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Sample records for lepidium draba infestations

  1. Phenology and temperature-dependent development of Ceutorhynchus assimilis, a potential biological control agent for Lepidium draba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart-podded hoary cress (Lepidium draba) is an alien weed that has invaded rangeland in the northwestern USA. A host race (i;e; host-specific biotype) of the weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis, is being evaluated as a prospective biological control agent. This biotype is only known from southern Eur...

  2. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF PARSLEY (Petroselinum crispum Mill. COGERMINATION, WATER EXTRACTS AND RESIDUES ON HOARY CRESS (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ravlić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine allelopathic effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill. on germination and growth parameters of weed species hoary cress (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.. Cogermination of hoary cress with parsley seeds, water extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass in concentrations of 5 and 10% (50 and 100 g per litre of distilled water were evaluated in Petri dishes. Effect of water extracts from fresh parsley biomass in aforementioned concentrations as well as effects of fresh and dry parsley residues in two rates (10 and 20 g/kg of soil were examined in pots with soil. Cogermination of seeds stimulated root length, but decreased shoot length and fresh weight of hoary cress seedlings. In the Petri dish assay, extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass reduced germination of hoary cress, but had both stimulatory as well as inhibitory effect on other parameters. The highest concentration of dry biomass extract completely reduced germination rate of hoary cress (by 100%. In the pot experiment, extracts from fresh parsley biomass had stimulatory effect on weed growth parameters except for root length which was inhibited with higher concentration by 4.2%. Fresh parsley residues reduced germination, root and shoot length of hoary cress, while dry parsley residues promoted measured parameters, with the exception of root length.

  3. Phytotoxical effect of Lepidium draba L. extracts on the germination and growth of monocot (Zea mays L.) and dicot (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yusuf; Aksakal, Ozkan; Sunar, Serap; Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Bozari, Sedat; Agar, Guleray; Erez, Mehmet Emre; Battal, Peyami

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to determine phytotoxic potentials of white top (Lepidium draba) methanol extracts (root, stem and leaf) on germination and early growth of corn (Zea mays) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). Furthermore, the effects of different methanol extracts of L. draba on the phytohormone (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin) levels of corn and redroot pigweed were investigated. It was observed that all concentrations of methanol extracts of root, stem and leaf of L. draba inhibited germination, radicle and plumule elongation when compared with the respective controls. Besides this, the degree of inhibition was increased in concert with increasing concentrations of extracts used. On the other hand, phytohormone levels changed with the application of different extract concentrations. Comparing with the control, the GA levels significantly decreased while the ABA levels increased in all the application groups. Zeatin and IAA levels showed changes depending upon the applied extracts and concentrations. © The Author(s) 2012.

  4. Ameliorative effect of Draba nemorosa extract on chronic heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Cardiology, The Second People's Hospital of Huai'an, 2Pediatric Surgery, Huai'an Maternity and Children ... treating cardiovascular diseases. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of DNE on CHF in a rat model. EXPERIMENTAL. Materials. Draba nemorosa ... Drug administration began from.

  5. Ameliorative effect of Draba nemorosa extract on chronic heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of Draba nemorosa extract (DNE) on oxidative stress and hemodynamics in rats with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). Methods: Adriamycin was used to establish CHF in Sprague Dawley (SD) rat model. Six groups of SD rats were used in this study: control group, CHF group, captopril ...

  6. New Lepidium (Brassicaceae) from New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, P. J.; Heenan, P. B.; Houliston, G. J.; Rolfe, J. R.; Mitchell, A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA). One species, Lepidium castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with Lepidium oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, Lepidium amissum sp. nov. and Lepidium obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from Lepidium banksii, Lepidium flexicaule and Lepidium oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (Lepidium aegrum sp. nov., Lepidium crassum sp. nov. and Lepidium juvencum sp. nov.). One of these, Lepidium juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (Lepidium flexicaule, Lepidium oblitum sp. nov., Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., Lepidium panniforme sp. nov., and Lepidium rekohuense sp. nov.), one of which, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, Lepidium seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to Lepidium oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for Lepidium banksii, Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum. PMID:23794938

  7. Genetics of cryptic speciation within an Arctic mustard, Draba nivalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Lovisa S Gustafsson

    Full Text Available Crossing experiments indicate that hybrid sterility barriers frequently have developed within diploid, circumpolar plant species of the genus Draba. To gain insight into the rapid evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation in this system, we augmented the linkage map of one of these species, D. nivalis, and searched for quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with reproductive isolation. The map adds 63 new dominant markers to a previously published dataset of 31 co-dominant microsatellites. These markers include 52 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs and 11 sequence-specific amplified polymorphisms (SSAPs based on retrotransposon sequence. 22 markers displaying transmission ratio distortion were further included in the map. We resolved eight linkage groups with a total map length of 894 cM. Significant genotype-trait associations, or quantitative trait loci (QTL, were detected for reproductive phenotypes including pollen fertility (4 QTLs, seed set (3 QTLs, flowering time (3 QTLs and number of flowers (4 QTLs. Observed patterns of inheritance were consistent with the influence of both nuclear-nuclear interactions and chromosomal changes on these traits. All seed set QTLs and one pollen fertility QTL displayed underdominant effects suggestive of the involvement of chromosomal rearrangements in hybrid sterility. Interestingly, D. nivalis is predominantly self-fertilizing, which may facilitate the establishment of underdominant loci and contribute to reproductive isolation.

  8. Spatial relationships between seed bank and seedling populations of Hordeum spontaneum and Cardaria draba in saffron (Crocus sativus L. fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hasan makariyan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Geostatistical techniques were used to characterize the spatial relationship between Hordeum spontaneum and Cardaria draba seedling and seed bank over the course of one growing season (2004-2005 in three saffron fields, located in Southern Khorasan, Iran. The density and spatial distribution of weeds varied widely with fields. The emergence percentage was higher for Cardaria draba than for H. spontaneum in all fields. Semivariograms showed spatial autocorrelation in seed bank and seedling populations of H. spontaneum and C. draba in all fields. Cross-semivariograms showed moderate to strong (63.3 to 94.7% and strong spatial continuity (78.4 to 95.4 %. between seed bank and seedling population densities of H. spontaneum and C. draba, respectively. Grey-scale field maps of C. draba seed banks corresponded visually to maps of seedling populations and could have been used to target control efforts, but visual correspondence between H. spontaneum seed bank and seedling maps was poor. Seed bank and seedling mapping may be useful for site-specific management, but additional information is needed to understand variation in the relationships between these two populations over time and space.

  9. Lepidium flavum Torrey var. apterum nob

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.; Thellung, A.

    1918-01-01

    Wie bekannt, ist TORREY’S Lepidium flavum sehr ausgezeichnet durch die gelbe Krone mit der zweizähnigen Frucht und dem sehr langen hervorragenden Griffel *). Lepidium flavum gehört also zur Sektion Monoploca (BUNGE 1845 pro gen.) THELLUNG, und zwar speziell zur Grex Alyssoidea THELL. ¹) Bei einer

  10. leech infestation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... fish, amphibians, and mammals. Infestation occurs by drinking infested water from quiet streams, pools and springs. They attach to their hosts ... trauma, foreign body ingestion, throat pain, fever, dysphagia and drug intake. He has no malena, haematuria, epistaxis or ecchymotic spots on the body. He had ...

  11. Kaempferol glycosides and cardenolide glycosides, cytotoxic constituents from the seeds of Draba nemorosa (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Surk-Sik; Rahman, Md Aziz Abdur; Manir, Md Maniruzzaman; Jamal Ahamed, V S

    2010-08-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of a methanolic extract from the seeds of Draba nemorosa (Brassicaceae) led to isolation of a new flavonol glycoside, drabanemoroside (5, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranose) along with four known flavonoid derivatives (1-4), four cardenolide glycosides (6-9). Kaempferol glycosides 2 and 5 showed strong cytotoxicity against human small lung cancer cell line A549 and melanoma SK-Mel-2 with an IC(50) of 0.5 microg/mL and 1.9 microg/mL, respectively. Cardenolide glycosides 6-9 showed potent cytotoxicity (A549) in the range of 0.01-0.032 microg/mL. Their structures were characterized based on spectroscopic data (2D NMR, HRTOFMS, IR, and UV) and comparison of literature values. The carbohydrate units were also confirmed by comparing the hydrolysate of 5 with authentic monosaccharides.

  12. [Chemical constituents of Lepidium meyenii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wen-juan; Xu, Hong-bo; Yang, Cai-yan; Geng, Chang-an; Zhang Xue-mei; Chen, Ji-jun

    2015-12-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Lepidium meyenii, the air-dried rhizome of L. meyenii was extracted with 70% EtOH. The extract was condensed to a small amount of volume and extracted with petroleum ether, EtOAc and n-BuOH, successively. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography, and identified based on spectral analyses (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HRESIMS). Eighteen compounds were isolated from L. meyenii, including 7 alkaloids and 4 fatty acids and 7 other compounds. They were characterized as (3-hydroxybenzyl) carbamic acid(1), phenylmethanamine(2), N-benzylformamide (3), N-benzylacetamide (4), pyridin-4-ylmethanamine(5), n-(4-methoxybenzyl) aniline(6), uracil(7), succininc acid(8), decanedioic acid(9), n-hexa- decanoic acid methyl ester(10), heptanoic acid(11), solerole(12), pyromucic acid methyl ester(13), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancar- boxadehyde(14), 5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde(15), 1,7-dihydroxy-2,3, 4-trimethoxyxanthone (16), 1,7-di- hydroxy-3,4- dimethoxy-xanthone(17), (+)-pinoresinol(18). Meanwhile, compounds 1-18 were obtained from L. neyenii for the first time.

  13. Dermatologic infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmidt, Eugenia; Levitt, Jacob

    2012-02-01

    Head lice are transmitted by head to head contact. Optimal therapy includes malathion lotion 0.5% repeated in one week left on for 30 minutes to 8 hours. Spinosad topical suspension 0.9% repeated in one week left on for 10 minutes is another option. Scabies is transmitted mainly by direct contact but also via heavily infested fomites due to crusted scabies. Permethrin 5% cream to the body repeated in four days is often sufficient; however, scalp treatment with malathion lotion 0.5% is helpful in crusted scabies and in infested children. Oral ivermectin 200 mcg/kg is another option, repeated in four days. For scabies more than lice, fomites should be placed in a drier at 60 °C for 10 minutes to kill the arthropods. Treatment of close contacts in both cases will control outbreaks and repeated infestations. Both have been associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Bed bugs are a common cause for papular urticaria. Identification of the insect in the mattress or bedding confirms the diagnosis. Prevention involves encasing the mattress in a sealed plastic cover and extermination. Delusions of parasitosis is a diagnosis of exclusion that is best treated with an antipsychotic. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Delusional infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenmann, Roland W; Lepping, Peter

    2009-10-01

    This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme "infestation" is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed "Morgellons disease" can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol.

  15. Lepidium latifolium L.: een nieuw pekeladventief?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Lepidium latifolium, originally a species of salt steppes, has been found at two localities near Leiden between pavement along road-sides. Its new habitat may have become suitable for it because of the frequent use of road-salt in winter.

  16. Synergistic antiosteoporotic effect of Lepidium Sativum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alendronate belongs to a class of drugs called bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates (BP) therapy is a vital option to reduce the risk of bone fracture in people who suffer from osteoporosis. Yet, bisphosphonate have displayed several side effects. Lepidium sativum (LS) seeds have been used in traditional folk medicine to ...

  17. Intra-individual variation and evolution of modular structure in Draba plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorieva, Olga V; Cherdantsev, Vladimir G

    2014-09-01

    We studied the evolution of quantitative traits related to shoot system architecture in a large genus Draba (Brassicaceae) making emphasis on the dynamics of relationship between individual and intra-individual variation. The results suggest that selection leading to origin of different life forms arises mainly from a necessity of moderation of the non-adaptive contest between the egoistic plant modules, taking care of self-reproduction of their own. We separated two evolutionary trends, one leading to the formation of short-lived monocarpic, and the other to long-lived polycarpic forms from the short-lived polycarpic plants. The first trend concerns with transformation of the innovation shoots into the axillary inflorescences by shortening of their vegetative developmental phase, while the second one - with individuation of the plant modules owing to acquisition of the capacity of rooting and separating from the mother plant. In both trends, the turning points of the evolution are those of originating of the negative for individual plants interactions between the plant modules being indirect non-adaptive consequences of the previous adaptive evolution and initiating selection for rebuilding of the plant modular structure. The difference between selection operating on intra-individual and individual variations is that, in the first case, combining of the characters of different individuals is infeasible. This leaves no choice for the evolution but to change the developmental mechanisms. In the case considered in this work, this is a change in shoot architecture using the material afforded by the natural variability of developmental pathways of the plant modules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New Lepidium (Brassicaceae from New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter de Lange

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA. One species, L. castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with L. oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, L. amissum sp. nov. and L. obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from L. banksii, L. flexicaule and L. oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (L. aegrum sp. nov., L. crassum sp. nov. and L. juvencum sp. nov.. One of these, L. juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (L. flexicaule, L. oblitum sp. nov., L. oleraceum, L. oligodontum sp. nov., L. panniforme sp. nov., and L. rekohuense sp. nov., one of which, L. oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, L. seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to L. oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for L. banksii, L. oleraceum, L. oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum.

  19. Neuroprotective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino-Figueroa, Alejandro; Nguyen, Diane; Maher, Timothy J

    2010-06-01

    The neuroprotective activity of the plant Lepidium meyenii (Maca) was studied in two experimental models: in vitro and in vivo. Crayfish neurons were pretreated with vehicle or the pentane extract from Maca, subjected to H(2)O(2), and their viability determined microscopically and chemically. A significant concentration-neuroprotective effect relationship was demonstrated. The pentane extract was then administered intravenously to rats prior to and following middle cerebral artery occlusion. While infarct volumes were decreased for the lower dose, higher doses increased infarct volumes compared to controls. These results suggest a potential application of Maca as a neuroprotectant.

  20. [Quality control of Maca (Lepidium meyenii)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Ji-cheng; Cui, Hang-qing; Huang, Ying-zheng; Huang, Xiao-ying; Yang, Ming

    2015-12-01

    To control the quality of Maca, the quality standard was established in this study. According to the methods recorded in the Appendix of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 Edition), the water, extract, total ash, acid insoluble substance, and heavy metals inspections in Lepidium meyenii were carried out. N-benzyl-9Z, 12Z-octadecadienamide in L. meyenii was identified by TLC, and it was determined by HPLC. The results showed that the N-benzyl-9Z, 12Z-octadecadienamide identification of TLC was a strong mark and specificity. In content determination experiment, the linearity of N-benzyl-9Z, 12Z-octadecadienamide was in the range of 0.01-2 microg (r = 0.9998), and the average recovery (n=9) was 99.27% (RSD 2.0%). The methods were simple, accurate, with good reproducibility. It is suitable for quality control L. meyenii.

  1. Chemical constituents from maca (lepidium meyenii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Z.; Li, M.J.; Ma, L.; Li, L.

    2016-01-01

    Two new natural products, tetrahydro-2-benzyl-1H-pyrrolo-(1,2-C) imidazole-1,3(2H) -dione (1) and (1S,4R,4aR,9aS)-4a-methyl-1,4,4a,9a- tetrahydro-1,4-methano-anthracene-9,10-dione (2), together with eleven known compounds (3-13) were isolated from the petroleum ether fraction of the 95% ethanol extract from the tubers of Lepidium meyenii. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 were new natural products, compounds 3, 4, 7-11, and 13 were isolated from L. meyenii for the first time. In addition, the spectroscopic data of compound 1 were firstly reported. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis along with comparison with literature reports. (author)

  2. Effects of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum on Cyclosporine Pharmacokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jenoobi, F. I.; Al-Suwayeh, S. A.; Muzaffar, Iqbal; Al-Kharfy, Khalid M.; Korashy, Hesham M.; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M.; Raish, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in rabbits. Two groups of animals were treated separately with Nigella sativa (200 mg/kg p.o.) or Lepidium sativum (150 mg/kg p.o.) for eight consecutive days. On the 8th day, cyclosporine (30 mg/kg p.o.) was administered to each group one hour after herbal treatment. Blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12, and 24 hrs) from marginal ear vein. Cyclosporine was analyzed using UPLC/MS method. The coadministration of Nigella sativa significantly decreased the C max and AUC0−∞ of cyclosporine; the change was observed by 35.5% and 55.9%, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). Lepidium sativum did not produce any significant change in C max of cyclosporine, although its absorption was significantly delayed compared with control group. A remarkable change was observed in T max and AUC0−t of Lepidium sativum treated group. Our findings suggest that concurrent consumption of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum could alter the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine at various levels. PMID:23957013

  3. Treatment of scabies infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumcuoglu K.Y.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is an intensely pruritic disorder induced by an immune allergic response to infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The biology of the mite, the clinical aspects and diagnosis of scabies infestations as well as the treatment of choice with 5 % permethrin dermal cream and the use of scabicides based on other chemical substances are reviewed.

  4. A synopsis of the South American Lepidium (Brassicaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz

    2010-01-01

    Cincuenta especies nativas y 12 naturalizadas de Lepidium crecen en América del Sur, se presenta una clave para las 62 especies. Se describen e ilustran tres nuevas especies de Argentina (L. hickenii, L. pedersenii y L. santacruzensis) y dos para Perú (L. cuzcoensis y L. werffii), y se discuten sus relaciones con sus especies más afines. Se propone Lepidium crassius comb. nov., se designa lectotipo para 19 binomios (Coronopus didymus var. macrocarpus, C. didymus var. procumbens, L. abrotanifo...

  5. New alkamides from maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianping; Muhammad, Ilias; Dunbar, D Chuck; Mustafa, Jamal; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2005-02-09

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) has been used as a food in Peru for thousands of years. More recently a wide array of commercial maca products have gained popularity as dietary supplements, with claims of anabolic and aphrodisiac effects, although the biologically active principles are not fully known. In an earlier chemical investigation, two new alkamides and a novel fatty acid, as well as the N-hydroxypyridine derivative, macaridine, were isolated from L. meyenii. Further examination has led to the isolation of five additional new alkamides, namely, N-benzyl-9-oxo-12Z-octadecenamide (1), N-benzyl-9-oxo-12Z,15Z-octadecadienamide (2), N-benzyl-13-oxo-9E,11E-octadecadienamide (3), N-benzyl-15Z-tetracosenamide (4), and N-(m-methoxybenzyl)hexadecanamide (5). Their structures were established by spectrometric and spectroscopic methods including ESI-HRMS, EI-MS, (1)H, (13)C, and 2D NMR, as well as (1)H-(15)N 2D HMBC experiments. In addition, the identity of N-benzyl-15Z-tetracosenamide (4) was confirmed by synthesis. These compounds have been found from only L. meyenii and could be used as markers for authentication and standardization.

  6. The in vitro biological activity of Lepidium meyenii extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valentová, K.; Buckiová, Daniela; Křen, Vladimír; Pěknicová, Jana; Ulrichová, J.; Šimánek, V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2006), s. 91-99 ISSN 0742-2091 R&D Projects: GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Lepidium meyenii * Maca * DPPH Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.400, year: 2006

  7. Infestation caused by acanthocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An on-line case of infestation caused by M. moniliformis is descripted. This rodents’ worm, belonging to acanthocephala, can be rarely responsible of human intestinal pathology. The case is the pretext for a brief revision on this parasitosis. So, biological, epidemiological, clinical and diagnostical findings are reported.

  8. Polymorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers in the octoploid Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae) and cross-species amplification in Lepidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Nabeeh A; Mummenhoff, Klaus; Quiros, Carlos F; Tay, C David; Bailey, C Donovan

    2010-10-01

    As a crop and medicinal plant, the octoploid Andean endemic Lepidium meyenii suffers from taxonomic uncertainty. Few molecular markers are available to genotype individuals or track gene flow in wild and cultivated material. • Using available sequence data, eight cpSSR primer pairs were developed for L. meyenii. Levels of polymorphism checked in 56 individual L. meyenii, including cultivated and wild material, revealed that the number of alleles per locus ranged from three to five, and intrapopulation allele frequencies ranged from 0.071 to 1.0. Polymerase-chain-reaction screens using our cpSSR primers in 27 other Lepidium species and three Coronopus species suggested a high degree of interspecific amplification. • These polymorphic cpSSR markers should prove useful in characterizing genetic variation among cultivated and wild L. meyenii. Additionally, interspecific amplifications suggest that these markers will be useful for the study of related taxa.

  9. Peruvian Maca: Two Scientific Names Lepidium Meyenii Walpers and Lepidium Peruvianum Chacon – Are They Phytochemically-Synonymous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Henry O.; Mscisz, Alina; Kedzia, Bogdan; Pisulewski, Pawel; Piatkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) , profiles of the two isotypes labelled under the same common name Maca deposited in the Medicinal Plant Herbarium, in Australia and Poland, but identified under two different scientific names Lepidium meyenii Walpers (L. meyenii) and Lepidium peruvianum Chacon (L. peruvianum) are presented. The two isotypes correspond to two holotypes of Peruvian medicinal herb known under the same common name “Maca”, as originally deposited in the Herbarium of San Marcos University in Lima, Peru dated back to 1843 and 1990 respectively. The results demonstrate distinct differences in taxonomy, visual appearance, phytochemical profiles and DNA sequences of the two researched Maca isotypes, suggesting that the two Maca specimens are dissimilar and formal use of the term “synonymous” to L. meyenii and L. peruvianum may be misleading. On the basis of presented results the scientific name L. meyenii, used since 1843 up-today for cultivated Peruvian Maca by numerous reference sources worldwide, including Regulatory Bodies in the USA, EU, Australia and most lately in China, appears to be used in error and should be formally revised. It is concluded, that the isotype of cultivated Peruvian Maca labelled under its scientific name Lepidium peruvianum Chacon, provides all the characteristics peculiar to this historically-documented herb grown in Andean highlands, which may be linked to its traditional use and accepted functionality, confirmed in recent clinical study to be relevant to its present day use for expected dietary, therapeutic and health benefits.

  10. A synopsis of the South American Lepidium (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cincuenta especies nativas y 12 naturalizadas de Lepidium crecen en América del Sur, se presenta una clave para las 62 especies. Se describen e ilustran tres nuevas especies de Argentina (L. hickenii, L. pedersenii y L. santacruzensis y dos para Perú (L. cuzcoensis y L. werffii, y se discuten sus relaciones con sus especies más afines. Se propone Lepidium crassius comb. nov., se designa lectotipo para 19 binomios (Coronopus didymus var. macrocarpus, C. didymus var. procumbens, L. abrotanifolium var. steinmannii, L. affine, L. argentinum, L. auriculatum, L. bonariense var. pseudovirginicum, L. calycinum var. integrifolium, L. costaricense, L. cumingianum var. orbiculatum, L. cumingianum subsp. berteroanum, L. depressum, L. myrianthum, L. neglectum, L. parodii, L. pubescens var. fallax, L. subvaginatum, L. virginicum subsp. centrali-americanum, Thlaspi campestre, y se reducen a sinónimos otros 17 nombres (Coronopus leptocarpus, C. leptocarpus var. microcarpus, L. boelckii, L. bonariense var. gayi, L. bonariense var. pseudovirginicum, L. brevicaule, L. calycinum, L. danielsii, L. demissum, L. kalenbornii, L. morrisonii, L. peruvianum, L. philippianum var. boliviense, L. raimondii, L. scabrifructum, L. spicatum var. caylx-persistente, L. subvaginatum. L. depressum y L. rahmeri son nuevos registros para la Argentina.

  11. Presence of oligosaccharides in seed-coat mucilage of Lepidium sativum : role in allelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Amjad

    2010-01-01

    Lepidimoide is a naturally occurring disaccharide reported to be an oligosaccharin, i.e. to exhibit ‘hormone-like’ biological activity. It was found in cress (Lepidium sativum) root exudates and exerts apparently allelopathic effects on neighbouring Amaranthus seedlings. In the present study the effect of cress root exudates on hypocotyl and root length of Amaranthus caudatus and Lactuca sativa was studied. The seedlings of both species grown with Lepidium sativum seedlings had...

  12. Optimization of the new formulation of ice cream with native Iranian seed gums (Lepidium perfoliatum and Lepidium sativum) using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari-Anpar, M; Soltani Tehrani, N; Aghajani, N; Khomeiri, M

    2017-01-01

    In this study, effect of Qodume shahri ( Lepidium perfoliatum ) and cress ( Lepidium sativum ) on rheological properties of ice cream were investigated. The gums were added to the ice cream formulation and different quality attributes including pH, acidity, melting characteristics, viscosity, overrun, texture analysis and sensory evaluation were determined. Results showed that ice cream formulations containing both the gums had improved overrun, melting rate, first dripping time, viscosity, hardness and adhesiveness. The gum concentrations beyond 0.2% level led to a negative effect on gumminess and chewiness of ice cream. Both the gums addition to improved quality attributes and textural properties of ice cream.

  13. Antiamoebic activity of benzyl glucosinolate from Lepidium virginicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Fernando; Barbosa, Elizabeth; Cedillo-Rivera, Roberto

    2003-06-01

    In a continuation of our search for potential antiprotozoal agents from plants, we found that a crude extract from the roots of Lepidium virginicum exhibited antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites (IC(50) of 100.1 micro g/mL). Bioassay-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of one known glucosinolate responsible for such activity. This compound was identified as benzyl glucosinolate. It showed in vitro activity against Entamoeba histolytica strain HM1-IMSS (IC(50) of 20.4 micro g/mL). The results support the anecdotal reports for the traditional use of L. virginicum roots in the control of diarrhoea and dysentery in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Ocular leech infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee YC

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yueh-Chang Lee, Cheng-Jen Chiu Department of Ophthalmology, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC Abstract: This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix and follow in either eye. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival injection with a moving dark black–brown foreign body partly attached in the lower conjunctiva. After applying topical anesthetics, the leech, measuring 1 cm in length, was extracted under a microscope. The patient began using topical antibiotic and corticosteroid agents. By 1 week after extraction, the patient had no obvious symptoms or signs, except for a limited subconjunctival hemorrhage, and no corneal/scleral involvement was observed. Keywords: leech, ocular foreign body, conjunctival reaction, pediatric ophthalmology

  15. How do land management practices affect net ecosystem CO2 exchange of an invasive plant infestation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, O.; Detto, M.; Runkle, B.; Kelly, M.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Ecosystem gas and energy exchanges of invasive plant infestations under different land management practices have been subject of few studies and thus little is known. Our goal is to characterize seasonal changes in net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) through the processes of photosynthesis (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) of a grassland used as pasture yet infested by perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) in California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. We analyze eddy-covariance supported by environmental and canopy-scale hyperspectral reflectance measurements acquired in 2007-2009. Our study covers three summer drought periods with slightly different land management practices. Over the study period the site was subject to year-round grazing, and in 2008 the site was additionally mowed. Specific questions we address are a) how does pepperweed flowering affect GEP, b) does a mowing event affect NEE mainly through GEP or Reco, and c) can the combined effects of phenology and mowing on pepperweed NEE potentially be tracked using routinely applied remote sensing techniques? Preliminary results indicate that pepperweed flowering drastically decreases photosynthetic CO2 uptake due to shading by the dense arrangement of white flowers at the canopy top, causing the infestation to be almost CO2 neutral. In contrast, mowing causes the infestation to act as moderate net CO2 sink, mainly due to increased CO2 uptake during regrowth. We demonstrate that spectral regions other than commonly-used red and near-infrared might be more promising for pepperweed monitoring because of its spectral uniqueness during the flowering phase. Our results have important implications for land-use land-cover (LULC) change studies when biological invasions and their management alter ecosystem structure and functioning but not necessarily the respective LULC class.

  16. [Study on Chemical Constituents of Fat-soluble Extraction from Lepidium meyenii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cai-hong; Ge, Fa-huan

    2015-02-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the fat-soluble extraction from Lepidium meyenii root. Different extraction methods were studied, including supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, circumfluence extraction and steam distillation. Chemical constituents of the fat-soluble extraction from Lepidium meyenii were analyzed by GC/MS. The number of compounds isolated by the above four methods were 38, 31, 14, 21 (specific gravity less than 1 in steam distillation) , and 25 (specific gravity greater than 1 in steam distillation), accounting for 85.79%, 81.18%, 62.08%, 98.36% (specific gravity less than 1 in steam distillation) and 81.54% (specific gravity greater than 1 in steam distillation) of each total peak area, respectively. This study lays a certain foundation for further study and development of functional factors in Lepidium meyenii root.

  17. Semi-quantitative analysis of transcript accumulation in response to drought stress by Lepidium latifolium seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Singh, Sadhana; Pandey, Pankaj; Grover, Atul; Ahmed, Zakwan

    2013-09-01

    Cross-amplification of five Arabidopsis abiotic stress-responsive genes (AtPAP, ZFAN, Vn, LC4 and SNS) in Lepidium has been documented in plants raised out of seeds pre-treated with potassium nitrate (KNO 3) for assessment of enhanced drought stress tolerance. cDNA was synthesized from Lepidium plants pre-treated with KNO 3 (0.1% and 0.3%) and exposed to drought conditions (5% and 15% PEG) at seedling stage for 30 d. Transcript accumulation of all the five genes were found suppressed in set of seedlings, which were pre-treated with 0.1% KNO 3 and were exposed to 15% PEG for 30 d. The present study establishes that different pre-treatments may further enhance the survivability of Lepidium plants under conditions of drought stress to different degrees.

  18. [Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), a review of its biological properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Villaorduña, Leonidas; Gasco, Manuel; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a plant that grows above 4000 altitude meters in Peru's Central Andes; it has different varieties according to the color of the hypocotyl. This review summarizes the results of studies about the effects of maca on sexual function, spermatogenesis, female reproductive function, memory, depression and anxiety, and energy as well as effects on benign prostatic hyperplasia, osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome. Its anti-aging effect is also discussed as well as safety in consumption. Differences have been shown between the effects of the black, yellow and red maca varieties. Black maca shows the best results on spermatogenesis, memory and fatigue, while red maca is the variety that reverses the benign prostatic hyperplasia and experimentally induced osteoporosis. In addition, maca reduces the glucose levels, and its consumption is related to the lowering of blood pressure and an improved health score. Experimental studies have proven that short and long term consumption don't show in vivo and in vitro toxicity. Although experimental studies have shown that maca has diverse beneficial effects, more clinical studies are needed to confirm these results.

  19. The in vitro biological activity of Lepidium meyenii extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, K; Buckiová, D; Kren, V; Peknicová, J; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

    2006-03-01

    The biological activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts from dehydrated hypocotyls of Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae, vernacular name "maca"), was studied on rat hepatocytes and human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The extracts did not exhibit cytotoxicity in hepatocyte primary cultures up to 10 mg/ml as measured by the MTT viability test, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) leakage. Moreover, after 72 h, extracts inhibited LDH and AST leakage from the hepatocytes. When hepatocytes were intoxicated by t-butyl hydroperoxide, neither extract prevented oxidative damage. Both extracts showed weak antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging test with IC(50) values of 3.46 +/- 0.16 and 0.71 +/- 0.10 mg/ml, for aqueous and methanolic extracts, respectively. Thus, the observed effect on spontaneous enzyme leakage is probably mediated through mechanisms other than antioxidant activity. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts have shown estrogenic activity comparable with that of silymarin in MCF-7 cell line. Maca estrogenicity was exhibited in the range from 100 to 200 mug of extract per ml. The findings in the present study show that maca does not display in vitro hepatotoxicity. In contrast, a slight cytoprotective effect, probably not mediated by antioxidant capacity, was noted. Maca extracts exhibited estrogenic activity comparably to the effect of silymarin in MCF-7 cells.

  20. Composition and Physical Properties of Cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fatty acid profile and tocopherol, and phytosterol contents of crude cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oils are reported, along with yields from the corresponding seeds. The physical properties of these oils were also determined, which included oxidative stab...

  1. Crystallization of water-soluble chlorophyll-proteins from Lepidium virginicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, T; Itoh, R; Yakushiji, E

    1980-11-05

    Water-soluble chlorophyll-proteins were prepared from leaves of Lepidium virginicum, by means of ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-200. After intensive purification the chlorophyll-proteins were crystallized by dialysis against an ammonium sulfate solution.

  2. Use of Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum) in Early Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H. O.; Kapczynski, W.; Mscisz, A.; Lutomski, J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This double-blind, placebo-corrected clinical pilot study was aimed at assessing the use of hypocotyls of cruciferous Andean plant Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon), in alleviating symptoms of menopausal discomfort experienced by women in early post menopause as measured by profiles of serum hormones: Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH), Estrogen (E2) and Progesterone (PG) and as assessed by Greene’s Menopausal Index. Design: Study was conducted on 20 Caucasian healthy early-postmenopausal women volunteers during the three months period (Trial I) and on eight women during nine months period (Trial II). Hormone levels were determined in blood with a simultaneous assessment of menopausal index at the start of study, after one month use of placebo, and after two and eight months administration of 2g gelatinized Maca root powder (Maca-GO) in the form of two 500mg hard gel capsules, twice daily. Results: In comparison to placebo, after both, two and eight months administration of Maca-GO capsules to EPMW, level of FSH significantly (PMaca-GO treatment only. There was a significant (PMaca-GO when used in EPMW, depending on the length of use, was acting as a toner of hormonal processes as reflected by decrease in FSH and increased LH secretion, which stimulated production of both ovarian hormones, E2 and PG and resulted in a substantial reduction of menopausal discomfort felt by women participating in the study, with a distinctive placebo effect, thus, fully justifying further, more complex study on effectiveness of Maca-GO as a reliable alternative to HRT program. PMID:23674952

  3. Actividad leishmanicida de los extractos metanólicos de cuatro ecotipos de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (Brassicaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alzamora, Libertad; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto de Investigaciones de Ciencias Biológicas Antonio Raimondi, Laboratorio de Inmunología; Solís, Hilda; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Facultad de Medicina Humana. Instituto de Medicina Tropical «Daniel Alcides Carrión»; Rojas, Marisol; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Facultad de Medicina Humana. Instituto de Medicina Tropical «Daniel Alcides Carrión»; Calderón, Marisela; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Facultad de Medicina Humana. Instituto de Medicina Tropical «Daniel Alcides Carrión»; Fajardo, Narda; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Facultad de Medicina Humana. Instituto de Medicina Tropical «Daniel Alcides Carrión»; Quispe, Jenny; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto de Investigaciones de Ciencias Biológicas Antonio Raimondi, Laboratorio de Inmunología; Alvarez, Evelyn; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto de Investigaciones de Ciencias Biológicas Antonio Raimondi, Laboratorio de Inmunología; Colona, Erasmo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto de Investigaciones de Ciencias Biológicas Antonio Raimondi, Laboratorio de Inmunología; Torres, Dina; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto de Investigaciones de Ciencias Biológicas Antonio Raimondi, Laboratorio de Inmunología

    2013-01-01

    The classic treatment of the cutaneous leishmaniosis consists on the injection of 15-20 ampoule of Glucantine what causes serious secondary effects. This fact justifies the search of new medications what motivated the present investigation. The objective was to evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of the methanolic extracts (ME) of the white, red, purple and black ecotypes of Lepidium peruvianum Chacón (at present Lepidium meyenii Walp.) about the growth of Leishmania braziliensis peruviana i...

  4. Threats to rainfed and canal irrigated agro-ecosystems of the Punjab, Pakistan by weed infestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Ahmed, M.S.A.; Hameed, M.; Aqeel, M.

    2012-01-01

    To record the weed flora infesting the rainfed and canal irrigated arable fields in the Punjab province, three districts viz. Chakwal, Jhelum and Rawalpindi in rainfed agro-ecosystem, while three districts in canal irrigated wheat fields i.e., Sahiwal, Qasoor and Gujrat were surveyed comprehensively to examine weed spectra. Weeds occurring in various localities largely varied with the variation in the mode of irrigation i.e., Barani areas and Canal irrigated area. In Rainfed (Barani) areas Fumeria parviflora and Asphodelus tenuifolius were noted frequently while their representation was very rare or even absent in canal irrigated areas. Carthamus oxayacantha was also observed at some sites there. The only weeds growing infrequently were hardy grasses like Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus. None of the weed could cross the limits of occasional frequency level. Nevertheless, in canal irrigated areas Convolvulus arvensis, Anagalus arvensis, Chenopodium sp., Melilotus alba, Lepidium sativum, Lathyrus aphaca, Medicago denticulata, Rumex dentatus and Cynodon dactylon were frequently observed. Phalaris minor and Avena fatua formed very dense stands in many areas. Carthamus oxayacantha, Poa annua, Sonchus asper and Vicia sativa were recorded infrequently. The farmers of Sahiwal and Qasoor districts seem well informed about the importance and use of weedicides as a result the spectrum of weeds growing there was quite low and none of them could establish dense stands. (author)

  5. Extraction, purification and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides from maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Shenghua; Zhao, Qingsheng; Chen, Jinjin; Wang, Liwei; Zhang, Guifeng; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Bing

    2014-10-13

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were separated from maca (Lepidium meyenii) aqueous extract (MAE). The crude polysaccharides were deproteinized by Sevag method. During the preparation process of maca polysaccharides, amylase and glucoamylase effectively removed starch in maca polysaccharides. Four Lepidium meyenii polysaccharides (LMPs) were obtained by changing the concentration of ethanol in the process of polysaccharide precipitation. All of the LMPs were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, glucose and galactose. Antioxidant activity tests revealed that LMP-60 showed good capability of scavenging hydroxyl free radical and superoxide radical at 2.0mg/mL, the scavenging rate was 52.9% and 85.8%, respectively. Therefore, the results showed that maca polysaccharides had a high antioxidant activity and could be explored as the source of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Value of reduced / oxidized glutathione (GSH / GSSG) in diabetic rats treated with maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp)

    OpenAIRE

    Cisneros, Ruth; Oré, Raque; Arnao, Inés; Suárez, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus and its complications are public health problems. Hyperglycemia triggers harmful biochemical effects to the body, such as oxidative stress and inflammatory process. The use of medicinal plants with high antioxidant capacity as Lepidium meyenii Walp (maca) is an alternative in treatment of this disease. Objective: To determine whether ingestion of maca flour improves the relation reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in diabetic rats. Design: Experimental. Setti...

  7. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (I) Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in Three Maca Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Meissner, Henry O.; Mscisz, Alina; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Piatkowska, Ewa; Jólkowska, Justyna; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates were previously reported as physiologically-important constituents present in Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) and linked to various therapeutic functions of differently-colored Peruvian Maca hypocotyls. In two separate Trials, three colours of Maca hypocotyls “Black”, “Red” and “Yellow” (termed “Maca phenotypes”), were selected from mixed crops of Peruvian Maca for laboratory studies as fresh and after being dried. Individual Maca phenotypes were cultivated in the hi...

  8. Alien Species of Lepidium in the Flora of Romania: Invasion History and Habitat Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Culiţă SÎRBU; Adrian OPREA; Cristian Valeriu PATRICHE; Costel SAMUIL; Vasile VÎNTU

    2014-01-01

    The history of spread and habitat preferences during invasion of four alien species of Lepidium in Romania, namely L. densiflorum, L. oblongum, L. sativum, and L. virginicum are presented in this paper. The floristic records of these species, collected between 1816 and 2013, were used in the study. L. sativum was sporadically mentioned by earlier botanic references, as a casual alien plant in ruderal places. L. oblongum was reported from a single locality, but it may be considered a potential...

  9. Severe pentasomide Armillifer armillatus infestation complicated by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... including laboratory results and radiographic /computed tomography images. Conclusion: Parenchymal damage with organ dysfunction can be seen with severe A. armillatus infestation. Thus, there is a need for regular health education regarding the risk of A. armillatus infestation for individuals who consume snake meat ...

  10. Influence of simultaneous infestations of Prostephanus truncatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The specific objective was to determine the number of the insect pests at F1 and F2 and the grain weight losses caused by the simultaneous pests\\' infestations of shelled maize in the search for a control strategy. The results showed a change in adult insect numbers from F1 to F2. During single infestation the change in P.

  11. Lepidium sativum Linn.: a current addition to the family of mucilage and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Maheriya, Pankaj M; Jani, Girish K; Patil, Prasant D; Patel, Bhumit N

    2014-04-01

    Mucilage from the last decades has been found to be very attractive, interesting and useful in development of desired pharmaceutical dosage forms. Various applications of plant based mucilage have a wide potentiality in drug formulations. Lepidium sativum Linn. (family: Brassicaceae) is one of the mucilage containing fast growing, edible annual herb. Its various parts (roots, leaves and seeds) have been used to treat various human ailments. It mainly contains alkaloids, saponins, anthracene glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, flavanoids, and sterols as chief phytochemical constituents. Its seed extracts have been screened for various biological activities like hypotensive, anti-microbial, bronchodilator, hypoglycemic and allelopathic, whereas its seed coat mucilage has been isolated using different methods to make it effective excipient of desired functionality as a part of pharmaceutical applications. Through keen references of reported work on Lepidium sativum Linn., in this review, we have focused on its seed coat mucilage isolation methods, chemical constituents, pharmacological profile and versatile application of Lepidium sativum Linn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hart

    Full Text Available Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1 how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2 how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height, not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  13. A bicontinental origin of polyploid Australian/New Zealand Lepidium species (Brassicaceae)? Evidence from genomic in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierschke, Tom; Mandáková, Terezie; Lysak, Martin A; Mummenhoff, Klaus

    2009-09-01

    Incongruence between chloroplast and nuclear DNA phylogenies, and single additive nucleotide positions in internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of polyploid Australian/New Zealand (NZ) Lepidium species have been used to suggest a bicontinental hybrid origin. This pattern was explained by two trans-oceanic dispersals of Lepidium species from California and Africa and subsequent hybridization followed by homogenization of the ribosomal DNA sequence either to the Californian (C-clade) or to the African ITS-type (A-clade) in two different ITS-lineages of Australian/NZ Lepidium polyploids. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to unravel the genomic origin of polyploid Australian/NZ Lepidium species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes was applied to test the purported ITS evolution, and to facilitate chromosome counting in high-numbered polyploids. In Australian/NZ A-clade Lepidium polyploids, GISH identified African and Australian/NZ C-clade species as putative ancestral genomes. Neither the African nor the Californian genome were detected in Australian/NZ C-clade species and the Californian genome was not detected in Australian/NZ A-clade species. Five of the eight polyploid species (from 7x to 11x) displayed a diploid-like set of rDNA loci. Even the undecaploid species Lepidium muelleriferdinandi (2n = 11x = 88) showed only one pair of each rDNA repeat. In A-clade allopolyploids, in situ rDNA localization combined with GISH corroborated the presence of the African ITS-type. The nuclear genomes of African and Australian/NZ C-clade species were detected by GISH in allopolyploid Australian/NZ Lepidium species of the A-clade, supporting their hybrid origin. The presumed hybrid origin of Australian/NZ C-clade taxa could not be confirmed. Hence, it is assumed that Californian ancestral taxa experienced rapid radiation in Australia/NZ into extant C-clade polyploid taxa followed by hybridization with African species. As a

  14. Utilización de Lepidium peruvianum maca, como medio de cultivo para el crecimiento de Trypanosoma cruzi

    OpenAIRE

    Saldaña C, Charles; Córdova P, Ofelia; Instituto de Investigación en Microbiología y Parasitología Tropical. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. La Libertad, Perú.; Vargas V, Franklin; Instituto de Investigación en Microbiología y Parasitología Tropical. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. La Libertad, Perú.

    2006-01-01

    Por sus características nutritivas de alto valor, se ensayó la posible utilidad del Lepidium peruvianum maca, como un medio para cultivar Trypanosoma cruzi. Bajo condiciones experimentales se procedió a incubar epimastigotes de T. cruzi en cuatro medios de cultivo bifásicos diferentes, a base de Lepidium peruvianum maca, los cuales fueron comparados con el medio de cultivo BHI como control. La incorporación de maca como medio de cultivo permitió el crecimiento de Trypanosoma cruzi; se determi...

  15. Distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria in infested seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...

  16. Artificial infestations of Tapinanthus ogowensis (Engler) Danser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial infestations of Tapinanthus ogowensis (Engler) Danser (Loranthaceae) on three host species in the Logbessou Plateau (Douala, Cameroon). DS Didier, EON Laurier, N Din, PR Jules, T Victor, F Henri, S Georges, A Akoa ...

  17. Optimized methodology for the simultaneous extraction of glucosinolates, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from maca (Lepidium meyenii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, D.; Chirinos, R.; Barreto, O.; Noratto, G.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Maca is a highly appreciated Andean crop with multiple attributed health claims due to its assortment of bioactive compounds. The extraction parameters of glucosinolates (GLs), total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of maca (Lepidium meyenii) hypocotyls were optimized using

  18. Extraction of Lepidium apetalum Seed Oil Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Anti-Oxidant Activity of the Extracted Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuchong Tang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Lepidium apetalum seed oil and its anti-oxidant activity were studied. The SFE process was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM with a central composite design (CCD. Independent variables, namely operating pressure, temperature, time and flow rate were evaluated. The maximum extraction of Lepidium apetalum seed oil by SFE-CO2 (about 36.3% was obtained when SFE-CO2 extraction was carried out under the optimal conditions of 30.0 MPa of pressure, 70 °C of temperature, 120 min of extraction time and 25.95 L/h of flow rate. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of four fatty acids in Lepidium apetalum seed oil, with a high content (91.0% of unsaturated fatty acid. The anti-oxidant activity of the oil was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging assay and 2,2′-azino- bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS test. Lepidium apetalum seed oil possessed a notable concentration-dependent antioxidant activity, with IC50 values of 1.00 and 3.75 mg/mL, respectively.

  19. Synergistic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract from Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae) and Fagara tessmannii (Rutaceae) on male sexual organs and hormone level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembè, Dieudonné Massoma; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, G F

    2014-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii is a plant, which has been used in folk medicine to treat infertility and to increase sexual desire. However, few reports have investigated the administration of this plant with other plants having the same properties. The present investigation was designed to evaluate whether the combination of Lepidium meyenii and Fagara tessmannii can improve spermatogenesis and testosterone level in rats. Twenty male rats were treated daily for 2 weeks with the hydroalcoholic extract of Fagara tessmannii and Lepidium meyenii (Fag + MN) as follow: (vehicle), (0.01 g + 0.5 mg), (0.1 g + 5 mg) and (1 g+ 50 mg)/kg BW. At doses Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg and Fag 0.1 g/MN 5 mg, the weight of seminal vesicle, prostate, and testis significantly decreased (P Lepidium meyenii (Black Maca) with Fagara tessmannii can improve male reproductive organs activities.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF INFESTATION IN OVINE OESTROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA MOŢ

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The experimental model was been performed on 20 youth sheep, between 10-11months aged who were divided in two groups. The first group (10 animals containsonly healthy animals and represented the control group. The second group(experimental contains experimental infested animals with Oestrus ovis larvae, offirst stadium of evolution. Each sheep was been inoculated with 30 larvae onintranasal way. After three months from experimental infestation, the animals werebeen slaughtered and was made the necropsy. Were evaluated themorphopathological alterations and were been discovered the Oestrus ovis larvae.From the inoculated larvae 3 months ago were been founded 57.66 %. From these,16 % were on I stadium, 37.33 % II stadium and 4.33 % III stadium of evolution. Noclinical evident sign was observed in experimental infested sheep. This fact is inconcordance with other researchers observations, who demonstrated that theclinical reproduction of disease can be obtain only after 3-4 experimentaladministrations of Oestrus ovis larvae.

  1. Emerald ash borer infestation rates in Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric L. Smith; Andrew J. Storer; Bryan K. Roosien

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain an estimate of the infestation rate of ash trees with emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis, Fairmaire; Coleoptera; Buprestidae), across its primary infestation zone of...

  2. Relationship between head lice infestation and hair grooming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hair grooming practices and hair characteristics are some of the host related risk factors for head lice infestation. Certain hair grooming practices and characteristics have been reported to affect head lice infestation. Objective: To determine the relationship between head lice infestation and hair grooming ...

  3. Pyrantel Pamoate in Roundworm Infestations | Hatchuel | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A controlled single-blind trial was carried out to compare the effect of single-dose therapy with pyrantel pamoate (Combantrin) and piperazine citrate in children infested with Ascaris lumbricoides. Fifty-six children were treated. Pyrantel pamoate was 96,4% effective and piperazine c::itrate 82,1% effective in eradicating ...

  4. [Infestation with Enterobius vermicularis mimicking appendicitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, Afra M A; Schurink, Maarten; Koetse, Harma A; van Baren, Robertine

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infestation with the parasite Enterobius vermicularis is common in humans and is usually harmless. Anal pruritus is the most characteristic symptom, but the parasites can cause severe abdominal pain mimicking appendicitis. Early recognition can prevent an unnecessary appendectomy. A six-year-old girl reported to the accident and emergency department with pain in the lower right abdominal region. She was admitted and treated for suspected perforated appendix, following physical examination supplemented with an abdominal CT scan. After antibiotic treatment the symptoms disappeared as did the abscess, apart from a minor amount of residual infiltrate. She was then readmitted twice with recurrent abdominal pain without radiological evidence of an abdominal focus. We decided to conduct a diagnostic laparoscopy and an elective appendectomy à froid. During this procedure living worms were found in the appendix. Treatment with the anthelminthicum mebendazol was effective. Gastro-intestinal infestation with E. vermicularis is very common, especially in young children. This infestation is usually harmless, but can mimic appendicitis. This infestation is easily treatable with mebendazol.

  5. influence of simultaneous infestations of prostephanus truncatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant differences in the percentage change of adult insect numbers between single and simultaneous infestations at P< 0.01. Further, the grain ... complete development over a wide range of temperatures, 270C to 320C and between ... Aging, sexing and conditioning P. truncatus and S. zeamais. Adults were removed ...

  6. Multiple ectoparasites infest Microcebus griseorufus at Beza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple ectoparasites infest Microcebus griseorufus at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar. IA Rodriguez, E Rasoazanabary, LR Godfrey. Abstract. The mouse lemur Microcebus griseorufus at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve and general vicinity in southwestern Madagascar were surveyed for ectoparasites as ...

  7. influence of simultaneous infestations of prostephanus truncatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infestations on their reproductive performance and on the damage they cause to maize variety ZM. 621 with 12.5% moisture content. The specific objective was to determine the number of the insect pests at F1 and F2 and the grain weight losses caused by the simultaneous pests' ... IPM is a system that, in the context of the.

  8. Spread dynamics of perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) in two seasonal wetland areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Mark J.; Steinmaus, Scott J.; Gilmer, David S.; DiTomaso, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Perennial pepperweed is an invasive plant that is expanding rapidly in several plant communities in the western United States. In California, perennial pepperweed has aggressively invaded seasonal wetlands, resulting in degradation of habitat quality. We evaluated the rate and dynamics of population spread, assessed the effect of disturbance on spread, and determined the biotic and abiotic factors influencing the likelihood of invasion. The study was conducted at eight sites within two wetland regions of California. Results indicate that in undisturbed sites, spread was almost exclusively through vegetative expansion, and the average rate of spread was 0.85 m yr−1 from the leading edge. Spread in sites that were disked was more than three times greater than in undisturbed sites. While smaller infestations increased at a faster rate compared with larger populations, larger infestations accumulated more newly infested areas than smaller infestations from year to year. Stem density was consistently higher in the center of the infestations, with about 2.4 times more stems per square meter compared with the leading edge at the perimeter of the population. The invasion by perennial pepperweed was positively correlated with increased water availability but was negatively correlated with the cover of perennial and annual species. Thus, high cover of resident vegetation can have a suppressive effect on the rate of invasion, even in wetland ecosystems. On the basis of these results, we recommend that resident plant cover not be disturbed, especially in wet areas adjacent to areas currently infested with perennial pepperweed. For infested areas, management efforts should be prioritized to focus on controlling satellite populations as well as the leading edge of larger infestations first. This strategy could reduce the need for costly active restoration efforts by maximizing the probability of successful re-establishment of resident vegetation from the adjacent seedbank.

  9. Physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) liquor residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinjin; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zha, Shenghua; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Bing

    2015-11-05

    Using maca (Lepidium meyenii) liquor residue as the raw material, dietary fiber (DF) was prepared by chemical (MCDF) and enzymatic (MEDF) methods, respectively, of which the physicochemical and functional properties were comparatively studied. High contents of DF were found in MCDF (55.63%) and MEDF (81.10%). Both fibers showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, glucose adsorption capacity and glucose retardation index. MEDF showed better functional properties, which could be attributed to its higher content of DF, more irregular surface and more abundant monosaccharide composition. The results herein suggest that maca DF prepared by enzymatic method from liquor residue is a good functional ingredient in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Assesing the effect of Lepidium meyenii "Maca" on the gastric mucosa in patients with functional dyspepsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benites Goñi, Harold Eduardo; Cok García, Jaime; Bussalleu Cavero, Alejandra; Bustamente Robles, Katherine Yelenia; Zegarra Chang, Arturo; Bravo, Eduar; Bussalleu Rivera, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the histological effect of Lepidium meyenii "Maca" on the gastric mucosa in patients with functional dyspepsia. This study consists of a clinical case series, in which the effect of Maca on the gastric histopathology of 29 Peruvian patients diagnosed with functional dyspepsia was examined. The presence of H. pylori, as well as the degree and depth of the gastric mucosa inflammation was evaluated from biopsies obtained before and after the treatment based solely of Maca 3 grams per day for four weeks. Average values of the degree and depth of mucosal inflammation before and after the treatment were compared showing no statistical difference among the samples. Sixteen patients were infected with H. pylori, and they remained infected after the treatment with Maca. A four week long treatment with Maca does not produce significant changes on gastric mucosa of patients with functional dyspepsia, neither on H. pylori eradication.

  11. Effect of ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Yu, Longjiang; Ao, Mingzhang; Jin, Wenwen

    2006-04-21

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) is a cruciferous plant from the Andes of Peru. The root of Maca is traditionally employed for its supposed properties in aphrodisiacs and improving fertility, it also has been widely used to help alleviate the symptoms of menopause. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of Maca on postmenopausal osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: Sham-operated and ovariectomized groups were fed with equivolume of distilled water, and the remaining ovariectomized groups were orally administrated with ethanol extract of Maca at 0.096 and 0.24 g/kg for 28 weeks. The findings derived from the basis of bone mineral density, biomechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters indicated that higher dose of ethanol extract of Maca was effective in the prevention of estrogen deficient bone loss.

  12. Analysis of macamides in samples of Maca (Lepidium meyenii) by HPLC-UV-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollom, Megan M; Villinski, Jacquelyn R; McPhail, Kerry L; Craker, Lyle E; Gafner, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The macamides are a distinct class of secondary metabolites that have so far been found only in Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Maca). Using HPLC-UV-MS/MS, the main macamides have been identified as n-benzylhexadecanamide, n-benzyl-(9Z)-octadecenamide, n-benzyl-(9Z, 12Z)-octadecadienamide, n-benzyl-(9Z, 12Z, 15Z)-octadecatrienamide and n-benzyloctadecanamide. The identities of n-benzyl-(9Z)-octadecenamide and n-benzyl-(9Z, 12Z)-octadecadienamide were confirmed by comparison of chromatographic and spectral properties with synthetic analogues. Total macamides have been quantified by HPLC-UV in plant material from different vendors using n-benzylhexadecanamide as an external standard. The amount of macamides in the dried plant material ranged from 0.0016 to 0.0123%.

  13. 2D spectroscopy study of water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein from Lepidium virginicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alster, Jan; Lokstein, Heiko; Dostál, Jakub; Uchida, Akira; Zigmantas, Donatas

    2014-04-03

    Water-soluble chlorophyll-binding proteins (WSCPs) are interesting model systems for the study of pigment-pigment and pigment-protein interactions. While class IIa WSCP has been extensively studied by spectroscopic and theoretical methods, a comprehensive spectroscopic study of class IIb WSCP was lacking so far despite the fact that its structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. In this paper, results of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy applied to the class IIb WSCP from Lepidium virginicum are presented. Global analysis of 2D data allowed determination of energy levels and excitation energy transfer pathways in the system. Some additional pathways, not present in class IIa WSCP, were observed. The data were interpreted in terms of a model comprising two interacting chlorophyll dimers. In addition, oscillatory signals were observed and identified as coherent beatings of vibrational origin.

  14. La Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacón sp. nov. y su Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Chacon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio presenta la descripción taxonómica de un ejemplar tipo de la MACA obtenido el 9 de septiembre de 1989 cerca de Huarancaca, ciudad de Cerro de Pasco, del Departamento de Pasco, como Lepidium peruvianum Chacon sp. nov., especie nueva para el género Lepidium (CRUCIFERA, las características que la distinguen de las especies afines especialmente de Lepidium meyenii Walp. y de Lepidium gelidium Wedd. están especificadas en este estudio. Igualmente presenta el estudio fitoquímico de la MACA realizado en 1960-1962, su hábitat y aclimatación a niveles de la costa. Esta especie cuyo nombre es MACA es oriunda de los Andes Centrales del Perú y se la conoce tanto por su valor alimenticio como farmacológico desde antes de la época del incanato. Crece en los Departamentos de Pasco y Junín en altitudes de 4100 y 4300 m sobre el nivel del mar. El clima en esta región es frío y seco durante el año caracterizándose el verano (enero, febrero y marzo como lluvioso con un promedio de 250,8 mm y con una temperatura ambiental promedio de 4.8 °C. En invierno (junio, julio y agosto las lluvias son escasas llegando a 34.4 mm y el promedio de la temperatura ambiental es alrededor de 3.5 °C. Los análisis químicos de la raíz realizados en 1960 y 1961 han demostrado la presencia de glúcidos y cuatro tipos de alcaloides, presentadas en cromatografía de papel Whatman. Estos alcaloides que he denominado "Extracto alcaloideo/marzo 1961", son los principios activos que intervienen en la frecuencia de procreación y dela clara y marcada estimulación de la maduración de los folículos de Graaf realizados en experimentos con ratas y en los machos, un aumento en la cantidad de espermatozoides en los tubos seminíferos y aumento de mitosis y espermatogonia. Estos ensayos los he realizado en el Instituto de Patología de la Facultad de Medicina Humana [de la UNMSM] durante los años 1961 y 1962. Las observaciones histológicas e histoqu

  15. Flea (Pulex simulans) infestation in captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlow, Adrian G; Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A

    2006-09-01

    A pair of captive adult giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) presented heavily infested with a flea species (Pulex simulans) commonly found on Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the central United States. In this case, the flea was demonstrated to have completed its entire life cycle with the anteaters as the host. A single treatment of topical imidacloprid, coupled with removal and replacement of infested bedding, was rapidly effective at controlling the infestation and no adverse effects of the drug were noted. Control of the anteater infestation also removed the flea infestation of aardvarks in the same building.

  16. Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: a novel phytofood from Ladakh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarandeep Kaur

    Full Text Available Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (∼70-90%. Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18∶3 whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2(- scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements.

  17. Antagonistic effect of Lepidium meyenii (red maca) on prostatic hyperplasia in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Gasco, M; Malheiros-Pereira, A; Gonzales-Castañeda, C

    2008-06-01

    The plants from the Lepidium gender have demonstrated to have effect on the size of the prostate. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a Peruvian plant that grows exclusively over 4000 m above sea level. The present study was designed to determine the effect of red maca (RM) in the prostate hyperplasia induced with testosterone enanthate (TE) in adult mice. Prostate hyperplasia was induced by administering TE, and then these animals (n = 6, each group) were treated with RM or Finasteride (positive control) for 21 days. There was an additional group without prostate hyperplasia (vehicle). Mice were killed on days 7, 14 and 21 after treatment with RM. Testosterone and oestradiol levels were measured on the last day of treatment. Prostatic stroma, epithelium and acini were measured histologically. RM reduced prostate weight at 21 days of treatment. Weights of seminal vesicles, testis and epididymis were not affected by RM treatment. The reduction in prostate size by RM was 1.59 times. Histological analysis showed that TE increased 2-fold the acinar area, effect prevented in the groups receiving TE + RM for 14 (P < 0.05) and 21 (P < 0.05) days and the group receiving TE + Finasteride for 21 days (P < 0.05). TE increased prostatic stroma area and this effect was prevented by treatment with RM since 7 days of treatment or Finasteride. The reduction in prostatic stroma area by RM was 1.42 times. RM has an anti-hyperplastic effect on the prostate of adult mice when hyperplasia was induced with TE acting first at prostatic stromal level.

  18. Fine-scale predictions of perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) invasion and herbicide success in a brackish tidal marsh

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background/Question/Methods Perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium, LELA) is an aggressively invasive crucifer that is a major concern for coastal management. This plant invades a wide variety of habitats including saline wetlands, riparian areas, and upland rangelands. Traditional management actions such as hand removal and mowing are impractical for controlling pepperweed in wetland habitats. Understanding the physical factors that influence invasion and the efficacy of herbi...

  19. First Case of Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation Complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tanır, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Çınar, Gökçe

    2015-06-01

    Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications.

  20. Severe pentasomide Armillifer armillatus infestation complicated by hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyekun, Ademola A; Ukadike, Ikechukwu; Adetiloye, Victor A

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of Armillifer armillatus infestation is usually incidental, commonly via autopsy or radiography. Affected individual are usually asymptomatic. The case presented here, however, had severe thoracic and abdominal involvement with clinical manifestations. To report a case of heavy A. armillatus infestation in an adult female Nigerian rural dweller complicated by hepatic parenchyma damage. Case report from semi-urban southern Nigeria, using clinical records and imaging findings. Clinical case records, including laboratory results and radiographic /computed tomography images. Parenchymal damage with organ dysfunction can be seen with severe A. armillatus infestation. Thus, there is a need for regular health education regarding the risk of A. armillatus infestation for individuals who consume snake meat.

  1. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) enhances the serum levels of luteinising hormone in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Fumiaki; Jikyo, Tamaki; Takeda, Ryosuke; Ogata, Misato

    2014-02-03

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility benefits. This study investigated the effect of Maca on the serum pituitary hormone levels during the pro-oestrus phase. Maca powder was made from the tubers of Lepidium meyenii Walp collected, dried, and reduced to powder at the plantation in Junín Plateau and was purchased from Yamano del Perú SAC. The Maca powder was identified by chemical profiling and taxonomic methods. Two groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided feed with normal feed containing 5%, 25%, or 50% Maca powder ad libitum for 7 weeks. At 1800h of the proestrus stage, the rats were euthanised, and blood samples were collected for serum isolation. The serum pituitary hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). No significant differences in feed intake or growth rate were observed among the rats. During the pro-oestrus stage, a 4.5-fold increase (P<0.01) in luteinising hormone (LH) and a 19-fold increase (P<0.01) in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were observed in the sera of rats fed with 50% Maca powder compared with the control rats. No significant differences were observed in the levels of the other pituitary hormones, including growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A dose-dependent increase of LH serum levels was observed within the range of 3-30g Maca/kg. Furthermore, the enhancement of the LH serum levels was specific to the pro-oestrus LH surge. The present study demonstrates that Maca uniquely enhances the LH serum levels of pituitary hormones in female rats during the pro-oestrus LH surge and acts in a pharmacological, dose-dependent manner. These findings support the traditional use of Maca to enhance fertility and suggest a potential molecular mechanism responsible for its effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parasitic Infestation and Choice of Reproductive Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, A. O.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; Sá Martins, J. S.

    The Penna model is used to simulate the competition between an asexual parthenogenetic and asexual population inhabiting the same environment represented by a square lattice. With a small probability, a newborn from the sexual population mutates into an asexual one and vice versa. Then, the asexual population rapidly dominates the sexual one, which all but disappears. However, when an infestation by mutating genetically coupled parasites, that mimic trematodes that feed on gonads, is introduced, the outcome may be one in which both populations coevolve or one in which one of the populations overcomes the other, depending on the density of parasites on the lattice.

  3. Caracterización de las proteínas totales de tres ecotipos de maca (Lepidium peruvianum G. Chacón), mediante electroforesis unidimensional y bidimensional

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Monteghirfo; Armando Yarleque-Chocas

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Caracterizar las proteínas solubles que se encuentran en la raíz del Lepidium peruvianum G. Chacón, maca, mediante electroforesis unidimensional y electroforesis bidimensional. Diseño: Estudio de tipo observacional y transversal. Lugar: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición Alberto Guzmán Barrón. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Materiales: Raíces de Lepidium peruvianum G. Chacón ‘maca’ de los ecotipos blanco, amarillo y morado,...

  4. Structural Characterization and Immunomodulatory Activity of a Novel Polysaccharide from Lepidium meyenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Guang; Lai, Furao; Wu, Hui

    2016-03-09

    A novel polysaccharide named as MC-1 was isolated from the roots of Lepidium meyenii using a water extraction method. Structural characterization revealed that MC-1 had an average molecular weight of 11.3 kDa and consisted of arabinose (26.21%), mannose (11.81%), glucose (53.66%), and galactose (8.32%). The main linkage types of MC-1 were proven to be (1 → 5)-α-L-Ara, (1 → 3)-α-L-Man, (1 → 2,6)-α-L-Man, (1 → )-α-D-Glc, (1 → 4)-α-D-Glc, (1 → 6)-α-D-Glc and (1 → 6)-β-D-Gal by methylation analysis, periodate oxidation-Smith degradation and NMR analysis. The immunostimulating assay indicated that MC-1 could significantly enhance the pinocytic and phagocytic capacity and promote the NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 secretion of RAW 264.7 cells, involving toll-like receptor 2, complement receptor 3, and mannose receptor mainly. These results suggested the potential utilization of MC-1 as an attractive functional food supplement candidate for hypoimmunity population.

  5. Acute and chronic dosing of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Aaron; Gravitt, Karla; Carson, Culley C; Marson, Lesley

    2007-03-01

    The use of natural remedies for the treatment of sexual disorders is under current investigation. For generations people of the rural community in Peru have used Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Maca), because of their belief that it improves fertility and sexual desire. To determine the acute and chronic effects of Maca on male sexual behavior and to examine chronic administration of Maca on anxiety. Ejaculatory and mounting behavior and postejaculatory interval. Anxiety tests using an elevated plus maze, locomotion, and social interaction with another male. Maca (25 and 100 mg/kg) was orally administered to male rats for 30 days. Male sexual behavior was monitored after acute, 7 and 21 days of treatment. Anxiety behavior and locomotion were measured at 28-29 days using the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests. Maca treatment did not produce large changes in male sexual behavior. However, an increase in ejaculation latency and postejaculatory interval was observed after both acute and 7 days of treatment. After 21 days of treatment Maca had no effect on sexual behavior. Chronic administration of Maca did not increase locomotion or anxiety. Acute and short-term administration of Maca produced a small effect of rat male sexual behavior and long-term administration did not increase anxiety.

  6. Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Julio; Caldas, Maria; Dávila, Sonia; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2006-06-23

    Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae), known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl growing exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m altitude in the central Peruvian Andes, particularly in Junin plateau and is used traditionally to enhance fertility. Maca is a cultivated plant and different cultivars are described according to the color of the hypocotyls. The study aimed to elucidate the effect of Yellow, Red and Black Maca on cognitive function and depression in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. In all experiments OVX mice were treated during 21 days and divided in four groups: control group, Yellow Maca, Red Maca and Black Maca. Latent learning was assessed using the water finding task and the antidepressant activity of the three varieties of Maca was evaluated using the forced swimming test. Animals were sacrificed at the end of each treatment and the uterus were excised and weighed. Black Maca was the variety that showed the best response in the water finding task, particularly in the trained mice. The three varieties were effective to reduce finding latency in non trained and trained mice (P < 0.05). In the force swimming test, all varieties assessed reduced the time of immobility and increased uterine weight in OVX mice. Black Maca appeared to have more beneficial effects on latent learning in OVX mice; meanwhile, all varieties of Maca showed antidepressant activity.

  7. Purification, characterization and biological activities of a polysaccharide from Lepidium meyenii leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shufang; Hao, Limin; Kang, Qiaozhen; Cui, Yinxin; Jiang, Hui; Liu, Xin; Lu, Jike

    2017-10-01

    The characteristics and biological activities of a novel polysaccharide from Lepidium meyenii leaves (LMLP) were investigated. LMLP was purified using DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography followed by SephadexG-100 chromatography. The average molecule weight of LMLP was 58.43kDa and it was composed of galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, glucose and mannose with a relative molar ratio of 5.51:4.05:1.15:0.77:0.01. Antioxidant activity results showed that LMLP presented an EC 50 of 3.72mg/mL in scavenging 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, and it also had reducing power (OD700nm being 0.079 at 1mg/mL). Moreover, LMLP possessed the potential on stimulating immune response of RAW264.7 cells. It could promote proliferation, strengthen phagocytosis function, enhance the expression of CD80, and increase the secretion of nitric oxide (NO) in a dose-dependent manner. All of these results suggested that LMLP could be used as a natural ingredient for functional food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reduces spermatogenic damage induced by a single dose of malathion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Obregon, Eduardo; Yucra, Sandra; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2005-03-01

    To observe the effect of the aqueous extract of hypocotyls of the plant Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on spermatogenic damage induced by the organophosphate insecticide malathion in mice. Mice were treated with 80 mg/kg of malathion in the presence or absence of an aqueous extract of Maca, which was orally administered 7, 14 or 21 days after injection of the malathion. Stages of the seminiferous epithelium were assessed by transillumination on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. The administration of Maca increased significantly the length of stage VIII on days 7, 14 and 21 of treatment compared with the controls. An increase in the length of stage IX occurred on day 14 of treatment. Malathion affected spermatogenesis by reducing the lengths of stage IX on day 7, stages VII and IX-XI on day 14 and a recovery of stages IX-XII on day 21. The magnitude of alteration in the length of stage IX produced by malathion was significantly reduced by Maca on days 7 and 14. The length of stage VIII was increased when Maca was administered to mice treated with malathion. Assessment of the relative length of stages of the seminiferous epithelium showed that Maca treatment resulted in rapid recovery of the effect of malathion. Maca enhances spermatogenesis following spermatogenic damage caused by the organophosphorous pesticide.

  9. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) for treatment of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Yang, Eun Jin; Lim, Hyun-Ja; Ernst, Edzard

    2011-11-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii), an Andean plant of the brassica (mustard) family has been used for centuries in the Andes as an adaptogenic plant to manage anemia, infertility and female hormone balance. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for and against the effectiveness of the maca plant as a treatment for menopausal symptoms. We searched 17 databases from their inception up to June 2011 and included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared any type of maca-based intervention to a placebo for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane 'risk of bias' assessment tool. Four RCTs met all inclusion criteria. These RCTs tested the effects of maca on menopausal symptoms in healthy perimenopausal, early postmenopausal, and late postmenopausal women. Using the Kupperman Menopausal Index and the Greene Climacteric Score, all RCTs demonstrated favorable effects of maca. There have been very few rigorous trials of maca for menopausal symptoms. The results of our systematic review provide limited evidence for the effectiveness of maca as a treatment for menopausal symptoms. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the average methodological quality of the primary studies, were too limited to draw firm conclusions. Furthermore, the safety has not been proved yet. Therefore, the efficacy and safety should be tested in larger studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of different varieties of Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on bone structure in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Carla; Cárdenas-Valencia, Isaias; Leiva-Revilla, Johanna; Anza-Ramirez, Cecilia; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of different varieties of maca (Lepidium meyenii) on bone structure in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. 36 female rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: sham and OVX rats treated with vehicle, estradiol (40 microg/kg), black, yellow or red maca (63 mg/ml) for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment, uterine weight, femoral bone and lumbar vertebra histomorphology were assessed. Ovariectomy reduced weight, diameter and width of the femoral bone. Estradiol, black and red maca treatment reduced the effect of ovariectomy on these variables. Histological analyses revealed that estradiol, black and red maca treatments reversed the effect of ovariectomy by increasing the trabecular bone area in the second lumbar vertebra. Uterine weight was reduced in OVX rats, and estradiol but neither black nor red maca increased uterine weight. Red and black maca have protective effects on bone architecture in OVX rats without showing estrogenic effects on uterine weight. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2012-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a Peruvian plant of the Brassicaceae family cultivated for more than 2000 years, which grows exclusively in the central Andes between 4000 and 4500 m altitude. Maca is used as a food supplement and also for its medicinal properties described traditionally. Since the 90s of the XX century, an increasing interest in products from maca has been observed in many parts of the world. In the last decade, exportation of maca from Peru has increased from 1,415,000 USD in 2001 to USD 6,170,000 USD in 2010. Experimental scientific evidence showed that maca has nutritional, energizer, and fertility-enhancer properties, and it acts on sexual dysfunctions, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, memory and learning, and protects skin against ultraviolet radiation. Clinical trials showed efficacy of maca on sexual dysfunctions as well as increasing sperm count and motility. Maca is a plant with great potential as an adaptogen and appears to be promising as a nutraceutical in the prevention of several diseases.

  12. [Determination of benzyl glucosinolate in Lepidium meyenii from different regions by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lin; Yin, Hong-jun; Si, Cong-cong; Hu, Xiao-yan; Long, Zheng-hai

    2015-12-01

    The content of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) which as the enzymatic hydrolysis product of benzyl glucosinolate through thioglucosidase was determined by HPLC. The content of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) which as the enzymatic hydrolysis product of benzyl glucosinolate through thioglucosidase was determined by HPLC. The chromatography condition was as follows: Kaseisorb LC ODS 2000 (4.6 mm x 150 mm, 5 min) column with the mobile phase of acetonitrile(A)-water( B) under gradient elution (0-5 min, 3%-8% A; 5-9 min, 8%-48% A; 9-23 min, 48%-62% A; 23-28 min, 62%-99% A); the flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1) with 10 microL injection volume; detection wavelength was 246 nm and temperature of column was 40 degrees C. The content of benzyl glucosinolate was in the range of 10.76-17.91 g x L(-1). The method is simple, accurate and good reproducibility which can be used for the determination of benzyl glucosinolate in Lepidium meyenii, effectively.

  13. The use of maca (Lepidium meyenii) to improve semen quality: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Hye Won; You, Sooseong; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of maca (Lepidium meyenii) in improving semen quality. We searched 11 databases from their inception to March 2016 and included all clinical trials on the improvement of semen quality parameters in infertile and healthy men, regardless of the study design or the type of maca. The risk of bias for each study was assessed using the Cochrane criteria. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validation were performed independently by the first two authors. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion by the same two authors. Five studies - 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and 2 uncontrolled observational studies (UOSs) - met all of the inclusion criteria. One RCT found favorable effects of maca on sperm mobility in infertile men. The two other RCTs showed positive effects of maca on several semen quality parameters in healthy men. The two UOSs also suggested favorable effects of maca on semen quality. The results of our systematic review provide suggestive evidence for the effectiveness of maca in improving semen quality. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the risk of bias of the included studies prevent the drawing firm conclusions. More rigorous studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-fatigue activity of polysaccharide fractions from Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Sun, Qingrui; Meng, Qingran; Wang, Lei; Xiong, Wentao; Zhang, Lianfu

    2017-02-01

    The two fractions of polysaccharide MPS-1 and MPS-2 were extracted from Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) by water, and purified using a DEAE-52 and a Sephadex G-100 column. The molecular weight (M W ) of MPS-1 was 7.6kDa, and the M W of MPS-2 was 6.7kDa. The MPS-1 was composed of xylose, arabinose, galactose and glucose, with the mole ratio 1:1.7:3.3:30.5; the MPS-2 was composed of arabinose, galactose and glucose, with the mole ratio 1:1.3:36.8. The IR spectrum implied that only α-pyranose existed in MPS-1, and both α-pyranose and β-pyranose existed in MPS-2. The anti-fatigue activities of MPS-1 and MPS-2 were measured by the forced swimming test, along with the determination of blood lactate (BLA), urea nitrogen (BUN), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and liver glycogen (LG). The results indicated that both MPS-1 and MPS-2 presented dose-dependently positive effects on the fatigue related parameters. Additionally, MPS-2 has a better anti-fatigue effect than MPS-1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects on starch and amylolytic enzymes during Lepidium meyenii Walpers root storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondán-Sanabria, Gerby Giovanna; Valcarcel-Yamani, Beatriz; Finardi-Filho, Flavio

    2012-10-01

    The high water content in maca (Lepidium meyenii W.) roots combined with the damage produced during or after harvest makes them vulnerable to attack by enzymes and microorganisms. Although starch degradation has been extensively studied, in maca roots there is a paucity of research regarding the starch reserves. In this paper, parameters of starch degradation are shown to be related to the action of amylolytic enzymes during storage at room temperature. Over the course of three weeks, the starch and protein content, soluble sugar, total amylolytic activity, and α- and β-amylase activity were measured. In addition, the integrity of starch granules was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Despite the evidence of dehydration, there were no significant differences (p ≤ 0.5) in the total starch content or in the activities of α- and β-amylase. After the third week the roots remained suitable for consumption. The results indicate a postharvest latency that can lead to sprout or to senescence, depending on the environmental conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of ethanolic extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Yu, Longjiang; Jin, Wenwen; Ao, Mingzhang

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of long-term ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compare them with the effect of diethylstilbestrol. Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized or sham operated. Both sham and OVX control groups (n = 10, respectively) received the vehicle. The remaining OVX rats were oral administrated with ethanol extract of Maca (0.096, or 0.24g/kg; n = 10, respectively) and diethylstilbestrol (0.05 mg/kg; n = 10). The treatment continued for 28 weeks. At week 12 and week 28, the blood of rats was collected and serum hormone levels, including estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. At week 12, the levels of serum E2 were slightly higher in Maca groups than that in OVX group; T levels were significantly decreased; and FSH levels were advanced slightly in Maca groups than that in sham group. After 28 weeks administration, serum E2 levels in Maca-treated animals did not differ significantly from sham control, the low dose of Maca increased serum E2 levels, and Maca prevented increase in serum FSH levels compared with OVX group. Long-term Maca supply modulates endocrine hormone balance in OVX rats, especially it decreases enhanced FSH levels. It is proposed that Maca may become a potential choice for postmenopausal women.

  17. Structure analysis and anti-fatigue activity of a polysaccharide from Lepidium meyenii Walp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yun; Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Pan, Li-Chao; Sun, Huiqing; Song, Qiao-Ying; Zhang, Yongmin

    2018-03-16

    A polysaccharide was obtained from Lepidium meyenii Walp by hot water extraction and purification by Millipore (100 kD) and Sephadex G-200. The content of polysaccharide was examined to be 89.9% with phenol-sulfuric acid method. Its average molecular weight was estimated to be 2.213 × 10 6  Da by High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HPGPC). Monosaccharide analysis showed that the polysaccharide was composed of arabinose, mannose, glucose and galactose with the molar ratio of 2.134: 1: 2.78: 2.82. After Smith degradation, methylation, infrared spectroscopy and NMR, the primary structure of the polysaccharide was identified. The backbone of the polysaccharide was composed of →4)-β-D-Galp-(1→ and →4)-α-D-Galp-(1→, while the branches were comprised of →6)-β-D-Glup-(1→, →5)- β-D-Araf-(1→, →3,6)-α-D-Manp-(1→, →3)-α-D-Galp-(1→, and α-D-Glup-(1→. The anti-fatigue effect of the polysaccharide was evaluated using exhaustive swimming test and biochemical indexes. The results indicated the polysaccharide has anti-fatigue effect.

  18. Metabolomic differentiation of maca (Lepidium meyenii) accessions cultivated under different conditions using NMR and chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Chan, Michael; Clément, Céline; Kreuzer, Michael; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2012-01-01

    To gain insights on the effects of color type, cultivation history, and growing site on the composition alterations of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) hypocotyls, NMR profiling combined with chemometric analysis was applied to investigate the metabolite variability in different maca accessions. Maca hypocotyls with different colors (yellow, pink, violet, and lead-colored) cultivated at different geographic sites and different areas were examined for differences in metabolite expression. Differentiations of the maca accessions grown under the different cultivation conditions were determined by principle component analyses (PCAs) which were performed on the datasets derived from their ¹H NMR spectra. A total of 16 metabolites were identified by NMR analysis, and the changes in metabolite levels in relation to the color types and growing conditions of maca hypocotyls were evaluated using univariate statistical analysis. In addition, the changes of the correlation pattern among the metabolites identified in the maca accessions planted at the two different sites were examined. The results from both multivariate and univariate analysis indicated that the planting site was the major determining factor with regards to metabolite variations in maca hypocotyls, while the color of maca accession seems to be of minor importance in this respect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Isolation, purification, structural characterization and immunostimulatory activity of water-soluble polysaccharides from Lepidium meyenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Zhengqi; Wang, Su-Yan; Chu, Weihua; Lv, Yang; Kan, Hongjin; Chen, Qiuli; Zhong, Lili; Yue, Long; Xiao, Jinna; Wang, Ying; Yin, Hongping

    2018-03-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide LMP-1 was isolated and purified by ion-exchange chromatography from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.). LMP-1 has a molecular weight of 1.01 × 10 4  Da, and is composed of glucose and arabinose with a molar ratio of 7.03:1.08. Methylation and the 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy of LMP-1 revealed that it is mainly composed of →4)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, →6)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, →3)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, and β-D-Araf-(1→, with branching at O-6 of →4,6)-α-D-Glcp-(1 → . LMP-1 showed up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). The upstream proteins of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (CD14 and MD2) and mRNA level of IL-1β also increased. Increased transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 was found in the nuclei and cytoplasm in LMP-1-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. These results indicated that LMP-1 activated RAW264.7 macrophages and elicited immunostimulatory activities via the TLRs/NF-κB signalling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Production of a new mucilage compound in Lepidium sativum callus by optimizing in vitro growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Pooran; Hadian, Fatemeh; Koohi Dehkordi, Mehrana

    2018-02-15

    The mucilage in Lepidium sativum L. is considered a biologically active compound with diverse medicinal properties. Different explants (hypocotyls and leaf) were transferred to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with twelve different plant growth regulator combinations under two different incubations (light and dark). The best mucilage production from callus (36.76% g g -1 dry weight) was obtained in the MS medium supplemented with 1 mg L -1 of 2, 4-D and 2 mg L -1 of BAP under the light condition. The mucilage produced by callus culture was nearly three times more than the mucilage yield of the seeds. The glucose, arabinose + mannose and galactose were 43.4 (mg g -1 DW), 195.3 (mg g -1 DW) and 86.2 (mg g -1 DW) in the mucilage originated from seed, callus leaf and callus hypocotyl, respectively. The present study proposes an efficient method for producing large scales of mucilage with a favorable sugar aimed at food or pharmaceutical industries.

  1. New Insight into the Water-Soluble Chlorophyll-Binding Protein from Lepidium virginicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Adam; Bednarczyk, Dominika; Acharya, Khem; Chen, Jinhai; Noy, Dror; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2016-05-01

    This study describes new recombinant water-soluble chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins (WSCP) from Lepidium virginicum (LvWSCP). This complex binds four Chls (i.e. two dimers of Chls) per protein tetramer. We show that absorption, emission, hole-burned (HB) spectra and the shape of the zero-phonon hole (ZPH) action spectrum are consistent with the presence of uncorrelated excitation energy transfer between two Chl dimers. Thus, there is no need to include slow protein relaxation within the lowest excited state (as suggested in a previous analysis of cauliflower WSCP [Schmitt, F.-J. et al. (2008) J. Phys. Chem. B, 112, 13951; Pieper, J. et al. (2011) J. Phys. Chem. B, 115, 4053]) in order to explain the large shift observed between the maxima of the ZPH action and emission spectra. Experimental evidence is provided which shows that electron exchange between lowest energy Chls and the protein may occur, i.e. electrons can be trapped at low temperature by nearby aromatic amino acids. The latter explains the shape of nonresonant HB spectra (i.e. the absence of antihole), demonstrating that the hole-burning process in LvWSCP is largely photochemical in nature, though a small contribution from nonphotochemical hole burning (in resonant holes) is also observed. © 2016 The American Society of Photobiology.

  2. Chemical, physicochemical and spectrophotometric properties of crystalline chlorophyll-protein complexes from Lepidium virginicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, T; Ishikawa, C

    1981-04-13

    Two kinds of water-soluble chlorophyll-protein complexes were prepared from leaves of Lepidium virginicum L., one (CP661) from the plant cultivated in a green house from seeds collected near Mono Lake, CA, and the other (CP-663) from a plant collected at Narashino, Chiba, Japan, by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-200. The chlorophyll . proteins were further purified by crystallization. CP661 has absorption peaks at 661, 468, 439, 419, 380, 339 and 272 nm. CP663 had absorption peaks at 663, 469, 438, 419, 379, 338 and 272 nm. Estimated molecular weights were 78 000 for CP661 and 80 000 for CP663 by gel filtration chromatography and 83 000 for CP661 and 107 000 for CP663 by an equilibrium sedimentation method. 1 mol chlorophyll . protein contained 4 mol chlorophyll a and b with ratios of 1.0 in CP661 and 1.6 to 1.9 in CP663, but no carotenoids. These characters are different from those of chlorophyll-protein complexes which are prepared from the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts with detergents.

  3. Effect of salinity and ascorbic acid on growth, water and osmotic relations of Lepidium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Najjar-Khodabakhsh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a serious environmental problem in arid and semi-arid regions that have negative impacts on crop production. In this research, because of medicinal and nutritional importance of the garden cress (Lepidium sativum plant, the interactive effects of salinity (225 mM NaCl and ascorbic acid (1 mM were evaluated on growth and its water relations. A completely randomized design with four replications was conducted under controlled conditions. The results showed that salinity decreased growth, relative water content, osmotic potential and soluble proteins and increased soluble sugars, amino acids and proline contents. Many of salinity damaged characteristic were improved by adding exogenous ascorbic acid to salty environment. Exogenous ascorbic acid alone, in comparison with control, enhanced the growth of garden cress by increasing relative water content, soluble sugars and soluble proteins contents. The results indicated that usage of ascorbic acid, as an antioxidant, reduced harmful effects of salinity stress and led to growth improvement in garden cress plants.

  4. Isolation, purification and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from the leaves of maca (Lepidium Meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicai, Kang; Limin, Hao; Liming, Zhang; Zhiqiang, Zheng; Yongwu, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Two fractions of polysaccharides (MLP-1 and MLP-2) were extracted from the leaves of maca (Lepidium Meyenii Walp.) by water, and purified using DEAE-52 ion exchange resin and sephadex G-200 clumns chromatography. An investigation was carried out for their structural characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro. The results indicated that MLP-1 was mainly composed of ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose, with the molar ratio of 0.12:0.32:1.50:0.32:1.03:1.00:0.93; the MLP-2 was a homopolysaccharide composed of glucose. The molecular weight (Mw) of MLP-1 was 42756Da, and the Mw of MLP-2 was 93541Da. The FT-IR spectra showed the general characteristic absorption peak of maca leaf polysaccharides (MLPs). The evaluation of antioxidant activity revealed that MLP-1 had strong scavenging effects in vitro on hydroxyl, superoxide anion and DPPH radicals, whose EC 50 (mg/mL) was 0.44, 0.21, and 0.82, respectively. Both MLP-1 and MLP-2 presented dose-dependently positive effects on the antioxidant-related parameters. The results suggested that the purified MLP-1 displayed better antioxidant capacities than that of MLP-1, which could be explored as potential antioxidant agents for the complementary medicine or functional foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Protein changes in Lepidium sativum L. exposed to Hg during soil phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata; Szczodrowska, Agnieszka; Leszczynska, Joanna

    2017-08-03

    Some investigations have been carried out in this study to find the best technique of soil reclamation in mercurypolluted soil. In this study, we examined Lepidium sativum L. as a plant useful for Hg phytoextraction. The simultaneous application of compost and thiosulfate was explored as a possible method of enhancing the process of phytoextraction. The results of the investigations of plant protein changes during assisted Hg phytoextraction were also provided. The results of the study show that combined use of compost and thiosulfate significantly increased both the total Hg accumulation and its translocation to aerial plant tissues. Plant protein analysis showed that L. sativum L. has the ability to respond to environmental stress condition by the activation of additional proteins. The additional proteins, like homocysteine methyltransferase, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylases (long and short chains), 14-3-3-like protein, and biosynthesis-related 40S ribosomal protein S15, were activated in plant shoots only in experiments carried out in Hg-polluted soil. There were no protein changes observed in plants exposed to compost and thiosulfate. It suggests that the combined use of compost and thiosulfate decreased Hg toxicity.

  6. Antioxidative response of Lepidium sativum L. during assisted phytoremediation of Hg contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata; Szczodrowska, Agnieszka

    2017-09-25

    In this study, Lepidium sativum L. was used in repeated phytoextraction processes to remove Hg from contaminated soil, assisted by combined use of compost and iodide (KI). L. sativum L. is sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and has been used in environmental tests. Its short vegetation period and ability to accumulate heavy metals make it suitable for use in repeated phytoextraction. The antioxidant enzymatic system of the plant (catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)) was analysed, to understand the effects of increasing Hg accumulation and translocation. Phytoextraction was repeated six times to decrease Hg contamination in soil, and the efficiency of each step was assessed. The results indicate that L. sativum L. is able to take up and accumulate Hg from contaminated soil. A corresponding increase in enzymatic antioxidants shows that the plant defence system is activated in response to Hg stress. Using compost and KI increases total Hg accumulation and translocation to the above-ground parts of L. sativum L. Repeating the process decreases Hg contamination in pot experiments in all variants of the process. The combined use of compost and KI during repeated phytoextraction increases the efficiency of Hg removal from contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Photosynthetic pigments and peroxidase activity of Lepidium sativum L. during assisted Hg phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata; Leszczynska, Joanna

    2017-05-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate metabolic answer of Lepidium sativum L. on Hg, compost, and citric acid during assisted phytoextraction. The chlorophyll a and b contents, total carotenoids, and activity of peroxidase were determined in plants exposed to Hg and soil amendments. Hg accumulation in plant shoots was also investigated. The pot experiments were provided in soil artificially contaminated by Hg and/or supplemented with compost and citric acid. Hg concentration in plant shoots and soil substrates was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) method after acid mineralization. The plant photosynthetic pigments and peroxidase activity were measured by standard spectrophotometric methods. The study shows that L. sativum L. accumulated Hg in its aerial tissues. An increase in Hg accumulation was noticed when soil was supplemented with compost and citric acid. Increasing Hg concentration in plant shoots was correlated with enhanced activation of peroxidase activity and changes in total carotenoid concentration. Combined use of compost and citric acid also decreased the chlorophyll a and b contents in plant leaves. Presented study reveals that L. sativum L. is capable of tolerating Hg and its use during phytoextraction assisted by combined use of compost and citric acid lead to decreasing soil contamination by Hg.

  8. Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzales Gustavo F

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae, known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl growing exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m altitude in the central Peruvian Andes, particularly in Junin plateau and is used traditionally to enhance fertility. Maca is a cultivated plant and different cultivars are described according to the color of the hypocotyls. Methods The study aimed to elucidate the effect of Yellow, Red and Black Maca on cognitive function and depression in ovariectomized (OVX mice. In all experiments OVX mice were treated during 21 days and divided in four groups: control group, Yellow Maca, Red Maca and Black Maca. Latent learning was assessed using the water finding task and the antidepressant activity of the three varieties of Maca was evaluated using the forced swimming test. Animals were sacrificed at the end of each treatment and the uterus were excised and weighed. Results Black Maca was the variety that showed the best response in the water finding task, particularly in the trained mice. The three varieties were effective to reduce finding latency in non trained and trained mice (P Conclusion Black Maca appeared to have more beneficial effects on latent learning in OVX mice; meanwhile, all varieties of Maca showed antidepressant activity.

  9. Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca, a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F. Gonzales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepidium meyenii (maca is a Peruvian plant of the Brassicaceae family cultivated for more than 2000 years, which grows exclusively in the central Andes between 4000 and 4500 m altitude. Maca is used as a food supplement and also for its medicinal properties described traditionally. Since the 90s of the XX century, an increasing interest in products from maca has been observed in many parts of the world. In the last decade, exportation of maca from Peru has increased from 1,415,000 USD in 2001 to USD 6,170,000 USD in 2010. Experimental scientific evidence showed that maca has nutritional, energizer, and fertility-enhancer properties, and it acts on sexual dysfunctions, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, memory and learning, and protects skin against ultraviolet radiation. Clinical trials showed efficacy of maca on sexual dysfunctions as well as increasing sperm count and motility. Maca is a plant with great potential as an adaptogen and appears to be promising as a nutraceutical in the prevention of several diseases.

  10. Histología de la Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Marín-Bravo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio histológico de Lepidium meyenii Walpers "maca", enfocado principalmente en la caracterización del órgano reservante. El estudio se realizó en macas de color amarillo, procedentes de Junín, y comprendió la caracterización histológica del órgano reservante subterráneo y detalles adicionales de la estructura interna foliar, a partir de muestras fijadas en FAA y empleando la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Los resultados muestran en el órgano reservante las características de una región de transición entre la raíz, de estructura secundaria lignificada, y el tallo primario reducido, con el desarrollo de una amplia zona medular. Presenta además un tipo peculiar de actividad cambial secundaria en la forma de haces conductores corticales. Entre los detalles histológicos adicionales está el desarrollo de una cubierta suberificada de células corticales en el órgano reservante y la presencia de tricomas cónicos unicelulares en las hojas.

  11. Preliminary approach to detect amylolytic and pectinolytic activities from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) Ensaios preliminares de detecção de atividades amilolítica e pectinolítica em maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gerby Giovanna Rondan-Sanabria; Tatiana da Costa Raposo Pires; Flavio Finardi Filho

    2006-01-01

    Amylase (AM), pectinesterase (PE) and polygalacturonase (PG) were extracted from maca roots (Lepidium meyenii Walp). The response surface model was used to determine the optimum conditions of pH and temperature activity of each enzyme on the crude extract. The highest values of AM activity occurred at pH 6.1 and 33.6 °C, very close to the experimental central point. The PE activity had a maximum activity at pH 6.6 and 49.4 and PG activity showed optimum activity at pH 5.4 and 46 °C.O ...

  12. Targeted chemotherapy for parasite infestations in rural black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intervention. Targeted chemotherapy using albendazole for nematode infestations, praziquantel for trematode and cestode infestations and metronidazole for protozoal infections was administered twice at an interval of 14 weeks. Main outcome measure. Prevalence rates. Results. The prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, ...

  13. EFFECTS OF INSECT PEST INFESTATION ON THE CAFFEINE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The caffeine content of nuts of Cola nitida and C. acuminata infested by insect pests in four major geographical zones of Nigeria have been determined and compared with the uninfested ones using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The findings showed that the infestation has no significant effect on the ...

  14. CASE REPORT- Vaginal Leech Infestation: A Rare Cause of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Human leech infestation is a disease of the poor who live in rural areas and use water contaminated with leeches. Like any other body orifices, vagina can also be infested by leech when females use contaminated water for bathing and/or douching. Although this condition is very rare in postmenopausal ...

  15. Studies on pest infestation of commercial samples of cowpeas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weight loss in both the infested beans and maize increased with increase in the number of emergence holes. Public health implications of the insect infestation of the stored products such as reduction in nutritive value and accumulation of undesirable residues were discussed. Improved storage and pest control techniques ...

  16. Aboveground insect infestation attenuates belowground Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geun Cheol; Lee, Soohyun; Hong, Jaehwa; Choi, Hye Kyung; Hong, Gun Hyong; Bae, Dong-Won; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-07-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease. Although Agrobacterium can be popularly used for genetic engineering, the influence of aboveground insect infestation on Agrobacterium induced gall formation has not been investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves were exposed to a sucking insect (whitefly) infestation and benzothiadiazole (BTH) for 7 d, and these exposed plants were inoculated with a tumorigenic Agrobacterium strain. We evaluated, both in planta and in vitro, how whitefly infestation affects crown gall disease. Whitefly-infested plants exhibited at least a two-fold reduction in gall formation on both stem and crown root. Silencing of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, compromised gall formation indicating an involvement of SA in whitefly-derived plant defence against Agrobacterium. Endogenous SA content was augmented in whitefly-infested plants upon Agrobacterium inoculation. In addition, SA concentration was three times higher in root exudates from whitefly-infested plants. As a consequence, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of roots of whitefly-infested plants was clearly inhibited when compared to control plants. These results suggest that aboveground whitefly infestation elicits systemic defence responses throughout the plant. Our findings provide new insights into insect-mediated leaf-root intra-communication and a framework to understand interactions between three organisms: whitefly, N. benthamiana and Agrobacterium. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Sorghum head bug infestation and mould infection on the grain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) panicle is reported to be attacked by a myriad of insect pest species, whose infestation predisposes the grains to fungal infection, thereby compromising their quality. A complex of bugs has been reported to infest sorghum, thereby affecting quality of grains in West Africa. The objective of this ...

  18. Population structure and growth of polydorid polychaetes that infest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polydorid polychaetes can infest cultured abalone thereby reducing productivity. In order to effectively control these pests, their reproductive biology must be understood. The population dynamics and reproduction of polydorids infesting abalone Haliotis midae from two farms in South Africa is described using a ...

  19. Strongyloides stercoralis infestation in HIV seropositive patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A contemporary surge in diarrhoeal illnesses due to parasitic infestations is believed to be a synergy between endemicity and HIV seropositivity. Aim: To determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infestation among HIV seropositive patients at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital.

  20. Spionid polychaetes infesting cultured abalone Haliotis midae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CA Simon, A Ludford, S Wynne. Abstract. A study was conducted to identify and quantify the spionid polychaetes that infest cultured abalone Haliotis midae at aquaculture facilities on the west (Farm A), south (Farms B and C) and ... The abalone were infested by Dipolydora capensis, Polydora hoplura and a Boccardia sp.

  1. Aspects of epidemiology of ectoparasite infestation of sheep and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    urban areas of Makurdi were examined for ectoparasite infestations for a period of 6 months, October to March 2004. Ninety one (21.9%) sheep and 149 (23.9%) goats were infested with various types of ectoparasites. Ectoparasites identified ...

  2. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  3. Prevalence of mange infestation in smallholder pig farms in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was conducted between October 2015 and February 2016 to establish the prevalence of sarcoptic mange infestation and identify risk factors associated with the infestation in pigs kept by smallholder farmers in Mpwapwa town. A total of 22 households participated in the study. Questionnaires were ...

  4. Short communication Prevalence and infestation load of ixodid ticks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted to identify major tick genera, prevalence and assess tick infestation load on cattle in Dassenech district, ... to identify tick genera and observe cattle infestation load by the ticks and its prevalence in Dassenech district, .... It is found in sub-Saharan Africa and rift valley and as far as. South Africa. This tick is also ...

  5. Preliminary study of the epidemiology of ectoparasite infestation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 416 sheep and 624 goats under different management systems in Makurdi and its environs were examined for ectoparasite infestation for a period of 6 months, October, 2003 to March, 2004. Ninety one (21.9%) of the sheep and 149 (23.9%) of the goats were infested with various types of ectoparasites.

  6. Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog ( Etelerix algirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ...

  7. some nutritional aspects of haemonchosis in experimentally infested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nutritional aberration has been described as anorexia in both pure (Evans, Blunt & Southcott, 1963) and mixed infestations where Haemonchus contortus was prominent. (Clark, Ortlepp, Bosman, Laurence, Groenewald & Quin,. 1951; Shumard et al. 1957). Further observations on nutritional aspects of a pure infestation of ...

  8. Evaulation of perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) management in a seasonal wetland in San Francisco Estuary prior to restoration of tidal hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide applications have shown potential for control and management of invasive perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) in rangelands and tidal wetlands. However, reported efficacy of management methods varies widely, and the effects of more recently labeled aquatic herbicides on non-target ve...

  9. Preliminary approach to detect amylolytic and pectinolytic activities from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. Ensaios preliminares de detecção de atividades amilolítica e pectinolítica em maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerby Giovanna Rondan-Sanabria

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Amylase (AM, pectinesterase (PE and polygalacturonase (PG were extracted from maca roots (Lepidium meyenii Walp. The response surface model was used to determine the optimum conditions of pH and temperature activity of each enzyme on the crude extract. The highest values of AM activity occurred at pH 6.1 and 33.6 °C, very close to the experimental central point. The PE activity had a maximum activity at pH 6.6 and 49.4 and PG activity showed optimum activity at pH 5.4 and 46 °C.O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar valores ideais de pH e temperatura para avaliar as atividades amilolítica (AM, pectinesterásica (PE e poligalacturonásica (PG em raízes de maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.. Foi utilizado o modelo de superfície de resposta para atingir valores confiáveis de atividades enzimáticas em extratos brutos. Os valores máximos de atividade AM ocorreram em pH 6,1 a 33,6 °C, muito próximos do ponto central dos experimentos. Para as atividades de PE e PG, o valores ótimos foram atingidos em pHs 6,6 e 5,4, a 49,4 e 46 °C, respectivamente.

  10. Is the hype around the reproductive health claims of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharry, Shruti; Heinrich, Michael

    2018-01-30

    Maca - Lepidium meyenii Walp. has been cultivated and used by Andean people for over 1300-2000 years in Peru as food and medicine. Starting in the late 1990's it has developed into an important herbal medicine in China and is now cultivated there widely, too AIM OF STUDY: This study aims to provide an insight into the emergence of maca on the global market as an alternative remedy to treat reproductive health related problems in both men and women and to critically assess these health claims. A search of electronic databases such as EMBASE and a hand-search was done to acquire peer-reviewed articles and reports about maca. Lepidium meyenii is used traditionally as a tonic, fertility enhancer for both humans and cattle, and to treat a variety of ailments such as rheumatism, respiratory disorders and anaemia among others. Maca root is cooked, baked, fermented as a drink and made into porridge. In the last twenty years, maca was introduced onto the global market and demand has dramatically grown over this time with its promotion on the internet, as the 'Peruvian Ginseng' for libido and fertility enhancement. It has also been said to treat menopausal symptoms, erectile dysfunction and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The sky-rocketing demand for the plant has seen a shift from traditional cultivation methods to mass production practices with the use of fertilisers and also pesticides; as maca is now grown in areas other than the Andes such as in the Yunnan province in China. This can potentially affect the phytochemistry and composition of the plant and thus, the quality, safety and efficacy of maca products. Meanwhile, research into maca's medicinal properties has followed the spike in popularity of maca and has been focused mainly on maca's aphrodisiac and fertility enhancing properties. So far, the in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted have yielded inconclusive results. Some of the key limitations reside in methodology and sample size. Chemical profiling, led

  11. Weed infestation of onion in soil reduced cultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażej-Woźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the years 1998-2000 in GD Felin. The influence of no-tillage cultivation and conventional tillage with spring ploughing on weed infestation of onion was compared. In experiment four cover crop mulches (Sinapis alba L., Vicia sativa L., Phacelia tanacetifolia B., Avena sativa L. were applied. From annual weeds in weed infestation of onion in great number Matricaria chamomilla L., and Senecio vulgaris L. stepped out. and from perennial - Agropyron repens (L.P.B. Reduced soil cultivation system (no-tillage caused the significant growth of primary weed infestation of onion in comparison with conventional tillage. In all years of investigations the executed pre-sowing ploughing limited significantly the annual weeds' number in primary weed infestation. The applied mulches from cover plants limited in considerable degree the number of primary weed infestation. In all years of investigations the most weeds stepped out on control object. Among investigated cover crop mulches Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L. had a profitable effect on decrease of onion`s primary weed infestation. Soil cultivation system and cover crop mulches had no signi ficant residual influence on the secondary weed infestation of onion.

  12. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  13. Lepidium meyenii (Maca increases litter size in normal adult female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasco Manuel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i Reproductive indexes group, ii Implantation sites group and iii Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to

  14. Lepidium meyenii (Maca): a plant from the highlands of Peru--from tradition to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-12-01

    This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on Lepidium meyenii (maca), a cruciferous plant (Brassicaceae family) which is cultivated exclusively at an altitude of 4,000-4,500 m in the Peruvian Central Andes. Maca is traditionally used for its nutritional and presumed medicinal properties. Over the past 20 years, interest in maca has increased in many parts of the world, and since 2005 maca is considered one of the seven Peruvian flag products. Maca is exported as powder, capsules, pills, flour, liquor, and extracts. There are different types of maca with differ-ent colors ranging from white to black. We have studied the pharmacological effects of 3 types; yellow, black, and red maca. Evidence from experimental studies indicates effects of maca on nutrition, fertility, memory, and mood. Black maca has better effects on sperm production than yellow maca which has only moderate effects. Red maca, however, has no effect on sperm production. However, red maca has been shown to reduce prostate size in rats in which prostate hyperplasia had been induced with testosterone enanthate; yellow maca has shown moderate effects here, whereas black maca has not shown any effects. Randomized clinical trials have shown that maca has favorable effects on energy and mood, may decrease anxiety and improve sexual desire. Maca has also been shown to improve sperm production, sperm motility, and semen volume. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH, FSH, and prolactin were not affected. The exact mechanisms of action are still unclear, but so far research clearly indicates that various bioactive constituents contribute to the clinical effects reported.

  15. Structural Characterization and Antifatigue Effect In Vivo of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) Polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weimin; Jin, Lu; Xie, Lianghua; Huang, Juqing; Wang, Nan; Chu, Bingquan; Dai, Xulin; Liu, Yu; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) polysaccharides (MP) with purity of 99.2% were obtained to investigate their structural characteristics and antifatigue effect in vivo. The physicochemical properties of MP were analyzed through high-performance gel filtration chromatography, IR, monosaccharide composition, methylation, GC-MS, and NMR analyses. The antifatigue effect of MP was evaluated by using a mouse weight-loaded swimming model. MP is an acidic heteropolysaccharide with an average molecular weight (M w ) of 793.5 kDa. It is composed of D-GalA: D-Glc: L-Ara: D-Man: D-Gal: L-Rha = 35.07:29.98:16.98:13.01:4.21:0.75 (mol, %). The findings revealed that MP contained β-1,3-Galp(A), β-1,3-Glcp, and α-1, 3-Manp linked alternatingly to form a backbone (5:4:1). MP (above mid-dosage 50 mg/kg bw/d) could effectively elongate swimming durations and accelerate average swimming speeds (within the 1st 5 min) of mice (P < 0.05) and improve the serous biochemical parameters of mice. Compared with the control model, high-dosage (100 mg/kg bw/d) MP treatment could significantly enhance glutathione peroxidase and creatine kinase activities (P < 0.05) and decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity (P < 0.01). High-dosage MP could significantly reduce the levels of blood urea nitrogen, lactic acid, and malondialdehyde (P < 0.05). MP is an acidic polysaccharide with a high D-GalA content, which could be responsible for the antifatigue effect of maca. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Inhibitory effect of a defensin gene from the Andean crop maca (Lepidium meyenii) against Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Julio; Medrano, Giuliana; Ghislain, Marc

    2007-08-01

    In this study, we report the isolation of a defensin gene, lm-def, isolated from the Andean crop 'maca' (Lepidium meyenii) with activity against the pathogen Phytophthora infestans responsible of late blight disease of the potato and tomato crops. The lm-def gene has been isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerate primers corresponding to conserved regions of 13 plant defensin genes of the Brassicaceae family assuming that defensin genes are highly conserved among cruciferous species. The lm-def gene belongs to a small multigene family of at least 10 members possibly including pseudogenes as assessed by genomic hybridization and nucleotide sequence analyses. The deduced mature Lm-Def peptide is 51 amino acids in length and has 74-94% sequence identity with other plant defensins of the Brassicaceae family. The Lm-Def peptide was produced as a fusion protein using the pET-44a expression vector and purified using an immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein (NusA:Lm-Def) exhibited in vitro activity against P. infestans. The NusA:Lm-Def protein caused growth inhibition and hyphal damage at concentration not greater than 0.4 microM. In contrast, the NusA protein alone expressed and purified similarly did not show any activity against P. infestans. Therefore, these results indicate that the lm-def gene isolated from maca belong to the plant defensin family with activity against P. infestans. Its expression in potato, as a transgene, might help to control the late blight disease caused by P. infestans with the advantage of being of plant origin.

  17. Effect of Black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on one spermatogenic cycle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Nieto, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M

    2006-10-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m above sea level in the Peruvian central Andes. The hypocotyls of this plant are traditionally used in the Andean region for their supposed fertility-enhancing properties. The hypocotyls have different colours. Of these, Black maca has better effects on spermatogenesis. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that Black maca has early effects during a spermatogenic cycle (12 days) of male rats. For this, testicular spermatid, epididymal sperm and vas deferens sperm counts were measured after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 12 days of treatment with Black maca. Aqueous extract of Black maca was given orally by daily gavage at a dose of 2 g kg(-1). In a spermatogenic cycle, compared with day 1, daily sperm production (DSP) was lower at day 7 (control), whereas with Black maca, the difference was observed at day 12. Epididymal sperm count was higher in rats treated with Black maca at days 1, 3 and 7, but similar to controls at days 5 and 12; similarly sperm counts in vas deferens was higher in rats treated with Black maca in days 3, 5 and 7, but similar to controls at days 1 and 12. From this, it is suggested that first action of Black maca was at epididymal level increasing sperm count after 1 day of treatment, whereas an increase in sperm count was observed in vas deferens at day 3 of treatment. Finally, an increase in DSP was observed after 7 days of treatment with Black maca. Testicular testosterone was not affected after 7 days treatment with Black maca. In conclusion, Black maca affects sperm count as early as 1 day after beginning of treatment.

  18. Bioactive maca (Lepidium meyenii) alkamides are a result of traditional Andean postharvest drying practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, Eliana; Hadzich, Antonella; Kofer, Waltraud; Mithöfer, Axel; Cosio, Eric G

    2015-08-01

    Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae), is an annual herbaceous plant native to the high plateaus of the Peruvian central Andes. Its underground storage hypocotyls have been a traditional medicinal agent and dietary staple since pre-Columbian times. Reported properties include energizing and fertility-enhancing effects. Published reports have focused on the benzylalkamides (macamides) present in dry hypocotyls as one of the main bioactive components. Macamides are secondary amides formed by benzylamine and a fatty acid moiety, with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and degree of unsaturation. Although it has been assumed that they are usually present in fresh undamaged tissues, analyses show them to be essentially absent from them. However, hypocotyls dried by traditional Andean postharvest practices or industrial oven drying contain up to 800μgg(-1) dry wt (2.3μmolg(-1) dry wt) of macamides. In this study, the generation of macamides and their putative precursors were studied during nine-week traditional drying trials at 4200m altitude and in ovens under laboratory conditions. Freeze-thaw cycles in the open field during drying result in tissue maceration and release of free fatty acids from storage and membrane lipids up to levels of 1200μgg(-1) dry wt (4.3μmolg(-1) dry wt). Endogenous metabolism of the isothiocyanates generated from glucosinolate hydrolysis during drying results in maximal benzylamine values of 4300μgg(-1) dry wt (40.2μmolg(-1) dry wt). Pearson correlation coefficients of the accumulation profiles of benzylamine and free fatty acid to that of macamides showed good values of 0.898 and 0.934, respectively, suggesting that both provide sufficient substrate for amide synthesis during the drying process. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Luna, Ana C; Salazar, Stephanie; Aspajo, Norma J; Rubio, Julio; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2005-05-03

    Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i) Reproductive indexes group, ii) Implantation sites group and iii) Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW) or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO) day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to enhance female fertility.

  20. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (I) Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in Three Maca Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Henry O; Mscisz, Alina; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Piatkowska, Ewa; Jólkowska, Justyna; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2015-09-01

    Glucosinolates were previously reported as physiologically-important constituents present in Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) and linked to various therapeutic functions of differently-colored Peruvian Maca hypocotyls. In two separate Trials, three colours of Maca hypocotyls "Black", "Red" and "Yellow" (termed "Maca phenotypes"), were selected from mixed crops of Peruvian Maca for laboratory studies as fresh and after being dried. Individual Maca phenotypes were cultivated in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes at 4,200m a.s.l. (Junin and Ninacaca). Glucosinolate levels, chromatographic HPLC profiles and DNA variability in the investigated Maca phenotypes are presented. Genotypic profiles were determined by the ISSR-PCR and RAPD techniques. Compared to the Black and Red phenotypes, the Yellow phenotype contained much lower Glucosinolate levels measured against Glucotropaeolin and m-methoxy-glucotropaeolin standards, and exhibited different RAPD and ISSR-PCR reactions. The Red Maca phenotype showed the highest concentrations of Glucosinolates as compared to the Black and Yellow Maca. It appears that the traditional system used by natives of the Peruvian Andean highlands in preparing Maca as a vegetable dish (boiling dried Maca after soaking in water), to supplement their daily meals, is as effective as laboratory methods - for extracting Glucosinolates, which are considered to be one of the key bioactive constituents responsible for therapeutic functions of Peruvian Maca phenotypes. It is reasonable to assume that the HPLC and DNA techniques combined, or separately, may assist in determining ID and "Fingerprints" identifying individual Peruvian Maca phenotypes, hence confirming the authenticity of marketable Maca products. The above assumptions warrant further laboratory testing.

  1. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Luna, Ana C; Salazar, Stephanie; Aspajo, Norma J; Rubio, Julio; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2005-01-01

    Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i) Reproductive indexes group, ii) Implantation sites group and iii) Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW) or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO) day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to enhance female fertility. PMID

  2. Uptake and phytotoxic effect of benzalkonium chlorides in Lepidium sativum and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adnan Hossain; Libby, Mark; Winnick, Daniel; Palmer, John; Sumarah, Mark; Ray, Madhumita B; Macfie, Sheila M

    2018-01-15

    Cationic surfactants such as benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) are used extensively as biocides in hospitals, food processing industries, and personal care products. BACs have the potential to reach the rooting zone of crop plants and BACs might thereby enter the food chain. The two most commonly used BACs, benzyl dimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride (BDDA) and benzyl dimethyl tetradecyl ammonium chloride (BDTA), were tested in a hydroponic system to assess the uptake by and phytotoxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.). Individually and in mixture, BACs at concentrations up to 100 mg L -1 did not affect germination; however, emergent seedlings were sensitive at 1 mg L -1 for lettuce and 5 mg L -1 for garden cress. After 12 d exposure to 0.25 mg L -1 BACs, plant dry weight was reduced by 68% for lettuce and 75% for garden cress, and symptoms of toxicity (necrosis, chlorosis, wilting, etc.) were visible. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis showed the presence of BACs in the roots and shoots of both plant species. Although no conclusive relationship was established between the concentrations of six macro- or six micro-nutrients, growth inhibition or BAC uptake, N and Mg concentrations in BAC-treated lettuce were 50% lower than that of control, indicating that BACs might induce nutrient deficiency. Although bioavailability of a compound in hydroponics is significantly higher than that in soil, these results confirm the potential of BACs to harm vascular plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp, una revisión sobre sus propiedades biológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F Gonzales

    Full Text Available La maca (Lepidium meyenii es una planta que crece sobre los 4000 metros de altitud en los Andes Centrales del Perú, presenta diferentes variedades de acuerdo al color de su hipocótilo. La presente revisión resume los resultados de estudios sobre los efectos de la maca en la función sexual, la espermatogénesis, la función reproductiva femenina, la memoria, la depresión y la ansiedad, como energizante y contra la hiperplasia benigna de próstata, osteoporosis y síndrome metabólico. Se discute también su efecto antienvejecimiento y la seguridad en su consumo. Se han demostrado diferencias en el efecto de las variedades negra, amarilla y roja de maca. La maca negra es la que mejores resultados presenta sobre la espermatogénesis, la memoria y contra la fatiga, mientras que la maca roja es la variedad que mejor revierte la hiperplasia benigna de próstata y la osteoporosis inducida experimentalmente. Además, la maca reduce los niveles de glucosa, y su consumo se relaciona con la reducción de la presión arterial y un mejor puntaje de salud. Estudios experimentales han demostrado que el consumo a corto como a largo plazo no muestra toxicidad tanto in vivo como in vitro. A pesar que los estudios experimentales han demostrado que la maca presenta diversos efectos benéficos, son necesarios más estudios clínicos para confirmar estos resultados

  4. Utilización de Lepidium Peruvianum Maca, como medio de cultivo para el crecimiento de Trypanosoma Cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Saldaña C

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Por sus características nutritivas de alto valor, se ensayó la posible utilidad del Lepidium peruvianum maca, como un medio para cultivar Trypanosoma cruzi. Bajo condiciones experimentales se procedió a incubar epimastigotes de T. cruzi en cuatro medios de cultivo bifásicos diferentes, a base de Lepidium peruvianum maca, los cuales fueron comparados con el medio de cultivo BHI como control. La incorporación de maca como medio de cultivo permitió el crecimiento de Trypanosoma cruzi; se determinó que el medio que contenía maca enriquecida con sangre entre los componentes sólidos y la infusión de maca en la fase líquida, presentó un mayor crecimiento (3,41 x 105 parásitos/mL con respecto a los otros medios de cultivo al quinto día (p<0,05.

  5. Actividad leishmanicida de los extractos metanólicos de cuatro ecotipos de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento clásico de la leishmaniosis cutánea consiste en la inyección de 15-20 ampollas de Glucantine lo que ocasiona efectos secundarios, este hecho justifica la búsqueda de nuevos medicamentos motivando la presente investigación. El objetivo fue evaluar in vitro la actividad leishmanicida de los extractos metanólicos (EM de los ecotipos blanco, rojo, morado y negro de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (también conocida como Lepidium meyenii Walp., sobre el crecimiento de Leishmania braziliensis peruviana. Los promastigotes alcanzaron la fase de crecimiento exponencial al quinto día de cultivo a 27 ºC en el medio bifásico Columbia, suplementado con 15% de sangre desfibrinada de carnero, en ese momento se enfrentaron, por separado, con los EM a concentraciones de 50, 100, 200 y 400 μg/ml. Los recuentos se hicieron diariamente con cámara Neubauer. La máxima disminución de promastigotes se produjo al segundo día de enfrentamiento para el ecotipo morado (17,41% de viabilidad empleando 400 μg/ml. El efecto leishmanicida estaría relacionado con los alcaloides imidazólicos presentes en el EM. Se concluye que al segundo día de enfrentamiento con el EM, el ecotipo morado presenta la mayor actividad leishmanicida seguido del ecotipo blanco.

  6. Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mackie, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, zebra mussels received national attention in North America when they reached densities exceeding 750,000/m2 in a water withdrawal facility along the shore of western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although water withdrawal problems caused by zebra mussels have been of immediate concern, ecological impacts attributed to mussels are likely to be the more important long-term issue for surface waters in North America. To date, the epizoic colonization (i.e., infestation) of unionid bivalve mollusks by zebra mussels has caused the most direct and severe ecological impact. Infestation of and resulting impacts caused by zebra mussels on unionids in the Great Lakes began in 1988. By 1990, mortality of unionids was occurring at some locations; by 1991, extant populations of unionids in western Lake Erie were nearly extirpated; by 1992, unionid populations in the southern half of Lake St. Clair were extirpated; by 1993, unionids in widely separated geographic areas of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River showed high mortality due to mussel infestation. All infested unionid species in the Great Lakes (23) have become infested and exhibited mortality within two to four years after heavy infestation began. Data indicate that mean zebra mussel densities >5,000–6,000/m2 and infestation intensities >100-200/unionid in the presence of heavy zebra mussel recruitment results in near total mortality of unionids. At present, all unionid species in rivers, streams, and akes that sympatrically occur with zebra mussels have been infested and, in many locations, negatively impacted by zebra mussels. We do not know the potential consequences of infestation on the 297 unionid species found in North America, but believe zebra mussels pose an immediate threat to the abundance and diversity of unionids.

  7. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Gi Kong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. The phloem-sucking insect infestation such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves were previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation and confirmed the recruitment of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. exhibiting the insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly-infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads plant recruiting specific group of rhizosphere bacteria conferring beneficial traits for host plant. This study provides a new

  8. Flea Infestation in Farm Animals and Its Health Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ebrahimzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most fleas infest their host temporarily then pass to another of the same kind, while others move from one to a different host species. Although the comprehensive list of fleas reported from Iran, but there still exists considerable gap in our knowledge of zoonotic aspect of flea infestation. The present study was undertaken to determine correlation between domestic animals and man as host of fleas. Methods: The questionnaires on the base of flea infestation of animals flock and animal care- man were prepared and distributed to veterinary stations of all provinces. A total of 553 questionnaires sheets and 168 flea samples were collected from sixteen provinces. Results: One hundred fifty six specimens of Pulex irritans were collected from sheep, goats, cattle, chicken and human, which consisted of 92.8% of all recovered fleas. Chickens infested by three species of fleas including Pulex irritans (84.6%, Ctenocephalides canis (12.9% and Ceratophilus gallinae (2.5%. Two hundred and eighty nine cases of animal and 244 cases of human infestation were recorded among the suspicious populations, the most prevalence of infestation was found in sheep and goat herds whilst chicken flocks infested with the"nlowest rate and cattle were infested moderately. The major health problem was occurred in farmers, animal care-men and their relatives. The observations showed they had different skin reactions to flea's bites. Conclusion: The results showed that fleas are approximately a widespread parasite of farm animals and it seems that they may play an important role in occurring of zoonotic infestation in Iran. Keywords: Flea, Farm animal, Human, Iran.

  9. Studies on the Intestinal Worm (Helminthiasis) infestation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the Intestinal Worm (Helminthiasis) infestation in a Central Nigerian Rural Community. JC Anosike, VO Zaccheaus, CM Adeiyongo, OC Abanobi, EO Dada, EE Oku, IR Keke, JC Uwaezuoke, OU Amajuoyi, CE Obiukwu, DC Nsowu, FI Ogbusu ...

  10. CONCOMITANT HELMINTHIC AND ENTERO-PROTOZOAL INFESTATION IN INDIAN PEAFOWL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dutta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant infestation of Ascaridia spp. along with Raillietina spp. and Emeria spp. has been identified in Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus of Ramnabagan Mini Zoo, Burdwan, West Bengal, India.

  11. Spatio-temporal distribution of the infestations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatio-temporal distribution of the infestations of Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti and Mariau ( Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae ) an oil palm tree ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) pest in Toumanguié (Côte d'Ivoire)

  12. Sustainable control of infestations using image processing and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Faithpraise, Fina Otosi

    2014-01-01

    A sustainable pest control system integrates automated pest detection and recognition to evaluate the pest density using image samples taken from habitats. Novel predator/prey modelling algorithms assess control requirements for the UAV system, which is designed to deliver measured quantities of naturally beneficial predators to combat pest infestations within economically acceptable timeframes. The integrated system will reduce the damaging effect of pests in an infested habitat to an econom...

  13. Intestinal Infestations in Under-Five Children in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamukwamba Mwale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal infestations are of considerable public health importance in Zambia and elsewhere in Africa. Children aged less than 5 years are at the highest risk of infection. Interventions for prevention and control of these infestations require identification of their determinants. This study investigates the determinants of intestinal infestations in children below 5 years of age admitted to a children’s hospital and assesses the most prevalent of the helminthes. Methods: This was a hospital based cross-sectional study conducted at Arthur Davison Children’s Hospital, Ndola, Zambia. Socio-demographic data of study participants and possible determinants for occurrence of intestinal infestations were collected using structured questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and examined for presence of parasites using direct techniques. The Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to establish associations. Results: Present study had 148 participants out of the expected 165, making a respondent rate of 89.7%. Over half of the participants were male (50.6%, and 68.9% were above the age of 2 years. Prevalence of intestinal infestations was 19.6%, and the most prevalent parasite was Ascaris lumbricoides. Factors independently associated with worm infestation were father’s employment (AOR = 0.41; 95 % CI [0.19, 0.90] and history of prior worm infestation (AOR = 6.54; 95 % CI [3.28, 13.03]. Conclusion: Intestinal infestations particularly Ascaris lumbricoides were more prevalent in this study. There should be policy towards countrywide deworming programs and enhanced hygiene.

  14. Management of tick infestation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasani Ayodhya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out during the month of January 2014 when a total of 148 dogs with history of various diseases were presented to the Campus Veterinary Hospital, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India. Out of 148 dogs that were presented to the hospital, 48 dogs had the clinical signs of loss of hair, itching, and reduced food intake. The dogs were restless and continuously rubbed their bodies against the walls in the houses, and scratching with their legs. Clinical examination of the dogs revealed presence of alopecia, pruritus, and the formation of small crusts. All 48 dogs were treated with ivermectin by subcutaneous injection dosed at 0.02 mL/kg body weight at a weekly interval for 2 to 3 weeks. All dogs were bathed with cypermethrin shampoo weekly once for 2-3 weeks. In the present study, it was observed that ivermectin/cypermethrin combination therapy was effective for the management of tick infestation in dogs.

  15. Optical Sensing of Weed Infestations at Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Barroso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kochia (Kochia scoparia L., Russian thistle (Salsola tragus L., and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L. are economically important weeds infesting dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production systems in the western United States. Those weeds produce most of their seeds post-harvest. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of an optical sensor, installed for on-the-go measurement of grain protein concentration, to detect the presence of green plant matter in flowing grain and assess the potential usefulness of this information for mapping weeds at harvest. Spectra of the grain stream were recorded continuously at a rate of 0.33 Hz during harvest of two spring wheat fields of 1.9 and 5.4 ha. All readings were georeferenced using a Global Positioning System (GPS receiver with 1 m positional accuracy. Chlorophyll of green plant matter was detectable in the red (638–710 nm waveband. Maps of the chlorophyll signal from both fields showed an overall agreement of 78.1% with reference maps, one constructed prior to harvest and the other at harvest time, both based on visual evaluations of the three green weed species conducted by experts. Information on weed distributions at harvest may be useful for controlling post-harvest using variable rate technology for herbicide applications.

  16. Optical Sensing of Weed Infestations at Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Judit; McCallum, John; Long, Dan

    2017-10-19

    Kochia ( Kochia scoparia L.), Russian thistle ( Salsola tragus L.), and prickly lettuce ( Lactuca serriola L.) are economically important weeds infesting dryland wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) production systems in the western United States. Those weeds produce most of their seeds post-harvest. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of an optical sensor, installed for on-the-go measurement of grain protein concentration, to detect the presence of green plant matter in flowing grain and assess the potential usefulness of this information for mapping weeds at harvest. Spectra of the grain stream were recorded continuously at a rate of 0.33 Hz during harvest of two spring wheat fields of 1.9 and 5.4 ha. All readings were georeferenced using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver with 1 m positional accuracy. Chlorophyll of green plant matter was detectable in the red (638-710 nm) waveband. Maps of the chlorophyll signal from both fields showed an overall agreement of 78.1% with reference maps, one constructed prior to harvest and the other at harvest time, both based on visual evaluations of the three green weed species conducted by experts. Information on weed distributions at harvest may be useful for controlling post-harvest using variable rate technology for herbicide applications.

  17. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) on testicular function of mice with chemically and physically induced subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia Cuya, M; Yarasca De La Vega, K; Lévano Sánchez, G; Vásquez Cavero, J; Temoche García, H; Torres Torres, L; Cruz Ornetta, V

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) in chemically and physically subfertile mice. After 35 days, the following groups of mice were evaluated: control, sham, chemical subfertility, chemical subfertility-maca-supplemented, physical subfertility, physical subfertility-maca-supplemented and maca-supplemented only. Motility (32.36% ± 5.34%) and sperm count (44.4 ± 5.37 × 10(6) /ml) in the chemically and physically subfertile mice (11.81% ± 4.06%, 17.34 ± 13.07 × 10(6) /ml) decreased compared to the control (75.53% ± 2.97% and 57.4 ± 19.6 10(6) /ml) and sham (53.5% ± 7.86% and 58.4 ± 14.10 10(6) /ml). Maca was able to reverse the deleterious effect of motility (76.36 ± 1.97) as well as sperm count (53.5 ± 9.18 × 10(6) /ml) on chemical subfertility. In contrast, maca did not reverse the effects of induced physical subfertility nor motility (18.78% ± 14.41%) or sperm count (20.17 ± 11.20 × 10(6) /ml). The percentage of sperm DNA fragmentation in the physically subfertile mice increased (11.1% ± 19.29%) compared to the control (0.84% ± 0.85%). However, in the physically subfertile group, maca decreased sperm DNA fragmentation (2.29% ± 2.30%) closer to the sham (1.04% ± 0.62%) and the control (0.84% ± 0.85%). The group supplemented only with maca showed 0.54% ± 0.50% of spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation. Yet, the differences observed were statistically not significant. In conclusion, it appears that maca activates the cytochrome P450 system after chemically induced subfertility. However, it does not reverse the low mitochondrial membrane potential in spermatozoa compromised in the physical subfertility group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Dormancy and germination in short-lived lepidium perfoliatu l. (brassicaceae) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, An-Jun; Tian, M.; Long, Chun-Lin

    2010-01-01

    To understand germination timing in an ecological context, the response to environmental events that effect seed dormancy is central and has to be combined with knowledge of germination responses to different ecological factors. In this study, seed dormancy, germination and seedling survival of annual short-lived clasping pepper weed Lepidium perfoliatum L. (Brassicaceae) were investigated. Three types of pre-treatments viz., various temperature dry storage, light and water stress were tested as possible dormancy and survival-affecting environmental events. Fresh mature seeds were greatly dormant. Warm (30 deg. C) dry storage more facilitated breaking dormancy, they germinated well under apt conditions (e.g. 20 deg. C and 10/20 deg. C plus periodic light, 14 h/d). For those seeds which underwent after-ripening, they could germinate at a range of constant temperatures (4, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 deg. C) and one alternating temperature (10/20 deg. C). Under alternating temperature regimes, the final percent germination of L. perfoliatum seeds increased from 37 deg. C to 93% when temperature altered from 4/10 deg. C to 10/20 deg. C in light, then decreased with increasing temperature. The germination pattern under constant temperature conditions was similar to that under alternating temperature and significant differences in final percent germinations and rates of germination were observed among different temperatures. Under different light treatments, final germination of showed significant differences, only with 35% of germination percentage in dark, much lower than those in red and white light (i.e. 93% and 91%, respectively). GA3 could promote the germination of non-dormant seeds in dark. When water potentials were reduced, final percent germination decreased dramatically, and few seeds germinated at -0.98 MPa (generated by PEG-8000). The changes of proline content in resultant seedlings were reverse to that of final percent germination with changing water

  19. The Nutritional Composition of Maca in Hypocotyls (Lepidium meyenii Walp. Cultivated in Different Regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. was introduced to China in the recent two decades. Proximate compositions and secondary metabolites in dried maca tuber powders of different cultivation areas and colour types were analyzed and compared in order to provide the scientific guideline for its application. Cultivation region significantly affects the compositions of maca. The protein content of maca ranged from 9.31% to 21.02% by dry basis of maca powders and Xiaopingba-Y, Yulong-Y, and Pamirs-Y have the higher protein contents. The essential amino acids (EAA contents ranged from 189.19 to 312.90 mg/g protein. The crude lipid content of different maca ranged from 0.59% to 1.00% and has no significant difference (P>0.05. The total dietary fiber (TDF contents ranged from 17.82% to 26.00% and soluble dietary fiber (SDF ranged from 2.46% to 7.88%, respectively. Maca samples were rich in Na, Mg, Ca, and K elements which ranged 138.3–187.8, 625.2–837.2, 3838.9–4502.7, and 5394.8–8063.3 mg/kg dry matter (DM. Xiaopingba-Y has the highest benzyl glucosinolate content which was 2.31 mg/g DM. Peru-Y and Xiaopingba have the higher contents of total alkaloids contents which was 2.61 and 2.56 mg/kg DM. Yongsheng-Y, Yulong-Y, and Pamirs-Y were rich in N-benzyl hexadecanamide contents, which were 0.164, 0.174, and 0.173 mg/g DM, respectively. Significant higher protein, total dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber, total alkaloids, and benzyl glucosinolate contents were found in purple and black maca compared to yellow maca in Pamirs, while there was no significant difference in N-benzyl hexadecanamide content.

  20. Identification of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) and its adulterants by a DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Jin; Zhao, Qing-Sheng; Liu, Yi-Lan; Zha, Sheng-Hua; Zhao, Bing

    2015-09-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is an herbaceous plant that grows in high plateaus and has been used as both food and folk medicine for centuries because of its benefits to human health. In the present study, ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences of forty-three maca samples, collected from different regions or vendors, were amplified and analyzed. The ITS sequences of nineteen potential adulterants of maca were also collected and analyzed. The results indicated that the ITS sequence of maca was consistent in all samples and unique when compared with its adulterants. Therefore, this DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence can be used for the molecular identification of maca and its adulterants. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Blue Gum Chalid Infestation Woodlots in Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otuoma, J.; Muchiri, M.N

    2007-01-01

    Blue gum chalcid (BGC) Leptocybe invasa is a gall-forming wasp that belongs to the insect order Hymenoptera, family Eulophidae. It attacks a wide range of Eucalyptus species mostly between the seedling stage and five years of age. BGC causes damage to eucalyptus by forming bump-shaped galls on the leaf midribs, petioles and stems.Twisted and knobbed leaves manifest severe infestation. The aim of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of BGC and extent of host plant damage in Eucalyptus woodlots in Western Kenya. The study was carried out in six permanent sampling plots in Eucalyptus woodlots in Busia, Bungoma, Kakamega and Nyando. Trees were assessed for crown damage by estimating and classifying the density of galls on the leaves into four levels of infestation: low (greater than 50% of foliage canopy with galls and no twisted or knobbed leaves), moderate (greater than 50% of foliage with galls and less than 50% of the leaves twisted and knobbed), high (greater than 50% of the leaves twisted and knobbed, galls on the twigs and some twigs deformed and severe (greater than 50% of the twigs deformed and regeneration foliage observed). An evaluation of the pests' infestation and the extent of host plant damage indicated that, 4% of the trees and severe infestation; 5% high; 20% moderate and 70% low. Approximately 1% of trees died as a result of loss of foliage attributable to severe infestation. Other observations from the study were that the severity of BGC infestation tended to decline as trees grew older and BGC infestation retarded tree growth

  2. Myrigalone A Inhibits Lepidium sativum Seed Germination by Interference with Gibberellin Metabolism and Apoplastic Superoxide Production Required for Embryo Extension Growth and Endosperm Rupture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oracz, K.; Voegele, A.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Jacquemoud, D.; Turečková, Veronika; Urbanová, Terezie; Strnad, Miroslav; Sliwinska, E.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2012), s. 81-95 ISSN 0032-0781 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA MŠk ED0007/01/01; GA ČR GD522/08/H003 Keywords : Embryo cell extension growth * Endoreduplication * Endosperm rupture * Gibberellin metabolism * Lepidium sativum * Myrica gale * Phytotoxicity * Reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.134, year: 2012

  3. Effects of Lepidium meyenii Walp and Jatropha macrantha on blood levels of estradiol-17 beta, progesterone, testosterone and the rate of embryo implantation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masami; Gu, Yeunhwa; Tsukada, Sekihito

    2003-10-01

    The effects of two Peruvian folk medicines, Lepidium meyenii Walp and Jatropha macrantha, on mouse sex steroid hormones and embryo implantation were investigated. Progesterone levels increased significantly in mice that received L. meyenii Walp, while testosterone levels increased significantly in mice that received L. meyenii Walp as well as in those that received both L. meyenii Walp and J. macrantha. However, there were no marked changes in blood levels of estradiol-17beta or the rate of embryo implantation.

  4. Isolation of Crystalline Water-soluble Chlorophyll Proteins with Different Chlorophyll a and b Contents from Stems and Leaves of Lepidium virginicum

    OpenAIRE

    Reiko, Itoh; Shigeru, Itoh; Masaharu, Sugawa; Osamu, Oishi; Kenichi, Tabata; Mitsumasa, Okada; Mitsuo, Nishimura; Eijiro, Yakushiji; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Toho University; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Toho University; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University

    1982-01-01

    Two types of water-soluble chlorophyll proteins were isolated from Lepidium virginicum L. grown in Japan. The protein isolated from the leaves (CP663L) had a low chlorophyll a/b ratio (1.5-1.7), and that from the stems (CP663S) had a high ratio (3.4-3.5). CP663S showed the same crystal forms and almost the same molecular weight and subunit composition as CP663L.

  5. Therapeutic Effects of Pre-Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum Chacon) used as a Non-Hormonal Alternative to HRT in Perimenopausal Women - Clinical Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Meissner, H. O.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Mscisz, A.; Kedzia, B.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Roots of cruciferous plant Lepidium peruvianum Chacon cultivated in high plateaus of Andes and known under its common name Maca, have been traditionally-used as an energizing vegetable with therapeutic properties for both men and women. Maca has been recognized by natives of Peru as herbal remedy helping to treat conditions affecting menopausal women. Objective: The effects of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO) on quantitative physiological responses and alleviation of symptom...

  6. Haematological Changes in Cattle associated with arthropods Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.Khan

    Full Text Available A total of 847 animals inspected from Jan.2007 to Dec.2007 for the assessment of prevalence of ticks infestation of cattles. Out of 847 animals examined, 612 were positive (72.26% for arthropods infestation at Nagpur and around villages. Among arthropods infestation, ticks (52.78%, lice (19.93% , flies (9.48% and mixed (17.81% were observed. Out of these observations ticks sp. were Rhipicephalus Sp. (60.99%, Hyolomma sp. (20.74% and Boophilus sp. (18.27%, Lice sp were Linognathus sp. (44.26% and Haematopinus sp. (55.74% and flies sp. Hippobosca sp. (67.24% and Stomoxys sp.(32.76% were identified.Haematological findings shows decrease in Hb,PCV,TEC and TLC where as Lymphocyte and Eosinophyl count was higher than normal . [Veterinary World 2008; 1(11.000: 338-339

  7. Aphid infestation affecting the biogeochemistry of European beech saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalzik, B.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Bischoff, S.; Näthe, K.

    2014-12-01

    Mass outbreaks of herbivore insects are known to perturb the functional properties of forests. However, it is less clear how endemic to moderate aboveground herbivory affects the vertical flow of nutrients from tree canopies to the soil. Here, we report on the effects of low to moderate infestation levels of the woolly beech aphid (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on the nutrient dynamics and hydrology of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). In a potted sapling experiment, we followed the vertical dynamics of nutrients via throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF) and litter leachates (LL) collected over ten weeks underneath infested and uninfested control trees. Aphid infestation amplifies the fluxes of K+, Mn2+ and particulate nitrogen (0.45μm aphid abundance by 26 and 16%, respectively. Differences in canopy-derived dissolved nitrogen and carbon compounds, sulfur (S), Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ were aphid abundance on nutrient dynamics was most notable in TF and SF and diminished in LL.Aphid infestation greatly altered the SF fluxes of DOC, K+, Mn2+, DON and sulfur-species, which were significantly concentrated at the tree base by "funneling" the rainfall through the canopy biomass to the trunk. Normalized to one square meter, water and nutrient fluxes were amplified by a factor of up to 200 compared to TF.Imaging of leaf surfaces by scanning electron microscopy exhibited notable differences of the surface morphology and microbiology of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves. This observation might point to an aphid-mediated alteration of the phyllosphere ecology triggering the microbial uptake of NH4-N and SO4-S and its transformation to particulate N by magnified biomass growth of the phyllosphere microflora, consequently changing the chemical partitioning and temporal availability of nitrogen.

  8. Assessment of afoxolaner efficacy against Otodectes cynotis infestations of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carithers, Doug; Crawford, Jordan; de Vos, Christa; Lotriet, Alta; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-12-09

    The efficacy of a single 2.5 mg/kg dose of afoxolaner (NexGard®, Merial) against induced Otodectes cynotis infestations was assessed in eight afoxolaner-treated dogs, compared to eight untreated dogs. After O. cynotis infestations were established and confirmed by otoscopic assessments in 16 dogs, all of the dogs were included in the study and allocated to two separate treatment groups. The first group of eight ear mite-infested dogs remained untreated, while afoxolaner was administered orally to the second group of dogs at the minimum recommended dose once on Day 0. Otoscopic assessments performed on all dogs (Days -7, -2, 14 and 28) confirmed the presence or absence of live mites throughout the study. No serious adverse events were recorded throughout the study, and no adverse events were likely related to the administration of NexGard. By Day 28, seven out of eight untreated dogs were still infested with ear mites, while only two out of eight afoxolaner-treated dogs were infested, with one and four ear mites, respectively. On Day 28, the reductions of mite counts in the afoxolaner-treated group versus those of the control dogs were 98.5% based on geometric means, and 99.4% based on arithmetic means. Significantly fewer (P afoxolaner-treated group than the untreated group on Day 28. The results of this study demonstrated that a single oral administration of afoxolaner at the minimum recommended dose is highly effective (>98%) in treating dogs with induced O. cynotis infestations.

  9. Parasite infestation increases on coral reefs without cleaner fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutter, A. S.; De Brauwer, M.; Bshary, R.; Cheney, K. L.; Cribb, T. H.; Madin, E. M. P.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; Sun, D.; Warner, R. R.; Werminghausen, J.; Sikkel, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Mutualisms are pivotal in shaping ecological communities. Iconic images of cleaner fish entering the mouths of predatory fish clients to remove ectoparasites epitomize their mutual benefit. Experimental manipulations of cleaner wrasse reveal declines in fish size and growth, and population abundance and diversity of client fishes in the absence of cleaner wrasse. Fishes grow more slowly and are less abundant and diverse on reefs without cleaner wrasse, both for larger species that are regularly cleaned and have high ectoparasite loads ("attractive species"), and for those smaller species that are rarely cleaned and are rarely infested with parasites ("unattractive species"). We therefore considered whether these previously observed declines in individual and population parameters on reefs without cleaners were related to increased ectoparasite infestation using an attractive species ( Hemigymnus melapterus, Labridae) and an unattractive species ( Pomacentrus amboinensis, Pomacentridae). Traps with these fish as a form of bait were deployed to sample blood-sucking gnathiid ectoparasites (Gnathiidae: Isopoda) on reefs from which cleaners ( Labroides dimidiatus, Labridae) have been removed for 13 yr. Cleaner fish could not enter traps to access the clients/hosts, but gnathiids could enter the traps to infest hosts; thus, this method sampled the indirect effect of cleaners on gnathiid infestation of fish. Infestation was higher on reefs without cleaners than on those with them. The effect was only detected during the daytime when cleaners are active and only on the attractive species ( H. melapterus). Thus, cleaner presence indirectly reduced fish exposure to parasites in a species that is highly susceptible to parasites, but not in one that is rarely infested with parasites. This suggests that cleaner presence indirectly reduces exposure of a common fish species to harmful parasites, which may explain some observed benefits in fishes at this location.

  10. Cutaneous furuncular myiasis: Human infestation by the botfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bryan; Brown, David L

    2006-01-01

    Dermatobia hominis, the botfly, is indigenous to Central and South America. Its usual host is a mammal, often a horse or cow. Cutaneous furuncular myiasis, human infestation by the botfly, has rarely been reported. Symptoms of infestation include a locally painful, firm furuncular lesion, often with a centrally located pore. Due to their infrequent occurrence, these lesions are often misdiagnosed as cellulitis, leishmaniasis, furunculosis, staphylococcal boil, insect bite or sebaceous cyst – conditions with similar presentations. The present case reiterates the need to think of ‘zebras’ when hearing ‘hoof beats’ that may have originated in a different land. PMID:19554228

  11. Management and Risk Assessment of Sabellid Polychaete Infestations in Abalone Mariculture Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kuris, Armand M.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1993, growers at some commercial abalone mariculture facilities (AMFs) in Southern California brought an interesting sabellid polychaete to our attention. The worm infested shells of cultured red abalone, Haliotis rufescens. Heavily infested abalone ceased growth. Their shells exhibited domed teratology often lacking respiratory holes. The worms appeared to bore into the shell. We discovered that all AMFs in California were infested; several were so heavily infest...

  12. A comparative study on infestation of three varieties of maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to study the infestation of three maize varieties (Maize suwan I–Y, Maize T2 USR – White single cross and Maize suwan 123) by Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Infestation was assessed by counting the numbers of alive and dead adults and the number of infested and uninfested seeds. It was found out ...

  13. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be infested...

  14. Infestation Trends of Balsam Woolly Aphid in an Abies Alba Plantation in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Gerhard F. Fedde

    1971-01-01

    Infestations of the balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Ratz.), on European silver fir trees in a plantation were observed over a 7-year period. Infestations were usually light, but occasionally increased to heavy. Heavy infestations declined within 1 or 2 years without killing the trees or causing them apparent damage.

  15. Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor: prevalence and reproduction in concurrently infested Apis mellifera colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the reproductive ability of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite g...

  16. Prevalence and reproduction of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested Apis mellifera colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the fecundity of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite genera. Resu...

  17. Cockroach (Insecta: Blattaria) infestation of homes in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was therefore undertaken to determine cockroach infestation of homes in some ten selected communities in the Kumasi Metropolitan area in the Ashanti Region of Ghana using sticky traps. Twenty (20) houses in each community were ran-domly selected for the study. A trap was set up in three areas: living room, ...

  18. Pattern of tick infestation on one humped camels ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of tick infestation in one humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) was assessed in Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, Sokoto State, Nigeria where an average of 10 to 15 camels were slaughtered per day on an open concrete slaughter slab. A total of 200 randomly selected camels made up of 124 males and 76 ...

  19. Sources of Infestation, Biology, Damage by and control of Megaselia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to identify sources of infestation by the Megaselia rufipes Meigen (Diptera: Phoridae) on some germinated oil palm seeds in the Seed Production facilities of the CSIR-Oil Palm Research Institute. The study also covered the identification of the pest, some aspects of the biology, cost of damage and ...

  20. Armillifer armillatus infestation in Human; public health scenario of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report cases of Armillifer Armillatus infestation in three Nigerian adults within two and half years in our health facility. The first patient was a 70 year old farmer and a regular consumer of snake meat for over 50 years. He presented in February, 2014 for follow-up visit as he was a known systemic hypertensive patient.

  1. Rabbit management and occurrences of mange mite infestations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Morogoro Municipality between September and December 2015 to explore the rabbit farming and assess the common health problems with a focus on epidemiology of mange infestation. A total of 18 rabbit farms with 622 animals from 9 wards were investigated. A questionnaire ...

  2. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius infestations in Northwest Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giorda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  3. Aflatoxin in mould infested sesame seeds | Mbah | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    did not show any presence of aflatoxin. All the seeds of the two species of sesamum inoculated with the test fungus and incubated for 10 and 15 day intervals showed no presence of aflatoxin. The results portray the danger of consuming infested seeds of sesame which usually appear uninfested to a casual observer when ...

  4. Relative Infestation and Damage of Some Pigeonpea Cultivars by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infestation and damage of some pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.) cultivars by lepidopteran pod borers were evaluated over two cropping seasons during 1991 at the Makerere University Agricultural Research Institute, Kabanyolo. Significant (P≤0.05) cultivar differences were recorded in borer incidence and pod ...

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestation in HIV seropositive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opportunistic parasites such as Cryptosporidium,. Cyclospora and Isospora species. It is also important to note that this report will be the first documentation on HIV/AIDS and intestinal parasites from this center. And it aims to determine the frequency and pattern of intestinal parasitic infestation, including protozoan species ...

  6. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the beetle Agrilus nubeculosus and gum arabic production by Acacia senegal. Some trees were tapped and left open to facilitate infestation by A. nubeculosus and others were covered with wire mesh as control. Gum yield, physical and chemical properties of ...

  7. Coping with the gypsy moth on new frontiers of infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Garland N. Mason; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1987-01-01

    Forest managers on new frontiers of infestation are searching for better ways to cope with the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Presented herea are information and guidelines for remedial action to minimize future losses. Methods for assessing potential stand defoliation (susceptibility) and mortality (vulnerability), monitoring insect populations, and...

  8. Influence of shade systems on spatial distribution and infestation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    3. Spatial distribution and infestation of the Black Coffee Twig Borer on coffee proximal to the stem), middle and tip. (upper 3rd portion distal to the stem) sections. Number of X. compactus entry holes in each section was then determined after which, they were dissected near the entry holes and the direction of X. compactus ...

  9. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  10. Survey of Hard Ticks (Ixodidae) Infesting Camels ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the prevalence and abundance of hard ticks infesting camels, 414 nomadic one - humped camels in Kano State, northwestern Nigeria were selected by random sampling and examined for the presence of ticks on their bodies between January and December 2007. Three species of ticks, Amblyomma ...

  11. Case Report: Infestation of Tunga penetrans in villages near Zomba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benzyl benzoate paint and liquid paraffin had been used in local Primary Healthcare settings previously and topical treatment with antiparasitic agents has been advocated in the literature, particularly for severe infestation. Benzyl benzoate and liquid paraffin were applied topically to four adults with numerous jigger flea ...

  12. Reaction of some maize genotyhpes to infestation with the witch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... STR-1-W) were found to be tolerant to Striga asiatica. The tolerant maize genotypes may be desirable for introduction to S. asiatica endemic regions of Southern Guinea Savanna. Key words: Maize genotype; artificial infestation; Striga asiatica, tolerance level. Moor Journal of Agricultural Research Vol.4(2) 2003: 210-217 ...

  13. Molecular detection of protozoan parasites in ticks infesting cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a significant influx of cattle to Nigeria from neighbouring countries on daily basis along the transboundary areas without any form of veterinary inspection or quarantine. An assessment of protozoan parasite load in the ticks infesting cattle entering the country by hooves through a major trans-boundary route in Ogun ...

  14. Effects of insecticide spray application on insect pest infestation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies were conducted during the 2008 - 2009 cropping season to determine the minimal insecticide application which can reduce cowpea yield losses on the field due to insect pest infestations in the Transkei region of South Africa. Treatments consisted of five cowpea varieties and four regimes of insecticide spray ...

  15. Prevalence and hematological indices of pigs naturally infested with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and hematological studies of pigs naturally infested with mange in the Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria piggery farm was investigated. Out of 66 pigs in the farm, 33(50%) of them were of Large White breed, 28(42.4%) Indigenous and 5(7.6%) crossbred respectively. Of these breeds of pigs, ...

  16. (Azadiracta indica) extract on sheep infested with Amblyomma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... The effect of topical application of neem seed extract on sheep infested with tick Ablyomma variegatum was examined for acaricidal and repellant activity. The seed extract showed acaricidal activity at 5.0, 2.5 and 1.0% concentration in vitro. The extract had no acaricidal activity in vivo. However, it showed a.

  17. Kraft pulp from budworm-infested jack pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Y. Zhu; Gary C. Myers

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of kraft pulp from bud-worm-infested jack pine. The logs were classified as merchantable live, suspect, or merchantable dead. Raw materials were evaluated through visual inspection, analysis of the chemical composition, SilviScan measurement of the density, and measurement of the tracheid length. Unbleached pulps were then refined using...

  18. Susceptibility of pear to European pear sawfly fruit infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European pear sawfly, Hoplocampa brevis (Klug), is a relatively new pest in the Mid-Atlantic fruit production region. A plot containing twelve Pyrus communis pear cultivars and one breeder’s selection in a randomized block design was surveyed for fruit damage. Infestation frequency ranged from...

  19. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  20. Effect of sowing depths on Cylas spp infestation on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sowing depths on Cylas spp infestation of four sweetpotato varieties 'Sauti', 'Okumkom','Santompona' and 'Faara' was determined in a field trial at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. Data on number of leaves and branches on upper plant canopy (top 30cm), vine thickness, internode ...

  1. Infestation of Tunga penetrans in villages near Zomba Central Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    access to medical facilities and lack of footwear had resulted in extensive infestations in many individuals. Affected individuals suffered significant stigmatisation, ... centred around a limited number of safety pins. Use of such a method exposed recipients to Hepatitis B and HIV transmission in this high prevalence setting, ...

  2. Does hair coat length affect flea infestation in naturally infested dogs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Araujo Collares da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The Siphonaptera are parasitic insects of endothermic animals and Ctenocephalides felis and Pulex irritans are important parasites of dogs. This study evaluated the effect of hair coat length and time of year on the population size of C. felis and P. irritans in naturally infested dogs. Fleas were collected from 14 dogs on a monthly basis for a year (February 2015 to January 2016 at a rural property in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The dogs were divided into two groups based on hair coat length: short coat (coat length 5.0 cm, n= 7. In total, 2057 fleas were collected, 1541 of which were C. felis (74.91% and 516 were P. irritans (25.08%. The number of C. felis and P. irritans individuals was significantly affected by hair coat length and time of year. The variation in flea numbers over the study months was higher in long-coated than in short-coated dogs for the two flea species and flea numbers increased with increasing mean monthly temperatures. The results provide a better understanding of behavioral aspects of flea communities in dogs and may help develop control strategies targeting these parasites.

  3. Intestinal parasitic infestations in children living in Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Korzeniewski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intestinal parasitic infestations pose one of the biggest health problems of the contemporary world. Objectives. The aim of this article was to present the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children living in a large urban agglomeration. Material and methods . 1823 children (916 girls and 907 boys, aged 3–6, attending 31 different pre-schools in Warsaw, were examined in 2014. Stool specimens were tested in the Department of Epidemiology and Tropical Medicine of the Military Institute of Medicine by light microscopy using three different diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation with distilled water, Fülleborn’s flotation. The material for testing, fixed in 10% formalin, was collected three times at 2–3-day intervals. Results . Parasitological examination of the stool specimens showed intestinal parasitic infestations in 47 children (2.57% of the study group. Only 7 children were infested with pathogenic parasites (6 cases of giardiasis and 1 enterobiasis and required antiparasitic treatment. 17 children were infested with potentially pathogenic protozoa (Blasocystis sp. and 26 with non-pathogenic protozoa ( Entamoeba coli , Endolimax nanai , but because of lack of gastrointestinal symptoms (asymptomatic carriage they did not require a treatment. Conclusions . Performed examination show low infection rates among children from a large urban agglomeration. In the absence of epidemiological surveillance over the prevalence of the majority of intestinal parasitic diseases in Poland, and because some diagnostic centres generate positive test results using valueless methods, the propagation of parasitological diagnostics in light microscopy in direction of prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestations, especially among patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, is strongly recommended.

  4. Improving the physical and moisture barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum biodegradable film with stearic and palmitic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedi, Samira; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Zahedi, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Stearic and palmitic fatty acids (10%, 20% and 30%, W/W gum) were used to improve the barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum (LPSG) film. The impact of the incorporation of fatty acids into the film matrix was studied by investigating the physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of the films. Addition of stearic and palmitic fatty acids to LPSG films reduced their water vapor permeability (WVP), moisture content, water solubility and water adsorption. Increasing fatty acid concentration from 10% to 30%, reduced the elongation at break (EB). Lower values of tensile strength (TS) and elastic modulus (EM) were obtained in the presence of higher fatty acids concentrations. Incorporation of fatty acids led to production of opaque films and the opacity increased as function of fatty acids concentration. Results showed that moisture content, water solubility and WVP decreased as the chain length of fatty acid increased. Therefore, LPSG-fatty acids composite film could be used for packaging in which a low affinity toward water is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In silico profiling for secondary metabolites from Lepidium meyenii (maca) by the pharmacophore and ligand-shape-based joint approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fan; Tan, Xiao-Lei; Yan, Xin; Liu, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii Walpers (maca) is an herb known as a traditional nutritional supplement and widely used in Peru, North America, and Europe to enhance human fertility and treat osteoporosis. The secondary metabolites of maca, namely, maca alkaloids, macaenes, and macamides, are bioactive compounds, but their targets are undefined. The pharmacophore-based PharmaDB targets database screening joint the ligand shape similarity-based WEGA validation approach is proposed to predict the targets of these unique constituents and was performed using Discovery Studio 4.5 and PharmaDB. A compounds-targets-diseases network was established using Cytoscape 3.2. These suitable targets and their genes were calculated and analyzed using ingenuity pathway analysis and GeneMANIA. Certain targets were identified in osteoporosis (8 targets), prostate cancer (9 targets), and kidney diseases (11 targets). This was the first study to identify the targets of these bioactive compounds in maca for cardiovascular diseases (29 targets). The compound with the most targets (46) was an amide alkaloid (MA-24). In silico target fishing identified maca's traditional effects on treatment and prevention of osteoporosis, prostate cancer, and kidney diseases, and its potential function of treating cardiovascular diseases, as the most important of this herb's possible activities.

  6. Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) enhances testicular gene expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Kawate, N; Inaba, T; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Tamada, H

    2017-12-01

    Although feeding diets containing the extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's Central Andes, increases serum testosterone concentration associated with enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells in male rats, changes in testicular steroidogenesis-related factors by the maca treatment are not known. This study examined the effects of maca on testicular gene expressions for luteinizing hormone receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and steroidogenic enzymes. Eight-week-old male rats were given the diets with or without (control) the maca extract powder (2%) for 6 weeks, and mRNA levels were determined by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the testicular mRNA level of HSD3B1 (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3β-HSD) increased by the treatment, whereas the levels of the other factors examined did not change. These results suggest that increased expression of 3β-HSD gene may be involved in the enhanced steroidogenic ability by the maca treatment in rat testes. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Comparison of Mineral Element Content in a Functional Food Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) from Asia and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji; Wang, Han-Mo; Zhao, Yan-Li; Zuo, Zhi-Tian; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Jin, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Contents of eight mineral elements in maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) from China and Peru were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Cu contents in maca samples from China (2.5-31 mg kg(-1) dry weight, dw) were higher than the samples from Peru (<2.1 mg kg(-1) dw). Na in two samples from China was found to be significantly of high content (2400 and 2600 mg kg(-1) dw). The contents (mg kg(-1) dw) of B, Co, Cr, Li, Ni, and Zn were, respectively, 8.1-21, <0.023, <1.1~3.5, 0.020-0.17, 0.085-4.5, and 10-39 for the samples from China, while being 6.6-12, <0.023, <1.1~2.3, 0.035-0.063, 0.68-1.7, and 27-39 for the samples from Peru.

  8. Effect of butanolic fraction of yellow and black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on the sperm count of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, N; Farfan, C; Gonzales, G F

    2016-10-01

    Lepidium meyenii, known as maca, is a popular nutraceutical food which is grown over 4,000 m above sea level in the Peruvian central highlands. Maca contains alkaloids, but there are no studies on their biological effects. The butanol fraction obtained from methanol extract of maca hypocotyls contains alkaloids. The effects of butanol/aqueous fractions partitioned from methanol extract of yellow and black maca were examined. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity by 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl were used to evaluate maca fractions in vitro. Daily sperm production and sperm count in epididymis and vas deferens in mice were determined as biological effect of maca extracts in vivo. Yellow maca (21.7%±0.69) had better antioxidant capacity than black maca (18.2% ± 0.12; p < .01). Antioxidant activity was better in the methanolic fraction than in the aqueous fraction of yellow or black maca. TPC is higher in the aqueous fraction than in the methanolic extract of yellow or black maca. Black maca administration resulted in higher concentration of sperm count in epididymis and vas deferens compared to yellow maca. A higher biological effect was observed in methanolic extract and in aqueous extract than in the butanol fraction of maca. In conclusion, better biological effect was observed in the methanolic extract of maca than in its partitioned fractions. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Genome of Plant Maca (Lepidium meyenii) Illuminates Genomic Basis for High-Altitude Adaptation in the Central Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Yang; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xiao; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jiajin; Ma, Xiao; Tan, Yuntao; Long, Ni; Wang, Yangzi; Ma, Yujin; He, Yuqi; Xue, Yu; Hao, Shumei; Yang, Shengchao; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Liangsheng; Dong, Yang; Chen, Wei; Sheng, Jun

    2016-07-06

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp, 2n = 8x = 64), belonging to the Brassicaceae family, is an economic plant cultivated in the central Andes sierra in Peru (4000-4500 m). Considering that the rapid uplift of the central Andes occurred 5-10 million years ago (Ma), an evolutionary question arises regarding how plants such as maca acquire high-altitude adaptation within a short geological period. Here, we report the high-quality genome assembly of maca, in which two closely spaced maca-specific whole-genome duplications (WGDs; ∼6.7 Ma) were identified. Comparative genomic analysis between maca and closely related Brassicaceae species revealed expansions of maca genes and gene families involved in abiotic stress response, hormone signaling pathway, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis via WGDs. The retention and subsequent functional divergence of many duplicated genes may account for the morphological and physiological changes (i.e., small leaf shape and self-fertility) in maca in a high-altitude environment. In addition, some duplicated maca genes were identified with functions in morphological adaptation (i.e., LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS) and abiotic stress response (i.e., GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEINS and DNA-DAMAGE-REPAIR/TOLERATION 2) under positive selection. Collectively, the maca genome provides useful information to understand the important roles of WGDs in the high-altitude adaptation of plants in the Andes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristic fingerprinting based on macamides for discrimination of maca (Lepidium meyenii) by LC/MS/MS and multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu; Zhang, Ji; Li, Hong; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Li, Wan-Yi

    2016-10-01

    Macamides with a benzylalkylamide nucleus are characteristic and major bioactive compounds in the functional food maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp). The aim of this study was to explore variations in macamide content among maca from China and Peru. Twenty-seven batches of maca hypocotyls with different phenotypes, sampled from different geographical origins, were extracted and profiled by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-UV/MS/MS). Twelve macamides were identified by MS operated in multiple scanning modes. Similarity analysis showed that maca samples differed significantly in their macamide fingerprinting. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to differentiate samples according to their geographical origin and to identify the most relevant variables in the classification model. The prediction accuracy for raw maca was 91% and five macamides were selected and considered as chemical markers for sample classification. When combined with a PLS-DA model, characteristic fingerprinting based on macamides could be recommended for labelling for the authentication of maca from different geographical origins. The results provided potential evidence for the relationships between environmental or other factors and distribution of macamides. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effects of a water extract of Lepidium meyenii root in different models of persistent pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenci, Barbara; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Maresca, Mario; Micheli, Laura; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Mulinacci, Nadia; Ghelardini, Carla

    2017-10-26

    Lepidium meyenii (Walp.), commonly called maca, is an Andean crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family. Maca hypocotils are habitually consumed as customary food as well as traditional remedies for pathological conditions such as infertility. Moreover, the characterization of maca extracts revealed the presence of compounds that are able to modulate the nervous system. Aimed to evaluate the efficacy of L. meyenii in persistent pain, the present study analyzed the effects of a commercial root extract from maca in different animal models reproducing the most common causes of chronic painful pathologies. A qualitative characterization of this commercial extract by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry analyses allowed us to confirm the presence of some macamides known as bioactive constituents of this root and the absence of the main aromatic glucosinolates. The acute oral administration of maca extract is able to reduce mechanical hypersensitivity and postural unbalance induced by the intra-articular injection of monoiodoacetate and the chronic-constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. Furthermore, L. meyenii extract reverts pain threshold alterations evoked by oxaliplatin and paclitaxel. A good safety profile in mice and rats was shown. In conclusion, the present maca extract could be considered as a therapeutic opportunity to relieve articular and neuropathic pain.

  13. Dose-response effect of Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone enanthate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, M; Villegas, L; Yucra, S; Rubio, J; Gonzales, G F

    2007-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to determine the effect of a freeze-dried aqueous extract of the red variety of Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in adult rats of the Holtzman strain. Rats were treated with freeze-dried aqueous extract of Red Maca at doses of 0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 g/kg body wt. A positive control group received Finasteride (0.6 mg/kg body wt.). After treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and the ventral prostate was extracted, and weighed. HPLC was used to determine the presence of glucosinolates in Red Maca. The prostate weight diminished in a dose-dependent fashion in rats treated with Red Maca. The effect of Red Maca was better than that observed with Finasteride. Finasteride, but not Red Maca, reduced seminal vesicles weight. Analysis of the HPLC indicated the presence of benzyl glucosinolate (Glucotropaeolin) with a content of 0.639%. Serum testosterone levels were not affected by Red Maca. Moreover, serum testosterone levels were not related to prostate or seminal vesicles weight in rats treated with vehicle and Red Maca. In conclusion, Red Maca administered orally in rats seems to exert an inhibitory effect at a level post DHT conversion, on the BPH-induced experimentally, although a direct measure of reductase action would still be required.

  14. Flavonolignans and other constituents from Lepidium meyenii with activities in anti-inflammation and human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Naisheng; He, Kan; Roller, Marc; Lai, Ching-Shu; Bai, Lu; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2015-03-11

    From the roots of Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae) have been isolated and identified 2 flavonolignans, tricin 4'-O-[threo-β-guaiacyl-(7″-O-methyl)-glyceryl] ether (1) and tricin 4'-O-(erythro-β-guaiacyl-glyceryl) ether (2), along with 11 other known compounds, tricin (3), pinoresinol (4), 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (5), guanosine (6), glucotropaeolin (7), desulfoglucotropaeolin (8), 3-hydroxybenzylisothiocyanate (9), malic acid benzoate (10), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural (11), d-phenylalanine (12), and vanillic acid 4-O-β-d-glucoside (13). Structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS data. Some isolates and previously isolated lepidiline B (14) were tested for cytotoxicity in a small panel of human cancer cell lines (Hep G2, COLO 205, and HL-60) and for anti-inflammatory activities in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage. Among them, compounds 1 and 14 were modestly active for inhibiting nitrite production in macrophage. Compounds 1, 14, and 3 were demonstrated to be selectively active against HL-60 cells with IC50 values of 40.4, 52.0, and 52.1 μM, respectively.

  15. マカ(Lepidium meyenii WALP)の成分分析法について

    OpenAIRE

    治京, 玉記

    2013-01-01

    (要旨)近年、原因療法を目的とした手法として、生理機能を調節する薬用植物が注目されている。アブラナ科植物マカLepidium meyenii WALPは、ペルーでは機能性の低下、更年期の諸症状や不妊などに用いられている伝統的な薬用植物である。しかしながら、マカは自然環境下で栽培されているため産地、栽培条件、収穫方法など環境変化により2次代謝産物への影響が懸念されている。本稿では、マカの2次代謝産物の成分分析法について報告する。...

  16. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) improve scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Julio; Dang, Haixia; Gong, Mengjuan; Liu, Xinmin; Chen, Shi-Lin; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2007-10-01

    Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae), known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl growing exclusively between 4,000 and 4,500 m altitude in the central Peruvian Andes, particularly in Junin plateau. Previously, Black variety of Maca showed to be more beneficial than other varieties of Maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized mice on the water finding test. The present study aimed to test two different doses of aqueous (0.50 and 2.00 g/kg) and hydroalcoholic (0.25 and 1.00 g/kg) extracts of Black Maca administered for 35 days on memory impairment induced by scopolamine (1mg/kg body weight i.p.) in male mice. Memory and learning were evaluated using the water Morris maze and the step-down avoidance test. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activities in brain were also determined. Both extracts of Black Maca significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced memory impairment as measured in both the water Morris maze and the step-down avoidance tests. Black Maca extracts inhibited AChE activity, whereas MAO activity was not affected. These results indicate that Black Maca improves scopolamine-induced memory deficits.

  17. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (II) Phytochemical Profiles of Four Prime Maca Phenotypes Grown in Two Geographically-Distant Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Meissner, Henry; Mscisz, Alina; Piatkowska, Ewa; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Holderna-Kedzia, Elzbieta; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    Peruvian Maca crops (Lepidium peruvianum), grown in two geographically-distant cultivation sites located at similar altitudes in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes (Junin at 4,200 m a.s.l. and Ancash 4,150 m a.s.l.), were used in the study. Four prime Maca phenotypes, distinguished by hypocotyl colours labelled as "Yellow", "Purple", "Red" and "Black" were selected to determine distribution in levels and corresponding ratios between individual Glucosinolates (Glucotropaeolin and m-methylglucotropaeolin) in an attempt to identify four Peruvian Maca phenotypes from analyses of powdered hypocotyls. There were highly significant differences (PMaca phenotypes harvested in two locations. The Junin crop represented a mostly "large" class (13.3 g) with "small" size hypocotyls (7.2 g), while a "small" class was predominant in Ancash (3.5 g). Powdered Yellow Maca showed significantly higher (PMaca being the least infected. Only minor, statistically-confirmed differences were detected in nutritive characteristics between the four Maca phenotypes grown in Junin, however highly significant differences (PMaca grown in Junin and Ancash. Irrespective of the cultivation location, Red phenotypes showed the highest content of Total Glucosinolates, followed by Black and Purple, with the Yellow phenotype showing consistently lower levels. Highly significant PMaca phenotypes grown in two locations, confirms an earlier assumption that sums of individual Glucosinolates, their ratios and profiles, may be feasible to explore in analytically identifying individual Maca phenotypes in pulverised marketed Maca products.

  18. Differentiation of the seed coat and composition of the mucilage of Lepidium perfoliatum L.: a desert annual with typical myxospermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Daihong; Wang, Cui; Yuan, Junwen; Cao, Jing; Lan, Haiyan

    2015-10-01

    Myxospermy is an important feature in seeds of many plant species grown in desert region. Fertilization can initiate differentiation of the seed coat epidermis into a specialized cell type with mucilage production. In the present study, comprehensive analyses were performed on the seed coat differentiation, mucilage production and composition, and seed germination in Lepidium perfoliatum (Brassicaceae), a desert annual with typical myxospermy in China. First, results indicated that mucilage was secreted uniformly at the outer tangential wall, resulting in compression of the cytoplasm to the bottom of the epidermal cells. Secondly, the inner tangential wall and two radial walls of the subepidermal cells were apparently thickened by production of a secondary cell wall material, which resulted in a 'typical' palisade appearance. Thirdly, immunohistochemical staining combined with the enzymatic digestion and infrared spectrum analysis of the mucilage indicated that, while one important component of the seed coat mucilage in L. perfoliatum was pectin, it also contained β-1,3-d-glucan and xyloglucan. Finally, seed germination showed that seeds with mucilage displayed significantly higher germination percentage than that of demucilaged seeds in abundant or excess water conditions. These results suggest that the possible ecological role of mucilage in L. perfoliatum is in the adaptation to habitats with well-watered and water-logged conditions, rather than water stress. © The Author 2015. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Evaluación preliminar del efecto de Lepidium meyenii Walp en el desarrollo embrionario de ratón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe D´Arrigo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La "maca", Lepidium meyenii Walp, especie vegetal nativa del Perú, es un recurso de gran valor nutricional. Además son varias las investigaciones realizadas en la última década en las cuales se ha comprobado sus efectos sobre la fertilidad de mamíferos. En este trabajo, evaluamos el posible efecto del extracto liofilizado del hipocótilo de L. meyenii Walp en el desarrollo de los embriones preimplantacionales de Mus musculus. Se suministró el liofilizado intra-peritonealmente, en una concentración de 0 g/Kg (grupo control y 1 g/Kg de peso corporal a dos grupos de ratonas preñadas respectivamente, desde el día 1 hasta el día 4 de preñez. Se evaluaron el estadío de desarrollo, condición y morfología embrionarias, no encontrándose efectos tóxicos del extracto acuoso liofilizado de "maca" en el desarrollo normal de los embriones pre-implantacionales de ratón.

  20. Comparison of Mineral Element Content in a Functional Food Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from Asia and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contents of eight mineral elements in maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from China and Peru were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Cu contents in maca samples from China (2.5–31 mg kg−1 dry weight, dw were higher than the samples from Peru (<2.1 mg kg−1 dw. Na in two samples from China was found to be significantly of high content (2400 and 2600 mg kg−1 dw. The contents (mg kg−1 dw of B, Co, Cr, Li, Ni, and Zn were, respectively, 8.1–21, <0.023, <1.1~3.5, 0.020–0.17, 0.085–4.5, and 10–39 for the samples from China, while being 6.6–12, <0.023, <1.1~2.3, 0.035–0.063, 0.68–1.7, and 27–39 for the samples from Peru.

  1. Genetic analysis of bed bug populations reveals small propagule size within individual infestations but high genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Virna L; Booth, Warren; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

    2012-07-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) are a resurgent pest worldwide and infestations within the United States are increasing at a rapid rate. Because of the physical and psychological discomfort inflicted by their blood feeding habits, and allergies and secondary infections associated with bites, bed bugs are recognized as a significant public health problem. Although bed bug infestations are spreading and becoming more prevalent, we have a poor understanding of their dispersal patterns and sources of infestation. To help fill this gap, we conducted a genetic study of 21 bed bug infestations from the eastern United States, nearly all of which came from single rooms within residences. We genotyped samples comprised of 8-10 individuals per infestation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. Despite high genetic diversity across all infestations, with 5-17 alleles per locus (mean = 10.3 alleles per locus), we found low genetic diversity (1-4 alleles per locus) within all but one of the infestations. These results suggest that nearly all the studied infestations were started by a small propagule possibly consisting of a singly mated female and/or her progeny, or a female mated with multiple males that were highly related to her. All infestations were strongly genetically differentiated from each other (mean pairwise F(ST) between populations = 0.68) and we did not find strong evidence of a geographic pattern of genetic structure, indicating infestations located in closer proximity to each other were nearly as genetically differentiated as those located hundreds of kilometers away. The high level of genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern United States together with the lack of geographically organized structure is consistent with multiple introductions into the United States from foreign sources.

  2. Exploring the Psychological Profile of Patients with Delusional Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Reena; Taylor, Ruth E; Bewley, Anthony

    2017-01-04

    Delusional infestation (DI) is an uncommon psychiatric disorder in which patients present with the false and fixed belief (i.e. a delusion) that their skin and/or their environment is infested despite objective evidence to the contrary. Within psychodermatology specialist clinics there is a high rate of DI referrals. What is not known is the level of psychiatric and psychological co-morbidities associated with DI and whether psychiatric or psychological assessment would be warranted. One-hundred and thirty-eight adult patients with DI attending an outpatient psychodermatology clinic were given 3 standardised questionnaires. The results showed that 81% had a poor quality of life; 52% with anxiety, 41.6% with depression and 49% with appearance-related concerns. This study indicates high levels of psychiatric and psychological disorders in DI which require assessment and appropriate intervention.

  3. Intercropping System for Protection the Potato Plant from Insect Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sharaby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of intercropping system provides an option for insect control for organic farmers that are limited in their chemical use. Additionally, intercropping systems can be attractive to conventional growers as a cost-effective insect control solution. A study was carried out for two seasons 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to evaluate the effect of intercropping of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. with onion (Allium cepa L. on whitefly (Bemicia tabasi Gennadius and aphids’ Myzus persicae Sulz. and Aphis gossypii Glover infestation in potato fields. Results indicated that intercropping significantly reduced potato plant infestation with whitefly by 42.7, 51.3% while it was 62.69% reduction with aphids during the two successive winter seasons than when potato plants were cultivated alone. Therefore, intercropping could be recommended as a protection method of reducing pest population in the fields.

  4. Delusional infestation with unusual pathogens: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, P; Miller, J; Musters, C; Taylor, R E; Bewley, A P

    2011-10-01

    Delusional infestation (DI) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a fixed, false belief that the patient is infested with extracorporeal agents. It is known by several names, including the more commonly used term 'delusional parasitosis'. The psychiatric disease is responsible for the cutaneous pathology. About 90% of patients with DI seek help from dermatologists, and most reject psychiatric referral. Thus, effective management requires incorporation of psychiatric principles. We report three cases of DI with inanimate materials, and examine 'Morgellons' disease. We believe that patients with unusual presentations of DI are likely to be seen more commonly in the future. These patients appear to be a subgroup of DI, and may be even more difficult to treat than other patients with DI. © The Author(s). CED © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Biology, treatment, and control of flea and tick infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagburn, Byron L; Dryden, Michael W

    2009-11-01

    Flea and tick infestations are common and elimination can be expensive and time consuming. Many advances in control of fleas can be directly linked to improved knowledge of the intricacies of flea host associations, reproduction, and survival in the premises. Understanding tick biology and ecology is far more difficult than with fleas, because North America can have up to 9 different tick species infesting cats and dogs compared to 1 primary flea species. Effective tick control is more difficult to achieve than effective flea control, because of the abundance of potential alternative hosts in the tick life cycle. Many effective host-targeted tick control agents exist, several of which also possess activity against adult or immature fleas and other parasites.

  6. Disminución del daño oxidativo y efecto hipoglicemiante de la maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) en ratas con diabetes inducida por streptozotocina

    OpenAIRE

    María Elena Rodrigo; Rubén Valdivieso; Silvia Suárez; Rosa Oriondo; Raquel Oré

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: La maca es consumida desde tiempos ancestrales como parte de la dieta. Se le ha atribuido propiedades medicinales y se encuentra incluida en la medicina tradicional peruana. Estudios recientes describen que la admistración de maca reduce la glicemia en animales normoglicémicos, pero los mecanismos involucrados no están muy claros. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto hipoglicemiante y antioxidante de la harina de maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) del ecotipo amarillo, en ratas con diabete...

  7. Disminucion del daño oxidativo y efecto hipoglicemiante de la maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) en ratas con diabetes inducida por streptozotocina

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo, María Elena; Valdivieso, Rubén; Suárez, Silvia; Oriondo, Rosa; Oré, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La maca es consumida desde tiempos ancestrales como parte de la dieta. Se le ha atribuido propiedades medicinales y se encuentra incluida en la medicina tradicional peruana. Estudios recientes describen que la admistración de maca reduce la glicemia en animales normoglicémicos, pero los mecanismos involucrados no están muy claros. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto hipoglicemiante y antioxidante de la harina de maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) del ecotipo amarillo, en ratas con diabete...

  8. Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Structure and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Water-Soluble Chlorophyll Protein Complex Isolated from Stems of Lepidium virginicum

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichi, Tabata; Shigeru, Itoh; Masaharu, Sugawa; Mitsuo, Nishimura; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University:(Present)National Institute for Basic Biology; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between structure and spectroscopic characteristics of the water-soluble chlorophyll protein complex isolated from stems of Lepidium virginicum (CP663S) was studied. Addition of 0.08% SDS induced a red shift of the 663 nm absorption maximum. At the same time, under excitation at 435 nm, the maximum of fluorescence emission shifted from 672 nm to 675 nm and the fluorescence yield increased. When CP663S was excited at 480 nm, the 660 nm emission band of chlorophyll b became mor...

  9. Effect of SO/sub 2/ on sexual reproduction in Lepidium virginicum L. originating from regions with different SO/sub 2/ concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdy, W.H.

    1979-09-01

    Tolerance of SO/sub 2/ with respect to sexual reproduction is reported for populations of Lepidium virginicum from the Copper Basin of Tennessee, a region subjected to SO/sub 2/ pollution for the past 75 yr. The offspring of plants from inside and outside the Copper Basin were fumigated with 2130 ..mu..g/m/sup 2/ SO/sub 2/ for 9 h at high relative humidity in replicated experiments. As a result of SO/sub 2/ stress, plants from outside the Copper Basin were less fertile than plants from inside the Copper Basin.

  10. Aberrant infestation of goat mandibles with Oestrus ovis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godara, R; Sharma, R L; Sharma, C S

    2010-01-01

    Nasal oestrosis is primarily an infestation of sheep. However, a non descript goat, aged three years was presented in lateral recumbency with clinical history of sneezing fits, laboured breathing, eroded mandibular lesions and bilaterally housing nasal bots therein. The first ever occurrence of nasal bots in an aberrant location (mandibles) in a goat, its therapeutic management and public health significance have been documented and discussed.

  11. A massive infestation of sea snakes by cymothoid isopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, A; Balasubramanian, T; Raja, K; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a massive infestation of the sea snake Enhydrina schistosa by the cymothoid isopod Nerocila serra, commonly parasitizing fishes, is reported for the first time from India. This isopod was found attached on the different parts of the body of the snake. According to the month, the parasitic prevalence ranged from 30.8 to 55.3%, increasing during the monsson period. It was higher in female than in male snakes.

  12. Concurrent puerperal hysterectomy with Ascaris lumbricoides infestation: coincidence or consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapardiel, Ignacio; Peiretti, Michele; Godoy-Tundidor, Sonia

    2010-04-01

    The most common etiology of postpartum hemorrhage is uterine atony, although hematologic disorders may be present. A 36-year-old nulliparous woman underwent puerperal hysterectomy caused by uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage. One day after discharge, she vomited in the emergency room a 24-cm long Ascaris lumbricoides. Infestation during gestation may cause hematologic disorders that could complicate pregnancy outcome. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. There are more asthmatics in homes with high cockroach infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarinho E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although asthma has been commonly associated with sensitivity to cockroaches, a clear causal relationship between asthma, allergy to cockroaches and exposure levels has not been extensively investigated. The objective of the present study was to determine whether asthma occurs more frequently in children living in homes with high cockroach infestation. The intensity of household infestation was assessed by the number of dead insects after professional pesticide application. Children living in these houses in the metropolitan area of Recife, PE, were diagnosed as having asthma by means of a questionnaire based on the ISAAC study. All children had physician-diagnosed asthma and at least one acute exacerbation in the past year. Children of both sexes aged 4 to 12 years who had been living in the households for more than 2 years participated in this transverse study and had a good socioeconomic status. In the 172 houses studied, 79 children were considered to have been exposed to cockroaches and 93 not to have been exposed. Children living in residences with more than 5 dead cockroaches after pesticide application were considered to be at high infestation exposure. Asthma was diagnosed by the questionnaire in 31.6% (25/79 of the exposed group and in 11.8% (11/93 of the non-exposed group (P = 0.001, with a prevalence ratio of 3.45 (95%CI, 1.48-8.20. The present results indicate that exposure to cockroaches was significantly associated with asthma among the children studied and can be considered a risk factor for the disease. Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana were the species found in 96% of the infested houses.

  14. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals.

  15. Is Enterobius vermicularis infestation associated with acute appendicitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkapulu, N; Abdullazade, S

    2016-08-01

    Enterobius vermicularis might be seen in specimens of patients who underwent surgery due to acute appendicitis. There is still debate as to E. vermicularis infestation causes acute appendicitis. The primary aim of this study is to determine the incidence of E. vermicularis infestation, and the secondary aim is to determine the possible role of E. vermicularis in pathogenesis of appendicitis as well as the adequacy of demographic data and laboratory values in predicting infestation preoperatively. A retrospective investigation was conducted with all patients who underwent appendectomy due to acute appendicitis in a secondary care center. Patients with E. vermicularis were compared with 24 controls that underwent appendectomy during the same time period. Demographic data, preoperative white blood cell (WBC) count, eosinophil counts, and histopathological findings for both groups were analyzed and compared. Enterobius vermicularis was detected in the appendectomy materials in 9 of 1446 patients (0.62 %). Histopathologically, only one of nine patients had acute appendicitis while the others were diagnosed with lymphoid hyperplasia. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups except WBC count. However, the WBC count was significantly (p appendicitis. Also eosinophil count and elevation of white blood counts are inadequate for predicting preoperative E. vermicularis.

  16. Infestation and hydraulic consequences of induced carbon starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, William R L; Callaway, Elizabeth S

    2012-08-01

    Drought impacts on forests, including widespread die-off, are likely to increase with future climate change, although the physiological responses of trees to lethal drought are poorly understood. In particular, in situ examinations of carbon starvation and its interactions with and effects on infestation and hydraulic vulnerability are largely lacking. In this study, we conducted a controlled, in situ, repeated defoliation experiment to induce carbon stress in isolated trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) ramets. We monitored leaf morphology, leaves per branch, and multitissue carbohydrate concentrations during canopy defoliation. We examined the subsequent effects of defoliation and defoliation-induced carbon stress on vulnerability to insect/fungus infestation and hydraulic vulnerability the following year. Defoliated ramets flushed multiple canopies, which coincided with moderate drawdown of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves. Infestation frequency greatly increased and hydraulic conductivity decreased 1 year after defoliation. Despite incomplete carbohydrate drawdown from defoliation and relatively rapid carbohydrate recovery, suggesting considerable carbohydrate reserves in aspen, defoliation-induced carbon stress held significant consequences for vulnerability to mortality agents and hydraulic performance. Our results indicate that multiyear consequences of drought via feedbacks are likely important for understanding forests' responses to drought and climate change over the coming decades.

  17. Prevalence of Warble Fly Infestation in Buffalo in Chakwal, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Waheed

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is the major problem affecting livestock in many parts of the world. Amongst these parasitic problems, the warble fly infestation (hypodermosis is a notorious and common malady of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in Pakistan. The disease is endemic in cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in semi-hilly and mountainous areas of Pakistan. Keeping in view the importance of buffaloes an epidemiological survey was conducted to find the prevalence of hypodermosis in district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan, during the year 2005- 2006. Buffaloes are mainly kept for milk purpose in the study area. Out of 2000 buffaloes examined clinically, for grub infestation in the study area 125 (6.25% and 37 (5.20% found to be positive for the warble fly infestation in slaughter house as well as in the field. A prevalence variation among the male and female animals was also observed during the study. The factors of climatic conditions that favor the fly activity and contribute in the onset of disease.

  18. Physiological Response of Orchids to Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmiec, K; Kot, I; Golan, K; Górska-Drabik, E; Lagowska, B; Rubinowska, K; Michalek, W

    2016-12-01

    The harmfulness of mealybugs resulting from sucking plant sap, secreting honeydew, and transmitting plant viruses can give them the status of serious pests. This study documents the influence of Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) infestation on alterations in selected physiological parameters of Phalaenopsis x hybridum 'Innocence'. The condition of the cytoplasmic membranes was expressed as the value of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. We have determined changes in the activities of catalase and guaiacol peroxidase and measured the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (Y), photochemical quenching (qP), and nonphotochemical quenching (qN). The strongest physiological response of orchids was recorded in the initial period of mealybugs infestation. Prolonged insect feeding suppressed lipid peroxidation, peroxidase and catalase activity, as well as photosynthesis photochemistry. The pattern of changes was dependent on mealybug species. This indicated the complexity of the processes responsible for plant tolerance. Data generated in this study have provided a better understanding of the impact of two mealybug species infestation on Phalaenopsis and should be useful in developing pest management strategies. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Evaluation of the relationship between androgenetic alopecia and demodex infestation

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    Zari Javidi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is one of the most common dermatologic disorders with a multifactorial etiology. Inflammatory activators such as Demodex infestation may play a role in the pathogenesis of some cases of androgenetic alopecia that do not respond to common treatments such as minoxidil and finasteride. The goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between Demodex infestation and AGA. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 41 patients with AGA referred to the Dermatology Clinic of Imam Reza Hospital and 33 healthy individuals were evaluated as control. All of them were between 20 and 40 years old men. In order to identify Demodex infestation they were referred to the Parasitology laboratory. Results: Demodex was detected in 19.5% of patients and 15.2% of controls; therefore, there was no significant relationship between them statistically ( P = 0.0787. Most of patients (85.4% had greasy hair. The most common pattern of baldness was II degree in Hamilton scale. Conclusion: There is no relation between AGA and Demodex.

  20. Infestation of the surf clam Mesodesma donacium by the spionid polychaete Polydora bioccipitalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, José M.; Heilmayer, Olaf; Oliva, Marcelo E.; Laudien, Jürgen; Arntz, Wolf E.

    2008-08-01

    The surf clam Mesodesma donacium is an economically important species for Chilean and Peruvian shellfisheries. This clam is often infested by Polydora bioccipitalis, a species belonging to the Spionidae, the most common parasitic polychaete group. To study this association, clams were sampled monthly over a one-year period in northern Chile. Collected clams covered the entire available size range and were classified into four infestation levels in order to study: (1) the relationship between prevalence of infestation ( PI) and host size, (2) the temporal pattern of infestation events related to seasonal temperature changes, and (3) the relationship between infestation, body condition index ( BCI) and gonado-somatic index ( GSI). Additionally, growth rate and digging ability of clams with different infestation levels was studied. A logistic regression model best explained the relationship between PI and host size, with the smallest infested clam being 34 mm long and PI increasing steeply thereafter. Ontogenetic shifts in the habitat of the clam and ontogenetic changes, mainly in shell morphology, seem to explain the sigmoid pattern. Periods of increased shell blistering after infestation by P. bioccipitalis showed a similar seasonal pattern with GSI and BCI of non-infested clams, suggesting either an association between infestation ability and low condition of the clam or common environmental triggers for those factors. Heavily infested clams showed a significant lower BCI, growth rate and digging ability; however, given its low number, they are unlikely to be significant in terms of the local population survival. However, the infestation could play a key role in explaining mass mortality of northern populations during El Niño events, given the latitudinal differences in PI and the fact that infestation ability could be enhanced by increased temperature and facilitated in stressed clams.

  1. Effect of different levels of Lepidium sativum L. on growth performance, carcass characteristics, hematology and serum biochemical parameters of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawle, Kassa; Urge, Mengistu; Animut, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    Frequent use of antibiotics to stimulate growth and health of animals leads to the development of antibiotic-resistant populations of microorganisms. In this context, alternatives like herbs and spices to antibiotics are of importance, as they are natural products. Therefore, the present experiment was designed to evaluate the performance, carcass traits, hematology and serum biochemical parameters of broilers fed ration containing varying levels of Lepidium satvium (Garden cress) seed powder as feed additive up to the age of 42 days. A total of 204 Cobb-500 day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into four treatments with three replicates of 17 chicks each. Garden cress (GC) was included in the ration at 0 (0GC), 0.75 (0.75GC), 1.50 (1.5GC) and 2.25 % (2.25GC) in each treatments. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, heamatology, serum biochemical and economic efficiency parameters were observed. The crude protein, ether extract and crude fiber content of GC were 22.4, 25.7 and 10.5 %, respectively. Daily dry matter intake and average daily gain during the entire experimental period were affected (p  0.05). Sex differences were significant for eviscerated, carcass and kidney percentages with greater values for females than males. All hematological parameters were within the normal range. However, inclusion of GC improved (p health of broilers. Based on the production parameters used in the study, GC can be included as feed additive at a level of 0.75 % in the total ration for better and positive results on biological performance and health status of broilers.

  2. Effect of different fractions from hydroalcoholic extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on testicular function in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucra, Sandra; Gasco, Manuel; Rubio, Julio; Nieto, Jessica; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of different fractions of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii), obtained from the hydroalcoholic extract, on spermatogenesis. Animal study. Animal and laboratory facilities at a university. Forty two adult male rats from the Holtzman strain (3 months old). Hydroalcoholic extract of Black Maca was partitioned with the following solvents: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water to obtain each fraction. Forty-two rats were divided in different groups according the fraction administered and vehicle. The hydroalcoholic extract of Black Maca and its fractions and vehicle were given orally by gavage for 7 days. Daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, and sperm count in the vas deferens. Daily sperm production was higher in the ethyl acetate group compared with all other groups. The epididymal sperm count was higher in rats treated with ethyl acetate fraction compared with rats treated with vehicle (control), petroleum ether, n-butanol, or water fractions. The sperm count in vas deferens was lower in rats treated with ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, or water fractions compared with the control group; thus, the sperm count in vas deferens in rats treated with chloroform and n-butanol fractions was higher than in the petroleum ether group. The greatest effect on spermatogenesis was observed in the ethyl acetate fraction from the hydroalcoholic extract of Black Maca, suggesting that the compounds related to the beneficial effect on sperm production of Black Maca are presented in this fraction. Antioxidant components could play a role in the effect of increased epididymal sperm concentration observed in the model.

  3. Potent endogenous allelopathic compounds in Lepidium sativum seed exudate: effects on epidermal cell growth in Amaranthus caudatus seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Amjad; Fry, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Many plants exude allelochemicals – compounds that affect the growth of neighbouring plants. This study reports further studies of the reported effect of cress (Lepidium sativum) seed(ling) exudates on seedling growth in Amaranthus caudatus and Lactuca sativa. In the presence of live cress seedlings, both species grew longer hypocotyls and shorter roots than cress-free controls. The effects of cress seedlings were allelopathic and not due to competition for resources. Amaranthus seedlings grown in the presence of cress allelochemical(s) had longer, thinner hypocotyls and shorter, thicker roots – effects previously attributed to lepidimoide. The active principle was more abundant in cress seed exudate than in seedling (root) exudates. It was present in non-imbibed seeds and releasable from heat-killed seeds. Release from live seeds was biphasic, starting rapidly but then continuing gradually for 24 h. The active principle was generated by aseptic cress tissue and was not a microbial digestion product or seed-treatment chemical. Crude seed exudate affected hypocotyl and root growth at ∼25 and ∼450 μg ml−1 respectively. The exudate slightly (28%) increased epidermal cell number along the length of the Amaranthus hypocotyl but increased total hypocotyl elongation by 129%; it resulted in a 26% smaller hypocotyl circumference but a 55% greater epidermal cell number counted round the circumference. Therefore, the effect of the allelochemical(s) on organ morphology was imposed primarily by regulation of cell expansion, not cell division. It is concluded that cress seeds exude endogenous substances, probably including lepidimoide, that principally regulate cell expansion in receiver plants. PMID:22268144

  4. Evaluation of plant growth promoting activity and heavy metal tolerance of psychrotrophic bacteria associated with maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ortiz-Ojeda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The high Andean plateau of Peru is known to suffer harsh environmental conditions. Acidic soils containing high amount of heavy metals due to mining activities and withstanding very low temperatures affect agricultural activities by diminishing crop quality and yield. In this context, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR adapted to low temperatures and tolerant to heavy metals can be considered as an environment-friendly biological alternative for andean crop management. The aim of this work was to select and characterize psychrotrophic PGPR isolated from the rhizosphere of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. a traditional andean food crop. A total of 44 psychrotrophic strains isolated from 3 areas located in the Bombon plateu of Junin-Peru were tested for their PGPR characteristics like indole acetic acid (IAA production, phosphate solubilization and for their ability to improve seed germination. In addition, their capacity to grow in the presence of heavy metals like cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, cobalt (Co and mercury (Hg was tested. Of the total number of strains tested, 12 were positive for IAA production at 22 °C, 8 at 12 °C and 16 at 6 °C. Phosphate solubilization activities were higher at 12 °C and 6 °C than at 22 °C. Red clover plant assays showed that 16 strains were capable to improve seed germination at 22 °C and 4 at 12 °C. Moreover, 11 strains showed tolerance to Cd and Pb at varying concentrations. This study highlight the importance of obtaining PGPRs to be used in high andean plateu crops that are exposed to low temperatures and presence of heavy metals on soil.

  5. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicole A; Wilcox, Gisela; Walker, Karen Z; Ashton, John F; Cox, Marc B; Stojanovska, Lily

    2008-01-01

    To examine the estrogenic and androgenic activity of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) and its effect on the hormonal profile and symptoms in postmenopausal women. Fourteen postmenopausal women completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. They received 3.5 g/day of powered Maca for 6 weeks and matching placebo for 6 weeks, in either order, over a total of 12 weeks. At baseline and weeks 6 and 12 blood samples were collected for the measurement of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin, and the women completed the Greene Climacteric Scale to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms. In addition, aqueous and methanolic Maca extracts were tested for androgenic and estrogenic activity using a yeast-based hormone-dependent reporter assay. No differences were seen in serum concentrations of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin between baseline, Maca treatment, and placebo (P > 0.05). The Greene Climacteric Scale revealed a significant reduction in scores in the areas of psychological symptoms, including the subscales for anxiety and depression and sexual dysfunction after Maca consumption compared with both baseline and placebo (P Lepidium meyenii (Maca) (3.5 g/d) reduces psychological symptoms, including anxiety and depression, and lowers measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women independent of estrogenic and androgenic activity.

  6. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

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    Thomas Bawin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  7. Does Aphid Infestation Interfere with Indirect Plant Defense against Lepidopteran Caterpillars in Wild Cabbage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yehua; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Chamontri, Surachet; Dicke, Marcel; Gols, Rieta

    2017-05-01

    Attraction of parasitoids to plant volatiles induced by multiple herbivory depends on the specific combinations of attacking herbivore species, especially when their feeding modes activate different defense signalling pathways as has been reported for phloem feeding aphids and tissue feeding caterpillars. We studied the effects of pre-infestation with non-host aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae) for two different time periods on the ability of two parasitoid species to discriminate between volatiles emitted by plants infested by host caterpillars alone and those emitted by plants infested with host caterpillars plus aphids. Using plants originating from three chemically distinct wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, Diadegma semiclausum switched preference for dually infested plants to preference for plants infested with Plutella xylostella hosts alone when the duration of pre-aphid infestation doubled from 7 to 14 days. Microplitis mediator, a parasitoid of Mamestra brassicae caterpillars, preferred dually-infested plants irrespective of aphid-infestation duration. Separation of the volatile blends emitted by plants infested with hosts plus aphids or with hosts only was poor, based on multivariate statistics. However, emission rates of individual compounds were often reduced in plants infested with aphids plus hosts compared to those emitted by plants infested with hosts alone. This effect depended on host caterpillar species and plant population and was little affected by aphid infestation duration. Thus, the interactive effect of aphids and hosts on plant volatile production and parasitoid attraction can be dynamic and parasitoid specific. The characteristics of the multi-component volatile blends that determine parasitoid attraction are too complex to be deduced from simple correlative statistical analyses.

  8. Survey of Flea Infestation in Dogs in Different Geographical Regions of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Tavassoli, Mosa; Ahmadi, Amir; Imani, Abbas; Ahmadiara, Emad; Javadi, Shahram; Hadian, Mojtaba

    2010-01-01

    Medically important arthropods, including fleas, play an important role in causing clinical disorders and disease in man and domestic animals. This study was conducted to determine the seasonal flea infestations for domestic dogs from different geographic regions of Iran. A total of 407 fleas, belonging to 5 different species, were recovered from 83 domestic dogs from 3 regions. There was a distinctive pattern of species distribution and infestations with the highest infestation rates observe...

  9. Biological evaluation of protein quality of sorghum as affected by insect infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jood, S; Kapoor, A C; Singh, R

    1993-03-01

    Protein quality of sorghum grains having 25, 50 and 75% infestation caused by mixed population of Trogoderma granarium Everts and Rhizopertha dominica Fabricius was biologically evaluated by rat growth and nitrogen balance studies. Feeding of diet containing insect infested sorghum grains (50 and 75%) resulted in marked decrease in food intake, protein intake, gain in body weight, food efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio, nitrogen consumption, nitrogen absorption, biological value, net protein utilization, dry matter digestibility, net protein retention and protein retention efficiency. These parameters showed negative association with insect infestation levels. However, 25% level of grain infestation did not affect these parameters significantly.

  10. Analysis of the Heterogeneity of Weed Infestation in Cereal Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winkler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the heterogeneity of the incidence of individual weed species on a selected experimental field. This field was situated in the cadastre of the village Žabčice (South Moravian Region, Czech Republic. To evaluate the intensity of weed infestation, a field experiment was established. In 2011, altogether 33 weed species were identified in a stand of spring barley. In the next year, the total number of weeds in a stand of winter wheat was 22. Basing on results of the evaluation of infestation heterogeneity it was possible to detect the following trends: The first one concerned the incidence of significantly dominant species Chenopodium album and Veronica hederifolia in stands of spring barley and winter wheat, respectively. The second one expressed the incidence of the so-called sub-dominant species. Regarding the character of the incidence of these weed species it would be suitable to kill them by means of a targeted application of herbicides. Finally, the third trend concerned the incidence of that group of weeds that occurred in the major part of the experimental plot but in low numbers only. The abundance of these species was minimal and the total number of weed plants did not exceed the limit of 100 specimens. This group of weeds involved also those species that were markedly more frequent on plots situated closer to the margin of the experimental field. The targeted application of herbicides can be performed on plots with a lower level of weed infestation; another possibility, however, seems to be a targeted intervention that helps to control the incidence of a certain weed species and/or that is performed along the margin of the field where the different weed species are more frequent.

  11. Detecting insect infestation with poly3-hexylthiophenethin thin film sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerakoon, Kanchana; Li, Suiquing; Shu, Hungjen J.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2009-05-01

    The financial losses and destruction of crops due to insect infestation in the United States are estimated by the USDA to exceed 20 billion dollars annually. Much of these losses could be avoided by having a sensor that could effectively identify the early stages of insect infestation. However, traditional detection methods are time consuming, require trained personnel, and are not sufficient for early detection. Several previous research studies showed that emitting organic volatile compounds is a defensive mechanism activated by some plant species after being attacked by herbivores and parasites. Corn, cotton, pine, Brussels sprouts when attacked by Beet army worm, spider mites, bark beetles and caterpillars respectively, emits different blends of plant volatiles including γ-terpinene, α-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate, with a concentration of about 50 ppm. Therefore, monitoring for these volatile compounds may enable on-site early detection of insect infestations. In this study, a chemical resistor sensor to detect plant volatiles was designed and fabricated. The sensor platform consists of micro electronically fabricated interdigitated electrodes. On to this platform, a poly3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) thin film was deposited, using a spin coater at 8000 rpm for 30 seconds. The sensor was tested and found to be sensitive to a variety of plant volatiles, including γ-terpinene, α-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate at room temperature. These vapors interacted with the P3HT film causing an increase in the resistance of the sensor by more than one order of magnitude

  12. The impact of stubble crop on spring barley weed infestation

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    Eleonora Wrzesińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The condition and degree of weed infestation were determined in a spring barely crop grown in a short-term monoculture after mulching the soil with plants grown as a stubble crop (the control treatment without cover crop – lacy phacelia, white mustard, sunflower. The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2013 on good rye soil complex using a split-block design in four replications. The obtained results (the mean from all years of the experiment showed that the stubble crop, especially sunflower, reduced the diversity of weed species without causing at the same time changes in weed species dominance. In all the control treatments of the experiment, Chenopodium album and Fallopia convolvulus were the dominant species. The degree of spring barley weed infestation depended on the species grown in the cover crop. White mustard and lacy phacelia slightly increased the number of weeds but their fresh matter significantly increased. However, the sunflower cover crop significantly increased the number of weeds without any substantial differentiation of their fresh mass.

  13. Tenancy, Marriage, and the Boll Weevil Infestation, 1892-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre; Feigenbaum, James; Muller, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    In the early twentieth century, the cotton-growing regions of the U.S. South were dominated by families of tenant farmers. Tenant farming created opportunities and incentives for prospective tenants to marry at young ages. These opportunities and incentives especially affected African Americans, who had few alternatives to working as tenants. Using complete-count Census of Population data from 1900-1930 and Census of Agriculture data from 1889-1929, we find that increases in tenancy over time increased the prevalence of marriage among young African Americans. We then study how marriage was affected by one of the most notorious disruptions to southern agriculture at the turn of the century: the boll weevil infestation of 1892-1922. Using historical Department of Agriculture maps, we show that the boll weevil's arrival reduced the share of farms worked by tenants as well as the share of African Americans who married at young ages. When the boll weevil infestation altered African Americans' opportunities and incentives to marry, the share of African Americans who married young fell accordingly. Our results provide new evidence about the effect of economic and political institutions on demographic transformations.

  14. Identification of endocannabinoid system-modulating N-alkylamides from Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra and Lepidium meyenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Zsanett; Nicolussi, Simon; Rau, Mark; Lorántfy, László; Forgo, Peter; Hohmann, Judit; Csupor, Dezső; Gertsch, Jürg

    2014-07-25

    The discovery of the interaction of plant-derived N-alkylamides (NAAs) and the mammalian endocannabinoid system (ECS) and the existence of a plant endogenous N-acylethanolamine signaling system have led to the re-evaluation of this group of compounds. Herein, the isolation of seven NAAs and the assessment of their effects on major protein targets in the ECS network are reported. Four NAAs, octadeca-2E,4E,8E,10Z,14Z-pentaene-12-ynoic acid isobutylamide (1), octadeca-2E,4E,8E,10Z,14Z-pentaene-12-ynoic acid 2'-methylbutylamide (2), hexadeca-2E,4E,9Z-triene-12,14-diynoic acid isobutylamide (3), and hexadeca-2E,4E,9,12-tetraenoic acid 2'-methylbutylamide (4), were identified from Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra. Compounds 2-4 are new natural products, while 1 was isolated for the first time from this species. The previously described macamides, N-(3-methoxybenzyl)-(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienamide (5), N-benzyl-(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienamide (6), and N-benzyl-(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienamide (7), were isolated from Lepidium meyenii (Maca). N-Methylbutylamide 4 and N-benzylamide 7 showed submicromolar and selective binding affinities for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (Ki values of 0.31 and 0.48 μM, respectively). Notably, compound 7 also exhibited weak fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition (IC50 = 4 μM) and a potent inhibition of anandamide cellular uptake (IC50 = 0.67 μM) that was stronger than the inhibition obtained with the controls OMDM-2 and UCM707. The pronounced ECS polypharmacology of compound 7 highlights the potential involvement of the arachidonoyl-mimicking 9Z,12Z double-bond system in the linoleoyl group for the overall cannabimimetic action of NAAs. This study provides additional strong evidence of the endocannabinoid substrate mimicking of plant-derived NAAs and uncovers a direct and indirect cannabimimetic action of the Peruvian Maca root.

  15. Head lice infestation in school children of a low socio- economy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... In the old Gaza city and the rural village Jabalia within the Gaza Governorate the rate of infestation with lice was 14.1% in the primary school girls. (Al-Shawa, 2006). In a high socio-economy area in Izmir,. Turkey, 4.2% of the studied population of the secondary and elementary school children were infested ...

  16. [Epizoological Survey On Infestation Rate Of Helminths In Korean Native Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Chang; Lee, Kang Wook

    1971-08-01

    The authors made a study on the species and distribution of helminths in Korean native cattle. The feces and internal organs from 1,755 heads were examined in slaughter plants of Taejon district. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Distribution and infestation rate of helminths among the collected samples are, Paramphistomum spp. 68.4%, Fasciola spp. 48%, Eurytrema spp. 23.5%, Moniezia spp. 8%, Dictyocaulus spp. 3.5%, Trichostrongylus spp. 12.4%, and other species 26.8%, respectively. 2. In 36.4% of ths cases, single infestation was seen and in 31.5%, 18.0%, and 14.0 % mixed infestation of double, triple, and quadruple or more species were seen, respectively. 3. Geographical analysis of infested helminths in the native cattle indicates: a. Among the trematoda order, Paramphistomum spp. and Fasciola spp. showed high rate of infestation throughout all districts of the country, especially Cheju island with a significant higher rate. Central district (Taejon) was higher in number of native cattle infested with Fasciola spp. than any other district of the country investigated. b. The rate of infestation with cestoda also showed to be higher in Cheju island than any other district of main land, but the rate of infestation with other nematoda showed no geographical difference.

  17. Urban Infestation Patterns of Argentine Ants, Linepithema humile, in Los Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smadar Gilboa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infestations of buildings by Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr, were monitored on the campus of the University of California, Los Angeles. Foraging ant activity peaked during the hotter months of the year. The mean monthly maximum temperature, but not rainfall, positively correlated with indoor infestation frequency. Neither garden size nor the predominant groundcover vegetation correlated with the number of foraging ants at baits within gardens. Although the number of foraging ants outside a building varied over 40-fold, ant density in gardens did not predict the likelihood of infestation within the building. Also, the type of vegetative groundcover employed did not predict infestation frequency. There was, however, a significant negative relationship between the size of the garden outside of a building and the number of infestations. Given the large foraging area of L. humile workers, buildings next to small gardens may be infested simply because they lie within the “normal” foraging area of a colony. The best predictor of which rooms were infested within buildings was the presence of a water source. Thus providing water for ant colonies outside and away from buildings may be one method of integrated pest management to reduce the proclivity of ants to infest structures.

  18. Changes in Wood Processing and Use Have Influenced the Likelihood of Beetle Infestations in Seasoned Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonnie H. Williams

    1980-01-01

    Fewer houses are being built with crawl spaces and more houses have central heating and air-conditioning, so the number of anobiid beetle infestations should decline. The likelihood of lyctid infestations in domestic hardwoods has been decreased by improved processing and marketing, but increased imports of tropical hardwoods likely will increase the frequency of...

  19. Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in two districts of lower Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2009-12-01

    Bovine tick infestation is still a serious nuisance to livestock and the dairy industry of Pakistan. The current paper reports the prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in the districts Layyah and Muzaffargarh of lower Punjab, Pakistan. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify and to quantify variation in the prevalence of bovine tick infestation with respect to host (age, species, sex, and breed) and environmental (geographical area and climate) determinants. Multiple stage cluster random sampling was used and 3500 cattle and buffaloes from the two districts were selected. Prevalence of bovine tick infestation was significantly higher (OR=1.95; p2025; 47.3%). Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the major tick species (33.5%; 1173/3500), followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (13%; 456/3500). The highest monthly prevalence in both the districts was found in July. Ticks were not found in Layyah from November to March and in Muzaffargarh from December to March. The average number of ticks was proportional to the prevalence of infestation. Also, tick infestation in a 7cmx7cm dewlap of the animal was proportional to that of the rest of body. Prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with district, host species and breed. In cattle, prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with age and sex of host. The results of this study provide better understanding of disease epidemiology in the study districts, which will help for planning of control strategies.

  20. Infestation by Triatoma pallidipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) is associated with housing characteristics in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Justin M; Wilson, Mark L; Cruz-Celis, Adriana; Ordoñez, Rosalinda; Ramsey, Janine M

    2006-11-01

    Long-term control of Chagas disease requires not only interruption of the human transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi Schyzotrypanum, Chagas, 1909 by controlling its domestic triatomine vectors but also surveillance to prevent reinfestation of residences from sylvatic or persistent peridomestic populations. Although a number of potential risk factors for infestation have been implicated in previous studies, the explanatory power of resulting models has been low. Two years after cessation of triatomine vector control efforts in the town of Chalcatzingo, Morelos, 78 environmental, socioecological, and spatial variables were analyzed for association with infestation by Triatoma pallidipennis Stal 1872 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), the principal vector of T. cruzi. We studied 712 residences in this rural community to identify specific intradomestic and peridomestic risk factors that predicted infestation with T. pallidipennis. From numerous characteristics that were identified as correlated with infestation, we derived multivariate logistic regression models to predict residences that were more or less likely to be infested with T. pallidipennis. The most important risk factors for infestation included measurements of house age, upkeep, and spatial location in the town. The effects of certain risk factors on infestation were found to be modified by spatial characteristics of residences. The results of this study provide new information regarding risk factors for infestation by T. pallidipennis that may aid in designing sustainable disease control programs in rural Mexico.

  1. Levels of infestation on three different portions of the maize cob...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    and bottom portions. Percent damaged seeds; percent weight loss and mean number of holes on damaged seeds did not differ significantly. Keywords: Infested grains, infestation, maize, Sitophilus zeamais, weight loss. INTRODUCTION. Maize is an important cereal crop which is widely cultivated Africa by many small-scale.

  2. Volatiles from Psylla-infested pear trees and their possible involvement in attraction of anthocorid predators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scutareanu, P.; Drukker, B.; Bruin, J.; Posthumus, M.A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work showed that anthocorid predators aggregate around gauze cages containing Psylla-infested trees in a pear orchard. Because anthocorids responded to odor from Psylla-infested leaves in a laboratory test, it was hypothesized that these aggregative responses in the field were triggered by

  3. Detection of Mango Infested with Fruit Fly Eggs and Larvae by Infrared Imaging and Discriminant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly infestation causes significant loss of perishable products around the world and is an economic threat to growers, processors, and exporters. A rapid, economical, and non-destructive technique for detection of fruit fly infestation is reported based on hyperspectral imaging and discriminant...

  4. Seasonal pattern of infestation by the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in pomegranate cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, S.A.; Goldansaz, S.H.; Fotoukkiaii, S.M.; Menken, S.B.J.; Groot, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) orchards in the Middle East are typically composed of a mix of different cultivars in which variation in fruit infestation by carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been observed. However, seasonal variation in infestation and

  5. Efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of Sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinstra, M.R.; Soumana, S.; Al-Khatib, K.; Kapran, I.; Toure, A.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.; Ochanda, N.W.; Salami, I.; Kayentao, M.; Dembele, S.

    2009-01-01

    Witchweed (Striga spp.) infestations are the greatest obstacle to sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grain production in many areas in Africa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of sorghum. Seeds of an

  6. Amino acid composition and chemical evaluation of protein quality of cereals as affected by insect infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jood, S; Kapoor, A C; Singh, R

    1995-09-01

    A significant decrease in essential amino acids of wheat, maize and sorghum was observed due to grain infestation caused by mixed populations of Trogoderma granarium Everts and Rhizopertha dominica Fabricius (50:50). Non-essential amino acids were also adversely affected. Among the essential amino acids, maximum reduction was found in methionine, isoleucine and lysine in infested wheat, maize and sorghum grains, respectively. Lysine, with lowest chemical score in uninfested and infested grains of three cereals, is the first limiting amino acid. Insect infestation caused significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the chemical score of all the essential amino acids, yet did not change the position of first and second limiting amino acids in wheat and sorghum. However, in case of maize, isoleucine became the second limiting amino acid. Infested grains also showed substantial reduction in essential amino acid index, calculated biological value and requirement index.

  7. Chagas Disease: Assessing the Existence of a Threshold for Bug Infestation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiga, Hirotsugu; Sasagawa, Emi; Hashimoto, Ken; Nakamura, Jiro; Zúniga, Concepción; Chévez, José Eduardo Romero; Hernández, Hector Manuel Ramos; Nakagawa, Jun; Tabaru, Yuichiro

    2012-01-01

    To examine the existence of a possible threshold for the domestic infestation rate of Triatoma dimidiata, below which transmission becomes unlikely, a census was conducted in 59 Chagas disease endemic communities of El Salvador and Honduras. Entomological and serological tests were conducted targeting 4,083 households and 6,324 children between 6 months and 15 years of age. The overall domestic infestation rate of Triatoma dimidiata and seroprevalence among children were 12.9% and 0.49%, respectively. Communities with a domestic infestation rate at 8% or less consistently showed a seroprevalence of 0%. In communities with a domestic infestation rate above 8%, there was a wide range in seroprevalence. A domestic infestation rate of 8% could serve as the possible threshold below which transmission would become unlikely. The implementation of an 8% threshold for determining needs for universal insecticide spraying would lead to a 21% reduction in spraying-related costs. PMID:22665603

  8. Antibody response in naïve and sensitised goats infested by Sarcoptes scabiei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Tarigan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize the IgG and IgE antibody responses in goats infested repeatedly with Sarcoptes scabiei. Ten goats purchased from scabies-free farms were infested with 2000 live mites on the auricles. Fifty days after the initial infestation, the goats were treated with ivermectin. After being completely recovered, the goats were reinfested then treated again at 50 days post infestation. Blood samples were collected at the time of the first infestation, then every 10 days afterwards for 270 days. Seroconversion for IgG took place after 30 days following the first infestation, whereas the maximum level of the specific IgG antibodies occurred after 50 days. Immunoblot analysis identified a number of antigens (Mr 180, 135, 43 and 38 KDa that recognised by the IgG at 10 days and continuously recognised throughout the course of the multiple infestations. Being consistently recognised, those antigens should be essential in the development immunological diagnostic tests for scabies. The levels of scabies-specific IgE antibodies increased slowly during the first infestation and rapidly dropped following treatment of the animals with ivermectin. In the second and third infestations, however, the reaginic antibodies rose rapidly and with a grater level. On immunoblot analysis, at least 10 antigens (Mr 130, 72, 64, 58, 48, 44, 41, 39, 27 and 25 KDa were observed to be recognised by the IgE present in the sera from scabies-infested animals. Since IgE response is considered to play a major role in the immune protection, those allergens, therefore, could be used as the main component of an anti-scabies vaccine.

  9. Pterygosomatidae and Trombiculidae mites infesting Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 (Tropiduridae lizards in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MMS Delfino

    Full Text Available Parasitism of the lizard Tropidurus hispidus by Geckobiella sp. and by larvae of Eutrombicula alfreddugesi was examined in a mountainous area in Chapada do Araripe (07° 16' S and 39° 26' W, southern Ceará State, Brazil. Of the 56 lizards collected (26 females, 27 males, and 3 juveniles, 40 (total prevalence of 71.42% were infested by mites. Mite-pockets were the sites most heavily infested by E. alfreddugesi larvae, while Geckobiella sp. was found uniformly distributed under scales over the host's entire body. The female specimens of T. hispidus parasitised by E. alfreddugesi had an average infestation rate of 8.57 ± 3.62, 1-27, while the males had an average infestation rate of 11.90 ± 2.63, 1-25. The female specimens parasitised by Geckobiella sp. had an average infestation rate of 5.91 ± 2.28, 1-25, while the males had an average infestation rate of 5.43 ± 1.52, 1-23. Seven specimens were also infested by eggs and immature forms of unidentified mites (average 2.28 ± 0.89, 1-7. There were no significant differences between the total prevalence of mites on adult male (70.4% and adult female (65.4% lizards. The body sizes of the hosts did not influence their infestation rates. The average infestation intensity by E. alfreddugesi (10.2 ± 8.7 was significantly greater than the average infestation intensity by Geckobiella sp. (5.9 ± 6.8. T. hispidus is the new host record to Geckobiella mites.

  10. Injury and interplant compensation for southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) infestations in field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2013-04-01

    Growers that plant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids are required to plant non-Bt corn for resistance management. Refuge in a bag (RIB) is an emerging approach for resistance management where, for some hybrids having multiple Bt traits for a target species, the refuge is planted as a blend of Bt and non-Bt corn. Studies were conducted to evaluate how southwestern corn borer (Diatraea grandiosella Dyar), when infested at different densities and growth stages, affected the yield of infested, non-Bt plants and neighboring Bt plants. Infesting non-Bt corn plants with southwestern corn borer larvae caused significant injury. Both the number of larvae infested on plants and the timing of these infestations affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Infestation timing was more important than the number of larvae inoculated onto plants, with pretassel infestations causing more yield loss. There was little compensation by Bt plants that were adjacent to infested plants. Thus, the risk of yield loss from stalk tunneling larvae in a refuge in a bag scenario should be directly proportional to the percentage of non-Bt plants and the level of yield loss observed in these non-Bt plants. Because current refuge in a bag systems have five or 10% non-Bt corn plants within the seed unit, the likelihood of substantial yield losses from infestations of corn boring larvae is remote given our results, especially for infestations that occur after silking has begun.

  11. Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis infestation in pigs of Meghalaya and its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis infestation in pigs of Meghalaya and to treat the infested pigs with the chemotherapeutic agent. Materials and Methods: A total of 196 numbers of pigs were suspected for Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis infestation maintained in both organized and unorganized pig farms as well as pigs brought for slaughter to pig slaughterhouses of Meghalaya. Deep skin scrapings were collected from all these 196 numbers of pigs. The collected scrapings were digested in 10% potassium hydroxide separately and centrifuged. The sediment portions were examined under both low and high power of the microscope to find any mite. Except the infested pigs that were brought for slaughter, all other infested pigs were treated with ivermectin @ 300 μg/kg body weight (b.wt subcutaneously. Results: Of 196 numbers of suspected pigs, 21 (10.71% numbers of pigs were found infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis after microscopical examination of skin scrapings. Except the infested pigs that were brought for slaughter, all other infested pigs were treated successfully with ivermectin @ 300 μg/kg b.wt subcutaneously. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the present study that sarcoptic mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis is very much prevalent in pigs whether maintained in organized farms, as well as pigs maintained in unorganized way in village conditions. Pig owners should not neglect this infestation as it has economic significance. Ivermectin @ 300 μg/kg b.wt subcutaneously has been found to be effective to treat this infestation.

  12. Antioxidant and neuroprotector effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) methanol leaf extract against 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Huamán, Ángel; Casimiro-Gonzales, Sandra; Chávez-Pérez, Jorge Antonio; Gonzales-Arimborgo, Carla; Cisneros-Fernández, Richard; Aguilar-Mendoza, Luis Ángel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2017-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are normally produced during cell metabolism, there is strong evidence to suggest that ROS produced in excess impair the cell and may be etiologically related to various neurodegenerative diseases. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) methanol leaf extract on neurotoxicity in PC12 cell exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Fresh samples of "maca" leaves were processed in order to obtain foliar extracts and to evaluate the neurobiological activity on PC12 cells, subjected to the cytotoxic effect of 6-OHDA through the determination of the capacity antioxidant, cell viability and cytotoxicity assays on PC12 cells. The results of the tests of antioxidant activity, showed maximum values of 2262.37 and 1305.36 expressed in Trolox equivalents (TEAC), for the methanolic and aqueous fractions respectively. Cell viability assays at a dose of 10 μg extract showed an increase of 31% and 60% at 6 and 12 h of pretreatment, respectively. Cytotoxicity assays at the same dose and exposure time showed a 31.4% and 47.8% reduction in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The results allow us to affirm that the methanolic foliar extract of "maca" presents in vitro neurobiological activity of antioxidant protection, increase in cell viability and reduction of cytotoxicity against oxidative stress generated by 6-OHDA. In conclusion, the present study shows a protective role for Lepidium meyenii leaf extract on 6-OHDA-induced toxicity by an antioxidant effect.

  13. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands, Promotes Skin Wound Healing at Sea Level and at High Altitude in Adult Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Denisse; Olavegoya, Paola; Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2017-12-01

    Nuñez, Denisse, Paola Olavegoya, Gustavo F. Gonzales, and Cynthia Gonzales-Castañeda. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii), a plant from the Peruvian highlands, promotes skin wound healing at sea level and at high altitude in adult male mice. High Alt Med Biol 18:373-383, 2017.-Wound healing consists of three simultaneous phases: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Previous studies suggest that there is a delay in the healing process in high altitude, mainly due to alterations in the inflammatory phase. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a Peruvian plant with diverse biological properties, such as the ability to protect the skin from inflammatory lesions caused by ultraviolet radiation, as well as its antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high altitude on tissue repair and the effect of the topical administration of the spray-dried extract of red maca (RM) in tissue repair. Studies were conducted in male Balb/c mice at sea level and high altitude. Lesions were inflicted through a 10 mm-diameter excisional wound in the skin dorsal surface. Treatments consisted of either (1) spray-dried RM extract or (2) vehicle (VH). Animals wounded at high altitude had a delayed healing rate and an increased wound width compared with those at sea level. Moreover, wounding at high altitude was associated with an increase in inflammatory cells. Treatment with RM accelerated wound closure, decreased the level of epidermal hyperplasia, and decreased the number of inflammatory cells at the wound site. In conclusion, RM at high altitude generate a positive effect on wound healing, decreasing the number of neutrophils and increasing the number of macrophages in the wound healing at day 7 postwounding. This phenomenon is not observed at sea level.

  14. Efecto de cuatro ecotipos de Lepidium peruvianum Chacón sobre la producción de óxido nítrico in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Los macrófagos desempeñan un rol importante en la respuesta innata y adaptativa, durante su activación producen mediadores citotóxicos como Óxido Nítrico (NO. El objetivo fue evaluar la producción de NO por macrófagos peritoneales de ratón cultivados con extractos metanólicos (EM de los ecotipos rojo, negro, morado y blanco de Lepidium peruvianum Chacón (también conocida como Lepidium meyenii Walp. Los EM se prepararon empleando maca pulverizada macerada en metanol (1:2 durante 10 días. Los macrófagos peritoneales se obtuvieron de ratones 3 días después de haberles inyectado 1 ml de Caldo Tioglicolato por vía intraperitoneal; se cultivaron por triplicado durante 18 h a 37 °C en medio RPMI 1640 suplementado con 10% de suero de bovino fetal. La dosis de EM fue de 800 μg/ml por ecotipo, se consideraron controles sin EM. La producción de NO se determinó por acumulación de nitrito en el medio y se evidenció con el reactivo de Peter Griess, las concentraciones de nitrito se calcularon en base a la curva estándar elaborada con NaNO2. Las concentraciones producidas de nitrito fueron de 7,45; 6,79; 5,76; 5,61 y 6,81 mM para los EM de los ecotipos morado, negro, blanco, rojo y control respectivamente. Los cuatro ecotipos indujeron la producción de NO, aunque con el ecotipo morado fue superior (p>0,05.

  15. Simulated radiation disinfestation of infested cocoa beans in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.

    1979-01-01

    Four major insect pests persistently affect the cocoa industry in Ghana, the world's leading exporter of cocoa, despite the conventional methods of chemical control in practice. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission currently is investigating the possible use of radiation for the control of both insect attack and microbial spoilage of cocoa beans in storage. Radiation response studies of the four major insect pests that significantly affect the quality of dried cocoa beans in storage have been evaluated. Results herein reported were based on simulated bulk infestation radiation disinfestation of dried cocoa under field and laboratory conditions at ambient temperature (25 to 32 0 C). The comparative efficiency of locally available packaging materials best suited for bagging of the dried cocoa beans at and after irradiation have been assessed concurrently. The author concludes by identifying and discussing possible factors that could affect the technology of radiation disinfestation of cocoa beans under the Ghanaian context. (author)

  16. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation.

  17. Optimum survival strategies against zombie infestations - a population dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    We model a zombie infestation by three coupled ODEs that jointly describe the time evolution of three populations: regular humans, zombies, and survivors (humans that have survived at least one zombie encounter). This can be generalized to take into account more levels of expertise and/or skill degradation. We compute the fixed points, and stability thereof, that correspond to one of three possible outcomes: human extinction, zombie extermination or, if one allows for a human non-zero birth-rate, co-habitation. We obtain analytically the optimum strategy for humans in terms of the model's parameters (essentially, whether to flee and hide, or fight). Zombies notwithstanding, this can also be seen as a toy model for infections of immune system cells, such as CD4+ T cells in AIDS, and macrophages in tuberculosis, whereby cells are both the target of infection, and mediate the acquired immunity response against the same infection. I thank FAPERJ for financial support.

  18. Producción de IFN−γ en cultivos de linfocitos humanos por efecto de los extractos metanólicos de cuatro ecotipos de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la actividad inmunoduladora sobre cultivos de linfocitos T humanos de sangre periférica. Se evaluó la producción de IFN−γ inducida por los extractos metanólicos (EM de los ecotipos blanco, negro, rojo y morado de Lepidium peruvianum (conocida también como Lepidium meyenii Walp. maca. Luego de cultivar los linfocitos con los respectivos EM de maca durante 14 horas sólo el EM del ecotipo morado indujo la producción significativa de IFN−γ cuantificada mediante Elispot. El extracto metanólico del ecotipo morado de maca posee propiedades inmunoestimuladoras importantes, desencadenando la activación de linfocitos T humanos.

  19. Effect of organic fertilizers on quality and quantity characteristics of blond psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk.) clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L.), qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L.) and dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Koocheki; S. Amirmoradi; J. Shabahng; S. Kalantari Khandani

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in experimental farm of Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during 2010. The design was split plot with three replications. Main plots were the medicinal plant species consist of: blond psyllium (Plantago ovate Forssk.), clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L.), qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L.) dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L.) and subplots were various organic fertilizer consist of cow manure, vermicompost (based on c...

  20. Field infestation of rambutan fruits by internal-feeding pests in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, G T; Follett, P A; Yoshimoto, J M

    2000-06-01

    More than 47,000 mature fruits of nine different varieties of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) were harvested from orchards in Hawaii to assess natural levels of infestation by tephritid fruit flies and other internal feeding pests. Additionally, harvested, mature fruits of seven different rambutan varieties were artificially infested with eggs or first-instars of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), or oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to assess host suitability. When all varieties were combined over two field seasons of sampling, fruit infestation rates were 0.021% for oriental fruit fly, 0.097% for Cryptophlebia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and 0.85% for pyralids (Lepidoptera). Species of Cryptophlebia included both C. illepida (Butler), the native Hawaiian species, and C. ombrodelta (Lower), an introduced species from Australia. Cryptophlebia spp. had not previously been known to attack rambutan. The pyralid infestation was mainly attributable to Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Milliere), a species also not previously recorded on rambutan in Hawaii. Overall infestation rate for other moths in the families Blastobasidae, Gracillariidae, Tineidae, and Tortricidae was 0.061%. In artificially infested fruits, both species of fruit fly showed moderately high survivorship for all varieties tested. Because rambutan has such low rates of infestation by oriental fruit fly and Cryptophlebia spp., the two primary internal-feeding regulatory pests of rambutan in Hawaii, it may be amenable to the alternative treatment efficacy approach to postharvest quarantine treatment.

  1. Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis and Associated Factors among Primary School Girls in Sirik County, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Head lice infestation (pediculosis is a serious health problem that can cause a high level of anxiety and psychological frustration, especially in developing countries.Socio-demographic factors are important determinants of the occurrence of head lice infestation. This study aimed to determine the head lice infestations and the factors affecting the rate of infestationin primary school girls.   Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 358 school girls from two urban and three rural primary school girls in Sirik County, Southern Iran, were randomly selected. For the diagnosis of head lice infestation, students were examined carefully by visual inspection of the scalp and hair for the presence of lice. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and associated factors of head lice infestation. SPSS version 21.0 was used to analyze the data. Results The prevalence of head lice infestation among primary school girls was 56.15%. There were significant associations between head lice infestation and age (p

  2. Worm infestations and development of autoimmunity in children - The ABIS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Ludvigsson

    Full Text Available Worm infestations influence the immune system and may therefore decrease the risk for autoimmune diseases. The aim of the study was to determine whether children who have developed autoimmune disease were less likely to have had worm infestations in childhood. The ABIS-study is a prospective population-based cohort study of children born in southeast Sweden 1997/99. 17.055 children participated. As of June 2014 116 individuals had developed Type 1 diabetes, 181 celiac disease, and 53 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. The parents answered questions on worm infestations when the children were 1, 5 and 8 years of age. The ABIS registry was connected to the National Registry of Drug Prescriptions, and national registries for diagnosis of the studied diseases. We found no differences in incidence of worm infestations at 1, 5 or 8 years of age between children who developed autoimmune disease(s or healthy controls. At 8 years in total 20.0% of the general child population had experienced a worm infestation; children who developed Type 1 diabetes, 21,3%, celiac disease 19,5% and JRA 18,8%. There was no difference in prescriptions of drugs for treatment of worm infestations between those who had and who had not developed Type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. We found no associations indicating that worm infestations in childhood does not play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases in Sweden.

  3. Acute impacts of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) infestation on reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynkäänniemi, Sanna-Mari; Kettu, Maria; Kortet, Raine; Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja; Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Härkönen, Sauli; Ylönen, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2014-04-01

    Blood-sucking ectoparasites have often a strong impact on the behaviour of their hosts. The annual insect harassment of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) has increased in the southern part of the Finnish reindeer herding area because of the recent invasion of a blood-feeding ectoparasitic louse-fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi). We studied the impact of the deer ked on the behaviour of reindeer. Twelve reindeer were infested with a total of 300 keds/reindeer on six occasions in a 5-week period during the deer ked flight season in autumn, while six non-infested reindeer were used as controls. Behavioural patterns indicating potential stress were monitored by visual observation from August to December. The infested reindeer displayed more incidences of restless behaviour than the controls. Shaking and scratching were the most common forms of restless behaviour after infestation of deer keds. Increased grooming was also observed after the transplantation and also later, 1 month after the infestation. Based on the results, the deer ked infestation can cause acute behavioural disturbance in reindeer and, thus, could pose a potential threat to reindeer welfare. Antiparasitic treatment with, e.g. ivermectin, may increase the welfare of parasitized reindeer by reducing deer keds. If the deer ked infestation intensity on the reindeer herding area increases and restless behaviour of reindeer becomes more common, the present results can help in further evaluation of the duration and magnitude of behavioural changes.

  4. Effect of Wheat Flour Packaging Materials on Infestation by Lasioderma serricorne (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jianhua; Ma, Dan

    2015-05-01

    The ability of the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), to infest wheat flour under packaged and unpackaged conditions was investigated in the laboratory at 27 ± 2°C and 75% ± 5% relative humidity. Five common packaging materials, namely, vacuum plastic bags, kraft paper bags, nonwoven cloth bags, aluminum foil bags, and woven plastic bags, were investigated. Adults and eggs of L. serricorne were released on different packaged wheat flour or on unpackaged wheat flour, and infestation levels (number of live adults and larvae) were determined after 45 days. When adults were released on wheat flour, the infestation degree varied depending on the package materials. The highest infestation was observed in refined wheat flour packaged in nonwoven cloth bags. With wheat flour packaged in kraft paper bags exposed to adults or eggs, there was no insect infestation or insect infestation was negligible (mean population, flour packaged in aluminum foil bags and vacuum plastic bags exposed to adults or eggs, there was no insect infestation. Damage to the packaging materials along the folds or edges was found in nonwoven cloth bags and woven plastic bags. Therefore, both aluminum foil and plastic bags had the greatest resistance to package invasion by L. serricorne.

  5. Absorption studies in patients with parasitic infestation before and after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghescu, B.; Gherman, I.; Jovin, G.; Suseanu, I.; Merculiev, E.; Nedea, M.

    1975-06-01

    This investigation has attempted to explore intestinal morphology and function, particularly the absorptive process, in a group of subjects infested with intestinal parasites, and to examine the effects thereon of treatment for the infestation. The study group consisted of 40 adults, 18 male and 22 females, who on admission to hospital showed various intestinal disorders apparently not associated with organic digestive diseases, and in addition, as deduced by various standard methods, intestinal parasitic infestation. All patients were infested with Giardia lamblia; 6 were additionally infested with Strongyloides and 3 with Taenia. Investigations included various blood tests (serum proteins, electrophoresis, blood cell counts), assay of fecal fats, test of iron absorption by whole-body counting, test of vitamin B 12 absorption by Schilling test, radiographic examination of stomach and small intestine, and histological examination of biopsy samples of mucosa from duodenum and jejunum. These investigations were performed prior to treatment, and 6 months and again one year later. Only 15 of the patients, including all 9 with Strongyloides or Taenia, showed recognizable morphological abnormalities in the biopsy specimens. Six of these (all with dual infestation) had abnormally low iron absorption, 5 (all with Giardia infestation only) showed abnormally low vitamin B 12 absorption, 2 (both with dual infestation) showed moderate steatorrhea, and all showed, by x-ray, dyskinetic disturbances of the intestine. Of the remaining 25 patients, 13 showed dyskinesias of varying intensities but none yielded abnormal results from any of the other tests. At 6 months after treatment the abnormalities were greatly reduced, and at one year all were gone except for 5 cases of minor morphological changes in the biopsy specimens. The investigators concluded that malabsorption in patients with intestinal parasitic infestation is a reality and that it is associated with morphological

  6. Louse infestation of the Chiribaya Culture, Southern Peru: variation in prevalence by age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Karl J

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the interpretive potential of archaeoparasitology, it is important to demonstrate that the epidemiology of ancient parasites is comparable to that of modern parasites. Once this is demonstrated, then we can be secure that the evidence of ancient parasitism truly reflects the pathoecology of parasitic disease. Presented here is an analysis of the paleoepidemiology of Pediculus humanus infestation from 146 mummies from the Chiribaya culture 1000-1250 AD of Southern Peru. The study demonstrates the modern parasitological axiom that 10% of the population harbors 70% of the parasites holds true for ancient louse infestation. This is the first demonstration of the paleoepidemiology of prehistoric lice infestation.

  7. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambolas infested with Caribbean fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, W.P.; Windeguth, D.L. von

    1991-01-01

    Carambolas infested with the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), eggs and larvae were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation. Probit 9 was estimated to be 22.95 Gy (95% fiducial limits 16.68 Gy - 49.73 Gy). Over 100,000 immature A. suspensa infesting carambolas were treated at 50 Gy with no adult survivors. This dose did not cause any observable damage to the fruit. The 50 Gy dose satisfies quarantine requirements for treatment of fruits exposed from fruit fly infested areas. (author) [es

  8. Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle coleoptera scolytidae infestation of ponderosa pine. I. Incidence of bark beetle infestation in injured trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, R.W.; Miller, P.R.; Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wood, D.L.; Parmeter, J.R. Jr.

    1968-05-01

    A total of 107 beetle-killed and 963 nearest-neighbor ponderosa pines were examined to determine the association between severity of atmospheric pollution injury and infestation by bark beetles. Trees exhibiting advanced symptoms of pollution injury were most frequently infested by the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis, and the mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae. The degree of injury and incidence of bark beetle infestation were not related to total height, diameter, length of live and dead crown or crown class. As severity of oxidant injury increased, live crown ratio decreased and incidence of bark beetle infestation increased. One hundred noninfested trees in each of three disease categories, advanced, intermediate, and healthy, were examined for evidence of prior beetle attacks. Thirty-six percent of the advanced-diseased trees versus only 5% of the healthy trees were attacked. Thus, the beetles may discriminate between healthy and diseased trees at a distance, upon contact with the host, or both. These studies indicate strongly that atmospheric pollution injury predisposes ponderosa pine to bark beetle infestations. 3 references, 7 tables.

  9. Toxicological aspects of the South American herbs cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) and Maca (Lepidium meyenii) : a critical synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Luis G; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2005-01-01

    Recent exceptional growth in human exposure to natural products known to originate from traditional medicine has lead to a resurgence of scientific interest in their biological effects. As a strategy for improvement of the assessment of their pharmacological and toxicological profile, scientific evidence-based approaches are being employed to appropriately evaluate composition, quality, potential medicinal activity and safety of these natural products. Using this approach, we comprehensively reviewed existing scientific evidence for known composition, medicinal uses (past and present), and documented biological effects with emphasis on clinical pharmacology and toxicology of two commonly used medicinal plants from South America with substantial human exposure from historical and current global use: Uncaria tomentosa (common name: cat's claw, and Spanish: uña de gato), and Lepidium meyenii (common name: maca). Despite the geographic sourcing from remote regions of the tropical Amazon and high altitude Andean mountains, cat's claw and maca are widely available commercially in industrialised countries. Analytical characterisations of their active constituents have identified a variety of classes of compounds of toxicological, pharmacological and even nutritional interest including oxindole and indole alkaloids, flavonoids, glucosinolates, sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbolines and other compounds. The oxindole alkaloids from the root bark of cat's claw are thought to invoke its most widely sought-after medicinal effects as a herbal remedy against inflammation. We find the scientific evidence supporting this claim is not conclusive and although there exists a base of information addressing this medicinal use, it is limited in scope with some evidence accumulated from in vitro studies towards understanding possible mechanisms of action by specific oxindole alkaloids through inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation. Although controlled clinical

  10. The pulp and paper properties of Sirex noctilio infested and fire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pulp and paper properties of Sirex noctilio infested and fire-damaged thermomechanically pulped, South African grown Pinus patula. M du Plessis, NJ le Roux, S Gardner-Lubbe, JPJ Swart, T Rypstra ...

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of ticks infesting cattle reared on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , dairy and free range grazing cattle farms, respectively. The result showed all animals are found in endemic environment for tick infestation and thus the burden might cause economic loses mainly by reducing milk and meat yields, body ...

  12. Infestation of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae on Molossus molossus (Chiroptera in Southestern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Esbérard

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The infestation of Rhynchopsyllus pulex on the bat Molossus molossus was observed using mist-nets opened between constructions in the Primatological Center, in Guapimirim, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  13. Efficacy of sarolaner (Simparic?) against induced infestations of Amblyomma cajennense on dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Fabio; Franz, Lilian; Campos, Diefrey Ribeiro; Azevedo, Tha?s Ribeiro Correia; Cunha, Daise; Six, Robert H.; Maeder, Steven; Cree, Travis

    2017-01-01

    Background Amblyomma cajennense is the main vector of Rickettsia rickettsii which causes Brazilian spotted fever. This adult tick preferably infests horses and capybaras, but has low host specificity during its immature stages, thus posing a threat to humans and dogs. In this study, the efficacy of sarolaner (Simparic?/Simparica?, Zoetis) when administered once orally to dogs at 2?mg/kg was evaluated against induced infestations of A. cajennense nymphs for up to 35?days after treatment. Metho...

  14. Facial nerve paralysis due to intra aural tick infestation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Atikah Binti Hamat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tick infestation in the ear canal may have variable clinical presentations. We present here a case of facial nerve paralysis in a 73 years old lady due to intra aural tick infestation. The patient presented with left otalgia, vertigo and left sided facial asymmetry. The case could be confused with cerebrovascular accident or transient ischemic attack. IMC J Med Sci 2017; 11(1: 29-31

  15. Prevalence and pathology of mite infestation in street dogs at Dinajpur municipality area

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, M.H.; Begum, M.G; Azam, M.G; Roy, B.C

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence and pathology of mite infestation in the street dog at Dinajpur municipality area, Dinajpur, Bangladesh, during June to September, 2010 using simultaneous clinical and histopathological examination and identification. A total of 48 street dogs (27 male and 21 female) were examined, among them 30(62.5%) were infested with one or more species of mites. Two species of mites were identified as Sarcoptes scabiei var.canis and Demodex canis. The...

  16. FISH INFESTED WITH ANISAKIS SPP.: INSPECTION BEHAVIOUR IN TERMS OF REG. (CE N. 1069/2009

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    D. Sola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The inspection behaviour on the fish infested with Anisakis spp., under Regulation (CE n.1774/2002, was always discordant among those who considered him as a secondary product of category 1 and those who categorize like 2. In near future, Regulation (CE n.1069/2009 will define that the parasitic diseases are to be included in zoonoses to make attention and definitively poses fish infested with Anisakis in category 1 material.

  17. Risk factors for domestic infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata in Chiquimula, Guatemala.

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, EN; Cordón-Rosales, C; Davies, C; Gezan, S; Yeo, M; Cameron, MM

    2013-01-01

    : In Guatemala prior to control initiatives, the main vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, were Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata. This study conducted in 2006 in the department of Chiquimula recorded a high level of T. dimidiata infestation and an absence of R. prolixus in all surveyed communities. In Guatemala, the presence of T. dimidiata as domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic populations results in control difficulties as houses are re-infested from ...

  18. Incidental parasitic infestations in surgically removed appendices: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Özgür

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appendiceal parasites can cause symptoms of appendiceal pain, independent of microscopic evidence of acute inflammation. The diagnosis of a parasitic infestation is generally achieved only after the pathologic examination of the resected appendices. Patients/Methods Pathology department records were reviewed for all patients who required an operation for symptoms of acute appendicitis between 2000 and 2006. The specimens which were pathologically diagnosed to contain parasites were reevaluated for features of acute inflamation, and parasite type. The medical records were reviewed in detail to achieve a diagnostic score(Eskelinen. Radiologic imaging findings were correlated, if present. Results Of the 190 appendectomies performed, 6 specimens (3,15% were found to contain parasites(4 Enterobius vermicularis, 2 Taenia subspecies. Appendectomies with Taenia showed acute inflamation, while acute inflamation was absent in the ones with Enterobius vermicularis. The Eskelinen score was higher than the treshold in two cases with an acute inflamation, and in two without. Ultrasound scans, and a computed tomography scan were performed in 5 patients. In 3 of 4 bland appendices, results favored acute appendicitis. Conclusion The diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites is not only made by examining the stool but the diagnosis can be made by histology from surgical specimens. Timely diagnosis and appropriate therapy might prevent probable future complications that may necessitate surgical procedures, at least in some of the patients. The clinical management of these infections is different from that for classical appendicitis.

  19. An outbreak of bed bug infestation in an office building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumblatt, Jane A Gwira; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Stull-Lane, Annica; Jones, Timothy F

    2014-04-01

    Since 2000, resurgence in bed bugs has occurred in the U.S. Reports of infestations of homes, hospitals, hotels, and offices have been described. On September 1, 2011, complaints of itching and bites among workers in an office were reported to the Tennessee Department of Health. A retrospective cohort study and environmental assessments were performed in response to the complaints. Canines certified to detect live bed bugs were used to inspect the office and arthropod samples were collected. Of 76 office workers, 61 (80%) were interviewed; 39 (64%) met the case definition. Pruritic maculopapular lesions were consistent with arthropod bites. One collected arthropod sample was identified as a bed bug by three entomologists. Exposures associated with symptoms included working in a cubicle in which a canine identified bed bugs (risk ratio [RR]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-3.6), and self-reported seasonal allergies (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.4). Bed bugs represent a reemerging and challenging environmental problem with clinical, psychological, and financial impacts.

  20. Stress response of brown pelican nestlings to ectoparasite infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, L.M.F.; Jodice, P.G.R.; O'Reilly, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of corticosterone has become a useful tool for assessing the response of individuals to ecological stressors of interest. Enhanced corticosterone levels can promote survival of stressful events; however, in situations where a stressor persists and corticosterone levels remain elevated, the adrenocortical response can be detrimental. A potential ecological stressor for wild birds is parasitism by ectoparasites. We studied the stress response of 11-23-day-old brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) nestlings by measuring plasma corticosterone levels in relation to the presence of the soft tick Carios capensis at two colonies in South Carolina in 2005. We expected to see higher baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone for parasitized chicks compared to those nestlings with no ticks. Although nestlings mounted a response to capture stress, tick category was not associated with corticosterone levels at either colony. Our results appear to contrast those of previous studies and indicate that the adrenocortical response of the host is likely dependent on the type of ectoparasite and the degree of infestation. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  1. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (Ptigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Severe infestation of blow flies in a raccoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilham, L.; Herman, C.M.

    1955-01-01

    A raccoon. (Procyon lotor) was observed in a weakened condition for several days at a farm a few miles east of Salisbury, Maryland. It was then caught and held in captivity for a few days. It continued to become weaker and on May 3, 1954, B. Mixon of the Maryland Department of Game and Inland Fish submitted it to us for study. There was no evidence of trauma, either internal or external. The fur was matted over the right hind leg, the inguinal region, and over much of the left hind leg. Inspection revealed the presence of thousands of larvae of the green-bottle fly, Phaenicia sericata, (Meigen}1 actively tunneling in and out of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Muscle under lying infested skin appeared healthy and untraumatized. A few larvae were in comers of the eyes but none were found in other orifices. Gross and microscopic examination of tissue from the raccoon gave no indication of any acute process which might have led to its moribund condition. James (1947. The flies that cause myiasis in man. U. S. Govt. Print. Off.) and Hall (1948: The blowflies of North America.. Thom. Say Foundation) indicate that P. sericata may vary in virulence, some strains becoming parasitic with an ability to invade healthy tissue. In all probability, the larvae described above hatched from eggs originally laid in a skin wound although no evidence for this was found.

  3. Predispersal infestation of Vochysia haenkeana seeds by Lius conicus

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    Samara Letícia Oliveira Lourenço

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The deficient development of fertile seeds of native forest plant species in Brazil limits the reproduction of these plants in various conditions. Among the limiting biotic factors in quality and quantity of the forest seeds, borer insects are quite prominent, before and after their dispersion. This study reports for the first time a host of the buprestid beetle Lius conicus (Gory & Laporte, 1840. The larval development of L. conicus takes place in the seed capsules of Vochysia haenkeana Mart. (Vochysiaceae, a typical tree species in the Brazilian cerrado biome. In two regions of the cerrado in Goiás State, Brazil, almost ripe fruits of V. haenkeana were collected directly from the plants. After natural drying, and fruit and seed processing in laboratory, damage caused by the L. conicus larvae was quantified and qualified. Bigger fruits were preferred as hosts. Fruits developing on the eastern side of the plant were most frequently occupied by L. conicus. Seed lots of bigger fruits showed damage up to 37.5% from the infestation by L. conicus larvae. There was only one larva per fruit, which damaged all the seeds of the capsule (three or four and generally consumed around 26% of the seed dry mass.

  4. Exotic plant infestation is associated with decreased modularity and increased numbers of connectors in mixed-grass prairie pollination networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots andConvolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvenseand the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested

  5. Insect pest infestation on Gmelina arborea Roxb. in different agroclimatic zones of Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast growing and multipurpose timber species G. arborea has problem of multiple insect pest attack in India. To understand the diversity of insect pest infestation abundance on Gmelina arborea, the data was collected on insect pest infestation (% in three agro-climatic zones (Zone IV, V and VI of Jharkhand province of India over a period of 3 years. Results shows that the plants were infested with total twenty insect pests species, out of these ten insect pest were recorded as new for G. arborea. Various diversity and similarity indices were calculated to explore the relationship of insect pest infestation among zones. It was found that Zone V have the maximum species infestation diversity followed by the zones IV and VI, whereas, zones IV and V were most similar and zone VI was differ from others. Duncan's multiple range test determined that Phyllocnistis amydropa was the most abundant species for G. arborea. Additionally, ten insect pests viz. Maladera sp., Hyperops coromandelensis, Lobotrachelus sp., Apion sp., Ectropis bhurmitra, Belippa lalean, Pagyda sp., Phromnia marginella, and Homeocerus inornatus, Megalurothrips peculiaris were found to be as new insect pest records, infesting to G. arborea first time. The study may helpful to understand the expending range of insect pest fauna of G. arborea in the country and framing insect pest management policy more effectively.

  6. Expression and Activity of Lysozyme in Apis Mellifera Carnica Brood Infested with Varroa Destructor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaobidna Ewa A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite that attacks the honey bee, and previous studies have suggested that parasitosis caused by this mite is accompanied by immunosuppresion in the host. In this study, the effect of mite infestation on the expression of the lysozyme-1 (lys-1 gene and lysozyme activity in Apis mellifera carnica was determined. The experiment was carried out on the five developmental stages of honey bee workers and drones. Developmental and gender-related differences in gene expression and lysozyme activity were observed in a Varroa destructor-infested brood. The relative expression of the lys-1 gene increased in a infested worker brood and decreased in a drone brood except for P3 pupae. In the final stage of development, the lys-1 gene expression was significantly lower in infested newly emerged workers and drones. Changes in the relative expression of the lys-1 gene in infested individuals was poorly manifested at the level of enzyme activity, whereas at the two final stages of development (P5 and I there was a positive correlation between relative lys-1 expression and lysozyme activity in infested bees of both genders (r=0.988, r=0.999, respectively. The results of this study indicate that V. destructor influences the lysozyme-linked immune response in bees.

  7. Seasonal infestation of donkeys by lice: phenology, risk factors and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellse, L; Burden, F A; Wall, R

    2014-07-14

    A longitudinal study was undertaken over a 21 months period to examine the seasonal abundance of lice infesting donkeys, the risk factors which predispose donkeys to infestation and the effectiveness of louse management. All the lice seen were Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus. A strong seasonal pattern, which was correlated with mean monthly temperature, was observed with higher prevalence and intensity in the cooler, winter months (October-March). Overall infestation in these animals was over-dispersed, suggesting that some individuals are strongly predisposed to infestation. Donkey age and mean hair length were characteristics which affected louse prevalence: older and younger donkeys and donkeys with longer hair harboured the highest numbers of lice. However, the practice of coat-clipping, to reduce the infestation, resulted in a lower louse prevalence only in the summer, suggesting that clipping is not an effective form of louse control in cooler months. Higher louse burdens were associated with larger areas of visible excoriation and hair damage, suggesting that B. ocellatus does adversely impact animal welfare. However, the ability of animal carers to estimate louse presence or absence accurately on an individual donkey was not sufficiently high to allow targeted selective treatment of heavily infested animals to be employed effectively. As animals are housed in closed herds these findings suggest that clipping in the summer and treating all animals with insecticide in late autumn, prior to turn-in may be an effective louse management strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors for domestic infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata in Chiquimula, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, E N I; Cordón-Rosales, C; Davies, C; Gezan, S; Yeo, M; Cameron, M M

    2013-12-01

    In Guatemala prior to control initiatives, the main vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, were Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata. This study conducted in 2006 in the department of Chiquimula recorded a high level of T. dimidiata infestation and an absence of R. prolixus in all surveyed communities. In Guatemala, the presence of T. dimidiata as domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic populations results in control difficulties as houses are re-infested from the surrounding environment. Entomological surveys, the current method used to select houses in need of control efforts, are labour intensive and time consuming. A time- and cost-effective way to prioritize houses for evaluation and subsequent treatment is the stratification of houses based on the risk of triatomine infestation. In the present study, 17 anthropogenic risk factors were evaluated for associations with house infestation of T. dimidiata including: wall, floor and roof type. There was an increased likelihood of domestic infestation with T. dimidiata associated with the presence of dirt floors (18/29; OR 8.075, 95% CI 2.13-30.6), uncoated bajareque walls (12/17; OR 4.80, 95% CI 1.35-17.1) and triatomine-like faeces on walls (16/26; OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.19-12.7). These factors could be used to target control of T. dimidiata to communities with an increased risk of being infested.

  9. Stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata) infesting food in various types of packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Volek, Vlado

    2015-02-01

    From 2008 to 2014, stored product mites have been reported from prepackaged dried food on the market in the Czech Republic. The infestation was by Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) in dried fruits and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) in dog feed. The infestation is presumably caused by poor protection of the packages. We compared various packaging methods for their resistance to mites using dried apricots and dog feed in laboratory experiments. The trial packages included nine different plastic films, monofilm, duplex and triplex, and one type of plastic cup (ten replicates per packaging type). All packaging materials are available on the Czech market for dried food products. The samples of dried food were professionally packed in a factory and packaged dried apricots were exposed to C. lactis and dog food to T. putrescentiae. After 3 months of exposure, the infestation and mite density of the prepackaged food was assessed. Mites were found to infest six types of packages. Of the packaging types with mites, 1-5 samples were infested and the maximum abundance was 1,900 mites g(-1) of dried food. Mites entered the prepackaged food by faulty sealing. Inadequate sealing is suggested to be the major cause of the emerged infestation of dried food.

  10. Correlation between ocular Demodex infestation and serum immunoreactivity to bacillus proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jing Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate correlation between ocular Demodex infestation and serum immunoreactivity.METHODS:Demodex counting of 68 inpatients was performed based on eight lashes sampling. Serum immunoreactivity to two 62-kDa and 83-kDa proteins derived from B oleronius was determined by Western blot analysis.RESULTS: These 68 patients without facialrosacea or blepharitis were age matched(P=0.888and gender matched(P=0.595regarding serum immunoreactivity or ocular Demodex infestation. According to the eyelash, creep mite infection was divided into positive and negative groups, age-matched(P=0.590and sex-matched(P=0.329. There was no significant correlation between serum immunoreactivity and Demodex infestation(P=0.925. There were 27 patients with positive serum immunoreactivity in 38 patients with Demodex infestation(71%, and there were 21 patients in 30 patients without Demodex infestation(70%. There was no significant correlation between serum immunoreactivity and Demodex counting(P=0.758. CONCLUSION: It is unnecessary to perform serum analysis when Demodex can be found in asymptomatic individuals. But treatment of reducing lashes Demodex infestation is necessary when patient with blepharitis was detected Demodex in eye lashes and positive serum immunoreactivity.

  11. Distribution and infestation levels of Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo and Unruh (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae on San Andrés island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumasa Kondo Kondo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluted scale Crypticerya multicicatrices (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae is an invasive insect that became a major pest on the island of San Andrés. To generate control strategies for this insect, its distribution and infestation levels on palm species, fruit trees, leguminous trees and other plant species were determined during January 14–18, 2013. A total of 96 points were sampled in order to determine the distribution of the insect on the island. During the study, the fluted scale was found distributed throughout the island of San Andrés, including Haynes Cay and Johnny Cay. The palms were the plants with the highest levels of infestation, 70.8% had some degree of infestation (37.5% high infestation levels; followed by fruit trees which had 65.6% with some degree of infestation (30.2% high infestation levels; followed by leguminous trees which had 59.6% with some degree of infestation (13.5% high infestation levels and finally “other hosts” which had 51.1% with some level of infestation (11.5% high infestation levels. This study is the first detailed mapping of C. multicicatrices on the island of San Andrés which will become the basis for future work on the population dynamics of the fluted scale and its distribution on the island.

  12. Delusional infestation is typically comorbid with other psychiatric diagnoses: review of 54 patients receiving psychiatric evaluation at Mayo Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylwa, Sara A; Foster, Ashley A; Bury, Jessica E; Davis, Mark D P; Pittelkow, Mark R; Bostwick, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    Delusional infestation, which encompasses both delusions of parasitosis and delusions of infestation with inanimate objects (sometimes called Morgellons disease), has been said to represent a distinct and encapsulated delusion, that is, a stand-alone diagnosis. Anecdotally, we have observed that patients with delusional infestation often have one or more psychiatric comorbid conditions and that delusional infestation should not be regarded as a stand-alone diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to identify whether patients with delusional infestation have psychiatric comorbid conditions. We therefore identified patients who had been formally evaluated in the Department of Psychiatry during their visit to Mayo Clinic. We retrospectively searched for and reviewed the cases of all patients with delusional infestation seen from 2001 through 2007 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, and who underwent psychiatric evaluation. The diagnoses resulting from psychiatric evaluation were analyzed. During the 7-year study period, 109 patients seen for delusional infestation at Mayo Clinic were referred to the Department of Psychiatry, 54 (50%) of whom actually followed through with psychiatric consultation. Of these 54 patients, 40 (74%) received additional active psychiatric diagnoses; 14 patients (26%) had delusional infestation alone. Abnormal personality traits were rarely documented. Most patients with delusional infestation have multiple coexisting or underlying psychiatric disorders. Therefore, evaluation by a psychiatrist, when possible, is advised for all patients with delusional infestation. Copyright © 2012 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ameliorative effect of Draba nemorosa extract on chronic heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that TCM effectively treats symptoms, reduce side effects and reverse resistance via targeting multiple pathways. TCMs such as Shengmai [9],. Sini decoction [10], Shuanglong formula [11], and. Huangqi injection have been reported to exhibit potential pharmacological activities against cardiovascular diseases [12].

  14. Infection Courts in Watermelon Plants Leading to Seed Infestation by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkar, Aparna; Ji, Pingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a seed-transmitted disease that causes significant yield loss in watermelon production. The pathogen may infect watermelon seeds latently, which can be an important inoculum source and contribute to severe disease outbreak. However, information regarding infection courts of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum leading to infestation of watermelon seeds is limited. To determine how seeds in watermelon fruit can be infested by F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum during the watermelon growing season, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 where watermelon flowers and immature fruit were inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Seeds were extracted from mature watermelon fruit, and infestation of watermelon seeds was determined by isolation of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Inoculation of the pericarp of immature fruit resulted in 17.8 to 54.4% of infested seeds under field conditions and 0.6 to 12.8% of infested seeds under greenhouse conditions when seeds were not surface disinfested prior to isolation. Seed infestation was also detected in 0 to 4.5% of the seeds when seeds were surface disinfested prior to isolation. Inoculation of pistil resulted in 0 to 7.2% and 0 to 18.3% of infested seeds under greenhouse and field conditions when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Inoculation of peduncle resulted in 0.6 to 6.1% and 0 to 10.0% of infested seeds in the greenhouse and field experiments when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Seed infestation was also detected in all the experiments using real-time PCR assay when pericarp or pistil was inoculated, and in three of four experiments when peduncle was inoculated, regardless of whether seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested. Pericarp and peduncle of immature watermelon fruit

  15. Efecto neuroprotector del Lepidium meyenii, ecotipo negro (maca negra) en ratas crías frente al daño cerebral inducido por la ingesta de sulfato ferroso y vitamina C durante la gestación de las ratas madre

    OpenAIRE

    Troncoso, Luzmila; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Guija, Emilio; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Palomino, Felio; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Soberón, Mercedes; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Oliveira, Gisela; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Núñez, Marco; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Flores, Juana; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Acuña, Sheresnarda; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú; Terrazas, Carmen; Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM. Lima, Perú

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto neuroprotector del Lepidium meyenii, ecotipo negro en ratas crías por ingesta de sulfato ferroso y vitamina C (SFC) durante la gestación de ratas madre. Diseño: Experimental, analítico. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición. Material biológico: Lepidium meyenii, ecotipo negro (maca negra: MN), ratas. Intervenciones: Se distribuyeron 30 ratas albinas de dos meses de edad, en tres grupos. Tratamiento en los últimos 7 días de gestación: grupo ...

  16. Thiamine treatments alleviate aphid infestations in barley and pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Afaf M; Jonsson, Lisbeth M V

    2013-10-01

    Treatment of plants with thiamine (Vitamin B1) has before been shown to activate plant defence against microorganisms. Here, we have studied the effects of thiamine treatments of plants on aphid reproduction and behaviour. The work was mainly carried out with bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Aphid population growth and aphid acceptance on plants grown from seeds soaked in a 150μM thiamine solution were reduced to ca. 60% of that on control plants. R. padi life span and the total number of offspring were reduced on barley plants treated with thiamine. Healthy aphids and aphids infected with the R. padi virus were similarly affected. Spraying or addition of thiamine at 150μM to nutrient solutions likewise resulted in reduced aphid population growth to ca. 60%, as did plant exposure to thiamine odour at 4mM. Thiamine treatments resulted in reduced aphid population growth also when tested with grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) on barley and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum H.) on pea (Pisum sativum L.). There was no direct effect of thiamine on aphid reproduction or thiamine odour on aphid behaviour, as evaluated using artificial diets and by olfactometer tests, respectively. Two gene sequences regulated by salicylic acid showed higher transcript abundance and one gene sequence regulated by methyl jasmonate showed lower transcript abundance in thiamine-treated plants but not in control plants after aphid infestation. These results suggest that the aphid antibiosis and antixenosis effects may be related to priming of defence, but more studies are needed to explain the effects against aphids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiographic analysis of the internal infestation in stored corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores y Bermudez, R.

    1975-01-01

    The danger represented by insects for the preservation of stored cereals and derived products has given rise to concern. In Mexico the storage of maize continues to raise a variety of problems for the governmental and private institutions concerned. The work described here is part of a research programme on the possible development and application of the technique of disinfesting grain by irradiation. The Mexican National Nuclear Energy Institute, Physics Institute and Nuclear Research Centre (Mexican National Autonomous University) are taking part jointly in the programme. Among the special aims of the programme is a series of entomological observations based on radiography. In particular, the present research is aimed at determining, by this technique, whether the cavities produced in maize kernels by infestation are occupied or not. For this purpose it was necessary first to adapt the X-ray equipment with which to work. The equipment, of a new type that had not been used before, was designed exclusively for medical diagnosis and consists of a ''Practix'' unit made by Philips which operates at up to 100 kV. The first stage of the work was to install and operate the equipment, after which the optimum operating conditions were sought, using Kodak industrial AA 54 film (fine grain). For this purpose a number of X-ray photographs of maize kernels were taken and the various degrees of contrast and definition were examined. The following were found to be the best conditions for observing detail within the kernels and revealing whether the cavities are occupied or not: operating voltage 55 kV; current 20 mA; focus-film distance 70 cm; exposure time 2 seconds. (author)

  18. RECURRENT EAR MITE (OTODECTES CYNOTIS) INFESTATION IN THREE RELATED GROUPS OF PATAGONIAN CAVIES (DOLICHOTIS PATAGONUM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Carolina Lopes; Alpino, Torres; Kottwitz, Jack

    2017-06-01

    :  Two of three groups of Patagonian cavies ( Dolichotis patagonum ) contracted Otodectes cynotis infestations after exposure to mite-infested feral cats. Otodectes cynotis infestations were initially identified in 9 of 10 cavies in group 1. Multiple feral cats with O. cynotis infestations were observed in the vicinity of the Patagonian cavies and were subsequently removed. The Patagonian cavies were initially treated with ivermectin (0.4 mg/kg s.q.) every 2 wk, but ivermectin was discontinued after the third treatment due to injury to one of the Patagonian cavies during capture. Sixteen months after initial treatment, clinical signs of scratching the pinnae, hemorrhagic lesions on the ear margins, head shaking, and O. cynotis mites in the auricular canal were again noted in all Patagonian cavies in group 1. Repeated administration of ivermectin (0.4 mg/kg s.q. every 2 wk for three treatments) failed to eliminate the mites in two of the Patagonian cavies. Selamectin administered (20 mg/kg, topically between the shoulder blades) to all Patagonian cavies eliminated the mite infestation after a single application. The Patagonian cavies remained O. cynotis mite free for 2 yr, until males (group 2) and females (group 3) were separated for population control. Three months after separation, 8 of the 12 females in group 3 again were infestated with O. cynotis mites. Feral cats with O. cynotis infestations were again noted in the vicinity of group 3. A single dose of selamectin applied topically eliminated all mites in all treated Patagonian cavies. Group 2 was not exposed to feral cats and remained mite free.

  19. THE STEM BORER INFESTATION ON RICE CULTIVARS AT THREE PLANTING TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendarsih Suharto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem borer is the second important rice pest after rats in Indonesia. A field trial was conducted in Karawang, West Java in dry season of 2003 to study the effect of planting time on the stem borer infestation on seven rice cultivars. The rice cultivars tested were Fatmawati (new plant type cultivar, Gilirang (semi-new plant type cultivar, Maro and Intani 3 (hybrid rice cultivars, and IR72, Cilosari and IR62 (inbreed rice cultivars. The three planting times (PT were: (1 the early PT, 14 days before farmer’s PT, (2 the common PT, simultaneously with farmer’s PT, and (3 the late PT, 14 days after farmer’s PT. The trial was arranged in a split plot design with four replications. Planting time is the main plot and rice cultivar is the subplot. Fourteen-day old rice seedlings were transplanted at 25 cm x 25 cm planting distance in a 5 m x 6 m plot size. Species and fluctuation of rice stem borer were determined by using water traps containing four synthetic sex pheromone lures of rice stem borer species as attractant. Results showed that the dominant species of stem borer was yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk.. Degree of stem borer infestation depended upon the planting time. Stem borer infestation at the first planting time was higher (average 37.90% compared to those found at the second and third planting time, i.e. 0.65% and 0.54%, respectively. Rice yields of Fatmawati, Gilirang, Maro, Intani-3, and Cilosari cultivars correlated with the degree of stem borer infestation, but did not correlate with planting time. Cilosari cultivar showed the most tolerant under heavily stem borer infestation. The present study implies that adjustment of planting time is the most feasible effort to reduce stem borer infestation because none of the seven rice cultivars tested were able to minimize damage under heavily infestation of yellow stem borer.

  20. Effect of chronic treatment with three varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on reproductive parameters and DNA quantification in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, M; Aguilar, J; Gonzales, G F

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chronic effect of different varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca, Yellow Maca and Black Maca). Male rats were treated by gavage with aqueous extract of each variety of maca equivalent to 1 g hypocotyl kg(-1) body weight (BW) for 84 days. At the end of the treatment, daily sperm production (DSP), epididymal sperm count (ESC) and sperm count in vas deferens (SCVD) were assessed. In addition, testis DNA quantification was also determined. Any toxic effect was assessed in liver and spleen by histological studies. The results indicate that Yellow Maca and Black Maca improved ESC and that three varieties of maca increased the SCVD without affecting DSP. Moreover, testis DNA levels were not affected by treatment with any of the three varieties of maca. Histological picture of the liver in animals treated with the three varieties of maca was similar to that observed in controls. In conclusion, Yellow and Black Maca increased epididymal sperm count after 84 days of treatment without affecting DSP. Maca seems to act as a modulator of sperm count at the reproductive tract level.

  1. Hypocotyls of Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant of the Peruvian highlands, prevent ultraviolet A-, B-, and C-induced skin damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2008-02-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively in the Peruvian Central Andes, where ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is predominant. Determine if two extracts of maca can provide dermal protection against UVR. We have administered two maca extracts (0.13 mg/ml), one obtained after boiling and the other without boiling, on the dorsal surface of male Holtzman rats exposed to UVC radiation once a week during 3 consecutive weeks. A dose-response effect of an aqueous extract of maca after a boiling process under exposure of rats to UVA, UVB, or UVC was also studied. A commercial sunscreen was used as a positive control. UVR caused significant increase in skin epidermal thickness. The epidermal height in animals treated with maca was similar to those who did not receive UVR. The aqueous extract of maca after a boiling process had better effect than maca extract without a boiling process. A dose-response effect was observed with increasing doses of aqueous extract of maca after a boiling process. Maca extract had benzyl glucosinolates and polyphenols. Maca extracts protect the skin of rats against UV irradiations and can be suggested as an alternative means of solar protection.

  2. Protective effect of polysaccharide from maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Hep-G2 cells and alcoholic liver oxidative injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zhao, Mingxia; Zhao, Bing

    2017-06-01

    To study the characterization and hepatoprotective activity of polysaccharide from maca (Lepidium meyenii), the main polysaccharide from maca (MP-1) was obtained by DEAE-52 cellulose column. The average molecular weight of MP-1 was 1067.3kDa and the polysaccharide purity was 91.63%. In order to assess the antioxidant activities of MP-1, four kinds of methods were used, including scavenging hydroxyl radical, DPPH, superoxide anion radical, and FRAP, and the results indicated high antioxidant activities. Furthermore, hepatoprotective activity of MP-1 was studied both in vitro and vivo. In vitro, the alcohol induced Hep-G2 cells model was established to evaluate the protective effect of MP-1, which demonstrated MP-1 can alleviate alcohol damage in Hep-G2 cells. In vivo, the Institute of Cancer Researcch (ICR) mice were used to evaluate hepatoprotecive effects of MP-1 on alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Supplement with MP-1 supressed the triglyceride level both in serum and in hepatic tissue. In addition, MP-1 ameliorated serous transaminases increase induced by alcohol, including aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. Moreover, MP-1 also dramatically increased the superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione s-transferase levels in alcoholic mice. Meantime, histopathologic results MP-1 lighten inflammation induced by alcohol. These results indicate that MP-1 possesses hepatoprotective activity against hepatic injury induced by alcohol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification and characterization of microRNAs and their targets in high-altitude stress-adaptive plant maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sujay

    2017-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, short (~21-nucleotide), non-coding RNA molecules that play pivotal roles in plant growth, development, and stress response signaling. In this study using recently published draft genome sequence of a high-altitude plant maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) and applying genome-wide computational-based approaches, a total of 62 potentially conserved miRNAs belonging to 28 families were identified and four (lme-miR160a, lme-miR164c, lme-miR 166a, and lme-miR 319a) of them further validated by RT-PCR. Deploying psRNATarget tool a total of 99 potential miRNA target transcripts were also identified in maca. Targets include a number of transcription factors like Squamosa promoter-binding, NAC, MYB, auxin response factor, APETALA, WRKY, and F-box protein. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first genome-based miRNA profiling of a high-altitude plant.

  4. Long-term feeding of hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) enhances the steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells to alleviate its decline with ageing in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Ohta, Y; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Tamada, H

    2018-02-01

    This study examined whether feeding hydroalcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (maca) to 8-week-old (sexually maturing) or 18-week-old (mature) male rats for more than a half year affects serum testosterone concentration and testosterone production by Leydig cells cultured with hCG, 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone. Testosterone concentration was determined in the serum samples obtained before and 6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks after the feeding, and it was significantly increased only at the 6 weeks in the group fed with the maca extract to maturing rats when it was compared with controls. Testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with hCG by feeding the maca extract to maturing rats for 27 weeks (35 weeks of age) and when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol by feeding it to mature rats for 30 weeks (48 weeks of age). Overall testosterone production by cultured Leydig cells decreased to about a half from 35 to 48 weeks of age. These results suggest that feeding the maca extract for a long time to male rats may enhance the steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells to alleviate its decline with ageing, whereas it may cause only a transient increase in blood testosterone concentration in sexually maturing male rats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. (+)-Meyeniins A-C, Novel Hexahydroimidazo[1,5-c]thiazole Derivatives from the Tubers of Lepidium meyenii: Complete Structural Elucidation by Biomimetic Synthesis and Racemic Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Ma, Hang-Ying; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Yang, Guang-Yu; Du, Gang; Ye, Yan-Qing; Li, Gan-Peng; Hu, Qiu-Fen

    2017-03-08

    (+)-Meyeniins A-C (1-3), a novel class of sulfur-containing hexahydroimidazo[1,5-c]thiazole derivatives, were isolated from the tubers of Lepidium meyenii (maca) cultivated in Lijiang, Yunnan province, China. Guided by their biosynthetic hypothesis, a stereocontrolled biomimetic synthesis of meyeniins A-C and their individual enantiomers was efficiently accomplished by a combination of a condensation reaction and Edman degradation. The formation of high-quality crystals for X-ray crystallography occurred much more readily from a racemic mixture of (±)-meyeniin A than with the single enantiomer alone in this case. These extensive strategies, combined with circular dichroism (CD) spectra, allowed the complete structural assignments of (+)-meyeniins A-C. Among them, (+)-meyeniin A showed moderate selective cytotoxicities against the HL-60, A549 and MCF-7 human cell lines with IC 50 values of 14.41, 32.22, and 33.14 μM, respectively. To some extent, these findings support traditional applications of maca as healthy nutritional supplements or functional foods for cancer prevention.

  6. Aqueous extract of yellow maca (Lepidium meyenii) improves sperm count in experimental animals but response depends on hypocotyl size, pH and routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Salazar, L; Gonzales, G F

    2018-04-01

    Lepidium meyenii, a Peruvian plant growing over 4000 m.a.s.l., has effects on nutrition and fertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sperm count in 105 male mice receiving boiled aqueous extract of yellow maca hypocotyls from different sizes, under different pH conditions and using two different routes of administration. Five mice per group were treated daily for 3 days with vehicle (oral and intraperitoneal) or maca aqueous extracts (5 mg/0.5 ml/day) belonging to the first, second, third and fourth categories, according to their hypocotyl size. On day four, sperm count was evaluated at testis, epididymis and vas deferens. Sperm count was higher in mice receiving maca from the larger sizes (first and second categories). Reduction in maca extract pH increased sperm count, whereas an increase in the pH resulted in a reduction in sperm count. The effect of pH reduction is observed only in maca from the first and second categories. Aqueous extract of maca was effective only after oral administration. In conclusion, the larger size of hypocotyls presented the best biological effect, and the low pH in the extract and the transformation after gastrointestinal passage are both important for its biological action. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenico, T; Cicero, A F G; Valmorri, L; Mercuriali, M; Bercovich, E

    2009-04-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a cultivated root belonging to the brassica family used in the Andean region for its supposed aphrodisiac properties. We carried out a double-blind clinical trial on 50 Caucasian men affected by mild erectile dysfunction (ED), randomised to treatment with Maca dry extract, 2400 mg, or placebo. The treatment effect on ED and subjective well-being was tested administrating before and after 12 weeks the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P). After 12 weeks of treatment, both Maca- and placebo-treated patients experienced a significant increase in IIEF-5 score (P < 0.05 for both). However, patients taking Maca experienced a more significant increase than those taking placebo (1.6 +/- 1.1 versus 0.5 +/- 0.6, P < 0.001). Both Maca- and placebo-treated subjects experienced a significant improvement in psychological performance-related SAT-P score, but the Maca group higher than that of placebo group (+9 +/- 6 versus +6 +/- 5, P < 0.05). However, only Maca-treated patients experienced a significant improvement in physical and social performance-related SAT-P score compared with the baseline (+7 +/- 6 and +7 +/- 6, both P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data support a small but significant effect of Maca supplementation on subjective perception of general and sexual well-being in adult patients with mild ED.

  8. Effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on Semen Parameters and Serum Hormone Levels in Healthy Adult Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikovova, Ingrid; Fait, Tomas; Kolarova, Michaela; Fernandez, Eloy C; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims. Products of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) are touted worldwide as an alimentary supplement to enhance fertility and restore hormonal balance. Enhancing properties of maca on semen parameters in animals were previously reported by various authors, but we present to the best of our knowledge the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial in men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maca on semen parameters and serum hormone levels in healthy adult men. Methods. A group of 20 volunteers aged 20-40 years was supplied by milled hypocotyl of maca or placebo (1.75 g/day) for 12 weeks. Negative controls of semen were compared to the samples after 6 and 12 weeks of maca administration; negative blood controls were compared to the samples after 12 weeks of treatment. Results. Sperm concentration and motility showed rising trends compared to placebo even though levels of hormones did not change significantly after 12 weeks of trial. Conclusion. Our results indicate that maca possesses fertility enhancing properties in men. As long as men prefer to use alimentary supplement to enhance fertility rather than prescribed medication or any medical intervention, it is worth continuing to assess its possible benefits.

  9. Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) increases serum testosterone concentration and enhances steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Yoshida, K; Kamiya, S; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Ogawa, H; Tamada, H

    2016-04-01

    Although Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's central Andes, has been traditionally used for enhancing fertility and reproductive performance in domestic animals and human beings, effects of maca on reproductive organs are still unclear. This study examined whether feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks affects weight of the reproductive organs, serum concentrations of testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH), number and cytoplasmic area of immunohistochemically stained Leydig cells, and steroidogenesis of cultured Leydig cells in 8-week-old male rats. Feeding the extract powder increased weight of seminal vesicles, serum testosterone level and cytoplasmic area of Leydig cells when compared with controls. Weight of prostate gland, serum LH concentration and number of Leydig cells were not affected by the maca treatment. The testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone and tended to increase when cultured with hCG by feeding the extract powder. The results show that feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks increases serum testosterone concentration associated with seminal vesicle stimulation in male rats, and this increase in testosterone level may be related to the enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells especially in the metabolic process following cholesterol. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Structural, electronic, topological and vibrational properties of a series of N-benzylamides derived from Maca (Lepidium meyenii) combining spectroscopic studies with ONION calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chain, Fernando E.; Ladetto, María Florencia; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A. N.; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, the structural, topological and vibrational properties of four members of the N-benzylamides series derived from Maca (Lepidium meyenii) whose names are, N-benzylpentadecanamide, N-benzylhexadecanamide, N-benzylheptadecanamide and N-benzyloctadecanamide, were studied combining the FTIR, FT-Raman and 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopies with density functional theory (DFT) and ONION calculations. Furthermore, the N-benzylacetamide, N-benzylpropilamide and N-benzyl hexanamide derivatives were also studied in order to compare their properties with those computed for the four macamides. These seven N-benzylamides series have a common structure, C8H8NO-R, being R the side chain [-(CH2)n-CH3] with a variable n number of CH2 groups. Here, the atomic charges, molecular electrostatic potentials, stabilization energies, topological properties of those macamides were analyzed as a function of the number of C atoms of the side chain while the frontier orbitals were used to compute the gap energies and some descriptors in order to predict their reactivities and behaviors in function of the longitude of the side chain. Here, the force fields, the complete vibrational assignments and the corresponding force constants were only reported for N-benzylacetamide, N-benzyl hexanamide and N-benzylpentadecanamide due to the high number of vibration normal modes that present the remains macamides.

  11. Structural Characterization of a Novel Polysaccharide from Lepidium meyenii (Maca) and Analysis of Its Regulatory Function in Macrophage Polarization in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmeng; Wu, Wenjia; Ren, Yao; Li, Xiaofeng; Tang, Yuqian; Min, Tian; Lai, Furao; Wu, Hui

    2017-02-15

    In our previous study, three novel polysaccharides, named MC-1, MC-2, and MC-3, were separated from the roots of maca (Lepidium meyenii), which is a food source from the Andes region. The structural information and immunomodulatory activity of MC-1 were then investigated. The structure and activity of MC-2 are still unknown. In this study, structural characterization revealed that MC-2 has an average molecular weight of 9.83 kDa and is composed of arabinose (20.9%), mannose (4.5%), glucose (71.9%), and galactose (2.7%). The main linkage types of MC-2 were proven to be (1→5)-α-l-Ara, (1→3)-α-l-Man, (1→)-α-d-Glc, (1→4)-α-d-Glc, (1→6)-α-d-Glc, and (1→6)-β-d-Gal by methylation and NMR analyses. Congo red assay showed that MC-2 possesses a triple-helix conformation. Immunostimulating assays indicated that MC-2 could induce M1 polarization of original macrophages and convert M2 macrophages into M1 phenotype. Although MC-2 could not shift M1 macrophages into M2, it could still inhibit inflammatory reactions induced by lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, Toll-like receptor 2, tTll-like receptor 4, complement receptor 3, and mannose receptor were confirmed as the membrane receptors for MC-2 on macrophages. These results indicate that MC-2 could potentially be used toward hypoimmunity and tumor therapies.

  12. Photoprotection against the UVB-induced oxidative stress and epidermal damage in mice using leaves of three different varieties of Lepidium meyenii (maca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Rivera, Valery; Chirinos, Ana Lucía; Evelson, Pablo; Gonzales, Gustavo Francisco

    2011-08-01

    Skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) B radiation leads to epidermal damage and generation of reactive oxygen species. The photoprotective effect of extracts of three varieties of leaves (red, yellow, and black) from maca (Lepidium meyenii), a plant from the Peruvian highlands, was assessed in mouse skin exposed to UVB radiation. The hydroalcoholic extracts of three varieties of maca leaves were applied topically to the dorsal skin of young-adult male mice prior to exposition to UVB radiation. The three varieties had UVA/UVB absorptive properties and presented antioxidant activity, being highest with red maca, followed by black and yellow maca. The three varieties of maca leaves prevented the development of sunburn cells, epidermal hyperplasia, leukocytic infiltration, and other alterations produced by UVB radiation. Mice treated with black maca showed the highest superoxide dismutase levels, and mice treated with black and yellow maca showed higher catalase levels in skin, whereas red maca protected the skin and liver against significant increases in the lipid peroxidation activity observed in the unprotected animals. The presence of significant antioxidant activity and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation suggest that the observed protection could be partly attributable to this mechanism. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on Semen Parameters and Serum Hormone Levels in Healthy Adult Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikovova, Ingrid; Fait, Tomas; Kolarova, Michaela; Fernandez, Eloy C.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims. Products of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) are touted worldwide as an alimentary supplement to enhance fertility and restore hormonal balance. Enhancing properties of maca on semen parameters in animals were previously reported by various authors, but we present to the best of our knowledge the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial in men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maca on semen parameters and serum hormone levels in healthy adult men. Methods. A group of 20 volunteers aged 20–40 years was supplied by milled hypocotyl of maca or placebo (1.75 g/day) for 12 weeks. Negative controls of semen were compared to the samples after 6 and 12 weeks of maca administration; negative blood controls were compared to the samples after 12 weeks of treatment. Results. Sperm concentration and motility showed rising trends compared to placebo even though levels of hormones did not change significantly after 12 weeks of trial. Conclusion. Our results indicate that maca possesses fertility enhancing properties in men. As long as men prefer to use alimentary supplement to enhance fertility rather than prescribed medication or any medical intervention, it is worth continuing to assess its possible benefits. PMID:26421049

  14. Prevalencia de hongos en harina de Lepidium peruvianum «Maca» en mercados de Andahuaylas, Ica y Cañete - Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Orellana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la prevalencia de hongos en la harina de Lepidium peruvianum «maca» en un total de 60 muestras procedentes de los mercados de Andahuaylas (20, Ica (20 y Cañete (20. Las muestras fueron procesadas mediante el método de diluciones sucesivas y sembradas en superficie en Agar Papa Dextrosa (APD. El 96,7% del total de muestras estaban contaminadas; identificándose 9 géneros y un total de 14 especies de mohos filamentosos, incluyendo uno clasificado como Mycelia sterilia. El recuento general de colonias va desde 33x104 a 61x104 UFC/g., no existiendo diferencia significativa entre los centros de expendio. Los géneros con mayor incidencia fueron Penicillium y Fusarium. La alta prevalencia de hongos contaminantes en la harina de maca sugieren continuar estudios destinados a evaluar el efecto y riesgo sanitario que representa su consumo para la salud humana.

  15. Effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on Semen Parameters and Serum Hormone Levels in Healthy Adult Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Melnikovova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Products of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca are touted worldwide as an alimentary supplement to enhance fertility and restore hormonal balance. Enhancing properties of maca on semen parameters in animals were previously reported by various authors, but we present to the best of our knowledge the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial in men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maca on semen parameters and serum hormone levels in healthy adult men. Methods. A group of 20 volunteers aged 20–40 years was supplied by milled hypocotyl of maca or placebo (1.75 g/day for 12 weeks. Negative controls of semen were compared to the samples after 6 and 12 weeks of maca administration; negative blood controls were compared to the samples after 12 weeks of treatment. Results. Sperm concentration and motility showed rising trends compared to placebo even though levels of hormones did not change significantly after 12 weeks of trial. Conclusion. Our results indicate that maca possesses fertility enhancing properties in men. As long as men prefer to use alimentary supplement to enhance fertility rather than prescribed medication or any medical intervention, it is worth continuing to assess its possible benefits.

  16. Study of the infestation rate of the kidney and spleen of domestic ruminants by Linguatula serrata nymphs in Urmia slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rasouli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in kidneys and spleens of 800 domestic ruminants (cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in different sexes, ages and seasons was investigated. First, the kidneys and spleens were examined macroscopically. Then, a digestion method was also applied. Infestation rate in the spleen of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat were %0/5, %0, %0/5 and %1/5 respectively. No infestation was found in the kidneys. The results of this study shows that the infestation of domestic ruminants to Linguatula serrat nymphs in different sexes and ages were not significant. Also the infestation rate in different seasons was not significant.

  17. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenoh, Elisha Mrabu; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Lehmann, Ingo; Kioko, Esther; Bosire, Jared O; Ngisiange, Noah; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s), the extent of infestation, the pests' biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host's defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s) responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida) was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea) of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga) and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa) of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to address the

  18. Spatial spread and infestation risk assessment in the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favaro, Riccardo; Wichmann, Lars; Ravn, Hans Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is recognised as potentially one of the most damaging invasive insects in Europe and North America. International trade has increased the risk of accidental introduction of ALB. An eradication...... programme was initiated in Northeast Italy in June 2009, when an ALB infestation was discovered. The infestation was monitored by annual surveys of all host-tree species growing in the eradication area. Infested trees were cut down and chipped. This study analyses the spatiotemporal distribution of infested...

  19. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha Mrabu Jenoh

    Full Text Available Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s, the extent of infestation, the pests' biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host's defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae.The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to

  20. Evaluation on the effectiveness of actions for controlling infestation by rodents in Campo Limpo region, Sao Paulo Municipality, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Masi, Eduardo; Vilaça, Pedro José; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2009-08-01

    Rodents are responsible for the transmission of more than 60 diseases both to human beings and to domestic animals. The increase in rodent infestation in a given area brings several health problems to the nearby population. Thus, when infestation increases, it is time to take intervention measures. Although many countries have implemented programs aimed at controlling rodent infestation, literature on studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention measures in urban areas is scarce. Aimed at contributing to the understanding of rodents' population dynamics in urban areas, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the control methods proposed by "Programa de Vigilancia e Controle de Roedores do Municipio de Sao Paulo" (Program for Rodents Surveillance and Control in Sao Paulo Municipality), conducted on Jardim Comercial District. As a first step, a survey to assess infestation rates was conducted in 1529 dwellings located in the area studied. After that, a chemical control upon rodents was accomplished in every dwelling infested. One week and six months after completion of control measures, a new evaluation on infestation rates was carried out, in order to verify the effectiveness of the procedures taken and to estimate the re-infestation capacity. Initial infestation rate was 40.0%, and the final infestation rate, 14.4%. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control methods utilized was 63.8%. It can thus be concluded that the control methods applied were quite effective.

  1. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97% and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6% apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6% reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%. DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124 had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs.

  2. Feline cuterebrosis caused by a lagomorph-infesting Cuterebra spp. larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slansky, Frank

    2007-08-01

    Native species of rodents and lagomorphs in the Americas are the typical hosts of Cuterebra spp. larvae. Although these bot flies are relatively host specific, they occasionally parasitize other native and introduced mammals (including domestic animals and humans), an affliction termed cuterebrosis. Cuterebra spp. larvae generally cause benign, subcutaneous lesions (warbles), but when infesting domestic cats, they can invade the eyes, respiratory tract, and cerebral tissues, causing severe, and in some cases fatal, injury. Despite more than 2 dozen published reports of feline cuterebrosis, the type (rodent- or lagomorph-infesting) or species parasitizing domestic cats has rarely been determined. Here, I identify a larva removed from a kitten in southern Wisconsin as belonging to a lagomorph-infesting Cuterebra species, most likely C. abdominalis, based especially on features of the cuticular platelets covering its exterior, and its geographic location. This seems to be only the third substantiated report of feline cuterebrosis in more than 50 yr in which a larva has been identified beyond "Cuterebra spp." In each case, lagomorph-infesting species were involved, suggesting that domestic cats may not be susceptible to rodent-infesting Cuterebra species. However, because these studies are limited in number and geographic area, additional research is required to establish the spectrum of Cuterebra species involved in feline cuterebrosis.

  3. Alterations in the nitrogen dynamics of European beech trees infested by the woolly beech aphid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, D. F.; Michalzik, B.

    2012-12-01

    Insects are a major stressor in wooded ecosystems, triggering profound changes in the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and net primary productivity of infested forests. The influence of woolly beech aphids (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on nitrogen cycling via throughfall, stemflow, and litter leachates is not well understood. Employing a combination of field sampling, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, we examined and compared the alterations and partitioning of nitrogen (particulate, dissolved, organic, inorganic) between control (uninfested) and infested trees. Preliminary results suggest that the amount of nitrogen routed to the soil is much lower in throughfall and stemflow of infested trees than control trees. Preliminary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements on the abaxial surface of sample leaves have demonstrated that the surface microbiology and nitrogen chemistry of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves are notably different. These observations suggest that the aphids alter the phyllosphere ecology to such an extent that they trigger nitrogen uptake by microbes on the leaf surface in the presence of easily available carbon from aphid excretions (i.e., honeydew). A better understanding of nitrogen cycling in stressed forests would advance theories of nitrogen cycling.

  4. Infestation of froghopper nymphs changes the amounts of total phenolics in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Rafael José Navas da

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased rate of sugarcane harvest without previous burn has provided a very favorable environment to the froghopper Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854, with high moisture and low temperature variation. Few works have studied the response of sugarcane to this pest, so little is known about resistant cultivars. Plant phenolics are widely studied compounds because of their known antiherbivore effect. This research aims to determine if the attack of M. fimbriolata nymphs stimulates the accumulation of total phenolics in sugarcane. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse and arranged in completely randomized design, in a 3 X 2 X 4 factorial with three replications. Second instar nymphs of M. fimbriolata were infested at the following rates: control, 2-4 and 4-8 nymphs per pot (first-second infestations, respectively. Pots were covered with nylon net and monitored daily to isolate the effect of leaf sucking adults. Leaf and root samples were collected and kept frozen in liquid nitrogen until analyses. Infested plants showed higher levels of phenolics in both root and leaf tissues. In roots, the cultivar SP80-1816 accumulated more phenolic compounds in response to the infestation of M. fimbriolata. On the other hand, higher levels were found in leaves and roots of control plants of SP86-42, which might be an indication of a non-preference mechanism. The increase of total phenolics in sugarcane infested with root-sucking froghopper nymphs does not seem to be useful to detect the resistance to this pest.

  5. Influence of the physiological state on infestation by Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Rangel, Charles Passos; de Azevedo Baêta, Bruna; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of physiological state, season, breed, number of lactations, dairy productivity, and stocking rate on infestation by Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows. Two hundred cows were selected through proportional representative sampling at the Seropédica Experimental Station (Pesagro-Rio), Brazil. Fully or partially engorged R. microplus females measuring between 4.5 and 8.0mm were counted on the right side of each animal. The tick infestation prevalence data were analyzed in relation to the risk factors, using multiple logistic regression. Associations between prevalence and its possible influencing determinants were measured using odds ratios. The average tick count of cows during the peripartum and lactation periods was significantly higher (pGirolando animals (5/8 zebuine×3/8 taurine). Primiparous cows (p<0.05) had significantly heavier infestations than multiparous cows. Dairy production showed a positive correlation with tick infestation (p<0.03; OR=2.94), such that the most productive animals were the most parasitized ones. Animals kept at high densities were significantly more heavily infested (p<0.05, OR=6.32) than animals kept at low density. First-lactation and high-productivity taurine animals were more vulnerable to R. microplus, thus comprising a high-risk group in dairy herds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Jayasinghe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis. However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest. Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  7. Insect stings to change gear for healthy plant: Improving maize drought tolerance by whitefly infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-05-03

    Since plants first appeared about 1.1 billion years ago, they have been faced with biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment. To overcome these stresses, plants developed defense strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that the whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] affects the regulation of plant defenses and physiology. A recent study demonstrates that aboveground whitefly infestation positively modulates root biomass and anthocyanin pigmentation on brace roots of maize plants (Zea mays L.). In agreement with these observations, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) contents and the expression of IAA- and JA-related genes are higher in whitefly-infested maize plants than in non-infected control plants. Interestingly, the fresh weight of whitefly-infested maize plants is approximately 20% higher than in non-infected control plants under water stress conditions. Further investigation has revealed that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulates in whitefly-infested maize plants after water stoppage. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of phytohormones- (i.e., IAA and JA) and H2O2-mediated maize signaling pathways triggered by aboveground whitefly infestation promotes drought resistance. They also provide an insight into how inter-kingdom interactions can improve drought tolerance in plants.

  8. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  9. Histamine as an emergent indoor contaminant: Accumulation and persistence in bed bug infested homes.

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    Zachary C DeVries

    Full Text Available Histamine is used in bronchial and dermal provocation, but it is rarely considered an environmental risk factor in allergic disease. Because bed bugs defecate large amounts of histamine as a component of their aggregation pheromone, we sought to determine if histamine accumulates in household dust in bed bug infested homes, and the effects of bed bug eradication with spatial heat on histamine levels in dust. We collected dust in homes and analyzed for histamine before, and up to three months after bed bug eradication. Histamine levels in bed bug infested homes were remarkably high (mean = 54.6±18.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust and significantly higher than in control homes not infested with bed bugs (mean < 2.5±1.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust. Heat treatments that eradicated the bed bug infestations failed to reduce histamine levels, even three months after treatment. We report a clear association between histamine levels in household dust and bed bug infestations. The high concentrations, persistence, and proximity to humans during sleep suggest that bed bug-produced histamine may represent an emergent contaminant and pose a serious health risk in the indoor environment.

  10. Role of Demodex mite infestation in rosacea: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Shuo; Huang, Yu-Chen

    2017-09-01

    The reported prevalence and degrees of Demodex mite infestation in rosacea vary widely. We sought to conduct an evidence-based meta-analysis of the prevalence and degrees of Demodex mite infestation in patients with rosacea. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis were conducted. Odds ratios for prevalence of infestation and standardized mean difference (SMD) for Demodex density in patients with rosacea were pooled. Subgroup analysis for type of rosacea, control group, and sampling and examination methods were also performed. Twenty-three case-control studies included 1513 patients with rosacea. Compared with the control patients, patients with rosacea were more likely to be infested by Demodex mites [odds ratio, 9.039; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.827-16.925] and had significantly higher Demodex density (SMD, 1.617; 95% CI, 1.090-2.145). Both erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (SMD, 2.686; 95% CI, 1.256-4.116) and papulopustular rosacea (SMD, 2.804; 95% CI, 1.464-4.145) had significantly higher Demodex density than did healthy control patients. Interstudy variability was high, and a causal relationship could not be established by case-control studies. Patients with rosacea had significantly higher prevalence and degrees of Demodex mite infestation than did control patients. Demodex mites may play a role in both erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papulopustular rosacea. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inflammatory reaction to the human bot-fly, Dermatobia hominis, in infested and reinfested mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lello, E; de Rosis, A M B

    2003-03-01

    Two groups of mice were infested with first stage larvae of the human bot-fly, Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr) (Diptera: Oestridae). In the first group, skin biopsies were carried out 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 18 days after infestation. The second group was also infested but had all the larvae removed 5 days after infestation. The mice in the latter group were reinfested 4 weeks later and skin biopsies were carried out 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 18 days after reinfestation. In the first group, an inflammatory reaction began slowly, the neutrophils being the main inflammatory cells, eosinophils being scarce. The reaction progressed with time, developing a necrotic halo around the larvae containing inflammatory cells surrounded by fibroblasts. The inflammation invaded the adjacent tissue. In the second group, the inflammatory reaction was intense on the day immediately after reinfestation, the pattern being changed by the presence of a large number of eosinophils. Activated fibroblasts surrounding the necrotic area around the larvae appeared 3 days after reinfestation in the second group and 7 days after infestation in the first group. The results demonstrated that the previous contact with the antigens elicited the early arrival of eosinophils, probably through the chemotactic factors liberated by mast cells in the anaphylactic reaction.

  12. Prevalence of tick infestation in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshaverinia, Ali; Moghaddas, Elham

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of tick infestation and identify tick species that parasitize dromedary camels. Since April 2012 through March 2013, a total of 400 camels that brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir were examined for tick infestation. Out of the total 400 camels examined, 237 were infested and annual prevalence of tick infestation 59.25 % (95 % CI 54-64) was calculated. The higher prevalence rates were found in the summer and spring, especially the summer that prevalence rate was the highest. A total of 1,122 ticks were collected from the infested camels and identified by stereomicroscopy. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick species and comprised 70.76 % of the collected ticks. The frequency of other species was as follows: H. excavatum (19.25 %), H. anatolicum (4.81 %), H. asiaticum (4.72 %), Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.17 %), H. detritum (0.09 %), H. impeltatum (0.09 %) and H. schulzei (0.09 %). Based on the results of present study, it is concluded that camels mostly harbor Hyalomma spp. The species of this genus are the most notorious ticks for transmission of human and animal diseases. Therefore, appropriate tick control measures need to be employed and pour-on method for acaricide application is suggested because this method is fast, easy and suitable for use by camel owners in deserts.

  13. [Bovine hypodermosis in north-eastern Algeria: prevalence and intensity of infestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benakhla, A; Lonneux, J F; Mekroud, A; Losson, B; Boulard, C

    1999-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1997 different factors related to warble fly infestation (prevalence, intensity, climate, breed) were studied in north-eastern Algeria. Mean prevalence during the period was 76%. This figure was obtained from a cattle market survey of four different regions (Jijel, Constantine, Guelma, and El Tarf). One-hundred percent of the herds were found to be infested in El Tarf and 61% of animals were infested. Within a herd, the intensity of infestation decreased with the age of the cattle. The mean number of warbles per animal decreased as reinfestations occurred. The peak of the emergence of warbles observed between January and March was progressively delayed in the older animals. Two species of Hypoderma were present in cattle in Algeria (H. bovis and H. lineatum) with a predominance of H. lineatum (63%) in the semi-arid area (Batna) and a majority of H. bovis (75%) in humid area (Jijel). Warbles appeared earlier in Batna (October) than in Jijel (November). The Prim'Holstein breed was more susceptible to the warble fly infestation than Montbeliard or local breeds. The implementation of a control programme for hypodermosis in Algeria is urgent. Control can be achieved through a mass treatment of cattle. This approach must take into account the factors described in this study which influence the epidemiology of the disease.

  14. Efficacy of the d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen association against mites in naturally co-infested rabbits

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    Julio I. Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen association against Psoroptes ovis, Cheyletiella parasitivorax, and Leporacarus gibbus infestations in naturally co-infested rabbits. Twenty crossbreed (New Zealand White x California rabbits concurrently infested by the three mite species were randomly divided in two groups. All rabbits presented with hyperemia, erythema and formation of crusts in the ear canals caused by P. ovis. Infestations by both C. parasitivorax and L. gibbus were considered asymptomatic in all animals.Ten animals were treated with a 4.4% d-phenothrin and 0.148% pyriproxyfen spray formulation until have their body surface uniformly sprayed, including external ear canals. The other ten rabbits remained untreated, serving as control group. Observations were done on days +7, +14, +21, +28, and +35 post-treatment. The d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen association showed 100% efficacy against the three mite species and was responsible for the remission of psoroptic mange lesions on treated animals. No signs of intoxication were observed. The results indicate that d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen spray formulation in a single application is an effective and clinically safe option for the control of different mite infestations in rabbits.

  15. Tick infestation on wild snakes in northern part of western Ghats of India.

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    Pandit, Pranav; Bandivdekar, Ruta; Geevarghese, G; Pande, Satish; Mandke, Omkar

    2011-05-01

    In total, 167 individuals of 30 species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families were examined for tick infestation from November 2008 to March 2010. Only two species of snakes, Ptyas mucosa (L., 1758) (Indian rat snake) and Naja naja (L., 1758) (spectacled cobra), were found infested by ticks. All ticks collected were identified to be Amblyomma gervaisi [previously Aponomma gervaisi (Lucas, 1847) 1. The average prevalence of these ticks on Indian rat snakes (n=48) was 29.16%, with abundance of 7.02 ticks per individual; on spectacled cobras (n=20), average prevalence was 30.00%, with abundance of 6.9 ticks per individual. The nymphs and males were predominant. All the ticks were found on the dorsal aspect of the body of the snake, and no ticks were recorded on the head, tail, or ventral body. The rate of tick infestation was highest in scrubland and was lowest in evergreen forests. Female Indian rat snakes showed higher tick infestation rates than male Indian rat snakes. Using Mann-Whitney U test, we found that longer snakes of both species had significantly higher rate of tick infestation in both the species of snakes.

  16. Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C.; Morales, Cinara F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)

  17. Ecological and Sociodemographic Determinants of House Infestation by Triatoma infestans in Indigenous Communities of the Argentine Chaco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspe, M. Sol; Provecho, Yael M.; Cardinal, M. Victoria; del Pilar Fernández, M.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Gran Chaco ecoregion, a hotspot for Chagas and other neglected tropical diseases, is home to >20 indigenous peoples. Our objective was to identify the main ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation and abundance of Triatoma infestans in traditional Qom populations including a Creole minority in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. Methods A cross-sectional survey determined house infestation by timed-manual searches with a dislodging aerosol in 386 inhabited houses and administered questionnaires on selected variables before full-coverage insecticide spraying and annual vector surveillance. We fitted generalized linear models to two global models of domestic infestation and bug abundance, and estimated coefficients via multimodel inference with model averaging. Principal Findings Most Qom households were larger and lived in small-sized, recently-built, precarious houses with fewer peridomestic structures, and fewer livestock and poultry than Creoles’. Qom households had lower educational level and unexpectedly high residential mobility. House infestation (31.9%) was much lower than expected from lack of recent insecticide spraying campaigns and was spatially aggregated. Nearly half of the infested houses examined had infected vectors. Qom households had higher prevalence of domestic infestation (29.2%) than Creoles’ (10.0%), although there is large uncertainty around the adjusted OR. Factors with high relative importance for domestic infestation and/or bug abundance were refuge availability, distance to the nearest infested house, domestic insecticide use, indoor presence of poultry, residential overcrowding, and household educational level. Conclusions and Significance Our study highlights the importance of sociodemographic determinants of domestic infestation such as overcrowding, education and proximity to the nearest infested house, and corroborates the role of refuge availability, domestic use of insecticides and

  18. Ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation by Triatoma infestans in indigenous communities of the Argentine Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol Gaspe, M; Provecho, Yael M; Cardinal, M Victoria; del Pilar Fernández, M; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2015-03-01

    The Gran Chaco ecoregion, a hotspot for Chagas and other neglected tropical diseases, is home to >20 indigenous peoples. Our objective was to identify the main ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation and abundance of Triatoma infestans in traditional Qom populations including a Creole minority in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. A cross-sectional survey determined house infestation by timed-manual searches with a dislodging aerosol in 386 inhabited houses and administered questionnaires on selected variables before full-coverage insecticide spraying and annual vector surveillance. We fitted generalized linear models to two global models of domestic infestation and bug abundance, and estimated coefficients via multimodel inference with model averaging. Most Qom households were larger and lived in small-sized, recently-built, precarious houses with fewer peridomestic structures, and fewer livestock and poultry than Creoles'. Qom households had lower educational level and unexpectedly high residential mobility. House infestation (31.9%) was much lower than expected from lack of recent insecticide spraying campaigns and was spatially aggregated. Nearly half of the infested houses examined had infected vectors. Qom households had higher prevalence of domestic infestation (29.2%) than Creoles' (10.0%), although there is large uncertainty around the adjusted OR. Factors with high relative importance for domestic infestation and/or bug abundance were refuge availability, distance to the nearest infested house, domestic insecticide use, indoor presence of poultry, residential overcrowding, and household educational level. Our study highlights the importance of sociodemographic determinants of domestic infestation such as overcrowding, education and proximity to the nearest infested house, and corroborates the role of refuge availability, domestic use of insecticides and household size. These factors may be used for designing improved

  19. EFFECT OF STARVATION AND INFESTATION BEHAVIOR OF LARVAE KHAPRA BEETLE, Trogoderma granarium Everts (COLEOPTERA : DERMESTIDAE

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    Haris Setyaningrum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium Everts is very destructive pest in various stored product and nominated as one of the hundred worst invasive species in the world. The study of starvation and infestation behaviors are important for improvement of insect control method. This study represent the number of molting as fact of regressive molting in starved condition, the larva of T. granarium within 68 days periods can be molted 1-3 times. The infestation behavior on three diets treatment presented. In grain wheat their larva are laid off the casting skin over the surface of product and distributed randomly in whole part of stored product. Respectively in flour casting skin are laid down in bottom of the container as effect of feeding. In flour the casting skin are laid on mostly over surface of the flour mixed with frass. In toilet tissue the infestation is present in hole over the surface and randomly position of casting skin.

  20. One-Humped Camels (Camelus dromedaries Hard Ticks Infestation in Qeshm Island, Iran

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    Saeed Nazifi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.

  1. Infestation of the spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) by Hyalomma aegyptium in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Rouatbi, Mariem; Mabrouk, Moez; Mhadhbi, Moez; Amairia, Safa; Amdouni, Yosra; Boussaadoun, Mohamed Anis

    2015-04-01

    We examined 210 spur-thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca) for the presence of ticks in Tunisia during May 2014. A total number of 602 adult ticks were collected and identified leading to the estimation of parasitological indicators. All the ticks belonged to a single species: Hyalomma aegyptium. The mean infestation prevalence was 66.2%, mean overall infestation intensity and abundance were 4.33 and 2.86 ticks/tortoise respectively. Our survey showed that tortoises were significantly more infested by male ticks than females (pTunisia; further investigations are needed to determine exactly the role of this tick species in the transmission of different zoonotic pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamics of Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae infestation on Nelore cattle in the Pantanal, Brazil

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    Barros Antonio Thadeu M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available From June 1993 to May 1995, horn fly counts were conducted twice a month on untreated Nelore cattle raised extensively in the Pantanal. Horn fly population showed a bimodal fluctuation and peaks were observed every year after the beginning (November/December and at the end (May/June of the rainy season, which coincided with mid-late spring and mid-late fall, respectively. Horn flies were present on cattle throughout the year in at least 64% of the animals. Mean horn fly numbers on animals did not exceed 85 flies/cow during peaks and were under 35 flies/cow in most of the remaining periods. The highest infestations (population peaks were short and dropped suddenly within two weeks. Less than 15% of the animals in both herds could be considered as "fly-susceptible" - showing consistently higher infestations, or "fly-resistant" - showing consistently lower infestations.

  3. Histamine as an emergent indoor contaminant: Accumulation and persistence in bed bug infested homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C; Santangelo, Richard G; Barbarin, Alexis M; Schal, Coby

    2018-01-01

    Histamine is used in bronchial and dermal provocation, but it is rarely considered an environmental risk factor in allergic disease. Because bed bugs defecate large amounts of histamine as a component of their aggregation pheromone, we sought to determine if histamine accumulates in household dust in bed bug infested homes, and the effects of bed bug eradication with spatial heat on histamine levels in dust. We collected dust in homes and analyzed for histamine before, and up to three months after bed bug eradication. Histamine levels in bed bug infested homes were remarkably high (mean = 54.6±18.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust) and significantly higher than in control homes not infested with bed bugs (mean emergent contaminant and pose a serious health risk in the indoor environment.

  4. Infestations of the bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) on different breeds of cattle in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norval, R A; Sutherst, R W; Kerr, J D

    1996-10-01

    Infestations of adults and nymphs of Amblyomma hebraeum were counted on Brahman (Br), Brahman x Simmental (BS), Sanga (Sa) and Hereford (He) steers exposed to infested pastures at Mbizi in southern Zimbabwe in 1986-1987. Herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the Sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the Brahman and Brahman x Simmental groups being in between. The ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The ratios of the standard nymphs were 2.2:1.4:1.7:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The results confirm earlier observations in Africa and support the view that there are genetic differences between breeds in the expression of resistance to this tick species.

  5. House infestation dynamics and feeding sources of Triatoma dimidiata in central Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Montero, Jesús; López-Monteon, Aracely; Dumonteil, Eric; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel

    2012-04-01

    Chagas disease is endemic in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, and we investigated here the dynamics of house infestation by Chagas disease vectors to understand disease transmission and design effective control interventions. Bug collections in 42 rural villages confirmed the widespread distribution of Triatoma dimidiata in central Veracruz. Unexpectedly, collection data further indicated a clear pattern of seasonal infestation by mostly adult bugs. Analysis of feeding sources with a polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex assay indicated a frequent feeding on humans, in agreement with the high seroprevalence previously observed. Feeding sources also confirmed a significant dispersal of bugs between habitats. High dispersal capabilities and seasonal infestation may thus be a shared characteristic of several of the T. dimidiata sibling species from this complex. It would thus be critical to adapt vector control interventions to this behavior to improve their efficacy and sustainability, as the control of T. dimidiata has been notoriously challenging.

  6. Dermatobia hominis (botfly) infestation of the lower extremity: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottom, James M; Hyer, Christopher F; Lee, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    We present a report of myiasis, which is the infestation of the body by the larva of flies. In this particular case the patient traveled to Belize and was infested in her foot and leg by Dermatobia hominis or the human botfly. Treatment was initiated once she returned to the United States. She ultimately underwent surgical excision of the larva, which was noted to be alive and moving upon removal. This is a rare larval infestation in humans, but is frequently seen in domestic and livestock animals in Central and South America. With increased international travel, the foot and ankle surgeon should be aware of this parasitic infection in recent travelers to Central and South American countries. ACFAS Level of Clinical Evidence: 4.

  7. Natural Field Infestation of and by Oriental Fruit Fly, (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Grant T McQuate

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae, is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp (“mango relatives” which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports. Here, we report on natural field infestation by the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae, of two mango relatives native to Indonesia: Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa . Rates of infestation of fruits of these two Mangifera spp by tephritid fruit flies have not previously been reported.

  8. Curative and preventive efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against Ctenocephalides canis infestation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Pascal; Gale, Boyd; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L

    2014-04-02

    The efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against adult dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis, was evaluated in a controlled, blinded study. A total of 32 dogs were infested with 100 adult unfed fleas approximately 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 5 weeks after treatment. Live fleas were counted upon removal at 12h (for 16 dogs) and 24h (for the remaining 16 dogs) after treatment (for counts performed the first week) or after infestation (for counts performed on subsequent weeks). In addition, flea eggs were collected from each pen and counted for the dogs with flea removal at 24h. Dosing of individual dogs was achieved using a combination of the chewable tablets to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of 2.5mg/kg. The percent efficacy of the afoxolaner treatment was ≥ 99.0% for all 24-h flea counts. For flea counts performed 12h after treatment or infestations, the percent efficacy was ≥ 94.1% up to Day 21. After Day 1, no flea eggs were recovered from the afoxolaner treated group, providing 100% reduction in numbers of flea eggs recovered versus untreated control group. This study confirmed that a single oral treatment with afoxolaner provided excellent efficacy against infestations by C. canis within 12-24h after treatment, prevented re-infestations, and completely prevented egg production from new flea infestations for up to 5 weeks. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Susceptible and Resistant Rice Plants during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper

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    Yan Dong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén, Homoptera, Delphacidae-SBPH is one of the major destructive pests of rice (Oryza sativa L.. Understanding on how rice responds to SBPH infestation will contribute to developing strategies for SBPH control. However, the response of rice plant to SBPH is poorly understood. In this study, two contrasting rice genotypes, Pf9279-4 (SBPH-resistant and 02428 (SBPH-susceptible, were used for comparative analysis of protein profiles in the leaf sheath of rice plants in responses to SBPH infestation. One hundred and thirty-two protein spots that were differentially expressed between the resistant and susceptible rice lines were identified with significant intensity differences (≥2-fold, P < 0.05 at 0, 6, and 12 h after SBPH infestation. Protein expression profile analysis in the leaf sheath of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice lines after SBPH infestation showed that proteins induced by SBPH feeding were involved mainly in stress response, photosynthesis, protein metabolic process, carbohydrate metabolic process, energy metabolism, cell wall-related proteins, amino acid metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Gene expression analysis of 24 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs showed that more than 50% DEPs were positively correlated with their mRNA levels. Analysis of some physiological indexes mainly involved in the removal of oxygen reactive species showed that the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH were considerably higher in Pf9279-4 than 02428 during SBPH infestation. The catalase (CAT activity and hydroxyl radical inhibition were lower in Pf9279-4 than 02428. Analysis of enzyme activities indicates that Pf9279-4 rice plants defend against SBPH through the activation of the pathway of the salicylic acid (SA-dependent systemic acquired resistance. In conclusion, this study provides some insights into the molecular networks involved on cellular and

  10. Protective efficacy of permethrin-treated trousers against tick infestation in forestry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roßbach, Bernd; Kegel, Peter; Zier, Ulrike; Niemietz, Adrian; Letzel, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Prevention of tick borne diseases in forestry workers is essentially based on the use of appropriate clothing. The objective of this pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial was to assess the potential benefit of permethrin-treated working trousers for the prevention of tick infestation during forestry work. N=164 male forestry workers were equipped for a period of 16 weeks with permethrin-treated (intervention group-I) or untreated work trousers (control group-II). Subgroups, according to the use of trousers with (I-1, II-1) or without cut protection lining (I-2, II-2) were constituted. Tick infestation (quantity of ticks on the body surface) was assessed by questionnaire after 16 workdays. Control and intervention groups were compared by calculating the infestation rate (percentage of subjects with ticks) and the average number of ticks per workday. The infestation rate in the intervention group was significantly lower than in the control group (36.6 vs. 63.4%, p=0.001; Fisher-test). Further analysis revealed a significant reduction of tick infestation by permethrin treatment only for subjects wearing trousers without the cut protection lining (I-2: 34.2 vs. II-2: 80.0%, p<0.001), while users of cut protection trousers did not benefit from such treated trousers (I-1: 38.6 vs. II-1: 47.6%, n.s.). Similar results were found for comparisons based on the average number of ticks per workday. The use of permethrin-treated trousers does not completely prevent tick infestations. Improvement of tick protection has been shown only for some applications, but not in general. Additional prevention measures are therefore still indispensable.

  11. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection

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    Melissa A.Y. Oddie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera, are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera, is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control. However, at least three populations of European honey bees have developed this ability by means of natural selection and have been surviving for >10 years without mite treatments. Reduced mite reproductive success has been suggested as a key factor explaining this natural survival. Here, we report a managed A. mellifera population in Norway, that has been naturally surviving consistent V. destructor infestations for >17 years. Methods Surviving colonies and local susceptible controls were evaluated for mite infestation levels, mite reproductive success and two potential mechanisms explaining colony survival: grooming of adult worker bees and Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH: adult workers specifically detecting and removing mite-infested brood. Results Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in surviving colonies and mite reproductive success was reduced by 30% when compared to the controls. No significant differences were found between surviving and control colonies for either grooming or VSH. Discussion Our data confirm that reduced mite reproductive success seems to be a key factor for natural survival of infested A. mellifera colonies. However, neither grooming nor VSH seem to explain colony survival. Instead, other behaviors of the adult bees seem to be sufficient to hinder mite reproductive success, because brood for this experiment was taken from susceptible donor colonies only. To mitigate the global impact of V. destructor, we suggest learning

  12. Examination of the pest status of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Gaurav; Nuessly, Gregg S; Seal, Dakshina R; Steck, Gary J; Capinera, John L; Meagher, Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Larvae of 11 species of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulididae) are known to feed on corn plants (Zea mays L.) in the western hemisphere. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited in leaf axils and corn silk to feed mostly within ears, but the primary versus secondary nature (i.e., pest status) of their infestation is not known for all of these species. Choice and no-choice tests by using a split-plot design were conducted in greenhouse and field trials to determine the pest status on sweet corn of three of these species found in Florida: Chaetopsis massyla (Walker), Euxesta eluta Loew, and E. stigmatias Loew. The main treatments (uninfested ears and ears experimentally infested with either Spodoptera frugiperda [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] or E. eluta larvae) were applied at first silk. The subtreatments (C. massyla, E. eluta, or E. stigmatias adults caged on ears) were applied 7 d later and maintained for 10 d. All three fly species were reared from uninfested and experimentally infested ears in both choice and no-choice tests in greenhouse and field trials confirming both primary and secondary modes of ear infestation. More flies of all three species emerged from ears that were preinfested with S. frugiperda compared with uninfested ears suggesting either preference for or greater survival within ears previously infested by S. frugiperda. Fewer E. eluta and E. stigmatias emerged from ears preinfested with E. eluta in no-choice field tests, suggesting that previous infestation by this fly may negatively affect oviposition or that older fly larvae affect survival of neonate larvae. All three species studied here should be considered primary pests that can render unprotected sweet corn ears unmarketable.

  13. Enterobius vermicularis infestation leading to Meckel's diverticulitis in an adolescent boy: An extremely rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manupriya; Kaul, Rashmi; Chander, Bal

    2018-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is an intestinal nematode commonly affecting children worldwide. Its transmission is by feco-oral route. Meckel's diverticulitis due to E. vermicularis infestation is an extremely rare presentation. An 11-year-old boy presented with acute abdomen. During surgery inflamed Meckel's diverticulum (M.D) was seen. Histopathology examination of specimen revealed E. vermicularis . Till date, only one case of E. vermicularis infestation of M.D is reported around five decades ago. This histopathological confirmation is extremely important as the required treatment (Mebendazole) of the infected case along with household contacts can prevent the spread of infection and may avoid surgery in known contacts.

  14. A key for identifying faecal smears to detect domestic infestations of triatomine bugs

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    C.J. Schofield

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of residual populations of domestic triatomine bugs that survive insecticide treatment is a key component of successful evaluation and vigilance for Chagas disease control. We have recently demonstrated that sheets of paper, tacked on to the walls of infested houses, can become streaked with the faeces of triatomine bugs and thus reveal thepresence of an infestation. In thispaper, wepresent a simple key to differentiate the faecal streaks of triatomine bugs from those of other domestic arthropods such as cockroaches, ticks and cimicid bedbugs.

  15. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  16. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Wen, Xiujun

    2011-04-11

    The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2010. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)) are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide "Four-Pest Elimination" campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests) were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts). Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000-2010), there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999-2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons), hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong) experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates). There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  17. Efficacy of fluralaner against Otodectes cynotis infestations in dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Taenzler, Janina; de Vos, Christa; Roepke, Rainer K. A.; Fr?nais, R?gis; Heckeroth, Anja R.

    2017-01-01

    Background The efficacy of fluralaner for the treatment of Otodectes cynotis infestations in dogs and cats was evaluated after oral (dogs) or topical administration (dogs and cats). Twenty-four dogs and sixteen cats were experimentally infested with O. cynotis and randomly allocated to equal sized groups (n?=?8/group). Dog groups were treated once, either orally with fluralaner at a minimum dose of 25?mg/kg body weight, topically with fluralaner at a dose of 25?mg/kg body weight or topically ...

  18. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzoglou Chrissi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%, 11 with cockroaches (52.3%, three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96% traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03, and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007, no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02, and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05. Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03. Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more

  19. Available carbohydrates of cereal grains as affected by storage and insect infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jood, S; Kapoor, A C; Singh, R

    1993-01-01

    Total soluble sugar, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar and starch contents of wheat, maize and sorghum grains were affected adversely at 25, 50 and 75% insect infestation caused by Trogoderma granarium Everts and Rhizopertha dominica Fabricius, separately and mixed population. R. dominica caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in available carbohydrates at 50 and 75% infestation levels whereas T. granarium achieved similar effect at 75%. Mixture of both insect species caused intermediate losses. Storage of cereal grains up to 4 months resulted in substantial increase in sugars and decrease in starch content, but storage for a shorter period of time did not cause any significant changes in levels of carbohydrates.

  20. Vitamin contents of cereal grains as affected by storage and insect infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jood, S; Kapoor, A C

    1994-10-01

    There were substantial losses in thiamine, riboflavin and niacin contents of wheat, maize and sorghum grains at three infestation levels (25, 50 and 75%) caused by releasing two insect species viz., Trogoderma granarium and Rhizopertha dominica separately and mixed population. Losses were to the extent of 65 to 69% (thiamine), 50 to 67% (riboflavin) and 10 to 32% (niacin) due to T. granarium and 23 to 29% (thiamine), 13 to 18% (riboflavin) and 4 to 14% (niacin) due to R. dominica at 75% level of infestation in three cereal grains. Storage of grains (1-4 months) in insect free conditions did not show appreciable changes in the vitamin contents.

  1. A report on the alimentary canal helminthic infestation of stray and pet dogs in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Gharedaghi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available From September to December 2007, fecal specimens of 100 stray and pet dogs in Tabriz were examined by saturated salt flotation and Telmann sedimentation methods to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infestation. Helminth infestation was encountered in 31 (31% of the fecal samples examined. The eggs of two different cestodes and three different nematodes were identified in the contaminated fecal samples. The helminth eggs found were identified as Taenia hydatigena (4%, Dipylidium caninum (6%, Toxocara canis (10%, Ancylostoma caninum (6% and Trichuris vulpis (5%. No trematoda eggs and nematode larvae were found in this study.

  2. Assessment of insect infestation in gamma irradiated wheat flour over storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manupriya, B.R.; Lathika; Shenoy, K.B.; Patil, S.L.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat was one of the first domesticated food crops used worldwide as a diet. Insect infestation is the foremost problem encountered during storage of wheat. The object of this work was to examine the insect infestation in control and irradiated wheat flour over storage at different habitats. 60 Co source gamma chamber was used to irradiate wheat flour at various doses (0.25 kGy, 0.5 kGy, 1 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy)

  3. Fatal Ichthyocotylurus erraticus infestation in Inca terns (Larosterna inca) in a zoological collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Wouter; Hoyer, Mark; Verstappen, Frank; Wolters, Marno; Ijzer, Jooske; de Jong, Sara; Cremers, Herman; Kik, Marja

    2014-06-01

    In a breeding group of Inca terns (Larosterna inca), 14 birds died without antemortem signs of illness. Other than a poor body condition and a bloody cloaca, no symptoms were observed. Gross necropsy revealed severe segmental hemorrhagic enteritis with intralesional trematodes in most birds. Histopathologic examination revealed infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and granulocytes in the lamina propria of the duodenum and cross-sections of trematodes in the lumen. The parasites were identified as Ichthyocotylurus erraticus, a trematode of fish-eating birds. The cause of the infestation most likely was the feeding of unfrozen fresh fish. We describe the first case of a lethal I. erraticus infestation in Inca terns.

  4. First record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew (Diptera: Phoridae infesting laboratory stocks of mantids (Parastagmatoptera tessellata, Saussure

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    N. Mongiardino Koch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the first record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew infesting laboratory stocks of the praying mantis (Parastagmatoptera tessellata, Saussure. M. scalaris, the scuttle fly, is a cosmopolitan species with a broad niche as it performs as detritivore, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside adult mantids and, when development was completed, pupae were found inside the abdominal cavity and around the body. We discuss the presence of colonies of crickets bred as prey for the mantids as a facilitator of M. scalaris infestation.

  5. Mapping giant reed (Arundo donax) infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande using aerial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giant reed is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and estimate infested...

  6. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Efficacy in naturally versus artificially infested fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some phytosanitary irradiation treatments against tephritid fruit flies have been developed using artificial infestation of fruit without first comparing its effect on efficacy. In this study, efficacy was compared using infestation of grapefruit with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), vi...

  7. Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea

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    Neuza R. W. Lima

    Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%. The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0% than among fish without parasites (12.0% for females and 10.0% for males. The occurrence of three lines on the scales was rare (3.5% among infested and 2.0% among females without parasites. These results suggest that growth of the host is faster than that of non infested fish. The serum concentrations of sex steroids from fish without parasites varied at different gonadal development stages (17 beta-estradiol: 60.0 to 976.7 pg/ml; total testosterone: 220.0 to 3,887.7 pg/ml. All infested fish had lower levels of the two sex steroids and undeveloped gonads. Sex steroids levels in infested females were close to those in females at post-spawning stages. Total testosterone concentrations of infested males were below those of males at early gonadal maturation stage. These results suggest that R. paranensis reduces the reproductive capacity of C. gilbert by affecting the host endocrine system.

  8. Impact of environmental variables on Dubas bug infestation rate: A case study from the Sultanate of Oman.

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    Khalifa M Al-Kindi

    Full Text Available Date palm cultivation is economically important in the Sultanate of Oman, with significant financial investment coming from both the government and from private individuals. However, a global infestation of Dubas bug (Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin has impacted the Middle East region, and infestations of date palms have been widespread. In this study, spatial analysis and geostatistical techniques were used to model the spatial distribution of Dubas bug infestations to (a identify correlations between Dubas bug densities and different environmental variables, and (b predict the locations of future Dubas bug infestations in Oman. Firstly, we considered individual environmental variables and their correlations with infestation locations. Then, we applied more complex predictive models and regression analysis techniques to investigate the combinations of environmental factors most conducive to the survival and spread of the Dubas bug. Environmental variables including elevation, geology, and distance to drainage pathways were found to significantly affect Dubas bug infestations. In contrast, aspect and hillshade did not significantly impact on Dubas bug infestations. Understanding their distribution and therefore applying targeted controls on their spread is important for effective mapping, control and management (e.g., resource allocation of Dubas bug infestations.

  9. Needle terpenoid composition of Pinus halepensis (Mill.) Trees infested by the scale insect Marchalina hellenica (Genn.) in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassios Gallis; Carlos Arrabal; Aristotle C. Papageorgiou; Maria C. Garcia-Vallejo

    2012-01-01

    Needle terpenoid composition was determined by using GLC-MS in Pinus halepensis (Mill.) trees that were infested and not infested by the scale insect Marchalina hellenica. The study area was within the Forest National Park of the Cape Sounion, southern Attica region, Greece. A total of 43 compounds, 32 of which were identified...

  10. Towards understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) infestations using decade-long agrometeorological time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Susanna; Guidotti, Diego; Ricciolini, Massimo; Petacchi, Ruggero

    2016-11-01

    Insect dynamics depend on temperature patterns, and therefore, global warming may lead to increasing frequencies and intensities of insect outbreaks. The aim of this work was to analyze the dynamics of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), in Tuscany (Italy). We profited from long-term records of insect infestation and weather data available from the regional database and agrometeorological network. We tested whether the analysis of 13 years of monitoring campaigns can be used as basis for prediction models of B. oleae infestation. We related the percentage of infestation observed in the first part of the host-pest interaction and throughout the whole year to agrometeorological indices formulated for different time periods. A two-step approach was adopted to inspect the effect of weather on infestation: generalized linear model with a binomial error distribution and principal component regression to reduce the number of the agrometeorological factors and remove their collinearity. We found a consistent relationship between the degree of infestation and the temperature-based indices calculated for the previous period. The relationship was stronger with the minimum temperature of winter season. Higher infestation was observed in years following warmer winters. The temperature of the previous winter and spring explained 66 % of variance of early-season infestation. The temperature of previous winter and spring, and current summer, explained 72 % of variance of total annual infestation. These results highlight the importance of multiannual monitoring activity to fully understand the dynamics of B. oleae populations at a regional scale.

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of house infestation by Triatoma infestans in the Toro Toro municipality, Potosi, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Echeverria, Jorge; Rodriguez, Antonio Nogales; Cortez, Mirko Rojas; Diotaiuti, Liléia Gonçalves; Gorla, David E

    2017-02-02

    Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Bolivia. The species is present both in domestic and peridomestic structures of rural areas, and in wild ecotopes of the Andean valleys and the Great Chaco. The identification of areas persistently showing low and high house infestation by the vector is important for the management of vector control programs. This study aimed at analyzing the temporal and spatial distribution of house infestation by T. infestans in the Toro Toro municipality (Potosi, Bolivia) between 2009 and 2014, and its association with environmental variables. House infestation and T. infestans density were calculated from entomological surveys of houses in the study area, using a fixed-time effort sampling technique. The spatial heterogeneity of house infestation was evaluated using the SatScan statistic. Association between house infestation with Bioclim variables (Worldclim database) and altitude was analyzed using a generalized linear model (GLM) with a logit link. Model selection was based on the Akaike information criteria after eliminating collinearity between variables using the variable inflation factor. The final model was used to create a probability map of house infestation for the Toro Toro municipality. A total of 73 communities and 16,489 house evaluation events were analyzed. Presence of T. infestans was recorded on 480 house evaluation events, giving an overall annual infestation of 2.9% during the studied period (range 1.5-5.4% in 2009 and 2012). Vector density remained at about 1.25 insects/ house. Infestation was highly aggregated in five clusters, including 11 communities. Relative risk of infestation within these clusters was 1.7-3.9 times the value for the regional average. Four environmental variables were identified as good descriptors of house infestation, explaining 57% of house infestation variability. The model allowed the estimation of a house infestation surface for the Toro Toro municipality. This

  12. Olfactory response of predatory Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae) to the odours host plant infested by Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Khalid A.; Roff, M. N. Mohamad; Salam, Mansour; Hanifah Mohd, Y.; Idris, A. B.

    2014-09-01

    Plant infested with herbivores, release volatile that can be used by natural enemies to locate their herbivorous prey. Laboratory studies were carried out to determine the olfactory responses of predator Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae), to chili plant infected with eggs, nymphs of Bemisia tabaci, using Y-tube olfactometer. The results shown that predator, M. caliginosus has ability to discriminate between non-infested and infested plant by B. tabaci. Moreover, the predator preferred plants with nymphs over plants with eggs. This suggested that M. caliginous uses whitefly-induced volatile as reliable indicators to distinguish between infested chili plants by nymphs, eggs and non-infested plants. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by M. caliginosus to plant with and without Bemisia tabaci.

  13. Infestation and morphological identification of the stalked epizoic barnacle Octolasmis on the blue crab Portunus pelagicus from the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi Khattab, Rafat

    2017-09-01

    The intensity of infestation of the epizoic stalked barnacle Octolasmis on the blue crab was calculated for a total of 180 individuals collected around Jeddah, the western Red Sea Saudi coast. More than 90% of the crabs were found bearing the Octolasmis at a prevalence rate of 92% and mean intensity of 18.5±18.6 (0-127 epibiont per host). The intensity of infestation increased with host size in the range 90-135 mm. Generally, females were more infested (69%) than the males (31%). Octolasmis angulata occurred mostly on the gills, and the lower side of the gill chambers was more infested (84%) than the upper side (16%) and the left side of gills was also more infested than the right side in both males and females. Further studies are still needed to examine the commensal relationship and its impact on the fishery market of the Red Sea blue crab populations.

  14. Infestation of Raoiella indica Hirst (Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) on Host Plants of High Socio-Economic Importance for Tropical America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Colina, G; González-Gómez, R; Martínez-Bolaños, L; Otero-Prevost, L G; López-Buenfil, J A; Escobedo-Graciamedrano, R M

    2016-06-01

    The mite Raoiella indica Hirst was recently introduced into America, where it has shown amazing ability to disseminate and broaden its range of hosts. An experiment was conducted in Cancún, Mexico, to determine infestation levels of this mite on plants recorded as hosts: coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) of cultivars Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) hybrids Deli x Ghana and Deli x Nigeria, Dwarf Giant banana (Musa acuminata, AAA subgroup Cavendish), Horn plantain (M. acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB subgroup Plantain), lobster claw (Heliconia bihai), and red ginger (Alpinia purpurata). Nursery plants of these host species or cultivars were artificially infested with R. indica in February 2011. In the four replications of 10 plants, each plant was infested with 200 R. indica specimens, and the numbers of infesting mites were recorded for 6 months. A maximum of 18,000 specimens per plant were observed on coconut Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, followed by lobster claw, with a maximum of 1000 specimens per plant. Infestations were minimal for the remaining plants. Mite numbers on all plants declined naturally during the rainy season. All plant materials sustained overlapping mite generations, indicating that they are true hosts. Complementarily, infestation level was determined in backyard bananas and plantains. Correlations of infestation with plant height, distance from coconuts, and exposure to direct sunlight were estimated. Both bananas and plantains were infested by R. indica even when situated far from infested coconut palms. A Spearman correlation was found between infestation and plant height, although it was significant only for Silk plantain.

  15. Direct and Indirect Impacts of Infestation of Tomato Plant by Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Su; Ridsdill-Smith, James; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of infestation by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) on sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) settling on tomato were determined in seven separate experiments with whole plants and with detached leaves through manipulation of four factors: durations of aphid infestation, density of aphids, intervals between aphid removal after different durations of infestation and the time of whitefly release, and leaf positions on the plants. The results demonstrated that B. tabaci preferred to settle on the plant leaves that had not been infested by aphids when they had a choice. The plant leaves on which aphids were still present (direct effect) had fewer whiteflies than those previously infested by aphids (indirect effect). The whiteflies were able to settle on the plant which aphids had previously infested, and also could settle on leaves with aphids if no uninfested plants were available. Tests of direct factors revealed that duration of aphid infestation had a stronger effect on whitefly landing preference than aphid density; whitefly preference was the least when 20 aphids fed on the leaves for 72 h. Tests of indirect effects revealed that the major factor that affected whitefly preference for a host plant was the interval between the time of aphid removal after infestation and the time of whitefly release. The importance of the four factors that affected the induced plant defense against whiteflies can be arranged in the following order: time intervals between aphid removal and whitefly release > durations of aphid infestation > density of aphids > leaf positions on the plants. In conclusion, the density of aphid infestation and time for which they were feeding influenced the production of induced compounds by tomatoes, the whitefly responses to the plants, and reduced interspecific competition. PMID:24710393

  16. Ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation by Triatoma infestans in indigenous communities of the Argentine Chaco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sol Gaspe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gran Chaco ecoregion, a hotspot for Chagas and other neglected tropical diseases, is home to >20 indigenous peoples. Our objective was to identify the main ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation and abundance of Triatoma infestans in traditional Qom populations including a Creole minority in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina.A cross-sectional survey determined house infestation by timed-manual searches with a dislodging aerosol in 386 inhabited houses and administered questionnaires on selected variables before full-coverage insecticide spraying and annual vector surveillance. We fitted generalized linear models to two global models of domestic infestation and bug abundance, and estimated coefficients via multimodel inference with model averaging.Most Qom households were larger and lived in small-sized, recently-built, precarious houses with fewer peridomestic structures, and fewer livestock and poultry than Creoles'. Qom households had lower educational level and unexpectedly high residential mobility. House infestation (31.9% was much lower than expected from lack of recent insecticide spraying campaigns and was spatially aggregated. Nearly half of the infested houses examined had infected vectors. Qom households had higher prevalence of domestic infestation (29.2% than Creoles' (10.0%, although there is large uncertainty around the adjusted OR. Factors with high relative importance for domestic infestation and/or bug abundance were refuge availability, distance to the nearest infested house, domestic insecticide use, indoor presence of poultry, residential overcrowding, and household educational level.Our study highlights the importance of sociodemographic determinants of domestic infestation such as overcrowding, education and proximity to the nearest infested house, and corroborates the role of refuge availability, domestic use of insecticides and household size. These factors may be used for designing

  17. Direct and indirect impacts of infestation of tomato plant by Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Su; Ridsdill-Smith, James; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of infestation by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) on sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) settling on tomato were determined in seven separate experiments with whole plants and with detached leaves through manipulation of four factors: durations of aphid infestation, density of aphids, intervals between aphid removal after different durations of infestation and the time of whitefly release, and leaf positions on the plants. The results demonstrated that B. tabaci preferred to settle on the plant leaves that had not been infested by aphids when they had a choice. The plant leaves on which aphids were still present (direct effect) had fewer whiteflies than those previously infested by aphids (indirect effect). The whiteflies were able to settle on the plant which aphids had previously infested, and also could settle on leaves with aphids if no uninfested plants were available. Tests of direct factors revealed that duration of aphid infestation had a stronger effect on whitefly landing preference than aphid density; whitefly preference was the least when 20 aphids fed on the leaves for 72 h. Tests of indirect effects revealed that the major factor that affected whitefly preference for a host plant was the interval between the time of aphid removal after infestation and the time of whitefly release. The importance of the four factors that affected the induced plant defense against whiteflies can be arranged in the following order: time intervals between aphid removal and whitefly release > durations of aphid infestation > density of aphids > leaf positions on the plants. In conclusion, the density of aphid infestation and time for which they were feeding influenced the production of induced compounds by tomatoes, the whitefly responses to the plants, and reduced interspecific competition.

  18. Bioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their major components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbaris, Athanasios C; Koliopoulos, George; Michaelakis, Antonios; Konstantopoulou, Maria A

    2012-12-01

    Mosquitoes constitute a severe health problem in many areas all over the world. There are many regions of the tropics and subtropics where mosquitoes are one of the main reasons for inhibiting the economic upgrade. Except nuisance, their medical importance is another matter of attention since mosquitoes are vectors for a wide variety of vector-borne diseases. Due to disadvantages of currently used chemical control methods, it is unavoidable to search for eco-friendly new molecules. We report herein the evaluation of the larvicidal effect exhibited by essential oils of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum against late third to early fourth instar mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of plant samples revealed their major compounds to be β-caryophyllene, eugenol, eucalyptol, α-terpinyl acetate, and (E)-anethole which were also tested for their potential larvicidal activity. For D. caryophyllus and L. sativum, this was the first report on the chemical composition of their essential oils. The essential oils of I. verum and P. anisum demonstrated high larvicidal activity with a LC(50) <18 mg L(-1). The other two essential oils of D. caryophyllus and L. sativum revealed moderate larvicidal activity, displaying a LC(50) value above 50 mg L(-1). Among the pure components, the most toxic were eugenol, (E)-anethole, and α-terpinyl acetate, with LC(50) values 18.28, 16.56, and 23.03 mg L(-1), respectively. Eucalyptol (1,8 cineole) and β-caryophyllene were inactive at concentrations even as high as 100 mg L(-1), showing the least significant activity against mosquito larvae. Results allow some rationalization on the relative importance of the major compounds regarding the larvicidal activity of selected essential oils and their potential use as vector control agents.

  19. The Influence of pH of Extracting Water on the Composition of Seaweed Extracts and Their Beneficial Properties onLepidium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Katarzyna; Michalak, Izabela; Tuhy, Łukasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Baltic seaweeds were used to obtain aqueous extracts (E) through changing initial pH of deionised water added to algal biomass (EpH3·H 2 O, EpH7·H 2 O, and EpH10·H 2 O) and through changing pH of the mixture of algae and deionised water (EpH3, EpH7, and EpH10). Algal extracts were characterized in terms of the concentration of polyphenols and micro- and macroelements. The highest concentration of polyphenols was determined in extract EpH3 and the lowest in extract EpH10·H 2 O. It was found that the obtained extracts had similar concentrations of elements (except EpH3). The phytotoxicity of algal extracts (0.5, 2.5, and 10%) was examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum . No phytotoxic effects were observed. It was found that they had beneficial effects on the cultivated plants (length and weight). The best biostimulant effect was observed in the groups treated with EpH3 (2.5%), EpH7 (2.5%), and EpH7 (10%). The dry weight of plants was similar in all the groups. Algal extract also improved the multielemental composition of plant. The greatest concentration of total chlorophyll in plants was obtained by using extract EpH10·H 2 O, 0.5%. These results proved that algal extracts have high potential to be applied in cultivation of plants.

  20. Efecto bifidogénico de jalea de Lepidium meyenii Walp. “maca” en el recuento de Bifidobacterium bifidum en yogurt probiótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena León Marroú

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los recuentos de Bifidobacterium bifidum en yogures probióticos tienden a disminuir de manera significativa por diferentes factores: pH, oxígeno disuelto, composición antagónica entre las especies, la composición química del medio, temperatura de almacenamiento, entre otros. Para asegurar que la eficacia de los productos que contienen B. bifidum sea máxima a menudo se incluyen factores bifidogénicos, los cuales tienen la propiedad de promover no solo el crecimiento adecuado, sino también su viabilidad durante el almacenamiento del producto final. El presente estudio investigó sobre el recuento de B. bifidum en yogurt probiótico elaborado en condiciones de laboratorio en relación a dos variables: adición de tres concentraciones diferentes de jalea de Lepidium meyenii “maca” (10 %, 20 % y 30 % y tiempo de almacenamiento. Se realizó el recuento de B. bifidum cada tres días, durante un mes. Se utilizó el método de recuento en placa por siembra en profundidad. Los resultados indicaron que todas las muestras a las que se añadieron jalea de L. meyenii “maca” en diferentes concentraciones mantuvieron recuentos de B. bifidum por encima de los valores establecidos por las normas internacionales. Se concluye que L. meyenii “maca”, en razón de algunos de sus componentes, ejerció un efecto bifidogénico y en concentración de 30 % de jalea fue mayor.

  1. Efecto bifidogénico de jalea de Lepidium meyenii Walp. “maca” en el recuento de Bifidobacterium bifidum en yogurt probiótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena León Marroú

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los recuentos de Bifidobacterium bifidum en yogures probióticos tienden a disminuir de manera significativa por diferentes factores: pH, oxígeno disuelto, composición antagónica entre las especies, la composición química del medio, temperatura de almacenamiento, entre otros. Para asegurar que la eficacia de los productos que contienen B. bifidum sea máxima a menudo se incluyen factores bifidogénicos, los cuales tienen la propiedad de promover no solo el crecimiento adecuado, sino también su viabilidad durante el almacenamiento del producto final. El presente estudio investigó sobre el recuento de B. bifidum en yogurt probiótico elaborado en condiciones de laboratorio en relación a dos variables: adición de tres concentraciones diferentes de jalea de Lepidium meyenii “maca” (10 %, 20 % y 30 % y tiempo de almacenamiento. Se realizó el recuento de B. bifidum cada tres días, durante un mes. Se utilizó el método de recuento en placa por siembra en profundidad. Los resultados indicaron que todas las muestras a las que se añadieron jalea de L. meyenii “maca” en diferentes concentraciones mantuvieron recuentos de B. bifidum por encima de los valores establecidos por las normas internacionales. Se concluye que L. meyenii “maca”, en razón de algunos de sus componentes, ejerció un efecto bifidogénico y en concentración de 30 % de jalea fue mayor.

  2. Effect of short-term and long-term treatments with three ecotypes of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on spermatogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Carla; Rubio, Julio; Gasco, Manuel; Nieto, Jessica; Yucra, Sandra; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2006-02-20

    Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae), known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl that grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m above sea level in the central Andes. Maca is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility-enhancing properties. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that different ecotypes of Maca (Red, Yellow and Black) after short-term (7 days) and long-term (42 days) treatment affects differentially spermatogenesis adult rats. After 7 days of treatment with Yellow and Red Maca, the length of stage VIII was increased (P<0.05), whereas with Black Maca stages II-VI and VIII were increased (P<0.05). Daily sperm production (DSP) was increased in the group treated with Black Maca compared with control values (P<0.05). Red or Yellow Maca did not alter DSP and epididymal sperm motility was not affected by treatment with any ecotype of Maca. After 42 days of treatment, Black Maca was the only ecotype that enhanced DSP (P<0.05). Moreover, Black Maca was the only that increased epididymal sperm motility (P<0.05). In relation to the control group, Red Maca did not affect testicular and epididymal weight nor epididymal sperm motility and sperm count; however, prostate weight was reduced (P<0.05). Black or Yellow Maca did not affect prostate weight. In conclusion, there were differences in the biological response of the three ecotypes of Maca (Yellow, Red and Black). Black Maca appeared to have more beneficial effect on sperm counts and epididymal sperm motility.

  3. Role of maca (Lepidium meyenii) consumption on serum interleukin-6 levels and health status in populations living in the Peruvian Central Andes over 4000 m of altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gasco, Manuel; Lozada-Requena, Ivan

    2013-12-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a plant that grows at over 4,000 m above sea level in the central Peruvian Andes. The hypocotyls of this plant are traditionally consumed for their nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to determine the health status based on a health related quality of life (HRQL) questionnaire (SF-20) and serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in subjects that are maca consumers. For this, a cross-sectional study was designed to be performed in 50 subjects from Junin (4,100 m): 27 subjects were maca consumers and 23 were non-consumers. The SF-20 survey is used to obtain a summary measure of health status. The stand up from a chair and sit down (SUCSD) test (to assess lower-extremity function), hemoglobin measurement, blood pressure, sexual hormone levels, serum IL-6 levels and the score of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) were evaluated. Testosterone/estradiol ratio (P <0.05), IL-6 (P < 0.05) and CMS score were lower, whereas the health status score was higher, in maca consumers when compared to non-consumers (P < 0.01). A greater proportion of maca consumers successfully completed the SUCSD test compared to non-consumers (P < 0.01), showing a significant association with lower values of serum IL-6 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, consumption of maca was associated with low serum IL-6 levels and in turn with better health status scores in the SF-20 survey and low chronic mountain sickness scores.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on phenol content, antioxidant activity and biological activity of black maca and red maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos-Concha, A; Nuñez, D; Gasco, M; Vasquez, C; Quispe, M; Gonzales, G F

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on UV spectrum on maca, total content of polyphenols, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities and in vivo biological activities of red and black maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii). Adult mice of the strain Swiss aged 3 months and weighing 30-35 g in average were used to determine biological activities. Daily sperm production, effect on testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia and forced swimming test were used to determine the effect of irradiation on biological activities of maca extracts. Irradiation did not show differences in UV spectrum but improves the amount of total polyphenols in red maca as well as in black maca extracts. In both cases, black maca extract has more content of polyphenols than red maca extract (p  0.05). Black maca extract but not red maca extract has more swimming endurance capacity in the forced swimming test. Irradiation of black maca extract increased the swimming time to exhaustion (p  0.05). Testosterone enanthate (TE) increased significantly the ventral prostate weight. Administration of red maca extract in animals treated with TE prevented the increase in prostate weight. Irradiation did not modify effect of red maca extract on prostate weight (p > 0.05). In conclusion, irradiation does not alter the biological activities of both black maca and red maca extracts. It prevents the presence of microorganisms in the extracts of black or red maca, but the biological activities were maintained.

  5. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) - III: The Effects of Cultivation Altitude on Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in the Four Prime Maca Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Henry O; Mscisz, Alina; Baraniak, Marek; Piatkowska, Ewa; Pisulewski, Pawel; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    In two trials, dietary and Glucosinolates' characteristics in four Maca phenotypes have been examined with an extension into the determination of DNA sequences. Hypocotyls of the four prime phenotypes of Peruvian Maca - Lepidium peruvianum Chacon, labelled as "Yellow", "Black", "Red" and "Purple" were separated from mixed Maca crops cultivated in four geographically-distant locations in the Peruvian Andes at altitudes between 2,800m and 4,300 m a.s.l. It was found that at higher altitudes where Red and Purple Maca phenotypes were grown, the significantly higher ( P Maca physiological activity, were observed with the Purple phenotype showing the highest Glucosinolates' content at 4,300m a.s.l., followed by the Red-coloured hypocotyls. Black Maca showed a reversal, but also a significant ( P 0.05) and has consistently the lowest Glucosinolates content. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the altitude at which Red, Purple and Black phenotypes of L. peruvianum are grown, may be responsible for the variation in physiologic functionalities, leading to different than expected specific therapeutic and health benefits induced by Maca phenotypes grown at diverse altitudes. Although promising, insufficiently precise differences in DNA sequences failed to distinguish, without any reasonable doubt, four Maca phenotypes cultivated either in the same or geographically-distant locations, and harvested at different altitudes a.s.l. Further research on DNA sequences is needed, with more primers and larger number of Maca phenotypes, considering biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and adaptation pathways induced by harsh environment at altitudes where Maca is cultivated.

  6. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (I) Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic Study on Maca using Clinical Laboratory Model on Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Mscisz, A; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Kapczynski, W; Barchia, I

    2006-09-01

    Ovariectomized rats were used in a model laboratory study to examine biochemical and pharmacodynamic effects of pre-gelatinized organic preparation of Lepidium peruvianum Chacon (Maca-GO). Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic effects of Maca-GO (250 mg Maca-GO per kg body weight (bw) administered by intubation twice daily) were assessed in a 28 day model laboratory study on ovariectomized (by laparoscopy) Wistar rats with pharmacodynamic tests performed at the conclusion of the trial followed by blood collection for morphology and biochemical tests. Toxicity of Maca-GO used in the study was determined in bioassay on mice and rats. Anti-depressive function (Porsolt's test) and anxiolytic sedative and cognitive effects (using elevated-plus maze, locomotor activity and passive avoidance tests) were assessed against control (laparotomized female rats with intact ovaries). In addition to blood morphology, the following blood serum constituents were analyzed: Estrogen (E2), Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, and T4), Iron (Fe) and lipid profile (Triglycerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). Analytically-determined non-toxic status of Maca-GO was confirmed in bioassays when applied to mice and rats at levels of 0.5 and up to 15mg/kg bw which shows it safe use in humans with the LD50>15 mg/kg bw. Maca-GO showed a distinctive, (PMaca-GO on sex hormone levels show its potential as a safe preparation for use in correcting physiological symptoms characteristic in postmenopausal stage with an indication of potentially even more value for its use in pre-menopausal women.

  7. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) – III: The Effects of Cultivation Altitude on Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in the Four Prime Maca Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Henry O.; Mscisz, Alina; Baraniak, Marek; Piatkowska, Ewa; Pisulewski, Pawel; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    In two trials, dietary and Glucosinolates’ characteristics in four Maca phenotypes have been examined with an extension into the determination of DNA sequences. Hypocotyls of the four prime phenotypes of Peruvian Maca - Lepidium peruvianum Chacon, labelled as “Yellow”, “Black”, “Red” and “Purple” were separated from mixed Maca crops cultivated in four geographically-distant locations in the Peruvian Andes at altitudes between 2,800m and 4,300 m a.s.l. It was found that at higher altitudes where Red and Purple Maca phenotypes were grown, the significantly higher (PMaca physiological activity, were observed with the Purple phenotype showing the highest Glucosinolates’ content at 4,300m a.s.l., followed by the Red-coloured hypocotyls. Black Maca showed a reversal, but also a significant (P0.05) and has consistently the lowest Glucosinolates content. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the altitude at which Red, Purple and Black phenotypes of L. peruvianum are grown, may be responsible for the variation in physiologic functionalities, leading to different than expected specific therapeutic and health benefits induced by Maca phenotypes grown at diverse altitudes. Although promising, insufficiently precise differences in DNA sequences failed to distinguish, without any reasonable doubt, four Maca phenotypes cultivated either in the same or geographically-distant locations, and harvested at different altitudes a.s.l. Further research on DNA sequences is needed, with more primers and larger number of Maca phenotypes, considering biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and adaptation pathways induced by harsh environment at altitudes where Maca is cultivated. PMID:28824342

  8. The Influence of pH of Extracting Water on the Composition of Seaweed Extracts and Their Beneficial Properties on Lepidium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Godlewska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Baltic seaweeds were used to obtain aqueous extracts (E through changing initial pH of deionised water added to algal biomass (EpH3·H2O, EpH7·H2O, and EpH10·H2O and through changing pH of the mixture of algae and deionised water (EpH3, EpH7, and EpH10. Algal extracts were characterized in terms of the concentration of polyphenols and micro- and macroelements. The highest concentration of polyphenols was determined in extract EpH3 and the lowest in extract EpH10·H2O. It was found that the obtained extracts had similar concentrations of elements (except EpH3. The phytotoxicity of algal extracts (0.5, 2.5, and 10% was examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum. No phytotoxic effects were observed. It was found that they had beneficial effects on the cultivated plants (length and weight. The best biostimulant effect was observed in the groups treated with EpH3 (2.5%, EpH7 (2.5%, and EpH7 (10%. The dry weight of plants was similar in all the groups. Algal extract also improved the multielemental composition of plant. The greatest concentration of total chlorophyll in plants was obtained by using extract EpH10·H2O, 0.5%. These results proved that algal extracts have high potential to be applied in cultivation of plants.

  9. Greenhouse investigations on the effect of guava on infestations of Asian citrus psyllid in grapefruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports from Vietnam indicate interplanting guava with citrus dramatically reduces infestations of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri). We therefore conducted greenhouse studies to assess the effect of different guava cultivars on adult psyllids. The effects of cotton and tomato were also evalu...

  10. The effect of Sirex noctilio infestation and fire damage on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infection and association between the wood wasp Sirex noctilio and the fungus Amylostereum areolatum is responsible for large-scale tree mortality in the Midlands of the KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa. An exploratory investigation on the effect of the infestation of trees by the wood wasp and its associated ...

  11. In vivo Imaging of Sarcoptes scabiei Infestation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina Alette; Themstrup, Lotte; Ring, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sarcoptes scabiei can be visualized with different imaging tools. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) may have the potential to describe the changes in skin morphology due to scabies infestation and visualize the parasite. METHODS: Five patients from the Departments of Dermatology...

  12. Effects of thinning on development of southern pine beetle infestations in old growth stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Turchin; James Davidson; Jane Leslie. Hayes

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the relationship between southern pine beetle infestation growth and the intertree spacing in old growth pine stands. The problem with extrapolating the results of previous studies to old growths tands is that it is unclear whether the same mechanism will operate in stands of older trees characterized by double the diameter (20-25 cm...

  13. Attraction of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) towards volatiles from various Tetranychus urticae-infested plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den C.W.M.; Beek, van T.A.; Dicke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Plants infested with the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, may indirectly defend themselves by releasing volatiles that attract the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Several plants from different plant families that varied in the level of spider mite acceptance were tested

  14. Towards efficient multi-scale methods for monitoring sugarcane aphid infestations in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    We discuss approaches and issues involved with developing optimal monitoring methods for sugarcane aphid infestations (SCA) in grain sorghum. We discuss development of sequential sampling methods that allow for estimation of the number of aphids per sample unit, and statistical decision making rela...

  15. Assessing wood quality of borer-infested red oak logs with a resonance acoustic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Henry E. Stelzer; Jan Wiedenbeck; Patricia K. Lebow; Robert J. Ross

    2009-01-01

    Large numbers of black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.) and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muenchh.) trees are declining and dying in the Missouri Ozark forest as a result of oak decline. Red oak borer-infested trees produce low-grade logs that become extremely difficult to merchandize as the level of insect attack increases. The objective of this study was to investigate...

  16. Genetic responses of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) to heat shock and epibiont infestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkeviciute, Egle; Kania, Per Walter; Skovgaard, Alf

    2015-01-01

    Expression of stress-related genes was investigated in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa in relation to heat shock at two different salinities (10 and 32‰), and it was furthermore investigated whether experimentally induced epibiont infestation led to elevated expression of stress-related genes...

  17. Physicochemical and nutritional alterations induced by two-spotted spider mite infestation on strawberry plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Livinali

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that TSSM infestation decreases fruit quality and that the biological control of TSSM using a predatory mite is a suitable alternative to organic production, since the presence of predatory mite does not affect fruit quality and development.

  18. Monitoring ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) symptoms in infested areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; Britton P. Flash; Rachel H. Kappler; Joel A. Throckmorton; Bernadette Grafton; Charles E. Flower

    2014-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (A. planipennis) (EAB) has had a devastating effect on ash (Fraxinus) species since its introduction to North America and has resulted in altered ecological processes across the area of infestation. Monitoring is an important tool for understanding and managing the impact of this threat, and the use of common...

  19. Optimal control of an invasive species with imperfect information about the level of infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Stephen. Polasky

    2010-01-01

    The presence of invasive species is often not realized until well after the species becomes established. Discovering the location and extent of infestation before the invasive species causes widespread damage typically requires intensive monitoring efforts. In this paper, we analyze the problem of controlling an invasive species when there is imperfect information...

  20. Expression Profiling of Selected Glutathione Transferase Genes in Zea mays (L.) Seedlings Infested with Cereal Aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•−) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•− was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•− generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype. PMID:25365518

  1. Do bark beetles and wood borers infest lumber following heat treatment? The role of bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice; Pascal Nzokou

    2007-01-01

    Wood packing material (WPM) is an important pathway for the movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects (Haack 2006). New international standards for treating WPM, often referred to as "ISPM 15," were adopted in 2002 (FAO 2002). The two approved WPM treatments are heat treatment (56? C core temperature for 30 min) and fumigation with methyl bromide. These...

  2. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Use of Insecticide-Treated House Screens to Reduce Infestations of Dengue Virus Vectors, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Barrera-Perez, Mario; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Herrera-Bojorquez, Josue; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Lenhart, Audrey; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Sommerfeld, Johannes; McCall, Philip J.; Kroeger, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Dengue prevention efforts rely on control of virus vectors. We investigated use of insecticide-treated screens permanently affixed to windows and doors in Mexico and found that the screens significantly reduced infestations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in treated houses. Our findings demonstrate the value of this method for dengue virus vector control. PMID:25625483

  4. Health impacts of bedbug infestation: A case of five towns in Amhara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    areas were not considered as infestation in the study. Pretested structured questionnaire was the instrument used to gather demographic information from the household representatives. In addition, Diagnostic and. Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (21) was employed to assess the psychological and social.

  5. 7 CFR 301.85-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... infested area: Cayuga County. (A) The Town of Montezuma; (B) That portion of land within the Town of Mentz...; then east along Maiden Lane to the point of beginning. Genesee County. The towns of Elba and Byron. Livingston County. The towns of Avon, Caledonia, Geneseo, Groveland, Leicester, Lima, Livonia, Mount Morris...

  6. Oil palm pest infestation monitoring and evaluation by helicopter-mounted, low altitude remote sensing platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samseemoung, Grianggai; Jayasuriya, Hemantha P. W.; Soni, Peeyush

    2011-01-01

    Timely detection of pest or disease infections is extremely important for controlling the spread of disease and preventing crop productivity losses. A specifically designed radio-controlled helicopter mounted low altitude remote sensing (LARS) platform can offer near-real-time results upon user demand. The acquired LARS images were processed to estimate vegetative-indices and thereby detecting upper stem rot (Phellinus Noxius) disease in both young and mature oil palm plants. The indices helped discriminate healthy and infested plants by visualization, analysis and presentation of digital imagery software, which were validated with ground truth data. Good correlations and clear data clusters were obtained in characteristic plots of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)LARS and green normalized difference vegetation indexLARS against NDVISpectro and chlorophyll content, by which infested plants were discriminated from healthy plants in both young and mature crops. The chlorophyll content values (μmol m-2) showed notable differences among clusters for healthy young (972 to 1100), for infested young (253 to 400), for healthy mature (1210 to 1500), and for infested mature (440 to 550) oil palm. The correlation coefficients (R2) were in a reasonably acceptable range (0.62 to 0.88). The vegetation indices based on LARS images, provided satisfactory results when compared to other approaches. The developed technology showed promising scope for medium and large plantations.

  7. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  8. Multiple infestation by seed predators: the effect of loculate fruits on intraspecific insect larval competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, José M.; Delgado, Juan A.; López, Francisco; Acosta, Francisco J.; Fungairiño, Sara G.

    2001-06-01

    Many morphological features of fruits are important factors affecting predispersal seed predation by insects. This paper analyses the predispersal seed predation process of a major predator (a Noctuidae lepidopteran larvae) in loculate fruits of a bushy perennial plant, Cistus ladanifer. The main aim of the study is to assess the potential effect of internal valvae (which partition groups of seeds) in the intraspecific competition between larvae in multiple-infested fruits. Our results show that larvae do not reject already infested fruits, but they avoid the proximity of other larvae within the fruit, keeping an average minimum distance of one locule. In multiple-infested fruits, larval mortality increases and the proportion of seeds consumed by each larvae decreases. In those situations in which valvae keep apart larvae within a fruit, these only suffer the cost of exploitation competition with a low acquisition of resources. However, when all valvae between them are pierced by the larvae, competition switches to an interference component and larval mortality increases markedly. The existence of valvae within a fruit allows larvae to diminish the cost of intraspecific competition, obtaining high life expectancies (70%), even in triple-infested fruits.

  9. Prolonged irritative voiding symptoms due to Enterobius vermicularis bladder infestation in an adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammour, Zein Mohamed; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Tome, Andre Luiz Farinhas; Bruschini, Homero; Srougi, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. The urinary tract is rarely affected and few cases have been reported. We report a case of bladder infestation by mature female worms of E. vermicularis in a woman presenting with irritative voiding symptoms.

  10. Prolonged irritative voiding symptoms due to Enterobius vermicularis bladder infestation in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein Mohamed Sammour

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. The urinary tract is rarely affected and few cases have been reported. We report a case of bladder infestation by mature female worms of E. vermicularis in a woman presenting with irritative voiding symptoms.

  11. Expression profiling of selected glutathione transferase genes in Zea mays (L.) seedlings infested with cereal aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•-) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•- was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•- generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype.

  12. 76 FR 60358 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    .... APHIS-2010-0075] Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of... amended the regulations to add areas in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin to...

  13. Spectral evidence of early-stage spruce beetle infestation in Engelmann spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrianna C. Foster; Jonathan A. Walter; Herman H. Shugart; Jason Sibold; Jose Negron

    2017-01-01

    Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) outbreaks cause widespread mortality of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii (Parry ex Engelm)) within the subalpine forests of the western United States. Early detection of infestations could allow forest managers to mitigate outbreaks or anticipate a response to tree mortality and the potential effects on ecosystem...

  14. Concurrent infestations by Aethina tumida and Varroa destructor alters thermoregulation in Apis mellifera winter clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, and the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, are parasites of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Both parasites overwinter in honeybee colonies. The efficacy of thermoregulation might be reduced in beetle and mite infested clusters, due to altered activity of host...

  15. Methods to assess landscape-scale risk of bark beetle infestation to support forest management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. L. Shore; A. Fall; W. G. Riel; J. Hughes; M. Eng

    2010-01-01

    The objective of our paper is to provide practitioners with suggestions on how to select appropriate methods for risk assessment of bark beetle infestations at the landscape scale in order to support their particular management decisions and to motivate researchers to refine novel risk assessment methods. Methods developed to assist and inform management decisions for...

  16. Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B

    2014-06-15

    The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of ticks infesting cattle reared on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tick infestation is a major problem constraining animal production and pro- ductivity in Ethiopia showing the need for tackling the situation. A cross- sectional study was carried out to determine tick prevalence and associated risk factors among cattle reared on dairy, beef and free-range grazing farms of Haramaya University ...

  19. Comparative testing of different methods for evaluation of Varroa destructor infestation of honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay D. Dobrynin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Different methods for evaluation of the degree of Varroa destructor infestation of honey bee colonies were tested. The methods using in vivo evaluation were the most sparing for the bees but less precise. The methods using evaluation with the killing of the bees or brood were the most precise but less sparing for bees.

  20. Repeatability of measurements of removal of mite-infested brood to assess Varroa Sensitive Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varroa Sensitive Hygiene is a useful resistance trait that bee breeders could increase in different populations with cost-effective and reliable tests. We investigated the reliability of a one-week test estimating the changes in infestation of brood introduced into highly selected and unselected co...

  1. Use of insecticide-treated house screens to reduce infestations of dengue virus vectors, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Barrera-Perez, Mario; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Herrera-Bojorquez, Josue; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Lenhart, Audrey; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Sommerfeld, Johannes; McCall, Philip J; Kroeger, Axel; Arredondo-Jimenez, Juan I

    2015-02-01

    Dengue prevention efforts rely on control of virus vectors. We investigated use of insecticide-treated screens permanently affixed to windows and doors in Mexico and found that the screens significantly reduced infestations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in treated houses. Our findings demonstrate the value of this method for dengue virus vector control.

  2. Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) infestation and Norway spruce status: is there a causal relationship?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, Ivo; Cudlín, Pavel; Polák, T.; Havlíček, František

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2002), s. 255-264 ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : bark beetle infestation * crown status * Picea abies Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  3. Suppression of Phytophthora ramorum infestations through silvicultural treatment in California's north coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yana Valachovic; Chris Lee; Brendan Twieg; David Rizzo; Richard Cobb; Radoslaw Glebocki

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, three forested sites infested with Phytophthora ramorum in Humboldt County, California were subjected to different combinations of treatments designed to reduce inoculum and control spread. One treatment, consisting of removal of all California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt.) and tanoak...

  4. Response of soil chemistry to forest dieback after bark beetle infestation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňa, Jiří; Tahovská, K.; Kopáček, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 113, 1-3 (2013), s. 369-383 ISSN 0168-2563 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600960907 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bark beetle infestation * soil nutrient availability * soil sorption complex Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2013

  5. Efficacy of sarolaner (Simparic™) against induced infestations of Amblyomma cajennense on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Fabio; Franz, Lilian; Campos, Diefrey Ribeiro; Azevedo, Thaís Ribeiro Correia; Cunha, Daise; Six, Robert H; Maeder, Steven; Cree, Travis

    2017-08-17

    Amblyomma cajennense is the main vector of Rickettsia rickettsii which causes Brazilian spotted fever. This adult tick preferably infests horses and capybaras, but has low host specificity during its immature stages, thus posing a threat to humans and dogs. In this study, the efficacy of sarolaner (Simparic™/Simparica®, Zoetis) when administered once orally to dogs at 2 mg/kg was evaluated against induced infestations of A. cajennense nymphs for up to 35 days after treatment. Based on pretreatment tick counts, 20 dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with sarolaner (Simparic™) dosed at 2 mg/kg of body weight or a placebo on Day 0 of the study. Artificial infestations were performed using laboratory raised A. cajennense nymphs on study days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. Efficacy was determined at 48 h post-treatment or post-infestation at each time point relative to the counts for dogs that received placebo. There were no adverse reactions to treatment. A single dose of sarolaner (Simparic™) provided 100% efficacy on study days 2, 7 and 14; and ≥ 99.6% on days 21, 28 and 35. Geometric mean live tick counts for sarolaner were significantly lower than those for placebo on all days (P sarolaner (Simparic™) administered once orally at 2 mg/kg provided 100% efficacy against existing infestations and ≥ 99.6% efficacy within 48 h against weekly challenges of A. cajennense for at least 35 days after treatment.

  6. Effects of Bark Beetle Infestation on Secondary Organic Aerosol Precursors in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff Hartz, K. E.; Amin, H.; Dodson, C.; Atkins, P. T.; Hallar, G.

    2009-12-01

    Bark beetles are a potentially destructive force in forest ecosytems; however, it is not known how insect attacks affect the atmosphere. Other insects, such as the weevil (Strophosoma melanogrammum) attacks on spruce trees in Denmark, have a significant local effect on monoterpene emissions. In fact, a single weevil induced a three-fold increase in monoterpene emission, and the response lasted for several weeks. Mountain pine bark beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have infested the forests in the vicinity of Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, Colorado. Emissions were sampled from the headspace of bark at the trunk and from the tree branches in the canopy from bark beetle infested and healthy lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) trees. The emissions were collected onto scent traps, containing 110 mg of Porapak Q sorbent, using PAS-500 micro air samplers set to a 0.4 mL/min flow rate for two hours. After collection, the scent traps were spiked with a recovery standard, perdeutrated decane, and extracted with 1.5 mL hexanes (in three portions). The analytes in the extracts were separated and detected using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The analytes were identified and quantified using calibration curves from authentic standards, and when authentic standards were not available, the NIST mass spectra library and Adams retention time indices were used. The samples from lodgepole pine trees suggest an enhancement in the 3-carene, beta-phellandrene, and estragole (methyl chavicol) emissions upon bark beetle infestation. The samples from the Engelmann spruce trees suggest an enhancement in the 1,4-cineole, p-cymene, and beta-phellandrene emissions upon bark beetle infestation. A shift in the type and the quantity of VOC emissions due to bark beetle infestation may lead increases in SOA from these forests, since potent SOA precursors are produced.

  7. Identification of semiochemicals released by cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, upon infestation by the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Oliveira, Janser N; da Costa, Joao G; Bleicher, Ervino; Santana, Antonio E G; Bruce, Toby J A; Caulfield, John; Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Woodcock, Christine M; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2011-07-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae), is increasing in importance as a pest worldwide since the introduction of Bt-cotton, which controls lepidopteran but not homopteran pests. The chemical ecology of interactions between cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Malvaceae), A. gossypii, and the predatory lacewing Chrysoperla lucasina (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), was investigated with a view to providing new pest management strategies. Behavioral tests using a four-arm (Pettersson) olfactometer showed that alate A. gossypii spent significantly more time in the presence of odor from uninfested cotton seedlings compared to clean air, but significantly less time in the presence of odor from A. gossypii infested plants. A. gossypii also spent significantly more time in the presence of headspace samples of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) obtained from uninfested cotton seedlings, but significantly less time with those from A. gossypii infested plants. VOCs from uninfested and A. gossypii infested cotton seedlings were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), leading to the identification of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), methyl salicylate, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene (TMTT), which were produced in larger amounts from A. gossypii infested plants compared to uninfested plants. In behavioral tests, A. gossypii spent significantly more time in the control (solvent) arms when presented with a synthetic blend of these four compounds, with and without the presence of VOCs from uninfested cotton. Coupled GC-electroantennogram (EAG) recordings with the lacewing C. lucasina showed significant antennal responses to VOCs from A. gossypii infested cotton, suggesting they have a role in indirect defense and indicating a likely behavioral role for these compounds for the predator as well as the aphid.

  8. Efficacy of diatomaceous earth to control internal infestations of rice weevil and maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Frank H; Throne, James E

    2003-04-01

    Densities of 10, 20, and 30 hard red winter wheat kernels, Triticum aestivum L., were infested with different life stages of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), mixed with 35 g of wheat treated with 300 ppm of the Protect-It (Mississauga, Ontario, Canada) formulation of diatomaceous earth (DE), and held at 22, 27, and 32 degrees C. A similar test was conducted by exposing densities of 6, 12, and 18 corn kernels infested with different life stages of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, mixed with 30 g of corn, Zea mays L., treated with 300 ppm of DE. Mortality of adults emerging from kernels in wheat treated with DE was always greater than controls, and ranged from 56 to 90% at 22 degrees C and was >90% at 27 and 32 degrees C. In most treatment combinations, exposure to DE suppressed F1 progeny by 60-90% relative to untreated controls. Mortality of adult maize weevils on treated corn held at 22 and 27 degrees C was lower than mortality of rice weevils on wheat, and ranged from 4 to 84%. F1 production was low in corn held at 22 degrees C, and no F1s were produced in either the controls or the treatments at 32 degrees C. In treated corn held at 27 degrees C, exposure to the DE suppressed F1 progeny by approximately 70-80% relative to the untreated controls. Results of this study show that rice weevils and maize weevils emerging from infested kernels as adults are susceptible to DE, and these results are comparable to other studies in which adult weevils were exposed directly on wheat or corn treated with DE. Although adult weevils will be killed by exposure to DE, some oviposition could still occur and progeny suppression may not be complete; however, application of DE to commodities already infested with internal feeders, such as the rice weevil and the maize weevil, could help eliminate or suppress the infestation.

  9. Association of bovine Toll-like receptor 4 with tick infestation rates and blood histamine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G; Yu, M; Cui, Q-W; Zhou, X; Zhang, J-C; Li, H-X; Qu, K-X; Wang, G-L; Huang, B-Z

    2013-02-28

    We investigated a possible association between bovine Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and resistance to tick infestation in 103 cattle, including BMY cattle (1/2 Brahman, 1/4 Murray Grey, and 1/4 Yunnan Yellow cattle), Brahman, and Red Angus grazing on improved pasture. The tick infestation weight and number of Rhipicephalus microplus and the blood histamine concentration were measured and compared with those of 32 Chinese Holsteins and 30 Simmentals. A 228-bp fragment was amplified and sequenced to analyze the polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene. After SSCP and sequencing analysis, 4 SNPs, i.e., 535(A>C), 546(T>C), 605(T>A), and 618(G>C), were identified, corresponding to GenBank accession Nos. AY297041 and NW_003104150; the latter two SNPs caused Leu→Gln and Gln→His substitutions, respectively. Genotype AA was completely predominant in the Chinese Holstein and Simmental; genotypes AA and AB were detected in Red Angus, while genotypes AA, AB, BB, and BC were detected in Brahman and in BMY cattle. A negative correlation was identified between blood histamine concentration and number of tick infestation; in BMY cattle this negative association was significant. The tick infestation in cattle with genotype BB was significantly lower than in those with genotype AA. Blood histamine concentration in cattle with genotype BB was significantly higher than in those with genotype AA. The TLR4 gene mutation could affect the blood histamine level and activate the immune reaction after tick infestation. Allele B has potential as a molecular marker for tick-resistance originated from Zebu cattle for use in cattle breeding programs.

  10. Sarcoptes scabiei infestation does not alter the stability of ectoparasite communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, João; Serrano, Emmanuel; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Granados, José E; Habela, Miguel A; Olmeda, Sonia; Fonseca, Carlos; Pérez, Jesús M

    2016-07-01

    The host represents a heterogeneous ecosystem where multiple parasite species co-occur and interact with each other for space and resources. Although these interactions may rule the features of an infracommunity and may shape the infracommunity response to external perturbations, the resilience of ectoparasite communities to new infestations remains poorly explored. We analysed the composition of the ectoparasite communities found on 214 individual Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica) inhabiting the Sierra Nevada Natural Space, southern Spain. Using classification and regression trees, we explored how the presence of Sarcoptes scabiei (a highly contagious mite), the off-host environment and the host sex govern the prevalence and abundance of lice and ticks. Null model analysis was applied to assess the impact of S. scabiei on the structure of the ectoparasite communities. Our results suggest that S. scabiei infestation acts in tandem with off-host environment and host sex to define the prevalence and abundance of lice and ticks. We also provided evidence for differences in species co-occurrence only at the early stages of S. scabiei infestation. Regarding species diversity, we recorded that ectoparasite communities in scabietic ibexes reached a high richness faster than those in healthy individuals. Even though we show that ectoparasite burden is correlated with S. scabiei infestation, off-host environment and host sex, the species response to S. scabiei infestation and climate seem to be highly variable and influenced by ectoparasite life-history traits. Ectoparasite communities also appear resilient to perturbations which is in agreement with what was previously reported for endoparasites. Future refinement of sample collection and the incorporation of ecological and epidemiological-related variables may allow us to establish causal effects and deepen the knowledge about the mechanisms and consequences of ectoparasite interactions.

  11. Determinants and effects of sinus worm Skrjabingylus nasicola (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidae) infestation in invasive American mink Neovison vison in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddergott, M; Pohl, D; Steinbach, P; Salazar, L Cantú; Müller, F; Frantz, A C

    2016-09-01

    Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842) are geographically widespread nematodes that parasitize the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of smaller mustelids. As most prior work was solely based on the analysis of bone injuries of museum skull, little is known about the determinants and effects of infestation in the host species. Working on fresh skulls, we aimed to analyze infestation patterns in American mink (Neovison vison Schreber, 1777) from nine study areas in northern Germany and to identify factors that explained infestation prevalence and intensity in the host species. The prevalence (46.7-62.9 %) and infestation intensity values (4.5-10.89 nematodes) reported here were relatively large, especially compared to other American mink populations in Europe. Considering mink diet, our study sites probably harbored a larger number of infested paratenic hosts and climate did not have a substantial negative influence on survival of S. nasicola larvae. We did not observe any significant sex-age differences in either prevalence or intensity of S. nasicola infestation. We did not find a negative impact of an infestation on the host animals' body weight, confirming prior results that the parasite is not a significant mortality factor in mustelids. Our study suggests that this holds even outside the native distributional range where the host's defenses might not be optimally adapted to an autochthonous parasite.

  12. Modeling Disease Vector Occurrence when Detection Is Imperfect: Infestation of Amazonian Palm Trees by Triatomine Bugs at Three Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Campos, Ciro; Palomeque, Francisco S.; Grijalva, Mario J.; Aguilar, H. Marcelo; Miles, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Failure to detect a disease agent or vector where it actually occurs constitutes a serious drawback in epidemiology. In the pervasive situation where no sampling technique is perfect, the explicit analytical treatment of detection failure becomes a key step in the estimation of epidemiological parameters. We illustrate this approach with a study of Attalea palm tree infestation by Rhodnius spp. (Triatominae), the most important vectors of Chagas disease (CD) in northern South America. Methodology/Principal Findings The probability of detecting triatomines in infested palms is estimated by repeatedly sampling each palm. This knowledge is used to derive an unbiased estimate of the biologically relevant probability of palm infestation. We combine maximum-likelihood analysis and information-theoretic model selection to test the relationships between environmental covariates and infestation of 298 Amazonian palm trees over three spatial scales: region within Amazonia, landscape, and individual palm. Palm infestation estimates are high (40–60%) across regions, and well above the observed infestation rate (24%). Detection probability is higher (∼0.55 on average) in the richest-soil region than elsewhere (∼0.08). Infestation estimates are similar in forest and rural areas, but lower in urban landscapes. Finally, individual palm covariates (accumulated organic matter and stem height) explain most of infestation rate variation. Conclusions/Significance Individual palm attributes appear as key drivers of infestation, suggesting that CD surveillance must incorporate local-scale knowledge and that peridomestic palm tree management might help lower transmission risk. Vector populations are probably denser in rich-soil sub-regions, where CD prevalence tends to be higher; this suggests a target for research on broad-scale risk mapping. Landscape-scale effects indicate that palm triatomine populations can endure deforestation in rural areas, but become rarer in

  13. Increased mortality of black-browed albatross chicks at a colony heavily-infested with the tick Ixodes uriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, S; Haemig, P D; Olsen, B

    1999-09-01

    At Bird Island, South Georgia, we studied the effects of the tick Ixodes uriae on survival of chicks at two colonies of the black-browed albatross Diomedea melanophrys, one where most chicks were infested with ticks, the other where most chicks were tick-free. When the two colonies were compared, it was found that the colony heavily-infested with ticks had significantly greater chick mortality than the colony lightly-infested with ticks. However, within each of the two colonies, there was no significant difference in survival between chicks with ticks and those without ticks.

  14. Impacts of human-related practices on Ommatissus lybicus infestations of date palm in Oman.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa M Al-Kindi

    Full Text Available Date palm cultivation is economically important in the Sultanate of Oman, with significant financial investments coming from both the government and private individuals. However, a widespread Dubas bug (DB (Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin infestation has impacted regions including the Middle East, North Africa, Southeast Russia, and Spain, resulting in widespread damages to date palms. In this study, techniques in spatial statistics including ordinary least squares (OLS, geographically weighted regression (GRW, and exploratory regression (ER were applied to (a model the correlation between DB infestations and human-related practices that include irrigation methods, row spacing, palm tree density, and management of undercover and intercropped vegetation, and (b predict the locations of future DB infestations in northern Oman. Firstly, we extracted row spacing and palm tree density information from remote sensed satellite images. Secondly, we collected data on irrigation practices and management by using a simple questionnaire, augmented with spatial data. Thirdly, we conducted our statistical analyses using all possible combinations of values over a given set of candidate variables using the chosen predictive modelling and regression techniques. Lastly, we identified the combination of human-related practices that are most conducive to the survival and spread of DB. Our results show that there was a strong correlation between DB infestations and several human-related practices parameters (R2 = 0.70. Variables including palm tree density, spacing between trees (less than 5 x 5 m, insecticide application, date palm and farm service (pruning, dethroning, remove weeds, and thinning, irrigation systems, offshoots removal, fertilisation and labour (non-educated issues, were all found to significantly influence the degree of DB infestations. This study is expected to help reduce the extent and cost of aerial and ground sprayings, while facilitating the

  15. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables against induced infestations with Dermacentor reticulatus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Steffen; Fourie, Josephus J; de Vos, Christa; Anderson, Andrew; Larsen, Diane L; Jeannin, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime (AFX + MO) combination chewables (NexGard Spectra®, Merial) and AFX single-entity chewables (NexGard®, Merial) against induced infestations with Dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated in dogs. Thirty dogs were assigned to blocks of three animals each based on pre-allocation tick counts and were randomly allocated to one of three groups: untreated (control), treated with a combination of AFX + MO chewables to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of AFX + MO (2.5 + 0.5 mg per kg body weight), and treated with a combination of NexGard® chewables to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of AFX (2.5 mg per kg body weight). Treatments were administered orally once on day 0. Starting 2 days before treatment administration, each dog was infested with approximately 50 ticks weekly for six consecutive weeks. Live ticks were counted at ∼48 h post-treatment (removal count) and at ∼48 h (in situ counts) and ∼72 h (removal counts) following each post-treatment infestation. Treatment with both AFX + MO and NexGard® chewables rapidly eliminated the existing tick infestations (100 % efficacy) within 2 days following treatment administration. Weekly re-infestations were controlled for a minimum of 5 weeks with the efficacy ranging from 92.2 to 99.7 % based on ∼48 h post-treatment in situ counts and between 99.0 and 100 % based on ∼72 h post-treatment removal counts (p < 0.0001 at each occasion). This study demonstrated a high efficacy of both AFX + MO chewable and NexGard® chewable treatments against infestations of dogs with D. reticulatus ticks for at least 5 weeks. In addition, this study indicated no interference between the two compounds with respect to the acaricidal activity provided by AFX.

  16. Extracto acuoso de Lepidium meyenii Walp (maca y su papel como adaptógeno, en un modelo animal de resistencia física

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    Silvia Suárez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Lepidium meyenii Walp (maca es una raíz andina del Perú, utilizada como alimento por su valor nutricional y propiedades etnomedicinales; es parte de la medicina tradicional. Objetivos: Evaluar el papel de adaptógeno del extracto acuoso de maca amarilla sobre las enzimas del tejido muscular en un modelo animal de resistencia física y estrés oxidativo. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Extracto acuoso de la maca amarilla y ratas macho recién destetados. Intervenciones: Administración del extracto acuoso de la maca amarilla en ratas macho recién destetados, distribuidos en cuatro grupos: (I, de control, (II 0,4 mg de maca/g de peso (III 0,8 mg de maca/g de peso y (IV, 1,2 mg de maca/g de peso. El extracto acuoso fue administrado por cánula orogástrica. Se realizó un control de los pesos. Se aplicó la prueba de nado forzado después de 30 días de tratamiento. Los animales fueron sacrificados y se preparó homogenizado de músculo al 10%. Principales medidas de resultados: Actividad de las enzimas superóxido dismutasa (SOD, catalasa (CAT y lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH; y, como indicador de proceso oxidativo, se midió la peroxidación lipídica (TBARS. Resultados: El rendimiento en la prueba de resistencia fue la siguiente: (I 7,09 min; (II 11,25 min; (III 11,27 min; (IV 12,71 min, respectivamente. Las actividades enzimáticas de los grupos I, II, III y IV fueron: SOD (U/mL 36,6, 18,2, 17,2 y 18,2; CAT (U/L 18,6, 16,5, 13,4 y 10,3; y LDH (U/mL 11,6, 6,5, 6,0 y 5,8. TBARS (umol/g tejido: 5,82, 7,15, 4,11 y 4,06. Conclusiones: La administración del extracto acuoso de maca amarilla favorece la respuesta del organismo a una situación estresante y físicamente extenuante, lo que correspondería al papel de un adaptógeno.

  17. Dose-response effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) aqueous extract on testicular function and weight of different organs in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Francisco; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Carla; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2005-04-08

    Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae) known as Maca grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m over the sea level in the Peruvian central Andes. The dried hypocotyls of Maca are traditionally used as food and for its supposed fertility-enhancing properties. A dose-response study was performed to determine the effect of 7 days oral administration of an aqueous lyophilized extract of Maca at 0.01-5 g/kg (corresponding to 0.022-11 g dry hypocotyls of Maca/kg) on body and different organ weights, stages of the seminiferous tubules, epididymal sperm count and motility, and serum testosterone and estradiol levels in rats. In doses up to 5 g extract/kg, no toxicity was observed. Almost all organ weights were similar in controls and in the Maca extract-treated groups. Seminal vesicles weight was significantly reduced at 0.01 and 0.10 g extract/kg. Maca increased in length of stages VII-VIII of the seminiferous tubules in a dose-response fashion, with highest response at 1.0 g/kg, while caput/corpus epididymal sperm count increased at the 1.0 g dose. Cauda epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, and serum estradiol level were not affected at any of the doses studied. Serum testosterone was lower at 0.10 g extract/kg. Low-seminal vesicle weights correlated with low-serum testosterone levels (R2=0.33; P<0.0001) and low-testosterone/estradiol ratio (R2=0.35; P<0.0001). Increase in epididymal sperm count was related to lengths of stages VII-VIII. Highest effect on stages VII-VIII of the seminiferous tubules was observed at 1.0 g Maca aqueous extract/kg. The present study demonstrated that Maca extract in doses up to 5 g/kg (equivalent to the intake of 770 g hypocotyls in a man of 70 kg) was safe and that higher effect on reproductive parameters was elicited with a dose of 1 g extract/kg corresponding to 2.2 g dry Maca hypocotyls/kg.

  18. Influences of dietary supplementation with Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on stallion sperm production and on preservation of sperm quality during storage at 5 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, C; Tafuri, S; Ciani, F; Pasolini, M P; Ciotola, F; Albarella, S; Carotenuto, D; Peretti, V; Cocchia, N

    2018-03-01

    Stallion semen is damaged by oxidative stress during cooling and transport. Semen processing and extenders have been tested to improve the fertilizing capacity of semen and to preserve semen during transport. Dietary supplementation with natural antioxidants has been proposed to prevent oxidative damages. In this study, for the first time, the effect of dietary supplementation with Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on the characteristics of fresh and chilled stallion semen was evaluated. Maca is a traditional Andean crop used as a nutraceutical for the fertility-enhancing properties that are linked with antioxidant activity. The diet of five stallions was supplemented with 20 g of Maca powder daily for a total of 60 days. A control group of five stallions received the same diet without Maca. Semen was collected once before the administration of Maca (D0), twice during the administration at 30 and 60 days (D30 and D60), and finally twice at 30 and 60 days after the end of the administration (D90 and D120). Ejaculates were processed for cooled shipping at 5 °C and evaluated in the laboratory for total and progressive motility, acrosome integrity, and lipid peroxidation after collection and after 24, 48, and 72 h of storage. Dietary supplementation with Maca improved sperm concentration (from 213 ± 80.4 to 447 ± 73.1 × 10 6 spz/mL) and total sperm count (from 10,880 ± 4377 to 24,783 ± 4419 × 10 6 spz). The beneficial effects of Maca supplementation on motility and acrosome integrity in the raw semen were detected from the end of treatment with Maca (D60) until the end of the study (D120). Furthermore, during cooling storage, total motility, progressive motility, and acrosome integrity declined more slowly in the Maca-treated group than in the control group. Lipid peroxidation did not change during cooling storage in either group and did not show a significant difference between the two groups. In this study, the dietary supplementation with Maca

  19. Short and long-term physiological responses of male and female rats to two dietary levels of pre-gelatinized maca (lepidium peruvianum chacon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Kedzia, B; Mrozikiewicz, P M; Mscisz, A

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify physiological responses of male and female rats to either a short- or long-term administration of two doses of Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) and observe relationships which may exist between groups of hormones and effects mediated by them. The effect of pre-gelatinized (extruded) organic Maca powder (Maca-GO) was studied on Sprague-Dowley male and female rats (1:1 ratio) receiving two dietary levels of Maca-GO (0.75 g/kg and 7.5 g/kg body weight) and assessed against control during 28 and 90 day laboratory trials on 30 and 60 rats respectively. Blood morphology, biochemistry (hormones, lipids and minerals) and histology of internal organs were determined. Homogenates of skeletal muscles and bones of rats were also analyzed. Maca-GO has low toxicity (LD=7.5 g/kg) and appears to be safe for short-term and extended use as dietary supplement or as a component of functional dietary and therapeutic preparations. There were different responses of male and female rats to different levels of Maca-GO administered during a short- and a longer-term periodl. When administered at higher dose for extended period of time (90 days), Maca-GO acted as a toner of hormonal processes in adult female rats at increased progesterone and a steady estradiol level, without affecting levels of blood FSH, LH and TSH. Obtained results justify further clinical research on use of Maca-GO in sportsmen, physically-active people of both sexes and peri-menopausal women to clarify mechanisms underlaying physiological mode of action of Maca-GO validaet in clinical study on humans. Substantial decrease in blood cortisol levels in a short- and longer-term trial and simultaneous tendency to lower blood ACTH, may indicate antidepressive effect of Maca-GO, which together with reduction in body weight, lowering triglycerides in blood plasma and increasing calcium and phosphorus deposition in bone and muscle tissues is worthy consideration in potential application to women at

  20. Disminución del daño oxidativo y efecto hipoglicemiante de la maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp en ratas con diabetes inducida por streptozotocina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La maca es consumida desde tiempos ancestrales como parte de la dieta. Se le ha atribuido propiedades medicinales y se encuentra incluida en la medicina tradicional peruana. Estudios recientes describen que la admistración de maca reduce la glicemia en animales normoglicémicos, pero los mecanismos involucrados no están muy claros. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto hipoglicemiante y antioxidante de la harina de maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp del ecotipo amarillo, en ratas con diabetes inducida por estreptozotocina. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Harina de maca amarilla y ratas albinas Holtzmann machos con diabetes inducida. Intervenciones: Se administró la harina de maca amarilla a las ratas distribuidas en 4 grupos: grupo I control (solo dieta; II, harina de maca 4 g/día; III, harina de maca 6 g/día; y IV, dieta + glibenclamida 10 mg/kg de peso; el experimento duró 46 días. Se evaluó diariamente la glicemia y el peso; al final del experimento se determinó en sangre los niveles de insulina, parámetros de daño oxidativo (vitamina C y se midió la peroxidación lipídica (TBARS, como indicador del proceso oxidativo. Principales medidas de los resultados: Modificación de los niveles de glicemia, insulina, vitamina C y formación del complejo MDA-TBARS. Resultados: La administración de harina de maca en la dieta (4 a 6 g/día de animales diabéticos redujo la glicemia en 50%, incrementó los niveles de insulina 22% y mejoró los niveles de vitamina C respecto al grupo control. La administración de maca 4 g/día disminuyó el daño oxidativo, pues redujo la formación del complejo MDA-TBARS en 54% con respecto al grupo control. Conclusiones: La administración de harina de maca amarilla a animales diabéticos mejoró el metabolismo de la glucosa, regulando la glicemia y

  1. Relación de glutatión reducido/oxidado (GSH/GSSG en ratas diabéticas tratadas con maca (Lepidium meyenii walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Cisneros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La diabetes mellitus y sus complicaciones representan un problema de salud pública. La hiperglucemia desencadena efectos bioquímicos dañinos para el organismo, como el estrés oxidativo y el proceso inflamatorio crónico, por lo que el uso de plantas medicinales con elevada capacidad antioxidante, como Lepidium meyenii Walp (maca, es una alternativa en el tratamiento de esta patología. Objetivo: Determinar si la ingestión de harina de maca mejora la relación glutatión reducido/oxidado (GSH/GSSG en ratas diabéticas. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Harina de maca amarilla y ratas albinas Holtzman machos adultas. Intervenciones: Se utilizó 24 ratas, a los cuales se les indujo la diabetes con estreptozotocina (STZ 40 mg/kg de masa corporal y que fueron distribuidas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos, de seis animales cada uno: control (CO, glibenclamida (GL 10 mg/kg de masa corporal, maca 4 g/día (M4 y maca 6 g/día (M6; el experimento duró 40 días. Se evaluó la glicemia, masa corporal y, al final del experimento, se determinó los niveles de GSH y GSSG en plasma y homogenizado de hígado. Principales medidas de resultados: Masa corporal, glicemia, GSH y GSSG en plasma y homogenizado de hígado. Resultados: A nivel plasmático, el glutatión circulante estuvo favorecido para la forma reducida. Los valores de la relación GSH/GSSG en los grupos tratados con maca estuvieron alrededor de 190, significativamente mayor al grupo CO. Conclusiones: La administración de harina de maca amarilla a ratas diabéticas incrementó la relación GSH/GSSG a nivel plasmático, contribuyendo a mejorar su estado redox.

  2. Influence of Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) infestation levels and management practices on insecticide sensitivity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because Varroa mites may cause devastating losses of honey bees through direct feeding, transmitting diseases, and increasing pathogen susceptibility, chemical and mechanical practices commonly are used to reduce mite infestation. While miticide applications are typically the most consistent and eff...

  3. Spatial modeling of rat bites and prediction of rat infestation in Peshawar valley using binomial kriging with logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asad; Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Adnan, Muhammad; Ullah, Saleem

    2018-03-24

    In this study, we propose to develop a geostatistical computational framework to model the distribution of rat bite infestation of epidemic proportion in Peshawar valley, Pakistan. Two species Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus are suspected to spread the infestation. The framework combines strengths of maximum entropy algorithm and binomial kriging with logistic regression to spatially model the distribution of infestation and to determine the individual role of environmental predictors in modeling the distribution trends. Our results demonstrate the significance of a number of social and environmental factors in rat infestations such as (I) high human population density; (II) greater dispersal ability of rodents due to the availability of better connectivity routes such as roads, and (III) temperature and precipitation influencing rodent fecundity and life cycle.

  4. Varroa jacobsoni infestation of adult Africanized and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera in mixed colonies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretto Geraldo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Different levels of infestation with the mite Varroa jacobsoni have been observed in the various Apis mellifera races. In general, bees of European races are more susceptible to the mite than African honey bees and their hybrids. In Brazil honey bee colonies are not treated against the mite, though apparently both climate and bee race influence the mite infestation. Six mixed colonies were made with Italian and Africanized honey bees. The percentage infestation by this parasite was found to be significantly lower in adult Africanized (1.69 ± 0.44 than Italian bees (2.79 ± 0.65. This ratio was similar to that found in Mexico, even though the Africanized bees tested there had not been in contact with varroa, compared to more than 20 years of the coexistence in Brazil. However, mean mite infestation in Brazil on both kinds of bees was only about a third of that found in Mexico.

  5. Recurrent amoebic gill infestation in rainbow trout cultured in a semiclosed water recirculation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, A.C.; Herman, R.L.; Noga, E.J.; Bullock, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    Five lots of commercially purchased juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (17-44 g) stocked in a continuous-production water recirculation system became infested with gilt amoebae. The amoebae were introduced into the recirculation system, as evidenced by their presence on gills of fish held in quarantine tanks. Based on their morphology, as seen in histological sections and by electron microscopy, the amoebae appeared to be more closely related to the family Cochliopodiidae than to other taxa of free living amoebae. Attempts to culture the amoebae in different media, at different temperatures of incubation, and in fish cell culture were not successful. Initial treatment of the recirculation system with formalin at 167 parts per million (ppm) for 1 h eliminated amoebae from the gills. Subsequent treatments of the entire system with formalin at 50-167 ppm reduced the intensity of further infestations.

  6. Patterns of gall infestation in Heteropterys byrsonimifolia A. Juss. in a forest-savannah ecotone

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    Marcela de Castro Nunes Santos Terra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Galls are the result of a specific interaction between an inducer and a host plant. The species Heteropterys byrsonimifolia A. Juss. occurs in abundance in semideciduous seasonal forest ecotones and adjacent open formations. In the ecological reserve Quedas do Rio Bonito, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, this species is affected by a single gall morphotype. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the structural complexity of the host (test of the structural complexity hypothesis and the distance between hosts (test of the resource concentration hypothesis affect gall density in H. byrsonimifolia and to characterize the spatial distribution of the infestation. The results corroborate the two hypotheses tested, suggesting a metapopulation pattern of gall infestation in H. byrsonimifolia. Gallers were more successful in abrupt forest-savannah transition environments, which may be associated with greater stress-induced host vulnerability that plants usually experience in ecotones.

  7. In vivo Imaging of Sarcoptes scabiei Infestation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

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    Christina Alette Banzhaf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Sarcoptes scabiei can be visualized with different imaging tools. Optical coherence tomography (OCT may have the potential to describe the changes in skin morphology due to scabies infestation and visualize the parasite. Methods: Five patients from the Departments of Dermatology, Augsburg, Germany, and Roskilde, Denmark, were OCT scanned (VivoSight®; Michelson Diagnostics Ltd., UK. Mites were identified by epiluminescence and light microscopy to confirm the diagnosis. Results: OCT identified S. scabiei mites in all patients in vivo. Mites and burrows were visualized, and some detail on burrow content was provided. Conclusion: OCT can visualize S. scabiei mites in vivo, suggesting that it may be used to study the biology of the mites in vivo and provide early assessment of scabicide therapy. OCT is able to visualize structures in the skin with an 8-µm resolution. Therefore, this technology could potentially allow rapid, non-invasive, in vivo diagnosis and analysis of infestations.

  8. Inflammatory potential of low doses of airborne fungi from fungal infested damp and dry gypsum boards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sofie Marie; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    This study has investigated the total inflammatory potential (TIP) of low concentration fungal samples from moisture-damaged and fungal infested gypsum boards. The fungal aerosols were generated from damp and dried surfaces, and sampled using filter sampling and liquid impingement. The TIP...... association was found between concentration of fungi and the TIP of the samples. This is likely due to the J-shaped dose response curve. The aerosol samples from the dried gypsum boards had a significantly higher TIP compared to aerosols from the damp surfaces. However, the J-shaped dose-response curve...... weakens the conclusion on the influence of surfaces dampness, sampling time, fungal species or sampling methods. It could, however, be concluded that samples from both damp and dry surfaces induce inflammation in the HL60 cells, despite the low concentration of fungi. Thus, a dried fungal infestation...

  9. Infestation and distribution of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies of africanized bees

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    G. Moretto

    Full Text Available Whereas in several parts of the world varroa is the major pest affecting apiculture, in others the parasite is unknown to many beekeepers because its damage to bees is minor. The impact of the mite Varroa destructor is related to the climatic conditions and the races of Apis mellifera bees in each region where the pest exists. In the present study, the current level of infestation by the mite was assessed to determine the evolution of the pest in Africanized bee colonies in Southern Brazil. This level of infestation was considered low: approximately two mites per one hundred adult bees. This result is similar to that obtained for the same apiary almost five years ago and for others distributed in various regions of Brazil. In the present study, we also estimated the total varroa population and its distribution among brood and adults in each bee colony.

  10. Efficacy of alphacypermetrin pour-on against natural Werneckiella equi infestation on donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Neglia, Gianluca; Galietti, Alfredo; Rufrano, Domenico; Bassini, Andrea; Mariani, Ugo; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2012-09-01

    The chewing louse Werneckiella equi is an ectoparasite of donkeys and other equids. Alphacypermethrin (ACYP) is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used for the control of insects of veterinary and public health concerns. A trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of ACYP against W. equi on naturally infested donkeys. Parasitological investigations were performed on 13 animals. On day 0, the donkeys received ACYP pour-on at the manufacturer's recommended dose rate for cattle. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 at seven predilection sites on the skin of each donkey. ACYP was completely effective (100 %) from day 7, until the end of the study. ACYP was well tolerated by all animals as there were no observed clinical adverse reactions. ACYP was highly effective, safe, user-friendly, and considered to be suitable for the treatment of donkeys for W. equi infestation.

  11. STORED COCOA BEANS QUALITY AFFECTED BY FERMENTATION AND EPHESTIA CAUTELLA WALKER (LEPIDOPTERA: PHYCITIDAE INFESTATION

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    OK.KY S. DHARMAPUTRA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fermentation on Ephestia cautella population and cocoa bean s quality in terms of moisture content, fungal population, the percentage of insect-damaged and mouldy beans, lipid and free fatty acid contents during storage were investigated together with the effects of £. cautella infestation on the quality of stored cocoa beans and weight loss. Fermented and unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture contents of 7 or 9% were placed in ventilated plastic jars (Ikg/jar and stored for 6 months under room conditions. Seven larvae of £. cautella instar IV (2 males and 5 females were introduced in each jar at the beginning of storage. Untreated jars contained only cocoa beans. Population of £. cautella on fermented cocoa beans with either initial moisture content of 7 or 9% was lower than that on unfermented beans during storage. The population either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture content of 7% was lower than that of 9%, and the population of all treatments increased during storage. Moisture content of all treatments either on cocoa beans with initial moisture contents of 7 or 9% had the same pattern. The percentage of insect-damaged beans on fermented cocoa beans was lower than that on unfermented cocoa beans after 5 to 6 months of storage. The damaged beans on fermented cocoa after 6 months of storage was not different than on unfermented beans after 4 months of storage. The weig ht loss either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans with initial moisture content of 9% was higher than that with initial moisture content of 7%. The weight loss on fermented cocoa beans either with mois ture content of 7 or 9% was lower than that on unfermented beans during storage. The weight loss either on fermented or unfermented cocoa beans increased during storage. The percentage of mouldy beans on cocoa infested with £. cautella tended to increase during storage, while on beans not infested with the insect it

  12. In vivo Imaging of Sarcoptes scabiei Infestation Using Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Christina Alette; Themstrup, Lotte; Ring, Hans Christian; Welzel, Julia; Mogensen, Mette; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst

    2013-05-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei can be visualized with different imaging tools. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) may have the potential to describe the changes in skin morphology due to scabies infestation and visualize the parasite. Five patients from the Departments of Dermatology, Augsburg, Germany, and Roskilde, Denmark, were OCT scanned (VivoSight(®); Michelson Diagnostics Ltd., UK). Mites were identified by epiluminescence and light microscopy to confirm the diagnosis. OCT identified S. scabiei mites in all patients in vivo. Mites and burrows were visualized, and some detail on burrow content was provided. OCT can visualize S. scabiei mites in vivo, suggesting that it may be used to study the biology of the mites in vivo and provide early assessment of scabicide therapy. OCT is able to visualize structures in the skin with an 8-μm resolution. Therefore, this technology could potentially allow rapid, non-invasive, in vivo diagnosis and analysis of infestations.

  13. Mites infesting commensal rodents in Shebin El Kom, Menoufia G., Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, M E; Morsy, T A; Nassef, N E; el Meligi, M A

    1995-12-01

    Rodent populations markedly increased in many Egyptian Governorates particularly commensal ones which live in close association with man and his domestic animals. In this paper, commensal rodents; M. musculus R. r. alexandrinus, and R. norvegicus were examined for the mites infesting them. Four species of mites were recovered; Ornithonyssus bacoti; Laelaps nuttalli, Dermanyssus gallinae and Allodermanyssus sanguineus. The medical and economic importance was discussed. It was concluded that mites and their environmental problem should be tackled.

  14. Ascaris Lumbricoides infestation and intestinal MZBCL: a surgical and radiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, M; Casciani, E; Romeo, V; Valesini, L; Centonze, L; Bartolucci, P; Ciccarone, F; Gualdi, G; Modini, C

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris Lumbricoides is the most common worm found in human beings and it is the largest of the intestinal nematodes parasitizing humanity. The most common complication of Ascariasis is mechanical bowel obstruction caused by a large number of worms. Bowel obstruction can also be caused by various toxins released by the worms. A large worm bolus can also cause volvulus or intussusception. We report a case of Intestinal Obstruction due to an Ileal MZBCL in an Ascaris. Lumbricoides infestation setting.

  15. Infestation by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in heifers from different genetics groups

    OpenAIRE

    Adilson Marini; Ricardo Veludo Gomes Soutello; Ricardo Lopes dias da Costa; José Henrique Neves; Alex Costa Vacari; Thiago Nunes Barreto; Sidney Monte Junior; João José Assumpção de Abreu Demarchi

    2010-01-01

    An assessment of the infestation of ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in 59 heifers of three genetic groups was run: Nellore, Guzerá and ½ Angus x ½ Nellore, belonging to the roster APTA Regional Andradina / SP. Every 28 days held the count of ticks, where the left side of the animal, with evaluation of only engorged females with more than 4.5 mm in the period from June 2007 to May 2008. The genetic group (P

  16. Validated methodology for quantifying infestation levels of dreissenid mussels in environmental DNA (eDNA) samples

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrubia Lozano, Luis; Alcaraz Cazorla, Carles; Vaate, Abraham bij de; Sanz Ball-llosera, Núria; Pla Zanuy, Carles; Vidal Fàbrega, Oriol; Viñas de Puig, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771) and the quagga mussel (D. rostriformis Deshayes, 1838) are successful invasive bivalves with substantial ecological and economic impacts in freshwater systems once they become established. Since their eradication is extremely difficult, their detection at an early stage is crucial to prevent spread. In this study, we optimized and validated a qPCR detection method based on the histone H2B gene to quantify combined infestation levels of zebr...

  17. PREVALENCE OF BABESIA SPP., EHRLICHIA SPP., AND TICK INFESTATIONS IN OKLAHOMA BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Delaina; Mitcham, Jessica R; Starkey, Lindsay A; Noden, Bruce H; Fairbanks, W Sue; Little, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are commonly infested with ticks throughout their range, but there are few surveys for tick-borne disease agents in bears. To characterize tick infestations and determine the prevalence of current infection with Babesia spp. and past or current infection with Ehrlichia spp. in newly re-established populations of black bears in east central and southeastern Oklahoma, US, we identified adult (n=1,048) and immature (n=107) ticks recovered from bears (n=62). We evaluated serum and whole blood samples from a subset (n=49) for antibodies reactive to, and characteristic DNA fragments of, Ehrlichia spp., as well as characteristic DNA fragments of Babesia spp. Amblyomma americanum, the most common tick identified, was found on a majority (56/62; 90%) of bears and accounted for 697/1,048 (66.5%) of all ticks recovered. Other ticks included Dermacentor variabilis (338/1,048; 32.3%) from 36 bears, Amblyomma maculatum (9/1,048; 0.9%) from three bears, and Ixodes scapularis (4/1,048; 0.4%) from three bears. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were detected in every bear tested (49/49; 100%); maximum inverse titers to Ehrlichia chaffeensis ranged from 64-4,096 (geometric mean titer 1,525). However, PCR failed to identify active infection with E. chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or an Ehrlichia ruminantium-like agent. Infection with Babesia spp. was detected by PCR in 3/49 (6%) bears. Together these data confirm that tick infestations and infection with tick-borne disease agents are common in bears in the southern US. The significance of these infestations and infections to the health of bears, if any, and the identity of the Ehrlichia spp. responsible for the antibody reactivity seen, warrant further evaluation.

  18. Resistance and immune response in scabies-infested hosts immunized with Dermatophagoides mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Rapp, C M; Morgan, M S

    1995-06-01

    Seventy-one percent of rabbits immunized with a mixed (50:50) Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus house dust mite extract were resistant to infestation by Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis. The resistance was evidenced by a marked reduction in parasite load. All immunized hosts developed similar immunogen-specific antibody titers that were independent of the levels of scabies infestation that developed when the hosts were infested with scabies. Resistant hosts exhibited significantly lower scabies-specific immunoglobulin titers and produced antibody to fewer scabies antigens than did nonresistant hosts. All infested hosts (resistant and nonresistant) showed a cellular infiltrate in the scabietic lesions that was composed of neutrophils, plasma cells, macrophages, and mononuclear cells. Resistant hosts were characterized by fewer plasma cells in the infiltrate than were observed for non-resistant hosts. Resistant hosts exhibited a gradual increase in the number of infiltrating neutrophils, followed by a decrease that correlated with a decrease in the mite burden. Nonresistant hosts exhibited an early rapid increase, a decrease, and then a gradual increase in the concentration of neutrophils as the mite load increased. These results clearly showed that D. farinae/D. pteronyssinus antigens/epitopes can sensitize the hosts to scabies mites and induce protective immunity. The lower circulating antibody levels and generally stronger inflammatory cell-mediated response of resistant hosts compared with nonresistant hosts suggested that the mechanism by which immunization with Dermatophagoides mites induces immunity to scabies mites involved a down-regulated T helper cell type 2 (Th2) response with reduced antibody production but an up-regulated and stronger Th1 (inflammatory cell-mediated) response to scabies.

  19. Establishment of Black Ant (Dolichoderus thoracicuson Cocoa Plantation and Its Effects on Helopeltisspp. Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicusis the efficient biological control agent in suppressing main cocoa pests. It was reported that besides controlling the cocoa mirids, Helopeltisspp., this agent also can be used for biological control of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerellaand rodents pest. Nevertheles, establishment of black ant in cocoa plantation is difficult. The objectives of research were to obtain the best method of black ant establisment and to know its effect on suppressing population and infestation of Helopeltis spp. The experiment was conducted on two cocoa ecosystems, namely cocoa plantation with coconut shading trees and with Gliricidia sepium shading trees. There were six methods of black ant establisment tried using a combination between black ant nest types and innoculation of mealybug (Cataenococcus hispidus. A control plot also added on these trial, therefore seven treatments were tried in this experiment and each treatmentwasreplicated three times. The results revealedthat on cocoa shaded by coconuts, ant establishment by the nests of coconut leaves combined with mealybug(Cataenococcus hispidusinoculation on husk wedges were the best method and could effectively control Helopeltis infestation. Good results of ant establishment also occurred on cocoa shaded by Gliricidia but its effect on Helopeltis infestation has not been significant. Four months after establishment of black ant on cocoa with coconut shading trees, Helopeltisspp. population on the plots treated by coconut leaves nest combined with innoculation of mealybug using husk wedges were very low, namely only one Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees, whereas on control plot reaches of 85 Helopeltis. Infestation of Helopeltis measured by percentage of trees occupied by Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees in the same period and treatment plot revealed also very low, namely 1.04% compared to 27.86% on that of the control plot. Key words : Cocoa, black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicus

  20. Intraperitoneal ectopic infestation of parasites invading through gastrointestinal tract : CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Rha, Sung Eun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jae Chul [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun [St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hwa; Ham, Soo Youn [Ulsan Univ. Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of parasitic ectopic infestation in the peritoneal cavity, a transitional route for parasites invading the gastrointestinal tract, to migrate to various target organs. CT scans of nine patients with pathologically(n=8) or serologically(n=1) proven intraperitoneal involvement of parasitic infestation were retrospectively reviewed. The primary causes of parasitic infestation in nine patients were Paragonimus westermani(n=5), Sparganosis(n=2), and hepatic fascioliasis(n=2). We analyzed the CT findings with regard to the sites and patterns of lesions in the peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal track, as well as in other solid organs. The clinical features of these patients were also evaluated. The clinical symptoms and signs were chronic abdominal pain and general weakness in seven patients, while peripheral blood eosinophilia was observed in four. The CT features of these nine patients included multiseptated cystic masses of 2-6cm, diameter (mean 4.1{+-}1.7cm) in the omentum or mesentery in six(67%), omental or mesenteric infiltration in seven(78%), focal peritoneal thickening in seven(78%), 1ymphadenopathy in five(56%), and ascites in four(44%). In six of the nine patients, the gastrointestinal tract(stomach in four, colon in one, both stomach and colon in one) was concomitantly involved with focal wall thickening. Branching patterns of hypoattenuating lesions were noted in the liver of three patients; two of these had hepatic fascioliasis and one had paragonimiasis. Ectopic parasitic infestation in the peritoneal cavity manifests as mass formation, adjacent gastrointestinal wall thickening, and focal peritonitis. An understanding of these image features is important for both early diagnosis and adequate treatment.

  1. In vitro comparison of four treatments which discourage infestation by head lice

    OpenAIRE

    Greive, Kerryn A.; Barnes, Tanya M.

    2011-01-01

    Products which discourage the transmission of head lice are appealing; however, few studies have tested this concept. This study aims to test the efficacy of four commercial products which claim to discourage infestation by head lice; MOOV Head Lice Defence Spray (MOOV), Wild Child Quit Nits Head Lice Defence Spray (Wild Child), 100% Natural Head Lice Beater (Lice Beater) or Lysout Natural Anti-Lice Spray (Lysout). An in vitro challenge test was used. Briefly, one half of a filter paper linin...

  2. Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Catalá,Silvia; Junco,Luis; Vaporaky,Rita

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the intensity of Pediculus capitis infestation (abundance) among Argentinean schoolchildren. Children's sex and social stratum were analyzed as modifiers of the general prevalence and degree of parasitism. METHODS: The study included 1,370 schoolchildren (692 girls, 678 boys) from 26 schools of the province of La Rioja (21 public schools, five private schools). Classic prevalence was obtained as the percentage of children with nits and/or lice. Moreover, five degrees o...

  3. Ticks infesting wild and domestic animals and humans of Sri Lanka with new host records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanaarachchi, D R; Rajakaruna, R S; Dikkumbura, A W; Rajapakse, R P V J

    2015-02-01

    An island-wide collection of tick species infesting humans, domesticated and wild animals and questing ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments was carried out during 2009-2011. A total of 30,461 ticks were collected from 30 different hosts and free living stages from the ground. The collection consisted of 22 tick species from 30 different hosts recording 12 tick species from humans, 19 from domesticated animals and 21 from wild animals, with a total of 97 new host records. The most common tick species on humans were Dermacentor auratus and Amblyomma testudinairum, while Haemaphysalis intermedia, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were common in domesticated and wild animals sharing 20 host species. Among the questing ticks, immature D. auratus was the most abundant. Humans and domesticated animals were mostly infested by the nymphal stages while adult ticks were found on wild animals. High number of new host records could be due to domestic animals picking tick species from wildlife and vise versa at the human/animal interface. Habitat destruction due to forest fragmentation has lead to wild animals roaming in urban and semi-urban neighbourhoods increasing the interactions of wild animals with domesticated animals. Wild animals play a significant role as a reservoir of many tick borne infections which can easily be spread to domesticated animals and then to humans via tick infestations. Data in this paper are useful for those interested in tick infesting wild and domestic animals and humans in describing the zoonotic potential of tick borne infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Etat d'infestation, connaissance endogène et approche ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Des enquêtes ont également été effectuées auprès des chercheurs, des agriculteurs et d'autres populations rurales pour appréhender leurs appréciations sur l'utilisation et les stratégies locales de lutte contre ces plantes parasites. Les prospections ont montré que le territoire est infesté par au moins 13 espèces de Striga, ...

  5. Influence des herbicides sur l'infestation par les adventices, la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2015 ... Keywords: Wheat, herbicides, weed, density, dry matter. INTRODUCTION. Une des raisons majeures de la chute des rendements des cultures céréalières comme les blés dans la zone «non chernozem» de la Russie et le reste du monde, demeure une forte infestation par différentes espèces adventices.

  6. [Cutaneous myiasis. A case of double infestation with Dermatobia hominis larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Lisa Vest; Pedersen, Court; Holm, Randi

    2003-03-10

    We describe a case of imported double cutaneous infestation with Dermatobia hominis acquired in Central America. The characteristic clinical picture is a growing furuncular lesion with continuous secretion from a small central orifice. Because of the resemblance to a bacterial infection, there is a risk of diagnostic failure. Increasing incidence of imported myiasis may be expected as a result of increased travel activity to endemic areas. A certain knowledge of this disease is therefore required.

  7. Tick infestation risk for dogs in a peri-urban park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennett, Amy L; Smith, Faith D; Wall, Richard

    2013-12-17

    Increases in the abundance and distribution of ticks and tick borne disease (TBD) within Europe have been reported extensively over the last 10-20 years. Changes in climate, habitat management, economic patterns and changes in the abundance of hosts, particularly deer, may all have influenced this change to varying extents. Increasing abundances of tick populations in urban and peri-urban environments, such as parks, are of particular concern. In these sites, suitable habitat, wildlife hosts, tick populations, people and their pets may be brought into close proximity and hence may provide foci for tick infestation and, ultimately, disease transmission. The distribution and abundance of ticks were examined in an intensively used, peri-urban park. First the seasonal and spatial distribution and abundance of ticks in various habitat types were quantified by blanket dragging. Then the pattern of pet dog movement in the park was mapped by attaching GPS recorders to the collars of dogs brought to the park for exercise, allowing their walking routes to be tracked. Information about the dog, its park use and its history of tick attachment were obtained from the dog-owners. Ticks were found predominantly in woodland, woodland edge and deer park areas and were least abundant in mown grassland. Tick infestation of dogs was a relatively frequent occurrence with, on average, one case of tick attachment reported per year for a dog walked once per week, but for some dogs walked daily, infestation 4-5 times per week was reported. All dogs appeared to be at equal risk, regardless of walk route or duration and infestation was primarily influenced by the frequency of exposure. In peri-urban green spaces, tick-biting risk for dogs may be high and here was shown to be related primarily to exposure frequency. While tick-biting is of direct veterinary importance for dogs, dogs also represent useful sentinels for human tick-exposure.

  8. Histopathological changes in naive and sensitised goats caused by Sarcoptes scabiei infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Tarigan

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare the histopathological changes in naïve and sensitised goats caused by Sarcoptes scabiei infestation. Thirty goats were allocated evenly into 5 groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 goats were sensitised once, twice and thrice, respectively; whereas groups 4 and 5 were left unsensitised or naïve. Sensitisation was done by infesting the animals with the mite, then 7 week afterwards the animals were completely cured from the mange. After the sensitisation, all, except group 5, goats were infested on both auricles each with approximately 2000 life mites. Biopsies were collected from each group at 2 day then at weekly intervals from 1 to 7 weeks following infestation. The samples were routinely processed, paraffin blocked, and tissue sections were stained with Haematoxyllin and Eosin (H & E, Giemsa, Carbol Chromatrope, and Gram’s when indicated. Lesions in the naïve goats developed progressively characterised by thick parakeratotic crusts honeycombed with tunnels containing large number of mites. Lesions in sensitised goats, which were different qualitatively to those in naïve goats, developed rapidly characterised by copious amount of serocellular exudates in and on the surface of the epidermis, and marked oedema and cell infiltrations in the dermis. Dermal infiltration by eosinophils, which was rare in naïve goats, was apparently an important feature in the sensitised goats. Lesions developed in the sensitised goats were interpreted to be the manifestation of cutaneous anaphylaxis. Resistance or protective immunity against mite reinfestation developed in the sensitised goats is supposedly attributed to this anaphylactic responses.

  9. Information to Act: Household Characteristics are Predictors of Domestic Infestation with the Chagas Vector Triatoma dimidiata in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora, Dulce María Bustamante; Hernández, Marianela Menes; Torres, Nuria; Zúniga, Concepción; Sosa, Wilfredo; de Abrego, Vianney; Escobar, María Carlota Monroy

    2015-01-01

    The interruption of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease by Triatoma dimidiata in central America is a public health challenge that cannot be resolved by insecticide application alone. In this study, we collected information on previously known household risk factors for infestation in 11 villages and more than 2,000 houses in Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, and we constructed multivariate models and used multimodel inference to evaluate their importance as predictors of infestation...

  10. Role of Blossoms in Watermelon Seed Infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, R R; Gitaitis, R D; Castro, A C

    2003-05-01

    ABSTRACT The role of watermelon blossom inoculation in seed infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli was investigated. Approximately 98% (84/87) of fruit developed from blossoms inoculated with 1 x 10(7) or 1 x 10(9) CFU of A. avenae subsp. citrulli per blossom were asymptomatic. Using immunomagnetic separation and the polymerase chain reaction, A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected in 44% of the seed lots assayed, despite the lack of fruit symptoms. Furthermore, viable colonies were recovered from 31% of the seed lots. Of these lots, 27% also yielded seedlings expressing bacterial fruit blotch symptoms when planted under conditions of 30 degrees C and 90% relative humidity. A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected and recovered from the pulp of 33 and 19%, respectively, of symptomless fruit whose blossoms were inoculated with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. The ability to penetrate watermelon flowers was not unique to A. avenae subsp. citrulli, because blossoms inoculated with Pantoea ananatis also resulted in infested seed and pulp. The data indicate that watermelon blossoms are a potential site of ingress for fruit and seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli.

  11. Ash Decline Assessment in Emerald Ash Borer Infested Natural Forests Using High Spatial Resolution Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Murfitt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The invasive emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire infects and eventually kills endemic ash trees and is currently spreading across the Great Lakes region of North America. The need for early detection of EAB infestation is critical to managing the spread of this pest. Using WorldView-2 (WV2 imagery, the goal of this study was to establish a remote sensing-based method for mapping ash trees undergoing various infestation stages. Based on field data collected in Southeastern Ontario, Canada, an ash health score with an interval scale ranging from 0 to 10 was established and further related to multiple spectral indices. The WV2 image was segmented using multi-band watershed and multiresolution algorithms to identify individual tree crowns, with watershed achieving higher segmentation accuracy. Ash trees were classified using the random forest classifier, resulting in a user’s accuracy of 67.6% and a producer’s accuracy of 71.4% when watershed segmentation was utilized. The best ash health score-spectral index model was then applied to the ash tree crowns to map the ash health for the entire area. The ash health prediction map, with an overall accuracy of 70%, suggests that remote sensing has potential to provide a semi-automated and large-scale monitoring of EAB infestation.

  12. Morphometric variations of laelapine mite (Acari: Mesostigmata populations infesting small mammals (Mammalia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martins-Hatano

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.

  13. Descriptive epidemiology of insects infesting domestic sheep (ovis aries) of district toba tek singh, punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, M.A.; Khan, M.N.; Iqbal, Z.; Siddique, F.

    2012-01-01

    During a cross-sectional prospective epidemiological survey, a total of 2412 sheep were screened for the prevalence of insects. Out of which, 333 (13.80%) were harbored for insects including lice (36.57%), fleas (3.23%) and flies (1.62%). Among the identified species of lice, Haematopinus spp. (44.14%) was predominant followed in order by Damalinia ovis (26.42%) and Linognathus spp. (17.71%). The flea Ctenocepahlides (Ct). felis was more common (4.50%) than Ct. canis (3.30%). Stomoxys calcitrans (3.90%) was the only prevalent specie of fly in the study area. Infestation rate was higher in young sheep (72.68%) as compared to adults (27.32%) and level of infestation was significantly higher in females (75.37%) than males (24.62%). Amongst various breeds of sheep, Cholistani (19.81%) had the highest prevalence followed by Kajli (13.49%), Thalli (12.94%) and Lohi (11.80%). Prevalence of flies (37%) and lice (47%) was highest in December and January, respectively; whereas,that of fleas (39%) reached a peak in April. Among various associated determinants, stall feeding, closed housing, tethered animals and non-cemented floor were found positively associated (P<0.05) with insect infestation. The results showed that insect abundance and the variety of genera were wide in this part of Pakistan. This also causes concern over the emergence of insect-borne diseases in domestic animals. (author)

  14. Efficacy of Chlorantraniliprole in Controlling Structural Infestations of the Eastern Subterranean Termite in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan C; Vargo, Edward L; Keefer, T Chris; Labadie, Paul; Scherer, Clay W; Gallagher, Nicola T; Gold, Roger E

    2017-08-31

    Subterranean termites are the most economically important structural pests in the USA, and the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Dictyoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is the most widely distributed species. Soil treatment with a liquid termiticide is a widely used method for controlling subterranean termites in structures. We assessed the efficacy of a nonrepellent termiticide, Altriset ® (active ingredient: chlorantraniliprole), in controlling structural infestations of R. flavipes in Texas, North Carolina, and Ohio and determined the post-treatment fate of termite colonies in and around the structures. In all three states, microsatellite markers indicated that only one R. flavipes colony was infesting each structure. A single chlorantraniliprole treatment provided effective structural protection as there was no further evidence of termite activity in and on the majority of structures from approximately 1 month to 2 years post-treatment when the study concluded. Additionally, the treatment appeared to either severely reduce the infesting colony's footprint at monitors in the landscape or eliminate colony members from these monitors. A supplemental spot-treatment was conducted at one house each in Texas and North Carolina at 5 and 6 months post-treatment, respectively; no termites were observed thereafter in these structures and associated landscaping. The number of colonies found exclusively in the landscape (not attacking the structure) varied among the states, with the largest number of colonies in Texas (0-4) and North Carolina (0-5) as compared to 0-1 in Ohio, the most northern state.

  15. Linking Stream Nitrate to Forest Response and Recovery after Severe Bark Beetle Infestation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, C.; Hubbard, R. M.; Elder, K.

    2013-12-01

    Biogeochemical responses and ecosystem recovery from bark beetle outbreaks are influenced by pre-disturbance forest structure and composition and catchment conditions. Over the past decade, the mountain pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) has killed mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees at the Fraser Experimental Forest and throughout the Colorado Rockies. Here we compare stream nitrogen (N) concentrations during the outbreak with data from the previous two decades in four research catchments with distinct forest management history, stand age structure and watershed characteristics. In two old growth forest catchments, stream nitrate concentrations were significantly higher during the infestation in the snowmelt and base flow seasons. The beetle infestation elevated nitrate export 43 and 74% in these two catchments though the amounts of N released in streamwater (0.04 and 0.15 kg N ha-1) were beetle infestation in two catchments comprised of a mixture of second-growth (30-60 year old) and old-growth (250-350 year old) forest stands where the density of residual live trees was higher on average. Mortality of overstory trees from bark beetles has stimulated the growth of understory and overstory trees with likely consequences for nutrient demand and retention in recovering forests.

  16. Genetic responses of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana to heat shock and epibiont infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egle Petkeviciute

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Expression of stress-related genes was investigated in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa in relation to heat shock at two different salinities (10 and 32‰, and it was furthermore investigated whether experimentally induced epibiont infestation led to elevated expression of stress-related genes. Expression of the genes ferritin, Hsp90 and Hsp70 were analyzed in adult copepods by conducting reverse transcription-quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR. The expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 was significantly up-regulated after heat shock and the expression levels were higher in copepods cultivated at 10‰ salinity seawater than in copepods cultivated at 32‰. Significant up-regulation of ferritin (3.3 fold increase was observed as a response to infestation with the epibiotic euglenid Colacium vesiculosum. Results suggest that (i A. tonsa responds more pronounced to thermal shock when cultivated in low salinity seawater (10‰ as compared to optimal salinity seawater (32‰ and (ii epibiont infestation does cause a measureable physiological response in the host.

  17. Mange mite infestation in small ruminants in Ethiopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abebe, Rahmeto; Sheferaw, Desie; Krontveit, Randi I; Barbara, Wieland

    2016-03-15

    Mange mites are economically important ectoparasites of sheep and goats responsible for rejection or downgrading of skins in tanneries or leather industries in Ethiopia. The objective of this systematic review was to compute the pooled prevalence estimate and identify factors influencing mange mite prevalence in sheep and goats at national level based on the available research evidence. Articles on mange mite infestation of small ruminants in Ethiopia were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and African journals on-line. The review was based on 18 cross-sectional studies carried out between 2003 and 2015 in four administrative states of Ethiopia. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate in a random effects meta-analysis was estimated to be 4.4% (95% CI 3.0, 6.3) although there were evidence of a substantial amount of between-study variance (I(2)=98.4%). In subgroup and multivariable meta-regression analyses, animal species, agro-ecology and administrative state were found to have significant effect on the prevalence estimate (Pmites of the genus Sarcoptes, Demodex and Psoroptes are the most prevalent mites infesting small ruminants in Ethiopia. Valid studies were lacking from five regional states. As some of these regions are known for their large small ruminant population, further studies are warranted to produce better picture of the infestation at a national level. Meanwhile, the need for monitoring the ongoing control intervention is suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Systemic response to aphid infestation by Myzus persicae in the phloem of Apium graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divol, Fanchon; Vilaine, Françoise; Thibivilliers, Sandra; Amselem, Joëlle; Palauqui, Jean-Christophe; Kusiak, Chantal; Dinant, Sylvie

    2005-03-01

    Little is known about the molecular processes involved in the phloem response to aphid feeding. We investigated molecular responses to aphid feeding on celery (Apium graveolenscv. Dulce) plants infested with the aphid Myzus persicae, as a means of identifying changes in phloem function. We used celery as our model species as it is easy to separate the phloem from the surrounding tissues in the petioles of mature leaves of this species. We generated a total of 1187 expressed sequence tags (ESTs), corresponding to 891 non-redundant genes. We analysed these ESTs in silico after cDNA macroarray hybridisation. Aphid feeding led to significant increase in RNA accumulation for 126 different genes. Different patterns of deregulation were observed, including transitory or stable induction 3 or 7 days after infestation. The genes affected belonged to various functional categories and were induced systemically in the phloem after infestation. In particular, genes involved in cell wall modification, water transport, vitamin biosynthesis, photosynthesis, carbon assimilation and nitrogen and carbon mobilisation were up-regulated in the phloem. Further analysis of the response in the phloem or xylem suggested that a component of the response was developed more specifically in the phloem. However, this component was different from the stress responses in the phloem driven by pathogen infection. Our results indicate that the phloem is actively involved in multiple adjustments, recruiting metabolic pathways and in structural changes far from aphid feeding sites. However, they also suggest that the phloem displays specific mechanisms that may not be induced in other tissues.

  19. Occurrence of proscopiidae in Eucalyptus spp.: analysis of the infestations and spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to report the occurrence of proscopiidae and to quantify its infestation and spatial distribution in one experimental plantation of eucalypt clones. The study was conducted in an experimental field with eucalypt hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (clones GG100, Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (H13 and of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus camaldulensis (VM01. The plantation was established in three continuous blocks with 512 plants with 3 m x 2 m, in Cáceres municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Infestation of proscopiidae insects was detected two months after planting . The insects were collected for identification. The attacked trees were geo-referenced and the injuries were quantified. The spatial pattern of proscopiidae he attack was determinated using the location information of the damaged plants, which have been submitted to a quadrats analyses using Morisita and binomial dispersion indexes. All the collected insects have been identified as Tetanorhynchus smithi Rehn, 1904 (Orthoptera, Proscopiidae. The infestation differed significantly among the three eucalypts clones and aggregated spatial pattern of attack was observed. This is the first report of this species of proscopiidae in eucalyptus in Mato Grosso State.

  20. Deformed wing virus associated with Tropilaelaps mercedesae infesting European honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Eva; de Miranda, Joachim R; Isaksson, Mats; Wei, Shi; Fries, Ingemar

    2009-02-01

    Mites in the genus Tropilaelaps (Acari: Laelapidae) are ectoparasites of the brood of honey bees (Apis spp.). Different Tropilaelaps subspecies were originally described from Apis dorsata, but a host switch occurred to the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, for which infestations can rapidly lead to colony death. Tropilaelaps is hence considered more dangerous to A. mellifera than the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. Honey bees are also infected by many different viruses, some of them associated with and vectored by V. destructor. In recent years, deformed wing virus (DWV) has become the most prevalent virus infection in honey bees associated with V. destructor. DWV is distributed world-wide, and found wherever the Varroa mite is found, although low levels of the virus can also be found in Varroa free colonies. The Varroa mite transmits viral particles when feeding on the haemolymph of pupae or adult bees. Both the Tropilaelaps mite and the Varroa mite feed on honey bee brood, but no observations of DWV in Tropilaelaps have so far been reported. In this study, quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to show the presence of DWV in infested brood and Tropilaelaps mercedesae mites collected in China, and to demonstrate a close quantitative association between mite-infested pupae of A. mellifera and DWV infections. Phylogenetic analysis of the DWV sequences recovered from matching pupae and mites revealed considerable DWV sequence heterogeneity and polymorphism. These polymorphisms appeared to be associated with the individual brood cell, rather than with a particular host.