded into a typical cloverleaf structure. Nucleotide composition is similar to other insects, showing a high bias toward A + T. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genome sequence of P. jigongi is close to Hesperiidae.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bombyx mori strain Baiyun (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huixian; Li, Fengbo; Zhu, Xinrong; Meng, Zhiqi

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bombyx mori strain Baiyun (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) was determined in this study. The genome was 15,629 bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and 1 non-coding A + T-rich region. Its gene content and order were identical to those of other lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) were initiated by ATN codons except for the COI gene, which began with CGA codon. Eleven PCGs stopped with termination codon TAA, whereas the COI and COII genes ended with single T. All the tRNA genes showed typical secondary cloverleaf structures. The 496 bp AT-rich region contains several features common to other lepidopterans, such as the motif ATAGA followed by an 18-bp poly-T stretch and two microsatellite-like (TA)8 and (AT)9 elements preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  4. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300-400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the "Pico Cristal" National Park in the West and the "Alexander von Humbolt" National Park in the East.

  5. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

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    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  6. Fate of Ingested Aristolactams from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae

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    Angel Olguín

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We performed a sequestration study of aristolactams (ALs from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae by examining the AL content of the plant, fifth instar larvae, osmeterial secretion, pupae, exuviae and feces. Aristolactam-I (AL-I and aristolactam-II (AL-II present in A. chilensis are sequestered by fifth instar larvae of B. polydamas archidamas. There is a preferential sequestration of AL-II, or a more efficient metabolization and excretion of AL-I, by the larva. No ALs were found in the osmeterial secretion, pupae and exuviae; in addition, little AL-I and no AL-II were found in larval frass. The two lactams, particularly AL-I, are extensively metabolized to other products in the larva. A reasonable hypothesis is that the ingested ALs are oxidized to their respective aristolochic acids.

  7. Fate of Ingested Aristolactams from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Alejandro; Olguín, Angel; Santander, Rocío

    2013-10-11

    We performed a sequestration study of aristolactams (ALs) from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) by examining the AL content of the plant, fifth instar larvae, osmeterial secretion, pupae, exuviae and feces. Aristolactam-I (AL-I) and aristolactam-II (AL-II) present in A. chilensis are sequestered by fifth instar larvae of B. polydamas archidamas. There is a preferential sequestration of AL-II, or a more efficient metabolization and excretion of AL-I, by the larva. No ALs were found in the osmeterial secretion, pupae and exuviae; in addition, little AL-I and no AL-II were found in larval frass. The two lactams, particularly AL-I, are extensively metabolized to other products in the larva. A reasonable hypothesis is that the ingested ALs are oxidized to their respective aristolochic acids.

  8. Selection of active plant extracts against the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae

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    D.S. Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to the development of alternative control methods of the coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae, a search for plants able to produce active substances against this insect was carried out, with species collected during different periods of time in the Alto Rio Grande region, (Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Coffee leaves containing L. coffeella mines were joined with 106 extracts from 77 plant species and, after 48 hours, the dead and alive caterpillars were counted. The extracts from Achillea millefolium, Citrus limon, Glechoma hederacea, Malva sylvestris, Mangifera indica, Mentha spicata, Mirabilis jalapa, Musa sapientum, Ocimum basiculum, Petiveria alliaceae, Porophyllum ruderale, Psidium guajava, Rosmarinus officinalis, Roupala montana, Sambucus nigra and Tropaeolum majus showed the highest mortality rates.

  9. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area-volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area-volume ratios.

  10. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Yume; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2011-10-22

    The Lepidoptera represent one of the most successful radiations of plant-feeding insects, which predominantly took place within angiosperms beginning in the Cretaceous period. Angiosperm colonization is thought to underlie the evolutionary success of the Lepidoptera because angiosperms provide an enormous range of niches for ecological speciation to take place. By contrast, the basal lepidopteran lineage, Micropterigidae, remained unassociated with angiosperms since Jurassic times but nevertheless achieved a modest diversity in the Japanese Archipelago. We explored the causes and processes of diversification of the Japanese micropterigid moths by performing molecular phylogenetic analysis and extensive ecological surveying. Phylogenetic analysis recovered a monophyletic group of approximately 25 East Asian endemic species that feed exclusively on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, suggesting that niche shifts hardly played a role in their diversification. Consistent with the low flying ability of micropterigid moths, the distributions of the Conocephalum specialists are each localized and allopatric, indicating that speciation by geographical isolation has been the major process shaping the diversity of Japanese Micropterigidae. To our knowledge, this is the largest radiation of herbivorous insects that does not accompany any apparent niche differentiation. We suggest that the significance of non-ecological speciation during the diversification of the Lepidoptera is commonly underestimated.

  11. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Willian Rogers Ferreira; de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ya-jun; Shi, Bao-cai; Kang, Zong-jiang; Zhang, Fan; Wei, Shu-jun

    2012-03-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) currently is one of the economically most destructive pest species of stone and pome fruits worldwide. Here we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of this pest. This genome is 15,776 bp long, with an A + T content of 81.24%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A + T-rich region. All gene are arranged as hypothesized ancestral gene order of insects except for trnM, which was shuffled from 3' downstream of trnQ to 5' upstream of trnI. cox1 gene uses unusual CGA start codon, as that in all other sequenced lepidopteran mitochondrial genome. The secondary structures for the two rRNA genes were predicted. All helices typically present in insect mitochondrial rRNA genes are generated. A microsatellite sequence was inserted into the region of H2347 in rrnL in G. molesta and two other sequenced tortricid mitochondrial genomes, indicating that the insertion event in this helix might occurred anciently in family Tortricidae. All of the 22 typical animal tRNA genes have a typical cloverleaf structure except for trnS2, in which the D-stem pairings in the DHU arm are absent. An intergenic sequence is present between trnQ and nad2 as well as in other sequenced lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes, which was presumed to be a remnant of trnM gene and its boundary sequences after the duplication of trnM to the upstream of trnI in Lepidoptera. The A + T-rich region is 836 bp, containing six repeat sequences of "TTATTATTATTATTAAATA(G)TTT."

  13. Molecular diversity of Wolbachia in Lepidoptera: Prevalent allelic content and high recombination of MLST genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinsky, Yury; Kosterin, Oleg E

    2017-04-01

    Wolbachia are common endosymbiotic bacteria of Arthropoda and Nematoda that are ordinarily transmitted vertically in host lineages through the egg cytoplasm. Despite the great interest in the Wolbachia symbiont, many issues of its biology remain unclear, including its evolutionary history, routes of transfer among species, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the symbiont's effect on its host. In this report, we present data relating to Wolbachia infection in 120 species of 13 Lepidoptera families, mostly butterflies, from West Siberian localities based on Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the wsp locus and perform a comprehensive survey of the distribution of Wolbachia and its genetic diversity in Lepidoptera worldwide. We observed a high infection incidence in the studied region; this finding is probably also true for other temperate latitude regions because many studied species have broad Palearctic and even Holarctic distribution. Although 40 new MLST alleles and 31 new STs were described, there was no noticeable difference in the MLST allele content in butterflies and probably also in moths worldwide. A genetic analysis of Wolbachia strains revealed the MLST allele core in lepidopteran hosts worldwide, viz. the ST-41 allele content. The key finding of our study was the detection of rampant recombination among MLST haplotypes. High rates of homologous recombination between Wolbachia strains indicate a substantial contribution of genetic exchanges to the generation of new STs. This finding should be considered when discussing issues related to the reconstruction of Wolbachia evolution, divergence time, and the routes of Wolbachia transmission across arthropod hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A revised checklist of Nepticulidae fossils (Lepidoptera) indicates an Early Cretaceous origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nieukerken, Erik J Van; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-05-27

    With phylogenetic knowledge of Lepidoptera rapidly increasing, catalysed by increasingly powerful molecular techniques, the demand for fossil calibration points to estimate an evolutionary timeframe for the order is becoming an increasingly pressing issue. The family Nepticulidae is a species rich, basal branch within the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera, characterized by larval leaf-mining habits, and thereby represents a potentially important lineage whose evolutionary history can be established more thoroughly with the potential use of fossil calibration points. Using our experience with extant global Nepticulidae, we discuss a list of characters that may be used to assign fossil leaf mines to Nepticulidae, and suggest useful methods for classifying relevant fossil material. We present a checklist of 79 records of Nepticulidae representing adult and leaf-mine fossils mentioned in literature, often with multiple exemplars constituting a single record. We provide our interpretation of these fossils. Two species now are included in the collective generic name Stigmellites: Stigmellites resupinata (Krassilov, 2008) comb. nov. (from Ophiheliconoma) and Stigmellites almeidae (Martins-Neto, 1989) comb. nov. (from Nepticula). Eleven records are for the first time attributed to Nepticulidae. After discarding several dubious records, including one possibly placing the family at a latest Jurassic position, we conclude that the oldest fossils likely attributable to Nepticulidae are several exemplars representing a variety of species from the Dakota Formation (USA). The relevant strata containing these earliest fossils are now dated at 102 Ma (million years ago) in age, corresponding to the latest Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous. Integration of all records in the checklist shows that a continuous presence of nepticulid-like leaf mines preserved as compression-impression fossils and by amber entombment of adults have a fossil record extending to the latest Early Cretaceous.

  15. Within-tree distribution of Ecdytolopha torticornis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae oviposition on macadamia nuts

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    Helga Blanco-Metzler

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertical distribution of eggs of the macadamia nutborer Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae and its preference of oviposition sites within and between macadamia cultivars were studied in Turrialba, Cartago, Costa Rica, in 1992 (N = 6 939. E. torticornis eggs were found throughout the foliar parts of the tree, but fewer eggs were laid in the crown top than in the mid or lower crown. Differences in the horizontal distribution of the eggs were not significant, albeit more eggs were found in the outer positions. The numbers of eggs found within the crowns of different clones were similar, implying that the nutborer has no preference for a particular cultivar.Se determinó la distribución vertical de los huevos del barrenador de la nuez de macadamia Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae y los sitios de preferencia de oviposición en los árboles y entre clones de macadamia. Se detectó la presencia de huevos de E. torticornis en todo el árbol, sin embargo, se encontró un menor número de huevos en la parte alta de la corona que en la parte media e inferior. La diferencia en la distribución horizontal de los huevos fue no significativa, a pesar de encontrarse un mayor número de huevos en las posiciones externas. El número de huevos entre clones fue similar, sugiriendo que la polilla del barrenador no tiene preferencias de oviposición entre clones.

  16. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  17. On the parasitoid complex of butterflies with descriptions of two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M; Bhambure, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    In comprehensive rearing of butterflies from Goa, India, an interesting parasitoid complex of wasps and tachinid flies was found. Two new species of parasitic wasps are described and illustrated: Tetrastichus thetisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the pupa of Curetis thetis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on the host plant Derris sp., and Sympiesis thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on the host plant Cocos nucifera L. Additionally, the following host-parasitoid associations are recorded: Amblypodia anita Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with Parapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Coladenia indrani (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae); Idea malabarica Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Palexorista sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae); Notocrypta curvifascia Felder & Felder (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); and Rapala sp. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an inominate species close to Aplomya spp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). This discovery is the first record of Tetrastichus as parasitoid of Curetis thetis, Sympiesis as parasitoid of Gangara thyrsis and Coladenia indrani, Brachymeria and Palexorista as parasitoids of Idea malabarica, and Cotesia erionotae as parasitoid of Notocrypta curvifascia. Data on habitat, brief diagnoses and host records for all parasitoids are provided.

  18. Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This publication results from the second FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Project (CRP) on Inherited Sterility in Lepidoptera (caterpillars of moths). The present CRP and a previous one entitled 'Radiation Induced F 1 Sterility in Lepidoptera for Area-Wide Control' were initiated in response to requests from Member States for the development of environment friendly alternatives to current control of moth pests. The first five-year CRP (1987-1991) dealt primarily with aspects such as determining the effects of various radiation dose levels on the resulting sterility in the treated parents and their F 1 progeny in different Lepidoptera species. In addition, models were developed on the suppressive effects of F 1 sterility on field populations, and some studies were conducted in laboratory or field cages to assess the impact of inherited sterility on pest suppression. The research results were published in 1993 in the IAEA Panel Proceedings Series. This follow-up CRP (1994-1998) has built on the results of the first CRP and has focused on addressing a more challenging phase, consisting of rearing key pest moths and evaluating their application for pest control purposes. The specific objective of the CRP was therefore to assess the potential of suppressing populations of caterpillar pests in the field by inherited sterility methods, i.e. by rearing and releasing irradiated moths and/or their progeny in combination with other biological control methods. The ultimate goal is to have alternative environment-friendly control methods available to be able to reduce the vast quantities of insecticide that are used in agriculture to combat Lepidoptera pests and that adversely affect the trade balance of developing countries because they must use hard currency to import them. The two FAO/IAEA sponsored Lepidoptera CRPs have resulted in expanded research and implementation programmes on F 1 sterility in combination with natural enemies. Such programmes are under way in Tunisia

  19. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccacece, Hernán M; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R

    2014-01-01

    Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev.

  20. POPULATION SURVEY AND FLIGHT BEHAVIOR OF BUTTERFLIES (LEPIDOPTERA IN A FOREST PORTION IN SÃO SEPÉ, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maína Roman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze lepidopterous insects with diurnal habits (butterflies associated with a native forest portion. Eight traps with bananas installed at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 m above soil surface were used. Samplings were obtained on a weekly basis from December 2005 to December 2006 in the county of São Sepé, RS. The faunistic indices represented by frequency, constancy, abundance and dominance were analyzed. Height of flight and species diversity were also evaluated. A total of 737 individuals of the Nymphalidae family were collected, which were classified into six subfamilies, 16 genus and 21 species. The most representative species were: Euptychia sp., Hamadryas feronia, Taygetis ypthima, Epiphile huebneri, Biblis hyperia, Taygetis sp.1 and Praepedaliodes phanias. The diversity indices of Shannon and Margalef indicate greater diversity at the height of 4.0 m and lower diversity at the height of 1.0 m, showing relative abundance as an important parameter in determining diversity. About 70% of the collected species were characterized as frequent, common, non-dominant and of accidental occurrence. Hamadryas feronia and Euptychia sp. were constant, dominant and very frequent. The species Euptychia sp. and Taygetis ypthima had height of flight close to the soil surface.

  1. Aspectos biológicos de Halysidota pearsoni (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae com folhas de amoreira Biological aspects of Halysidota pearsoni (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae fed with leaves of morus alba

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    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar aspectos biológicos de Halysidota pearsoni Watson, 1980 (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae. Lagartas de H. pearsoni foram criadas com folhas de Morus alba L. em potes plásticos até a fase de pupa. Dez casais desse lepidóptero foram individualizados em gaiolas para obtenção de ovos à temperatura de 25 ± 2 °C, umidade relativa de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Halysidota pearsoni teve período de oviposição de 3,5 ± 0,17 com 141,00 ± 9,18 ovos por fêmea, período de incubação de 7,5 ± 0,17 dias e viabilidade de ovos de 53,34 ± 5,24%. A fase larval de H. pearsoni teve seis estádios, com duração total de 28 dias, viabilidade de 91,78 ± 3,24%. A duração e a viabilidade dos períodos pré-pupal e pupal de H. pearsoni foram, respectivamente, de 7,0 ± 00 e 19,39 ± 0,74 dias e de 70,15 ± 5,63 e 93,62 ± 3,60%. O peso médio de suas pupas foi de 464,17 ± 7,70 mg e a razão sexual e de 0,45. A longevidade (dias de machos e fêmeas de H. pearsoni, com folhas de M. alba, foi de 7,40 ± 0,34 e 9,50 ± 0,45, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to study biological aspects of Halysidota pearsoni Watson, 1980 (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae. Caterpillars of H. pearsoni were fed with leaves of Morus alba L. in plastic pots until pupation. Ten pairs of this insect were individualized in cages for obtain eggs at the temperature of 25 ± 2° C, relative humidity of 60 ± 10% and photo phase of 12 hours. Halysidota pearsoni had an oviposition period of 3.5 ± 0.17 with 141.00 ± 9.18 eggs per female; an incubation period of 7.5 ± 0.17 days and an egg viability of 53.34 ± 5.24%. The larva stage of H. pearsoni had six instars with a total duration of 28 days and viability of 91.78 ± 3.24%. The duration and the viability of the pre-pupa and pupa periods of H. pearsoni was 7.0 ± 0.0 and 19.39 ± 0.74 days and 70.15 ± 5.63 and 93.62 ± 3.60% respectively. The pupae mean weight was 464.17 ± 7.70 mg and sex

  2. Electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.

    1975-01-01

    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

  3. Hemocyte quantitative changes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae infected by AgMNPV

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    Fábio Goulart de Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The initial effects of the infection by AgMNPV in the total and differential counts of the hemocytes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae were studied. The total number of the hemocytes did not decrease in infected larvae, as it occurred in non infected larvae. In infected larvae, the hemocyte types showed the following frequencies: plasmatocytes - 47.8%, esferulocytes - 25.9%, granulocytes - 15.8%, oenocytoids - 7.2%, prohemocytes - 2.8%, vermicytes - 0,5%. Only the percentage of the granulocytes was different among infected and non infected larvae, indicating that these cells responded quickly to the initial viral infection. These results showed the effective role of the hemocytes in the response of the A. gemmatalis to the infection by AgMNPV. The comprehension of the immunological mechanisms of this insect is an important tool to understand its biological control.Os efeitos iniciais da infecção por AgMNPV nas contagens total e diferencial dos hemócitos em Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foram estudados. O número total de hemócitos não diminuiu nas larvas infectadas, como ocorreu nas larvas não infectadas. Nas larvas infectadas, os tipos de hemócitos apresentaram as seguintes freqüências: plasmatócitos - 47,8%, esferulócitos - 25,9%, granulócitos - 15,8%, oenocitóides - 7,2%, prohemócitos - 2,8%, vermiformes - 0,5%. Apenas a porcentagem de granulócitos foi diferente entre larvas infectadas e não infectadas, indicando que estas células responderam rapidamente à infecção viral inicial. Estes resultados mostraram o papel efetivo que dos hemócitos na resposta de A. gemmatalis à infecção por AgMNPV. A compreensão dos mecanismos imunológicos deste inseto é uma ferramenta importante para compreender seu controle biológico.

  4. Expression and evolution of hexamerins from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and other Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Hexamerins are large hemolymph-proteins that accumulate during the late larval stages of insects. Hexamerins have emerged from hemocyanin, but have lost the ability to bind oxygen. Hexamerins are mainly considered as storage proteins for non-feeding stages, but may also have other functions, e.g. in cuticle formation, transport and immune response. The genome of the hornworm Manduca sexta harbors six hexamerin genes. Two of them code for arylphorins (Msex2.01690, Msex2.15504) and two genes correspond to a methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.10735) and a moderately methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.01694), respectively. Two other genes do not correspond to any known hexamerin and distantly resemble the arylphorins (Msex2.01691, Msex2.01693). Five of the six hexamerin genes are clustered within ∼45 kb on scaffold 00023, which shows conserved synteny in various lepidopteran genomes. The methionine-rich hexamerin gene is located at a distinct site. M. sexta and other Lepidoptera have lost the riboflavin-binding hexamerin. With the exception of Msex2.01691, which displays low mRNA levels throughout the life cycle, all hexamerins are most highly expressed during pre-wandering phase of the 5th larval instar of M. sexta, supporting their role as storage proteins. Notably, Msex2.01691 is most highly expressed in the brain, suggesting a divergent function. Phylogenetic analyses showed that hexamerin evolution basically follows insect systematics. Lepidoptera display an unparalleled diversity of hexamerins, which exceeds that of other hexapod orders. In contrast to previous analyses, the lepidopteran hexamerins were found monophyletic. Five distinct types of hexamerins have been identified in this order, which differ in terms of amino acid composition and evolutionary history: i. the arylphorins, which are rich in aromatic amino acids (∼20% phenylalanine and tyrosine), ii. the distantly related arylphorin-like hexamerins, iii. the methionine-rich hexamerins, iv. the

  5. Key biosynthetic gene subfamily recruited for pheromone production prior to the extensive radiation of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Tomas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moths have evolved highly successful mating systems, relying on species-specific mixtures of sex pheromone components for long-distance mate communication. Acyl-CoA desaturases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of these compounds and to a large extent they account for the great diversity of pheromone structures in Lepidoptera. A novel desaturase gene subfamily that displays Δ11 catalytic activities has been highlighted to account for most of the unique pheromone signatures of the taxonomically advanced ditrysian species. To assess the mechanisms driving pheromone evolution, information is needed about the signalling machinery of primitive moths. The currant shoot borer, Lampronia capitella, is the sole reported primitive non-ditrysian moth known to use unsaturated fatty-acid derivatives as sex-pheromone. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches we elucidated the biosynthesis paths of its main pheromone component, the (Z,Z-9,11-tetradecadien-1-ol and bring new insights into the time point of the recruitment of the key Δ11-desaturase gene subfamily in moth pheromone biosynthesis. Results The reconstructed evolutionary tree of desaturases evidenced two ditrysian-specific lineages (the Δ11 and Δ9 (18C>16C to have orthologs in the primitive moth L. capitella despite being absent in Diptera and other insect genomes. Four acyl-CoA desaturase cDNAs were isolated from the pheromone gland, three of which are related to Δ9-desaturases whereas the fourth cDNA clusters with Δ11-desaturases. We demonstrated that this transcript (Lca-KPVQ exclusively accounts for both steps of desaturation involved in pheromone biosynthesis. This enzyme possesses a Z11-desaturase activity that allows transforming the palmitate precursor (C16:0 into (Z-11-hexadecenoic acid and the (Z-9-tetradecenoic acid into the conjugated intermediate (Z,Z-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid. Conclusion The involvement of a single Z11-desaturase in pheromone

  6. Estádio de adaptação de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em hospedeiros alternativos Fitness stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on alternative hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Gisele Brasil Boregas; Simone Martins Mendes; José Magid Waquil; Geraldo Wilson Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    A principal praga-alvo na cultura do milho é a lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), que, pela sua ampla distribuição temporal e geográfica constitui-se em uma das espécies mais nocivas nas regiões tropicais das Américas. O objetivo foi avaliar o estádio de adaptação de S. frugiperda em 17 espécies hospedeiras, cultivadas ou selvagens, mais comuns no agroecossistema brasileiro. As plantas foram cultivadas em cinco épocas, entre 2006 e 2008, ut...

  7. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  8. Application of a frequency distribution method for determining instars of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from widths of cast head capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Chen; S. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Instar determination of field-collected insect larvae has generally been based on the analysis of head capsule width frequency distributions or bivariate plotting, but few studies have tested the validity of such methods. We used head capsules from exuviae of known instars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),...

  9. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established usin...

  10. Three new species of Rectiostoma Becker, 1982 (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Depressariidae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe three new species of Rectiostoma Becker, 1982 from Costa Rica: R. annemayae Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov., R. eowilsoni Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov. and R. philipmayi Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov. We used a data set of DNA COI-barcodes accumulated for Lepidoptera collected at Area de Conse...

  11. Mating disruption of the navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using widely spaced, aerosol dispensers: is the pheromone blend the most efficacious disruptant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a key pest of almonds and pistachios and is sometimes controlled using mating disruption as part of a program of integrated management. The formulation used has a single, non-attractive compound [(Z,Z)-11-13-hexadecadie...

  12. Biology, behavior, and larval morphology of Salbia lotanalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Miconia calvescens (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Castillo; M. Tracy Johnson; Francisco R. Badenes-Pérez

    2014-01-01

    The leaf roller Salbia lotanalis Druce (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Miconia calvescens de Candolle (Melastomataceae), was studied in Costa Rica. Larvae were collected from a field site near San Jose and the insect was reared in the laboratory to study its biology and behavior. Chaetotaxy and...

  13. Evaluation of the effects of light entensity and time interval after the start of scotophase on the female flight propensity of Asian gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang Chen; Juan Shi; Melody Keena

    2016-01-01

    Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), females are capable of flight, but little is known about what causes the variation in flight propensity that has been observed. The female flight propensity and capability of Asian gypsy moth from seven geographic populations (three from China, two from Russia, one from Japan, and one...

  14. Two psammophilic noctuids (Lepidoptera) newly associated with beach plum Prunus maritima: The Dune Noctuid (Sympistis riparia) and Coastal Heathland Cutworm (Abagrotis nefascia) in Northeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach Plum Prunus maritima Marshall 1785 not Wangenh. 1787 (Rosaceae) represents both a new crop under development and an under-acknowledged host plant for several Lepidoptera rthat have undergone declines in the Northeastern USA. The Coastal Heathland Cutworm Abagrotis nefascia (Smith) and the Dune...

  15. Field evaluation of effect of temperature on release of Disparlure from a pheromone-baited trapping system used to monitor gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Aijun Zhang; Ksenia Onufrieva; Donna Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Traps baited with disparlure, the synthetic form of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), sex pheromone are used to detect newly founded populations and estimate population density across the United States. The lures used in trapping devices are exposed to field conditions with varying climates, which can affect the rate...

  16. The leafmining Leurocephala schinusae (Lepidoptera Gracillariidae): Not suitable for the biological control of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales Anacardiaceae)in continental USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurocephala schinusae Davis & Mc Kay (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was studied to assess its suitability as a biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), a serious environmental weed in the USA and elsewhere in the world. The host range was determined by ...

  17. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES COMPOSITION OF THE NOCTUIDAE (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE IN THE ISLANDS TULENY, CHECHEN, NORDOVY IN NORTHWESTERN PART OF CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of our research fauna of the islands of the Dagestan part of the Caspian Sea found 69 species of the Noctuidae (Lepidopte-ra, Noctuidae, of which 57 species belong to the island Tulenei, 39 species belong to the island Chechnya, 20 species belong to the island Nordovy.

  18. Expanze zavíječe bahenního Ostrinia palustralis v České republice (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Michal; Fric, Zdeněk; Beneš, Jiří; Konvička, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, 1-2 (2013), s. 95-105 ISSN 1210-6100 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167; GA MŽP SP/2D3/62/08 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * distribution * faunistics Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. Conserved Patterns of Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation in the Lepidoptera (WZ/ZZ): Insights from a Moth Neo-Z Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, James R.; Knipple, Douglas C.

    2017-01-01

    Where previously described, patterns of sex chromosome dosage compensation in the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) have several unusual characteristics. Other female-heterogametic (ZW/ZZ) species exhibit female Z-linked expression that is reduced compared with autosomal expression and male Z expression. In the Lepidoptera, however, Z expression typically appears balanced between sexes but overall reduced relative to autosomal expression, that is Z ≈ ZZ Cydia pomonella, which is a species from the earliest diverging lepidopteran lineage yet examined for dosage compensation and has a neo-Z chromosome resulting from an ancient Z:autosome fusion. While supported by intraspecific analyses, the Z ≈ ZZ pomonella neo-Z genes in outgroup species. In contrast, dosage compensation appears to be absent in reproductive tissues. We thus argue that inclusion of reproductive tissues may explain the incongruence from a prior study on another moth species and that patterns of dosage compensation are likely conserved in the Lepidoptera. Notably, this pattern appears convergent with patterns in eutherian mammals (X ≈ XX < AA). Overall, our results contribute to the notion that the Lepidoptera present challenges both to classical theories regarding the evolution of sex chromosome dosage compensation and the emerging view of the association of dosage compensation with sexual heterogamety. PMID:28338816

  20. (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-Pentacosapentaene and (Z) -11-Hexadecenyl Acetate: sex attractant blend for Dioryctria amatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Miller; Jocelyn Millar; Alex Mangini; Christopher Crowe; Gary Grant

    2010-01-01

    In 2006-2008, we tested (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-pentacosapentaene (pentaene) with the pheromone components (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac) and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), as sex attractants for four sympatric species of coneworms, Dioryctria Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in slash (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) and...

  1. Disruption of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus: effect of blend and placement height, longevity of disruption and emission profile of a new dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent efforts to disrupt mating of the leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a global pest of citrus, have focused on the use of SPLAT™ (ISCA Technologies), a flowable wax emulsion intended to serve as a slow-release matrix for pheromones. Early success with this...

  2. CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) CpomOR1 gene affects egg production and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. The inclusion of semiochemicals, including the main sex pheromone (codlemone), in codling moth IPM programs has drastically reduced the amount of chemical insecticides needed to control this ...

  3. The preimaginal stages of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva & Kurashev, 1990 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, a parasitoid associated with Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еkaterina Yegorenkova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The larval instars of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva and Kurashev are described in detail for the first time. This species is a larval-pupal ectoparasitoid of Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, which forms leaf mines in the plant Chenopodium album L. (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae. The female of P. gyamiensis lays a single egg on the skin of the host larva or nearby it, without any significant preference for a particular variant. The presence of long hairs on its body provides the newly-hatched first larval instar with high mobility. Some peculiarities in this parasitoid-host relationship are described.

  4. Efeito de extratos de annonáceas sobre a lagarta falsa medideira Chrysodeixis includens(Walker 1857)(Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Massaroli, Angélica

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Chrysodeixis (=Pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) ou lagarta falsa medideira, como é conhecida popularmente, é praga desfolhadora de diversas culturas de importância econômica. Seu controle é feito quase exclusivamente através de inseticidas químicos, que nem sempre são eficientes devido ao hábito da lagarta em permanecer na face abaxial das folhas no terço médio da planta. Além disso, os agrotóxicos trazem inúmeras desvantagens como a contaminação ambiental, su...

  5. Pertumbuhan dan Produktivitas Ulat Sutera Bombyx Mori L. (Lepidoptera : Bombicidae) yang Diberi Vitamin B1 Pada Daun Murbei Morus sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Umi Kalsum

    2014-01-01

    The effect of mulberry leaves that contain B1 on the growth and productivity of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.; Lepidoptera; Bombicidae) was conducted in the Laboratory of Genetics, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Sumatera Utara Medan. This study used an experimental method to completely randomized design (RAL). The treatments were vitamine B1 0.0mg/100ml; 0.1mg/100ml, 0.2mg/100ml, 0.3mg/100ml; 0.4 mg/100ml with 3 replications each replication consi...

  6. Contribution to the knowledge of the Lepidoptera Fauna of the lower Sangro valley in the Abruzzo region of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Zahm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of recording Lepidoptera in the lower Sangro valley during a period of 22 years. The investigations were devoted to Macroheterocera and were carried out in the two regional nature reserves Oasi di Serranella and Lecceta di Torino di Sangro. The listing also includes some Microlepidoptera as non-target species, as well as occasionally observed butterflies. The 401 recorded species are presented in a table indicating both the locality of the records and the observed flight times and periods of activity. Fifteen species are published for the Abruzzo region for the first time; 2 species are new for the Italian peninsula.

  7. New Pyrethroids for Use Against Tuta Absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): Their Toxicity and Control Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Shaiene C; Silvério, Flaviano O; Picanço, Marcelo C; Alvarenga, Elson S; Pereira, Renata R; Santana Júnior, Paulo A; Silva, Gerson A

    2017-09-01

    Insect pests are responsible for major losses in crop productivity, and insecticides are the main tools used to control these organisms. There is increasing demand for new products for pest management. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of pyrethroids with acid moiety modifications to measure the insecticidal activity of these compounds on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). First, we synthesized E/Z mixtures of five pyrethroids: [9], [10], [11], [12], and [13]. Then, we separated the cis and trans pyrethroid isomers of [9], [10], [11], and [12]. We assessed the toxicity of these compounds against T. absoluta. The E/Z mixtures of the five pyrethroids (30 µg of substance per mg-1 of insect) caused high (100%) and rapid (pyrethroid [10] was the most toxic to T. absoluta, causing mortality similar to permethrin. The other isomers were less powerful than permethrin. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  8. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley S. Higbee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management.

  9. Bacillus thuringiensis isolates entomopathogenic for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae and Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gobatto

    Full Text Available Samples of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt were collected from soil and insects. Eight isolates were selected from rural soil, 15 from urban soil and 11 from insects. These were evaluated for entomopathogenicity against larvae of Anticarsia gemmatalis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The pathogenicity tests showed that a higher percentage of isolates were active against A. gemmatalis (60% compared to C. quinquefasciatus (31%. Probit analysis (LC50 indicated that against A. gemmatalis four of the isolates presented values similar to the reference strain against A. gemmatalis, while against C. quinquefasciatus one isolate showed an LC50 similar to the reference strain (IPS-82. SDS-PAGE characterisation of two isolates showed a 27 kDa protein fraction related to the Bt subspecies israelensis cytolytic toxin (cyt gene. One 130 kDa protein, possibly related to the Bt crystal inclusions (cry1 gene, was identified in the other two isolates, which were more toxic for lepidoptera; another isolate presented a protein of 100 kDa. Some new local Bt isolates had similar LC50 probit values to the reference strains.

  10. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological variables parameters of the larvae were evaluated daily: development time (days, larval and pupal weight (g and viability (%, adult longevity and total life cycle (days. A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replication. The rutin flavonoid negatively affected the biology of S. frugiperda by prolonging the larval development time, reducing the weight of larvae and pupae and decreasing the viability of the pupae. The addition of different concentrations of rutin prolonged the S. frugiperda life cycle. The use of plant with insecticidal activity has the potential with strategy in IPM.

  11. DNA diagnostics to identify internal feeders (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of pome fruits of quarantine importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcenas, N M; Unruh, T R; Neven, L G

    2005-04-01

    A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is presented for differentiating among the North American internal apple-feeding pests codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); lesser appleworm, Grapholita prunivora (Walsh); and cherry fruitworm, Grapholita packardi Zeller. An approximately 470-bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced in three to six specimens of each species. Consistent and diagnostic differences were observed among the species in two regions of COI from which forward and reverse primers were designed to amplify a 112-116-bp segment of the gene. The primer sets were used to selectively amplify DNA from specimens of diverse geographic origin for each corresponding target species. Protocols were adapted for conventional and quantitative PCR, the latter being substantially faster. The method was validated as a decision-making tool for quarantine identifications for Mexico by representatives of their phytosanitary agency (Sanidad Vegetal). The method can facilitate identification of intercepted internal feeding Lepidoptera in apple and pear for many other importing nations.

  12. Effects of orchard host plants on the oviposition preference of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Recently, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), has emerged as a major problem on apples (Malus spp.) grown in the mid-Atlantic and midwestern United States, despite its historically important and frequent occurrence as a peach (Prunus spp.) pest. It is possible that host-driven biological phenomena may be contributing to changes in G. molesta population dynamics resulting in outbreaks in apple. Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oviposition behavior, in an effort to clarify the host association status of eastern U.S. populations and also to gain insight into how pest modeling and management efforts may be altered to take into account various host-associated effects. G. molesta adults exhibited ovipositional preference for nonbearing peach trees over nonbearing apple trees in close-range choice tests conducted in the field, regardless of the larval host origin. A significant preference for peach shoots over apple shoots was observed on six of 12 sampling dates with a wild G. molesta population at the interface of adjacent peach and apple blocks. Numbers of eggs found on apple fruit were higher after peach fruit were harvested and apple fruit began to approach maturity (during the flight period for third and fourth brood adults). Possible implications for population modeling and integrated management of G. molesta are discussed.

  13. Effects of orchard host plants (apple and peach) on development of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2007-04-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apple, Malus domestica Borkh., and peach, Prunus persica L.) on the development of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Oriental fruit moth larvae developed faster on peach than on apple, both on fruit as well as on growing terminal shoots. On fruit, these differences were shown to cause significant changes in both the rate (approximately 20-60 degree-days earlier emergence on peach than on apple) and patterns of adult emergence among several cultivars of peaches and apples. Slopes of female emergence plots varied by host in 2003, with emergence occurring over a longer period on peach cultivars than on apple cultivars (with one exception). Slopes of male emergence curves did not differ by cultivar in 2003. These host-driven effects could impact the efficacy of traditional pest management approaches and probably complicate efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in mixed cultivar orchards. Such developmental effects may help to explain previously observed differences in patterns of pheromone trap captures in peach versus apple orchards. Host-associated effects should be incorporated into future models to develop more realistic predictive tools and thus improve integrated pest management efforts.

  14. Whole-farm mating disruption to manage Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in diversified New Jersey orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollerup, Kris E; Rucker, Ann; Shearer, Peter W

    2012-10-01

    Fruit orchards in New Jersey are usually isolated from neighboring farms and diversified, often containing separate plantings of peach (Prunus spp.) and apple (Malus spp.). These crops can suffer significant damage from oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). This study evaluated the effect of managing G. molesta by using sex pheromone-based mating disruption applied to both peaches and apples (whole-farm mating disruption) rather than treating either crop alone. In year 1 of the experiment, G. molesta mating disruption applied to the adjacent peach and apple blocks provided better control than treating peaches or apples alone. During year 2, treating these adjacent blocks or only treating apples controlled G. molesta equally well. G. molesta populations were so low at the end of year 2 that mating disruption was not applied against this pest during year 3. This allowed us to determine whether applying mating disruption for two consecutive years controlled G. molesta well enough that it eliminated the need mating disruption for three consecutive years. The mean cumulative number of G. molesta captured in plots where both peaches and apples had been treated did not exceed two moths per trap in the third year of this experiment. In contrast, G. molesta capture rebounded during August in peaches and apples that had not been treated with mating disruption the previous 2 yr. Implications for managing G. molesta by using mating disruption as a "whole-farm" tactic as well applying it for two consecutive years and not a third year are discussed.

  15. Current and Future Potential Risk of Establishment of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G; Kumar, Sunil; Yee, Wee L; Wakie, Tewodros

    2018-02-17

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits that cause significant economic damage. Larvae, which enter the host plant through shoot tips, damage shoots, and ripe fruits. Native to Asia, this pest now occurs in many fruit-growing countries, including the United States and Canada. Though the pest was previously reported from many states within the United States, its current distribution and the environmental variables that influence its distribution are not properly identified. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify the environmental factors associated with G. molesta current distribution, 2) predict the current distribution of G. molesta in Washington State (WA) using Maxent and Climex models, 3) identify those areas within WA best suited for establishment of pest free zones, areas of low pest prevalence, and pest free production areas, and 4) identify regions most at risk for further expansion of G. molesta populations as a function of climate change. The current models predicted a small portion of central WA is suitable to support G. molesta, which is consistent with observed distributions. However, climate change models predict that more areas will become suitable for the pest. These results indicate that action should be taken to monitor and reduce current populations of G. molesta to stem its potential expansion into the major commercial tree fruit production areas in the state.

  16. Differentiating Oriental Fruit Moth and Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, Myriam; Bouvier, Floriane; Maugin, Sandrine; Lecomte, Alain; Lavigne, Claire

    2015-02-01

    Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are two important lepidopteran pests that may co-occur in apple orchards and are difficult to differentiate in the larval stage. We investigate the possibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) coupled with partial least squares analysis to distinguish the larvae of the two species. We further assess whether wild individuals can be differentiated using laboratory strains of the two species for model calibration. The NIRS spectra of C. molesta and C. pomonella differed most in the wavelengths between 1,142 and 1,338 nm. Using these wavelengths, partial least squares analysis allowed the differentiation of C. molesta and C. pomonella at the larval stage with very low error, but only as long as both the calibration and prediction sets for individuals had the same origin (either both from the laboratory or both from the field). Errors that appeared when using laboratory individuals for calibration were owing to the divergence of the C. pomonella laboratory strain, most likely following evolution during rearing. Thus, NIRS appears to be a promising tool for the easy and rapid identification of individuals in the field, provided that it is calibrated based on a subset of field individuals. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  18. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Bradley S; Burks, Charles S; Larsen, Thomas E

    2014-07-22

    The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management.

  19. Yield-based economic thresholds for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in juice grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Mason, Keith S; Teixeira, Luís A F; Isaacs, Rufus

    2013-04-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial juice grape (Vitis labrusca L.) vineyards to develop an economic injury level (EIL) for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and to determine patterns of cluster injury. Infestation of grape clusters by P. viteana was measured biweekly from bloom until harvest, and fruit was sampled immediately before harvest to determine the yield and level of fruit injury by this pest. Comparison of fruit infestation at each sampling date to that found just before harvest revealed stronger relationships over time, and by early August at least 50% of the variation in preharvest infestation was accounted for by previous infestation. Grape yield declined with increasing infestation by P. viteana, allowing calculation of the EIL at which the value of yield lost to infestation equaled the cost of insecticide applications to prevent the infestation. Using two scenarios of pest control programs based on pyrethroid or diamide insecticides, the EILs were calculated to be 9.9 and 17.7% of clusters damaged, respectively. For use in juice grape vineyard integrated pest management programs, we propose using 5 and 10% damaged clusters at harvest as action thresholds for further testing in field trials to evaluate sampling plans and the use of thresholds to guide vineyard pest management decision-making under different insecticide scenarios.

  20. Biological aspects of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: a polyphagous armyworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Specht

    Full Text Available We studied the biology of Tiracola grandirena(Herrich-Schäffer, 1868 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hadeninae at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photo phase. Three experiments, using 150 larvae each, were conducted for the larval stage. In the first, used to assess the duration and survival of all stages, insects were reared individually and fed an artificial diet (Grenee. In the second, individuals were also reared separately, but were fed leaves of 10 plants from different families. In the third, the larvae were not individualised, the food plants were rotated such as to provide three plant species every 48 hours. In the first experiment, the viability of the eggs, larvae, pupae and prepupae was 91.9, 94.7, 32.49 and 43.5%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larvae, prepupae, pupae and adult were 6.0, 25.3, 25.7, 21.4 and 12.7 days, respectively. The prolonged prepupal period indicates that T. grandirena can develop larval (prepupal diapause. The results of the experiments with different host plants showed that T. grandirena is polyphagous at species, population and individual level.

  1. Identification of Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) based on cytochrome oxidase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Gloria Patricia; Villamizar, Laura Fernanda; Espinel, Carlos; Quintero, Edgar Mauricio; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás; Toloza, Deisy Liseth; Ghiringhelli, Pablo Daniel; Vargas, Germán

    2017-01-01

    Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are a group of insects that are agriculture pests in many economically relevant crops such as sugarcane, sorghum, corn and rice. Recognized species for this genus respond differentially to natural enemies used in their biological control, emphasizing the importance of species in a regional approach. Currently, identification is based on the male genitalia. However, the availability of specimens collected from field and subjectivity based on the character recognition can seriously hamper species identification, and therefore result in inadequate pest management. To overcome this, individuals of Diatraea spp. preliminarily classified male genitalia and obtained from reared conditions and the field (both derived from natural populations occurring in Colombia) were analyzed using genitalic morphometry and molecular biology specifically using a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II (CO II) mitochondrial gene. Although morphometric analysis did not show any overriding results regarding genitalia morphology, the bioinformatics analyses of CO II sequences resulted in an adequate classification of the individuals within the recognized species. It also, revealed that the occurrence of clades associated with geographical distribution may be associated with cryptic species. The latter was also confirmed by a Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) methodology evaluating the same fragment of CO II. This experimental approach allows properly recognizing each species and in consequence is proposed as an effective tool in Diatraea species identification.

  2. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi, E-mail: lsasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 {+-}5 deg C and 70 {+-}5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  3. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zheng; Shen, Qing-Qing

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was assembled from Illumina sequencing reads (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). The genome is a double-stranded circular molecule of 15 205 bp, comprising 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and one control region. All PCGs are initiated with ATN codons, except for COX1 with the putative CGA initiation codon. Six PCGs (COX1, COX2, CYTB, ND2, ND3, and ND4) harbor an incomplete termination codon T, while all the others are terminated with TAA (ATP6, ATP8, COX3, ND1, ND4, and ND6) or TAG (ND4L). The base composition is highly biased (37.9% A, 12.6% C, 7.8% G, and 41.7% T) with an overall A + T content of 79.6%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that A. transitella is more phylogenetically related to its confamilial counterparts than to those from the family Crabidae.

  5. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, W.D., E-mail: weliton.silva@usp.b [Department of Entomology and Acarology, Laboratory of Chemical Ecology and Insect Behavior, University of Sao Paulo, ' Luiz de Queiroz' College of Agriculture, Padua Dias Avenue, 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba (Brazil); Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T. [Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Centenario Avenue 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD{sub 90} and LD{sub 99} were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  6. Three new species of Fancy Case caterpillars from threatened forests of Hawaii (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae, Hyposmocoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The endemic Hawaiian moth genus Hyposmocoma includes 348 described species and perhaps twice as many that remain undescribed. The genus is unusual within Lepidoptera in that its larvae create distinctive silk cases in which they perambulate while protected and camouflaged. An extraordinary diversity of case types exists, and to date more than ten different types have been identified, each corresponding roughly to a separate evolutionary lineage. In this study, we describe three new species of Hyposmocoma: Hyposmocoma ipohapuu sp. n. from Big Island, Hyposmocoma makawao sp. n. from Makawao Forest Reserve in Mauiand Hyposmocoma tantala sp. n. from Mt. Tantalus, Oahu, all of which produce tubular purse cases during their larval stage. We also describe the female of Hyposmocoma inversella Walsingham, which was previously undescribed, and re-describe two closely related species, Hyposmocoma auropurpurea Walsingham and Hyposmocoma nebulifera Walsingham, neither which have been formally described in recent years. We present for the first time, primer sequences for a 705 bp fragment of CAD, designed for Hyposmocoma and relatives. The molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci demonstrates that all are distinct species. The discovery of a new, endemic species from Mt. Tantalus, an area with many invasive species, suggests that even relatively degraded areas in Hawaii would be worthy of active conservation efforts. PMID:22408378

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Sun, Yang; Xiao, Liubin; Tan, Yongan; Dai, Hanyang; Bai, Lixin

    2016-05-01

    Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a key pest in many cotton-growing countries of the world. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the pink bollworm P. gossypiella was determined, which is 15,202 bp in length (GenBank accession number: KM225795) containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial gene and an A + T-rich region. The gene order of P. gossypiella mtDNA was different from the insect ancestral gene order in the translocation of trnM, as shared by previously sequenced lepidopteran mtDNAs. The protein-coding genes (PCGs) have typical mitochondrial start codons ATN, with the exception of COI, Nad5, which uses the start codons CGA, GTT. Eight PCGs stop with complete termination codons (TAA), whereas five PCGs use incomplete stop codon T. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnS1(AGN), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Like other insects, the control region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 309 bp and an A + T content of 94.8%, which is the most AT-rich region and comparatively simple, with little evidence of long tandem repeats, but harbors a conserved structure combining the motif ATAGA and a 18-bp poly-T stretch.

  8. Temperature effects on development and fecundity of Brachmia macroscopa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Wang, Xing; Liu, Yan; Su, Ming-Zhu; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the impacts of temperature on the development and reproductivity of the sweet potato leaf folder, Brachmia macroscopa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in sweet potato leaves under laboratory conditions. We determined developmental time of B. macroscopa larval, pupal, and pre-adult stage at different temperatures. Male and female longevity, male and female lifespan, mortality of immature stages, oviposition period of B. macroscopa were also investigated under six constant temperatures (21°C, 24°C, 27°C, 30°C, 33°C, 36°C), based on age-stage, two-sex life tables. The results revealed that eggs in 36°C were unable to hatch. At temperatures between 21°C -33°C, the duration of the pre-adult period, as well as the adult lifespan both for males and females, were shortened by increasing temperatures. The lowest larval mortality rate (15.33%) occurred at 27°C. The age-stage-specific fecundity rates with the greatest number were, in order, 30°C, 27°C, 21°C, 24°C and 33°C. The results show that B. macroscopa population levels could reach highest at the temperature of 27℃.

  9. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynn, S.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Penny, N.D.; Showers, W.B.; Smith, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States

  11. Effects of gamma radiation on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fall armyworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Jose G.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Machi, Andre R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most harmful insects the corn culture is the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), known commonly as fall armyworm, it is would originate of the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent; its economical importance is due polyphagism, attacking countless grassy, such as corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and pastures. One of the methods more used in the moment is the chemical control that during several applications the insect can turn resistant, then news researches has been made to the control of the insects. Due what was exposed the objective of the research was evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on larvae of S. frugiperda. Insects were rear in artificial diet. Each treatment had 5 repetitions with 20 larvae with 15-20 days of age in the total of 100 larvae per treatment. The larvae were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of: 0 (control), 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy, in source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220, at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ± 5 dec C and 70 ± 5% R.H. Were evaluated the emergence of adults. The results showed that the dose of 300 Gy was the lethal dose to larvae irradiated, and 200 Gy the sterilizing dose to adults. (author)

  12. Assessment of resistance risk in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to chlorantraniliprole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Tiancai; Su, Jianya

    2011-11-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of numerous cultivated crops. Chlorantraniliprole, the first commercialised ryanodine receptor insecticide from the anthranilic diamide class, has exceptional insecticidal activity on a range of lepidopteran pests. The aim of this study was to assess the resistance of S. exigua to chlorantraniliprole in the laboratory. A field-collected population of S. exigua was selected after repeated exposure to chlorantraniliprole to determine the risk of resistance evolution. After 22 generations of selection, there was a 12.0-fold increase in LC(50) . The realised heritability (h(2)) of resistance was estimated as 0.1082 by using threshold trait analysis. The projected rate of resistance evolution indicated that, if h(2) = 0.1082 and 70% of the population was killed at each generation, then a tenfold increase in LC(50) would be expected in 21.7 generations for chlorantraniliprole. These results show that the risk of resistance development to chlorantraniliprole exists in S. exigua after continuous application. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. AKTIVITAS EKSTRAK BIJI TANAMAN MINDI MELIA AZEDARACH (L. TERHADAP SPODOPTERA LITURA (F. (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdani .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Activity of Melia azedarach (L. seed extract against armyworm Spodoptera litura (F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectivenes and biological activity of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae seed extract against armyworm, Spodoptera litura F. The first instar larvae were fed extract-treated cotton leaves for 2 days, then were maintained on untreated leaves until the third instar stage. Records were kept in regard to the larvae mortality and developmental time of surviving larvae from first instar to third instar. The result showed that Melia azedarach L. seed extract at consentration of 50 g of seeds/l of water (5% exhibited moderate insecticidal activity against S. litura larvae (43.33 - 68.33% mortality. Addition of detergen at 0.2% to extract did not increase insecticidal activity of the extract. However, boiling seed extract at consentration of 50 g of seeds/l of water (5% during 10 until 20 minutes increased insecticidal activity of extract (66.67 - 68.33% mortality. Generally, M. azedarach seed extract treatment did not affect  developmental time of  S. litura larvae.

  14. Three new species of Fancy Case caterpillars from threatened forests of Hawaii (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae, Hyposmocoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Kawahara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Hawaiian moth genus Hyposmocoma includes 348 described species and perhaps twice as many that remain undescribed. The genus is unusual within Lepidoptera in that its larvae create distinctive silk cases in which they perambulate while protected and camouflaged. An extraordinary diversity of case types exists, and to date more than ten different types have been identified, each corresponding roughly to a separate evolutionary lineage. In this study, we describe three new species of Hyposmocoma: H. ipohapuu sp. n. from Big Island, H. makawao sp. n. from Makawao Forest Reserve in Maui and H. tantala sp. n. from Mt. Tantalus, Oahu, all of which produce tubular purse cases during their larval stage. We also describe the female of H. inversella Walsingham, which was previously undescribed, and re-describe two closely related species, H. auropurpurea Walsingham and H. nebulifera Walsingham, neither which have been formally described in recent years. We present for the first time, the CAD primer sequences for Hyposmocoma and relatives. The molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci demonstrates that all are distinct species. The discovery of a new, endemic species from Mt. Tantalus, an area with many invasive species, suggests that even relatively degraded areas in Hawaii would be worthy of active conservation efforts.

  15. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  16. Mating behaviors of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) as influenced by sex pheromone in electrostatic powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Stelinski, L L; Gut, L J

    2010-12-01

    Entostat is an electrostatically charged wax powder that can adhere strongly to insect cuticle, making it an ideal carrier to deliver pheromone for pheromone-based confusion techniques. We investigated the attractiveness of Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males treated with pheromone-laden Entostat powder to naive conspecifics as well as mating behaviors of males after such treatment in a laboratory flight tunnel. Male moths exposed to Entostat containing 1% E,E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) acquired and retained the largest amount of the powder and became more attractive as point sources to naive moths compared with those treated with powder containing 5 or 10% codlemone. All Entostat-exposed males remained as attractive as a 0.1-mg codlemone lure for up to 24 h in flight tunnel investigations. Male moth orientation to normally attractive sources of codlemone was completely disrupted directly after treatment with Entostat powder. Males' ability to orient to 0.1-mg lures recovered progressively over a 6-d postexposure interval; however, their responses never reached the levels observed with untreated control moths. Entostat-exposed moths retained detectable amounts of codlemone up to 4 d. Our laboratory flight tunnel results suggest that the mode of action of Entostat powder as an autodissemination control tactic may be due to creating both attractive false point sources after exposure to the powder as well as directly inhibiting contaminated males' capability to orient to pheromone.

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi; Arthur, Paula B.

    2011-01-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ±5 deg C and 70 ±5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  18. Battle in the New World: Helicoverpa armigera versus Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and the old world bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are allopatric species and occur in important agricultural crops. In maize, both species tend to infest the ear. The introduction of H. armigera in Brazil has created a new scenario, where these Helicoverpa species might cohabit and interact with one another, affecting the prevalence of each species in the agroecosystem, integrated pest management, and insect resistance management. In this study, larval occurrence and proportion of these species in maize was assessed in three regions of Brazil during three crop seasons. Interaction between the species was evaluated in interspecific and intraspecific scenarios under laboratory and field conditions. Helicoverpa zea was predominant in Rio Grande do Sul and the Planaltina, DF (central Brazil). In western Bahia, H. zea was predominant in the first collection, but approximately equal in number to H armigera in the second crop season. Both species exhibit high cannibalism/predation rates, and larval size was the primary factor for larval survival in the interaction studies. Larva of H. zea had higher survival when interacting with H. armigera, indicating that H. zea has an advantage in intraguild interactions with H. armigera in maize. Overall, the results from this study indicate that maize might play a role as a source of infestation or a sink of insecticide or Bt protein unselected H. armigera populations, depending on the H. zea:H. armigera intraguild competition and adult movement in the landscape. PMID:27907051

  19. The mitochondrial genome of the butterfly Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and related phylogenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia; Liu, Dian-Feng; Wang, Nai-Xin; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Jiang, Guo-Fang

    2010-12-01

    The nearly complete mitochondrial genome of the butterfly Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was sequenced for its nucleotide sequence of 13,964 bp. The genome has a typical gene order identical to other lepidopteran species. All tRNAs showed same stable canonical clover-leaf structure as those of other insects, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) could not form stable stem-loop structure. Anomalous initiation codons have been observed for the cox1 gene, where the ATTACG hexa-nucleotide was believed to be involved in the initiation signaling. Twelve mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequence data were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the insect orders. Even though the number of insect orders represented by complete mitochondrial genomes is still limited, several well-established relationships are evident in the phylogenetic analysis of the complete sequences. Monophyly of the Homometabola was not supported in this paper. Phylogenetic analyses of the available species of Bombycoidea, Pyraloidea, Papilionoidea and Tortricidea bolstered the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea, Pyraloidea and Papilionoidea are monophyletic (Obtectomera). Bombycoidea (Bombyx mandarina and Antheraea pernyi) and Papilionoidea (P. xuthus and Coreana raphaelis) formed a sister group.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Pazala timur (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhong; Gan, Shanshan; Shao, Lili; Cheng, Chunhui; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Pazala timur (Lepidoptera: Papilionodae) is a circular molecule of 15,226 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 protein coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to all other available butterfly mitogenomes. All PCGs initiate with typical ATN codons, except for COI, which is initiated by the CGA codon. Ten PCGs use complete termination codon (TAA), whereas the COI, COII and ND5 genes end with single T. Twelve intergenic spacers (82 bp in total), and 11 overlapping regions (30 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The non-coding AT-rich region is 403 bp long and contains some conserved structures characteristic of the butterfly mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by a 13-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)12 element preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhong; Gan, Shanshan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yunliang; Zuo, Ni; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae) is a circular molecule of 15,266 bp in length, containing 37 typical insect mitochondrial genes: 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to all other available butterfly mitogenomes. All PCGs start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for COI, which is initiated by the CGA codon as observed in other butterfly species. Ten PCGs terminate in the complete stop codon TAA or TAG, whereas the COI, COII and ND4 genes end with single T. Ten intergenic spacers (73 bp in total), and 12 overlapping regions (28 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The non-coding AT-rich region is 405 bp long and contains some conserved structures similar to those found in other butterfly mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by a 12-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)14 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. Additionally, a 11-bp poly-T sequences and a microsatellite-like (AT)7 repeated elements are detected in this region.

  2. Phylogeography of Koramius charltonius (Gray, 1853 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: a case of too many poorly circumscribed subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav K. Korb

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Koramius charltonius (Gray, 1853 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae is distributed in the mountains of Central Asia. We analysed genetic and phylogeographic patterns throughout the western part of its range using a mitochondrial marker (COI. We also analysed the wing pattern using multivariate statistics. We found that the species contains several unique haplotypes in the west and shared haplotypes in the east. The haplotype groups do not correspond to the wing pattern and also the described subspecies do not correspond to either the haplotypes or the groups circumscribed by the wing pattern. Currently, there are more than ten subspecies of K. charltonius in Central Asia; based on our analyses we suggest a reduction to only five of them. The following nomenclatural changes are applied: (1 K. charltonius aenigma Dubatolov & Milko, 2003, syn. n., K. charltonius sochivkoi Churkin, 2009, syn.n., and K. charltonius alrashid Churkin & Pletnev, 2012, syn. n. are new synonyms of K. charltonius romanovi (Grum-Grshimailo, 1885; (2 K. charltonius marusya Churkin & Pletnev, 2012, syn. n., K. charltonius eugenia Churkin, 2009, syn. n., K. charltonius anjuta Stshetkin & Kaabak, 1985, syn. n., and K. charltonius mistericus Kaabak, Sotchivko & Titov, 1996, syn. n. are new synonyms of K. charltonius vaporosus (Avinov, 1913; and (3 K. charltonius safronovi Korb, Shaposhnikov, Zatakovoy & Nikolaev, 2013, syn. n. is a new synonym of K. charltonius voigti (Bang-Haas, 1927.

  3. Effect of varying dispenser point source density on mating disruption of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lame, Frédérique M; Epstein, David; Gut, Larry J; Goldfarb, Heidi; Miller, James R

    2010-08-01

    Hand-applied dispensers are successfully used in mating disruption programs, but cost of labor to apply these dispensers limits their adoption. Creating hand-applied dispensers that release larger amounts of pheromone and that can be applied at lower densities per hectare could reduce the cost of mating disruption and increase its use. The effect of reducing the number of point sources per hectare while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant on the success of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) mating disruption was investigated with Confuse-OFM, paraffin disk, and Isomate-M Rosso dispensers. For all dispensers, as point source density decreased, numbers of moths captured increased, percentage of orientation disruption to traps decreased, and variability in these measures increased. Decreasing point source density, even while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant is not a viable option for reducing the cost of G. molesta mating disruption with hand-applied dispensers. Puffers (aerosol dispensers) are applied at 2.5-5 dispensers per ha for G. molesta control. However, hand-applied dispensers fail when clumped at such low numbers of release sites. Potential explanations for the success of Puffers and the failure of hand-applied dispensers at very low point source densities are presented. The utility of paraffin disk dispensers as experimental devices also is discussed.

  4. Flight attraction of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae to cotton headspace and synthetic volatile blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eBorrero-Echeverry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The insect olfactory system discriminates odor signals of different biological relevance, which drive innate behavior. Identification of stimuli that trigger upwind flight attraction towards host plants is a current challenge, and is essential in developing new, sustainable plant protection methods, and for furthering our understanding of plant-insect interactions. Using behavioral, analytical and electrophysiological studies, we here show that both females and males of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, use blends of volatile compounds to locate their host plant, cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Malvales, Malvaceae. Female S. littoralis were engaged in upwind orientation flight in a wind tunnel when headspace collected from cotton plants was delivered through a piezoelectric sprayer. Although males took off towards cotton headspace significantly fewer males than females flew upwind towards the sprayed headspace. Subsequent assays with antennally active synthetic compounds revealed that a blend of nonanal, (Z-3 hexenyl acetate, (E-β-ocimene, and (R-(+-limonene was as attractive as cotton headspace to females and more attractive to males. DMNT and (R-(--linalool, both known plant defense compounds may have reduced the flight attraction of both females and males; more moths were attracted to blends without these two compounds. Our findings provide a platform for further investigations on host plant signals mediating innate behavior, and for the development of novel insect plant protection strategies against S. littoralis.

  5. Biological aspects of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): a polyphagous armyworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, A; Iltchenco, J; Fronza, E; Roque-Specht, V F; Luz, P C; Montezzano, D G

    2014-02-01

    We studied the biology of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hadeninae) at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photo phase. Three experiments, using 150 larvae each, were conducted for the larval stage. In the first, used to assess the duration and survival of all stages, insects were reared individually and fed an artificial diet (Grenee). In the second, individuals were also reared separately, but were fed leaves of 10 plants from different families. In the third, the larvae were not individualised, the food plants were rotated such as to provide three plant species every 48 hours. In the first experiment, the viability of the eggs, larvae, pupae and prepupae was 91.9, 94.7, 32.49 and 43.5%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larvae, prepupae, pupae and adult were 6.0, 25.3, 25.7, 21.4 and 12.7 days, respectively. The prolonged prepupal period indicates that T. grandirena can develop larval (prepupal) diapause. The results of the experiments with different host plants showed that T. grandirena is polyphagous at species, population and individual level.

  6. The effects of radiation on the biology and reproduction of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Ocampo, V.; Leon, J.B. de

    2002-01-01

    The effect of irradiating male Helicoverpa armigera with a substerilizing dose (100 Gy) of gamma radiation on the growth, development and reproduction of subsequent generations was studied in the laboratory. This dose of gamma radiation had no significant detrimental effects on larval and pupal weights or on the duration of the pupal period in the F 1 progeny. However, it lengthened the duration of the larval period by two days. In the F 2 generation, the progeny of the Tf 1 FxTf 1 M cross had significantly lighter pupae. The effects of this substerilizing dose of radiation and of the resulting inherited sterility on the reproduction of Helicoverpa armigera were similar to those described for other species of Lepidoptera. No detrimental effects on P 1 and F 1 female fecundity were recorded. Crosses involving Tf 1 females laid only about one half the number of eggs laid by the controls, however the range in the number of eggs laid by these females fell within the normal range for Helicoverpa armigera. Fertility of crosses involving P 1 males was greatly affected; fertility in these females was only 61% of that exhibited by the controls. This deleterious effect was inherited in the F 1 and F 2 generations and was maximally expressed when F 1 progeny of the NFxTM cross were inbred. Egg hatch was almost completely inhibited in sibling crosses while outcrosses of the F 1 progeny showed a 64-70% reduction in egg hatch when compared to controls. (author)

  7. Larval Biology of Anthophagous Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neuza A. P.; Duarte, Marcelo; Araújo, Eliezer B.; Morais, Helena C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The biology and morphology of the early stages of 22 species of Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) are presented. Observations were collected through the inspection of inflorescences in the field and the rearing of 214 larvae in laboratory. Allosmaitia strophius (Godart) associated with Malpighiaceae species and the polyphagous Strymon mulucha (Hewitson) were the most frequently collected species. Detritivory was observed in two species, Electrostrymon endymion (F.) and Kisutam syllis (Godman & Salvin), and myrmecophily in four other species, A. strophius , Ministrymon azia (Hewitson), Parrhasius polibetes (Stoll), and S. mulucha . Cannibalism was observed in A. strophius ; in addition, the pupa of this and of three other species produced audible sounds. Paiwarria aphaca (Hewitson) was highlighted because of the great difference observed between its first and last instars, as well as the marked difference between that species and the larvae of Paiwarria umbratus (Geyer) documented in Costa Rica. Larvae of Calycopis mimas (Godman & Salvin) displayed “bungee jumping” behavior when stimulated. Parasitoids (Diptera, Hymenoptera) attacked 21 larvae of eight species, A. strophius , K. syllis , M. azia , Pai. aphaca , P. polibetes , Rekoa marius (Lucas), S. mulucha , and Tmolus venustus (H.H. Druce). Illustrations of immatures and parasitoids are provided. PMID:25368090

  8. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siv Grethe Aarnes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata.

  9. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnes, Siv Grethe; Fløystad, Ida; Schregel, Julia; Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Eiken, Hans Geir; Ims, Rolf A.; Hagen, Snorre B.

    2015-01-01

    The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata. PMID:26393576

  10. Aktivitas biologi enam jenis ekstrak tumbuhan famili Asteraceae terhadap larva Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Sari Dewi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological Activity of Six Plan Extract from Asteraceae on Spodoptera litura Fabricius (lipedoptera : Noctuidae Larvae. Asteraceae is one of plant family that is known to have insecticidal activity to several insect pests, such as Parthenium argentatum, Crysanthemum cineariaefolium, and Agerantum houstoneanum. The aim of this study is to explore other asteraceae species in other to search for insecticidal activity to Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Six species, Blumea balsamifera (leaf, Elephantopus scaber (leaf, Gynura procumbens (leaf Artemisia vulgaris (leaf Soncbus arvensis (leaf and Helianthus annus (seed were use in this study. Plant extract were obtained by meseration method using menthanol. The extract were bioassayed to the second instar larvae of S. litura to evaluate the mortality, antifeedant and growth regulation activity. Extract of B. balsamifera and E. scaber have high antifeedant activity at 5 % by reducing larval feeding 87.7% and 81.8% in no choice test, and 94.1% and 86.1% in choice test method, respectively Extract of H. annus, A. vulgaris, and E. scaber prolonged the development of larvae by 4.9, 4.1, 3.9 days, respectively. While extract of H. annus caused mortality of larvae by 86% at 5%.

  11. Suitability of various turfgrass species and cultivars for development and survival of black cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S C; Williamson, R C

    2006-06-01

    Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), feeding bioassays were conducted on young and mature turfgrass species to determine their potential resistance. Measures of resistance included larval weight, survival rate, instar development, pupal weight, duration of pupation, and days to pupation and adult emergence. Black cutworm reared on Poa pratensis 'Midnight', Poa arachnigera 'Tejas', and Poa pratensis X Poa arachnigera 'Reveille' exhibited slower development, lower weight, and higher overall mortality than those fed upon other turfgrasses tested. Larvae reared on Reveille did not survive to pupation and all died within 14 d. Black cutworm larvae reared on Midnight died within 17 d in trial 1 but attained pupation in trial 2. However, development of black cutworm larvae was slower on Poa pratensis Midnight compared with other susceptible turfgrass species such as Agrostis stolonifera 'Penncross', Poa annua ('DW194', 'Q98-4-6', and 'Q98-6-18'), Lolium perenne, and Poa supina 'Supranova'. Generally, larval performance on young plant tissues was better than on mature plant tissues. Larvae reared on P. pratensis 'Midnight' exhibited the most distinctive difference on young versus mature plant tissue. These results suggest that plant age may play an important role in turfgrass susceptibility and resistance.

  12. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested. PMID:25914438

  13. The role of the spiracles in gas exchange during development of Samia cynthia (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetz, Stefan K

    2007-12-01

    Spiracles and the tracheal system of insects allow effective delivery of respiratory gases. During development, holometabolous insects encounter large changes in the functional morphology of gas exchange structures. To investigate changes in respiratory patterns during development, CO2-release was measured in larvae, pre-pupae and pupae of Samia cynthia (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae). Gas exchange patterns showed great variability. Caterpillars had high metabolic rates and released carbon dioxide continuously. Pre-pupae and pupae showed typical discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGC) at reduced metabolic rates. Changes in gas exchange patterns can partly be explained with low metabolic rates during pupation. Sequential blocking of spiracles in pre-pupae and pupae reduced spiracle conductance with tracheal conductance remaining unaffected. Analysis of gas exchange patterns indicates that caterpillars and pre-pupae use more than 14 spiracles simultaneously while pupae only use 8 to 10 spiracles. Total conductance is not a simple multiple of single spiracles, but may be gradually adaptable to gas exchange demands. Surprisingly, moth pupae showed a DGC if all except one spiracle were blocked. The huge conductance of single spiracles is discussed as a pre-adaptation to high metabolic demands at the beginning and the end of the pupal as well as in the adult stage.

  14. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains active against Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller, 1848 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller, 1848 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae is an insect pest of 60 economically important crops, including sugarcane, wheat, soybean, rice, beans, sorghum, peanuts, and cotton. The aim of this work was to select and characterize Bacillus thuringiensis isolates with insecticidal activity against E. Lignosellus that could be used as an alternative method of control. Selective bioassays were done to evaluate the toxicity of 47 isolates against first instar larvae of E. lignosellus. For the most toxic bacterial strains, the lethal concentration (LC50 was estimated and morphological, biochemical and molecular methods were used to characterize the isolates. Among the 47 isolates tested, 12 caused mortality above 85% and showed LC50 values from 0.038E+8 to 0.855E+8 spores mL-1. Isolates BR83, BR145, BR09, BR78, S1534, and S1302 had the lowest LC50 values and did not differ from the standard HD-1 strain; the exception was BR83.The protein profiles produced bands with molecular masses of 60-130 kDa. The genes cry1, cry2, cry3, and cry11 were identified in the molecular characterization. The morphological analysis identified three different crystal inclusions: bipyramidal, spherical and cuboidal. Among the tested isolates, 12 isolates have potential for biotechnological control of E. Lignosellus by development of new biopesticides or genetically modified plants.

  15. AKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA BAGIAN TUMBUHAN CALOPHYLLUM SOULTTRI BURM.F. (CLU IACEAE TERHADAP LARVA LEPIDOPTERA

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    Edy Syahputra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this test was evaluate the insecticidal activity of ectract of some parts of Calophyllum soulattri (Clusiaceae against larvae of three species of Lepidoptera, i. e Crocidolomia pavonana, Plutella xylostela, and Pieris sp.. Extraction of plant materials was done by infusion method using ethanol. The bioassays were conducted by leaf-feeding method. Second-instar larvae were fed extract-treated broccoli leaves of 48 hours, then they were presented with untreated leaves until the surviving larvae larvae reached the fourth-instar stage. The number of dead larvae was recorded daily an larval mortality date were analyzed by probit method. The result showed the gummy bark exudates and bark extract of old and young C. soulattri plants were highly active against C. pavonana. The abrk extact of old C. soulattri plant was also effective against P. xilostella and Pieris sp. The gummy exudates possessed strong insecticidal activity against C. pavonana larvae with LC50 of 0.04% and prolonged the developmental time from second to fourth instar of C. soulattri 2.03-7.25 days compared with control. The bark excudate gave positive respon to alkaloid flavonoid, and tannin test. Futher studies are needed to identify insecticidal compound in those active extracts.

  16. Modelling reproduction of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): climate change may modify pest incidence levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, C A; Foerster, L A

    2012-08-01

    Temperature is considered to be an important abiotic factor influencing insect reproduction. Despite the importance of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) as a pest of brassicaceous crops worldwide, the effects of temperature on its reproduction are not well understood. We evaluated the effect of constant temperatures ranging from 10 to 32.5°C on the reproduction of P. xylostella and developed an oviposition model for the species. The model combined temperature-dependent parameters of total fecundity, age-specific oviposition rate and age-specific survival. Additionally, we modelled population growth as a function of temperature. The estimated parameters allowed us to discuss the possible consequences of global warming on P. xylostella distribution. Temperature affected the length of pre-oviposition after adult emergence, oviposition period, longevity, total fecundity and egg viability. The model predicted that both daily egg production and length of oviposition period decreased at temperatures below 15°C and above 25°C. Population growth increased linearly with temperature in a range from 10°C to 25°C; however, the model predicted a reduction in population growth at temperatures above 28.6°C. Data suggested that temperature plays a critical role in P. xylostella reproduction, and subtle differences in average temperature could have an impact on its population growth. This is especially important in the context of global climate change, which in turn could alter the distribution and abundance of the pest in some regions of the world.

  17. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-06-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested.

  18. Battle in the New World: Helicoverpa armigera versus Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P F Bentivenha

    Full Text Available The corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie and the old world bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae are allopatric species and occur in important agricultural crops. In maize, both species tend to infest the ear. The introduction of H. armigera in Brazil has created a new scenario, where these Helicoverpa species might cohabit and interact with one another, affecting the prevalence of each species in the agroecosystem, integrated pest management, and insect resistance management. In this study, larval occurrence and proportion of these species in maize was assessed in three regions of Brazil during three crop seasons. Interaction between the species was evaluated in interspecific and intraspecific scenarios under laboratory and field conditions. Helicoverpa zea was predominant in Rio Grande do Sul and the Planaltina, DF (central Brazil. In western Bahia, H. zea was predominant in the first collection, but approximately equal in number to H armigera in the second crop season. Both species exhibit high cannibalism/predation rates, and larval size was the primary factor for larval survival in the interaction studies. Larva of H. zea had higher survival when interacting with H. armigera, indicating that H. zea has an advantage in intraguild interactions with H. armigera in maize. Overall, the results from this study indicate that maize might play a role as a source of infestation or a sink of insecticide or Bt protein unselected H. armigera populations, depending on the H. zea:H. armigera intraguild competition and adult movement in the landscape.

  19. Evolution of Resistance by Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Infesting Insecticidal Crops in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, David; Crain, Philip; Crespo, Andre; Hutchison, William; Buntin, David; Porter, Pat; Catchot, Angus; Cook, Don; Pilcher, Clint; Flexner, Lindsey; Higgins, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We created a deterministic, frequency-based model of the evolution of resistance by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to insecticidal traits expressed in crops planted in the heterogeneous landscapes of the southern United States. The model accounts for four generations of selection by insecticidal traits each year. We used the model results to investigate the influence of three factors on insect resistance management (IRM): 1) how does adding a third insecticidal trait to both corn and cotton affect durability of the products, 2) how does unstructured corn refuge influence IRM, and 3) how do block refuges (50% compliance) and blended refuges compare with regard to IRM? When Bt cotton expresses the same number of insecticidal traits, Bt corn with three insecticidal traits provides longer durability than Bt corn with two pyramided traits. Blended refuge provides similar durability for corn products compared with the same level of required block refuge when the rate of refuge compliance by farmers is 50%. Results for Mississippi and Texas are similar, but durabilities for corn traits are surprisingly lower in Georgia, where unstructured corn refuge is the highest of the three states, but refuge for Bt cotton is the lowest of the three states. Thus, unstructured corn refuge can be valuable for IRM but its influence is determined by selection for resistance by Bt cotton. PMID:26637533

  20. Estimate of Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae development with nonlinear models

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    R. S. Medeiros

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate which nonlinear model [Davidson (1942, 1944, Stinner et al. (1974, Sharpe & DeMichele (1977, and Lactin et al. (1995] best describes the relationship between developmental rates of the different instars and stages of Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, and temperature. A. argillacea larvae were fed with cotton leaves (Gossypium hirsutum L., race latifolium Hutch., cultivar CNPA 7H at constant temperatures of 20, 23, 25, 28, 30, 33, and 35ºC; relative humidity of 60 ± 10%; and photoperiod of 14:10 L:D. Low R² values obtained with Davidson (0.0001 to 0.1179 and Stinner et al. (0.0099 to 0.8296 models indicated a poor fit of their data for A. argillacea. However, high R² values of Sharpe & DeMichele (0.9677 to 0.9997 and Lactin et al. (0.9684 to 0.9997 models indicated a better fit for estimating A. argillacea development.