Full Text Available Penetración de Vibrio mimicus a través de la cáscara del huevo de tortuga lora (Lepidochelys olivacea. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en determinar la capacidad de penetración del Vibrio mimicus a través de la cáscara del huevo. La investigación se realizó en el Centro Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos en el año 2000. Se inoculó la superfi cie de la cáscara con la bacteria y se procedió a incubar las muestras por 72 horas a 25ºC. Después de este período se observaron las muestras bajo el microscopio electrónico. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que el Vibrio mimicus se reproduce en la superfi cie externa de la cáscara del huevo de tortuga lora, y no es capaz de penetrarla después de las 72 horas de incubación a 25ºC. Por lo tanto, cualquier tratamiento que se aplique con el fi n de reducir la contaminación con el vibrio y mejorar la inocuidad de los huevos, debe aplicarse en su exterior.
Bárcenas-Ibarra, A; Rojas-Lleonart, I; Lozano-Guzmán, R I; García-Gasca, A
The olive ridley sea turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea), considered the most abundant sea turtle species, is listed as vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. The most important nesting areas are located in the Eastern Pacific, and congenital malformations have been previously reported in this species. The present study was conducted in a single population at El Verde beach, one of the most important nesting beaches for the species in the northwestern Mexican Pacific. The study was based on embryos that had been incubated in a controlled environment. Schistosomus reflexus syndrome (SRS) was observed in 124 of 20 257 olive ridley embryos (0.6%), comprising 124 of 400 (31%) cases of congenital malformations over a 7-month period. Affected embryos had malformations of the carapace, bridge, or plastron, resulting in exposure of the abdominal or thoracic viscera, as well as spinal malformation and abnormal positioning of limbs adjacent to the head with subsequent ankylosis. SRS phenotypes (although lethal) varied from mild to severe, although most cases were severe. SRS was mostly associated with congenital malformations in the neck (short neck, 80%), tail (anury, 38%), and flippers (different types of dysmelias, 53%). In most cases of severe SRS, ankyloses were present. Documenting these findings could be important to identify the cause of the developmental defects, and identification of the cause of the defects may be of significance to the population and to our efforts to manage this and other populations at risk.
Full Text Available We report the first confirmed occurrence of a Lepidochelys olivacea in the Mediterranean Sea based on the study of an individual stranded on a beach, located in the town of Oropesa del Mar (40º05ʹ32ʺN, 0º08ʹ02ʺE, Castellón province, East Spain, in May 2014. Morphological and genetic analyses were used to confirm the identification of the species. The individual had a sequence that matched the 470 bp Lepidochelys olivacea haplotype F (Genbank accession number: AF051773, found in several Atlantic populations. This becomes one of the northernmost known occurrences of olive ridleys in the world and is the first reports of this species in the Mediterranean Sea.
Mitochondrial genes code for additional proteins after +2 frameshifts by reassigning stops to code for amino acids, which defines overlapping genetic codes for overlapping genes. Turtles recode stops UAR → Trp and AGR → Lys (AGR → Gly in the marine Olive Ridley turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea). In Lepidochelys the +2 frameshifted mitochondrial Cytb gene lacks stops, open reading frames from other genes code for unknown proteins, and for regular mitochondrial proteins after frameshifts according to the overlapping genetic code. Lepidochelys' inversion between proteins coded by regular and overlapping genetic codes substantiates the existence of overlap coding. ND4 differs among Lepidochelys mitochondrial genomes: it is regular in DQ486893; in NC_011516, the open reading frame codes for another protein, the regular ND4 protein is coded by the frameshifted sequence reassigning stops as in other turtles. These systematic patterns are incompatible with Genbank/sequencing errors and DNA decay. Random mixing of synonymous codons, conserving main frame coding properties, shows optimization of natural sequences for overlap coding; Ka/Ks analyses show high positive (directional) selection on overlapping genes. Tests based on circular genetic codes confirm programmed frameshifts in ND3 and ND4l genes, and predicted frameshift sites for overlap coding in Lepidochelys. Chelonian mitochondria adapt for overlapping gene expression: cloverleaf formation by antisense tRNAs with predicted anticodons matching stops coevolves with overlap coding; antisense tRNAs with predicted expanded anticodons (frameshift suppressor tRNAs) associate with frameshift-coding in ND3 and ND4l, a potential regulation of frameshifted overlap coding. Anaeroby perhaps switched between regular and overlap coding genes in Lepidochelys. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jerdy, H; Ribeiro, R B; Silva, M A; Medina, R M; Werneck, M R; Carvalho, E C Q
The Olive Ridley turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) (Testudines: Cheloniidae), is 1 of the 5 species of sea turtle found along the coast of Brazil. Little is known regarding infection by species of the family Spirorchiidae in the host, as only 1 report exists. This case report describes granulomas in different tissues associated to type 1 and 3 spirorchiid eggs in 5 L. olivacea from the Brazilian coast. The occurrence of the eggs was considered an incidental finding and may have contributed to the debility and death of the hosts. This is the second report of tissue lesions due to spirorchids eggs in this host and the first occurrence in Olive Ridley turtle from the Brazilian coast.
Zavala-Norzagaray, A A; Ley-Quiñónez, C P; Espinosa-Carreón, T L; Canizalez-Román, A; Hart, C E; Aguirre, A A
This study determined the concentrations of heavy metals in blood collected from Pacific Ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) inhabiting the coast of Guasave, Mexico, in the Gulf of California. The highest reported metal concentration in blood was Zn, followed by Se. Of nonessential toxic metals, As was reported in higher percentage compared to Cd. The concentrations of metals detected were present as follows: Zn > Se > Mn > As > Ni > Cd > Cu. Cd concentration in blood is higher in our population in comparison with other populations of L. olivacea, and even higher in other species of sea turtles. Our study reinforces the usefulness of blood for the monitoring of the levels of contaminating elements, and is easily accessible and nonlethal for sea turtles.
Hoekert, W.E.J.; Neufeglise, N.; Schouten, A.D.; Menken, S.B.J.
Multiple paternity in the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) population nesting in Suriname was demonstrated using two microsatellite loci, viz., Ei8 and Cm84. The large number of offspring sampled per clutch (70 on average, ranging from 15 to 103) and the number of alleles found at the
Schouten, A.D.; Weijerman, M.; Tienen, van L.H.G.; Hoekert, W.E.J.
SCHOUTEN, A.D., WEIJERMAN, M., VAN TIENEN, L.H.G. & W.E.J. HOEKERT, 1997. Relocations of Sea Turtle nests of Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriace and Chelonia mydas in the Galibi Nature Reserve, Suriname. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 63-69. Relocation of nests of
Baena, Martha L; Escobar, Federico; Halffter, Gonzalo; García-Chávez, Juan H
Omorgus suberosus (Fabricius, 1775) has been identified as a potential predator of the eggs of the turtle Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) on one of the main turtle nesting beaches in the world, La Escobilla in Oaxaca, Mexico. This study presents an analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of the beetle on this beach (in areas of high and low density of L. olivacea nests over two arrival seasons) and an evaluation, under laboratory conditions, of the probability of damage to the turtle eggs by this beetle. O. suberosus adults and larvae exhibited an aggregated pattern at both turtle nest densities; however, aggregation was greater in areas of low nest density, where we found the highest proportion of damaged eggs. Also, there were fluctuations in the temporal distribution of the adult beetles following the arrival of the turtles on the beach. Under laboratory conditions, the beetles quickly damaged both dead eggs and a mixture of live and dead eggs, but were found to consume live eggs more slowly. This suggests that O. suberosus may be recycling organic material; however, its consumption of live eggs may be sufficient in some cases to interrupt the incubation period of the turtle. We intend to apply these results when making decisions regarding the L. olivacea nests on La Escobilla Beach, one of the most important sites for the conservation of this species.
Clusella Trullas, Susana; Spotila, James R; Paladino, Frank V
Studies of metabolism are central to the understanding of the ecology, behavior, and evolution of reptiles. This study focuses on one phase of the sea turtle life cycle, hatchling dispersal, and gives insight into energetic constraints that dispersal imposes on hatchlings. Hatchling dispersal is an energetically expensive phase in the life cycle of the olive ridley turtle Lepidochelys olivacea. Field metabolic rates (FMRs), determined using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method, for L. olivacea hatchlings digging out of their nest chamber, crawling at the sand surface, and swimming were five, four, and seven times, respectively, the resting metabolic rate (RMR). The cost of swimming was 1.5 and 1.8 times the cost of the digging and crawling phases, respectively, and we estimated that if L. olivacea hatchlings swim at frenzy levels, they can rely on yolk reserves to supply energy for only 3-6 d once they reach the ocean. We compared our RMR and FMR values by establishing an interspecific RMR mass-scaling relationship for a wide range of species in the order Testudines and found a scaling exponent of 1.06. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using the DLW method to estimate energetic costs of free-living sea turtle hatchlings and emphasizes the need for metabolic studies in various life-history stages.
Venegas, Daniela; Marmolejo-Valencia, Alejandro; Valdes-Quezada, Christian; Govenzensky, Tzipe; Recillas-Targa, Félix; Merchant-Larios, Horacio
Sex determination in vertebrates depends on the expression of a conserved network of genes. Sea turtles such as Lepidochelys olivacea have temperature-dependent sex determination. The present work analyses some of the epigenetic processes involved in this. We describe sexual dimorphism in global DNA methylation patterns between ovaries and testes of L. olivacea and show that the differences may arise from a combination of DNA methylation and demethylation events that occur during sex determination. Irrespective of incubation temperature, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine was abundant in the bipotential gonad; however, following sex determination, this modification was no longer found in pre-Sertoli cells in the testes. These changes correlate with the establishment of the sexually dimorphic DNA methylation patterns, down regulation of Sox9 gene expression in ovaries and irreversible gonadal commitment towards a male or female differentiation pathway. Thus, DNA methylation changes may be necessary for the stabilization of the gene expression networks that drive the differentiation of the bipotential gonad to form either an ovary or a testis in L. olivacea and probably among other species that manifest temperature-dependent sex determination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martha L Baena
Full Text Available Omorgus suberosus (Fabricius, 1775 has been identified as a potential predator of the eggs of the turtle Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829 on one of the main turtle nesting beaches in the world, La Escobilla in Oaxaca, Mexico. This study presents an analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of the beetle on this beach (in areas of high and low density of L. olivacea nests over two arrival seasons and an evaluation, under laboratory conditions, of the probability of damage to the turtle eggs by this beetle. O. suberosus adults and larvae exhibited an aggregated pattern at both turtle nest densities; however, aggregation was greater in areas of low nest density, where we found the highest proportion of damaged eggs. Also, there were fluctuations in the temporal distribution of the adult beetles following the arrival of the turtles on the beach. Under laboratory conditions, the beetles quickly damaged both dead eggs and a mixture of live and dead eggs, but were found to consume live eggs more slowly. This suggests that O. suberosus may be recycling organic material; however, its consumption of live eggs may be sufficient in some cases to interrupt the incubation period of the turtle. We intend to apply these results when making decisions regarding the L. olivacea nests on La Escobilla Beach, one of the most important sites for the conservation of this species.
Sahoo, G; Mohapatra, B K; Sahoo, R K; Mohanty-Hejmadi, P
The structure of a chelonian eggshell is of prime importance for the developing embryo. It acts as a protective covering as well as mediator in the exchange of heat and water. The fresh eggshell of the olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) turtle displays a variety of structural forms in their aragonite framework. Its netted substrate, loose texture and poorly organised crystallites favour the easy exchange of air and water during its development. The shell consists mostly of calcium in carbonate form and K, Mg, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Cd in traces. Ba and Sr in traces are also a feature of the thermal analysis graph. Phosphorous was not detected in the shell and its absence eliminates an earlier suggestion of it being a key factor in the development of aragonite crystals in the inorganic structure of marine turtle eggshells. Its combustion characteristics, which have not been previously reported, are recorded.
Santoro, Mario; Orrego, Carlos Mario; Hernández Gómez, Giovanna
Cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae) from the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The aerobic cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of 45 apparently healthy female olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) was studied at Nancite nesting beach, in Santa Rosa National Park (Costa Rican North Pacific) during July and August 2002. Bacterial samples were obtained by inserting sterile swabs directly into the cloaca and the nasal cavities of the turtles. Ninety-nine aerobic bacterial isolates, including 10 Gram-negative and 5 Gram-positive bacteria, were recovered. The most common bacteria cultured were Aeromonas spp. (13/45) and Citrobacter freundi (6/45) from cloacal samples and Bacillus spp. (32/45), Staphylococcus aureus (6/45) and Corynebacterium spp. (5/45) from nasal ducts. The results of the present study showed that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting female olive ridleys was composed of several potential human and animal microbe pathogens.
Victor Hugo Quiroz Herrera
Full Text Available This research was conducted in the municipality of Bahia Solano, Colombia, and had as a goal to detect damage erythrocytes circulating with nuclear lesions in fifty-five Olive Ridley adult females using acridine orange immunostain, and correlate its frequencies with some physiological and biometric parameters. We determine a micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE frequency of 0.6 ± 0.6 and nuclear buds (NBE of 2.1 ± 1.9. We not found any relationship between the nuclear lesions with physiological or biometric parameters evaluated (Pearson and Kruskal-Wallis, p<0.05. We define a significative statistical difference (p=0.035 between both nuclear lesions frequencies. This results show nuclear damages in erythrocytes of Olive Ridley sea turtle for the first time in Colombia as an outcome of genotoxic stress. Also contributes key information for future research in the ecotoxicology area for endangered marine species.
Crossley, Dane Alan; Crossley, Janna Lee; Smith, Camilla; Harfush, Martha; Sánchez-Sánchez, Hermilo; Garduño-Paz, Mónica Vanessa; Méndez-Sánchez, José Fernando
Our understanding of reptilian cardiovascular development and regulation has increased substantially for two species the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) during the past two decades. However, what we know about cardiovascular maturation in many other species remains poorly understood or unknown. Embryonic sea turtles have been studied to understand the maturation of metabolic function, but these studies have not addressed the cardiovascular system. Although prior studies have been pivotal in characterizing development, and factors that influence it, the development of cardiovascular function, which supplies metabolic function, is unknown in sea turtles. During our investigation we focused on quantifying how cardiovascular morphological and functional parameters change, to provide basic knowledge of development in the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea). Embryonic mass, as well as mass of the heart, lungs, liver, kidney, and brain increased during turtle embryo development. Although heart rate was constant during this developmental period, arterial pressure approximately doubled. Further, while embryonic olive ridley sea turtles lacked cholinergic tone on heart rate, there was a pronounced beta adrenergic tone on heart rate that decreased in strength at 90% of incubation. This beta adrenergic tone may be partially originating from the sympathetic nervous system at 90% of incubation, with the majority originating from circulating catecholamines. Data indicates that olive ridley sea turtles share traits of embryonic functional cardiovascular maturation with the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) but not the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cortés-Gómez, Adriana A.; Fuentes-Mascorro, Gisela; Romero, Diego
Highlights: • We evaluate the concentrations of inorganic pollutants in Olive Ridley turtles. • Information can be used to monitoring the pollutants in habitats of sea turtles. • The renal cadmium levels is the highest ever reported worldwide for any sea turtle species. • Pb levels have declined in recent years in this population. - Abstract: Concentrations of eight metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni and As) were evaluated from 41 nesting females (blood) and 13 dead (tissues) Olive Ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea), a species classified as vulnerable and also listed in Appendix I of the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). The mean blood, liver and kidney lead concentration were 0.02 ± 0.01, 0.11 ± 0.08 and 0.06 ± 0.03 μg g −1 ww respectively, values lower than other turtle species and locations, which it could be due to the gradual disuse of leaded gasoline in Mexico and Central America since the 1990s. Mean concentration of cadmium was 0.17 ± 0.08 (blood), 82.88 ± 36.65 (liver) and 150.88 ± 110.99 μg g −1 (kidney). To our knowledge, the mean renal cadmium levels found is the highest ever reported worldwide for any sea turtle species, while other six elements showed a concentration similar to other studies in sea turtles
Pasanisi, Eugenia; Cortés-Gómez, Adriana A; Pérez-López, Marcos; Soler, Francisco; Hernández-Moreno, David; Guerranti, Cristiana; Martellini, Tania; Fuentes-Mascorro, Gisela; Romero, Diego; Cincinelli, Alessandra
Lepidochelys olivacea is the most abundant and globally distributed sea turtle species in the world and thus, monitoring this species for persistent organic pollutants, such as perfluorinated chemicals, is fundamental for their protection. This study was the first to evaluate the occurrence of five PFCAs (PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in liver and blood samples of Olive Ridley turtle population from the Escobilla beach (Oaxaca, Mexico). PFDA and PFUnA were the predominant PFCs in blood samples (detected in 93% and 84% of samples, respectively) and were also present in the highest concentrations. Liver samples showed higher PFCA concentrations than whole blood samples, with PFNA and PFDA the most abundant PFCs congeners in liver samples, detected in 65% and 47% of the samples, respectively. The measured levels of contaminants in the blood samples of Lepidochelys olivacea sea turtles were compared to the levels reported in the literature for other turtle species. While linear significant correlations between PFNA, PFDA and PFUnA concentrations in blood samples and curved carapace lengths were determined, no correlation was found for PFOA, supporting the hypothesis that sea turtles could have a higher ability to eliminate this perfluorinated chemical from their blood than other PFCAs. However, we do not know if the concentrations are species or sampling areas dependent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Majewska, Roksana; Santoro, Mario; Bolaños, Federico; Chaves, Gerardo; De Stefano, Mario
Although the sea turtles have long been familiar and even iconic to marine biologists, many aspects of their ecology remain unaddressed. The present study is the first of the epizoic diatom community covering the olive ridley turtle's (Lepidochelys olivacea) carapace and the first describing diatoms living on sea turtles in general, with the primary objective of providing detailed information on turtle epibiotic associations. Samples of turtle carapace including the associated diatom biofilm and epizoic macro-fauna were collected from Ostional beach (9° 59´ 23.7´´ N 85° 41´ 52.6´´ W), Costa Rica, during the arribada event in October 2013. A complex diatom community was present in every sample. In total, 11 macro-faunal and 21 diatom taxa were recorded. Amongst diatoms, the most numerous were erect (Achnanthes spp., Tripterion spp.) and motile (Haslea sp., Navicula spp., Nitzschia spp., Proschkinia sp.) forms, followed by adnate Amphora spp., while the most common macro-faunal species was Stomatolepas elegans (Cirripedia). Diatom densities ranged from 8179 ± 750 to 27685 ± 4885 cells mm-2. Epizoic microalgae were either partly immersed or entirely encapsulated within an exopolymeric coat. The relatively low diatom species number, stable species composition and low inter-sample dissimilarities (14.4% on average) may indicate a mutualistic relationship between the epibiont and the basibiont. Dispersal of sea turtle diatoms is probably highly restricted and similar studies will help to understand both diatom diversity, evolution and biogeography, and sea turtle ecology and foraging strategies.
Full Text Available Although the sea turtles have long been familiar and even iconic to marine biologists, many aspects of their ecology remain unaddressed. The present study is the first of the epizoic diatom community covering the olive ridley turtle's (Lepidochelys olivacea carapace and the first describing diatoms living on sea turtles in general, with the primary objective of providing detailed information on turtle epibiotic associations. Samples of turtle carapace including the associated diatom biofilm and epizoic macro-fauna were collected from Ostional beach (9° 59´ 23.7´´ N 85° 41´ 52.6´´ W, Costa Rica, during the arribada event in October 2013. A complex diatom community was present in every sample. In total, 11 macro-faunal and 21 diatom taxa were recorded. Amongst diatoms, the most numerous were erect (Achnanthes spp., Tripterion spp. and motile (Haslea sp., Navicula spp., Nitzschia spp., Proschkinia sp. forms, followed by adnate Amphora spp., while the most common macro-faunal species was Stomatolepas elegans (Cirripedia. Diatom densities ranged from 8179 ± 750 to 27685 ± 4885 cells mm-2. Epizoic microalgae were either partly immersed or entirely encapsulated within an exopolymeric coat. The relatively low diatom species number, stable species composition and low inter-sample dissimilarities (14.4% on average may indicate a mutualistic relationship between the epibiont and the basibiont. Dispersal of sea turtle diatoms is probably highly restricted and similar studies will help to understand both diatom diversity, evolution and biogeography, and sea turtle ecology and foraging strategies.
Majewska, Roksana; Santoro, Mario; Bolaños, Federico; Chaves, Gerardo; De Stefano, Mario
Although the sea turtles have long been familiar and even iconic to marine biologists, many aspects of their ecology remain unaddressed. The present study is the first of the epizoic diatom community covering the olive ridley turtle’s (Lepidochelys olivacea) carapace and the first describing diatoms living on sea turtles in general, with the primary objective of providing detailed information on turtle epibiotic associations. Samples of turtle carapace including the associated diatom biofilm and epizoic macro-fauna were collected from Ostional beach (9° 59´ 23.7´´ N 85° 41´ 52.6´´ W), Costa Rica, during the arribada event in October 2013. A complex diatom community was present in every sample. In total, 11 macro-faunal and 21 diatom taxa were recorded. Amongst diatoms, the most numerous were erect (Achnanthes spp., Tripterion spp.) and motile (Haslea sp., Navicula spp., Nitzschia spp., Proschkinia sp.) forms, followed by adnate Amphora spp., while the most common macro-faunal species was Stomatolepas elegans (Cirripedia). Diatom densities ranged from 8179 ± 750 to 27685 ± 4885 cells mm-2. Epizoic microalgae were either partly immersed or entirely encapsulated within an exopolymeric coat. The relatively low diatom species number, stable species composition and low inter-sample dissimilarities (14.4% on average) may indicate a mutualistic relationship between the epibiont and the basibiont. Dispersal of sea turtle diatoms is probably highly restricted and similar studies will help to understand both diatom diversity, evolution and biogeography, and sea turtle ecology and foraging strategies. PMID:26083535
Merchant-Larios, H; Ruiz-Ramirez, S; Moreno-Mendoza, N; Marmolejo-Valencia, A
Reptile embryos with temperature sex determination have a thermosensitive period (TSP). The finding that exogenous estradiol (E2) overcomes the effect of male-promoting temperature led to the idea that temperature may regulate estrogen concentration in the gonad during TSP. Since interspecific variations in TSP and in the effect of exogenous E2 exist, we undertook a study in the olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea. Four parameters were correlated: the TSP (time dimension), the thermosensitive stages (rate of development), gonad development (histological aspect), and the estradiol response. Two kinds of experiments were performed: (1) Eggs were shifted once, at different stages of development, from a male-promoting temperature to a female-temperature (or vice versa) for the remainder of development. (2) Eggs at male-promoting temperature were treated once with 6 or 12 microg of estradiol (E2) at various times of incubation. Sex ratio was established around hatching in each experimental series. We found that the temporal dimension of the TSP was around 7 days (Days 20-27 of incubation) at a male-promoting or a female-promoting temperature. The rate of development of the whole embryo and gonadal growth was faster at female-promoting temperature than at male-promoting temperature. Formation of the genital ridge began at stage 21-22 and histological differentiation of the gonads occurred around stage 26-27. Although these stages coincided with the TSP, at male-promoting temperature the thermosensitive stages occurred earlier (from stages 20-21 to stages 23-24) than at female-promoting temperature (from stages 23-24 to stages 26-27). Thus, at male promoting-temperature, sex was determined in embryos with incipient or undifferentiated gonads. In contrast, E2 treatment continued to feminize the gonads of embryos at a male-promoting temperature beyond the TSP up to stage 25-26, but the E2-induced ovaries were significantly smaller than temperature-induced ovaries. It is
Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la flora normal aerobia, cloacal y nasal de la tortuga lora (Lepidochelys olivacea , entre los meses de julio y agosto del 2002,se colectaron muestras bacteriológicas de 45 quelonios aparentemente sanos,durante el desove en Playa Nancite,Parque Nacional Santa Rosa, Costa Rica, a través del uso de hisopos estériles que se introdujeron en la cloaca y en uno de los conductos nasales. De las muestras recolectadas se obtuvieron e identificaron un total de 99 aislamientos, incluyendo 10 grupos de Gram-negativos y 5 de Gram-positivos. De cada tortuga se obtuvo un promedio de 0.7 bacterias de la cloaca y 1.4 de las cavidades nasales. Las bacterias más frecuente halladas fueron Aeromonas spp.(13/45 y Citrobacter freundi (6/45 en la cloaca, y Bacillus spp. (32/45,Staphylococcus aureus (6/45y Corynebacterium spp.(5/45en las cavidades nasales. En este investigación, la flora microbiana de las tortugas lora resultó constituida por microorganismos potencialmente patógenos para el ser humano y las tortugas.Cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae from the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica.The aerobic cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of 45 apparently healthy female olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea was studied at Nancite nesting beach,in Santa Rosa National Park (Costa Rican North Pacificduring July and August 2002.Bacterial samples were obtained by inserting sterile swabs directly into the cloaca and the nasal cavities of the turtles.Ninety-nine aerobic bacterial isolates, including 10 Gram-negative and 5 Gram-positive bacteria, were recovered.The most common bacteria cultured were Aeromonas spp. (13/45 and Citrobacter freundi (6/45from cloacal samples and Bacillus spp.(32/45, Staphylococcus aureus (6/45and Corynebacterium spp.(5/45from nasal ducts.The results of the present study showed that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting female olive ridleys was composed of
Rima Ratnanggana Prasetya
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pathogene of Aeromonas hydrophila genes (Aerolysin as the cause of Lepidochelys olivacea death and to perform the antibiotic sensitivity test for antibiotic that often used in order to provide the best antibiotic treatment in the field case. The method used was the identification test using primary cultures on Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA and Mac Conkey Agar (MCA medium, then followed by Gram staining, oxidase, catalase, and biochemical tests. Then, aerolysin genes detection was performed by using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method, while oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and kanamycin were tested for their sensitivity. From five samples of dead Lepidochelys olivacea, bleeding on the liver and intestine were observed. The identification result of bacteria was found A. hydrophila, and identified the gene encoding aerolysin. The antibiotic sensitivity test showed a sensitive category of A. hydrophila with a sensitivity level were oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and streptomycin. The main cause of Lepidochelys olivacea death in Turtle Conservation and Education Centre, Serangan Island, Bali was A. hydrophila which contains aerolysin genes, in which oxytetracycline seems to be the most effective drug for the treatment. ABSTRAK Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membuktikan adanya gen patogen (Aerolysin pada Aeromonas hydrophila sebagai penyebab kematian tukik penyu abu-abu serta mengetahui kepekaan obat antibiotic yang sering digunakan sehingga dapat memberikan terapi yang tepat pada kasus di lapangan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah uji identifikasi menggunakan kultur primer pada media Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA dan Mac Conkey Agar (MCA, dilanjutkan uji pewarnaan Gram, uji oksidase, uji katalase, dan uji biokimiawi. Setelah itu dilakukan deteksi gen aerolysin menggunakan metode Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, serta dilakukan uji sensitivitas antibiotik oxytetracycline
Yoshie, S; Honma, Y
The peculairly specialized esophagus of the Pacific ridley turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, was described by light and scanning electron microscopic studies. The esophagus is lined by a stratified squamous epithelium with remarkable keratinization, and its major part forms a number of large spines which have been called "pharyngeal teeth." The epithelium consists of three strate: stratum germinativum, stratum spinosum and stratum corneum. The surface of the spine is covered by a scaly keratin of possibly sloughing cells, and the cornified layer on the spine is very thick (more than 100 mu), reaching 3 to 7 times the depth of the corresponding layer in other parts. This peculiar structure in the marine turtle without toothed jaws prabably is used for breaking food into small pieces.
Páez-Osuna, F; Calderón-Campuzano, M F; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Ruelas-Inzunza, J
Mercury concentrations were assessed in the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea from a nesting colony of Oaxaca, Mexico; 25 female turtles were sampled, a total of 250 eggs were collected during the season 2005-2006. Higher concentrations were found in yolk fraction, while in blood and albumen mean levels were below of 0.0010μg g(-1) dry wt. On the basis of one nesting season, the maternal transfer of Hg via eggs-laying was estimated in 2.0±1.1%. According to international norms, the health of this population and its habitats is acceptable for Hg and corresponds to baseline levels of a nearly pristine environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schmitt, Todd L; Munns, Suzanne; Adams, Lance; Hicks, James
This study utilized computed spirometry to compare the pulmonary function of two stranded olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) presenting with a positive buoyancy disorder with two healthy captive olive ridley sea turtles held in a large public aquarium. Pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements demonstrated that the metabolic cost of breathing was much greater for animals admitted with positive buoyancy than for the normal sea turtles. Positively buoyant turtles had higher tidal volumes and significantly lower breathing-frequency patterns with significantly higher expiration rates, typical of gasp-type breathing. The resulting higher energetic cost of breathing in the diseased turtles may have a significant impact on their long-term survival. The findings represent a method for clinical respiratory function analysis for an individual animal to assist with diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to evaluate objectively sea turtles presenting with positive buoyancy and respiratory disease using pulmonary function tests.
Full Text Available Epibionts on the surface of the skin and shell of a specimen of Chelonia mydas and three Lepidochelys olivacea found floating on the coast of Concepción, Chile, between June 2010 and December 2012, were analyzed. These epibionts were analyzed during the clinical inspection and the tissue changes related to its settlement, with filamentous algae around, were observed. Subsequently, the epibionts were identified by morphological observation. The knowledge about theses epibionts in Chile is reviewed and the potential occurrence of Debilitated Turtle Syndrome (DTS in these turtles is discussed. The presence of sea turtles in the Chilean coast is considered a casual event, so there is little information on this issue. We propose it is necessary to carry out more studies on the association between turtles and epibionts because their identification, colonizing reptiles’ surface may give relevant information to a better understanding of different diseases, including DTS, that affect these marine reptiles and facilitates the development of strategies intended to recover their populations.
Shanker, K; Ramadevi, J; Choudhury, B C; Singh, L; Aggarwal, R K
Orissa, on the east coast of India, is one of the three mass nesting sites in the world for olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea). This population is currently under threat as a result of fishery-related mortality; more than 100 000 olive ridleys have been counted dead in the last 10 years in Orissa. In general, the globally distributed olive ridley turtle has received significantly less conservation attention than its congener, the Kemp's ridley turtle (L. kempi), because the latter is recognized as a distinct species consisting of a single endangered population. Our study of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes suggests that the ridley population on the east coast of India is panmictic, but distinct from all other populations including Sri Lanka. About 96% of the Indian population consisted of a distinct 'K' clade with haplotypes not found in any other population. Nested clade analysis and conventional analysis both supported range expansions and/or long-distance colonization from the Indian Ocean clades to other oceanic basins, which suggested that these are the ancestral source for contemporary global populations of olive ridley turtles. These data support the distinctiveness of the Indian Ocean ridleys, suggesting that conservation prioritization should be based on appropriate data and not solely on species designations.
Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; Vázquez-Gómez, Alma; Marmolejo-Valencia, Alejandro; Montaño, Luis Manuel; Merchant-Larios, Horacio
In turtles undergoing temperature sex determination (TSD), bipotential gonads express Sox9 in medullary cords at both female- (FPT) and male-producing temperatures (MPT). Subsequently, when the sex fate of medullary cords becomes dimorphic, at FPT, Sox9 is downregulated, whereas at MPT, its expression is maintained. Medullary cords in the ovary turn into ovarian lacuna, whereas in the testis they differentiate as seminiferous cords. When embryos of Lepidochelys olivacea sea turtle are incubated at MPT and treated with estradiol, Sox9 expression persists in the medullary cords in the form of tiny ovotestis-like formations. The perturbed development of the treated gonads is due to a significant decrease in the number of proliferating cells. This suggests that the disturbed effect caused by exogenous estradiol may be due to a conflict between the gene networks regulated by temperature and the increased level of endogenous estrogens, induced by the treatment. Here, we decided to use fadrozole and fulvestrant, an aromatase inhibitor and an estrogen-receptor antagonist, respectively, to provide insights into the role played by endogenous estrogens in regulating the cell proliferation of the two main gonadal compartments: the medullary cords and the cortex. Comparing cell proliferation patterns, our current results suggest that the endogenous estrogens are involved in determining the sex fate of medullary cords, by repressing proliferation. Interestingly, our results showed that endogenous estradiol levels are unnecessary for the thickening of the ovarian cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moreno-Mendoza, N; Harley, V R; Merchant-Larios, H
In mouse and chick embryos, the SOX9 gene is down-regulated in genetic females whereas in genetic males it remains in the Sertoli cells. We studied the distribution of SOX9 protein in developing genital ridges of embryos of the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea incubated at male- or female-promoting temperatures, using the antibody for detection. At stages 22-24, cells in medullary cords show SOX9 positive nuclei, while coelomic epithelial cells appear negative. At stage 25 however, most medullary cells are SOX9 negative and at the female-promoting temperature, and from stage 26 onwards, SOX9 protein is not detected. At the male-promoting temperature, medullary cords remain SOX9-positive at all stages. These results suggest that SOX9 is up-regulated in Sertoli cells irrespective of primary sex-determining switch. Sex is irreversibly determined at stage 24 or 26 at the male- or female-promoting temperature, respectively (Merchant-Larios et al.,'97). The present results suggest that there is a correlation between SOX9 expression and sex determination in the olive ridley. At the male-promoting temperature, Sertoli cells expressing SOX9 become committed at stage 24 and male sex is determined, whereas at the female-promoting temperature, SOX9 is down-regulated at stage 26 and female sex is determined. J. Exp. Zool. 284:705-710, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Oros, J; Calabuig, P; Arencibia, A; Camacho, M; Jensen, He
A sub-adult female olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) was found floating off the coast of Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain. The turtle was lethargic and weak, and died one day after it was found. Necropsy was performed and selected samples of lung and liver were routinely processed for histopathological and immunohistological studies. Grossly, round, ulcerative lesions were observed on the rear flippers. The liver, spleen, coelomic wall, gastric serosa, lungs and urinary bladder were covered by various amounts of fibrin and small granulomas. Histopathologically, a severe fibrinous and granulomatous polyserositis (liver, spleen, stomach, urinary bladder, coelomic wall), severe fibrinous pleuritis and severe multifocal granulomatous pneumonia were diagnosed. Numerous fungal hyphae were observed associated with the lesions. Specific monoclonal and heterologously absorbed polyclonal antibodies served as the primary reagents for identification of aspergillosis, candidiasis, fusariosis, geotricosis, dermatophytosis, scedosporiosis, and zygomycosis. All hyphae were identified as Trichophyton spp., because a strong and uniform reactivity was obtained only with an heterologously absorbed polyclonal antibody raised against somatic antigens of Trichophyton spp. Systemic mycosis caused by Trichophyton spp. There are no known previous reports of Trichophyton spp. causing skin disease or systemic mycotic infection in sea turtles. The usefulness of immunohistochemistry for identifying fungi in sea turtles is reinforced.
Hoekert, W E J; Neuféglise, H; Schouten, A D; Menken, S B J
Multiple paternity in the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) population nesting in Suriname was demonstrated using two microsatellite loci, viz., Ei8 and Cm84. The large number of offspring sampled per clutch (70 on average, ranging from 15 to 103) and the number of alleles found at the two loci (18 and eight alleles, respectively) enabled unambiguous assessment of the occurrence of multiple paternity. In two out of 10 clutches analysed, the offspring had been sired by at least two males, which was confirmed at both loci. In both clutches, unequal paternity occurred: 73% and 92% of the offspring had been sired by the primary male. The probability of detecting multiple paternity was 0.903, and therefore there is a small chance that multiple paternity occurred but remained undetected in some of the eight clutches that appeared to be singly sired. Analysis of 703 offspring revealed a high mutation rate for locus Ei8 (micro = 2.3 x 10(-2)) with all 33 mutations occurring in maternal alleles. In particular, one allele of 274 bp mutated at a high frequency in a clutch to which the mother contributed the allele, but in another clutch where the father contributed the same allele, no such mutations were observed. Inferred allele-specific mutation rates for Ei8 and expected numbers of mutations per clutch confirmed that maternal alleles for Ei8 are more likely to mutate in the olive ridley sea turtle than paternal alleles. Possible explanations are discussed.
Cortés-Gómez, Adriana A; Fuentes-Mascorro, Gisela; Romero, Diego
Concentrations of eight metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni and As) were evaluated from 41 nesting females (blood) and 13 dead (tissues) Olive Ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea), a species classified as vulnerable and also listed in Appendix I of the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). The mean blood, liver and kidney lead concentration were 0.02 ± 0.01, 0.11 ± 0.08 and 0.06 ± 0.03 μ gg(-1) ww respectively, values lower than other turtle species and locations, which it could be due to the gradual disuse of leaded gasoline in Mexico and Central America since the 1990s. Mean concentration of cadmium was 0.17 ± 0.08 (blood), 82.88 ± 36.65 (liver) and 150.88 ± 110.9 9μg g(-1) (kidney). To our knowledge, the mean renal cadmium levels found is the highest ever reported worldwide for any sea turtle species, while other six elements showed a concentration similar to other studies in sea turtles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizó la estructura de tallas de ejemplares de tortuga pico de loro Lepidochelys olivacea, varados y capturados incidentalmente en las playas de Tumbes, Perú (3º38’9,5”S – 80º36’2,48”W y 3º57’21,3”S – 80º57’45,72”W, desde noviembre de 2006 a octubre de 2011. El área de estudio se dividió en tres zonas contiguas, limitadas por las quebradas más activas (Bocapán, El Rubio y Peña Negra. Se registraron 39 ejemplares (74,4% varados y 25,6% capturados incidentalmente, cuyas tallas variaron de 45 a 75 cm LCC (62,5±5,7 cm LCC. El 64,1% correspondió a individuos sub-adultos (<65 cm LCC; n= 25. Espacialmente la mayor cantidad de registros ocurrieron en las zonas 3 y 2, en las cuales porcentajes superiores al 60% se consideraron sub-adultos; mientras que en la zona 1, el 83% fue adulto. Temporalmente en la época lluviosa se registró la mayoría de las observaciones (59%, en la cual el 78,3% de ejemplares se consideró sub–adulto; siendo mayor que en la época seca (43,8%. Las tallas presentaron diferencias significativas entre zonas y épocas climáticas. Se corroboró el patrón de distribución latitudinal por estados de madurez aparente (más adultos en el norte. La presencia del componente adulto indicaría que el litoral de Tumbes sería una potencial zona de anidamiento de L. olivacea, con mayores probabilidades de ovoposición en época seca, corroborada por los eventos de anidamiento recientes.
Karla G Barrientos Munoz; Cristian Ramirez Gallego; Vivian Paez
The olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) is the most common sea turtle to nest in Colombia. El valle beach is considered the most important nesting beach for this species in South America. Intensive direct capture of nesting females and egg poaching for consumption and local commercial purposes has been a common practice for years. We conducted an analysis of the nesting ecology of the olive ridley on el valle beach in the northern pacific of Colombia in 2008. A total of 164 clutches were transferred to an artificial hatchery for protection. The peak of nesting occurred from the second half of August until the end of September, accounting for 64.6 % of all nests. Along the beach, the section most frequently used was section 3, with 26 % of the nests. The nests were laid mainly in zone 3.69 %. We encountered 55 nesting females and marked 46 of them. Mean CCL was 64.9 ± 2.4 cm and mean CCW was 68.6 ± 2.6 cm. females laid on average of 87.3 ± 14.2 eggs per clutch. We recorded two nesting events per female, with a mean inter-nesting period of 18.8 ± 4.2 days. The reproductive output for the season was 181.5 ± 34.8 eggs / female. Mean hatching success was 81.1 ± 12.1 % and mean emergence success was 77.6 ± 12.7 %. The incubation period was 65 ± 4.7 days. Our study is a valuable contribution to knowledge of the reproductive ecology of the olive ridley population regionally and globally.
Torres-Maldonado, L; Moreno-Mendoza, N; Landa, A; Merchant-Larios, H
The SRY-related gene SOX9 is involved in the differentiation of Sertoli cells in male gonads of vertebrates with different kinds of sex determination. In the olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea, a species with temperature sex determination (TSD), the SOX9 protein is expressed at stages 21-24 in medullary cells in gonads of embryos incubated at both male-(MPT) or female-promoting temperatures (FPT). However, at FPT the expression of SOX9 protein decreases at stage 25 and disappears at stage 26, suggesting this as the critical period for SOX9 regulation by temperature. Here, we used reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect SOX9 transcripts in gonads of embryos switched from MPT to FPT at stage 23 and sampled at days 6-14. Simultaneously, groups of embryos were switched back to MPT and gonadal sex was established. SOX9 transcripts were detected at days 6-12 of switching, when embryos reached stage 25 and were no longer detected at day 14, when the embryos were at stage 26. Embryos switched back to MPT at days 6 or 8 formed testes, whereas embryos switched at days 10 or 14 developed ovaries. Results suggest that at MPT the male sex-determining pathway that maintains SOX9 expression in male gonads is established at stage 24. In contrast, at FPT, the female sex-determining pathway involved in downregulation of SOX9 in female gonads occurs within two days at stage 25. J. Exp. Zool. 290:498-503, 2001. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Cortés-Gómez, Adriana A; Morcillo, Patricia; Guardiola, Francisco A; Espinosa, Cristobal; Esteban, María A; Cuesta, Alberto; Girondot, Marc; Romero, Diego
Due to their longevity and extensive migration areas, marine turtles are able to accumulate diverse contaminants over many years and as a consequence they represent an interesting bioindicator species for marine ecosystem pollution. Metals provoke toxicological effects in many aquatic animal species, but marine turtles have been under-investigated in this area. Thus, we have determined the presence of certain inorganic elements (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) in olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) and related them to metallothionein (MT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) transcription and/or enzymatic activities. Gene expression of sod, cat and gr was found to be higher in blood than liver or kidney but most of the significant relationships were found in liver, not only for gene expression but also for enzyme activities. This must be related to the role the liver has as the first filter organ. Several positive relationships of sod, cat and gr gene expression in the different tissues were found in this population, as well as very high Cd concentrations. This could mean that these turtles are adapting to the metals-production of ROS and damage through a high transcription of these antioxidants. Multiple positive relationships with GR seem to be part of its compensatory effect due to the decrease of SOD production against the high and chronic exposure to certain xenobiotics. CAT, on the other hand, seems not to be used much, and glutathione detoxification of H 2 O 2 may be more important in this species. Finally, despite the very high Cd concentrations found in this population, no significant relationship was found in any tissue with metallothionein gene expression. These results, along with very high Cd concentrations and a negative relationship with Cu, lead us to consider some kind of disruption in mt gene expression in these turtles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; Marmolejo-Valencia, Alejandro; Harfush, Martha; Merchant-Larios, Horacio
Bipotential gonads represent the structural framework from which alternative molecular sex determination networks have evolved. Maintenance of Sox9 expression in Sertoli cells is required for the structural and functional integrity of male gonads in mammals and probably in most amniote vertebrates. However, spatial and temporal patterns of Sox9 expression have diversified along evolution. Species with temperature sex determination are an interesting predictive model since one of two alternative developmental outcomes, either ovary or testis occurs under controlled laboratory conditions. In the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea, Sox9 is expressed in the medullary cords of bipotential gonads when incubated at both female- or male-promoting temperature (FT or MT). Sox9 is then turned off in presumptive ovaries, while it remains turned on in testes. In the current study, Sox9 was used as a marker of the medullary cell lineage to investigate if the medullary cords originate from mesothelial cells at the genital ridges where Sox9 is upregulated, or, if they derive from a cell population specified at an earlier developmental stage, which maintains Sox9 expression. Using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, embryos were analyzed prior to, during and after gonadal sex determination. A T-shaped domain (T-Dom) formed by cytokeratin (CK), N-cadherin (Ncad) and SOX9-expressing cells was found at the upper part of the hindgut dorsal mesentery. The arms of the T-Dom were extended to both sides towards the ventromedial mesonephric ridge before the thickening of the genital ridges, indicating that they contained gonadal epithelial cell precursors. Thereafter, expression of Sox9 was maintained in medullary cords while it was downregulated at the surface epithelium of bipotential gonads in both FT and MT. This result contrasts with observations in mammals and birds, in which Sox9 upregulation starts at a later stage in the inner cells underlying the Sox9-negative surface
Iwasaki, S; Wanichanon, C; Asami, T
Histological and ultrastructural studies ot the dorsal lingual epithelium of the juvenile Pacific ridley turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, were performed by light and electron microscopy, and the results were compared to those of freshwater turtles in order to clarify the relationship between the histological and cellular differences of the lingual epithelium and the habitat of the turtles. The tongue of the juvenile Pacific ridley turtle is triangular with a round apex when viewed from above, but it appears flattened in lateral view. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed no lingual papillae on the dorsal surface of the tongue. Instead, transverse plicae are found on the surface of the body and the radix. The surface of the apex is smooth. Microridge-like structures are present on the surfaces of the cells, and the cell margins are thickened. The mucosal epithelium is keratinized, stratified squamous with a relatively thick layer of desquamating cells. Cells of the basal and deep intermediate layers appear elliptical in shape; and their nuclei are elliptical and centrally located. Numerous desmosomes join the processes of adjacent cells; and hemidesmosomes anchor the basal cells to the basal lamina. The cytoplasm of these cells contains mitochondria, free ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles, and bundles of tonofilaments. Cells and their nuclei in the intermediate layer display gradual flattening. In the shallow intermediate layer, the cells are significantly flattened, with nuclei condensed or absent. The cytoplasm contains many tonofibrils or bundles of tonofilaments, free ribosomes and keratohyalin granules, with numerous ribosomes attached to their surfaces. A few collapsed mitochondria are visible. Cell membranes of the shallow intermediate cells are smooth and attached to those of adjacent cells by desmosomes. The keratinized layer is located on top of the shallow intermediate layer, and consists of significantly flattened cells lacking nuclei
Karla G. Barrientos-Muñoz
Full Text Available En Colombia, la tortuga golfina (Lepidochelys olivacea es la más común de las tortugas anidantes. La playa El Valle es considerada la más importante para anidación en Suramérica. La intensa captura de hembras y saqueo de huevos para consumo y comercio local ha sido una práctica común por años. Realizamos un análisis de la ecología de anidación de la tortuga golfina en la Playa El Valle, Pacifico Norte, durante la temporada de 2008. Un total de 164 nidadas fueron transferidas a viveros de protección. El pico de anidación ocurrió durante la segunda quincena de agosto y septiembre con un 64,63 % de las posturas. A lo largo de la playa, el sector 3 presento la mayor frecuencia de anidación con 26 %. Los nidos fueron desovados principalmente en la zona 3, con 69 %. Encontramos 55 hembras y 46 fueron marcadas. El LCC fue (promedio± DE: 64,9 ± 2,4 cm y ACC fue (promedio ± DE: 68,6 ± 2,6 cm. Las hembras desovaron 87,3 ± 14,2 huevos por nidada. Registramos dos eventos de anidación por hembra, con un intervalo de (promedio ± DE: 18,8 ± 4,2 días. El producto reproductivo fue (promedio ± DE: 181,5 ± 34,8 huevos por hembra. El promedio en éxito de eclosión fue 81,1 ±12,1 % y de emergencia 77,6 ± 12,7 %. El período de incubación fue (promedio ± DE: 65 ± 4,7 días. Nuestros datos son una valiosa contribución al conocimiento de la ecología reproductiva de la población de tortugas golfina regional y globalmente.
Stapput, Katrin; Wiltschko, Wolfgang
Newly hatched olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) were tested for their directional preferences in a sand-filled circular arena in total darkness. Hatchlings that had crawled about 5 m on the beach, toward the sea preferred the southwesterly direction that would have brought them to the water line, whereas hatchlings that had been denied this experience headed eastward, a direction of unclear origin. These data suggest that a short crawl across the natural beach can set the direction in which the young turtles subsequently move. The crawling experience was sufficient to acquire the compass course that they later follow, probably with the help of a magnetic compass, not only in the water, but already while still on land.
Ross, David A; Guzmán, Héctor M; Van Hinsberg, Vincent J; Potvin, Catherine
Concentrations of eight elements were measured in Chelonia mydas and Lepidochelys olivacea eggs collected along the Pacific coast of Panama. Manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) concentrations were similar to previous reports of these species from around the world, while lead (Pb) was lower than previous reports. Cd posed the highest health risk to people who regularly eat the eggs, with average consumption rates leading to target hazard quotients (THQ) of up to 0.35 ± 0.15. Our conclusions indicate that current turtle egg consumption in isolated, coastal Pacific communities may pose a health concern for young children, and that youth and young adults should limit their consumption of turtle eggs to reduce their total intake of nonessential metals.
Stapput, Katrin; Wiltschko, Wolfgang
Newly hatched olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) were tested for their directional preferences in a sand-filled circular arena in total darkness. Hatchlings that had crawled about 5 m on the beach, toward the sea preferred the southwesterly direction that would have brought them to the water line, whereas hatchlings that had been denied this experience headed eastward, a direction of unclear origin. These data suggest that a short crawl across the natural beach can set the direction in which the young turtles subsequently move. The crawling experience was sufficient to acquire the compass course that they later follow, probably with the help of a magnetic compass, not only in the water, but already while still on land.
M\\u00F3nica Pereira-Zamora; Francisco Hern\\u00E1ndez-Chavarr\\u00EDa; Eric Wong-Gonz\\u00E1lez
Penetración de Vibrio mimicus a través de la cáscara del huevo de tortuga lora (Lepidochelys olivacea). El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en determinar la capacidad de penetración del Vibrio mimicus a través de la cáscara del huevo. La investigación se realizó en el Centro Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos en el año 2000. Se inoculó la superfi cie de la cáscara con la bacteria y se procedió a incubar las muestras por 72 horas a 25°C. Después de este período se observaron...
Gutiérrez-Ospina, G; Jiménez-Trejo, F J; Favila, R; Moreno-Mendoza, N A; Granados Rojas, L; Barrios, F A; Díaz-Cintra, S; Merchant-Larios, H
In embryos of different reptile species, incubation temperature triggers a cascade of endocrine events that lead to gonad sex differentiation. The cellular and molecular mechanisms by which temperature sets in motion this process are still controversial. Here, we begin evaluating the possible participation of the nervous system in temperature-dependent sex determination by showing the existence and origin of acetylcholinesterase (AchE)-positive nerve fibers in undifferentiated gonads of the Lepidochelys olivacea (L. olivacea) sea turtle putative male and female embryos, along the thermosensitive period for sex determination (TPSD; stages 20-27). AChE-positive nerve bundles and fibers were readily visualized until developmental stage 24 and thereafter. DiI injections and confocal imaging showed that some of these gonadal nerves arise from the lower thoracic and upper lumbar spinal cord levels, and might thus be sensory in nature. Because the vertebrate spinal cord is capable of integrating by itself thermoregulatory responses with no intervention of uppermost levels of the central nervous system, we also evaluated spinal cord maturation during the TPSD. The maturation of the spinal cord was more advanced in putative female than in male embryos, when sex determination is taking place for each sex; this process starts and ends earlier in male than in female embryos. Together these observations open the possibility that the spinal cord and the innervation derived from it could play a direct role in driving or modulating the process of temperature-dependent gonad sex determination and/or differentiation, particularly in female L. olivacea embryos.
Torres Maldonado, L C; Landa Piedra, A; Moreno Mendoza, N; Marmolejo Valencia, A; Meza Martínez, A; Merchant Larios, H
Sex determination is controlled either by genetic or environmental factors. In mammals Sry initiates determination but no homologue of this gene exists in non-mammalian species. Other genes of the mammalian sex-determining pathway have been identified in gonads of different vertebrates. Sox9, Dax1, and Dmrt1 are expressed at the onset of gonadal development in birds and reptiles. In the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea, a species with temperature sex determination (TSD), Sox9 is expressed in undifferentiated gonads at male- (MPT) or female-promoting temperatures (FPT). At MPT, Sox9 remains expressed in male gonads, but at FPT it is downregulated coinciding with the onset of the ovarian morphologic differentiation and female sex determination. At MPT however, male sex is determined early than at FPT in still undifferentiated gonads suggesting that other genes maintain Sox9 expression in testis. Here we used RT-PCR to study the expression profiles of Dax1, Dmrt1, and Sox9 in gonads of embryos of L. olivacea incubated at MPT or at FPT. The profiles were correlated with sex determination during and after the temperature-sensitive period (TSP). Dax1 maintained similar levels at both temperatures during the TSP. The Dax1 expression level increased significantly in ovaries compared to testes at stage 27, once they were morphologically distinct. The expression levels of Dmrt1 were higher at MPT than at FPT at all stages, in contrast with Sox9 levels which were similar at both temperatures at stages 23-25. Together, current results suggest that, whereas Dax1 is not involved in TSD in L. olivacea, upregulation of Dmrt1 and downregulation of Sox9 may play a role in male and female sex determination, respectively.
Salame-Mendez, A; Herrera-Munoz, J; Moreno-Mendoza, N; Merchant-Larios, H
Although temperature sex determination is well known in several reptile species, the physiological mechanism underlying this process remains to be elucidated. In the current work, we analyzed the levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) in the gonads; two brain regions--telencephalon (Te) and diencephalon/mesencephalon (Di)--and the serum of developing embryos of the olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea incubated at male- or female-promoting temperatures. Conversion of pregnenolone (P5) to T and T to E2 were studied in the gonads and brain. The analyses were performed during three periods: the thermosensitive period (TSP), histologically undifferentiated gonads (UDG), and differentiated gonads (DG). In the gonads, serum, and brain, T concentrations were higher at the female-promoting temperature during the three periods, whereas in the gonads and serum, E2 levels were similar at the female and male-promoting temperature. In Di, the concentration of E2 was significantly higher at the female-promoting temperature. Biotransformation of P5 to T in gonadal tissues were slightly higher at the female-promoting temperature in TSP and increased during UDG and DG. Conversion of T to E2, however, was similar at the two temperatures during the three periods. In the brain, the Di showed a higher efficiency for transforming T to E2 at the female-promoting temperature. Our present results do not allow us to decide whether the diencephalon is the cause or the effect, but they conclusively demonstrate that, in L. olivacea, this region of the brain senses temperature during sex determination.
Chambault, Philippine; de Thoisy, Benoît; Heerah, Karine; Conchon, Anna; Barrioz, Sébastien; Dos Reis, Virginie; Berzins, Rachel; Kelle, Laurent; Picard, Baptiste; Roquet, Fabien; Le Maho, Yvon; Chevallier, Damien
The circulation in the Western Equatorial Atlantic is characterized by a highly dynamic mesoscale activity that shapes the Guiana continental shelf. Olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) nesting in French Guiana cross this turbulent environment during their post-nesting migration. We studied how oceanographic and biological conditions drove the foraging behavior of 18 adult females, using satellite telemetry, remote sensing data (sea surface temperature, sea surface height, current velocity and euphotic depth), simulations of micronekton biomass (pelagic organisms) and in situ records (water temperature and salinity). The occurrence of foraging events throughout migration was located using Residence Time analysis, while an innovative proxy of the hunting time within a dive was used to identify and quantify foraging events during dives. Olive ridleys migrated northwestwards using the Guiana current and remained on the continental shelf at the edge of eddies formed by the North Brazil retroflection, an area characterized by low turbulence and high micronekton biomass. They performed mainly pelagic dives, hunting for an average 77% of their time. Hunting time within a dive increased with shallower euphotic depth and with lower water temperatures, and mean hunting depth increased with deeper thermocline. This is the first study to quantify foraging activity within dives in olive ridleys, and reveals the crucial role played by the thermocline on the foraging behavior of this carnivorous species. This study also provides novel and detailed data describing how turtles actively use oceanographic structures during post-nesting migration.
Ma. A. Herrera-Vargas
Full Text Available Egg translocation and incubation in man-made nests (MMN are common conservation practices through marine turtle hatcheries worldwide. These measures have been associated with reduced hatching rates, altered hatchling sex ratio, fetal dysmorphic anatomical features, and feeble hatchlings health. Previous studies have shown that MMN and natural nests (NN provide different incubatory conditions. Therefore, incubatory challenges imposed by MMN conditions on fetal development could induce stress responses affecting hatchlings functional morphology later on life. There is no evidence of incubatory stress associated with conservation measures in turtle fetuses or hatchlings. Thus, in this paper we tested the hypothesis that MMN incubation exposes turtle fetuses to stressing conditions. Given that the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis begins functioning by day 11 of incubation in reptiles, our experiments explored the effects of incubatory conditions, rather than those associated with translocation, on fetal stress responses. We showed that Lepidochelys olivacea hatchlings incubated in MMN displayed reduced body weight, hypertrophic inter-renal glands, testicular hypotrophy and hypotrophic dorso-medial cortical pyramidal neurons, when compared with hatchlings emerging from NN. Furthermore, MMN hatchlings had higher serum levels of corticosterone at emergence, and displayed an attenuated acute stress response after traversing the beach. Therefore, the relocation of nests to protect them could negatively impact the health and survival of sea turtles. Thus, this action should only be undertaken when no alternative is available.
Paez-Osuna, F.; Calderon-Campuzano, M.F.; Soto-Jimenez, M.F.; Ruelas-Inzunza, J.R.
Concentrations of lead were assessed in the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, from a nesting colony of the Eastern Pacific. Twenty-five female turtles were sampled and a total of 250 eggs were collected during the 'arribada' event of the 2005-2006 season. Considering the nesting season, the maternal transfer of lead (Pb) via egg-laying, in terms of metal burden in whole body, was 0.5%. Pb concentrations (in dry weight) in blood (0.95 ± 0.18 μg g -1 ) and egg samples (yolk, 0.80 ± 0.10 μg g -1 ; albumen, 1.08 ± 0.20 μg g -1 ; eggshell, 1.05 ± 0.20 μg g -1 ) were comparable or even lower than those found in other sea turtles. The isotope ratios ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb) in blood (1.183 ± 0.0006 and 2.452 ± 0.0006, respectively) were comparable to that of natural Pb-bearing bedrock in Mexico (1.188 ± 0.005 and 2.455 ± 0.008, respectively). According to international norms of Pb, the health of this population and its habitats is acceptable for Pb and corresponds to basic levels of a nearly pristine environment.
Páez-Osuna, F; Calderón-Campuzano, M F; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Ruelas-Inzunza, J R
Concentrations of lead were assessed in the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, from a nesting colony of the Eastern Pacific. Twenty-five female turtles were sampled and a total of 250 eggs were collected during the "arribada" event of the 2005-2006 season. Considering the nesting season, the maternal transfer of lead (Pb) via egg-laying, in terms of metal burden in whole body, was 0.5%. Pb concentrations (in dry weight) in blood (0.95+/-0.18microgg(-1)) and egg samples (yolk, 0.80+/-0.10microg g(-1); albumen, 1.08+/-0.20microg g(-1); eggshell, 1.05+/-0.20microg g(-1)) were comparable or even lower than those found in other sea turtles. The isotope ratios ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(208)Pb) in blood (1.183+/-0.0006 and 2.452+/-0.0006, respectively) were comparable to that of natural Pb-bearing bedrock in Mexico (1.188+/-0.005 and 2.455+/-0.008, respectively). According to international norms of Pb, the health of this population and its habitats is acceptable for Pb and corresponds to basic levels of a nearly pristine environment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salleh, Sarahaizad Mohd; Yobe, Mansor; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd
The Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) and Olive Ridley Turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) are the only sea turtles with recorded landings in the Pulau Pinang coastal area. The Green Turtle has been the most abundant and widely distributed sea turtle in this area since it was first surveyed in 1995. Statistical analysis by the Pulau Pinang Department of Fisheries on the distribution of sea turtles from 2001 through 2009 has identified Pantai Kerachut and Telok Kampi as the most strongly preferred beaches for Green Turtle landings, with records for almost every month in every year. Green Turtle tracks and nests have also been found along the coast of Pulau Pinang at Batu Ferringhi, Tanjong Bungah, Pantai Medan, Pantai Belanda, Telok Kumbar, Gertak Sanggul, Moonlight Beach, Telok Duyung, Telok Aling, Telok Bahang and Telok Katapang. The Olive Ridley Turtle is present in smaller numbers; landing and nesting have only been recorded on a few beaches. There are no previous records of Olive Ridley landings at Pantai Kerachut and Telok Kampi, but tracks and nests have been found at Telok Kumbar, Tanjong Bungah, Pantai Medan, Telok Duyung and Gertak Sanggul. A Turtle Conservation Centre has been established at Pantai Kerachut to protect these species from extinction in Pulau Pinang. This paper presents details of the records and distribution of sea turtles in Pulau Pinang from 1995 through 2009. PMID:24575226
Sifuentes-Romero, Itzel; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; García-Gasca, Alejandra
Hox genes are conserved transcription factors which regulate embryonic morphogenesis and differentiation. For the first time, we examined the quantitative and spatial expression of two Hox 5' genes, HoxD11 and HoxA13, in the developing genital system of the olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea, a species with temperature-dependent sex determination. Quantitative and spatial expression patterns of both genes suggest a role in the female pathway rather than the male pathway. For instance, both genes, especially HoxA13, were expressed in the undifferentiated gonad during the thermosensitive period at a female promoting temperature, and downregulated in the differentiated gonad. By contrast, expression of both genes was low in gonads incubated at a male promoting temperature and did not change significantly in the differentiated gonad. Furthermore, we found high expression levels of HoxA13 in the paramesonephric duct at the male promoting temperature but not at the female promoting temperature, suggesting a role for this Hox gene in the partial regression of the Müllerian duct in males. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Páez-Osuna, Federico; Calderón-Campuzano, María F; Soto-Jiménez, Martín F; Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge R
Trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn) concentrations were assessed in the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea from a nesting colony of Oaxaca, Mexico. Twenty-five female turtles were sampled, a total of 250 eggs were collected during the "arribada" event of the 2005-2006 season. Zn concentrations were highest in the yolk [72.3 ± 10.9 μg/g dry weight (dw)] and blood (58.4 ± 4.7 μg/g dw), whereas Ni concentrations were highest in the shell (48.5 ± 12.9 μg/g dw). The mean concentrations of Cu, and Cd in the analyzed tissues were lower than those reported in other sea turtle species. However, Zn and Ni concentrations in the yolk and shell, respectively, had the same distribution pattern observed at loggerhead and green turtles. On the basis of one nesting season, the maternal transfer and/or the excretion rates of trace metals via eggs-laying, estimated in terms of metal burdens in whole body, were 0.2, 7.8, 3.4, and 21.5% for Cd, Cu, Zn, and Ni, respectively.
Salleh, Sarahaizad Mohd; Yobe, Mansor; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd
The Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) and Olive Ridley Turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) are the only sea turtles with recorded landings in the Pulau Pinang coastal area. The Green Turtle has been the most abundant and widely distributed sea turtle in this area since it was first surveyed in 1995. Statistical analysis by the Pulau Pinang Department of Fisheries on the distribution of sea turtles from 2001 through 2009 has identified Pantai Kerachut and Telok Kampi as the most strongly preferred beaches for Green Turtle landings, with records for almost every month in every year. Green Turtle tracks and nests have also been found along the coast of Pulau Pinang at Batu Ferringhi, Tanjong Bungah, Pantai Medan, Pantai Belanda, Telok Kumbar, Gertak Sanggul, Moonlight Beach, Telok Duyung, Telok Aling, Telok Bahang and Telok Katapang. The Olive Ridley Turtle is present in smaller numbers; landing and nesting have only been recorded on a few beaches. There are no previous records of Olive Ridley landings at Pantai Kerachut and Telok Kampi, but tracks and nests have been found at Telok Kumbar, Tanjong Bungah, Pantai Medan, Telok Duyung and Gertak Sanggul. A Turtle Conservation Centre has been established at Pantai Kerachut to protect these species from extinction in Pulau Pinang. This paper presents details of the records and distribution of sea turtles in Pulau Pinang from 1995 through 2009.
Chávez, Bertha; Ramos, Luis; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; Vilchis, Felipe
The effects of estradiol on the Harderian gland (HG) are believed to be partially regulated by the transcriptional regulation of the estrogen-related genes via estrogen receptor (ER). In reptiles, however, it has not been well established whether the HG contains or expresses steroid nuclear receptors. As a first step toward investigating the molecular mechanisms of estrogen signalling in the HG, we isolated the cDNA for ERalpha in the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea. ERalpha was cloned using RT-PCR coupled with 5' and 3' RACE procedures. The cDNA contains a complete open reading frame encoding 588 amino acid residues. Comparative analysis of this amino acid sequence showed moderate to strong conservation of the ERalpha (Esr1) gene within divergent vertebrate groups. In transfection studies, the cloned ER displayed high affinity K(d)=0.25nM and high specificity for 17beta-estradiol. Binding assays using sucrose density gradients demonstrated a specific 7-7.5 S binding component in the HG cytosolic fractions. RT-qPCR analysis showed significant ERalpha mRNA expression in the liver, HG, lung and brain. Altogether, these results provide evidence for the expression of intracellular ERs in the HG of the sea turtle and suggest that ERalpha may be an important modulator of the estrogen-mediated response in the HG of reptiles.
The characterization of cytosolic glutathione transferase from four species of sea turtles: loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green (Chelonia mydas), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata).
Richardson, Kristine L; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Schlenk, Daniel
Glutathione s-transferases (GST) play a critical role in the detoxification of exogenous and endogenous electrophiles, as well as the products of oxidative stress. As compared to mammals, GST activity has not been extensively characterized in reptiles. Throughout the globe, most sea turtle populations face the risk of extinction. Of the natural and anthropogenic threats to sea turtles, the effects of environmental chemicals and related biochemical mechanisms, such as GST catalyzed detoxification, are probably the least understood. In the present study, GST activity was characterized in four species of sea turtles with varied life histories and feeding strategies: loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green (Chelonia mydas), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata). Although similar GST kinetics was observed between species, rates of catalytic activities using class-specific substrates show inter- and intra-species variation. GST from the spongivorous hawksbill sea turtle shows 3-4.5 fold higher activity with the substrate 4-nitrobenzylchloride than the other 3 species. GST from the herbivorous green sea turtle shows 3 fold higher activity with the substrate ethacrynic acid than the carnivorous olive ridley sea turtle. The results of this study may provide insight into differences in biotransformation potential in the four species of sea turtles and the possible health impacts of contaminant biotransformation by sea turtles.
Malmierca Pérez, Atenea
En este trabajo de final de grado se expone un análisis del éxito de incubación (éxito de eclosión y éxito de emergencia) de la tortuga lora (Lepidochelys olivacea) en las playas Carate y La Leona (Península de Osa, Costa Rica), según los diferentes métodos de manejo de nidos realizados (nidos in situ, nidos reubicados en playa y nidos reubicados en el vivero). El objetivo principal de este trabajo es ver si tanto el manejo de los nidos, como la temperatura de la arena y el recubrimiento h...
Hinestroza, Lina María
Full Text Available Durante la estación de anidación de 1999, documentamos algunos aspectos del comportamiento de anidación de la colonia de Lepidochelys olivacea que desova en la playa La Cuevita en el Pacífico colombiano. Adicionalmente, evaluamos los resultados del programa de maneje por transferencia y protección de nidos para esta estación reproductiva y lo comparamos con años anteriores. Todos los nidos depositados en esta playa que no logran ser transferidos al corral de protección. son depredados por humanos, al igual que una buena proporción de las hembras anidantes. Trasladamos 365 nidos (30197 huevos, de los 377 desoves registrados. El promedio del LCC de las hembras fue de 66 cm (SD= 2,47 y el promedio del número de huevos por nido fue de 102 (SD= 23,04. A diferencia de la estación de 1998, en la presente estación se presentó un pico de anidación evidente y la preferencia de anidación fue en la Lona media de la playa, seguida por la zona de lavado. El éxito de eclosión estimado con base en 304 de los 365 nidos transferidos fue de 71.4% y el éxito reproductivo de 71.8%. Las causas principales de mortalidad dentro del tortugario fueron: escaso o noto desarrollo embrionario. infestación de larvas de moscas en toda o parte de la nidada. asfixia de los neonatos por compactación de la arena. y picaduras por parte de hormigas. El intervalo de temperaturas de incubación estuvo entre los 28,9°C y los 29,4°C, con un promedio de 29.1°C, presentando 51 días de incubación. La evaluación de las proporciones sexuales neonatales de los nidos transferidos fue de 6: 1 en favor de los machos. Nuestros resultados indican que playa La Cuevita es un importante sitio de anidación de Lepidochelys olivacea en Sudamérica. Sin embargo, se deben seguir evaluando las estrategias de manejo empleadas para permitir la eclosión in situ de nidadas, mediante el control de las tasas de depredación humana, e intentar adelantar estudios para determinar
Gómez-Picos, Patsy; Sifuentes-Romero, Itzel; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; Hernández-Cornejo, Rubí; Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; García-Gasca, Alejandra
Brain aromatase participates in several biological processes, such as regulation of the reproductive-endocrine axis, memory, stress, sexual differentiation of the nervous system, male sexual behavior, and brain repair. Here we report the isolation and expression of brain aromatase in olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) embryos incubated at male- and female-promoting temperatures (MPT and FPT, respectively), at the thermosensitive period (TSP) and the sex-differentiated period. Also, aromatase expression was assessed in differentiated embryos exposed to bisphenol-A (BPA) during the TSP. BPA is a monomer of polycarbonate plastics and is considered an endocrine-disrupting compound. Normal aromatase expression was measured in both forebrain and hindbrain, showing higher expression levels in the forebrain of differentiated embryos at both incubation temperatures. Although no significant differences were detected in the hindbrain, expression was slightly higher at MPT. BPA did not affect aromatase expression neither in forebrains or hindbrains from embryos incubated at MPT, whereas at FPT an inverted U-shape curve was observed in forebrains with significant differences at lower concentrations, whereas in hindbrains a non-significant increment was observed at higher concentrations. Our data indicate that both incubation temperature and developmental stage are critical factors affecting aromatase expression in the forebrain. Because of the timing and location of aromatase expression in the brain, we suggest that brain aromatase may participate in the imprinting of sexual trends related to reproduction and sexual behavior at the onset of sex differentiation, and BPA exposure may impair aromatase function in the female forebrain.
Cortés-Gómez, Adriana A; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Teles, Mariana; Cuenca, Rafaela; Fuentes-Mascorro, Gisela; Romero, Diego
This study was designed to determine the concentrations of p-nitrophenyl acetate esterase activity (EA) and cortisol in serum of marine Olive Ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) from a Mexican Pacific population ("La Escobilla" beach) and to evaluate the possible relationship of inorganic elements with these biomarkers. EA, cortisol, and selected chemical elements (Cd, Pb, Ti, Sr, Se, Al, As, and Zn) were measured in the blood of 44 sea turtles from the Eastern Pacific (Southeast Mexico). Serum EA ranged from 0.4 to 3.9 UI mL -1 , and cortisol concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 2.5 μL dL -1 . A strong negative correlation between EA and cortisol was observed (r = - 0.59, p < 0.01), and significant correlations also were found between EA and important metals, such as Cd (r = - 0.31, p < 0.05) and Pb (r = - 0.27, p < 0.05), and elements of growing concern like Ti (r = - 0.37, p < 0.01) or Al (r = - 0.34, p < 0.05) and between cortisol and Sr (r = 0.29, p < 0.05), Se (r = - 0.38, p < 0.01), and As (r = - 0.26, p < 0.05). These results suggest that turtles chronically exposed to different inorganic elements (such as Pb and Cd), driving to a highly consume of esterase and to a prolonged cortisol elevation. The obtained results indicate the usefulness of these biomarkers in the assessment of inorganic elements pollution in this species.
Valverde, R A; Owens, D W; MacKenzie, D S; Amoss, M S
Adrenocortical responsiveness to turning stress was examined in wild, reproductively-active olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) in relation to their mass nesting (arribada) behavior. We hypothesized that the high sensitivity threshold (HST) observed in ovipositing sea turtles is associated with a diminished sensitivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to stressful stimuli in arribada females. We tested this hypothesis by determining whether arribada females exhibited an increased activation threshold of the HPA axis to an imposed stressor (turning stress). Mean basal corticosterone (B) and glucose levels were below 1.0 ng/ml and 60 mg/dl, respectively. Basal B remained unchanged throughout a 24-hr period in basking females. Most animals responded to turning stress with elevated mean B levels (up to 6.5 ng/ml after 6 hr) and no increase in circulating glucose. Nearly 50% of females (and none of the males) were refractory to the stimulation. Males exhibited the most rapid response, with B levels significantly elevated by 20 min over basal levels. Among females, arribada and solitary nesters exhibited a slower rate of response than basking, non-nesting animals. These results demonstrate that olive ridleys exhibit stress-induced changes in circulating B which are slower than those observed in most reptilian and in mammalian, avian, and piscine species. Furthermore, the presence of refractory females and the relatively slower increase in B in arribada and solitary nesters indicate a hyporesponsiveness of the HPA axis to turning stress in nesting olive ridleys. The hyporesponsiveness may be part of a mechanism to facilitate arribada nesting. J. Exp. Zool. 284:652-662, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Castro-González, María Isabel; Pérez-Gil Romo, Fernando
The Olive Ridley is a worldwide distributed species with high nesting production per season, and in La Escobilla Oaxaca, México, there is a 70% of non-hatched eggs that are lost. In order to evaluate their potential use as a source for human and animal food products, their chemical composition was analyzed. Lyophilized egg samples from 25 turtles were obtained and were analyzed following the analytical methods for fatty acids, protein, fat, ash, moisture, amino acids, vitamins, cholesterol and microbiological agents. The analytical composition obtained was (g/100g): moisture (4.7), ash (3.8), protein (53.7), and fat (47.4). The essential amino acid (g aa/100g protein) content was: Ile (4.4), Lys (6.6), Leu (7.4), Met+Cys (8.8), Phe+Tyr (10.8). The vitamin content was: retinol (340 microg/100g), cholecalciferol (5.91 microg/100g) and 8.6 mg/100 tocopherol, 0.3 mg/100g thiamine and 1.1 mg/100g riboflavin. The total lipid content (TL), fatty acids (FA), and cholesterol (Chol) were divided into three groups based on the weight of the turtle: (TL) (44.3-48.7-49.1g/100g) and (Chol) (518.4-522.5 mg/100g-728.7). A total of 17 Saturated FA (SFA), 8 Monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and 11 Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were identified. The most abundant SFA (mg/100g) were: C14:0 (445-772), C16:0 (485-1263); MUFA: C16:1 (456-716), C18:1n-9c (904-1754), and PUFA: C20:4n-6 (105-217); two n-3 fatty acids were identified EPA (48-103) and DHA (97-189).There were significant differences (Fisher, p olivacea eggs are an option for its inclusion in the development of food products as they can be used as a high quality biological protein and n-3 fatty acid source for fortification and enrichment.
María Isabel Castro-González
Full Text Available Por su potencial como fuente alimenticia, se analizó la composición química de huevo de Lepidochelys olivácea en La Escobilla, Oaxaca, México. El Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México proporcionó 250 muestras de huevo liofilizado de 25 tortugas, que se analizaron siguiendo métodos oficiales para humedad, cenizas, proteína, grasa, lípidos totales(LT y análisis microbiológicos; además de ácidos grasos(AG por cromatografía de gases, aminoácidos(AA, vitaminas y colesterol(col por HPLC. Los resultados fueron los siguientes: (g/100g humedad(4.7, cenizas(3.8, proteína(53.7 y grasa(47.4. AA esenciales (g aa/100g Proteína: Ile (4.4, Lys(6.6, Leu(7.4, Met+Cys (8.8, Phe+Tyr (10.8; retinol (340μg/100g, colecalciferol (5.9 μg/100g, tocoferol (8.6, tiamina (0.3 y riboflavina (1.1 (mg/100g. Y los de (LT, (AG y (Col se concentraron en tres grupos por peso de tortuga: (LT (44.3-48.7-49.1g/100g, (Col (518.4-522.5-728.7 mg/100g. Entonces se identificaron 17 AGSaturados, 8 AGMonoinsaturados y 11 AGPoliinsaturados. Los AGS más abundantes (mg/100g: C16:0 (485-1263, AGM: C16:1 (456-716, C18:1n-9c (904- 1754 y AGP: C20:4n-6 (105-217, EPA (48-103 y HA (97-189. También, existió diferencia significativa (Fisher, p<0.05 para (Col, AG totales, AGS, AGM, AGP y AG n-3 (EPA+DHA. No se detectó presencia de agentes microbiológicos. El huevo liofilizado de L. olivacea es una opción para el desarrollo de productos alimenticios por su proteína de alto valor biológico y ácidos grasos n-3.
María Isabel Castro-González
Full Text Available Por su potencial como fuente alimenticia, se analizó la composición química de huevo de Lepidochelys olivácea en La Escobilla, Oaxaca, México. El Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México proporcionó 250 muestras de huevo liofilizado de 25 tortugas, que se analizaron siguiendo métodos oficiales para humedad, cenizas, proteína, grasa, lípidos totales(LT y análisis microbiológicos; además de ácidos grasos(AG por cromatografía de gases, aminoácidos(AA, vitaminas y colesterol(col por HPLC. Los resultados fueron los siguientes: (g/100g humedad(4.7, cenizas(3.8, proteína(53.7 y grasa(47.4. AA esenciales (g aa/100g Proteína: Ile (4.4, Lys(6.6, Leu(7.4, Met+Cys (8.8, Phe+Tyr (10.8; retinol (340μg/100g, colecalciferol (5.9 μg/100g, tocoferol (8.6, tiamina (0.3 y riboflavina (1.1 (mg/100g. Y los de (LT, (AG y (Col se concentraron en tres grupos por peso de tortuga: (LT (44.3-48.7-49.1g/100g, (Col (518.4-522.5-728.7 mg/100g. Entonces se identificaron 17 AGSaturados, 8 AGMonoinsaturados y 11 AGPoliinsaturados. Los AGS más abundantes (mg/100g: C16:0 (485-1263, AGM: C16:1 (456-716, C18:1n-9c (904- 1754 y AGP: C20:4n-6 (105-217, EPA (48-103 y HA (97-189. También, existió diferencia significativa (Fisher, pChemical composition of eggs of the Olive Ridley Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae and it’s potential as a food source. The Olive Ridley is a worldwide distributed species with high nesting production per season, and in La Escobilla Oaxaca, México, there is a 70% of non-hatched eggs that are lost. In order to evaluate their potential use as a source for human and animal food products, their chemical composition was analyzed. Lyophilized egg samples from 25 turtles were obtained and were analyzed following the analytical methods for fatty acids, protein, fat, ash, moisture, amino acids, vitamins, cholesterol and microbiological agents. The analytical composition obtained
Identification and evaluation of semiochemicals for the biological control of the beetle Omorgus suberosus (F.) (Coleoptera: Trogidae), a facultative predator of eggs of the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz).
Cortez, Vieyle; Verdú, José R; Ortiz, Antonio J; Halffter, Gonzalo
The beetle Omorgus suberosus (F.) is a facultative predator of eggs of the olive ridley turtle Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz). Laboratory and field investigations were conducted in order to characterize volatile attractants of O. suberosus and to explore the potential for application of these volatiles in a selective mass trapping method. Headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) coupled to thermo-desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) analysis of the volatile constituents from beetles or turtle nests revealed 24 potential compounds. However, electroantennographic (EAG) measurements revealed antennal sensitivity only to indole, linoleic acid, trimethylamine, dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide and ammonia. Behavioural tests showed that these compounds are highly attractive to O. suberosus. Field trapping experiments revealed that indole and ammonia were more attractive than the other volatile compounds and showed similar attractiveness to that produced by conventional baits (chicken feathers). The use of a combined bait of indole and NH3 would therefore be the most effective trap design. The data presented are the first to demonstrate effective massive capture of O. suberosus using an attractant-based trapping method. These findings have potential for the development of an efficient mass trapping method for control of this beetle as part of efforts towards conservation of L. olivacea at La Escobilla in Oaxaca, Mexico.
Identification and evaluation of semiochemicals for the biological control of the beetle Omorgus suberosus (F. (Coleoptera: Trogidae, a facultative predator of eggs of the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz.
Full Text Available The beetle Omorgus suberosus (F. is a facultative predator of eggs of the olive ridley turtle Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz. Laboratory and field investigations were conducted in order to characterize volatile attractants of O. suberosus and to explore the potential for application of these volatiles in a selective mass trapping method. Headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE coupled to thermo-desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS analysis of the volatile constituents from beetles or turtle nests revealed 24 potential compounds. However, electroantennographic (EAG measurements revealed antennal sensitivity only to indole, linoleic acid, trimethylamine, dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide and ammonia. Behavioural tests showed that these compounds are highly attractive to O. suberosus. Field trapping experiments revealed that indole and ammonia were more attractive than the other volatile compounds and showed similar attractiveness to that produced by conventional baits (chicken feathers. The use of a combined bait of indole and NH3 would therefore be the most effective trap design. The data presented are the first to demonstrate effective massive capture of O. suberosus using an attractant-based trapping method. These findings have potential for the development of an efficient mass trapping method for control of this beetle as part of efforts towards conservation of L. olivacea at La Escobilla in Oaxaca, Mexico.
Cornelia Coraima Lazaren; I Wayan Gede Astawa Karang; Elok Faiqoh
The population of olive ridley has declined in Indonesia, so that efforts are needed to preserve this turtle population through conservation. In conservation of olive ridley, the selection of the precise feed will affect for a good growth. Feed that has high protein content one of them is dried rebon shrimp and tongkol fish. The utilization of feed from dried rebon shrimp and tongkol fish, especially mix feed of these two feeds for olive ridley baby is still very limited information. This res...
Cornelia Coraima Lazaren
Full Text Available The population of olive ridley has declined in Indonesia, so that efforts are needed to preserve this turtle population through conservation. In conservation of olive ridley, the selection of the precise feed will affect for a good growth. Feed that has high protein content one of them is dried rebon shrimp and tongkol fish. The utilization of feed from dried rebon shrimp and tongkol fish, especially mix feed of these two feeds for olive ridley baby is still very limited information. This research aims to determine the comparison growth rate of olive ridley with a feeding of tongkol fish, dried rebon shrimp and mixed feed also to know the percentage of feed efficiency. The research was conducted for six weeks at the conservation center TCEC Serangan, Bali. The design method used was Completely Randomized Design (CDR with one control and three treatments, each treatment getting five repetitions. ANOVA analysis was used to analyze the mean differences between groups and the calculation of feed efficiency was performed to see the percentage of feed that was most efficient in the body of the hatch. The results showed different feeds gave different growth rates. The high protein on mixed feeds has produced the highest growth rates compared with dried rebon shrimp and tongkol fish feed. Similarly, the percentage efficiency of mixed feed is more efficient compared with dried rebon shrimp and tongkol fish feed.
Carpena-Catoira, Carla; Ortega-Ortiz, Christian D; Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R
Stable isotope analysis can be used to obtain information on olive ridley sea turtles in the Mexican Central Pacific (MCP). Tissue samples such as scale, muscle, and blood are usually not analyzed immediately and are preserved in different substances such as ethanol, formalin, sodium chloride, the ideal being liquid nitrogen. Due to logistical reasons, that preservation method cannot always be used. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of DMSO as a preservation agent for later stable isotope analysis. Forty-eight paired scale samples of olive ridley were collected in MCP waters and preserved in DMSO and liquid nitrogen. We determined their δ 13 C and δ 15 N values using a Carlo Erba 1108 elemental analyzer coupled to a ThermoFinnigan Delta Plus XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer (precision = ±0.2‰ for each stable isotope). The mean isotopic ratios of each preservation method were compared. Significant differences were observed between the isotopic ratios of samples in the two preservatives. Samples preserved in DMSO resulted in more negative isotopic values those in liquid nitrogen, and a correction factor was calculated' The correction factor was -2.1‰ for δ 13 C values and -0.8‰ for δ 15 N values. DMSO is not equivalent to liquid nitrogen for the preservation of olive ridley scales to be used for isotopic analysis. If DMSO has to be used for logistical reasons a replicate sample should also be collected to be able to estimate a correction factor. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Physiological and Behavioral Adjustments Relative to Catecholamine Levels During Nesting in Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys Olivacea and Hawksbill (Eretmochelys Imbricata Sea Turtles in Masirah Island, Oman.
Full Text Available Plasma adrenaline (ADR and noradrenaline (NA levels were measured for the first time in natural populations of hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata and olive ridley (Lipedochelys olivacea in Masirah Island, Arabian Sea; one of the few protected nesting grounds remaining in the world for these two endangered species. Plasma ADR and NA levels were assessed in individuals after they oviposited eggs and completed nesting exercises, and in individuals which were still searching for suitable nesting sites. Blood samples were taken from the cervical sinuses from two groups (oviposited and non-oviposited, which spent at least 1.5 h on the nesting grounds. The duration of the nesting period varied between 1.5 and 2.0 h for both species. There was no significant difference between oviposited and non-oviposited turtles in both species. As the turtles move onto the nesting grounds, their heavy weight compresses the thoracic region making terrestrial breathing laborious and difficult. During phases of nesting, the turtles undergo brief bursts of strenuous and exhaustive exercise which usually lasts less than one minute followed by a brief recovery period which is less than the exercise phase. Reptiles in general, particularly turtles, are intermittent breathers and after bursts of exercise, they appear to develop hypoxia, hypercapnia and acidemia, which are characteristic of anaerobic metabolism. The data reveals that catecholamine levels remain stable in both species during phases of nesting and may play an important role in combating stress as well as mobilizing energy reserves. The high plasma lactate and CO2 levels in olive and hawksbill turtles may signify anaerobic metabolism during exercise. Glucose levels remain unchanged throughout nesting in both species. There was no significant difference in the lactate and glucose values in the two species. The physiological and the behavioral adjustments in this study showed remarkable similarities in the two
Full Text Available The results of a study on the feeding habits of L. olivacea and C. mydas agassizi from the Pacific coast, located at 19ºN and 105ºW, are presented. A preference for feeding on crustacea was observed on L. olivacea, proving to be essentially a carnivorous specie. In the case of C. m. agassizi a certain balance between algae and animal feeding was appreciated, beeing the plants in a greater volume and animals more diversified. Related to animal preying C m. agassizi bucal structure, seems to be adapted toward the retention of animals captured with algae. Apparently there is no competition for food between both species,, given that L. olivacea feeds on organisms from sandy bottoms, while C. m, agassizi feeds on arrecifal or rocky bottoms.
Ce document présente les données recueillies sur Lepidochelys olivacea le long des côtes de la réserve de Campo-Ma'an au Cameroun. Les études menées de 1998 à 2005 ont consisté en un recensement des espèces venant pondre sur les plages et une délimitation des périodes de pontes. Des mesures ont été ...
Bowen, B W; Clark, A M; Abreu-Grobois, F A; Chaves, A; Reichart, H A; Ferl, R J
The Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempi) is restricted to the warm temperate zone of the North Atlantic Ocean, whereas the olive ridley turtle (L. olivacea) is globally distributed in warm-temperate and tropical seas, including nesting colonies in the North Atlantic that nearly overlap the range of L. kempi. To explain this lopsided distribution, Pritchard (1969) proposed a scenario in which an ancestral taxon was divided into Atlantic and Pacific forms (L. kempi and L. olivacea, respectively) by the Central American land bridge. According to this model, the olive ridley subsequently occupied the Pacific and Indian Oceans and recently colonized the Atlantic Ocean via southern Africa. To assess this biogeographic model, a 470 bp sequence of the mtDNA control region was compared among 89 ridley turtles, including the sole L. kempi nesting population and 7 nesting locations across the range of L. olivacea. These data confirm a fundamental partition between L. olivacea and L. kempi (p = 0.052-0.069), shallow separations within L. olivacea (p = 0.002-0.031), and strong geographic partitioning of mtDNA lineages. The most divergent L. olivacea haplotype is observed in the Indo-West Pacific region, as are the central haplotypes in a parsimony network, implicating this region as the source of the most recent radiation of olive ridley lineage. The most common olive ridley haplotype in Atlantic samples is distinguished from an Indo-West Pacific haplotype by a single nucleotide substitution, and East Pacific samples are distinguished from the same haplotype by two nucleotide substitutions. These shallow separations are consistent with the recent invasion of the Atlantic postulated by Pritchard (1969), and indicate that the East Pacific nesting colonies were also recently colonized from the Indo-West Pacific region. Molecular clock estimates place these invasions within the last 300,000 years.
Full Text Available The sea turtle Lepidochelys kempi has an extensive range in coastal waters of the United States, and in parts of Florida is abundant as a seasonal resident. All known populations are sexually immature, and the breeding area of the species is not known. The present paper suggests the necessity of assuming a distant origin for the North American population, examines fragmentary evidence bearing on the coronary assumption of migratory movement, and somewhat hesitantly proposes the coast of northwestern Africa as a possible site of nesting. Spreading into American waters may occur via the Gulf Stream system. New records extend the range of the genus to northern Mauretania and into the MediterraneanLa tortuga marina Lepidochelys kempi tiene amplia distribución en el litoral de los Estados Unidos, y abunda como visitante en la costa occidental de Florida, si bien en la costa oriental hay un trecho desde Melbourne hasta Miami en que no ha sido registrada. Tampoco ha sido registrada en las Bahamas ni en las Antillas, aunque un ejemplar recogido en Cuba, mencionado por AGUAYO (1 parece ser la especie africana L. olivacea, que se debe considerar como visitante y ocasional de esas islas; también existe por 10 menos un ejemplar registrado en las cercanías de Bermuda, y queda la posibilidad de que la "batalí" de Trinidad sea una u otra especie de Lepidochelys. L. olivacea, que se debe considerar como visitante y ocasional de esas islas; también existe por lo menos un ejemplar registrado en las cercanías de Bermuda, y queda la posibilidad de que la "batalí" de Trinidad sea una u otra especie de Lepidochelys. Todas las poblaciones conocidas en aguas norteamericanas son sexualmente inmaturas, y no se conoce el criadero de la especie. En este trabajo el autor sugiere la necesidad de suponer un punto de origen distante para estas poblaciones; examina los fragmentos disponibles de evidencia que apoyan la suposición corolaria de movimientos migratorios, y
Lepidochelys olivacea ), and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) turtles (Eckert, pers. comm., 1990). These species are known to occur in proximity to the MBNMS, with...Olive Ridley Turtle LepIdochelys olivacea FT Loggerhead Turtle Caretta caretta FT Fish Winter-Run Chinook Salmon I Oncorhyncus ishawytcha SF, FE FE...M. Robles. 1989. V informe de trabajo "Investigacion y conservation de las tortugas laud (Dermochelys coriacea) y golfima ( Lepidochelys olivacea ) en
Jones, T Todd; Reina, Richard D; Darveau, Charles-A; Lutz, Peter L
Changes in activity related oxygen consumption were measured in leatherback and olive ridley sea turtle hatchlings over their first month after emergence from the nest. Leatherbacks emerged with 75-90 KJ of energy in the residual yolk for growth and activity whereas olive ridleys emerged with 45 KJ. In leatherbacks (n=8), resting mass-specific oxygen consumption rates decreased by 53% over the first post-hatching month (0.34+0.03 mL O(2) h(-1) g(-1) to 0.16+0.01 mL O(2) h(-1) g(-1), respectively), while for ridleys (n=8) the fall was 35% (0.20+0.03 mL O(2) h(-1) g(-1) to 0.13+0.01 mL O(2) h(-1) g(-1), respectively). Olive ridley factorial aerobic scope doubled (1.93+0.30 to 3.97+0.51) over the first month but there was no significant increase in leatherback factorial aerobic scope (1.39+0.21 to 1.60+0.13). Leatherback hatchlings gained on average 20% initial body mass (7.68+1.66 g) over the first week, with 70 to 80% of this increase due to water accumulation. Olive ridleys gained 14% (1.83+0.16 g) in initial mass over the first week of age. We propose that the differences in aerobic scope and energy reserves are related to differences in early life ecological stratagems of these species.
Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó en el Ce ntro Na cional de Cie ncia y Tecnología de Alimentos en el año 2000, con el fin de determinar la reducción de Vibrio mimicus en huevo de tortuga lora utilizando calor o ácido acético. Para ellos se determinó el tiempo de coagulación a diferentes temperaturas o niveles de pH con el fin de seleccionar los que podían utilizarse para la reducción del patógeno sin afectar las cualidades sensoriales del huevo crudo. Los huevos inoculados con Vibrio mimicus con cargas superiores a 6,0 log10UFC/g, fueron tratados con las diferentes alternativas de inmersión en agua caliente o soluciones de ácido acético por un tiempo determinado. Los tratamientos con calor (45, 55 ó 65ºC por 20 minutos lograron reducciones entre 1,4 y > 6,0 log10UFC/g, mientras que la inmersión en ácido acético (pH 3,0; 3,5; 4,0 ó 4;5 por una hora sólo logró reducciones entre 0,2 y 1,5 log10UFC/g causadas probablemente por la neutralización observada del pH en el tiempo.
Honarvar, Shaya; O'Connor, Michael P; Spotila, James R
Historically, the olive ridley arribada at Playa Nancite, Costa Rica, was one of the largest olive ridley arribadas in the eastern Pacific with 70,000 nesting females in a year. Recently the Nancite arribada drastically declined. We hypothesized that the population decline at Playa Nancite could have been due to low hatching success as a result of the high density of nests on the beach, such that recruitment to the population was insufficient to balance losses. To test this hypothesis, we examined density-dependent effects on hatching success and their underlying mechanisms by experimentally manipulating nest densities in experimental plots on the nesting beach. We set up four nest-density treatments in five experimental blocks. We measured effects of density on hatching success, CO(2) and O(2) concentrations and temperature both within nests and in sand adjacent to nests frequently during incubation. Experimental nest densities affected hatching success with the highest density having the lowest hatching success. Higher nest density led to lower O(2) levels and higher CO(2) levels in the nest with greater changes in the latter part of the incubation. Highest temperatures occurred in high-density areas. Temperatures were lower in sand surrounding the nest than in the nest. Effects of density on temperature, CO(2) and O(2) were confirmed at a naturally high-density nesting beach, Playa La Flor, Nicaragua. Long-term failure in production of hatchlings due to historic high densities may have contributed to the decline of arribadas on Playa Nancite. Thus, density-dependent population control would have operated at the embryonic life stage in this population of olive ridley turtles.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the role of plasma level parameters during nesting activity and provide data potentially useful to future studies on the dynamics of reproductive and stress hormones in the most endangered sea turtle species in the world. Plasma parameters in the sea turtles, olive ridley (Lipodochelys oliveacea and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata from Masirah Island, Oman, were analyzed relative to nesting stress. To date, no study has been conducted on plasma parameter levels in sea turtles during nesting. Field observations were conducted under ideal temperature conditions. At the time of sampling, there was no significant difference for cloacal, sand, air or water temperature for the two species. Electrolytes (Cl¯, Ca++, K+, Na+ and Mg++, cholesterol, urea, uric acid and osmolarity were measured during nesting. Both species were observed to spend between 1.5 and 2.00 hours on the nesting grounds. Some had successful oviposition and completed all nesting phases, while others with incomplete nesting phases failed to oviposit their eggs. Under both conditions, the turtles of both species had an exhaustive and stressful nesting exercise. Plasma parameter values, both intra-specifically and inter-specifically, were not significantly different for oviposited and non-oviposited turtles. This may indicate that both species have the same physiological adjustment relative to plasma parameters whether or not the turtles oviposited their eggs.
Shah, C V; Jones, D B; Holz, E R
To report a case of fungal keratitis with consecutive endophthalmitis caused by Microsphaeropsis olivacea. Case report. A 51-year-old man developed fungal keratitis and consecutive endophthalmitis after sustaining a penetrating injury to the right eye. Cultures of the aqueous humor yielded M. olivacea. Infection resolved after intraocular fungal debridement, intravitreous amphotericin B, and aggressive topical natamycin and oral fluconazole. Persistent, low-grade smoldering corneal and intraocular inflammation required topical corticosteroid therapy. M. olivacea is an exceedingly rare ocular pathogen. The intraocular portion of the infection responded quickly to intravitreal antifungal treatment; however, the course was prolonged by smoldering corneal inflammation. Prompt recognition of intraocular spread and aggressive treatment may be beneficial in fungal infections caused by unusual organisms with uncertain virulence.
Full Text Available The changes in the beach dynamics at Gahirmatha sea turtle rookery along Odisha coast of India have forced the olive ridley turtles to nests in a non-conducive environment. In the recent past, non-availability of nesting beach due to erosion was hypothesized to be one of the major reasons for non-occurrence of arribada at Gahirmatha. This paper reviews the current status of nesting habitat for olive ridley turtles at Gahirmatha and suggests onshore and offshore developmental activities close to Gahirmatha rookery should be monitored efficiently so that future arribada at this rookery should not be troubled due to habitat destruction.
Moreno-Mendoza, N; Harley, V R; Merchant-Larios, H
Although sex determination starts in the gonads, this may not be the case for species with temperature sex determination (TSD). Since temperature affects the whole embryo, extragonadal thermosensitive cells may produce factors that induce gonadal sex determination as a secondary event. To establish if gonads of a species with TSD respond directly to temperature, pairs of gonads were cultured, one at female-promoting temperature (FPT) and the contralateral at male-promoting temperature (MPT). Histological and immunohistochemical detection of SOX9 revealed that the response to temperature of isolated gonads was similar to that of the gonads of whole embryos. While gonads cultured at MPT maintained SOX9 expression, it was downregulated in gonads at FPT. Downregulation of SOX9 took longer in gonads cultured at stage 23 than in gonads cultured at stage 24, suggesting that a developmental clock was already established at the onset of culture. To find out if sex commitment occurs in vitro, gonads were switched from FPT to MPT at different days. Results showed that the ovarian pathway was established after 4 days of culture. The present demonstration that gonads have an autonomous temperature detector that regulates SOX9 expression provides a useful starting point from which the molecular pathways underlying TSD can be elucidated. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
M\\u00F3nica Pereira-Zamora; Eric Wong-Gonz\\u00E1lez
En el año 2000, en el Centro Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos de la Universidad de Costa Rica, se estudió la sobrevivencia de Vibrio mimicus en la clara y yema del huevo de tortuga lora. Se inocularon muestras de clara o yema con el vibrio (aproximadamente 2,5 x 104 UFC/g) y se determinó la carga inicial y final al cabo de 18 horas de incubación a 25°C. De forma análoga se trabajó una muestra control en agua peptonada alcalina(APA) como medio óptimimo de crecimiento para el vibri...
Full Text Available Abstrak lengkap dapat dilihat pada Full PDF Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek penambahan bioflok pada pemeliharaan larva kepiting bakau Scylla olivacea terutaman pada sintasan dan perkembangan larva hingga mencapai stadia krablet.
Hormazabal, Emilio; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Astudillo, Luis; Rodríguez, Jaime; Theoduloz, Cristina
Seven compounds belonging to different structural skeletons were isolated from Microsphaeropsis olivacea grown in liquid and solid media. The enalin derivative 7-hydroxy-2,4-dimethyl-3(2H)-benzofuranone is reported for the first time, while additional spectroscopic information is provided for the acetates of botrallin and ulocladol. The activity of the isolated compounds was assessed towards the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and their cytotoxicity against human lung fibroblasts. Graphislactone A and botrallin presented a moderate activity towards AChE, with IC50 of 8.1 and 6.1 microg/ml (27 and 19 microM, respectively). Under the same experimental conditions, the IC50 of the standard inhibitor galanthamine was 3 microg/ml. The cytotoxicity of both compounds was > 1000 and 330 microM, respectively. None of the compounds was promising as antibacterial or antifungic against phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria. Botrallin and graphislactone A were detected in the liquid potato-dextrose and yeast extract/malt extract/dextrose as well as on a solid substrate (rice). Butyrolactone I was obtained from the fungus growing on solid medium.
Guarro, J; Mayayo, E; Tapiol, J; Aguilar, C; Cano, J
Microsphaeropsis olivacea is reported as the agent of a case of human skin infection in an otherwise healthy woman. This fungus has not been reported previously as causing disease in humans. It was identified on the basis of its production of pycnidia and conidial structures typical of the Coelomycetes, and by its light brown, ellipsoid to cylindrical and thick walled conidia. The in vitro inhibitory activity of amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole was determined.
... endangered. Loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green (Chelonia mydas), and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea.... waters are listed as either endangered or threatened under the ESA. Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii...
... turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) for the purpose of scientific research. Samples are collected from live or... (Lepidochelys kempii), hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys...
... (Lepidochelys kempii), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), green (Chelonia mydas), loggerhead (Caretta caretta), and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) sea turtles for...
... (Lepidochelys olivacea) sea turtles are listed as threatened, except for breeding colony populations of green... (Lepidochelys kempii), loggerhead (Caretta caretta; North Pacific distinct population segment), leatherback...
... imbricata); Kemp's ridley turtle (Lepidochelys kempii); Leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea); Olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) breeding colony population on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Note to...
... olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) sea turtles for veterinary treatment or euthanasia under certain... receive and retain, for greater than 45 days, Kemp's Ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), hawksbill (Eretmochelys...
... form for a permit to take green (Chelonia mydas), Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), and...
... population segment), green (Chelonia mydas), and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) sea turtles are listed... or threatened under the ESA. Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), loggerhead (Caretta caretta; North...
Ellaiah, P; Kalyan, D; Rao, V S; Rao, B V
A new variety of Chainia olivacea was isolated from marine sediment off Gulf of Mannar. The morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characters were studied, compared to known species and identified as a new variety of Chainia olivacea. Antibiotic activity of the strain was tested against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as well as fungi and yeasts. Sodium chloride tolerance was also tested.
Full Text Available Adequate genetic information is essential for sustainable crustacean fisheries and aquaculture management. The commercially important orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea, is prevalent in Southeast Asia region and is highly sought after. Although it is a suitable aquaculture candidate, full domestication of this species is hampered by the lack of knowledge about the sexual maturation process and the molecular mechanisms behind it, especially in males. To date, data on its whole genome is yet to be reported for S. olivacea. The available transcriptome data published previously on this species focus primarily on females and the role of central nervous system in reproductive development. De novo transcriptome sequencing for the testes of S. olivacea from immature, maturing and mature stages were performed. A total of approximately 144 million high-quality reads were generated and de novo assembled into 160,569 transcripts with a total length of 142.2 Mb. Approximately 15-23% of the total assembled transcripts were annotated when compared to public protein sequence databases (i.e. UniProt database, Interpro database, Pfam database and Drosophila melanogaster protein database, and GO-categorised with GO Ontology terms. A total of 156,181 high-quality Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs were mined from the transcriptome data of present study. Transcriptome comparison among the testes of different maturation stages revealed one gene (beta crystallin like gene with the most significant differential expression-up-regulated in immature stage and down-regulated in maturing and mature stages. This was further validated by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, a comprehensive transcriptome of the testis of orange mud crabs from different maturation stages were obtained. This report provides an invaluable resource for enhancing our understanding of this species' genome structure and biology, as expressed and controlled by their gonads.
Waiho, Khor; Fazhan, Hanafiah; Shahreza, Md Sheriff; Moh, Julia Hwei Zhong; Noorbaiduri, Shaibani; Wong, Li Lian; Sinnasamy, Saranya; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd
Adequate genetic information is essential for sustainable crustacean fisheries and aquaculture management. The commercially important orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea, is prevalent in Southeast Asia region and is highly sought after. Although it is a suitable aquaculture candidate, full domestication of this species is hampered by the lack of knowledge about the sexual maturation process and the molecular mechanisms behind it, especially in males. To date, data on its whole genome is yet to be reported for S. olivacea. The available transcriptome data published previously on this species focus primarily on females and the role of central nervous system in reproductive development. De novo transcriptome sequencing for the testes of S. olivacea from immature, maturing and mature stages were performed. A total of approximately 144 million high-quality reads were generated and de novo assembled into 160,569 transcripts with a total length of 142.2 Mb. Approximately 15-23% of the total assembled transcripts were annotated when compared to public protein sequence databases (i.e. UniProt database, Interpro database, Pfam database and Drosophila melanogaster protein database), and GO-categorised with GO Ontology terms. A total of 156,181 high-quality Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were mined from the transcriptome data of present study. Transcriptome comparison among the testes of different maturation stages revealed one gene (beta crystallin like gene) with the most significant differential expression-up-regulated in immature stage and down-regulated in maturing and mature stages. This was further validated by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, a comprehensive transcriptome of the testis of orange mud crabs from different maturation stages were obtained. This report provides an invaluable resource for enhancing our understanding of this species' genome structure and biology, as expressed and controlled by their gonads.
McAllister, C T; Upton, S J
Forty-nine adult and 14 immature Great Plains narrowmouth toads (Gastrophryne olivacea) from Johnson and Somervell Counties of northcentral Texas were examined for parasites. Sixty-four percent of the toads were infected with one or more species of parasites. New host records are reported for an isosporan similar to Isospora neos, and for Cylindrotaenia americana. The most common parasite in G. olivacea was the nematode, Cosmocercoides dukae. Prevalence was high among the adult G. olivacea (82%); however, none of the immature toads were infected.
Greif, Matthew D; Gibas, Connie Fe C; Tsuneda, Akihiko; Currah, Randolph S
Catinella olivacea is a discomycetous fungus often found fruiting within cavities in rotting logs. Because this habitat would lack the air currents upon which discomycete species normally rely for the dispersal of their forcibly ejected ascospores, we suspected an alternative disseminative strategy might be employed by this species. An examination of the development of the discomycetous ascomata in pure culture, on wood blocks, and on agar showed that the epithecium was gelatinous at maturity and entrapped released ascospores in a slimy mass. We interpreted this as an adaptation for ascospore disperal by arthropods. Developmental data also showed that C. olivacea was unusual among other discomycetes in the Helotiales (Leotiomycetes). For example, the ascoma developed from a stromatic mass of meristematically dividing cells and involved the formation of a uniloculate cavity within a structure better considered an ascostroma than an incipient apothecium. Furthermore, the ascus had a prominent ocular chamber and released its ascospores through a broad, bivalvate slit. These features, along with phylogenetic analyses of large subunit and small subunit rDNA, indicated that this unusual apothecial fungus is, surprisingly, more closely affiliated with the Dothideomycetes than the Leotiomycetes.
Eretmochelys imbricata), and olive ridley ( Lepidochelys olivacea ). Hawksbills and leatherbacks are listed at the federal and state levels as endangered (DLNR...schauinslandi green sea turtle Chelonia mydas leatherback sea turtle Dermochelys coriacea olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea hawksbill sea...Dermochelys coriacea), and olive ridley sea turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea ); and the following threatened species: loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta
Lepidochelys olivacea ) (see Exhibit 3-14). Exhibit 3-14. Federally Listed Threatened or Endangered Species within the USAKA Coastal Area Common...sea turtle Dermochelys coriacea Endangered Loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta Threatened Olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea Threatened...turtle Dermochelys coriacea Endangered Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Endangered Olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea Threatened
Amin-Safwan, A; Muhd-Farouk, H; Nadirah, M; Ikhwanuddin, M
Mud crab from the genus Scylla are considered as one of the most demanded seafood items nowadays as their flesh has high quality, tasty and higher growth rate thus support and boosted expansion in aquaculture sector especially in Malaysia. Present study was designed to focus on the effect of water salinity on the ovarian maturation of orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea based on morphological characteristics. Samples were collected from Setiu wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia from July-September, 2015. Ovarian maturation of S. olivacea was classified into four stages based on previous study which were: Immature (Stage 1), early mature (Stage 2), late mature (Stage 3) and fully mature (Stage 4). Morphologically as the ovary develop the colouration start to change from translucent or whitish in colour and sometimes creamy to pale yellow, follow by light orange and lastly reddish orange. Stage 1 ovary was translucent and whitish in colour, stage 2 ovary was pale yellow in colour, stage 3 was light orange and stage 4 ovary was reddish orange in colour. Gonad Somatic Index (GSI) of S. olivacea remained low at stage 1 and 2 and began to increase started at stage 3. This present study involved three different salinities treatments, which treatment 1 (10 ppt), treatment 2 (20 ppt) and treatment 3 (30 ppt). Treatment 2 produce the highest number of stage 4 ovarian maturation based on colouration and the highest GSI recorded, follow by treatment 1 and lastly treatment 3. This present study proved that salinity does affected the ovarian maturation of S. olivacea in captivity and provides important information regarding the effect of water salinity on ovarian maturation for further studies on reproductive biology of this species.
Tiffany M. Dawson
Full Text Available Understanding the horizontal and vertical habitat of olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea, a threatened species, is critical for determining regions for protection and relevant gear modifications that may effectively reduce bycatch, the largest threat to this species. Satellite transmitters were used to determine the movement and dive behavior of 21 female olive ridley turtles tagged in Pongara National Park, Gabon during the 2012, 2013, and 2015 nesting seasons. A switching state-space model was used to filter the tracking data and categorize the internesting and post-nesting movements. Gridded utilization distribution (UD home range analysis of tracking data revealed that the entire core habitat occurred in the Komo Estuary during the internesting period. Within the Komo Estuary, 58% of this core UD occurred in shipping lanes. Dive data from the 2015 tagging season revealed that during the internesting period, turtles spent the majority of their time resting on the estuary seabed. Approximately 20% of all dive time was spent on the bottom and all maximum dive depths corresponded to the depth of the seabed, indicating that bottom set gear during the internesting period may pose the greatest potential for fisheries interactions. National parks currently protect many of the nesting sites and the Gabon Bleu initiative has formally designated 10 new marine parks and a network of community and industrial fishing zones; this data was a layer used in determining the park and zone boundaries. Shared use of the estuary by fisheries, shipping, and olive ridley turtles creates a need for management measures to reduce interactions. Thus, the results from this study can further provide detailed information that can be used to support the development of evidence-based management plans.
Castanera, Raúl; Pérez, Gúmer; López-Varas, Leticia; Amselem, Joëlle; LaButti, Kurt; Singan, Vasanth; Lipzen, Anna; Haridas, Sajeet; Barry, Kerrie; Grigoriev, Igor V; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Ramírez, Lucía
Coniophora olivacea is a basidiomycete fungus belonging to the order Boletales that produces brown-rot decay on dead wood of conifers. The Boletales order comprises a diverse group of species including saprotrophs and ectomycorrhizal fungi that show important differences in genome size. In this study we report the 39.07-megabase (Mb) draft genome assembly and annotation of C. olivacea. A total of 14,928 genes were annotated, including 470 putatively secreted proteins enriched in functions involved in lignocellulose degradation. Using similarity clustering and protein structure prediction we identified a new family of 10 putative lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase genes. This family is conserved in basidiomycota and lacks of previous functional annotation. Further analyses showed that C. olivacea has a low repetitive genome, with 2.91% of repeats and a restrained content of transposable elements (TEs). The annotation of TEs in four related Boletales yielded important differences in repeat content, ranging from 3.94 to 41.17% of the genome size. The distribution of insertion ages of LTR-retrotransposons showed that differential expansions of these repetitive elements have shaped the genome architecture of Boletales over the last 60 million years. Coniophora olivacea has a small, compact genome that shows macrosynteny with Coniophora puteana. The functional annotation revealed the enzymatic signature of a canonical brown-rot. The annotation and comparative genomics of transposable elements uncovered their particular contraction in the Coniophora genera, highlighting their role in the differential genome expansions found in Boletales species.
Hunt, Kathleen E.; Innis, Charles J.; Kennedy, Adam E.; McNally, Kerry L.; Davis, Deborah G.; Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Merigo, Constance
Sea turtle rehabilitation centres frequently transport sea turtles for long distances to move animals between centres or to release them at beaches, yet there is little information on the possible effects of transportation-related stress (‘transport stress’) on sea turtles. To assess whether transport stress is a clinically relevant concern for endangered Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), we obtained pre-transport and post-transport plasma samples from 26 juvenile Kemp’s ridley sea turtles that were transported for 13 h (n = 15 turtles) or 26 h (n = 11 turtles) by truck for release at beaches. To control for effects of handling, food restriction and time of day, the same turtles were also studied on ‘control days’ 2 weeks prior to transport, i.e. with two samples taken to mimic pre-transport and post-transport timing, but without transportation. Blood samples were analysed for nine clinical health measures (pH, pCO2, pO2, HCO3, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, lactate and haematocrit) and four ‘stress-associated’ parameters (corticosterone, glucose, white blood cell count and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio). Vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate and cloacal temperature) were also monitored. Corticosterone and glucose showed pronounced elevations due specifically to transportation; for corticosterone, this elevation was significant only for the longer transport duration, whereas glucose increased significantly after both transport durations. However, clinical health measures and vital signs showed minimal or no changes in response to any sampling event (with or without transport), and all turtles appeared to be in good clinical health after both transport durations. Thus, transportation elicits a mild, but detectable, adrenal stress response that is more pronounced during longer durations of transport; nonetheless, Kemp’s ridley sea turtles can tolerate ground transportation of up to 26 h in good health. These
Kauserud, Håvard; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Decock, Cony
Coniophora arida and C. olivacea (Coniophoraceae, Boletales) are widespread wood-decay fungi in temperate and boreal regions, occurring both in buildings and natural environments. Genetic variation and geographic structure among isolates of C. arida and C. olivaceae were investigated in this study, with an emphasis on North America. Multilocus sequencing of three DNA regions revealed three main lineages in C. arida and six in C. olivacea, some of which might represent cryptic species. Most of the lineages are present in North America, mainly in allopatry, suggesting recent or ongoing geographic speciation. One of the C. arida isolates included a high number of heterozygous sites and might represent a hybrid between two cryptic C. arida lineages. The data indicate out-crossing reproductive modes in both C. arida and C. olivacea. Together with other recent investigations of Coniophora species our data suggest that the genus comprises a significant number of cryptic species and is much more diverse than previously deduced from morphological characteristics.
Padate, V.P.; Rivonker, C.U.; Anil, A
Taxonomic studies on mud crabs (Scylla) reveal considerable ambiguity in species identification owing to overlap of morphological characters. Present study consists a new record of Scylla olivacea along with a comparative diagnosis with S. serrata...
Shaver, Donna J.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Maxwell, Sharon; Walker, Jennifer Shelby; Dillingham, Ted
A head-started Kemp’s ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) was documented nesting on South Walton Beach, Florida on 25 May 2015. This record supports the possibility that exposure to Florida waters after being held in captivity through 1–3 yrs of age during the head-starting process may have influenced future nest site selection of this and perhaps other Kemp’s ridley turtles. Such findings could have important ramifications for marine water experimentation and release site selection for turtles that have been reared in captivity.
Loftus-Hills, Jasper J; Littlejohn, Murray J
Tape-recorded advertisement calls of Gastrophryne carolinensis and G. olivacea, obtained in Texas and southern Louisiana, were analyzed by means of an analogue audiospectrograph. Samples were grouped into four areas: allopatric and sympatric for G. carolinensis, and combined adjacent allopatric/shallow sympatric, and sympatric for G. olivacea. Three attributes of the advertisement call (call duration, pulse rate, and dominant frequency) were investigated, with water temperature at the calling site as the independent variable. Values for dominant frequency do not overlap between species, across the full range of recording temperatures, and those of sympatric G. carolinensis are displaced away from those of both groups of G. olivacea (which are very similar)-thus indicating a pattern of geographic variation consistent with reproductive character displacement. There is considerable overlap in the values for duration and for pulse rate of each species when considered alone, but there is only slight overlap of the scatters of points for the pairs of values. For both species, no consistent patterns of correlation were detected between the three attributes of the call and the snout-vent length of the emitter, thus reducing the likelihood that the divergence in calls is due to pleiotropic effects of body size. © 1992 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Yamaguchi, Haruyo; Suda, Shoichiro; Nakayama, Takeshi; Pienaar, Richard N; Chihara, Mitsuo; Inouye, Isao
The genus Nephroselmis (Nephroselmidophyceae), which had been placed in the Prasinophyceae, is one of the primitive green flagellates that are important to our understanding of the early evolution of green plants. We studied a new species of Nephroselmis isolated from Japan, Fiji and South Africa. This species has been known for a long time as undescribed species 'N. viridis.' N. viridis possesses some ultrastructural characters shared with only the freshwater type species N. olivacea, including a disc-like structure beneath the pyrenoid and bipolar spiny body scales with 1-5-8-5-1 spines. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA also supports a sister relationship between N. viridis and N. olivacea. However, N. viridis is distinguishable from N. olivacea by the shape of its starch sheath, its scales, its pigment composition and its habitat. In this paper, we designate the formal description of N. viridis sp. nov. We also describe variability in the 18S rDNA introns of various N. viridis strains. This detailed study of N. viridis provides some insights into the evolution of Nephroselmis.
Gramaje, D.; Leon, M.; Santana, M.; Crous, P.W.; Armengol, J.
Cadophora luteo-olivacea is a lesser-known fungal trunk pathogen of grapevine which has been recently isolated from vines showing decline symptoms in grape growing regions worldwide. In this study, 80 C. luteo-olivacea isolates (65 from Spain and 15 from South Africa) were studied.
Gramaje, David; León, Maela; Santana, Marcela; Crous, Pedro W; Armengol, Josep
Cadophora luteo-olivacea is a lesser-known fungal trunk pathogen of grapevine which has been recently isolated from vines showing decline symptoms in grape growing regions worldwide. In this study, 80 C. luteo-olivacea isolates (65 from Spain and 15 from South Africa) were studied.
Full Text Available As a result of different levels of pollination efficiency of pollinators, knowledge on appropriate pollinators of a plant has become important, especially in the management and conservation of both the pollinators and the plants. In this study, the pollination efficiency of Apis mellifera and Xylocopa olivacea, important pollinators of Luffa aegyptiaca, were assessed in the southern coastal part of Ghana from June 2009 to September 2010. Pollination efficiency of A. mellifera and X. olivacea was estimated in terms of fruit set and fruit size. Further, data on daily and seasonal nectar dynamics of Luffa aegyptiaca were collected. In the early mornings (0600-0700, X. olivacea was the most frequent visitor (0.47 min-1 on the female flowers compared to A. mellifera (0.13 min-1. The mean nectar (sugar concentration in the dry season was 36.58 ± 0.55 %, which was higher than the 34.03 ± 0.38 % obtained for the rainy season (F = 14.986; df = 2; P χ2 = 14.33, df = 1, P X. olivacea had a mean weight of 428.7g and were 1.5 times heavier than fruits from flowers visited by A. mellifera (286.76 g. X. olivacea was more efficient than A. mellifera in terms of number of fruit set per single visit. This study has provided some knowledge on pollination ecology of L. aegyptiaca, which can be exploited to improve fruit production in commercially grown vine crops.
Lepidochelys olivacea T Monitor Lizard (Iguana) Varanos indicus P (3) _____________________ (1) P CNMI Protected (Limited...Turtle Enetmochelys imbricata E Leatherback Turtle Dermochelys coriacea E Ridley Turtle Lepidochelys kempii E
... turtle (Chelonia mydas), and olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) for the purpose of... and incidentally captured, and captive-held animals of Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii...
... imbricata), green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii), and olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) for the purpose of scientific research. Samples are to be...
imbricata Hawksbill sea turtle E Lepidochelys olivacea Olive ridley sea turtle T Birds Oceanodroma castro Band-rumped storm-petrel C Phoebastria albatrus...mydas Green sea turtle T Dermochelys coriacea Leatherback sea turtle E Eretmochelys imbricata Hawksbill sea turtle E Lepidochelys olivacea Olive...Hawaiian Islands: the green, hawksbill, loggerhead (Caretta caretta), olive ridley ( Lepidochelys olivacea ), and leatherback sea turtles. 3-82 PMRF
Endangered Olive ridley turtle Lepidochelys olivacea Threatened 3.7 Cultural Resources 3.7.1 Definition of Resource Cultural resources are... Lepidochelys olivacea Threatened Adults from western and Eastern Pacific may converge in Hawaiian waters. Nesting in Hawaii extremely rare. Adults feed on...Pacific_Loggerhead_Recovery_Plan.pdf _____ . 1998e. Recovery Plan for U.S. Pacific Populations of the Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea ). NOAA National Marine
Dermochelys imbricata), loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta), and olive ridley sea turtles ( Lepidochelys olivacea ), as well as blue whales...Recovery Plan for U.S. Pacific Populations of the Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea ). National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, MD...5yeaneview.pdf ---. 2007e. Olive Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea ). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. 64 pp. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs
The loggerhead (Caretta caretta), Kemp’s ridley ( Lepidochelys kempi), green (Chelonia mydeas), Olive ridley ( Lepidochelys olivacea ), green (Chelonia...Name) Threatened (T) or Endangered (E) Atlantic Ridley Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempi) E Reptiles and Amphibians American Crocodile (Crocodylus...leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead (Caretta caretta), and Atlantic Ridley turtle ( Lepidochelys kempi). No Federally listed threatened and
Rabalais and Rabalais 1980. Hughes, G.R. 1972. The olive ridley sea-turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea ) in South-east Africa. Biol. Cons. 4(2):128-134. In... Lepidochelys kenpi (Garman 1880), undoubtedly the most endangered marine turtle tod with notes on the current status of Lepidochelys olivacea ). Bull. Maryland...Kemp’s (Atlantic) ridley turtle ( Lepidochelys kemi) and the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta). Neither species has been sighted in the immediate
al. (2010) Lepidochelys kempii Kemp’s ridley turtle 6.25 McVey and Wibbels (1984) and Caillouet, Koi et al. (1986) Lepidochelys olivacea Olive...Ridley Lepidochelys olivacea in Captivity." Bulletin of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute 35: 46-54. Reeves, R. R., B. S. Stewart, et al...Kemp’s Ridley Sea Turtles ( Lepidochelys kempii) Following Release. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS- SEFSC-186: 34. Caldwell, D. K. and M. C. Caldwell
Kornthong, Napamanee; Cummins, Scott F; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Khornchatri, Kanjana; Engsusophon, Attakorn; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert
The central nervous system (CNS) is often intimately involved in reproduction control and is therefore a target organ for transcriptomic investigations to identify reproduction-associated genes. In this study, 454 transcriptome sequencing was performed on pooled brain and ventral nerve cord of the female mud crab (Scylla olivacea) following serotonin injection (5 µg/g BW). A total of 197,468 sequence reads was obtained with an average length of 828 bp. Approximately 38.7% of 2,183 isotigs matched with significant similarity (E value olivacea.
Sharples, G P; Williams, S T
Sclerotia and spores of Chainia olivacea were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Sclerotia formed by repeated branching of several hyphea. Branch tips were delimited by septa and increased in size, becoming filled with lipid-like inclusions. In mautre sclerotia, empty cells and intra-hyphal growth were observed. An electron-dense fibrillar material was deposited between hyphae and on the sclerotium surface. The similarities between these and the sclerotia of certain fungi are discussed. Spores were formed in a manner similar to that in Streptomyces species. Large inter-sporal pads were formed during ingrowth of the septa delimiting the spores.
Viswanathan, C; Raffi, S M
Food and feeding habits of mud crab Scylla olivacea (Herbst, 1896) in Pichavaram mangroves was investigated quantitatively and qualitatively for a period of two years from June 2010 to May 2012. Gut contents from 1737 specimens comprising 843 males and 894 females in the size range between 45 mm and 148 mm were examined. Crustaceans form the predominant food item in a majority of size groups in terms of percentage wet weight and frequency of occurrence, while molluscs showed a preference in few size groups. The other dietary items includes fishes, detritus, mud and sand and miscellaneous. Gut content analysis revealed no significant variation between the quantities of food consumed by both sexes. Feeding intensity was higher in juveniles and subadults of both sexes than that of adults, revealing a greater preference to feed on fast moving prey such as crustaceans and fishes. The results of the present study indicate that S. olivacea in Pichavaram mangroves exhibited a clear preference for crustaceans.
Full Text Available Screening of mud crab genus Scylla was conducted in four locations (Marudu Bay, Lundu, Taiping, Setiu representing Malaysia. Scylla olivacea with abnormal primary and secondary sexual characters were prevalent (approximately 42.27% of the local screened S. olivacea population in Marudu Bay, Sabah. A total of six different types of abnormalities were described. Crabs with type 1 and type 3 were immature males, type 2 and type 4 were mature males, type 5 were immature females and type 6 were mature females. The abdomen of all crabs with abnormalities were dented on both sides along the abdomen’s middle line. Abnormal crabs showed significant variation in their size, weight, abdomen width and/or gonopod or pleopod length compared to normal individuals. The mean body weight of abnormal crabs (type 1–5 were higher than normal crabs with smaller body size, while females with type 6 abnormality were always heavier than the normal counterparts at any given size. Sacculinid’s externa were observed in the abdomen of crabs with type 4 and type 6 abnormalities. The presence of embryos within the externa and subsequent molecular analysis of partial mitochondrial COI region confirmed the rhizocephalan parasite as Sacculina beauforti. Future in-depth descriptions of the life cycle and characteristics of S. beauforti are recommended as it involves a commercially important edible crab species and the effect on human health from the consumption of crabs is of crucial concern.
Full Text Available Mud crabs from the genus Scylla have high commercial value and are considered as one of the highly sought luxury seafood items. Thorough understanding about their biology and mating behaviour is vital in providing important information for a sustainable exploitation and future incorporation into the aquaculture industry. The mating process of S. olivacea lasted 82.0 ± 10.8 h was divided into four phases: precopulation, molting, copulation, and postcopulation. Courtship displays and fighting were shown by mature males while they were courting females. Precopulatory position lasted for 55.2 ± 10.8 h before the pairs disengaged for the female to molt. The molting process was 4.6 ± 0.3 h. Copulation (mean duration was 6.6 ± 0.5 h occurred while the female’s exoskeleton was still soft. Postcopulatory guarding lasted for 13.6 ± 0.6 h. Separation of the mating pairs indicates the end of postcopulation phase. Mating success percentage was unaffected by sex ratio, but inversely affected by stocking density. Cumulative mortality increased with increasing stocking density and unequal sex ratios. Postcopulatory guarding duration was significantly shorter in treatment with 1 male:2 females ratio and treatment with the lowest stocking density (2 crabs m−2. We proposed rearing of mud crab broodstocks for mating purpose using sex ratio of 1 male:2 females and stocking density of 6 crabs m−2 to maximize output (successful mating pairs while maintaining low mortality percentage and shorter postcopulatory guarding duration.
Full Text Available Kepiting Bakau Scylla olivacea merupakan salah satu komoditas perikanan yang memiliki nilai ekonomis yang sangat tinggi. Kendala yang dihadapi dalam kegiatan perbenihan kepiting bakau adalah masih tingginya tingkat mortalitas. Tujuan penelitan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh hormon ecdyson terhadap sintasan dan periode moulting pada larva kepiting bakau Scylla olivacea. Penelitian dilakukan di Unit Stasiun Pembenihan Kepiting Maranak Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau dan Penyuluhan Perikanan (BRPBAP3 Maros, Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan. Hewan uji berupa larva kepiting bakau Scylla spp. stadia zoea. Pakan uji dalam penelitian berupa rotifer dan Artemia yang dilakukan pengkayaan dengan hormon ecdyson. Wadah penelitian berupa akuarium 110 L berjumlah 12 buah yang diisi dengan air sebanyak 100 L, air bersalinitas 28-30 ppt dengan kepadatan larva sebanyak 50 ekor/L. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah berbagai dosis hormon ecdyson dalam pakan, yakni A= 0 mg/L; B= 0,5 mg/L; C= 1 mg/L; dan D= 1,5 mg/L; dengan tiga kali ulangan. Parameter yang diukur adalah sintasan dan periode moulting. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan dosis hormon ecdyson memberikan pengaruh yang baik terhadap sintasan dan periode moulting larva kepiting bakau. Mud crab, Scylla olivacea is one of highly valued and sought-after fishery commodities. Despite its high economic value, mud crab culture still faces a problem in producing high-quality seed which is high mortality rate post-spawning. The study aim was to evaluate the effect of the Ecdyson hormone on the survival rate and molting period of the mud crab larvae. The study was conducted at the Maranak Crab Seedling, BRPBAP3 Maros, South Sulawesi Province. The trial used mud crabs larvae that were in zoea stage. The trial feed was given in the form of Rotifer and Artemia enriched with the Ecdyson hormone. Twelve 110-liter aquaria were filled with 100 L of 28-30 ppt of seawater. The stocking density of mud crab seed was 50
Chaves Cordero, Gerardo Antonio
Tesis (magíster scientiae en biología)--Universidad de Costa Rica. Sistema de Estudios de Posgrado, 2007. UCR::Investigación::Sistema de Estudios de Posgrado::Ciencias Básicas::Maestría Académica en Biología
Cutignano, Adele; Notti, Valentina; d'Ippolito, Giuliana; Coll, Anna Domenech; Cimino, Guido; Fontana, Angelo
Metabolites related to caulerpenyne (1), a toxic sesquiterpene featured by two enol-acetate residues, play a major role in the chemical defence of both algae of the genus Caulerpa and a few molluscs of the order Sacoglossa. Here we report the direct evidence that cell-free preparations of Oxynoe olivacea, a Mediterranean sacoglossan, transform efficiently the algal metabolite 1 to oxytoxin-2 (3), the main defensive metabolite of the mollusc. The process implies two distinct hydrolytic activities, here named LIP-1 and LIP-2, able to operate either hydrolysis of the acetyl residue at C-1 or concerted elimination of the acetyl groups at C-4 and C-13. Incubation experiments with tissue homogenates of O. olivacea or with commercially available lipases suggest a two-step mechanism that involves, in vitro, an unstable metabolite characterized as preoxytoxin-2 (4). The course of the entire process can be easily monitored by reverse phase HPLC/ESI-MS, as well as by NMR measurements, which provides direct evidence of the enzymatic mechanism leading to the formation of this last compound (4). In agreement with the literature, both fresh and frozen tissues of Mediterranean Caulerpa prolifera also have the capability to transform 1 into aldehydic derivatives, namely oxytoxin-1 (2) and oxytoxin-2 (3), through hydrolysis of the acetyl groups. However, differently from experiments with mollusc homogenates, the conversion is not complete and caulerpenyne (1) can be detected in the algal suspension for a few hours. HPLC/ESI-MS monitoring of this transformation suggests that the hydrolytic route involves different activities in the mollusc and seaweed.
Streicher, Jeffrey W; Cox, Christian L; Campbell, Jonathan A; Smith, Eric N; de Sá, Rafael O
We investigated genetic variation within the Great Plains narrow-mouthed toad, Gastrophryne olivacea, across its geographic range in the United States and Mexico. An analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 105 frogs revealed remarkably low levels of genetic diversity in individuals inhabiting the central United States and northern Mexico. We found that this widespread matrilineal lineage is divergent (ca. 2% in mtDNA) from haplotypes that originate from the western United States and western coast of Mexico. Using a dataset that included all five species of Gastrophryne and both species of the closely related genus Hypopachus, we investigated the phylogenetic placement of G. olivacea. This analysis recovered strong support that G. olivacea, the tropically distributed G. elegans, and the temperately distributed G. carolinensis constitute a monophyletic assemblage. However, the placement of G. pictiventris and G. usta render Gastrophryne paraphyletic with respect to Hypopachus. To complement our mitochondrial analysis, we examined a small fragment of nuclear DNA and recovered consistent patterns. In light of our findings we recommend (1) the resurrection of the nomen G. mazatlanensisTaylor (1943) for the disjunct western clade of G. olivacea and (2) the tentative placement of G. pictiventris and G. usta in Hypopachus. To explore possible scenarios leading to low levels of genetic diversity in G. olivacea, we used mismatch distributions and Bayesian Skyline plots to examine historic population expansion and demography. Collectively these analyses suggest that G. olivacea rapidly expanded in effective population size and geographic range during the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. This hypothesis is consistent with fossil data from northern localities and contemporary observations that suggest ongoing northern expansion. Given our findings, we suspect that the rapid range expansion of G. olivacea may have been facilitated by ecological associations with open
Salmon, Michael; Higgins, Benjamin; Stewart, Joshua; Wyneken, Jeanette
Marine turtles are large reptiles that compensate for high juvenile mortality by producing hundreds of hatchlings during a long reproductive lifespan. Most hatchlings are taken by predators during their migration to, and while resident in, the open ocean. Their survival depends upon crypticity, minimizing movement to avoid detection, and foraging efficiently to grow to a size too difficult for predators to either handle or swallow. While these behavioral antipredator tactics are known, changes in morphology accompanying growth may also improve survival prospects. These have been only superficially described in the literature. Here, we compare the similarities and differences in presumed morphological defenses of growing loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) posthatchlings, related species that differ in growth rate, timing of habitat shift (the return from oceanic to neritic locations), and size at maturity. In both species, vertebral spination and carapace widening increase disproportionally as small turtles grow, but later in ontogeny, the spines regress, sooner in ridley than in loggerhead turtles. Carapace widening occurs in both species but loggerheads are always longer than they are wide whereas in Kemp's ridley turtles, the carapace becomes as wide as long. Our analysis indicates that these changes are unrelated to when each species shifts habitat but are related to turtle size. We hypothesize that the spines function in small turtles as an early defense against gape-limited predators, but changes in body shape function throughout ontogeny-initially to make small turtles too wide to swallow and later by presenting an almost flat and hardened surface that large predators (such as a sharks) are unable to grasp. The extremely wide carapace of the Kemp's ridley may compensate for its smaller adult size (and presumed greater vulnerability) than the loggerhead. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gornik, Kara R; Pirie, Christopher G; Marrion, Ruth M; Wocial, Julika N; Innis, Charles J
To determine central corneal thickness (total corneal thickness [TCT], epithelial thickness [ET], and stromal thickness [ST]), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and intraocular pressure (IOP) in Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii). Prospective cross-sectional study. 25 healthy rehabilitated juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles. PROCEDURES; Body weight and straight-line standard carapace length (SCL) were recorded. All turtles underwent a complete anterior segment ophthalmic examination. Central TCT, ET, ST, and ACD were determined by use of a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device. Intraocular pressure was determined with a rebound tonometer; the horse setting was used to measure IOP in all 25 turtles, and the undefined setting was also used to measure IOP in 20 turtles. For each variable, 3 measurements were obtained bilaterally. The mean was calculated for each eye and used for analysis purposes. The mean ± SD body weight and SCL were 3.85 ± 1.05 kg (8.47 ± 2.31 lb) and 29 ± 3 cm, respectively. The mean ± SD TCT, ET, ST, and ACD were 288 ± 23 μm, 100 ± 6 μm, 190 ± 19 μm, and 581 ± 128 μm, respectively. Mean ± SD IOP was 6.5 ± 1.0 mm Hg when measured with the horse setting and 3.8 ± 1.1 mm Hg when measured with the undefined setting. Results provided preliminary reference ranges for objective assessment of ophthalmic variables in healthy juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles.
turtle Chelonia mydas T - Loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta T - Pacific Ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea T - Leatherback sea turtle...turtle Lepidochelys olivacea Gopher snake Pituophis melanoleucus Pacific chorus frog Psuedacris regilla California red-legged frog Rana aurora...coriacea E E Atlantic (Kemp’s) Ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys kempi E E Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata E E Birds Wood stork
ridley sea turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea ) are occasionally found in the area and are listed as threatened. Section 7 of the BSA requires federal agencies... Lepidochelys olivacea ) are occasionally found in the area and are listed as threatened. Section 7 of the ESA requires federal agencies to consider...turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata brissa) Green sea turtle (Chelonia sydas) Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) Pacific Ridley sea turtle ( Lepidochelys
Ridley turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea , and the leatherback sea turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, are also rare in the Red Sea. The olive Ridley apparently...the green turtle, Chelonia mydas; the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta; the olive Ridley turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea ; and the leatherback...assessed based on their potential for exposure to solid wastes. Kemp’s (Atlantic) Ridley Sea Turtle ( Lepidochelys kempii). Adults are restricted to the Gulf
1972. The olive ridley sea-turtle ( Lepidochelys olivacea ) in South-east Africa. Biol. Cons. 4(2):128-134. In Frazier 1980. Joyce, J.C. 1982. Protecting...turtle today (with notes on the current status of Lepidochelys olivacea ). Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 13:170-192. Not cited in text, but included as...dredging activities, Kemp’s (Atlantic) ridley turtle ( Lepidochelys kempi) and the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta). Neither species has been sighted
Lepidochelys olivacea ) in South-east Africa. Biol. Cons. 4(2):128-134. In Frazier 1980. Joyce, J.C. 1982. Protecting sea turtles while dredging. Military...turtle today (with notes on the current status of Lepidochelys olivacea ). Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 13:170-192. * Not cited in text, but included as...that may be potentially impacted by the proposed activity are the Kemp’s (Atlantic) ridley sea turtle, Lepidochelys kempi, which is endangered, and
Lepidochelys olivacea ). At least 34 species of cetaceans have been identified in the SCB. At least nine species generally can be found in the...couperi Eastern indigo snake Threatened Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata Hawksbill turtle Endangered Lepidochelys kempii Kemp’s ridley turtle...imbricata Hawksbill turtle Endangered Lepidochelys kempii Kemp’s ridley turtle Endangered Birds Calidris canutus Red knot Candidate Charadrius
Vhora, M Suhail; Bolek, Matthew G
Aplectana hamatospicula is a nematode that parasitizes the large intestine of anurans, and has been reported from bufonids, eleutherodactylids, hylids, microhylids, and ranids from North and Central America. Aplectana hamatospicula was first described, over 70 yr ago, from Hyla eximia and Bufo peltocephalus from Mexico and Cuba, respectively, and reported from Gastrophryne carolinensis from Florida. Since then there have been no reports of this nematode in North America north of Mexico. The life cycle of A. hamatospicula is not known, and there is limited information on Aplectana spp. from North America. During 2010-2011, we collected 351 anurans of 8 species from 4 locations in Stillwater, Payne County, Oklahoma, U.S.A., and examined them for the presence of Aplectana spp. Of the 8 species of anurans surveyed, A. hamatospicula infected only the Great Plains narrowmouth toad (Gastrophryne olivacea). The prevalence of A. hamatospicula was 85.7% (12/14) with a mean abundance of 28.4 + 24.0 and a mean intensity of 33.1 + 22.8 worms per infected toad. We provide new morphological measurements for male and female A. hamatospicula along with new locality records for this nematode in North America.
Kornthong, Napamanee; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Khornchatri, Kanjana; Saeton, Jirawat; Magerd, Sirilug; Suwansa-Ard, Saowaros; Kruangkum, Thanapong; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert
The mud crab, Scylla olivacea, is one of the most economically valuable marine species in Southeast Asian countries. However, commercial cultivation is disadvantaged by reduced reproductive capacity in captivity. Therefore, an understanding of the general and detailed anatomy of central nervous system (CNS) is required before investigating the distribution and functions of neurotransmitters, neurohormones, and other biomolecules, involved with reproduction. We found that the anatomical structure of the brain is similar to other crabs. However, the ventral nerve cord (VNC) is unlike other caridian and dendrobrachiate decapods, as the subesophageal (SEG), thoracic and abdominal ganglia are fused, due to the reduction of abdominal segments and the tail. Neurons in clusters within the CNS varied in sizes, and we found that there were five distinct size classes (i.e., very small globuli, small, medium, large, and giant). Clusters in the brain and SEG contained mainly very small globuli and small-sized neurons, whereas, the VNC contained small-, medium-, large-, and giant-sized neurons. We postulate that the different sized neurons are involved in different functions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The genome of Prodiamesa olivacea (Diptera, Chironomidae) has a 2 CDNA content of 0.25 pg. Mitotic metaphases reveal 3 pairs of chromosomes: 2 metacentric ones and one submetacentric. The latter comprises 20.8% of total Feulgen DNA. During larval polytenization the complemental portion of the 3rd falls to 6.5%. Concomitantly the polytene 3rd chromosome is much shorter than expected. It has no constriction and is shaped like a ball sector. -- Underreplication is understood as suppression of DNA syntheses mainly in the long arm of the 3rd chromosome at the first to third endoreplicative cycle. Most of the dense heterochromatin seen in the apex of the 3rd polytene element is not itself underreplicated; it conceals the underreplicated long arm of this chromosome. -- In ovarian nurse cells which are closely connected with the germ line the longer heterochromatic arm of the 3rd polyneme chromosome is fully replicated. -- Underreplication is discussed in the context of "dna silencing".
Iezhova, Tatjana A; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Loiseau, Claire; Smith, Thomas B; Sehgal, Ravinder N M
Haemoproteus ( Parahaemoproteus ) cyanomitrae n. sp. (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) was found in the olive sunbird, Cyanomitra olivacea (Nectariniidae), in rain forests of tropical Africa. It is described based on the morphology of its blood stages and a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (GenBank accession FJ404696), which can be used for molecular identification and diagnosis of this species. Fully grown gametocytes of new parasite are similar to many other species of haemoproteids of passeriform birds, so are not easily distinguishable from many of them at this stage of their development. Haemoproteus cyanomitrae can be readily distinguished from the majority of described species of avian haemoproteids, primarily due to its growing dumbbell-shaped gametocytes and advanced halteridial gametocytes, both of which do not touch the envelope of infected erythrocytes along their entire margin. Pigment granules are most frequently clamped in 1, or several, groups in gametocytes, with larger group of pigment granules usually located close to one end of the gametocyte; asymmetric position of pigment granules in gametocytes a characteristic feature of this parasite. Illustrations of blood stages of the new species are given, and phylogenetic analysis identifies DNA lineages closely related to this parasite, which is widespread in African rain forests, but has been recorded only in the olive sunbird so far. It is probable that H. cyanomitrae is transmitted throughout the range of the olive sunbird in Africa.
Cimino, G; Crispino, A; Di Marzo, V; Gavagnin, M; Ros, J D
The ethereal extract of the mucous secretion from the opisthobranch mollusc Oxynoe olivacea was examined and found to contain two novel ichthyotoxic compounds, named oxytoxin 1 and 2 (1,2). The structures of 1 and 2 are closely related to the metabolites previously isolated from the alga Caulerpa prolifera. The activity of the most stable compound was studied in order to investigate the possibility of a further biological role for these metabolites, which represent an uncommon example of bioactive molecules produced in vivo from a dietary precursor.
Full Text Available Salah satu bahan nabati yang perlu dievaluasi sebagai bahan pakan untuk kepiting bakau adalah daun murbei yang mengandung protein cukup tinggi dan hormone ecdisterone yang penting untuk proses molting krustase. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan dosis optimum penggunaan tepung daun murbei dalam pakan pembesaran kepiting bakau, Scylla olivacea. Juvenil kepiting bakau yang digunakan terdiri atas 3 kelompok ukuran bobot yaitu (i 36±1,9 g; (ii 45±1,5 g; dan (iii 63±3,9 g. Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalah enam pakan dengan kandungan tepung daun murbei yang berbeda yaitu: 0%(DM0; 10% (DM10; 12,5% (DM12,5; 15% (DM15; 17,5% (DM17,5; dan 20% (DM20. Wadah penelitian yang digunakan berupa kotak kepiting (crab box sebanyak 90 buah, diisi sebanyak 1 ekor/boks, dan didisain dengan rancangan acak kelompok. Pemberian pakan uji dilakukan dua kali sehari pukul 08.00 dan pukul 17.00 sebanyak 3-4% dari biomassa per hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa laju pertumbuhan spesifik (bobot, lebar karapas, dan panjang karapas, serta sintasan kepiting, rasio konversi pakan, dan efisiensi protein pakan, tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05 antar perlakuan. Namun kandungan tepung daun murbei dalam pakan di atas 15% menurunkan nilai koefisien kecernaan total pakan, dan kandungan tepung murbei di atas 17,5% menurunkan nilai kecernaan protein pakan. Berdasarkan respon pertumbuhan dan nilai kecernaan pakan, tepung daun murbei dapat dimanfaatkan hingga 15% dalam pakan pembesaran kepiting bakau. One of plant ingredients suitable to be evaluated as a feed ingredient for mud crab is mulberry leaves which contains protein and ecdisteron. The purpose of this study is to obtain the optimum dose of mulberry leaf meal in grow-out diet for mud crab Scylla olivacea. Juvenile mud crabs were used consisting of 3 groups of weight size ie. (i36±1.9 g; (ii 45±1.5 g; and (iii 63±3.9 g. The treatments were six diets containing different levels of mulberry leaf at 0% (DM0; 10% (DM10
Giorello, Facundo M; Feijoo, Matias; D'Elía, Guillermo; Valdez, Lourdes; Opazo, Juan C; Varas, Valeria; Naya, Daniel E; Lessa, Enrique P
The olive mouse Abrothrix olivacea is a cricetid rodent of the subfamily Sigmodontinae that inhabits a wide range of contrasting environments in southern South America, from aridlands to temperate rainforests. Along its distribution, it presents different geographic forms that make the olive mouse a good focal case for the study of geographical variation in response to environmental variation. We chose to characterize the kidney transcriptome because this organ has been shown to be associated with multiple physiological processes, including water reabsorption. Transcriptomes of thirteen kidneys from individuals from Argentina and Chile were sequenced using Illumina technology in order to obtain a kidney reference transcriptome. After combining the reads produced for each sample, we explored three assembly strategies to obtain the best reconstruction of transcripts, TrinityNorm and DigiNorm, which include its own normalization algorithms for redundant reads removal, and Multireads, which simply consist on the assembly of the joined reads. We found that Multireads strategy produces a less fragmented assembly than normalization algorithms but recovers fewer number of genes. In general, about 15000 genes were annotated, of which almost half had at least one coding sequence reconstructed at 99% of its length. We also built a list of highly expressed genes, of which several are involved in water conservation under laboratory conditions using mouse models. Based on our assembly results, Trinity's in silico normalization is the best algorithm in terms of cost-benefit returns; however, our results also indicate that normalization should be avoided if complete or nearly complete coding sequences of genes are desired. Given that this work is the first to characterize the transcriptome of any member of Sigmodontinae, a subfamily of cricetid rodents with about 400 living species, it will provide valuable resources for future ecological and evolutionary genomic analyses.
Mangkalanan, Seksan; Sanguanrat, Piyachat; Utairangsri, Tanatchaporn; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Krittanai, Chartchai
This study focused on an isolation and characterization of the circulating hemocytes in mud crab, Scylla olivacea. Isolation of specific cell types of hemocytes from crab hemolymph was accomplished by using 60% Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Four separated bands of the hemocytes were successfully obtained. Characterization of these isolated hemocytes by light microscope using trypan blue-rose bengal staining, rose bengal-hematoxilin staining, and phase contrast revealed four distinct types of hemocyte cells. Using their specific morphology and granularity, they were identified as hyaline cell (HC), small granular cell (SGC), large granular cell (LGC) and mixed granular cell (MGC). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed more details on specific cell size, size of cytoplasmic granule, and nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, and confirmed the classification. Relative abundance of these cells types in the hemolymph of an adult crab were 15.50±8.22% for HC, 55.50±7.15% for SGC, 13.50±5.28% for LGC, and 15.50±3.50% for MGC. Proteomic analysis of protein expression for each specific cell types by two-dimensional electrophoresis identified two highly abundant proteins, prophenoloxidase (ProPO) and peroxinectin in LGC. Determination of phenoloxidase (PO) activity in each isolated cell types using in vitro and in situ chemical assays confirmed the presence of PO activity only in LGC. Based on an increased PO activity of crab hemolymph during the course of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection, these results suggest that prophenoloxidase pathway was employed for host defense mechanism against WSSV and it may link to the role of large granular hemocyte. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rosly, Hurul Adila-Aida Mohamad; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd; Yahya, Khairun; Naim, Darlina Md
A primary factor in population management and wildlife conservation is the delineation of population units derived from descriptions of population genetic structure. Yet, predicting factors that influence the patterns of gene flow in a population particularly at landscape scales remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Here we report a population genetic study of the mud crab Scylla olivacea examined based on a 542 bp segment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase I gene among 91 individuals from six localities in the west and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. In total 55 unique haplotypes were distinguished with 45 private haplotypes and a single common haplotype shared among all populations studied. The other ten haplotypes were shared among various populations. The sharing of this haplotype reflects the connection of the mangrove areas between east and west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. High haplotype diversity (h = 0.968 ± 0.021; mean ± SD) and low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.120 ± 0.015; mean ± SD) were displayed, which may be indicative of genetic bottleneck events. No significant phylogenetic lineages were recognized using neighbour-joining and maximum parsimony methods. Hierarchical AMOVA analysis indicated that 99.33 % of the genetic variation was contained within populations and 0.67 % occurred among populations, suggesting no geographical patterning among populations studied, supported by F st test. Mismatch distribution analysis showed that the observed distribution of the pairwise mutation differences among haplotypes was multimodal, which is not concordant with a sudden range expansion scenario. However, neutrality tests showed non-significant negative values suggesting that the populations studied may have experienced past population growth, but the expansion may have been restricted to separate local areas that resulted in the non-significant negative Fu's Fs and Tajima's D value. Overall, this present preliminary study was
Christie, Andrew E
The aquaculture of crabs from the genus Scylla is of increasing economic importance for many Southeast Asian countries. Expansion of Scylla farming has led to increased efforts to understand the physiology and behavior of these crabs, and as such, there are growing molecular resources for them. Here, publicly accessible Scylla olivacea transcriptomic data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts; the proteins deduced from the identified sequences were then used to predict the structures of mature peptide hormones. Forty-nine pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 187 distinct mature peptides. The identified peptides included isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, bursicon β, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/molt-inhibiting hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide-like peptide, HIGSLYRamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, pyrokinin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide and tachykinin-related peptide, all well-known neuropeptide families. Surprisingly, the tissue used to generate the transcriptome mined here is reported to be testis. Whether or not the testis samples had neural contamination is unknown. However, if the peptides are truly produced by this reproductive organ, it could have far reaching consequences for the study of crustacean endocrinology, particularly in the area of reproductive control. Regardless, this peptidome is the largest thus far predicted for any brachyuran (true crab) species, and will serve as a foundation for future studies of peptidergic control in members of the commercially important genus Scylla. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gramaje, David; León, Maela; Santana, Marcela; Crous, Pedro W; Armengol, Josep
Cadophora luteo-olivacea is a lesser-known fungal trunk pathogen of grapevine which has been recently isolated from vines showing decline symptoms in grape growing regions worldwide. In this study, 80 C. luteo-olivacea isolates (65 from Spain and 15 from South Africa) were studied. Inter-simple-sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR) generated 55 polymorphic loci from four ISSR primers selected from an initial screen of 13 ISSR primers. The ISSR markers revealed 40 multilocus genotypes (MLGs) in the global population. Minimum spanning network analysis showed that the MLGs from South Africa clustered around the most frequent genotype, while the genotypes from Spain were distributed all across the network. Principal component analysis and dendrograms based on genetic distance and bootstrapping identified two highly differentiated genetic clusters in the Spanish and South African C. luteo-olivacea populations, with no intermediate genotypes between these clusters. Movement within the Spanish provinces may have occurred repeatedly given the frequent retrieval of the same genotype in distant locations. The results obtained in this study provide new insights into the population genetic structure of C. luteo-olivacea in Spain and highlights the need to produce healthy and quality planting material in grapevine nurseries to avoid the spread of this fungus throughout different grape growing regions.
Full Text Available Cadophora luteo-olivacea is a lesser-known fungal trunk pathogen of grapevine which has been recently isolated from vines showing decline symptoms in grape growing regions worldwide. In this study, 80 C. luteo-olivacea isolates (65 from Spain and 15 from South Africa were studied. Inter-simple-sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR generated 55 polymorphic loci from four ISSR primers selected from an initial screen of 13 ISSR primers. The ISSR markers revealed 40 multilocus genotypes (MLGs in the global population. Minimum spanning network analysis showed that the MLGs from South Africa clustered around the most frequent genotype, while the genotypes from Spain were distributed all across the network. Principal component analysis and dendrograms based on genetic distance and bootstrapping identified two highly differentiated genetic clusters in the Spanish and South African C. luteo-olivacea populations, with no intermediate genotypes between these clusters. Movement within the Spanish provinces may have occurred repeatedly given the frequent retrieval of the same genotype in distant locations. The results obtained in this study provide new insights into the population genetic structure of C. luteo-olivacea in Spain and highlights the need to produce healthy and quality planting material in grapevine nurseries to avoid the spread of this fungus throughout different grape growing regions.
Hasyima Ismail, N; Amin Safwan, A; Fairuz Fozi, N; Megat, F H; Muhd Farouk, H; Kamaruddin, S A; Ikhwanuddin, M; Ambak, M A
Orange mud crab Scylla olivacea is one of the most important fisheries resources. A new development in ageing technique of crustaceans has been introduced. The detection of growth band deposited in hard structure of gastric mill in the cardiac stomach are found retained after moulting process can be used as age indicator and growth estimation. This study was carried out to determine the comparison between carapace width and growth band count of S. olivacea in Malaysia. Samples were collected from Setiu Wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia from February until August, 2016. Samples were categorized based on their morphological measurements. The mesocardiac and zygocardiac ossicles in the gastric mill of S. olivacea was dissected out and preserved in solutions and underwent a cross sectioning process. A total of 76 of wild S. olivacea ranging from 6.56 to 12.84 cm in carapace width were analysed. The growth band counts were examined for each individual and ranging from 1 to 3 band counts. A positive linear relation was observed between CW and GBC with r2 = 0.5178, polivacea in Setiu Wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia.
Full Text Available Fifty-eight Cadophora luteo-olivacea and three C. melinii isolates were recovered from grapevines showing black vascular streaking and decline symptoms characteristic of Petri disease, and from different stages of the grapevine nursery process in Spain. The isolates were studied by means of phenotypical characterization, DNA analysis and pathogenicity tests. The morphological characters studied included conidiophore, phialide and conidial morphology. Colony characters and pigment production on MEA, PDA and OA were also examined. Phenotypical data were subjected to cluster analysis, which clearly separated C.luteo-olivacea isolates into four groups. Mating tests were performed on all possible combinations for each Cadophora species but no sexual fruiting bodies were produced. Partial sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS, beta-tubulin (BT and the elongation factor 1a (EF were analysed, but no genetic variation occurred within the C. luteo-olivacea isolates or within the C. melinii isolates in any of the regions studied. Pathogenicity tests were conducted on 1-year-old grapevine cuttings of four different rootstocksusing four C. luteo-olivacea isolates and one isolate of C. melinii. All Cadophora isolates except the C.melinii isolate caused significantly longer lesions in the xylem of grapevine rootstocks than in the controls.
Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS is often intimately involved in reproduction control and is therefore a target organ for transcriptomic investigations to identify reproduction-associated genes. In this study, 454 transcriptome sequencing was performed on pooled brain and ventral nerve cord of the female mud crab (Scylla olivacea following serotonin injection (5 µg/g BW. A total of 197,468 sequence reads was obtained with an average length of 828 bp. Approximately 38.7% of 2,183 isotigs matched with significant similarity (E value < 1e-4 to sequences within the Genbank non-redundant (nr database, with most significant matches being to crustacean and insect sequences. Approximately 32 putative neuropeptide genes were identified from nonmatching blast sequences. In addition, we identified full-length transcripts for crustacean reproductive-related genes, namely farnesoic acid o-methyltransferase (FAMeT, estrogen sulfotransferase (ESULT and prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS. Following serotonin injection, which would normally initiate reproductive processes, we found up-regulation of FAMeT, ESULT and PGFS expression in the female CNS and ovary. Our data here provides an invaluable new resource for understanding the molecular role of the CNS on reproduction in S. olivacea.
Zhu, Jun-Quan; Yang, Wan-Xi
Ultrastructure of mature spermatozoa of Estellarca olivacea was studied by transmission electron microscopy and its phylogenetic implications are discussed for the first time in this paper. The mature spermatozoon is composed of a head which contains a cone-shaped acrosome, a round nucleus and a tail region. The subacrosomal space is less electron dense which contains a homogeneous material. No axial rod and a basal plate were observed in subacrosomal space. No anterior invagination exists in the nucleus, but an inverted shallow V-shaped posterior invagination is visible. Nuclear lacunae could be seen clearly although the nucleus is highly condensed. Within the mid-piece of the spermatozoon there exist five spherical mitochondria while the long whip-like end portion is composed of an axoneme with the typical 9+2 structure. The spermatozoon of Estellarca olivacea is a product of the evolution of the reproductive system of the family Arcidae. Whether the particular acrosome, subacrosomal space, or the highly condensed nucleus might be adaptations of high fertilization rate in the particular environment of this species is discussed.
Waiho, Khor; Fazhan, Hanafiah; Glenner, Henrik; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd
Screening of mud crab genus Scylla was conducted in four locations (Marudu Bay, Lundu, Taiping, Setiu) representing Malaysia. Scylla olivacea with abnormal primary and secondary sexual characters were prevalent (approximately 42.27% of the local screened S. olivacea population) in Marudu Bay, Sabah. A total of six different types of abnormalities were described. Crabs with type 1 and type 3 were immature males, type 2 and type 4 were mature males, type 5 were immature females and type 6 were mature females. The abdomen of all crabs with abnormalities were dented on both sides along the abdomen's middle line. Abnormal crabs showed significant variation in their size, weight, abdomen width and/or gonopod or pleopod length compared to normal individuals. The mean body weight of abnormal crabs (type 1-5) were higher than normal crabs with smaller body size, while females with type 6 abnormality were always heavier than the normal counterparts at any given size. Sacculinid's externa were observed in the abdomen of crabs with type 4 and type 6 abnormalities. The presence of embryos within the externa and subsequent molecular analysis of partial mitochondrial COI region confirmed the rhizocephalan parasite as Sacculina beauforti . Future in-depth descriptions of the life cycle and characteristics of S. beauforti are recommended as it involves a commercially important edible crab species and the effect on human health from the consumption of crabs is of crucial concern.
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Species from different fungal genera have been indicated as responsible for the development of trunk diseases of grapevines. Greeneria uvicola is responsible for the bitter rot of Vitis vinifera grape bunchesnear harvest, and can also attack other Vitis species. In Uruguay, G. uvicola was isolated from dead arm affected grapevines and as an endophyte from healthy canes. Cadophora luteo-olivacea is a phialophora-likeascomycete with a wide distribution that was isolated from asymptomatic wood tissues in Vitis and Petridisease-affected nursery plants in Uruguay. Pathogenicity of isolates of both species was evaluated on Vitis vinifera cv. Tannat and Cabernet Sauvignon, and rootstocks SO4 and 3309C. Specific primers were developed for the ITS rDNA region for both species. Number of plants showing discoloration, length of discoloration, number of re-isolations and amplifications confirmed the pathogenicity of G. uvicola isolates. Pathogenicityof the isolate of C. luteo-olivacea obtained from symptomatic tissues is discussed. Specific primers can be usedto detect the presence of these fungi in asymptomatic tissues.
Bowie, Rauri C K; Fjeldså, Jon; Hackett, Shannon J; Crowe, Timothy M
This study constitutes the first investigation of the phylogeographic structure of a forest bird distributed throughout the montane and lowland forest biomes of Africa. The key objective was to investigate the importance of Pleistocene climatic cycles on avian diversification across Africa. The Olive Sunbird is a relatively large polytypic sunbird widely distributed throughout evergreen, montane and coastal forests in Africa. Recently, it was split into two species, the Eastern Olive Sunbird (Nectarinia olivacea) and the Western Olive Sunbird (Nectarinia obscura), based on morphological grounds. Analyses of a 395bp fragment of the mtDNA NADH subunit 3 gene with flanking tRNA sequences, from 196 individuals of N. olivacea and 86 from N. obscura indicate that genetic divergence levels are low (1.0-2.4%) across some 9000km, from Ghana in the northwest of Africa to KwaZulu-Natal in eastern South Africa. Neither currently recognized Olive Sunbird species were monophyletic using either parsimony or likelihood tree-building methods. Phi(ST) values suggested that there was less variation partitioned among species than between most neighboring regions. Genetic diversity within the N. olivacea/obscura complex was dominated by three star-like phylogenies linked to each other by a single mutational step and two subnetworks (IV and V) separated from the core star-like phylogenies (subnetworks I, II, and III) by five to six mutational steps. The dominant evolutionary mechanism shaping genetic variation within the N. olivacea/obscura complex as identified by nested-clade analyses, appears to be one of range expansion possibly out of East Africa associated with a period of forest expansion during the mid-Pleistocene, some 1.1-0.7 million years ago. Mismatch profiles suggested that secondary contact has occurred between eastern and western lineages within the Ufipa Escarpment and possibly Zimbabwe, as well as between eastern lineages in the Kenyan Highlands and northern Eastern Arc
Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In recent years a postharvest disease of kiwifruit, characterized by skin pitting appearing after 3 or more months of storage, and caused by C. luteo-olivacea, has been reported in most Italian packinghouses. Forty-four strains isolated from kiwifruit harvested in Italy during the period 2001-2009 were tested for their pathogenicity on kiwifruit, apple and pear. The pathogenicity tests showed that different isolates of C. luteo-olivacea were pathogenic on the three fruit species stored at 1°C for 120 days with various degree of virulence. A PCR-based method to identify the pathogen species in kiwifruit was developed. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, 5.8S gene and ITS2 region of the rDNA (ITS showed high similarity with the species C. malorum, agent of side rot of apples and pears. Variation within the ITS was used to design one reverse primer common to both species and two species specific forward primers to specifically identify isolates of C. luteo-olivacea and C. malorum. Both SCAR (sequence characterized amplified region primer pairs showed to be specific for either Cadophora species when cross-tested and assessed on other species of Cadophora or on species of typical postharvest pathogens of kiwifruit, apple and pear.
Thibaut, T; Meinesz, A
The Mediterranean ascoglossan Oxynoe olivacea and Lobiger serradifalci, which are scarce in meadows of their usual food the alga Caulerpa prolifera, have become adapted to feeding on the invading tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia. Grazing rates are low (O. olivacea destroys only a 5-cm C. taxifolia frond in 3-7 d). The grazing rates are a function of temperature. Despite a high spawning frequency (0.25 egg-mass.day-1) and a large number of eggs released per spawning event (O. olivacea: from 2,545 to 29,128 eggs.spawning-1; L. serradifalci: from 12,112 to 48,448 eggs.spawning-1), the recruitment on Caulerpa meadows is usually low due to the hazardous pelagic development of the larvae. The possible use of these molluscs as agents of biological control against C. taxifolia appears to be possible only through an artificial enhancement of their populations after cultivation of the veligers and release of juveniles during the winter season. This means of control is discussed and compared with the possible use of tropical ascoglossan species.
Hilterman, M.; Goverse, E.
Vijf van de zeven soorten zeeschildpadden komen voor in Suriname en buurlanden Guyana en Frans Guyana. De lederschildpad (Dermochelys coriacea), soepschildpad (Chelonia mydas), olijfkleurige dwergsch lidpad (Lepidochelys olivacea) en karetschilpad (Eretmochelys imbricata) leggen er hun eieren, de
Piranqa rubra) x Scarlet tanager (P. olivacea ) x Grosbeaks, cardinals, buntings - Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) x x Blue grosbeak (Guiraca...Chelonia mydas) Atlantic loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) Atlantic ridley turtle ( Lepidochelys kempi) Black-knobbed sawback turtle (Graptemys
Ridley Turtle Lepidochelys kempii E Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricala E Leatherback Turtle Dernwchelys coriacea T American Alligator Alligator...boschianum T Dwarf Filmy-fern Trichomanes petersii T Mottled Trillium Trillium discolor T Dwarf Bladderwort Utricularia olivacea E = Endangered T
Tonnis, Brandon; Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary; Petren, Kenneth
We investigated phylogeographic divergence among populations of Galápagos warble finches. Their broad distribution, lack of phenotypic differentiation and low levels of genetic divergence make warbler finches an appropriate model to study speciation in allopatry. A positive relationship between genetic and geographical distance is expected for island taxa. Warbler finches actually showed a negative isolation by distance relationship, causing us to reject the hypothesis of distance-limited dispersal. An alternative hypothesis, that dispersal is limited by habitat similarity, was supported. We found a positive correlation between genetic distances and differences in maximum elevation among islands, which is an indicator of ecological similarity. MtDNA sequence variation revealed monophyletic support for two distinct species. Certhidea olivacea have recently dispersed among larger central islands, while some Certhidea fusca have recently dispersed to small islands at opposite ends of the archipelago. We conclude that females have chosen to breed on islands with habitats similar to their natal environment. Habitat selection is implicated as an important component of speciation of warbler finches, which is the earliest known divergence of the adaptive radiation of Darwin's finches. These results suggest that small populations can harbour cryptic but biologically meaningful variation that may affect longer term evolutionary processes.
Turmel, M; Lemieux, C; Burger, G; Lang, B F; Otis, C; Plante, I; Gray, M W
Green plants appear to comprise two sister lineages, Chlorophyta (classes Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, and Prasinophyceae) and Streptophyta (Charophyceae and Embryophyta, or land plants). To gain insight into the nature of the ancestral green plant mitochondrial genome, we have sequenced the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. These two green algae are presumptive members of the Prasinophyceae. This class is thought to include descendants of the earliest diverging green algae. We find that Nephroselmis and Pedinomonas mtDNAs differ markedly in size, gene content, and gene organization. Of the green algal mtDNAs sequenced so far, that of Nephroselmis (45,223 bp) is the most ancestral (minimally diverged) and occupies the phylogenetically most basal position within the Chlorophyta. Its repertoire of 69 genes closely resembles that in the mtDNA of Prototheca wickerhamii, a later diverging trebouxiophycean green alga. Three of the Nephroselmis genes (nad10, rpl14, and rnpB) have not been identified in previously sequenced mtDNAs of green algae and land plants. In contrast, the 25,137-bp Pedinomonas mtDNA contains only 22 genes and retains few recognizably ancestral features. In several respects, including gene content and rate of sequence divergence, Pedinomonas mtDNA resembles the reduced mtDNAs of chlamydomonad algae, with which it is robustly affiliated in phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirm the existence of two radically different patterns of mitochondrial genome evolution within the green algae.
Khornchatri, Kanjana; Kornthong, Napamanee; Saetan, Jirawat; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Cummins, Scott F; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert
In crustaceans serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) are neurotransmitters that play roles in the modulation of numerous physiological functions, including reproduction. However, in the mud crab, Scylla olivacea, the distributions of 5-HT and DA in the CNS have not yet been investigated. The aim of our study was to map the distributions of these two neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS) of the female of this crab during the late stage of ovarian development. We found 5-HT immunoreactivity (-ir) and DA-ir in many parts of the CNS, including the eyestalk, brain, and thoracic ganglia. In the eyestalk, 5-HT-ir was localized in the medulla terminalis (MT), hemi-ellipsoid body (HB), and protocerebral tract (PT), whereas DA-ir was present in neuronal cluster 1, the LG neuropils, and PT. In the brain, 5-HT-ir and DA-ir were detected in cells and fibers of neuronal clusters 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, and 15. In the ventral nerve cord, 5-HT-ir was present in neurons of the abdominal ganglia, whereas DA was only present in fibers. These spatial distributions of 5-HT and DA suggest that they may be involved in the neuromodulation of important physiological functions, including ovarian maturation, as shown in other non-crab decapods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Suryono; Ario, R.; Wibowo, E.; Handoyo, G.
Lekang turtle (Lepidhochelys olivacea) is one of the fauna that is protected as an endangered population. This marine reptile was able to migrate in great distance along the Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and South East Asia. Its existence has long been threatened, either by nature or human activities that endangered the population directly or indirectly. The decreasing number of sea turtle population that nest in Bali area is one indication of the reducing number of Lekang turtle in Indonesia. If left unchecked, it will result in the loss of Lekang turtle. This study aims to determine the successful percentage of conservation techniques and Lekang turtle hatching eggs (olive ridley sea turtle) in TCEC, Bali. The method used in this research is the method of observation or direct observation done in the field. Data collection is done by direct observation in the field. The results showed that the turtle breeding site is located in an area that is less strategic because too far from the sea, so that the temperature and humidity cannot be stable. Water content is most an important factor in the growth of embryo and egg hatching. This will lead to the decrease of hatching percentage of turtle eggs.
La tortue marine au Cameroun, genre Lepidochelys : nidification, biometrie de Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) (Reptilia, Cheloniidae) dans la réserve de faune de Campo (Sud Cameroun) Abstract PDF · Vol 6, No 2 (2012) - Articles Monitoring the green turtle population Chelonia mydas (Linné, 1758) in the ...
tropical and temperate seas and oceans Sea turtle, olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea Circumglobal in tropical and temperate seas Skink, Round Island...Scientific Name T&E Fauna Listed Overseas Sea turtle, Kemp’s ridley Lepidochelys kempii Tropical and temperate seas in Atlantic Basin, incl. Gulf of
La tortue marine au Cameroun, genre Lepidochelys : nidification, biometrie de Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) (Reptilia, Cheloniidae) dans la réserve de faune de Campo (Sud Cameroun) Abstract PDF · Vol 4, No 4 (2010) - Articles Impacts des eaux polluées sur la croissance, les teneurs en chlorophylles et ...
ALLOPATRIC Lepidochelys olivacea ), or for juveniles and POPULATIONS OF THE subadults of the larger species, blood may be LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLE, obtained...Broadus III, Director population dynamics. For small species, such as GENETIC VARIABILITY IN TWO the ridley turtles ( Lepidochelys kemDi and SEASONALLY
Full Text Available To understand how small mammals cope with the challenge of water homeostasis is a matter of interest for ecologists and evolutionary biologists. Here we take a step towards the understanding of the transcriptomic functional response of kidney using as a model the long-haired mouse (Abrothrix hirta a species that distributes across Patagonian steppes and Austral temperate rainforests in Argentina and Chile. Specifically, we i characterize the renal transcriptome of A. hirta, and ii compare it with that-already available-of the co-generic and co-distributed A. olivacea. Renal mRNA transcripts from 16 specimens of A. hirta from natural populations were analyzed. Over 500 million Illumina paired-end reads were assembled de novo under two approaches, an individual assembly for each specimen, and a single in-silico normalized joint assembly including all reads from all specimens. The total number of annotated genes was similar with both strategies: an average of 14,956 in individual assemblies and 14,410 in the joint assembly. Overall, 15,463 distinct genes express in the kidney of A. hirta. Transcriptomes of A. hirta and A. olivacea were similar in terms of gene abundance and composition: 95.6% of the genes of A. hirta were also found in A. olivacea making their functional profiles also similar. However, differences in the transcriptome of these two species were observed in the set of highly expressed genes, in terms of private genes for each species and the functional profiles of highly expressed genes. As part of the novel transcriptome characterization, we provide distinct gene lists with their functional annotation that would constitute the basis for further research on these or any other species of the subfamily Sigmodontinae, which includes about 400 living species distributed from Tierra del Fuego to southern United States.
Valdez, Lourdes; Giorello, Facundo; Feijoo, Matías; Opazo, Juan C; Lessa, Enrique P; Naya, Daniel E; D'Elía, Guillermo
To understand how small mammals cope with the challenge of water homeostasis is a matter of interest for ecologists and evolutionary biologists. Here we take a step towards the understanding of the transcriptomic functional response of kidney using as a model the long-haired mouse (Abrothrix hirta) a species that distributes across Patagonian steppes and Austral temperate rainforests in Argentina and Chile. Specifically, we i) characterize the renal transcriptome of A. hirta, and ii) compare it with that-already available-of the co-generic and co-distributed A. olivacea. Renal mRNA transcripts from 16 specimens of A. hirta from natural populations were analyzed. Over 500 million Illumina paired-end reads were assembled de novo under two approaches, an individual assembly for each specimen, and a single in-silico normalized joint assembly including all reads from all specimens. The total number of annotated genes was similar with both strategies: an average of 14,956 in individual assemblies and 14,410 in the joint assembly. Overall, 15,463 distinct genes express in the kidney of A. hirta. Transcriptomes of A. hirta and A. olivacea were similar in terms of gene abundance and composition: 95.6% of the genes of A. hirta were also found in A. olivacea making their functional profiles also similar. However, differences in the transcriptome of these two species were observed in the set of highly expressed genes, in terms of private genes for each species and the functional profiles of highly expressed genes. As part of the novel transcriptome characterization, we provide distinct gene lists with their functional annotation that would constitute the basis for further research on these or any other species of the subfamily Sigmodontinae, which includes about 400 living species distributed from Tierra del Fuego to southern United States.
alba rothschildi REPTIES Pacific Green Sea Turtle - Chelonia mydas agassizi Olive (Pacific) Ridley Sea Turtle Lepidochelys olivacea PLANTS Haleakala...Eretmochelys imbricata bissa Pacific Leatherback Sea Turtle Dermochelys coriacea schlegelii Olive Ridley Sea Turtle jL~epidochelys olivacea MOLLUSK Oahu
Turmel, M; Otis, C; Lemieux, C
Green plants seem to form two sister lineages: Chlorophyta, comprising the green algal classes Prasinophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, and Chlorophyceae, and Streptophyta, comprising the Charophyceae and land plants. We have determined the complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequence (200,799 bp) of Nephroselmis olivacea, a member of the class (Prasinophyceae) thought to include descendants of the earliest-diverging green algae. The 127 genes identified in this genome represent the largest gene repertoire among the green algal and land plant cpDNAs completely sequenced to date. Of the Nephroselmis genes, 2 (ycf81 and ftsI, a gene involved in peptidoglycan synthesis) have not been identified in any previously investigated cpDNA; 5 genes [ftsW, rnE, ycf62, rnpB, and trnS(cga)] have been found only in cpDNAs of nongreen algae; and 10 others (ndh genes) have been described only in land plant cpDNAs. Nephroselmis and land plant cpDNAs share the same quadripartite structure-which is characterized by the presence of a large rRNA-encoding inverted repeat and two unequal single-copy regions-and very similar sets of genes in corresponding genomic regions. Given that our phylogenetic analyses place Nephroselmis within the Chlorophyta, these structural characteristics were most likely present in the cpDNA of the common ancestor of chlorophytes and streptophytes. Comparative analyses of chloroplast genomes indicate that the typical quadripartite architecture and gene-partitioning pattern of land plant cpDNAs are ancient features that may have been derived from the genome of the cyanobacterial progenitor of chloroplasts. Our phylogenetic data also offer insight into the chlorophyte ancestor of euglenophyte chloroplasts.
Ikhwanuddin, M; Muhd-Farouk, H; Memon, A J; Wendy, W; Abol-Munafi, A B
The aim of this study was to evaluate how long the fresh sperm maintained at 2 degrees C would be utilized for fishery management. The study was conducted every 2 h to assess the sperm viability of orange mud crab Scylla olivacea. Evaluations were conducted as 3 treatments; T1, T2 and T3. In T1, the live specimens were sacrificed; for T2, only spermatophores were extracted and for T3 spermatophore extraction followed by homogenization to create a sperm suspension. All samples were stored with ice in an insulated box was keep fresh longer at 2 degrees C. The time '0' referred the immediate collection of sperm after the specimen was sacrificed. Spermatophore viability was determined using the sperm suspension by eosin-nigrosin staining method. Sperm viability for the fresh sample at time zero was 97.36 ± 0.53%. Viability of the sperm significantly decreased in the 2nd h in all treatments, T1 was 44.66 ± 0.54 to 4.2 ± 0.22% at 16 and 18th h, T2 was 36.56 ± 0.5 to 2.69 ± 0.06% at the 12 and 14th h and T3 was 33.69 ± 1.26 to 6.4 ± 0.29% at 8 and 10th h. In comparison, T1 showed significantly higher than other treatments (p < 0.05). Extremely low viability percentages were recorded in T3. This study also proved that the time elapse had significant impact on the percentage of viable sperm count.
Tsai, Kuo-Wei; Chang, Su-Jung; Wu, Hsin-Ju; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Chun-Hao; Lee, Chi-Ying
Two full-length cDNA sequences encoding a crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) precursor were cloned from tissues of the mud crab Scylla olivacea. Sco-CHH (S. olivacea CHH) was cloned from eyestalk ganglia, whereas Sco-CHH-L (S. olivacea CHH-like peptide) was cloned from extra-eyestalk tissues (pericardial organ and thoracic ganglia). Each conceptually translated precursor is expected to be processed into a signal peptide, a CHH precursor-related peptide (CPRP), and a mature CHH or CHH-like peptide. The two precursors are identical in amino acid sequence through the 40th residue of the mature peptide, but different from each other substantially in the C-terminus. Both CHH variants contain the six highly conserved cysteine residues characteristic of the CHH family peptides, and share higher sequence identities with other brachyuran CHH sequences than with those of other taxonomic groups. As determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the transcripts of Sco-CHH and Sco-CHH-L were present in eyestalk ganglia and several extra-eyestalk tissues (the thoracic ganglia, pericardial organ, brain, circumesophageal connectives, and gut). Sco-CHH was the predominant form in eyestalk ganglia, while Sco-CHH-L was the predominant form in several extra-eyestalk tissues. Neither transcript was expressed in the muscle, hepatopancreas, ovary, testis, heart, or gill. Antisera were raised against synthetic peptides corresponding to a stretch of sequence-specific to the C-terminus of Sco-CHH or Sco-CHH-L. Western blot analyses of tissues expressing Sco-CHH and Sco-CHH-L detected a Sco-CHH immunoreactive protein in the sinus gland, and a Sco-CHH-L immunoreactive protein in the pericardial organ. Immunohistochemical analyses of the eyestalk ganglia localized both Sco-CHH and Sco-CHH-L immunoreactivity to the sinus gland, and only Sco-CHH immunoreactivity to the X-organ somata; analyses of the pericardial organs also localized both Sco-CHH and Sco
Full Text Available Male Eastern Olive Sunbirds (Cyanomitra olivacea and Xylocopa nigrita carpenter bees in Tanzania both utilise the flowers of male plants of Lagenaria sphaerica (Cucurbitaceae as a source of nectar. The sunbirds set up territories defending this nectar resource. Observations of interactions between the sunbirds and the carpenter bees show that the bees are aggressively displaced from flowers when spotted by the birds. Only the bees can be considered as legitimate pollinators as the birds do not contact the anthers of the male flowers and were never seen visiting nectarless female flowers of Lagenaria sphaerica. Such territory defence may have implications for the frequency of movement and composition of pollen being transferred from male to female flowers which warrants further research.
Mardulyn, Patrick; Milinkovitch, Michel C
We have studied mitochondrial DNA variation in a local population of the leaf beetle species Gonioctena olivacea, to check whether its apparent low dispersal behaviour affects its pattern of genetic variation at a small geographical scale. We have sampled 10 populations of G. olivacea within a rectangle of 5 x 2 km in the Belgian Ardennes, as well as five populations located approximately along a straight line of 30 km and separated by distances of 3-12 km. For each sampled individual (8-19 per population), a fragment of the mtDNA control region was polymerase chain reaction-amplified and sequenced. Sequence data were analysed to test whether significant genetic differentiation could be detected among populations separated by such relatively short distances. The reconstructed genealogy of the mitochondrial haplotypes was also used to investigate the demographic history of these populations. Computer simulations of the evolution of populations were conducted to assess the minimum amount of gene flow that is necessary to explain the observed pattern of variation in the samples. Results show that migration among populations included in the rectangle of 5 x 2 km is substantial, and probably involves the occurrence of dispersal flights. This appears difficult to reconcile with the results of a previous ecological field study that concluded that most of this species dispersal occurs by walking. While sufficient migration to homogenize genetic diversity occurs among populations separated by distances of a few hundred metres to a few kilometres, distances greater than 5 km results in contrast in strong differentiation among populations, suggesting that migration is drastically reduced on such distances. Finally, the results of coalescent simulations suggest that the star-like genealogy inferred from the mtDNA sequence data is fully compatible with a past demographic expansion. However, a metapopulation structure alone (without the need to invoke a population expansion
Full Text Available Jumlah pemberian pakan yang tepat sangat penting dalam periode pendederan krablet kepiting bakau karena pada periode tersebut tingkat kanibalisme krablet sangat tinggi. Informasi dosis pemberian pakan pada krablet ini masih sangat kurang khususnya dengan penggunaan pakan buatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi kinerja pertumbuhan dan sintasan krablet kepiting bakau yang diberi pakan buatan dengan dosis berbeda selama periode pendederan. Hewan uji yang digunakan adalah krablet kepiting bakau dengan bobot awal rata-rata 0,038 g dan lebar karapas awal rata-rata 3,25 mm. Krablet dipelihara dalam bak berukuran 1,0 m × 1,0 m × 0,5 m sebanyak sembilan unit, dengan kepadatan awal masing-masing 50 ekor/bak. Tiga level dosis pakan harian yang dicobakan yaitu: 20%, 30%, dan 40% dari biomassa dan diberikan pada pagi dan sore hari selama lima minggu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dua minggu pertama periode pendederan, pemberian dosis pakan 20% memiliki sintasan yang lebih rendah (P0,05 di antara perlakuan. Pada pendederan krablet kepiting bakau, dosis pemberian pakan harian sebaiknya sebanyak 30% pada dua minggu pertama hingga krablet berukuran 0,2-0,3 g (lebar karapas 8-10 mm, selanjutnya 20% pada minggu ke-3, 15% pada minggu ke-4, dan 10% pada minggu ke-5. Appropriate feeding rate applied during nursery of mud crab crablet is important due to high cannibalism occurred at this stage. The information on feeding rates for crablet during nursery is still limited, in particularly the used of artificial diet. This study aims to evaluate the growth performance and survival rate of mud crab crablet fed artificial feed at different feeding rates during the nursery. The crablets with average initial weight of 0.038 g and initial carapace width of 3.25 mm were used in this study. The crablets were stocked in nine tanks sizing of 1.0 m × 1.0 m × 0.5 m each, with the initial density of 50 crablets/tank. Three daily feeding rates were tested at 20%, 30
Kornthong, Napamanee; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Chansela, Piyachat; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Cummins, Scott F; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert
Red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) is a member of the chromatophorotropic hormones and, in crustaceans, it is synthesized in the eyestalk. We have isolated a full-length cDNA for a RPCH preprohormone gene (Scyol-RPCH) from the eyestalks of female mud crabs, Scylla olivacea. The open reading frame consists of 642 nucleotides, and encodes a deduced 108 amino acid precursor protein, which includes a signal peptide, the RPCH (pQLNFSPGWamide), and an associated peptide. We show that the mud crab RPCH peptide exhibits 100% identity with 15 other decapods. Expression of Scyol-RPCH within adult mud crab takes place in the eyestalk, brain, and ventral nerve cord, comprising subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglion, and abdominal ganglion. In situ hybridization demonstrates specific expression within neuronal clusters 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the eyestalk X-organ, clusters 6, 8, 9, 10, and 17 of the brain, and in neuronal clusters of the ventral nerve cord. We found that administration of 5-HT up-regulates RPCH gene expression in the eyestalk, suggesting that RPCH may play a role as a downstream hormone of 5-HT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sehgal, Ravinder N M; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Marzec, Timothy; Valkiūnas, Gediminas
Trypanosoma naviformis n. sp. is described from the African olive sunbird Cyanomitra olivacea in Ghana based on the morphology of its hematozoic trypomastigotes and partial sequences of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. This parasite belongs to the group of small non-striated avian trypanosomes (< 30 µm in length in average) with the kinetoplast situated close to the posterior end of the body. Trypanosoma naviformis can be distinguished from other small avian trypanosomes due to its poorly visible flagellum, central position of its nucleus, and the symmetrically (in relation to the nucleus) narrowing of both ends of the hematozoic trypomastigotes, which are boat-like in shape. Illustrations of trypomastigotes of the new species are given, and SSU rDNA lineages associated with this parasite are documented. This parasite has been reported in Ghana and Cameroon and was also found in the yellow-whiskered greenbul, Andropadus latirostris in these countries. It appears to be widespread in its range given the distribution of these bird species in Africa.
scarlet tanagers (Piranga olivacea ). The concentration of migrants occurs mainly along the coast, although several species of raptors such as...turtle Lepidochelys kempii* E Known -·-··· leatherback sea turtle Der.mochetvscoriacea• E , nown oggerhead sea turtle ,Caretta caretta T nown i...americana E Known Piping plover Charadrius melodus tr CH Known . ... _ Kemp’s ridley sea turtle Lepidoche /ys kempii* !- E Known -~ ... eatherback
Vélez Rubio, Gabriela Manuela
Introducción Actualmente existen siete especies de tortugas marinas. Estas son la tortuga laúd o siete quillas (Dermochelys coriacea) como única especie representante de la familia Dermochelyidae, y las seis especies vivientes de la familia Cheloniidae: la tortuga carey (Eretmochelys imbricata), la tortuga lora (Lepidochelys kempii), la tortuga olivácea (Lepidochelys olivacea), la tortuga boba o cabezona (Caretta caretta), la tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas) y la tortuga aplanada (Natator d...
Liu, Chun-Jing; Huang, Shiau-Shan; Toullec, Jean-Yves; Chang, Cheng-Yen; Chen, Yun-Ru; Huang, Wen-San; Lee, Chi-Ying
To assess functional importance of the residues in the amino- and carboxyl-termini of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the mud crab Scylla olivacea (Sco-CHH), both wild-type and point-mutated CHH peptides were produced with an amidated C-terminal end. Spectral analyses of circular dichroism, chromatographic retention time, and mass spectrometric analysis of the recombinant peptides indicate that they were close in conformation to native CHH and were produced with the intended substitutions. The recombinant peptides were subsequently used for an in vivo hyperglycemic assay. Two mutants (R13A and I69A rSco-CHH) completely lacked hyperglycemic activity, with temporal profiles similar to that of vehicle control. Temporal profiles of hyperglycemic responses elicited by 4 mutants (I2A, F3A, D12A, and D60A Sco-CHH) were different from that elicited by wild-type Sco-CHH; I2A was unique in that it exhibited significantly higher hyperglycemic activity, whereas the remaining 3 mutants showed lower activity. Four mutants (D4A, Q51A, E54A, and V72A rSco-CHH) elicited hyperglycemic responses with temporal profiles similar to those evoked by wild-type Sco-CHH. In contrast, the glycine-extended version of V72A rSco-CHH (V72A rSco-CHH-Gly) completely lost hyperglycemic activity. By comparing our study with previous ones of ion-transport peptide (ITP) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) using deleted or point-mutated mutants, detail discussion is made regarding functionally important residues that are shared by both CHH and ITP (members of Group I of the CHH family), and those that discriminate CHH from ITP, and Group-I from Group-II peptides. Conclusions summarized in the present study provide insights into understanding of how functional diversification occurred within a peptide family of multifunctional members.
Full Text Available To assess functional importance of the residues in the amino- and carboxyl-termini of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the mud crab Scylla olivacea (Sco-CHH, both wild-type and point-mutated CHH peptides were produced with an amidated C-terminal end. Spectral analyses of circular dichroism, chromatographic retention time, and mass spectrometric analysis of the recombinant peptides indicate that they were close in conformation to native CHH and were produced with the intended substitutions. The recombinant peptides were subsequently used for an in vivo hyperglycemic assay. Two mutants (R13A and I69A rSco-CHH completely lacked hyperglycemic activity, with temporal profiles similar to that of vehicle control. Temporal profiles of hyperglycemic responses elicited by 4 mutants (I2A, F3A, D12A, and D60A Sco-CHH were different from that elicited by wild-type Sco-CHH; I2A was unique in that it exhibited significantly higher hyperglycemic activity, whereas the remaining 3 mutants showed lower activity. Four mutants (D4A, Q51A, E54A, and V72A rSco-CHH elicited hyperglycemic responses with temporal profiles similar to those evoked by wild-type Sco-CHH. In contrast, the glycine-extended version of V72A rSco-CHH (V72A rSco-CHH-Gly completely lost hyperglycemic activity. By comparing our study with previous ones of ion-transport peptide (ITP and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH using deleted or point-mutated mutants, detail discussion is made regarding functionally important residues that are shared by both CHH and ITP (members of Group I of the CHH family, and those that discriminate CHH from ITP, and Group-I from Group-II peptides. Conclusions summarized in the present study provide insights into understanding of how functional diversification occurred within a peptide family of multifunctional members.
turtle Caretta caretta T Olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys oliveacea T Leatherback sea turtle Dermochelys coriacea E Notes: MMPA = Protected...Turtles Green Sea Turtle Chelonia mydas T, RS Loggerhead Sea Turtle Caretta caretta T, RS Olive Ridley Sea Turtle Lapidochelys olivacea T, RS...Lapidochelys olivacea T, RS Leatherback Sea Turtle Dermochelys coriacea E, RS Hawksbill Sea Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata E, RS Fish Napoleon
turtle–E (Dermochelys coriacea) U U Y Y Green turtle–T/E (Chelonia mydas) Y Y Y Y Olive ridley turtle–T ( Lepidochelys olivacea ) U U U U Fish...Hawksbill sea turtle E A L L L Lepidochelys kempii Kemp’s Ridley sea turtle E L L L L Caretta caretta Loggerhead sea turtle T M M M M Source: DoN...coriacea E E Kemp’s Ridley Sea Turtle Lepidochelys kempii E E Loggerhead Sea Turtle 135 Caretta caretta T T Eastern Spiny Softshell Apalone s
The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr
Chang, Chih-Chun; Tsai, Kuo-Wei; Hsiao, Nai-Wan; Chang, Cheng-Yen; Lin, Chih-Lung; Watson, R Douglas; Lee, Chi-Ying
Sco-CHH and Sco-CHH-L (CHH-like peptide), two structural variants of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family identified in the mud crab (Scylla olivacea), are presumably alternatively spliced gene products. In this study, Sco-CHH and Sco-CHH-L were isolated from the tissues using high performance liquid chromatography. Identity of the native peptides was confirmed using mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of purified materials and of trypsin-digested peptide fragments. Additionally, characterizations using circular dichroism (CD) spectrometry revealed that the 2 peptides have similar CD spectral profiles, showing they are composed mainly of alpha-helices, and are similarly thermo-stable with a melting temperature of 74-75 degrees C. Results of bioassays indicated that Sco-CHH exerted hyperglycemic and molt-inhibiting activity, whereas Sco-CHH-L did not. Further, recombinant Sco-CHH-Gly (rSco-CHH-Gly, a glycine extended Sco-CHH) and Sco-CHH-L (rSco-CHH-L) were produced using an Escherichia coli expression system, refolded, and purified. rSco-CHH-Gly was further alpha-amidated at the C-terminal end to produce rSco-CHH. MS analyses of enzyme-digested peptide fragments of rSco-CHH-Gly and rSco-CHH-L showed that the two peptides share a common disulfide bond pattern: C7-C43, C23-C39, and C26-C52. Circular dichroism analyses and hyperglycemic assay revealed that rSco-CHH and rSco-CHH-L resemble their native counterparts, in terms of CD spectral profiles, melting curve profiles, and biological activity. rSco-CHH-Gly has a lower alpha-helical content (32%) than rSco-CHH (47%), a structural deviation that may be responsible for the significant decrease in the biological activity of rSco-CHH-Gly. Finally, modeled structure of Sco-CHH and Sco-CHH-L indicated that they are similarly folded, each with an N-terminal tail region and 4 alpha-helices. Putative surface residues located in corresponding positions of Sco-CHH and Sco-CHH-L but with side chains of different properties
Atlantic hawksbill Eretmoche/ys imbricata. (Chelonidae) and the Atlantic leather back. Demochelys coriacea (Demochelydae). Other species include Atlantic logger head Caretta caretta, Atlantic green turtle Che/onia myo'as,. Atlantic ridley turtle Lepidochelys kempii and Olive ridley turtle L. Olivacea all of which belong to ...
Egg clutches of two species of marine turtles, namely Chelonia mydas and Lepidochelys olivacea, were collected during 1974 to 1997 and transplanted to the protected enclosures. The emerging hatching were released to the natural environment. The experiment helped to produce an average of 19495.5 hatch lings per year of green and 1174.5 per year of olive ridley turtles. (author)
Yes Yes 3 Pelecanus occidentalis Brown Pelican Yes Yes 2 Picoides borealis Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Yes Yes 2 Piranga olivacea Scarlet Tanager Yes...Kingsnake Yes 3 Lampropeltis triangulum syspila Red Milk Snake Yes Yes 2 Lepidochelys kempii Kemp’s or Atlantic Ridley Yes Yes 1 Macrochelys
Few hawksbills Eretmochelys imbricata and olive ridleys Lepidochelys olivacea were caught in the shark nets. Fewer sea turtles are caught by shark nets than by longlines and because the nesting populations of loggerheads, green turtles and leatherbacks are either stable or increasing in the South-West Indian Ocean, ...
AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES Chelonia mydas Green sea turtle E Dermochelys coriacca Leatherback sea turtle E Caretta caretta Loggerhead sea turtle T Lepidochelys ... olivacea Pacific ridley sea turtle T I1 -7 Appendix 11-1 (continued) SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME STATUS FISH Gila bocolor ssp. Hutton spring tui chub
Lepidochelys olivacea L respectively, after emerging from water of 27,SoC to nest. (Mrosovsky &. Pritchard 1971). Smaller but significant temperature differentials have been reported for green and hawksbill turtles by Hirth (1962). Records of body temperatures of free-ranging animals are scarce; the only record being.
E Loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta T Olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys oliveacea T Leatherback sea turtle Dermochelys coriacea E Notes...Sea Turtle Lapidochelys olivacea T, RS Leatherback Sea Turtle Dermochelys coriacea E, RS Hawksbill Sea Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata E, RS Birds
imbricata E - Loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta T - Olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys oliveacea T - Leatherback sea turtle Dermochelys... olivacea T Leatherback Sea Turtle Dermochelys coriacea E Hawksbill Sea Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata E Mollusks Observed at Illeginni Island Top-Snail
individual was seen and identified with certainty during I the 19S0-81 survey. 3 Neither species of Lepidochelys has ever been released from Vieques...though one individual of L. olivacea is known from Puerto Rico. 3 (Caldwell and Erdman 1969) I I II 3. STUDY PERSONNEL I Peter C.H. Pritchard, M.A
), la tortue olivâtre (Lepidochelys olivacea), la tortue verte (Chelonia mydas), la tortue imbriquée (Eretmochelys imbricata). La tortue Chelonia mydas et. Eretmochelys imbricata, vivent autour des rochers colonisés par des algues et des.
López-Castro, M C; Rocha-Olivares, A
Previous studies of the olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea population structure in the tropical eastern Pacific have indicated the existence of a single panmictic population ranging from Costa Rica to Mexico. This information has been used to design specific management measures to conserve primary nesting beaches in Mexico. However, little is known about olive ridleys in the Baja California Peninsula, their northernmost reproductive limit, where recent observations have shown differences in nesting female behaviour and size of hatchlings relative to other continental rookeries. We used mtDNA control region sequences from 137 turtles from five continental and four peninsular nesting sites to determine whether such differences correspond to a genetic distinction of Baja California olive ridleys or to phenotypic plasticity associated with the extreme environmental nesting conditions of this region. We found that genetic diversity in peninsular turtles was significantly lower than in continental nesting colonies. Analysis of molecular variance revealed a significant population structure (Phi ST = 0.048, P = 0.006) with the inclusion of peninsular samples. Our results: (i) suggest that the observed phenotypic variation may be associated with genetic differentiation and reproductive isolation; (ii) support the recent colonization of the eastern Pacific by Lepidochelys; (iii) reveal genetic signatures of historical expansion and colonization events; and (iv) significantly challenge the notion of a single genetic and conservation unit of olive ridleys in the eastern Pacific. We conclude that conservation measures for olive ridleys in Mexico should be revised to grant peninsular beaches special attention.
Werneck M. R.
Full Text Available This paper describes the occurrence of Enodiotrema megachondrus (Looss, 1899 Looss, 1901 in a juvenile green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 found on the coast of Brazil. This parasite has been described in Caretta caretta from Egypt, France, the Mediterranean Sea, the Madeira Archipelago, the Adriatic Sea and the USA, in C. mydas from Egypt and the USA, in Eretmochelys imbricata from Cuba, in Lepidochelys olivacea from Mexico and Costa Rica and in Lepidochelys kempii from USA. This note represents the first report of E. megachondus in a green sea turtle in the South-West Atlantic Ocean.
Lepidochelys kempii," Biol- .ogy and Conservation of Sea Turtles, K. A. Bjorndal, ed., Smithsonian Institu- tion...1977. "Kemp’s Ridley. Lepidochelys kempii (Garmaan 1880), Undoubtedly the Most Endangered Marine Turtle Today (with Notes on the Current . Status of...Lepidochetys olivacea )," Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society, Vol 13, No. 3, pp 170-192. .% 44 ’.r.d 0 ? -,~’ yd’~ - .4. * *1 .4 4 .11 A -4.. .4 www ha .4. A h$i. *1 .4U I -1 ’I,. 4. p
Mascarenhas, Rita; Santos, Robson; Zeppelini, Douglas
Coastal gill net entanglement and debris intake are important threats to the survival of sea turtles. Two sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea and Chelonia mydas) were found stranded along the coast of Paraíba. After necropsy, plastic debris were found in the stomach. The debris is described. This is the first record of this sort of problem for the Paraíba littoral.
Acuña, M T; Díaz, G; Bolaños, H; Barquero, C; Sánchez, O; Sánchez, L M; Mora, G; Chaves, A; Campos, E
Vibrio mimicus contamination of sand increased significantly during the arrival of the olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) at Ostional anidation beach, Costa Rica. Statistical analysis supports that eggs are contaminated with V. mimicus by contact with the sand nest. V. mimicus was isolated from eggs of all nests tested, and ctxA+ strains were found in 31% of the nests, all of which were near the estuary.
Poli, C.; Lopez, LCS.; Mesquita, DO; Saska, C.; Mascarenhas, R.
This study analysed sea turtle strandings on the coast of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil, from August 2009 to July 2010. A total of 124 strandings were recorded in this period: green turtle Chelonia mydas (n = 106), hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata (n = 15), olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea (n = 2) and loggerhead Caretta caretta (n = 1). Of all turtles for which the Curved Carapace Length (CCL) was measured (n = 122), only 12 individuals (9.7%) were adults. Twenty individuals had synthe...
Sibelle Torres Vilaça
Full Text Available We report here a dataset comprising nine nuclear markers for the Brazilian population of Cheloniidae turtles: hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata, loggerheads (Caretta caretta, olive ridleys (Lepidochelys olivacea, and green turtles (Chelonia mydas. Because hybridization is a common phenomenon between the four Cheloniidae species nesting on the Brazilian coast, we also report molecular markers for the hybrids E. imbricata × C. caretta, C. caretta × L. olivacea, and E. imbricata × L. olivacea and for one hybrid E. imbricata × C. mydas and one between three species C. mydas × E. imbricata × C. caretta. The data was used in previous studies concerning (1 the description of frequent hybrids C. caretta × E. imbricata in Brazil, (2 the report of introgression in some of these hybrids, and (3 population genetics. As a next step for the study of these hybrids and their evolution, genome-wide studies will be performed in the Brazilian population of E. imbricata, C. caretta, and their hybrids.
Larsson, Magnus; Segerstéen, Solveig; Svensson, Cathrin
and interviews were analyzed thematically, resulting in three central themes: informality, information based authority, and information brokering. The general informal character of interactions at work included a network based information dissemination. In these networks, persons were percieved as informal...
Bjerrum, Peter; Olsen, Kasper Nefer
Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001.......Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001....
Madigan, Daniel J; Baumann, Zofia; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Dewar, Heidi; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Weng, Kevin C; Nishikawa, Jun; Dutton, Peter H; Fisher, Nicholas S
The 2011 release of Fukushima-derived radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean made migratory sharks, teleosts, and marine mammals a source of speculation and anxiety regarding radiocesium ( 134+137 Cs) contamination, despite a lack of actual radiocesium measurements for these taxa. We measured radiocesium in a diverse suite of large predators from the North Pacific Ocean and report no detectable (i.e., ≥ 0.1 Bq kg -1 dry wt) Fukushima-derived 134 Cs in all samples, except in one olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) with trace levels (0.1 Bq kg -1 ). Levels of 137 Cs varied within and across taxa, but were generally consistent with pre-Fukushima levels and were lower than naturally occurring 40 K by one to one to two orders of magnitude. Predator size had a weaker effect on 137 Cs and 40 K levels than tissue lipid content. Predator stable isotope values (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) were used to infer recent migration patterns, and showed that predators in the central, eastern, and western Pacific should not be assumed to accumulate detectable levels of radiocesium a priori. Nondetection of 134 Cs and low levels of 137 Cs in diverse marine megafauna far from Fukushima confirms negligible increases in radiocesium, with levels comparable to those prior to the release from Fukushima. Reported levels can inform recently developed models of cesium transport and bioaccumulation in marine species.
Sykora-Bodie, Seth T; Bezy, Vanessa; Johnston, David W; Newton, Everette; Lohmann, Kenneth J
Although sea turtles face significant pressure from human activities, some populations are recovering due to conservation programs, bans on the trade of turtle products, and reductions in bycatch. While these trends are encouraging, the status of many populations remains unknown and scientific monitoring is needed to inform conservation and management decisions. To address these gaps, this study presents methods for using unmanned aerial systems (UAS) to conduct population assessments. Using a fixed-wing UAS and a modified strip-transect method, we conducted aerial surveys along a three-kilometer track line at Ostional, Costa Rica during a mass-nesting event of olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea). We visually assessed images collected during six transects for sea turtle presence, resulting in 682 certain detections. A cumulative total of 1091 certain and probable turtles were detected in the collected imagery. Using these data, we calculate estimates of sea turtle density (km -2 ) in nearshore waters. After adjusting for both availability and perception biases, we developed a low-end estimate of 1299 ± 458 and a high-end estimate of 2086 ± 803 turtles per km -2 . This pilot study illustrates how UAS can be used to conduct robust, safe, and cost-effective population assessments of sea turtle populations in coastal marine ecosystems.
Bowen, B W; Nelson, W S; Avise, J C
Nucleotide sequences from the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA were employed to resolve phylogenetic controversies and to assess molecular evolutionary rates in marine turtles (Chelonioidea). Findings of special relevance to conservation biology include discovery of a distant relationship between Natator and other cheloniid species, the paraphyly of Chelonia mydas with respect to Chelonia agassizi, and genetic distinctiveness of Lepidochelys kempi from Lepidochelys olivacea. A longstanding debate in evolutionary ecology was resolved by phylogenetic mapping of dietary habits, which indicates that the spongivore Eretmochelys imbricata evolved from a carnivorous rather than a herbivorous ancestor. Sequence divergences at intergeneric and interfamilial levels, when assessed against fossil-based separation times, support previous suggestions (from microevolutionary comparisons) that mitochondrial DNA in marine turtles evolves much more slowly than under the "conventional" vertebrate clock. This slow pace of nucleotide replacement is consistent with recent hypotheses linking substitution rate to generation length and metabolic pace.
Bowen, B W; Meylan, A B; Avise, J C
The endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempi) nests almost exclusively at a single locality in the western Gulf of Mexico, whereas the olive ridley (L. olivacea) nests globally in warm oceans. Morphological similarities between kempi and olivacea, and a geographical distribution that "...makes no sense at all under modern conditions of climate and geography", raise questions about the degree of evolutionary divergence between these taxa. Analysis of mitochondrial (mt) DNA restriction sites shows that Kemp's ridley is distinct from the olive ridley in matriarchal phylogeny, and that the two are sister taxa with respect to other marine turtles. Separation of olive and the Kemp's ridley lineages may date to formation of the Isthmus of Panama, whereas the global spread of the olive ridley lineage occurred recently. In contrast to recent examples in which molecular genetic assessments challenged systematic assignments underlying conservation programmes, our mtDNA data corroborate the taxonomy of an endangered form.
Zeballos Flor, Jorge; Samamé, Manuel; Romero, Miguel
Presenta la composición especiólogica por lance de pesca realizado durante el Crucero BIC José Olaya Balandra 9806-07, del 27 de junio al 13 de julio de 1998. El análisis se realizó identificando los grupos taxonómicos y los pesos por especies. En total se registraron 126 especies: 96 peces, 19 crustáceos, 3 moluscos, 6 equinodermos, un cnidario y una "tortuga loro" Lepidochelys olivacea como pesca accidental. La captura total en el área estudiada fue de 24.192,86 kg, de los cuales 24.0...
Wang, Z Z; Lin, J M; Ye, G M; Quan, S C; Hu, J H
To identify the commercial Chinese medicines turtle shell and tortoise plastron. Morphological identification and differential thermal analysis (DTA). 2 kinds of counterfeit turtle shell and 3 kinds of counterfeit tortoise plastron were found, and their morphological and DTA identification features were proposed. Sea turtle shells presently on the market are sham commodities of turtle shell, which derive from Lissemys punctata and Pelochelys bibroni indigenous to south Asia, while plastrons of Ocadia sinensis, Chelonia mydas and Lepidochelys olivacea are counterfeit products of tortoise plastron. Turtle shells, tortoise plastrons and their counterfeit products may be exactly distinguished by morphological and DTA features.
Hooper, S N; Ackman, R G
Depot fat from the Atlantic leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea coriacea L.) was shown to contain ≈3% oftrans-6-hexadecenoic acid. Structural details were elucidated through comparative aspects of isolation techniques, NMR, IR, hydrogenation, oxidative fission, etc., and confirmed by similarity of properties with those of a sample of fatty acid of this structure isolated from the seed oil ofPicramnia sellowii. One additional leather-back turtle oil sample, and depot fat from two other marine turtles, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta caretta) and ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea kempi) contained this acid, that from the ridley in a lower proportion. No corresponding C18 acid was detected in the leatherback oil.
Elvira Galievna Zarifullina
Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of language system as information system. To this point of view informational content and information transferity are properties of language as main and the most fail-safe communication instrument in human society. In whole, informational content and information transferity are aspects of information. In that meaning the language realizes function that associated with database of information system: realization of information in formalized form, accumulation, storage and information transfer.But language itself is not an information. Information is language and speech, created with language. Language should be defined as database, because in human thought language doesn’t present as information, but as the formalized model, the system, which elements are bounded with each other and united by the algorithms. The modern forms of language existence are distributed database with multiple accesses, because language belongs to language native bearers, which use it simultaneously.
The exponential growth of information resources creates new challenges for end-users. The correct information may be polluted by misinformation, disinformation, propaganda or incorrect information via the Internet and other media. This paper defines 'information pollution' as "the contamination of information by misinformation, disinformation, propaganda and incorrect information." The purpose of this paper is to present the methods of information pollution. It is concluded that it is sometim...
Information Crisis discusses the scope and types of information available online and teaches readers how to critically assess it and analyze potentially dangerous information, especially when teachers, editors, or other information gatekeepers are not available to assess the information for them. Chapters and topics include:. The Internet as an information tool. Critical analysis. Legal issues, traps, and tricks. Protecting personal safety and identity. Types of online information.
The first wave delivered a range of services to most areas of the world through a vast, carefully constructed global network. Cellular technology ...Information Technology and Services Alliance. Digital Planet 2002: The Global Information Economy. February 2002. Yegyazarian, Anush. Sales Taxes...Information Technology ABSTRACT: The information technology (IT) industry affects virtually every industry in the n economy. During the late 90
Luiz Fernando de Barros Campos
Full Text Available Based on Erving Goffman's work, the article aims to discuss a definition of information centered on the type conveyed by individuals in a multimodal way, encompassing language and body in situations of co-presence, where face-to-face interaction occurs, and influencing inter-subjective formation of the self. Six types of information are highlighted: material information, expressive information, ritualized information, meta-information, strategic information, and information displays. It is argued that the construction of this empirical object tends to dissolve the tension among material, cognitive and pragmatic aspects, constituting an example of the necessary integration among them. Some vulnerable characteristics of the theory are critically mentioned and it is suggested that the concept of information displays could provide a platform to approach the question of the interaction order in its relations with the institutional and social orders, and consequently, to reassess the scope of the notion of social information analyzed.
Olken, Benjamin A.; Singhal, Monica
Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this "informal taxation." Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal t...
Full Text Available This study analysed sea turtle strandings on the coast of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil, from August 2009 to July 2010. A total of 124 strandings were recorded in this period: green turtle Chelonia mydas (n = 106, hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata (n = 15, olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea (n = 2 and loggerhead Caretta caretta (n = 1. Of all turtles for which the Curved Carapace Length (CCL was measured (n = 122, only 12 individuals (9.7% were adults. Twenty individuals had synthetic anthropogenic debris in the gastrointestinal tract. Other traces of human interactions were observed in 43 individuals, such as injuries caused by entanglement in fishing lines or nets, collisions with vessels, direct contact with oil spills and lesions caused by sharp or spiked objects. Moreover, in 28.5% of the stranded turtles, the presence of external tumors was noticed, suggestive of fibropapillomatosis and in 9.7%, shark bite marks were observed. Of the 107 individuals that were sexed, 76 were females and 31 were males. Most turtles (72.6% became stranded during the spring/summer (between October and March. We found evidence of human interactions (injuries in half of the strandings, but in most cases it was not possible to determine if such interactions were the cause of death. A logistic regression found a significant relationship between CCL, ingestion of debris and lesions caused by sharks or spiked objects. Systematic data collection from stranded sea turtles can provide useful biological information, such as seasonal and spatial patterns in their occurrence and mortality, age structure, sex ratio and diet, as well as possible mortality causes.
Poli, C; Lopez, L C S; Mesquita, D O; Saska, C; Mascarenhas, R
This study analysed sea turtle strandings on the coast of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil, from August 2009 to July 2010. A total of 124 strandings were recorded in this period: green turtle Chelonia mydas (n = 106), hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata (n = 15), olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea (n = 2) and loggerhead Caretta caretta (n = 1). Of all turtles for which the Curved Carapace Length (CCL) was measured (n = 122), only 12 individuals (9.7%) were adults. Twenty individuals had synthetic anthropogenic debris in the gastrointestinal tract. Other traces of human interactions were observed in 43 individuals, such as injuries caused by entanglement in fishing lines or nets, collisions with vessels, direct contact with oil spills and lesions caused by sharp or spiked objects. Moreover, in 28.5% of the stranded turtles, the presence of external tumors was noticed, suggestive of fibropapillomatosis and in 9.7%, shark bite marks were observed. Of the 107 individuals that were sexed, 76 were females and 31 were males. Most turtles (72.6%) became stranded during the spring/summer (between October and March). We found evidence of human interactions (injuries) in half of the strandings, but in most cases it was not possible to determine if such interactions were the cause of death. A logistic regression found a significant relationship between CCL, ingestion of debris and lesions caused by sharks or spiked objects. Systematic data collection from stranded sea turtles can provide useful biological information, such as seasonal and spatial patterns in their occurrence and mortality, age structure, sex ratio and diet, as well as possible mortality causes.
Nadi Helena Presser
Full Text Available This article reflects on the ways of appropriation in organizations. The notion of Information Myopia is characterized by the lack of knowledge about the available informational capabilities in organizations, revealing a narrow view of the information environment. This analysis has focused on the process for renewing the software licenses contracts of a large multinational group, in order to manage its organizational assets in information technology. The collected, explained and justified information allowed to elaborate an action proposal, which enabled the creation of new organizational knowledge. In its theoretical dimension, the value of information was materialized by its use, in a collective process of organizational learning.
Information is essential to all human activity, and information in electronic form both amplifies and augments human information interactions. This lecture surveys some of the different classical meanings of information, focuses on the ways that electronic technologies are affecting how we think about these senses of information, and introduces an emerging sense of information that has implications for how we work, play, and interact with others. The evolutions of computers and electronic networks and people's uses and adaptations of these tools manifesting a dynamic space called cyberspace. O
Effective disaster management requires systems for data acquisition and information management that enable responders to rapidly collect, process, interpret, distribute, and access the data and information required for disaster management. Effective information sharing depends on the types of users, the type of damage, alterations of the functional status of the affected society, and how the information is structured. Those in need of information should be provided with the information necessary for their tasks and not be overloaded with unnecessary information that could serve as a distraction. Such information systems must be designed and exercised. To disseminate and share data with the relevant users, all disaster responses must include effective and reliable information systems. This information includes that acquired from repeated assessments in terms of available and needed human and material resources, which resources no longer are needed, and the status of the relief and recovery workers. It is through this information system that vital decisions are made that are congruent with the overall picture as perceived by the most relevant coordination and control centre. It is essential that information systems be designed and tested regularly as part of preparedness. Such systems must have the capacity to acquire, classify, and present information in an organised and useful manner.
) reported that the dramatic changes have affected the skills and competencies required of library and information science professionals working in libraries and information centers. Ferreira et al (2007) also observed from their study of core ...
Nadi Helena Presser; Daniel Cunha Santana Quirino
This article reflects on the ways of appropriation in organizations. The notion of Information Myopia is characterized by the lack of knowledge about the available informational capabilities in organizations, revealing a narrow view of the information environment. This analysis has focused on the process for renewing the software licenses contracts of a large multinational group, in order to manage its organizational assets in information technology. The collected, explained and justified inf...
Vilaça, Sibelle T; Vargas, Sarah M; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Molfetti, Érica; Reis, Estéfane C; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele; Soares, Luciano S; Santos, Fabrício R
Surprisingly, a high frequency of interspecific sea turtle hybrids has been previously recorded in a nesting site along a short stretch of the Brazilian coast. Mitochondrial DNA data indicated that as much as 43% of the females identified as Eretmochelys imbricata are hybrids in this area (Bahia State of Brazil). It is a remarkable find, because most of the nesting sites surveyed worldwide, including some in northern Brazil, presents no hybrids, and rare Caribbean sites present no more than 2% of hybrids. Thus, a detailed understanding of the hybridization process is needed to evaluate natural or anthropogenic causes of this regional phenomenon in Brazil, which could be an important factor affecting the conservation of this population. We analysed a set of 12 nuclear markers to investigate the pattern of hybridization involving three species of sea turtles: hawksbill (E. imbricata), loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea). Our data indicate that most of the individuals in the crossings L. olivacea × E. imbricata and L. olivacea × C. caretta are F1 hybrids, whereas C. caretta × E. imbricata crossings present F1 and backcrosses with both parental species. In addition, the C. caretta × E. imbricata hybridization seems to be gender and species biased, and we also found one individual with evidence of multispecies hybridization among C. caretta × E. imbricata × Chelonia mydas. The overall results also indicate that hybridization in this area is a recent phenomenon, spanning at least two generations or ~40 years. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Oct 1, 1996 ... Lawmakers' Information Literacy Skills in Locating and Accessing Information for their Constituency. Performance in South West ... For the hypothesis, the correlation coefficient of the information skills, abilities measured revealed that for locating and ... Ogbese and others. The people of Ekiti are hard-.
channels that allow for sharing of resources and information. Online is ... and digital libraries. Online information sources are beneficial to the academia because it provides several opportunities and the mechanism for information dissemination and for ... Hence, the study intent to find out if the various libraries under study ...
librarians are entrusted to do in the digital era aimed at overturning the rampant deterioration of print information resources (Barton & Waters 2004). Deterioration of information resources in Nigerian university libraries has caused great loss on information resources. Deterioration is caused by natural and human factors.
This paper investigates the challenges militating against successful preservation of digital information resources in federal university ..... Anyaogu Uluocha (2014) Imperative for Storage and. Preservation of Legal Information Resources in a Digital Era.Information and Knowledge. Management. Vol.4, No 5 Retrieved on.
2) would agree, saying that information literate students access, evaluate and use information from a variety of sources, communicate effectively, and reflect on the process as well as the product. Information Literacy is especially relevant in primary and secondary schools, institutions of higher learning, and in business and ...
accepted, leading to a renewed emphasis on information literacy in all education sectors (Bundy 2002). ALA's definition sees IL as ... and/or networks to access, manage, integrate, evaluate, and create information in order to function in a knowledge society. This definition .... organizing and accessing information. The study ...
Díaz Baños, Carlos José; Andreasson, Erik
Reasoning graphs are one of many ways to visualize information. It is very hard to understand certain type of information when it is presented in text or in tables with a huge amount of numbers. It is easier to present it graphically. People can have a general idea of the information and if it is necessary to see the details, it is possible to have a way to add more information to the graphical display. A graphical visualization is able to compress the information, which represented in text c...
Olken, Benjamin A; Singhal, Monica
Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this "informal taxation." Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal taxation underestimates household tax burdens and revenue decentralization in developing countries. We discuss various explanations for and implications of these observed stylized facts.
Olken, Benjamin A.; Singhal, Monica
Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this “informal taxation.” Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal taxation underestimates household tax burdens and revenue decentralization in developing countries. We discuss various explanations for and implications of these observed stylized facts. PMID:22199993
Labarga, Alberto; Beloqui, Izaskun; Martin, Angel G
The collection and storage of human tissue samples has been undertaken in medicine for centuries; however, biobanking has only recently become a dedicated activity. The technological developments that have allowed the procurement and long-term storage of viable human cells ex vivo, and to obtain relevant scientific information, including genetic information, provide tremendous possibilities for advancing biomedical research. At the same time, these possibilities have raised complex information management issues regarding samples, processing, donor information, traceability, and use of the sample. This chapter considers the requirements for managing information within biobanks, critical to their operation. Special consideration is given to Laboratory Information Managing Systems (LIMS) as a tool for comprehensive access and storage of information.
... Safety Conference Quality and Safety Conference Quality and Safety Conference Registration Schedule Keynote Speaker Conference Objectives Call for Abstracts Hotel Accommodations Travel Information 2017 Presentations Education Education Overview ...
The purpose of this article is to suggest a genealogy of the concept of information beyond the 20th century. The article discusses how the concept of information culture might provide a way of formulating such a genealogic strategy. The article approaches this purpose by providing a general...... narrative of premodern information cultures, examining works on early-modern scholars and 18th century savants and discussion of what seems to be a Foucauldian rupture in the conceptualization of information in 19th century England. The findings of the article are situated in the thinking that a genealogy...
van Benthem, J.; Bimbó, K.
Depending on a relevant task at hand, information can be represented at different levels, less or more detailed, each supporting its own appropriate logical languages. We discuss a few of these levels and their connections, and investigate when and how information growth at one level can be tracked
that college undergraduate students have difficulties in using available tools in their libraries to find information they need ... to college without proficient information literacy skills and this deficiency plays out in their practical .... conduct independent legal research increased dramatically among students in a legal assistant.
The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Member States. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to February 1997, grouped by field of activity. A complete list of information circulars in numerical order is given in an annex
conceptions and learning experiences of students, information literacy initiatives and IL learning challenges in higher .... is familiar with and able to effectively engage in new technology environments, including social media, and. • is able to ... The study demonstrated that a lack of information literacy skills in university.
The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1992. A complete numerical lift of Information Circulars with their titles is reproduced in an Annex
The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Member States. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to the end of May 1999, grouped by field of activity. A complete list of information circulars in numerical order is given in an annex
Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/... for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. The present revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1994. A complete numerical list of information circulars is reproduced with their titles in the Annex
Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/... for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. The present revision contains INFCIRCs published up to the end of April 2002. A complete numerical list of information circulars is reproduced with their titles in the Annex
Knobel, A; Hassfeld, S
Many empirical studies have identified the quality and communication of patient information as a major weak point in the treatment process. Patient information can be made considerably more effective by multimedia communication of contents tailored to the patient's needs. Computer-based training (CBT) takes the multimedia presentation one step further. Using the Macromedia Director 8.5 authoring software, a multimedia system for pre-operative patient information was developed on CD-ROM for a limited area of oral and maxillofacial surgery. This information system was evaluated for quality assurance on the basis of a random sample of 85 patients in a test lasting about 20 min. Impressions were determined with regard to design features, motivation, understanding, the subjective communication of knowledge, the newly acquired competence and acceptance compared with other media (information leaflets, Internet, conventional information). The analysis of the program test revealed a hugely positive assessment of the interactive program in respect of layout, functionality and design as well as in respect of structuring and the subjective understanding of the underlying complaint, therapy and potential complications. In a comparison with other information media such as information leaflets and the Internet, the program was rated just as good or better by over 70% of the respondents. Only conventional consultation with a doctor came off better in a direct comparison. It was shown that the quality of preoperative patient information can be improved through multimedia presentation and that it would be sensible to make use of modern media for the purposes of giving patients graphic information.
Barnett, Stephen M
Quantum information- the subject- is a new and exciting area of science, which brings together physics, information theory, computer science and mathematics. "Quantum Information"- the book- is based on two successful lecture courses given to advanced undergraduate and beginning postgraduate students in physics. The intention is to introduce readers at this level to the fundamental, but offer rather simple, ideas behind ground-breaking developments including quantum cryptography,teleportation and quantum computing. The text is necessarily rather mathematical in style, but the mathema
The Agency has a statutory mandate to foster 'the exchange of scientific and technical information on the peaceful uses of atomic energy'. The prime responsibility for this work within the Agency lies with the Division of Scientific and Technical Information, a part of the Department of Technical Operations. The Division accomplishes its task by holding conferences and symposia (Scientific Conferences Section), through the Agency Library, by publishing scientific journals, and through the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The Computer Section of the Division, which offers services to the Agency as a whole, provides resources for the automation of data storage and retrieval. (author)
During the reception of a piece of information, we are never passive. Depending on its origin and content, from our personal beliefs and convictions, we bestow upon this piece of information, spontaneously or after reflection, a certain amount of confidence. Too much confidence shows a degree of naivety, whereas an absolute lack of it condemns us as being paranoid. These two attitudes are symmetrically detrimental, not only to the proper perception of this information but also to its use. Beyond these two extremes, each person generally adopts an intermediate position when faced with the recep
Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...
Hartmann, Mia Rosa Koss; Hartmann, Rasmus Koss
Informal innovation, defined as the development and putting-into-use of novel solutions by non-R&D employees without prior formal approval from or subsequent revealing to superiors, has been recurrently observed in organizational research. But even as it is increasingly recognized that R......, creating a need for further informal innovation. We discuss the generalizability of these findings and implications for research and managerial practice.......&D is not the only plausible source of innovation inside organizations, informal innovation has yet to be systematically explored or theorized. We propose a theory of informal innovation based on analyses of prior literature and mixed-method, multi-site studies of innovation at the working level of two extreme...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is the supporting information for the journal article. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Rankin, K., S. Mabury, T. Jenkins, and J....
As a supplement to the information published on 27.05.2002, we inform you that the works foreseen in the building 504 will begin July 1st. The alterations become necessary force us to suspend the contomat service for a duration of one month. From July 1st the services of counter will be offered in the building 500. We ask you to excuse us for this interruption and thank you for your understanding. Your UBS
Darczewska, Jolanta; Żochowski, Piotr; Orttung, Robert W.; Laruelle, Marlene; Pörzgen, Gemma
This edition addresses information warfare. Firstly, Jolanta Darczewska and Piotr Żochowski examine the use of “active measures” by Russian special services in support of Russian foreign policy. Secondly, Robert W. Orttung argues that Russia has sought to use various information warfare techniques to sow division and chaos in the U.S., but it remains unclear to what extent Russian actions had an impact on the thinking or behavior of American citizens. Thirdly, Marlene Laruelle considers the t...
The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.
Baley, Isaac; Veldkamp, Laura; Waugh, Michael
How do information frictions affect international prices and trade? In a standard, two-country Armingtonmodel of trade, information frictions impede the coordination of exporting behavior across countries. Because the terms of trade depend on relative exports, less coordination leads to more volatile terms of trade. Volatility in the terms of trade has the potential to reduce the level of trade by making trade more risky, but it also has the potential to increase the level of t...
Information literacy is a concept which is well established in theory while in practice it is only slowly breaking ground in accordance with the understanding of its significance and the possibilities of its realisation. Based on fundamental works, the characteristics of information literacy, its cognitive foundations and significance for individuals as well as for society, are argumented in the article. The analyzed content of this concept is connected with the content of a librarian’s knowl...
The document summarizes the information circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. In the main body of the document only those documents which are regarded as likely to be of current interest are listed. A complete numerical list of information circulars with their titles is reproduced in the Annex
Christiansen, Ellen Tove
The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker...... in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....
Pieters, Wolter; Mainzer, K.
In environmental ethics, the precautionary principle states that parties should refrain from actions in the face of scientific uncertainties about serious or irreversible harm to public health or the environment. A similar principle is lacking when judging effects of information technology. Such a
There was a mathematical theory of information and communication .... Theory of Communi- cation first published in 1948." . GENERAL I ARTICLE that longer' the encoding more the time and expense needed to send it across, let us look at the question of ... the probability that a random consumer would choose to send ...
Here we are at the end of a series of public information meetings held in the Departments. We thank all those who came to find out about the subjects presented and to exchange ideas and opinions. All the positive feedback we have received shows how much you appreciate these meetings. And well, so do we!
Tufte, Edward R.
This book presents over 400 illustrations of complex data that show how the dimensionality and density of portrayals can be enhanced. Practical advice on how to explain complex materials by visual means is given, and examples illustrate the fundamental principles of information display. Design strategies presented are exemplified in maps, the…
Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current on 31 December 1964 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.
McKay, Martin D.; Stout, J. David
Discusses access to Internet resources in school libraries, including the importance of evaluating content and appropriate use. The following online services that provide current factual information from legitimate resources are described: SIRS (Social Issues Resource Series), InfoTrac, EBSCO Host, SearchBank, and the Electric Library. (MES)
Hartel, Pieter H.; Suryana Herman, Nanna; Leukfeldt, E.R.; Stol, W.Ph.
Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is
Supplementary information. Flexible synthesis of isomeric pyranoindolones and evaluation of cytotoxicity towards HeLa cells. J C JEYAVEERANa, CHANDRASEKAR PRAVEEN*,b, Y ARUNc, A A M PRINCEa and P. T PERUMALc. aDepartment of Chemistry, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda College, Mylapore, Chennai.
occurring in librarianship, where digital and electronic libraries are being established to complement, and in some cases to completely replace, the traditional libraries. Osawaru and Krubu (2010) opines that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has brought unprecedented changes and transformation to.
The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA under the symbol INFCIRC/ for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A complete list of INFCIRCs in numerical order with their titles is given in the Annex
Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current or on the press on 15 May 1966 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.
Ay, Nihat; Lê, Hông Vân; Schwachhöfer, Lorenz
The book provides a comprehensive introduction and a novel mathematical foundation of the field of information geometry with complete proofs and detailed background material on measure theory, Riemannian geometry and Banach space theory. Parametrised measure models are defined as fundamental geometric objects, which can be both finite or infinite dimensional. Based on these models, canonical tensor fields are introduced and further studied, including the Fisher metric and the Amari-Chentsov tensor, and embeddings of statistical manifolds are investigated. This novel foundation then leads to application highlights, such as generalizations and extensions of the classical uniqueness result of Chentsov or the Cramér-Rao inequality. Additionally, several new application fields of information geometry are highlighted, for instance hierarchical and graphical models, complexity theory, population genetics, or Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The book will be of interest to mathematicians who are interested in geometry, inf...
Numerous articles on informed consent have appeared in medical and legal journals over the past few years. Many of these have been in the radiological literature. This chapter presents an overview of the legal principles behind this controversial topic. Recent articles are reviewed and specific suggestions are made where applicable. The doctrine of informed consent is both a product of and the basis for the physician-patient relationship. Their communications to each other establish the relationship, but once established, heightened degrees of expectations on the patient's part have dictated the need for a more sophisticated level of communication. Since patients and physicians often expect different things of each other, it is imperative that the relationship leads to effective and respectful conversation
Full Text Available [english] The focus of the current issue 3/2014 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is the annual conference 2014 of the German Medical Libraries Association in Mannheim. The motto of the conference was “Medical libraries: Information”. The authors in this issue are Michaele Adam (Bibliometrics 2.0 – Altmetrics in Medicine, Bruno Bauer (Open access cooperation in Austria: Open Access Network Austria and Austria – recent developments since 2012, Fabian Gail & Ulrich Korwitz (Market and strategy – results of the ZB MED market study, Sabine Gehrlein (Library goes Anatomy: Anatomical teaching media at Heidelberg University Library, Kaja Scheliga (Opening science: New publication forms in science, Ulrike Ostrzinski (The four types of social media user in the academic and research community. Results of a nationwide study, Sandra Pfob & Alena Ittner (First aid for library use on PC: webinars increase library visits, reach everyone, save costs, Simone Waldboth (Integration of e-learning in the lecture “Information Literacy” at the Provincial College for Health-Care Professions Claudiana, Maike Piegler (The pick up box of the library of the Hamburg medical association – a way to bring scientific information to medical specialists and Christoph Wehrmüller & Heidrun Janka (Medical : Information – Annual meeting 2014 of the German MLA, September 22 to 24 in Mannheim.Furthermore this focus issue features articles from Bruno Bauer (: transformation strategies for subscription-based journaleport on the 8 Open Access Days at Cologne, September 8–9 2014, Eike Hentschel (German MLA News; Pioneer projects in medical libraries 2014: Introduction of the winners; Pioneer projects in medical libraries 2015 – Announcement and Franz J. Kühnen (Klaus Gerber 1934–2014.
34 continuously over time " through a division of labor and responsibility " integrated by INFORMATION-BASED decision process * in an environment of stress...responsibilities for learning in a particular field. This division of labor is especially true for staff members who must develop expertise in particular...likely founa a commano clima e with: - Multiple layering - Sub optimization Policy of no surprises - Lip service to feedback - Over centralization and non
Schopper,H; Brianti; Picasso; Laporte,H
Le DG H.Schopper, secondé par certains de ses directeurs, informe sur les travaux et projets au Cern. Prennent la parole: M.Heine, directeur de l'administration M.Brianti, directeur technique M.Picasso, directeur du projet LEP M.Henri Laporte, l'adjoint de M.Picasso et chef des travaux de genie civil de Genève
Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars which were of current interest on 15 January 1969 is given below, followed by an index to their subject matter. Other circulars can be traced by reference to earlier issues of the present document.
Bala, Piotr; Osińska, Veslava; Gawarkiewicz, Michał
This article presents the analytical and retrieval potential of visualization maps. Obtained maps were tested as information retrieval (IR) interface. The collection of documents derived from the ACM Digital Library was mapped on the sphere surface. Proposed approach uses nonlinear similarity of documents by comparing ascribed thematic categories and thereby development of semantic connections between them. For domain analysis the newest IT trend - Cloud ...
Callanan, Maureen; Cervantes, Christi; Loomis, Molly
We consider research and theory relevant to the notion of informal learning. Beginning with historical and definitional issues, we argue that learning happens not just in schools or in school-aged children. Many theorists have contrasted informal learning with formal learning. Moving beyond this dichotomy, and away from a focus on where learning occurs, we discuss five dimensions of informal learning that are drawn from the literature: (1) non-didactive, (2) highly socially collaborative, (3) embedded in meaningful activity, (4) initiated by learner's interest or choice, and (5) removed from external assessment. We consider these dimensions in the context of four sample domains: learning a first language, learning about the mind and emotions within families and communities, learning about science in family conversations and museum settings, and workplace learning. Finally, we conclude by considering convergences and divergences across the different literatures and suggesting areas for future research. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 646-655 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.143 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.
During recent decades, natural resources agency personnel and others involved with the management and stewardship of wildlife have experienced an increasing need to access information and obtain technical assistance for addressing a diverse array of wildlife disease issues. This Chapter provides a broad overview of selected sources for obtaining supplemental information and technical assistance for addressing wildlife disease issues in North America. Specifically, examples of existing major wildlife disease programs focusing on free-ranging wildlife populations are highlighted; training opportunities for enhancing within-agency wildlife disease response are identified; a selected reading list of wildlife disease references is provided; and selected Web sites providing timely information on wildlife disease are highlighted. No attempt is made to detail all the North American programs and capabilities that address disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Instead, this Chapter is focused on enhancing awareness of the types of capabilities that exist as potential sources for assistance and collaboration between wildlife conservation agency personnel and others in addressing wildlife disease issues.
Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is trusted to actually handle an asset. Two concepts complement authorisation. Authentication deter-mines who makes a request to handle an asset. To decide who is authorised, a system needs to au-the...
Supplementary information. Figure 1. 1H NMR of 5a (400 MHz, DMSO-d6). Figure 2. 13C NMR of 5a (100 MHz, DMSO-d6). Figure 3. 1H NMR of 5b (400 MHz, DMSO-d6). Figure 4. 13C NMR of 5b (100 MHz, DMSO-d6). Figure 5. 1H NMR of 5c (400 MHz, DMSO-d6). Figure 6. 13C NMR of 5c (100 MHz, DMSO-d6). Figure 7.
Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/.. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A subject index to the circulars is presented overleaf. It covers all those published in the last five years (that is, since the beginning of 1968 and ending with INFCIRC/192), as well as others which, for one reason or another, are still considered to be of current rather than merely historical interest. Such circulars can be traced by reference to the indexes that were included in earlier revisions of the present document.
There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)
Rogers, William H.
Information demand is defined in terms of both information content (what information) and form (when, how, and where it is needed). Providing the information richness required for flight crews to be informed without overwhelming their information processing capabilities will require a great deal of automated intelligence. It is seen that the essence of this intelligence is comprehending and capturing the demand for information.
Chelonians trading monitoring during seismic survey in North Fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) and South Capixaba (Espirito Santo); Monitoramento de encalhe de quelonios marinhos durante levantamento de dados sismicos na costa norte fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) e sul capixaba (Espirito Santo)
Amaro, Thays P.C.; Carloni, Giuliano G.; Erber, Claudia; Sabino, Carla M. [Ecologus Engenharia Consultiva, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, George A. [CGGVeritas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
The objective of this research is to present the results of the marine chelonians stranding monitoring developed during and after the seismic survey in the north area of Rio de Janeiro and south of Espirito Santo. The monitoring lasted six months, reaching 200 km of beaches, from the Rio de Janeiro North up to the Espirito Santo South coasts. It was conducted by 34 monitors, who covered predefined beach sections daily, registering the stranded animals. At the end of the project, 159 chelonians stranded were registered. The species Chelonia mydas was prevailing in number and distribution. This species make use of this beach area to food. Lepidochelys olivacea was the second species in geographic distribution and number of registers. The other species identified were Caretta caretta and Eretmochelys imbricata. There was only one reproductive register, of Caretta caretta species. (author)
Figler, R A; MacKenzie, D S; Owens, D W; Licht, P; Amoss, M S
Arginine vasotocin (AVT) and neurophysin (NP) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in two species of sea turtle, the olive ridley, Lepidochelys olivacea, and the loggerhead, Caretta caretta, during the brief period of nesting and oviposition. In both species, AVT was low in animals which were not reproductively active. AVT was also low at the time animals emerged from the surf to nest, but increased significantly during oviposition and then declined as the animals returned to the water. NP increased in concert with AVT, also reaching highest levels during oviposition. In both species, however, NP levels remained elevated over prenesting levels at the time of return to the water. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that an AVT-neurophysin complex is released from the neurohypophysis during nesting, and that AVT is a physiological regulator of oviducal contractions in sea turtles.
The field notes of J. R. Slevin written during the expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the Galapagos Islands in 1905-1096 contain previously unavailable data on the marine turtles of the eastern Pacific. 'Land basking' by green turtles in Galapagos was predominately, if not exclusively, a female behavior. These terrestrial emergences were not concentrated in the major reproductive season of Galapagos turtles. Female Chelonia were also collected on shore during daylight hours on Socorro Island southwest of Baja California, Mexico. Chelonia, green turtles, were observed to feed on seaweed, the leaves and shoots of mangrove trees, and the leaves of another unidentified shoreline shrub. Comparative data on the gonads of dark and yellow turtles indicated that the latter did not breed in Galapagos during Slevin's stay. Lepidochelys olivacea, the olive ridley, was recorded in Galapagos waters and fed on fish eggs
Werneck M. R.
Full Text Available This paper presents a list of parasites described in sea turtles from the Neotropical region. Through the review of literature the occurrence of 79 taxa of helminthes parasites were observed, mostly consisting of the Phylum Platyhelminthes with 76 species distributed in 14 families and 2 families of the Phylum Nematoda within 3 species. Regarding the parasite records, the most studied host was the green turtle (Chelonia mydas followed by the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata, olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea, loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta and leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea. Overall helminths were reported in 12 countries and in the Caribbean Sea region. This checklist is the largest compilation of data on helminths found in sea turtles in the Neotropical region.
Price, Edwin R; Paladino, Frank V; Strohl, Kingman P; Santidrián T, Pilar; Klann, Kenneth; Spotila, James R
The pattern and control of respiration is virtually unknown in hatchling sea turtles. Using incubator-raised turtles, we measured oxygen consumption, frequency, tidal volume, and minute volume for leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) turtle hatchlings for the first six days after pipping. In addition, we tested the hatchlings' response to hypercapnic, hyperoxic, and hypoxic challenges over this time period. Hatchling sea turtles generally showed resting ventilation characteristics that are similar to those of adults: a single breath followed by a long respiratory pause, slow frequency, and high metabolic rate. With hypercapnic challenge, both species responded primarily by elevating respiratory frequency via a decrease in the non-ventilatory period. Leatherback resting tidal volume increased with age but otherwise, neither species' resting respiratory pattern nor response to gas challenge changed significantly over the first few days after hatching. At the time of nest emergence, sea turtles have achieved a respiratory pattern that is similar to that of actively diving adults.
Full Text Available Knowledge and understanding are two virtues which we can not be acquired and produced permanently because they are never completed. Learning is an assignment through life, it means we bring knowledge to ourselves and also life, but the emphasis is on one’s own impulse. Life constantly changes and forces us to adapt to changes and therefore the education only through formal ways to modern human is not enough anymore. We have access to useful knowledge which we approach through informal ways in different environments and circumstances. We learn from those close to us, at home, at work, and it is therefore correct to focus our thinking also in the conditions and environment where these leanings take place. When the conditions and relationships are good and we have encouraging environment we can expect better leaning with more quality and lasting knowledge. People prefer to learn from individuals to whom they can trust, are kind, available and know how to listen. The results of our research, and those previous regarding this topic, could lead us to think about how to improve formal mentor relationships which are common form of education at work place and also how to improve their efficiency.
UNIVERSITE DE GENEVE Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél : (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Mercredi 1er décembre SEMINAIRE DE PHYSIQUE CORPUSCULAIRE à 17:00 - École de Physique, Auditoire Stückelberg, 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Genève 4 Rare Kaon Decays : Opportunities at CERN Prof. Augusto Ceccucci / Experiment NA48, NA48/2, NA48/1 - CERN A review of the current experimental situation will be given with emphasis on recent results obtained at CERN. The speaker will argue that the availability of high energy kaon beams at CERN allows one to make incisive tests of the Standard Model. In particular the NA48 Collaboration has studied the possibility to measure the reaction K' ? ?+ ??- leading to a ~10% precision on the knowledge of the |Vtd| CKM parameter. Prospects to study of the CP-Violating ecays KL ? ?0 e+e-) ?+?- and KL ? ?0 ??- will also be briefly described. Information: http://dpnc.unige.ch/seminaire...
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A comparative analysis of information acquisition, information management capacity and administrators' decision-making effectiveness in tertiary institutions in ... communication facilities as well as modernise their methods of storage and processing of information by computerising their management information systems.
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The paper compares the current methodologies for search and discovery of information and information resources: terminological search and term-based language, own of information retrieval (IR); semantic search and information discovery, being developed mainly through the language of linked data; semiotic search and content-based language, experienced by multimedia information retrieval (MIR).MIR semiotic methodology is, then, detailed.
Nazan Özenç Uçak
Full Text Available Information need is one of the cognitive needs of humankind. Information need causes information seeking behaviour and these concepts complement each other. Information need and information seeking behaviour are effected by many factors. It is necessary to know these factors in establishing the effective information centers and services.
Full Text Available A contradictory and paradoxical situation that currently exists in information studies can be improved by the introduction of a new information approach, which is called the general theory of information. The main achievement of the general theory of information is explication of a relevant and adequate definition of information. This theory is built as a system of two classes of principles (ontological and sociological and their consequences. Axiological principles, which explain how to measure and evaluate information and information processes, are presented in the second section of this paper. These principles systematize and unify different approaches, existing as well as possible, to construction and utilization of information measures. Examples of such measures are given by ShannonÃ¢Â€Â™s quantity of information, algorithmic quantity of information or volume of information. It is demonstrated that all other known directions of information theory may be treated inside general theory of information as its particular cases.
This book is conceived as an introductory text into the theory of syntactic and semantic information, and information flow. Syntactic information theory is concerned with the information contained in the very fact that some signal has a non-random structure. Semantic information theory is concerned with the meaning or information content of messages and the like. The theory of information flow is concerned with deriving some piece of information from another. The main part will take us to situation semantics as a foundation of modern approaches in information theory. We give a brief overview o
Adimey, Nicole M; Hudak, Christine A; Powell, Jessica R; Bassos-Hull, Kim; Foley, Allen; Farmer, Nicholas A; White, Linda; Minch, Karrie
Documenting the extent of fishery gear interactions is critical to wildlife conservation efforts, especially for reducing entanglements and ingestion. This study summarizes fishery gear interactions involving common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and sea turtles: loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green turtle (Chelonia mydas), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) stranding in Florida waters during 1997-2009. Fishery gear interactions for all species combined were 75.3% hook and line, 18.2% trap pot gear, 4.8% fishing nets, and 1.7% in multiple gears. Total reported fishery gear cases increased over time for dolphins (p<0.05), manatees (p<0.01), loggerheads (p<0.05) and green sea turtles (p<0.05). The proportion of net interaction strandings relative to total strandings for loggerhead sea turtles increased (p<0.05). Additionally, life stage and sex patterns were examined, fishery gear interaction hotspots were identified and generalized linear regression modeling was conducted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Leda Carolina Torres Maldonado
Full Text Available La determinación del sexo en vertebrados puede estar controlada por factores genéticos o por factores ambientales. Hasta el momento los mecanismos moleculares relacionados con la determinación sexual por temperatura (DST no se conocen con exactitud. En los diferentes grupos de vertebrados se han estudiado algunos genes que participan en la cascada de la determinación del sexo, los cuales se encuentran conservados tanto en estructura como en función, como ejemplo tenemos a los genes Sox9, Dax1 y Dmrt1. La tortuga marina Lepidochelys olivacea presenta DST; en esta especie se ha estudiado la expresión de los genes Sox9, Dax1 y Dmrt1 en tejido gonadal en distintas etapas del desarrollo embrionario, se observa que la temperatura tiene efecto sobre su expresión. Se sugiere que éstos podrían formar parte de la cascada de genes que regulan la diferenciación gonadal en L. olivacea.
Ergonomics are an essential safety factor in controlling automated processes. It has to be taken into account in three stages: information presentation, information perception and information treatment
Carlos A. Rosales
Full Text Available Strandings and incidental catches of four sea turtles species (Chelonia mydas, Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriacea and Eretmochelys imbricata were registered in Tumbes Region since August 2007 to August 2009. These registers (52.6% of strandings and 47.4% of incidental catches occurred during all year; most frequently in Punta Picos (50.5%, Canoas (20.0% and Baja de Punta Mero (14.7%. The most registered species were C. mydas (64.2% and L. olivacea (30.5%; their sizes did not present significant differences between areas and climatic seasons. The higher percentage of C. mydas, L. olivacea and D. coriacea were considered sub-adults, including the only specimen of E. imbricata. The incidental catches were made with gillnets of different mesh sizes, but 8 inches mesh was most frequently. A high proportions of specimens were died with signs of drowning (22.2% this was due to the prolonged time of soak time of gillnet (approximately 12 hours. No significant differences in CPUE were found between climatic seasons and no seasonal pattern was evident. Lesions in 14% of stranded specimens were caused possibly by human attacks or by collisions with fishing boats. 77.8% of incidental catch specimens were sacrificed for the commercialization of his meat, and sometimes of his shell, this shows the lack of awareness of conservation. These observations indicate that the coast of Tumbes is an important foraging area and development of sub-adult specimens of sea turtles; so it is recomend to develop monitoring, awareness and critical areas protection programs to foment the conservation of these organisms in the Eastern Pacific.
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone
Prenatal care has gradually moved away from paternalism, to a state where patient autonomy and information is vital. It is known from other health care settings that the way information is presented affects understanding.The objective is to summarize current knowledge on aspects of informing...... pregnant women about prenatal examinations. Women's knowledge, decisional conflict, satisfaction and anxiety will be explored as compared with different ways and different groups of health professionals providing information. To what extent information empowers informed decision making will be explored...
Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Pedersen, Peter Dalsgård; Eriksson, Eva
This paper introduces information offload as a supplement way of responding to and designing for information. By presenting iFlush, a design concept aiming at providing the user with a possibility to offload information and then instantly dispose of it, the paper presents an approach towards...... designing for reflection and also serves as a critique towards information overload. Furthermore, the absence of reflection on the role played by HCI community in the constant augmenting of all spaces is addressed....
Cortés-Gómez, Adriana A; Romero, Diego; Girondot, Marc
Inorganic elements (Pb, Cd, Hg, Al, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn) are present globally in aquatic systems and their potential transfer to marine turtles can be a serious threat to their health status. The environmental fate of these contaminants may be traced by the analysis of turtle tissues. Loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) are the most frequently investigated of all the sea turtle species with regards to inorganic elements, followed by Green turtles (Chelonia mydas); all the other species have considerably fewer studies. Literature shows that blood, liver, kidney and muscle are the tissues most frequently used for the quantification of inorganic elements, with Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn being the most studied elements. Chelonia mydas showed the highest concentrations of Cr in muscle (4.8 ± 0.12), Cu in liver (37 ± 7) and Mg in kidney (17 μg g -1 ww), Cr and Cu from the Gulf of Mexico and Mg from Japanese coasts; Lepidochelys olivacea presented the highest concentrations of Pb in blood (4.46 5) and Cd in kidney (150 ± 110 μg g -1 ww), both from the Mexican Pacific; Caretta caretta from the Mediterranean Egyptian coast had the highest report of Hg in blood (0.66 ± 0.13 μg g -1 ww); and Eretmochelys imbricata from Japan had the highest concentration of As in muscle (30 ± 13 13 μg g -1 ww). The meta-analysis allows us to examine some features that were not visible when data was analyzed alone. For instance, Leatherbacks show a unique pattern of concentration compared to other species. Additionally, contamination of different tissues shows some tendencies independent of the species with liver and kidney on one side and bone on the other being different from other tissues. This review provides a general perspective on the accumulation and distribution of these inorganic elements alongside existing information for the 7 sea turtle species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Despite the rapid growth in the use of modern communication media to improve access to agricultural information, local information networks remain an important means of communication among rural folk. This study examined informal communication networks of rural farmers in the Ahafo Ano south district of Ghana to ...
Intended for IT managers and assets protection professionals, this work aims to bridge the gap between information security, information systems security and information warfare. It covers topics such as the role of the corporate security officer; Corporate cybercrime; Electronic commerce and the global marketplace; Cryptography; and, more.
Information Impact | Jorunal of Information and Knowledge Management
The study revealed that ICT facilities that were used in the technical ... Application of information and communication technology facilities in technical services operations at Bayero University library, Nigeria. Information Impact: .... information and communication technologies such as computers and their peripherals, internet ...
Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management
on university lecturers' academic activities in Adamawa state, Nigeria. Information Impact: Journal of Information and. Knowledge Management. 2017, Vol. 8 (2) Pg. 19 - ... a tool to connect people with information, the Internet has now become a social networking ..... Internet use among students in tertiary institutions in the.
Price, Linda L.; And Others
Past research on consumer information has emphasized the effects of informed consumers of the provision of goods by sellers. This paper examines the effects of informed consumers on other consumers' product choices. These are demand-side effects. Directions for research are outlined. Author/CH)
Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management (IIJIKM) is a Journal of Library and Information Science published in Nigeria. ... Preference for and access to media resources as predictors of in-school adolescents knowledge of sexual and reproductive health issues in Lagos State, Nigeria · EMAIL ...
Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management - Vol 6, No 2 (2015). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 6, No 2 (2015) ... Information needs of lecturers in the Faculty of Business Administration, University of Nigeria, Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...
Kankanady, Raghavendra; Wells, Marilyn
Information management can be a daunting process for clinicians, health care providers and policy makers within the health care industry. This chapter discusses the importance of information classification and information architecture in the information economy and specific challenges faced within the health care industry. The healthcare sector has industry specific requirements for information management, standards and specifications for information presentation. Classification of information based on information criticality and the value in the health care industry is discussed in this paper. Presentation of information with reference to eHealth standards and specifications for healthcare information systems and their key requirements are also discussed, as are information architecture for eHealth implementation in Australia. This chapter also touches on information management and clinical governance since the importance of information governance is discussed by various researchers and how this is becoming of value to healthcare information management.
Disciplinary Foundations and Global ImpactEvolving Discipline of Information Systems Heikki TopiDiscipline of Information Technology Barry M. Lunt and Han ReichgeltInformation Systems as a Practical Discipline Juhani IivariInformation Technology Han Reichgelt, Joseph J. Ekstrom, Art Gowan, and Barry M. LuntSociotechnical Approaches to the Study of Information Systems Steve Sawyer and Mohammad Hossein JarrahiIT and Global Development Erkki SutinenUsing ICT for Development, Societal Transformation, and Beyond Sherif KamelTechnical Foundations of Data and Database ManagementData Models Avi Silber
Full Text Available This reflection presents the question of the right to information on social networks, based on interdisciplinary authors in the fields of sociology, communication, administration and information. Points the public sphere and their actions, as well as social representation and access to information available on social networks. Reflects on the right to public opinion in the mobilization for alternative ways to access the information. The discussion permeates government action, the social demands with regard to the informational access and market influence in decision made by government public actions.
Information is the basic concept of information theory. However, there is no definition of this concept that can encompass all uses of the term information in information theories and beyond. Many question a possibility of such a definition. However, foundations of information theory developed in the context of the general theory of information made it possible to build such a relevant and at the same time, encompassing definition. Foundations of information theory are built in a form of onto...
Full Text Available This paper uses an approach drawn from the ideas of computer systems modelling to produce a model for information itself. The model integrates evolutionary, static and dynamic views of information and highlights the relationship between symbolic content and the physical world. The model includes what information technology practitioners call “non-functional” attributes, which, for information, include information quality and information friction. The concepts developed in the model enable a richer understanding of Floridi’s questions “what is information?” and “the informational circle: how can information be assessed?” (which he numbers P1 and P12.
Hirsch, Michael J; Murphey, Robert
Our understanding of information and information dynamics has outgrown classical information theory. This book presents the research explaining the importance of information in the evolution of a distributed or networked system. It presents techniques for measuring the value or significance of information within the context of a system
Deruchie, Douglas M.
Discusses the value of information-based services in today's global economy. The combination of information technology with library and information services at an international accounting and auditing firm is described; the Global Information Network is explained; and the importance of the appropriate use of information is discussed. (LRW)
Mukherjee, Abir; Bawden, David
This article is the second student contribution to the Dissertations into Practice feature. It reports on a study that investigated the everyday health information-seeking practices of a small group of the 'general public' and the implications for information-seeking theory and health information provision. The first student article, about the implementation of radio frequency identification (RFID) in a hospital library, was very different, and the two articles illustrate the broad spectrum of possible subjects for the Dissertations into Practice feature. This study was conducted in summer 2011 by Abir Mukherjee for his MSc dissertation in the Library and Information Sciences programme at City University London. Further information and copies of the full dissertation may be obtained from Abir Mukherjee or David Bawden. AM. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.
Breivik, Patricia Senn
College governing boards can promote good campus information management by understanding available services, monitoring changes and their relationship to priorities, supporting policies enhancing access to information, encouraging resource allocation for networking, promoting regional economic development through information use, and supporting…
Full Text Available ... Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, ... Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO Topics Safety Tips ...
... Health Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Informed Consent Credit: National Cancer Institute Informed consent is a ... of ensuring patient safety in research. During the informed consent process, the research team, which is made up of doctors and ...
... to Protect Your Health Information Your Health Information Rights The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of ... Rights . Protect Patients’ Health Information and Their Privacy Rights The US Dept. of Health and Human Services ...
Marius Petrescu; Delia Mioara Popescu; Nicoleta Sirbu
Information security has come to be recognized as increasingly important because global communication and information systems allow a potentially large number of unauthorized users to access and possibly alter information from around the world. As the dependence on information systems grows, so the security of information networks becomes ever more critical to any entity, no matter if it is a company or a public institution. Information security involves both technology and people. Any securi...
The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.
The primary goal of the Information Protection Playbook is to serve as a comprehensive resource for information protection (IP) professionals who must provide adequate information security at a reasonable cost. It emphasizes a holistic view of IP: one that protects the applications, systems, and networks that deliver business information from failures of confidentiality, integrity, availability, trust and accountability, and privacy. Using the guidelines provided in the Information Protection Playbook, security and information technology (IT) managers will learn how to
Хамид Абдулович Гербеков; Сапият Кадыровна Байчорова; Мариям Срапиловна Лайпанова
In the modern society one of the main competences of the person is ability quickly and qualitatively to work with information technologies to create and adapt to the tasks electronic resources with use of the modern information technologies. Thus the educational task of formation information competence and the level of information culture conforming to requirements of the modern information society is urgent. Significantly the role of a subject of the information scientist increases in school...
Introduction to Strategic Information SecurityWhat Does It Mean to Be Strategic? Information Security Defined The Security Professional's View of Information Security The Business View of Information SecurityChanges Affecting Business and Risk Management Strategic Security Strategic Security or Security Strategy?Monitoring and MeasurementMoving Forward ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUESThe Life Cycles of Security ManagersIntroductionThe Information Security Manager's Responsibilities The Evolution of Data Security to Information SecurityThe Repository Concept Changing Job Requirements Business Life Cycles
Wei, Xue-Xin; Stocker, Alan A
Fisher information is generally believed to represent a lower bound on mutual information (Brunel & Nadal, 1998), a result that is frequently used in the assessment of neural coding efficiency. However, we demonstrate that the relation between these two quantities is more nuanced than previously thought. For example, we find that in the small noise regime, Fisher information actually provides an upper bound on mutual information. Generally our results show that it is more appropriate to consider Fisher information as an approximation rather than a bound on mutual information. We analytically derive the correspondence between the two quantities and the conditions under which the approximation is good. Our results have implications for neural coding theories and the link between neural population coding and psychophysically measurable behavior. Specifically, they allow us to formulate the efficient coding problem of maximizing mutual information between a stimulus variable and the response of a neural population in terms of Fisher information. We derive a signature of efficient coding expressed as the correspondence between the population Fisher information and the distribution of the stimulus variable. The signature is more general than previously proposed solutions that rely on specific assumptions about the neural tuning characteristics. We demonstrate that it can explain measured tuning characteristics of cortical neural populations that do not agree with previous models of efficient coding.
Bogen udfolder et videnskabsteoretisk grundlag for informations-, medie- og kommunikationsvidenskab.......Bogen udfolder et videnskabsteoretisk grundlag for informations-, medie- og kommunikationsvidenskab....
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes information related to Cleanups at Federal Facilities. Information is provided about contaminated federal facility sites in specific communities,...
, the activities involved in information seeking are often performed by varying subgroups of actors. Consequently, collaborative grounding is necessary to share information among collaborating actors and, thereby, establish and maintain the common ground necessary for their collaborative work. By focusing......Since common ground is pivotal to collaboration, this paper proposes to define collaborative information seeking as the combined activity of information seeking and collaborative grounding. While information-seeking activities are necessary for collaborating actors to acquire new information...... on the collaborative level, collaborative information seeking aims to avoid both individual reductionism and group reductionism, while at the same time recognizing that only some information and understanding need be shared....
Ganuza, Juan José; Jansen, Jos
By using general information structures and precision criteria based on the dispersion of conditional expectations, we study how oligopolists’ information acquisition decisions may change the effects of information sharing on the consumer surplus. Sharing information about individual cost...... parameters gives the following trade-off in Cournot oligopoly. On the one hand, it decreases the expected consumer surplus for a given information precision, as the literature shows. On the other hand, information sharing increases the firms’ incentives to acquire information, and the consumer surplus...... increases in the precision of the firms’ information. Interestingly, the latter effect may dominate the former effect....
Department of Transportation — The Aeronautical Information System (AIS) is a leased weather automated system that provides a means of collecting and distributing aeronautical weather information...
Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...
This study was designed to determine the impact of collaboration on research and teaching activities of Academic Scientists in Federal Universities ..... pressures and anxiety about "producing enough." In social sharing, information about the ... considering the side tracking of libraries by scientists to fill their information gap.
Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management
Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. 55. Adeola Esther Olutoki. Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun, Nigeria. Monisola Adebanke Osoba. Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun, Nigeria. Abstract. This study is aimed at investigating how serial collections are being utilized by ...
Davison, R.M.; Ou, C.X.J.; Martinsons, M.G.
The knowledge management (KM) literature largely focuses on the explicit and formal representation of knowledge in computer-based KM systems. Informal KM practices are widespread, but less is known about them. This paper aims to redress this imbalance by exploring the use of interactive information
Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management
Inculcating reading habit is very essential for the academic achievement of children ... Inculcating reading habits among Nigerian secondary schools students: the role of libraries. Information Impact: Journal of Information and. Knowledge Management. 2017, Vol. ..... This is because peer groups and the social media seem.
Information technology (IT) is widely used in variety of ways to improve the quality of learning in Nigerian universities. One significant area of application of IT is the provision of basic access to and utilization of global electronic information resources. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of IT literacy among ...
Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge management
Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge management. 66. Modupe Olayemi Oluwabiyi. University of Ibadan. Abstract. Technological development in the world has brought many changes to libraries and their service deliveries. Many Libraries are trying to improve on their services by moving from face to ...
Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge management
key drivers of modern organizations and has the same importance as effectiveness and competitiveness (Wiig, 2004). Influence of demographic factors on knowledge sharing among researchers in selected research institutes in Ibadan, Nigeria. Information Impact: Journal of Information and. Knowledge Management. 2017 ...
Application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) facilities to Reference and Information Service (RIS) provision in university libraries in North West Zone of Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Umar G. Gama, 1-17 ...
Lecturers' perception of students' information literacy skills versus students' actual information literacy levels · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Dorcas Ejemeh Krubu, Ogaga Oghene Uzezi Idhalama, Chirstopher Omigie, 99-117 ...
Full Text Available Companies have always been very carefully managed money, raw materials, machines and human resources. Today, they recognize the growing importance of the fifth big resource: information. They have finally understood that the within the global market with increased competition, using modern methods for planning, coordination and control, a company can-not function without acknowledging information and communications technology progress.
In order to evaluate Floridi's philosophy of information (PI) and correlative information ethics (IE) as potential frameworks for a global information and computing ethics (ICE), I review a range of important criticisms, defenses, and extensions of PI and IE, along with Floridi's responses to these......, as gathered together in a recent special issue of Ethics and Information Technology. A revised and expanded version of PI and IE emerges here, one that brings to the foreground PI's status as a philosophical naturalism—one with both current application and important potential in the specific domains...... of privacy and information law. Further, the pluralism already articulated by Floridi in his PI is now more explicitly coupled with an ethical pluralism in IE that will be enhanced through IE's further incorporation of discourse ethics. In this form, PI and IE emerge as still more robust frameworks...
E. G. Belyakova
Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to the problem of interaction between schoolchildren and possible informational risks transmitted on the Internet. Considering the lack of external filters on the way of harmful information streams, it is actually necessary to develop information culture of schoolchildren, their abilities to sensibly and critically interpret the information on the Internet, and choice of adequate behaviour models surfing the Web. The aim of the present research is to analyze the state of informational safety of schoolchildren while using the Internet; gaining an understanding of the role of external restrictions and opportunities of intrapersonal filtration of the harmful Internet content depending on children age. Methodology and research methods. The methodology of the research is based on modern methods aimed to consider the problem of personal socialization in modern information society. Thus, the Internet Initiatives Development Fund (IIDF questionnaire let the authors define the level of awareness of recipients on the problem under consideration. Results and scientific novelty. The theoretical analysis helped the authors predict the correlation of basic methods in order to guarantee personal safety of schoolchildren taking into account the process of maturity as well as the decrease of external filters that may stop harmful content. Empirical part of the research has enabled to reveal decrease in external control of staying of a child in network in the process of growing up against the background of restrictive attitudes prevalence among teachers and parents. Therefore, the research supposed to improve information culture of schoolchildren from the earliest ages encouraging them to sensibly and correctly interpret the information on the Internet. Practical significance. The practical recommendations to parents and teachers in order to improve informational personal safety of schoolchildren are proposed. The relevancy
Gheorghe Popescu; Veronica Adriana Popescu; Cristina Raluca Popescu
The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.
Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors
This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.
Are we at a turning point in digital information? The expansion of the internet is unprecedented. Will information science become part of computer science and does rise of the term informatics demonstrate convergence of information science and information technology - a convergence that must surely develop? This work reflects on such issues.
Presents a broad view of information access, drawing from philosophy and semiology in constructing a framework for comparative discussion that is used to examine the information representations that underlie four approaches to information access--information retrieval, workflow, collaborative filtering, and the path model. Contains 32 references.…
Stock, Wolfgang G
Dealing with information is one of the vital skills in thetwenty-first century. It takes a fair degree of information savvy to create, represent and supply information as well as to search for and retrieve relevant knowledge. This Handbook is a basic work of information science, providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of information retrieval and knowledge representation. It addresses readers from all professions and scientific disciplines, but particularly scholars, practitioners and students of Information Science, Library Science, Computer Science, Information Management, an
Christian Hellwig; Sebastian Kohls; Laura Veldkamp
Theories based on information costs or frictions have become increasing popular in macroeconomics and macro-finance. The literature has used various types of information choices, such as rational inattention, inattentiveness, information markets and costly precision. Using a unified framework, we compare these different information choice technologies and explain why some generate increasing returns and others, particularly those where agents choose how much public information to observe, gen...
Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.
This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.
Information Technology: Made Simple covers the full range of information technology topics, including more traditional subjects such as programming languages, data processing, and systems analysis. The book discusses information revolution, including topics about microchips, information processing operations, analog and digital systems, information processing system, and systems analysis. The text also describes computers, computer hardware, microprocessors, and microcomputers. The peripheral devices connected to the central processing unit; the main types of system software; application soft
Dube, Kudakwashe; Shoniregun, Charles A
The ever-increasing healthcare expenditure and pressing demand for improved quality and efficiency of patient care services are driving innovation in healthcare information management. The domain of healthcare has become a challenging testing ground for information security due to the complex nature of healthcare information and individual privacy. ""Electronic Healthcare Information Security"" explores the challenges of e-healthcare information and security policy technologies. It evaluates the effectiveness of security and privacy implementation systems for anonymization methods and techniqu
Dmitriy Nikolaevich Bespalov
Full Text Available The article presents the opposite, but dependent on each other's reality - Revolutionary War information,information security goals and objectives of their study within the scheme "challenge-response", methodological and analytical support, the role of elites and the information society in promoting information security. One of the features of contemporaneityis the global spread of ICT, combined with poor governance and other difficulties in the construction of innovation infrastructures that are based on them in some countries. This leads to the reproduction of threats, primarily related to the ability to use ICT for purposes that are inconsistent with the objectives of maintaining international peace and security, compliance with the principles of non-use of force, non-interference in the internal affairs of states, etc. In this regard, include such terms as "a threat of information warfare", "information terrorism" and so forth. Information warfare, which stay in the policy declared the struggle for existence, and relationships are defined in terms of "friend-enemy", "ours-foreign". Superiority over the opponent or "capture of its territory" is the aim of political activity. And information security, serving activities similar process of political control, including a set of components, is a technology until their humanitarian. From the context and the decision itself is the ratio of the achieved results of information and political influence to the target - a positive image of Russia. Bringing its policy in line with the demands of a healthy public opinion provides conductivity of theauthorities initiatives in the country and increases the legitimacy of the Russian Federation actions in the world.
Full Text Available Digital information changes the ways in which people and organisations interact. This paper examines the nature of this change in the context of the author’s Model for Information (MfI. It investigates the relationship between outcomes and value, selection processes and some attributes of information and explores how this relationship changes in the move from analogue to digital information. Selection processes shape the evolution of information ecosystems in which conventions are established for the ways in which information is used. The conventions determine norms for information friction and information quality as well as the sources of information and channels used. Digital information reduces information friction, often dramatically, and changes information quality. The increasing use of analytics in business increasingly delivers predictive or prescriptive digital information. These changes are happening faster than information ecosystem conventions can change. The relationships established in the paper enable an analysis of, and guide changes to, these conventions enabling a more effective use of digital information.
Abdekhoda, M; Ahmadi, M; Dehnad, A; Hosseini, A F
User acceptance of information technology has been a significant area of research for more than two decades in the field of information technology. This study assessed the acceptance of information technology in the context of Health Information Management (HIM) by utilizing Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which was modified and applied to assess user acceptance of health information technology as well as viability of TAM as a research construct in the context of HIM. This was a descriptive- analytical study in which a sample of 187 personnel from a population of 363 personnel, working in medical records departments of hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, was selected. Users' perception of applying information technology was studied by a researcher-developed questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS software (version16) using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The results suggest that TAM is a useful construct to assess user acceptance of information technology in the context of HIM. The findings also evidenced the perceived ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness (PE) were positively associated with favorable users' attitudes towards HIM. PU was relatively more associated (r= 0.22, p = 0.05) than PEOU (r = 0.014, p = 0.05) with favorable user attitudes towards HIM. Users' perception of usefulness and ease of use are important determinants providing the incentive for users to accept information technologies when the application of a successful HIM system is attempted. The findings of the present study suggest that user acceptance is a key element and should subsequently be the major concern of health organizations and health policy makers.
The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.
Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas
on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....
of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate.......Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...
... About ODPHP Food and Nutrition Physical Activity Health Literacy Health Care Quality Healthy People healthfinder health.gov About ODPHP National Health Information Center National Health Information Center The National Health ...
Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL
This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of
Joosten JM; Nagelhout D; Duvoort GL; Weerd M de
This "informative document packaging waste" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Direcotrate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of
Library _info_Sc_ 1
Traditionally, publishers gathered, edited and marketed author's contributions, while information consumers purchased discrete bundles of information in the form of periodicals and monographs. Furthermore, libraries amassed large collections of published materials for the communities they serve and individuals circulate.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes hazardous waste information, which is mostly contained in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) System, a national...
... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Sleep Apnea Information Page Sleep Apnea Information Page What research is being done? ... Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to sleep apnea in laboratories at the NIH, and also ...
An NCI database that contains the latest information about cancer treatment, screening, prevention, genetics, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine, plus drug information and a dictionary of cancer terms.
Kolm, Anne-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe
This paper develops a four sector equilibrium search and matching model with informal sector employment opportunities and educational choice. We show that underground activities reduce educational attainments if informal employment opportunities mainly are available to low educated workers. More ...
Sarupria, J.S.; Kunte, P.D.
The nature of oceanographic data and the management of inventory level information are described in Integrated Inventory Information System (IIIS). It is shown how a ROSCOPO (report on observations/samples collected during oceanographic programme...
Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico; López, Cristian
Combining physics and philosophy, this is a uniquely interdisciplinary examination of quantum information science which provides an up-to-date examination of developments in this field. The authors provide coherent definitions and theories of information, taking clearly defined approaches to considering information in connection with quantum mechanics, probability, and correlations. Concepts addressed include entanglement of quantum states, the relation of quantum correlations to quantum information, and the meaning of the informational approach for the foundations of quantum mechanics. Furthermore, the mathematical concept of information in the communicational context, and the notion of pragmatic information are considered. Suitable as both a discussion of the conceptual and philosophical problems of this field and a comprehensive stand-alone introduction, this book will benefit both experienced and new researchers in quantum information and the philosophy of physics.
The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....
.... S. military controls much of the world's most sensitive information, and since it cannot sacrifice losing the speed at which this information is currently processed and disseminated, it must find a way...
Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)
Full Text Available Salah satu upaya untuk menekan tingkat kanibalisme dan memicu pertumbuhan krablet kepiting bakau adalah dengan pemberian pakan yang cukup, baik jumlah maupun mutu. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi kinerja pertumbuhan dan sintasan krablet kepiting bakau dengan frekuensi pemberian pakan berbeda pada stadia pendederan. Hewan uji berupa krablet kepiting bakau dengan bobot awal 0,037 ± 0,005 g dan lebar karapas awal 3,43 ± 0,42 mm; menggunakan sembilan unit fiber gelas dengan ukuran masing-masing 1 m x 1 m x 0,5 m. Hewan uji ditebar dengan kepadatan 50 ekor/m2. Perlakuan yang diujicobakan adalah frekuensi pemberian pakan per hari, yaitu: (A dua kali (pukul 08.00 dan 18.00, (B tiga kali (pukul 08.00, 13.00, dan 18.00, dan (C empat kali (pukul 08.00, 13.00, 18.00, dan 23.00. Pakan yang digunakan berupa pelet dengan kandungan protein kasar 46,5%; lemak 8,8%; dan energi total 18,8 MJ/kg. Dosis pakan harian sebanyak 30%-15% bobot badan secara menurun hingga akhir penelitian. Setelah lima minggu pemeliharaan didapatkan hasil yang menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan, sintasan, konsumsi pakan harian, rasio konversi pakan, dan rasio efisiensi protein tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata (P>0,05 di antara perlakuan. Namun demikian, pemberian pakan empat kali sehari cenderung menunjukkan pertumbuhan yang lebih cepat dan dengan ukuran krablet yang lebih seragam. One of technique to reduce cannibalism and to stimulate the growth of mud crab is by providing an adequate feed that meet the requirement level of the crablet. The objecive of this study was to evaluate the growth and survival of crablet fed artificial diet with different feeding frequencies during nursery stage. The treatments were different feeding frequencies namely (A 2 times (08:00 and 18:00, (B 3 times (08:00, 13:00, and 18:00 and (C 4 times (08:00, 13:00, 18:00 and 23:00. Feeding rate was from 30 to 15 % of biomass/day. Feed used in the feeding trial was a dry pellet (1.2 mm size containing 46.5 % crude protein, 8.8 % lipid and gross energy 18.8MJ / kg. Mud crab crablet with initial body weight of 0.037 ± 0.005 g with carapace width of 3.43 ± 0.042 mm were stocked into nine fiber tanks (1 m x 1 m x 0.5 m with density of 50 crablets / tank. After 5 weeks of feeding trial, results of the experiment showed that growth rate, survival, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were not significantly difference (P> 0.05 among the treatments. However, growth performance of crablet fed 4 times/day increased and resulted uniformsize of crablet.
Coff, Christian Eyde
Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....
Blethyn, Stanley G
Designing Information Systems focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in designing information systems. The book first describes systems, management and control, and how to design information systems. Discussions focus on documents produced from the functional construction function, users, operators, analysts, programmers and others, process management and control, levels of management, open systems, design of management information systems, and business system description, partitioning, and leveling. The text then takes a look at functional specification and functiona
Ramos Pires, António; Novas, Jorge; Saraiva, Margarida
The importance of information technologies to management will always be assessed against its ability to assist the organization in the process of creating value, what will inevitably be associated to the quality of the generated information. Managing information quality is not only a way to ensure that information enables knowledge generation and integration, and the use of this in organizational actions; it is a management philosophy.
The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities
Louise Limberg; Olof Sundin
Introduction. The article argues for a closer association between information seeking research and the practices of teaching information seeking. Findings are presented from a research project on information seeking, didactics and learning (IDOL) investigating librarians' and teachers' experiences of teaching information seeking. Method. Thirteen teachers and five librarians, teaching 12-19 year-old students in three schools, participated. Forty-five interviews were conducted over a period ...
findings in a November 1996 report described by the Wall Street Journal as "unusually strident.൮ It made 13 recommendations, including one for...Funds Moved Around World", The Wall Street Journal , September 12, 1995, p 1. 21 Data Provided By Member of the President’s Commission on Critical...U.S. Department of Defense, April 1997, 230. 38 Thomas E. Ricks, "Information Warfare Defense is Urged", Wall Street Journal , 6 January 1997, Section
Metaphors are useful because they are efficient: they transfer a complex of meaning in a few words. Information systems are social constructs. Therefore, metaphors seem to be especially useful for explaining the space of possible meaning complexes or designs of information systems. Three information
Valentijn, E.; Belikov, A. N.
The Lofar Information System is a solution for Lofar Long Term Archive that is capable to store and handle PBs of raw and processed data. The newly created information system is based on Astro-WISE - the information system for wide field astronomy. We review an adaptation of Astro-WISE for the new
Hiemstra, Djoerd; Göker, Ayse; Davies, John
Many applications that handle information on the internet would be completely inadequate without the support of information retrieval technology. How would we find information on the world wide web if there were no web search engines? How would we manage our email without spam filtering? Much of the
In this chapter, concepts related to information and computation are reviewed in the context of human computation. A brief introduction to information theory and different types of computation is given. Two examples of human computation systems, online social networks and Wikipedia, are used to illustrate how these can be described and compared in terms of information and computation.
PC Forms Inc. 834-4048
To apply for information under the Access to. Information Act, complete this form or a written request mentioning the Act. Describe the information being sought and provide any relevant details necessary to help the International. Development Research Centre (IDRC) find it. If you require assistance, refer to Info Source.
This paper in the form of story discusses a college student's information search process. In this story we see Kuhlthau's information search process: initiation, selection, exploration, formulation, collection, and presentation. Katie is a student who goes in search of information for her class research paper. Katie's class readings, her interest…
Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…
The National Energy Information Center provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. This Energy Information Directory is used to assist the Center staff as well as other DOE staff in directing inquires to the proper offices.
Information retrieval (IR) systems have tremendously broaden users' access to information. However, users need to select their needs from trillions of information indexed daily. Due to the "semantic gap" between queries and indexed terms in IR system, whether users can satisfy their needs depends on whether they use the correct terms as…
The Information Services directory is intended to facilitate participation by states, affected Indian tribes and the public in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management program. The Directory is produced by the Information Services Division of the OCRWM's Office of Policy and Outreach and will be updated periodically. It is a reference document that identifies the sources of available program information
Millions of consumers get health information from magazines, TV or the Internet. Some of the information is reliable and up to date; some is not. How can ... the site have an editorial board? Is the information reviewed before it is posted? Be skeptical. Things ...
Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…
Information design has practical and theoretical components. As an academic discipline we may view information design as a combined discipline, a practical theory, or as a theoretical practice. So far information design has incorporated facts, influences, methods, practices, principles, processes, strategies, and tools from a large number of…
Grünwald, P.D.; Vitányi, P.M.B.; Adriaans, P.; van Benthem, J.
We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining 'information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are
Grünwald, P.D.; Vitányi, P.M.B.
We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining `information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are
This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.
Rigau, Jaume; Feixas, Miquel; Sbert, Mateu
The Birkhoff aesthetic measure of an object is the ratio between order and complexity. Informational aesthetics describes the interpretation of this measure from an information-theoretic perspective. From these ideas, the authors define a set of ratios based on information theory and Kolmogorov complexity that can help to quantify the aesthetic experience.
The Information Services Directory is intended to facilitate participation by states, affected Indian tribes and the public in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Directory is produced by the Information Services Division of the OCRWM's Office of Policy and Outreach and will be updated periodically. It is a reference document that identifies the sources of available program information
Modern digital media already permeate the physical world. The portability of information devices and the ubiquity of networks allow us to access information practically anyplace, creating digital overlays on reality. This also allows us to bring information we routinely archive in museums and
Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.
In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…
Hongladarom, Soraj; Ess, Charles
This book was the first publication to take a genuinely global approach to the diverse ethical issues evoked by Information and Communication Technologies and their possible resolutions. Readers will gain a greater appreciation for the problems and possibilities of genuinely global information...... ethics, which are urgently needed as information and communication technologies continue their exponential growth...
Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management
Abstract. This paper discussed information communication technology (ICT) literacy as the relative measure of library staff's capacity to make appropriate use of ICTs for information acquisition, organization, retrieval and dissemination. It also examined the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy ...
Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John
Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…
Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren
provide evidence of the routinisation of informed consent in various types of interaction on the internet; among these, the routinisation of consent to the exchange of health related information. We also provide evidence that the extent of the routinisation of informed consent is dependent...
O. Yalnazov (Orlin)
textabstractI compare precedent and statute in cost-effectiveness terms. To make laws, a lawmaker needs information. Information has a cost. That cost is sensitive to the choice of law production technology. The orthodoxy is that the courts acquire information more cheaply. Litigants volunteer it in
Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.
This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.
Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David
This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness
This book is a significant step towards developing a body of management knowledge pertinent to the context of Library Information Science (LIS) and provides a succinct but deep account of management and information organizations. Management of Information Organizations presents a broad view of the information organizations and the nature of management in these organizations, and how information professionals are affected by such management systems. The book equips the reader with the knowledge that will enable them to develop a strong intellectual foundation relating to management and its mani
Information Systems Project Management addresses project management in the context of information systems. It deals with general project management principles, with focus on the special characteristics of information systems. It is based on an earlier text, but shortened to focus on essential project management elements.This updated version presents various statistics indicating endemic problems in completing information system projects on time, within budget, at designed functionality. While successful completion of an information systems project is a challenge, there are some things that ca
Full Text Available This article briefly discusses various definitions and concepts of the so-called information society. The term information society has been proposed to refer to the post-industrial society in which information plays a pivotal role. The definitions that have been proposed over the years highlight five underlying characterisations of an information society: technological, economic, sociological, spatial, and cultural. This article discusses those characteristics. While the emergence of an information society may be just a figment of one’s imagination, the concept could be a good organising principle to describe and analyse the changes of the past 50 years and of the future in the 21st century.
Duff, Alistair S
We are often told that we are ""living in an information society"" or that we are ""information workers."" But what exactly do these claims mean, and how might they be verified? In this important methodological study, Alistair S. Duff cuts through the rhetoric to get to the bottom of the ""information society thesis."" Wide-ranging in coverage, this study will be of interest to scholars in information science, communication and media studies and social theory. It is a key text for the newly-unified specialism of information society studies, and an indispensable guide to the future of this disc
Хамид Абдулович Гербеков
Full Text Available In the modern society one of the main competences of the person is ability quickly and qualitatively to work with information technologies to create and adapt to the tasks electronic resources with use of the modern information technologies. Thus the educational task of formation information competence and the level of information culture conforming to requirements of the modern information society is urgent. Significantly the role of a subject of the information scientist increases in school in connection with increase in a role of process of informatization of society in general and education informatization in particular. Priorities in the maintenance of school course of informatics are redistributed. One of key roles in school course of informatics is played by the “Information technologies” line.In the article is carried out the short review of primary partitions of the informative line “Information technologies” of school course of informatics. The hardware of information technologies, the software of information technologies and means of telecommunications concern them. In article the short analysis of the basic concept on each of these sections is carried out. Besides some methodical recommendations about training in these sections are provided. It is reasonable that elements of fundamental education shall is aware informatics in any technological subject to find the place.
Nuclear information (Nl) interests people for many reasons, with energy supply, safety, and security being at the top of the list. Democratizing nuclear information has its roots in the growth of a knowledge-based economy, the knowledge worker as a user of nuclear information, developments in information and communication technologies (ICT), and the impact of internet growth. Results of democratization are apparent in the process of information creation, in how nuclear information is distributed and accessed, and in the conditions for using the information found. The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) both reflects and contributes to these trends. Nuclear information falls under the overall umbrella of scientific and technical information (STI). It is highly specialized, but it follows general principles and trends of STI. The world of STI has its own culture and its own long-established rules of use and existence. These have brought us many inventions and improvements, introduced important technological changes, and made our lives and work much easier and more pleasurable. However, the world is constantly changing, and the traditional closed STI environment, including the world of nuclear information, is not keeping up with today’s changes. (author)
Reid, Kevin I
A review of literature regarding informed consent in dentistry reveals a paucity of information and minimal scholarship devoted to this subject. But this begs the question about informed consent somehow being different for dentistry than for medicine or other healthcare delivery. My account draws distinctions where appropriate but is rooted in the premise that informed consent is an ethical construct applicable to vulnerable people as patients independent of what type of treatment or body part being considered. This paper highlights the crucial importance of the process of informed consent and refusal in dentistry, underscoring its important place in oral healthcare. This paper will not address the unique circumstances involving consent in those without capacity or focus on informed consent in the research setting; our focus will be on those patients with full decisionmaking capacity in the clinical setting. I will emphasize the importance of disclosure of treatment options and highlight the benefits of shared-decision-making in the informed consent process.
Moring, Camilla Elisabeth
Introduction: Research on socialization and learning processes among organizational newcomers is offering valuable insight into the role of information seeking in the workplace, and to why, and how newcomers seek information when entering a new organization. Analysis: The aim of the paper...... is to outline and discuss the significance of information seeking in newcomer socialization and learning, and analyse how different approaches influence our understanding of the role of information seeking in the workplace. Results: It is argued, that a development in research on newcomer information seeking...... can be identified ranging from approaching socialization as adaption and individual information acquisition towards a broader approach investigating information seeking as an integrated part of learning in practice. Conclusion: When applying a practice theoretical approach to knowledge and learning...
The study investigated the application of infotech infrastructure in information processing for enhancing workplace safety in Rivers State. In view of this, the study was a research survey design. The population of the study comprised 600 oil company workers in Rivers State. A-30% basis was used to randomly select the ...
Society is on the verge of a new era: the information age. Economical changes, a new way of looking at services and new types of conflict are forecasted. Some glimpses of these changes were noticed during the Persian Gulf War. Government decision units, organisations, society and critical industries
Analytical study on availability of information and communication technology facilities in selected Nigerian university libraries · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. William O. Nkanu, Ebong N. Nkebem, Victoria A. Iyishu, Christopher E. Ogar ...
Provision and utilization of core cited journals in library and information science theses by postgraduate researchers in Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Chuma Opara Nnadozie, Alphonsus Onyekachi Okechukwu, 1-18.
Contributions of agriculture and veterinary complex of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria to the dissemination of agricultural information: a bibliometric analysis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Gabriel M. Kasa, Ibrahim Umar, Maimuna Izah, 51-59 ...
Feb 17, 2004 ... unavoidable. The patient requests access to information about himself. / herself. In the past despite their curiosity patients would hardly ever have thought to ask their attending doctor for even a peek at his notes. But section 32 of the final Constitution of RSA states that “everyone has the right of access to.
Society is on the verge of a new era: the information age. Economical changes, a new way of looking at services and new types of conflict are forecasted. Some glimpses of these changes were noticed during the Persian Gulf War. Government decision units, organisations, society and critical industries
Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management
that would have been a change agent for transformation and development of rural communities via the provision ... This will ultimately facilitate economic transformation, development and actualization of sustainable development .... digital inclusion, access to agricultural, health and environmental information, and the like.
Impact of information and communication technology in a federal teaching hospital library in Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Umar Shuaibu, Umar Muhammad Modibbo, David Danladi, Mohammed Musa Ibrahim, 59-65 ...
IBM Security Intelligence with Analytics of massive data provides exceptional threat and risk detection, combining deep security expertise with analytical insights on a massive scale. For forward-leaning organizations seeking advanced insight into security risks, the IBM solution -- Security Intelligence Platform for massive data -- provides a comprehensive, integrated approach that combines real-time correlation for continuous insight, custom analytics across massive structured and unstructured data, and forensic capabilities for irrefutable evidence. The combination can help you address advanced persistent threats, fraud and insider threats. The IBM solution is designed to widening the scope and scale of investigation, enabling analyzes of any kind of data in any format, such as DNS transactions or full packet capture data to find malicious activity hidden deep in the masses of an organization's data. IBMWatson Explorer provides a unified view displaying all of security relevant information in a portal-like UI. The information analytics system is built around AQL (Annotated query language), a declarative rule language with a familiar SQL-like syntax. AQL supports the paradigm describing data for data with an optional data governance catalogue for massive volumes of data supporting individual views in addition to the pre-defined Document view that holds the textual and label content. An underlying Role-Based Access Control that data protection rules are strictly enforced within the whole architecture. Security at the document, sub-document and record level is built intoWatson Explorer. When Watson Explorer security is implemented, users cannot see information that they would be prohibited from seeing if they were directly logged into the target system. (author)
... Collection; Financial Information Security Request Form AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Request... currently approved information collection; Financial Information Security Request Form. DATES: Comments must... Standard Time, Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Financial Information Security...
Raluca Daniela RIZEA
Full Text Available Intelligence competitiveness has already started to build its road in the company’s long term strategies. Nonetheless, business executives continue to look for ways to apply information technology strategically to their businesses. Using information managers manage to communicate, to convey their knowledge about markets, competitors, products, services and operations. Even if data and information are all over there are few amounts of managers that realize the importance of them to the success of the business. This article will review competitive forces and competitive information systems strategies for gaining competitive advantages, explain concepts of value chain, value co-opetition (competition and cooperation, and discuss innovation strategy. Co-opetition is a strategy whereby companies cooperate and compete at the same time with their competitors, complementors (i.e. hardware and software businesses, customers, suppliers. The article discuss an important dimension of information system, identifies competitive advantages and enhancing competitive strategies thought information systems.
establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state......) that vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...
Djordjevic, Ivan B
This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...
Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'
Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'
Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi
systems researchers engaged in the design and development of a prototype for an innovative IT-artifact called Shipping Information Pipeline which is a kind of “an internet” for shipping information. The instrumental aim is to enable information seamlessly to cross the organizational boundaries......This paper presents a design science approach to solving persistent problems in the international shipping eco system by creating the missing common information infrastructures. Specifically, this paper reports on an ongoing dialogue between stakeholders in the shipping industry and information...... and national borders within international shipping which is a rather complex domain. The intellectual objective is to generate and evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of design principles for inter-organizational information infrastructures in the international shipping domain that can have positive...
Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R.
The tables contained in this Appendix A describe the information needs for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a large, dry containment. To identify these information needs, the branch points in the safety objective trees were examined to decide what information is necessary to (a) determine the status of the safety functions in the plant, i.e., whether the safety functions are being adequately maintained within predetermined limits, (b) identify plant behavior (mechanisms) or precursors to this behavior which indicate that a challenge to plant safety is occurring or is imminent, and (c) select strategies that will prevent or mitigate this plant behavior and monitor the implementation and effectiveness of these strategies. The information needs for the challenges to the safety functions are not examined since the summation of the information needs for all mechanisms associated with a challenge comprise the information needs for the challenge itself
Association du personnel
Our September information meetings have ended and we thank the many people who came. This will allow us to start an extremely useful dialogue that we will continue with the survey announced at these meetings, which is now available. We invite all CERN staff members to reply to this questionnaire to enable us to have an accurate picture of your expectations and wishes with respect to the evolution of social and employment policies.
Sridhar, M. S.
Digital libraries and digital information are exciting everyone. Accessing and using digital information needs to be understood in correct perspective. Many feel that digital libraries and Internet are enough and traditional libraries are no more required. The pros and cons in using digital information and appropriateness as well as limitations of the Internet are highlighted in this slide presentation to participants of the training programme.
Peltier, Thomas R
Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r
The basic concepts, structure, and operation of the Agency Safeguards Information System is discussed with respect to its role in accomplishing the overall objectives of safeguards. The basis and purposes of the Agency's information system, the structure and flow of information within the Agency's system, the relationship of the components is the Agency system, the requirements of Member States in respect of their reporting to the Agency, and the relationship of accounting data vis-a-vis facility and inspection data are described
Wildemuth, Barbara M.
A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft
The paper provides the bases to complete a Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ) for a research reactor. The IAEA requirements for provision of design information for nuclear facility is described. The role of the provided information for the development of the safeguards approach and for planning of the IAEA's general inspection program for a specific facility is emphasized. Content and preparation of the IAEA DIQ by the State is presented
This book brings together geometric tools and their applications for Information analysis. It collects current and many uses of in the interdisciplinary fields of Information Geometry Manifolds in Advanced Signal, Image & Video Processing, Complex Data Modeling and Analysis, Information Ranking and Retrieval, Coding, Cognitive Systems, Optimal Control, Statistics on Manifolds, Machine Learning, Speech/sound recognition, and natural language treatment which are also substantially relevant for the industry.
In 2000 the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) published the Standards for Information Literacy. After 15 years these standards were in desperate need of revision. Instead of releasing a revised edition of the Standards, in 2015 ACRL presented a completely new vision on information literacy in higher education. In this keynote we will explore the new ACRL Framework for Information Literacy in all its glory. We will compare it to the old standards. Is this new American Fram...
William C. Figg, Ph.D.; Hwee Joo Kam, M.S.
Modern medicine is facing a complex environment, not from medical technology but rather government regulations and information vulnerability. HIPPA is the government’s attempt to protect patient’s information yet this only addresses traditional record handling. The main threat is from the evolving security issues. Many medical offices and facilities have multiple areas of information security concerns. Physical security is often weak, office personnel are not always aware of security needs an...
Timothy P Spiller
A new quantum information technology (QIT) could emerge in the future, based on current research in the fields of quantum information processing and communication1–3 (QIPC). In contrast to conventional IT, where quantum mechanics plays a support role in improving the building blocks, fundamental quantum phenomena play a central role in QIPC — information is stored, processed, and communicated according to the laws of quantum physics. This additional freedom could enable future QIT to perform ...
US International Trade Commission — This dataset contains investigation, document and attachment metadata from the USITC's Electronic Document Information System (EDIS), as well as access to attached...
Full Text Available ... Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business ... Performances & Finance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) Inspector General ...
Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.
As the saying goes, "garbage in, garbage out"--and this is as true for executive information systems as for any other computer system. Crockett presents a methodology he has used with clients to help them develop more useful systems that produce higher quality information. The key is to develop performance measures based on critical success factors and stakeholder expectations and then to link them cross functionally to show how progress is being made on strategic goals. Feedback from the executive information system then informs strategy formulation, business plan development, and operational activities.
Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....
Vitullo, M.; Winter, C.; Johnson, D.R.
The Executive Information System (EIS) is a computer-based information handling system. The system has been designed and implemented for Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies to allow program managers easy access and tracking of certain types of reporting at various levels of management interaction, to simplify the handling of program-related data, and to streamline the preparation of reporting documents and responses to requests for information from the program. The EIS is especially useful in assisting DOE program managers in the routine dissemination of reports and information. The characteristics of each component of the EIS are discussed. A user's guide to the EIS is included in this report.
Eng, T.; Norberg, E.; Torbacke, J.
The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: 'Active preservation - otherwise no achieves'; 'The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue'; and, 'Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories'
This book is a comprehensive collection of key scholarship on informality from the whole post-socialist region. From Bosnia to Central Asia, passing through Russia and Azerbaijan, the contributions to this volume illustrate the multi-faceted and complex nature of informality, while demonstrating...... the growing scholarly and policy debates that have developed around the understanding of informality. In contrast to approaches which tend to classify informality as ‘bad’ or ‘transitional’ – meaning that modernity will make it disappear – this edited volume concentrates on dynamics and mechanisms...
Full Text Available This definition can be applied to information of every kind, level and complexity. Information is considered as the feature manifesting itself in the relations between certain real world
entities. The real world has to be seen in terms of objects, actions, relations and properties.. The defintion is used as the basis of the Theory of Meaningful Information  that explains the nature and functionality of information and enables the production of relevant definitions regarding language and knowledge, which remain operative also in the case of non-human languages and
Full Text Available Introduction. The article argues for a closer association between information seeking research and the practices of teaching information seeking. Findings are presented from a research project on information seeking, didactics and learning (IDOL investigating librarians' and teachers' experiences of teaching information seeking. Method. Thirteen teachers and five librarians, teaching 12-19 year-old students in three schools, participated. Forty-five interviews were conducted over a period of three years. Analysis. The IDOL project adopted a phenomenographic approach with the purpose of describing patterns of variation in experiences. The findings were also analysed by way of relating them to four competing approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Results. A gap was identified between experiences of teaching content that focused on sources and order, and experiences of assessment criteria applied to students' work that focused on the importance of correct facts and the analysis of information. These findings indicate a highly restricted range of teaching contents when compared with the four theoretical approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Conclusion. Teaching information seeking might be enhanced by a wider repertoire of contents reflecting more varied theoretical understanding developed in information seeking research, particularly as regards the importance of content and context related to user perspectives.
Information Technology is the core capability required to align our resources and increase our effectiveness on the battlefield by integrating and coordinating our preventative measures and responses...
Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Artz, David R
This article provides surgical pathologists an overview of health information systems (HISs): what they are, what they do, and how such systems relate to the practice of surgical pathology. Much of this article is dedicated to the electronic medical record. Information, in how it is captured, transmitted, and conveyed, drives the effectiveness of such electronic medical record functionalities. So critical is information from pathology in integrated clinical care that surgical pathologists are becoming gatekeepers of not only tissue but also information. Better understanding of HISs can empower surgical pathologists to become stakeholders who have an impact on the future direction of quality integrated clinical care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Future of Information Architecture examines issues surrounding why information is processed, stored and applied in the way that it has, since time immemorial. Contrary to the conventional wisdom held by many scholars in human history, the recurrent debate on the explanation of the most basic categories of information (eg space, time causation, quality, quantity) has been misconstrued, to the effect that there exists some deeper categories and principles behind these categories of information - with enormous implications for our understanding of reality in general. To understand this, the b
Tipton, Harold F
Since 1993, the Information Security Management Handbook has served not only as an everyday reference for information security practitioners but also as an important document for conducting the intense review necessary to prepare for the Certified Information System Security Professional (CISSP) examination. Now completely revised and updated and in its fifth edition, the handbook maps the ten domains of the Information Security Common Body of Knowledge and provides a complete understanding of all the items in it. This is a ...must have... book, both for preparing for the CISSP exam and as a c
This landmark textbook takes a whole subject approach to Information Science as a discipline. Introduced by leading international scholars and offering a global perspective on the discipline, this is designed to be the standard text for students worldwide. The authors' expert narrative guides you through each of the essential building blocks of information science offering a concise introduction and expertly chosen further reading and resources.Critical topics covered include:foundations: concepts, theories and historical perspectivesorganising and retrieving Information information behaviour,
Chowdhury, G G
Professor Gobinda Chowdhury BSc Hons, MSc, PhD, FCLIP is Professor in Information Science at iSchool@northumbria, and Head of the Department of Mathematics and Information Sciences at Northumbria University. Before joining Northumbria University he was a Professor and Director of the Centre for Information and Knowledge Management at the University of Technology Sydney, Australia. For over 25 years he has worked as an academic and researcher in information science in different parts of the world including Asia, Africa, Europe and Australia. For the past few years he has been actively involved
Leuchs, Gerd; Beth, Thomas
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 SimulationofHamiltonians... References... 1 1 1 3 5 8 10 2 Quantum Information Processing and Error Correction with Jump Codes (G. Alber, M. Mussinger...
Eng, T. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E. [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)
The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset contains all Brownfield facility data. It includes all information necessary to track Brownfields grant recipients' environmental progress at Brownfield...
Weissenberger, Lynnsey K.
This dissertation, titled "Investigating Music Information Objects," is a study of the nature, description, representations, and ideas related to music information objects (MIOs). This research study investigates how music practitioners from various traditions describe and conceptualize MIOs, using a theoretical framework to classify…
Taylor, Andy; Finch, Amanda; Sutton, David; Taylor, Andy
In today's technology-driven environment, there is an ever-increasing demand for information delivery. A compromise has to be struck between security and availability. This book is a pragmatic guide to information assurance for both business professionals and technical experts. This second edition includes the security of cloud-based resources.
health information system can mean peoples' basic needs are unmet. Reducing silos and ensuring community input. Through its Governance and Equity in. Health Systems (GEHS) program, IDRC invests in research and training to help low- and middle-income countries strengthen their health information systems. The aim ...
Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.
The document presents a collection of articles about heroin. Article 1 provides general information on heroin identification, drug dependence, effects of abuse, cost, source of supply, and penalties for illegal heroin use. Article 2 gives statistical information on heroin-related deaths in the District of Columbia between 1971 and 1982. Article 3…
Begeman, K.; Belikov, A. N.; Boxhoorn, D. R.; Dijkstra, F.; Holties, H.; Meyer-Zhao, Z.; Renting, G. A.; Valentijn, E. A.; Vriend, W. -J.
In this paper, we present a newly designed and implemented scientific information system for the LOFAR Long Term Archive. It is a distributed multi-tier storage and data processing system that allows a number of users to process Petabytes of data. The LOFAR Information System is designed on the base
Stewart C. Myers
This paper develops a signaling model in which accounting information improves real investment decisions. Pure cash flow reporting is shown to lead to underinvestment when managers have superior information but are acting in shareholders' interests. Accounting by prespecified, "objective" rules alleviates the underinvestment problem.
In 2012, more than a decade after the original Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (hereafter the Standards) were institutionalized as the goal of academic library instruction, the Information Literacy Competency Standards Review Task Force convened by ACRL recommended…
Weiner, Sharon A.
There is increasing recognition that information literacy is essential for individual and community empowerment, workforce readiness, and global competitiveness. However, there is a history of difficulty in integrating information literacy with the postsecondary educational process. This paper posits that a greater understanding of the…
The paper describes the development in Tanzania, in terms of information and communication technologies and how these developments have influenced people's daily life.......The paper describes the development in Tanzania, in terms of information and communication technologies and how these developments have influenced people's daily life....
The introduction of the Internet has made it very easy to gain information on any topic imaginable. The downside of this development is that it has become much harder to evaluate the credibility of this information, as it is often unclear who the author is. In this dissertation, the way Internet
Library _info_Sc_ 1
much as possible to exploit the benefits brought by information and communication technologies (ICTs) as an alternative to its services and for easy access, retrieval and dissemination of information to it users. Introduction. The Northern Nigerian area has been one of the earliest regions of West Africa with a literary tradition ...
Wentling, Rose Mary; Thomas, Steven P.
There is a major concern about the drop of young women entering Computer Science degree programs and a drop in the participation of women in these information technology occupations. In all levels of educational institutions across the nation, girls and women remain under-represented in computer and information science studies and subsequently,…
Alterescu, S.; Hipkins, K. R.; Friedman, C. A.
On-line interactive information processing system easily and rapidly handles all aspects of data management related to patient care. General purpose system is flexible enough to be applied to other data management situations found in areas such as occupational safety data, judicial information, or personnel records.
Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James
An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.
Some of the information we receive comes to us in an explicitly conditional form. It is an open question how to model the accommodation of such information in a Bayesian framework. This paper presents data suggesting that there may be no strictly Bayesian account of updating on conditionals.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the functioning of distributed networks such as the brain, it is important to characterize their ability to integrate information. The paper considers a measure based on effective information, a quantity capturing all causal interactions that can occur between two parts of a system. Results The capacity to integrate information, or Φ, is given by the minimum amount of effective information that can be exchanged between two complementary parts of a subset. It is shown that this measure can be used to identify the subsets of a system that can integrate information, or complexes. The analysis is applied to idealized neural systems that differ in the organization of their connections. The results indicate that Φ is maximized by having each element develop a different connection pattern with the rest of the complex (functional specialization while ensuring that a large amount of information can be exchanged across any bipartition of the network (functional integration. Conclusion Based on this analysis, the connectional organization of certain neural architectures, such as the thalamocortical system, are well suited to information integration, while that of others, such as the cerebellum, are not, with significant functional consequences. The proposed analysis of information integration should be applicable to other systems and networks.
Malinconico, S. Michael
Describes some of the new roles and challenges librarians face with the development of new information technologies such as computer networks and document delivery systems. It is argued that librarians will increasingly fill the role of information intermediary as patrons take advantage of end-user systems. (12 references) (LAE)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 7. Glimpses of R & D Work in BARC. M R Balakrishnan. Information and Announcements Volume 3 Issue 7 July 1998 pp 92-96 ... Head, Library & Information Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (Bombay) 400085 India.
Deutsch, David; Marletto, Chiara
We propose a theory of information expressed solely in terms of which transformations of physical systems are possible and which are impossible-i.e. in constructor-theoretic terms. It includes conjectured, exact laws of physics expressing the regularities that allow information to be physically instantiated. Although these laws are directly about information, independently of the details of particular physical instantiations, information is not regarded as an a priori mathematical or logical concept, but as something whose nature and properties are determined by the laws of physics alone. This theory solves a problem at the foundations of existing information theory, namely that information and distinguishability are each defined in terms of the other. It also explains the relationship between classical and quantum information, and reveals the single, constructor-theoretic property underlying the most distinctive phenomena associated with the latter, including the lack of in-principle distinguishability of some states, the impossibility of cloning, the existence of pairs of variables that cannot simultaneously have sharp values, the fact that measurement processes can be both deterministic and unpredictable, the irreducible perturbation caused by measurement, and locally inaccessible information (as in entangled systems).