WorldWideScience

Sample records for lepidium draba brassicaceae

  1. Kaempferol glycosides and cardenolide glycosides, cytotoxic constituents from the seeds of Draba nemorosa (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Surk-Sik; Rahman, Md Aziz Abdur; Manir, Md Maniruzzaman; Jamal Ahamed, V S

    2010-08-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of a methanolic extract from the seeds of Draba nemorosa (Brassicaceae) led to isolation of a new flavonol glycoside, drabanemoroside (5, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranose) along with four known flavonoid derivatives (1-4), four cardenolide glycosides (6-9). Kaempferol glycosides 2 and 5 showed strong cytotoxicity against human small lung cancer cell line A549 and melanoma SK-Mel-2 with an IC(50) of 0.5 microg/mL and 1.9 microg/mL, respectively. Cardenolide glycosides 6-9 showed potent cytotoxicity (A549) in the range of 0.01-0.032 microg/mL. Their structures were characterized based on spectroscopic data (2D NMR, HRTOFMS, IR, and UV) and comparison of literature values. The carbohydrate units were also confirmed by comparing the hydrolysate of 5 with authentic monosaccharides.

  2. New Lepidium (Brassicaceae from New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter de Lange

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA. One species, L. castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with L. oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, L. amissum sp. nov. and L. obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from L. banksii, L. flexicaule and L. oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (L. aegrum sp. nov., L. crassum sp. nov. and L. juvencum sp. nov.. One of these, L. juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (L. flexicaule, L. oblitum sp. nov., L. oleraceum, L. oligodontum sp. nov., L. panniforme sp. nov., and L. rekohuense sp. nov., one of which, L. oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, L. seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to L. oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for L. banksii, L. oleraceum, L. oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum.

  3. Histology of Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Marín-Bravo, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Se presenta el estudio histológico de Lepidium meyenii Walpers "maca", enfocado principalmente en la caracterización del órgano reservante. El estudio se realizó en macas de color amarillo, procedentes de Junín, y comprendió la caracterización histológica del órgano reservante subterráneo y detalles adicionales de la estructura interna foliar, a partir de muestras fijadas en FAA y empleando la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Los resultados muestran en el órgano reservante las característica...

  4. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF PARSLEY (Petroselinum crispum Mill. COGERMINATION, WATER EXTRACTS AND RESIDUES ON HOARY CRESS (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ravlić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine allelopathic effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill. on germination and growth parameters of weed species hoary cress (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.. Cogermination of hoary cress with parsley seeds, water extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass in concentrations of 5 and 10% (50 and 100 g per litre of distilled water were evaluated in Petri dishes. Effect of water extracts from fresh parsley biomass in aforementioned concentrations as well as effects of fresh and dry parsley residues in two rates (10 and 20 g/kg of soil were examined in pots with soil. Cogermination of seeds stimulated root length, but decreased shoot length and fresh weight of hoary cress seedlings. In the Petri dish assay, extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass reduced germination of hoary cress, but had both stimulatory as well as inhibitory effect on other parameters. The highest concentration of dry biomass extract completely reduced germination rate of hoary cress (by 100%. In the pot experiment, extracts from fresh parsley biomass had stimulatory effect on weed growth parameters except for root length which was inhibited with higher concentration by 4.2%. Fresh parsley residues reduced germination, root and shoot length of hoary cress, while dry parsley residues promoted measured parameters, with the exception of root length.

  5. Phytotoxical effect of Lepidium draba L. extracts on the germination and growth of monocot (Zea mays L.) and dicot (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yusuf; Aksakal, Ozkan; Sunar, Serap; Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Bozari, Sedat; Agar, Guleray; Erez, Mehmet Emre; Battal, Peyami

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to determine phytotoxic potentials of white top (Lepidium draba) methanol extracts (root, stem and leaf) on germination and early growth of corn (Zea mays) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). Furthermore, the effects of different methanol extracts of L. draba on the phytohormone (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin) levels of corn and redroot pigweed were investigated. It was observed that all concentrations of methanol extracts of root, stem and leaf of L. draba inhibited germination, radicle and plumule elongation when compared with the respective controls. Besides this, the degree of inhibition was increased in concert with increasing concentrations of extracts used. On the other hand, phytohormone levels changed with the application of different extract concentrations. Comparing with the control, the GA levels significantly decreased while the ABA levels increased in all the application groups. Zeatin and IAA levels showed changes depending upon the applied extracts and concentrations. © The Author(s) 2012.

  6. Microsatellite Loci in the Gypsophyte Lepidium subulatum (Brassicaceae, and Transferability to Other Lepidieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gabriel Segarra-Moragues

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Ibero-North African, strict gypsophyte Lepidium subulatum to unravel the effects of habitat fragmentation in levels of genetic diversity, genetic structure and gene flow among its populations. Using 454 pyrosequencing 12 microsatellite loci including di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were characterized in L. subulatum. They amplified a total of 80 alleles (2–12 alleles per locus in a sample of 35 individuals of L. subulatum, showing relatively high levels of genetic diversity, HO = 0.645, HE = 0.627. Cross-species transferability of all 12 loci was successful for the Iberian endemics Lepidium cardamines, Lepidium stylatum, and the widespread, Lepidium graminifolium and one species each of two related genera, Cardaria draba and Coronopus didymus. These microsatellite primers will be useful to investigate genetic diversity, population structure and to address conservation genetics in species of Lepidium.

  7. Dormancy and germination in short-lived lepidium perfoliatu l. (brassicaceae) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, An-Jun; Tian, M.; Long, Chun-Lin

    2010-01-01

    To understand germination timing in an ecological context, the response to environmental events that effect seed dormancy is central and has to be combined with knowledge of germination responses to different ecological factors. In this study, seed dormancy, germination and seedling survival of annual short-lived clasping pepper weed Lepidium perfoliatum L. (Brassicaceae) were investigated. Three types of pre-treatments viz., various temperature dry storage, light and water stress were tested as possible dormancy and survival-affecting environmental events. Fresh mature seeds were greatly dormant. Warm (30 deg. C) dry storage more facilitated breaking dormancy, they germinated well under apt conditions (e.g. 20 deg. C and 10/20 deg. C plus periodic light, 14 h/d). For those seeds which underwent after-ripening, they could germinate at a range of constant temperatures (4, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 deg. C) and one alternating temperature (10/20 deg. C). Under alternating temperature regimes, the final percent germination of L. perfoliatum seeds increased from 37 deg. C to 93% when temperature altered from 4/10 deg. C to 10/20 deg. C in light, then decreased with increasing temperature. The germination pattern under constant temperature conditions was similar to that under alternating temperature and significant differences in final percent germinations and rates of germination were observed among different temperatures. Under different light treatments, final germination of showed significant differences, only with 35% of germination percentage in dark, much lower than those in red and white light (i.e. 93% and 91%, respectively). GA3 could promote the germination of non-dormant seeds in dark. When water potentials were reduced, final percent germination decreased dramatically, and few seeds germinated at -0.98 MPa (generated by PEG-8000). The changes of proline content in resultant seedlings were reverse to that of final percent germination with changing water

  8. Histología de la Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Marín-Bravo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio histológico de Lepidium meyenii Walpers "maca", enfocado principalmente en la caracterización del órgano reservante. El estudio se realizó en macas de color amarillo, procedentes de Junín, y comprendió la caracterización histológica del órgano reservante subterráneo y detalles adicionales de la estructura interna foliar, a partir de muestras fijadas en FAA y empleando la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Los resultados muestran en el órgano reservante las características de una región de transición entre la raíz, de estructura secundaria lignificada, y el tallo primario reducido, con el desarrollo de una amplia zona medular. Presenta además un tipo peculiar de actividad cambial secundaria en la forma de haces conductores corticales. Entre los detalles histológicos adicionales está el desarrollo de una cubierta suberificada de células corticales en el órgano reservante y la presencia de tricomas cónicos unicelulares en las hojas.

  9. Actividad leishmanicida de los extractos metanólicos de cuatro ecotipos de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento clásico de la leishmaniosis cutánea consiste en la inyección de 15-20 ampollas de Glucantine lo que ocasiona efectos secundarios, este hecho justifica la búsqueda de nuevos medicamentos motivando la presente investigación. El objetivo fue evaluar in vitro la actividad leishmanicida de los extractos metanólicos (EM de los ecotipos blanco, rojo, morado y negro de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (también conocida como Lepidium meyenii Walp., sobre el crecimiento de Leishmania braziliensis peruviana. Los promastigotes alcanzaron la fase de crecimiento exponencial al quinto día de cultivo a 27 ºC en el medio bifásico Columbia, suplementado con 15% de sangre desfibrinada de carnero, en ese momento se enfrentaron, por separado, con los EM a concentraciones de 50, 100, 200 y 400 μg/ml. Los recuentos se hicieron diariamente con cámara Neubauer. La máxima disminución de promastigotes se produjo al segundo día de enfrentamiento para el ecotipo morado (17,41% de viabilidad empleando 400 μg/ml. El efecto leishmanicida estaría relacionado con los alcaloides imidazólicos presentes en el EM. Se concluye que al segundo día de enfrentamiento con el EM, el ecotipo morado presenta la mayor actividad leishmanicida seguido del ecotipo blanco.

  10. From species to trait evolution in Aethionema (Brassicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadin, Setareh

    2017-01-01

    The plant family Brassicaceae (or crucifers) is an economically important group that includes many food crops (e.g. cabbages and radishes), horticultural species (e.g. Draba, Iberis, Lunaria), and model plant species (particularly Arabidopsis thaliana). Because of the

  11. Characterization of the lignin polymer in Brassicaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hemmati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Residues of medicinal plants after extraction and weeds are suitable candidates for bioethanol production. Significant barriers exist to make the conversion of lignocellulosic feedstock to biofuel cost effective and environmentally friendly; one of which is the lignin polymer. Brassicaceae family is one of the potential targets for biofuel production. The structural characteristics of lignin from Hirschfeldia incana, Sisymbrium altissimum and Cardaria draba were studied in comparison to that of Brassica napus. Methods: Lignin deposition was observed by phloroglucinol and Mäule staining. The total lignin content was determined by Klason method. Maximum UV absorbance and FT-IR spectra were compared. Ratio of syringyl to guaiacyl lignin (S/G ratio as a metric of lignin digestibility was determined by DFRC followed by GC-MS analysis. 1H-NMR spectra of the total lignin was compared with other spectroscopic methods. Results: Staining of thestem cross sections of C. draba showed higher G units in contrast to the higher S units in S. altissimum which was in agreement with 1H-NMR analysis. Total lignin content for H. incana, C. draba and S. altissimum was 27.10%, 23.8% and 24.5%, respectively. The specific maximum UV absorbance appeared between 230-260 nm. FT-IR analysis confirmed the presence of more aromatic structures in the seed maturation stage than the flowering stage. S/G ratio was 0.26, 0.10 and 0.22 for H. incana, C. draba and S. altissimum, respectively.  Conclusion: Except Cardaria draba with the predominance of G subunits in lignin polymer, Hirschfeldia incana and Sisymbrium altissimum are suitable candidates for bioethanol production.

  12. Producción de IFN−γ en cultivos de linfocitos humanos por efecto de los extractos metanólicos de cuatro ecotipos de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la actividad inmunoduladora sobre cultivos de linfocitos T humanos de sangre periférica. Se evaluó la producción de IFN−γ inducida por los extractos metanólicos (EM de los ecotipos blanco, negro, rojo y morado de Lepidium peruvianum (conocida también como Lepidium meyenii Walp. maca. Luego de cultivar los linfocitos con los respectivos EM de maca durante 14 horas sólo el EM del ecotipo morado indujo la producción significativa de IFN−γ cuantificada mediante Elispot. El extracto metanólico del ecotipo morado de maca posee propiedades inmunoestimuladoras importantes, desencadenando la activación de linfocitos T humanos.

  13. Ameliorative effect of Draba nemorosa extract on chronic heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of Draba nemorosa extract (DNE) on oxidative stress and hemodynamics in rats with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). Methods: Adriamycin was used to establish CHF in Sprague Dawley (SD) rat model. Six groups of SD rats were used in this study: control group, CHF group, captopril ...

  14. Genetics of cryptic speciation within an Arctic mustard, Draba nivalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Lovisa S Gustafsson

    Full Text Available Crossing experiments indicate that hybrid sterility barriers frequently have developed within diploid, circumpolar plant species of the genus Draba. To gain insight into the rapid evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation in this system, we augmented the linkage map of one of these species, D. nivalis, and searched for quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with reproductive isolation. The map adds 63 new dominant markers to a previously published dataset of 31 co-dominant microsatellites. These markers include 52 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs and 11 sequence-specific amplified polymorphisms (SSAPs based on retrotransposon sequence. 22 markers displaying transmission ratio distortion were further included in the map. We resolved eight linkage groups with a total map length of 894 cM. Significant genotype-trait associations, or quantitative trait loci (QTL, were detected for reproductive phenotypes including pollen fertility (4 QTLs, seed set (3 QTLs, flowering time (3 QTLs and number of flowers (4 QTLs. Observed patterns of inheritance were consistent with the influence of both nuclear-nuclear interactions and chromosomal changes on these traits. All seed set QTLs and one pollen fertility QTL displayed underdominant effects suggestive of the involvement of chromosomal rearrangements in hybrid sterility. Interestingly, D. nivalis is predominantly self-fertilizing, which may facilitate the establishment of underdominant loci and contribute to reproductive isolation.

  15. Seeds of Brassicaceae weeds have an inherent or inducible response to the germination stimulant karrikinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rowena L; Stevens, Jason C; Griffiths, Erin M; Adamek, Markus; Gorecki, Marta J; Powles, Stephen B; Merritt, David J

    2011-10-01

    Karrikinolide (KAR(1)) is a smoke-derived chemical that can trigger seeds to germinate. A potential application for KAR(1) is for synchronizing the germination of weed seeds, thereby enhancing the efficiency of weed control efforts. Yet not all species germinate readily with KAR(1), and it is not known whether seemingly non-responsive species can be induced to respond. Here a major agronomic weed family, the Brassicaceae, is used to test the hypothesis that a stimulatory response to KAR(1) may be present in physiologically dormant seeds but may not be expressed under all circumstances. Seeds of eight Brassicaceae weed species (Brassica tournefortii, Raphanus raphanistrum, Sisymbrium orientale, S. erysimoides, Rapistrum rugosum, Lepidium africanum, Heliophila pusilla and Carrichtera annua) were tested for their response to 1 µm KAR(1) when freshly collected and following simulated and natural dormancy alleviation, which included wet-dry cycling, dry after-ripening, cold and warm stratification and a 2 year seed burial trial. Seven of the eight Brassicaceae species tested were stimulated to germinate with KAR(1) when the seeds were fresh, and the remaining species became responsive to KAR(1) following wet-dry cycling and dry after-ripening. Light influenced the germination response of seeds to KAR(1), with the majority of species germinating better in darkness. Germination with and without KAR(1) fluctuated seasonally throughout the seed burial trial. KAR(1) responses are more complex than simply stating whether a species is responsive or non-responsive; light and temperature conditions, dormancy state and seed lot all influence the sensitivity of seeds to KAR(1), and a response to KAR(1) can be induced. Three response types for generalizing KAR(1) responses are proposed, namely inherent, inducible and undetected. Given that responses to KAR(1) were either inherent or inducible in all 15 seed lots included in this study, the Brassicaceae may be an ideal target for

  16. Lepidium flavum Torrey var. apterum nob

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.; Thellung, A.

    1918-01-01

    Wie bekannt, ist TORREY’S Lepidium flavum sehr ausgezeichnet durch die gelbe Krone mit der zweizähnigen Frucht und dem sehr langen hervorragenden Griffel *). Lepidium flavum gehört also zur Sektion Monoploca (BUNGE 1845 pro gen.) THELLUNG, und zwar speziell zur Grex Alyssoidea THELL. ¹) Bei einer

  17. DNA barcoding of western North American taxa: Leymus (Poaceae) and Lepidium (Brassicaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine Mae Culumber

    2007-01-01

    My objective was to determine if polymorphic information from the 18S-5.8S-26S nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer regions and the trnK-psbA, trnK-rps16 chloroplast DNA spacer regions is sufficient 1) to identify a plant specimen to the species level, and 2) to establish the phylogenetic relationship between species. The first study examined the...

  18. Plastome phylogeny and early diversification of Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyi; Liu, Jianquan; Hao, Guoqian; Zhang, Lei; Mao, Kangshan; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Dan; Ma, Tao; Hu, Quanjun; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A; Koch, Marcus A

    2017-02-16

    The family Brassicaceae encompasses diverse species, many of which have high scientific and economic importance. Early diversifications and phylogenetic relationships between major lineages or clades remain unclear. Here we re-investigate Brassicaceae phylogeny with complete plastomes from 51 species representing all four lineages or 5 of 6 major clades (A, B, C, E and F) as identified in earlier studies. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses using a partitioned supermatrix of 77 protein coding genes resulted in nearly identical tree topologies exemplified by highly supported relationships between clades. All four lineages were well identified and interrelationships between them were resolved. The previously defined Clade C was found to be paraphyletic (the genus Megadenia formed a separate lineage), while the remaining clades were monophyletic. Clade E (lineage III) was sister to clades B + C rather than to all core Brassicaceae (clades A + B + C or lineages I + II), as suggested by a previous transcriptome study. Molecular dating based on plastome phylogeny supported the origin of major lineages or clades between late Oligocene and early Miocene, and the following radiative diversification across the family took place within a short timescale. In addition, gene losses in the plastomes occurred multiple times during the evolutionary diversification of the family. Plastome phylogeny illustrates the early diversification of cruciferous species. This phylogeny will facilitate our further understanding of evolution and adaptation of numerous species in the model family Brassicaceae.

  19. Lepidium latifolium L.: een nieuw pekeladventief?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Lepidium latifolium, originally a species of salt steppes, has been found at two localities near Leiden between pavement along road-sides. Its new habitat may have become suitable for it because of the frequent use of road-salt in winter.

  20. Synergistic antiosteoporotic effect of Lepidium Sativum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alendronate belongs to a class of drugs called bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates (BP) therapy is a vital option to reduce the risk of bone fracture in people who suffer from osteoporosis. Yet, bisphosphonate have displayed several side effects. Lepidium sativum (LS) seeds have been used in traditional folk medicine to ...

  1. Dynamic Subcellular Localization of Iron during Embryo Development in Brassicaceae Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Ibeas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential micronutrient for plants. Little is know about how iron is loaded in embryo during seed development. In this article we used Perls/DAB staining in order to reveal iron localization at the cellular and subcellular levels in different Brassicaceae seed species. In dry seeds of Brassica napus, Nasturtium officinale, Lepidium sativum, Camelina sativa, and Brassica oleracea iron localizes in vacuoles of cells surrounding provasculature in cotyledons and hypocotyl. Using B. napus and N. officinale as model plants we determined where iron localizes during seed development. Our results indicate that iron is not detectable by Perls/DAB staining in heart stage embryo cells. Interestingly, at torpedo development stage iron localizes in nuclei of different cells type, including integument, free cell endosperm and almost all embryo cells. Later, iron is detected in cytoplasmic structures in different embryo cell types. Our results indicate that iron accumulates in nuclei in specific stages of embryo maturation before to be localized in vacuoles of cells surrounding provasculature in mature seeds.

  2. Genome of Plant Maca (Lepidium meyenii) Illuminates Genomic Basis for High-Altitude Adaptation in the Central Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Yang; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xiao; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jiajin; Ma, Xiao; Tan, Yuntao; Long, Ni; Wang, Yangzi; Ma, Yujin; He, Yuqi; Xue, Yu; Hao, Shumei; Yang, Shengchao; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Liangsheng; Dong, Yang; Chen, Wei; Sheng, Jun

    2016-07-06

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp, 2n = 8x = 64), belonging to the Brassicaceae family, is an economic plant cultivated in the central Andes sierra in Peru (4000-4500 m). Considering that the rapid uplift of the central Andes occurred 5-10 million years ago (Ma), an evolutionary question arises regarding how plants such as maca acquire high-altitude adaptation within a short geological period. Here, we report the high-quality genome assembly of maca, in which two closely spaced maca-specific whole-genome duplications (WGDs; ∼6.7 Ma) were identified. Comparative genomic analysis between maca and closely related Brassicaceae species revealed expansions of maca genes and gene families involved in abiotic stress response, hormone signaling pathway, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis via WGDs. The retention and subsequent functional divergence of many duplicated genes may account for the morphological and physiological changes (i.e., small leaf shape and self-fertility) in maca in a high-altitude environment. In addition, some duplicated maca genes were identified with functions in morphological adaptation (i.e., LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS) and abiotic stress response (i.e., GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEINS and DNA-DAMAGE-REPAIR/TOLERATION 2) under positive selection. Collectively, the maca genome provides useful information to understand the important roles of WGDs in the high-altitude adaptation of plants in the Andes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca, a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F. Gonzales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepidium meyenii (maca is a Peruvian plant of the Brassicaceae family cultivated for more than 2000 years, which grows exclusively in the central Andes between 4000 and 4500 m altitude. Maca is used as a food supplement and also for its medicinal properties described traditionally. Since the 90s of the XX century, an increasing interest in products from maca has been observed in many parts of the world. In the last decade, exportation of maca from Peru has increased from 1,415,000 USD in 2001 to USD 6,170,000 USD in 2010. Experimental scientific evidence showed that maca has nutritional, energizer, and fertility-enhancer properties, and it acts on sexual dysfunctions, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, memory and learning, and protects skin against ultraviolet radiation. Clinical trials showed efficacy of maca on sexual dysfunctions as well as increasing sperm count and motility. Maca is a plant with great potential as an adaptogen and appears to be promising as a nutraceutical in the prevention of several diseases.

  4. Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2012-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a Peruvian plant of the Brassicaceae family cultivated for more than 2000 years, which grows exclusively in the central Andes between 4000 and 4500 m altitude. Maca is used as a food supplement and also for its medicinal properties described traditionally. Since the 90s of the XX century, an increasing interest in products from maca has been observed in many parts of the world. In the last decade, exportation of maca from Peru has increased from 1,415,000 USD in 2001 to USD 6,170,000 USD in 2010. Experimental scientific evidence showed that maca has nutritional, energizer, and fertility-enhancer properties, and it acts on sexual dysfunctions, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, memory and learning, and protects skin against ultraviolet radiation. Clinical trials showed efficacy of maca on sexual dysfunctions as well as increasing sperm count and motility. Maca is a plant with great potential as an adaptogen and appears to be promising as a nutraceutical in the prevention of several diseases.

  5. Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzales Gustavo F

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae, known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl growing exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m altitude in the central Peruvian Andes, particularly in Junin plateau and is used traditionally to enhance fertility. Maca is a cultivated plant and different cultivars are described according to the color of the hypocotyls. Methods The study aimed to elucidate the effect of Yellow, Red and Black Maca on cognitive function and depression in ovariectomized (OVX mice. In all experiments OVX mice were treated during 21 days and divided in four groups: control group, Yellow Maca, Red Maca and Black Maca. Latent learning was assessed using the water finding task and the antidepressant activity of the three varieties of Maca was evaluated using the forced swimming test. Animals were sacrificed at the end of each treatment and the uterus were excised and weighed. Results Black Maca was the variety that showed the best response in the water finding task, particularly in the trained mice. The three varieties were effective to reduce finding latency in non trained and trained mice (P Conclusion Black Maca appeared to have more beneficial effects on latent learning in OVX mice; meanwhile, all varieties of Maca showed antidepressant activity.

  6. Effects of Brassicaceae Isothiocyanates on Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Novío

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the major progress made in the field of cancer biology, cancer is still one of the leading causes of mortality, and prostate cancer (PCa is one of the most encountered malignancies among men. The effective management of this disease requires developing better anticancer agents with greater efficacy and fewer side effects. Nature is a large source for the development of chemotherapeutic agents, with more than 50% of current anticancer drugs being of natural origin. Isothiocyanates (ITCs are degradation products from glucosinolates that are present in members of the family Brassicaceae. Although they are known for a variety of therapeutic effects, including antioxidant, immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial properties, nowadays, cell line and animal studies have additionally indicated the chemopreventive action without causing toxic side effects of ITCs. In this way, they can induce cell cycle arrest, activate apoptosis pathways, increase the sensitivity of resistant PCa to available chemodrugs, modulate epigenetic changes and downregulate activated signaling pathways, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation, progression and invasion-metastasis. The present review summarizes the chemopreventive role of ITCs with a particular emphasis on specific molecular targets and epigenetic alterations in in vitro and in vivo cancer animal models.

  7. Chemical constituents from maca (lepidium meyenii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Z.; Li, M.J.; Ma, L.; Li, L.

    2016-01-01

    Two new natural products, tetrahydro-2-benzyl-1H-pyrrolo-(1,2-C) imidazole-1,3(2H) -dione (1) and (1S,4R,4aR,9aS)-4a-methyl-1,4,4a,9a- tetrahydro-1,4-methano-anthracene-9,10-dione (2), together with eleven known compounds (3-13) were isolated from the petroleum ether fraction of the 95% ethanol extract from the tubers of Lepidium meyenii. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 were new natural products, compounds 3, 4, 7-11, and 13 were isolated from L. meyenii for the first time. In addition, the spectroscopic data of compound 1 were firstly reported. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis along with comparison with literature reports. (author)

  8. Bioactive maca (Lepidium meyenii) alkamides are a result of traditional Andean postharvest drying practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, Eliana; Hadzich, Antonella; Kofer, Waltraud; Mithöfer, Axel; Cosio, Eric G

    2015-08-01

    Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae), is an annual herbaceous plant native to the high plateaus of the Peruvian central Andes. Its underground storage hypocotyls have been a traditional medicinal agent and dietary staple since pre-Columbian times. Reported properties include energizing and fertility-enhancing effects. Published reports have focused on the benzylalkamides (macamides) present in dry hypocotyls as one of the main bioactive components. Macamides are secondary amides formed by benzylamine and a fatty acid moiety, with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and degree of unsaturation. Although it has been assumed that they are usually present in fresh undamaged tissues, analyses show them to be essentially absent from them. However, hypocotyls dried by traditional Andean postharvest practices or industrial oven drying contain up to 800μgg(-1) dry wt (2.3μmolg(-1) dry wt) of macamides. In this study, the generation of macamides and their putative precursors were studied during nine-week traditional drying trials at 4200m altitude and in ovens under laboratory conditions. Freeze-thaw cycles in the open field during drying result in tissue maceration and release of free fatty acids from storage and membrane lipids up to levels of 1200μgg(-1) dry wt (4.3μmolg(-1) dry wt). Endogenous metabolism of the isothiocyanates generated from glucosinolate hydrolysis during drying results in maximal benzylamine values of 4300μgg(-1) dry wt (40.2μmolg(-1) dry wt). Pearson correlation coefficients of the accumulation profiles of benzylamine and free fatty acid to that of macamides showed good values of 0.898 and 0.934, respectively, suggesting that both provide sufficient substrate for amide synthesis during the drying process. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Lepidium meyenii (Maca): a plant from the highlands of Peru--from tradition to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-12-01

    This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on Lepidium meyenii (maca), a cruciferous plant (Brassicaceae family) which is cultivated exclusively at an altitude of 4,000-4,500 m in the Peruvian Central Andes. Maca is traditionally used for its nutritional and presumed medicinal properties. Over the past 20 years, interest in maca has increased in many parts of the world, and since 2005 maca is considered one of the seven Peruvian flag products. Maca is exported as powder, capsules, pills, flour, liquor, and extracts. There are different types of maca with differ-ent colors ranging from white to black. We have studied the pharmacological effects of 3 types; yellow, black, and red maca. Evidence from experimental studies indicates effects of maca on nutrition, fertility, memory, and mood. Black maca has better effects on sperm production than yellow maca which has only moderate effects. Red maca, however, has no effect on sperm production. However, red maca has been shown to reduce prostate size in rats in which prostate hyperplasia had been induced with testosterone enanthate; yellow maca has shown moderate effects here, whereas black maca has not shown any effects. Randomized clinical trials have shown that maca has favorable effects on energy and mood, may decrease anxiety and improve sexual desire. Maca has also been shown to improve sperm production, sperm motility, and semen volume. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH, FSH, and prolactin were not affected. The exact mechanisms of action are still unclear, but so far research clearly indicates that various bioactive constituents contribute to the clinical effects reported.

  10. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) improve scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Julio; Dang, Haixia; Gong, Mengjuan; Liu, Xinmin; Chen, Shi-Lin; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2007-10-01

    Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae), known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl growing exclusively between 4,000 and 4,500 m altitude in the central Peruvian Andes, particularly in Junin plateau. Previously, Black variety of Maca showed to be more beneficial than other varieties of Maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized mice on the water finding test. The present study aimed to test two different doses of aqueous (0.50 and 2.00 g/kg) and hydroalcoholic (0.25 and 1.00 g/kg) extracts of Black Maca administered for 35 days on memory impairment induced by scopolamine (1mg/kg body weight i.p.) in male mice. Memory and learning were evaluated using the water Morris maze and the step-down avoidance test. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activities in brain were also determined. Both extracts of Black Maca significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced memory impairment as measured in both the water Morris maze and the step-down avoidance tests. Black Maca extracts inhibited AChE activity, whereas MAO activity was not affected. These results indicate that Black Maca improves scopolamine-induced memory deficits.

  11. Brassicaceae tissues as inhibitors of nitrification in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul D; Morra, Matthew J

    2009-09-09

    Brassicaceae crops often produce an unexplained increase in plant-available soil N possibly related to bioactive compounds produced from glucosinolates present in the tissues. Our objective was to determine if glucosinolate-containing tissues inhibit nitrification, thereby potentially explaining this observation. Ammonium, NO(2)(-), and NO(3)(-) N were measured in soils amended with Brassicaceae ( Isatis tinctoria L., Brassica napus L., Brassica juncea L., and Sinapis alba L.) tissues containing different glucosinolate types and concentrations or Kentucky bluegrass ( Poa pratensis L.) residues with equivalent C/N ratios as the Brassicaceae samples. There was greater accumulation of NH(4)(+) N in soils amended with tissues containing high glucosinolate concentrations as compared to soils amended with tissues containing no or low glucosinolate concentrations. Nitrite N was detected only in soils amended with Brassicaceae tissues having the highest glucosinolate concentrations. The positive correlation of both NH(4)(+) and NO(2)(-) N accumulation with the glucosinolate concentration indicates the participation of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in nitrification inhibition.

  12. Numerical taxonomic studies of some tribes of Brassicaceae from Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdel Khalik, K.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Koopman, W.J.M.; Berg, van den R.G.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic study of 45 taxa belonging to 23 genera of tribes Arabideae, Euclidieae, Hesperideae, Lunarieae, Matthioleae and Sisymbrieae of Brassicaceae from Egypt was conducted by means of numerical analysis based on sixty two morphological characters, including vegetative parts, pollen grains and

  13. Signaling pathways regulated by Brassicaceae extract inhibit the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The goal of this study was identification signaling molecules mediated the formation of AGEs in brain of rats injected with CdCl2 and the role of camel whey proteins and Brassicaceae extract on formation of AGEs in brain. Methods: Ninety male rats were randomly grouped into five groups; Normal control (GpI) ...

  14. (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 93; Issue 2. Phylogeny and biogeography of Alyssum (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. Yan Li Yan Kong Zhe Zhang Yanqiang Yin Bin Liu Guanghui Lv Xiyong Wang. Research Article Volume 93 Issue 2 August 2014 pp 313-323 ...

  15. The in vitro biological activity of Lepidium meyenii extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valentová, K.; Buckiová, Daniela; Křen, Vladimír; Pěknicová, Jana; Ulrichová, J.; Šimánek, V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2006), s. 91-99 ISSN 0742-2091 R&D Projects: GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Lepidium meyenii * Maca * DPPH Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.400, year: 2006

  16. Maca (Lepidium meyenii WALP), a review of its biological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Doctor en Medicina y doctor en Ciencias.; Villaorduña, Leonidas; Universidad Nacional Daniel Alcides Carrión. Cerro de Pasco, Perú. doctor en Economía.; Gasco, Manuel; Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. magíster en Ciencias.; Rubio, Julio; Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. licenciado en Biología.; Gonzales, Carla; Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. doctora en Ciencias.

    2014-01-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a plant that grows above 4000 altitude meters in Peru’s Central Andes; it has different varieties according to the color of the hypocotyl. This review summarizes the results of studies about the effects of maca on sexual function, spermatogenesis, female reproductive function, memory, depression and anxiety, and energy as well as effects on benign prostatic hyperplasia, osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome. Its anti-aging effect is also discussed as well as safety in...

  17. Peruvian Maca: Two Scientific Names Lepidium Meyenii Walpers and Lepidium Peruvianum Chacon – Are They Phytochemically-Synonymous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Henry O.; Mscisz, Alina; Kedzia, Bogdan; Pisulewski, Pawel; Piatkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) , profiles of the two isotypes labelled under the same common name Maca deposited in the Medicinal Plant Herbarium, in Australia and Poland, but identified under two different scientific names Lepidium meyenii Walpers (L. meyenii) and Lepidium peruvianum Chacon (L. peruvianum) are presented. The two isotypes correspond to two holotypes of Peruvian medicinal herb known under the same common name “Maca”, as originally deposited in the Herbarium of San Marcos University in Lima, Peru dated back to 1843 and 1990 respectively. The results demonstrate distinct differences in taxonomy, visual appearance, phytochemical profiles and DNA sequences of the two researched Maca isotypes, suggesting that the two Maca specimens are dissimilar and formal use of the term “synonymous” to L. meyenii and L. peruvianum may be misleading. On the basis of presented results the scientific name L. meyenii, used since 1843 up-today for cultivated Peruvian Maca by numerous reference sources worldwide, including Regulatory Bodies in the USA, EU, Australia and most lately in China, appears to be used in error and should be formally revised. It is concluded, that the isotype of cultivated Peruvian Maca labelled under its scientific name Lepidium peruvianum Chacon, provides all the characteristics peculiar to this historically-documented herb grown in Andean highlands, which may be linked to its traditional use and accepted functionality, confirmed in recent clinical study to be relevant to its present day use for expected dietary, therapeutic and health benefits.

  18. Optimization of the new formulation of ice cream with native Iranian seed gums (Lepidium perfoliatum and Lepidium sativum) using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari-Anpar, M; Soltani Tehrani, N; Aghajani, N; Khomeiri, M

    2017-01-01

    In this study, effect of Qodume shahri ( Lepidium perfoliatum ) and cress ( Lepidium sativum ) on rheological properties of ice cream were investigated. The gums were added to the ice cream formulation and different quality attributes including pH, acidity, melting characteristics, viscosity, overrun, texture analysis and sensory evaluation were determined. Results showed that ice cream formulations containing both the gums had improved overrun, melting rate, first dripping time, viscosity, hardness and adhesiveness. The gum concentrations beyond 0.2% level led to a negative effect on gumminess and chewiness of ice cream. Both the gums addition to improved quality attributes and textural properties of ice cream.

  19. Evolutionary origins of Brassicaceae specific genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background All sequenced genomes contain a proportion of lineage-specific genes, which exhibit no sequence similarity to any genes outside the lineage. Despite their prevalence, the origins and functions of most lineage-specific genes remain largely unknown. As more genomes are sequenced opportunities for understanding evolutionary origins and functions of lineage-specific genes are increasing. Results This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the origins of lineage-specific genes (LSGs) in Arabidopsis thaliana that are restricted to the Brassicaceae family. In this study, lineage-specific genes within the nuclear (1761 genes) and mitochondrial (28 genes) genomes are identified. The evolutionary origins of two thirds of the lineage-specific genes within the Arabidopsis thaliana genome are also identified. Almost a quarter of lineage-specific genes originate from non-lineage-specific paralogs, while the origins of ~10% of lineage-specific genes are partly derived from DNA exapted from transposable elements (twice the proportion observed for non-lineage-specific genes). Lineage-specific genes are also enriched in genes that have overlapping CDS, which is consistent with such novel genes arising from overprinting. Over half of the subset of the 958 lineage-specific genes found only in Arabidopsis thaliana have alignments to intergenic regions in Arabidopsis lyrata, consistent with either de novo origination or differential gene loss and retention, with both evolutionary scenarios explaining the lineage-specific status of these genes. A smaller number of lineage-specific genes with an incomplete open reading frame across different Arabidopsis thaliana accessions are further identified as accession-specific genes, most likely of recent origin in Arabidopsis thaliana. Putative de novo origination for two of the Arabidopsis thaliana-only genes is identified via additional sequencing across accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana and closely related sister species

  20. Effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of plants of the family Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in Bałcyny (N=53°35'49"; E=19°51'20". The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of spring oilseed rape, winter oilseed rape, white mustard and Chinese mustard as well as on the species composition of fungi colonizing their seeds. Sulfur fertilization had a beneficial effect on the health of Brassicaceae plants infested by Alternaria blight, grey mould, Sclerotinia stem rot, Phoma stem canker and Verticillium wilt, but it had a varying effect on the occurrence of powdery mildew. Alternaria alternata and Penicillium spp. were isolated most frequently from Brassicaceae seeds. In general, more fungi (including pathogenic to Brassicaceae were isolated from the seeds of plants grown in non-sulfur fertilized plots. Pathogens occurred primarily on the seed surface, and their number decreased after surface disinfection of seeds.

  1. Semi-quantitative analysis of transcript accumulation in response to drought stress by Lepidium latifolium seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Singh, Sadhana; Pandey, Pankaj; Grover, Atul; Ahmed, Zakwan

    2013-09-01

    Cross-amplification of five Arabidopsis abiotic stress-responsive genes (AtPAP, ZFAN, Vn, LC4 and SNS) in Lepidium has been documented in plants raised out of seeds pre-treated with potassium nitrate (KNO 3) for assessment of enhanced drought stress tolerance. cDNA was synthesized from Lepidium plants pre-treated with KNO 3 (0.1% and 0.3%) and exposed to drought conditions (5% and 15% PEG) at seedling stage for 30 d. Transcript accumulation of all the five genes were found suppressed in set of seedlings, which were pre-treated with 0.1% KNO 3 and were exposed to 15% PEG for 30 d. The present study establishes that different pre-treatments may further enhance the survivability of Lepidium plants under conditions of drought stress to different degrees.

  2. [Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), a review of its biological properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Villaorduña, Leonidas; Gasco, Manuel; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a plant that grows above 4000 altitude meters in Peru's Central Andes; it has different varieties according to the color of the hypocotyl. This review summarizes the results of studies about the effects of maca on sexual function, spermatogenesis, female reproductive function, memory, depression and anxiety, and energy as well as effects on benign prostatic hyperplasia, osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome. Its anti-aging effect is also discussed as well as safety in consumption. Differences have been shown between the effects of the black, yellow and red maca varieties. Black maca shows the best results on spermatogenesis, memory and fatigue, while red maca is the variety that reverses the benign prostatic hyperplasia and experimentally induced osteoporosis. In addition, maca reduces the glucose levels, and its consumption is related to the lowering of blood pressure and an improved health score. Experimental studies have proven that short and long term consumption don't show in vivo and in vitro toxicity. Although experimental studies have shown that maca has diverse beneficial effects, more clinical studies are needed to confirm these results.

  3. Molecular phylogeny and evolutionary history of Moricandia DC (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Perfectti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The phylogeny of tribe Brassiceae (Brassicaceae has not yet been resolved because of its complex evolutionary history. This tribe comprises economically relevant species, including the genus Moricandia DC. This genus is currently distributed in North Africa, Middle East, Central Asia and Southern Europe, where it is associated with arid and semi-arid environments. Although some species of Moricandia have been used in several phylogenetic studies, the phylogeny of this genus is not well established. Methods Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Moricandia using a nuclear (the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA and two plastidial regions (parts of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit F gene and the trnT-trnF region. We also included in the analyses members of their sister genus Rytidocarpus and from the close genus Eruca. Results The phylogenetic analyses showed a clear and robust phylogeny of the genus Moricandia. The Bayesian inference tree was concordant with the maximum likelihood and timing trees, with the plastidial and nuclear trees showing only minor discrepancies. The genus Moricandia appears to be formed by two main lineages: the Iberian clade including three species, and the African clade including the four species inhabiting the Southern Mediterranean regions plus M. arvensis. Discussion We dated the main evolutionary events of this genus, showing that the origin of the Iberian clade probably occurred after a range expansion during the Messinian period, between 7.25 and 5.33 Ma. In that period, an extensive African-Iberian floral and faunal interchange occurred due to the existence of land bridges between Africa and Europa in what is, at present-days, the Strait of Gibraltar. We have demonstrated that a Spanish population previously ascribed to Rytidocarpus moricandioides is indeed a Moricandia species, and we propose to name it as M. rytidocarpoides sp. nov. In addition, in all the phylogenetic

  4. Brassica database (BRAD) version 2.0: integrating and mining Brassicaceae species genomic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Wu, Jian; Liang, Jianli; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2015-01-01

    The Brassica database (BRAD) was built initially to assist users apply Brassica rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana genomic data efficiently to their research. However, many Brassicaceae genomes have been sequenced and released after its construction. These genomes are rich resources for comparative genomics, gene annotation and functional evolutionary studies of Brassica crops. Therefore, we have updated BRAD to version 2.0 (V2.0). In BRAD V2.0, 11 more Brassicaceae genomes have been integrated into the database, namely those of Arabidopsis lyrata, Aethionema arabicum, Brassica oleracea, Brassica napus, Camelina sativa, Capsella rubella, Leavenworthia alabamica, Sisymbrium irio and three extremophiles Schrenkiella parvula, Thellungiella halophila and Thellungiella salsuginea. BRAD V2.0 provides plots of syntenic genomic fragments between pairs of Brassicaceae species, from the level of chromosomes to genomic blocks. The Generic Synteny Browser (GBrowse_syn), a module of the Genome Browser (GBrowse), is used to show syntenic relationships between multiple genomes. Search functions for retrieving syntenic and non-syntenic orthologs, as well as their annotation and sequences are also provided. Furthermore, genome and annotation information have been imported into GBrowse so that all functional elements can be visualized in one frame. We plan to continually update BRAD by integrating more Brassicaceae genomes into the database. Database URL: http://brassicadb.org/brad/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Assessing the risk of Glyphosate to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the ecological risk to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species which may be growing in areas affected by off target movement of glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant canola (Brassica napus). Ten native grass and forb species were ...

  6. Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmudur Rahman; Amina Khatun; Lei Liu; Bronwyn J. Barkla

    2018-01-01

    Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), white mustard (Brassica alba), Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata), Asian mustard (B. juncea), oilseed rape (B. napus), black mustard (B. nigra), rapeseed (B. rapa), white ball mustard (Calepina irregularis), ball mustard (Neslia paniculata), treacle mustard (Erysimum repandum), hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale), Asian hedge mustard (S. orientale), smooth mustard (S. erysimoides) and canola are the major ec...

  7. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Plant Metabolites in Brassicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de C.H.; Schipper, A.; Hall, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Brassicaceae family comprises a variety of plant species that are of high economic importance as -vegetables or industrial crops. This includes crops such as Brassica rapa (turnip, Bok Choi), B. oleracea (cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower, etc.), and B. napus (oil seed rape), and also includes the

  8. Composition and Physical Properties of Cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fatty acid profile and tocopherol, and phytosterol contents of crude cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oils are reported, along with yields from the corresponding seeds. The physical properties of these oils were also determined, which included oxidative stab...

  9. Use of Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum) in Early Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H. O.; Kapczynski, W.; Mscisz, A.; Lutomski, J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This double-blind, placebo-corrected clinical pilot study was aimed at assessing the use of hypocotyls of cruciferous Andean plant Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon), in alleviating symptoms of menopausal discomfort experienced by women in early post menopause as measured by profiles of serum hormones: Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH), Estrogen (E2) and Progesterone (PG) and as assessed by Greene’s Menopausal Index. Design: Study was conducted on 20 Caucasian healthy early-postmenopausal women volunteers during the three months period (Trial I) and on eight women during nine months period (Trial II). Hormone levels were determined in blood with a simultaneous assessment of menopausal index at the start of study, after one month use of placebo, and after two and eight months administration of 2g gelatinized Maca root powder (Maca-GO) in the form of two 500mg hard gel capsules, twice daily. Results: In comparison to placebo, after both, two and eight months administration of Maca-GO capsules to EPMW, level of FSH significantly (PMaca-GO treatment only. There was a significant (PMaca-GO when used in EPMW, depending on the length of use, was acting as a toner of hormonal processes as reflected by decrease in FSH and increased LH secretion, which stimulated production of both ovarian hormones, E2 and PG and resulted in a substantial reduction of menopausal discomfort felt by women participating in the study, with a distinctive placebo effect, thus, fully justifying further, more complex study on effectiveness of Maca-GO as a reliable alternative to HRT program. PMID:23674952

  10. Germination of Lepidium sativum as a method to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal from contaminated soil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of Lepidium sativum germination to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in soil(s) artificially and historically contaminated with mixtures of PAR The level of germination of L. sativum decreased with increasing...

  11. Identification of Glucosinolates in Seeds of Three Brassicaceae Species Known to Hyperaccumulate Heavy Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaut, Sabine; Guido, Benjamin S; Grison, Claude; Rollin, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    Plants from the Brassicaceae family are known to contain secondary metabolites called glucosinolates. Our goal was to establish by LC/MS the glucosinolate profile of seeds of three Brassicaceae species known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals. We investigated Alyssum fallacinum auct. non Hausskn., Iberis intermedia Guers., and Noccaea caerulescens (J. Presl & C. Presl) F. K. Mey. Our results indicate that A. fallacinum seeds contain glucoiberin and glucoibervirin, which had not been previously identified in this plant. Furthermore, we report for the first time the presence of glucoiberin, glucoibervirin, glucotropaeolin, and sinigrin in I. intermedia. We have detected for the first time glucoconringiin in N. caerulescens. In addition, glucosinalbin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, and glucomoringin were also detected. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Thiouracil-Forming Bacteria Identified and Characterized upon Porcine In Vitro Digestion of Brassicaceae Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiebooms, Julie A. L.; Wauters, Jella; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Houf, Kurt; De Vos, Paul; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Cleenwerck, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the frequent detection of the banned thyreostat thiouracil (TU) in livestock urine has been related to endogenous TU formation following digestion of glucosinolate-rich Brassicaceae crops. Recently, it was demonstrated that, upon in vitro digestion of Brassicaceae, fecal bacteria induce TU detection in livestock (porcine livestock > bovines). Therefore, the present study was intended to isolate and identify bacteria involved in this intestinal TU formation upon Brassicaceae digestion and to gain more insight into the underlying mechanism in porcine livestock. Twenty porcine fecal inocula (gilts and multiparous sows) were assessed through static in vitro colonic-digestion simulations with rapeseed. After derivatization and extraction of the fecal suspensions, TU was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS2). On average, lower TU concentrations were observed in fecal colonic simulations in gilts (8.35 ng g−1 rapeseed ± 3.42 [mean ± standard deviation]) than in multiparous sows (52.63 ng g−1 ± 16.17), which correlates with maturation of the gut microbial population with age. Further exploration of the mechanism showed cell-dependent activity of the microbial conversion and sustained TU-forming activity after subjection of the fecal inoculum to moderate heat over a time span of up to 30 min. Finally, nine TU-producing bacterial species were successfully isolated and identified by a combination of biochemical and molecular techniques as Escherichia coli (n = 5), Lactobacillus reuteri (n = 2), Enterococcus faecium (n = 1), and Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae (n = 1). This report demonstrates that endogenous formation of TU is Brassicaceae induced and occurs under colonic conditions most likely through myrosinase-like enzyme activity expressed by different common intestinal bacterial species. PMID:25261511

  13. CrusView: a Java-based visualization platform for comparative genomics analyses in Brassicaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2013-09-01

    In plants and animals, chromosomal breakage and fusion events based on conserved syntenic genomic blocks lead to conserved patterns of karyotype evolution among species of the same family. However, karyotype information has not been well utilized in genomic comparison studies. We present CrusView, a Java-based bioinformatic application utilizing Standard Widget Toolkit/Swing graphics libraries and a SQLite database for performing visualized analyses of comparative genomics data in Brassicaceae (crucifer) plants. Compared with similar software and databases, one of the unique features of CrusView is its integration of karyotype information when comparing two genomes. This feature allows users to perform karyotype-based genome assembly and karyotype-assisted genome synteny analyses with preset karyotype patterns of the Brassicaceae genomes. Additionally, CrusView is a local program, which gives its users high flexibility when analyzing unpublished genomes and allows users to upload self-defined genomic information so that they can visually study the associations between genome structural variations and genetic elements, including chromosomal rearrangements, genomic macrosynteny, gene families, high-frequency recombination sites, and tandem and segmental duplications between related species. This tool will greatly facilitate karyotype, chromosome, and genome evolution studies using visualized comparative genomics approaches in Brassicaceae species. CrusView is freely available at http://www.cmbb.arizona.edu/CrusView/.

  14. Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudur Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata, white mustard (Brassica alba, Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata, Asian mustard (B. juncea, oilseed rape (B. napus, black mustard (B. nigra, rapeseed (B. rapa, white ball mustard (Calepina irregularis, ball mustard (Neslia paniculata, treacle mustard (Erysimum repandum, hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale, Asian hedge mustard (S. orientale, smooth mustard (S. erysimoides and canola are the major economically important oilseed crops in many countries. Mustards were naturalized to Australia and New Zealand and Australia is currently the second largest exporter of Brassicaceae oilseeds to meet the global demand for a healthy plant-derived oil, high in polyunsaturated fats. Apart from providing edible oil, various parts of these plants and many of their phytochemicals have been used traditionally for both agronomic as well as medicinal purposes, with evidence of their use by early Australian and New Zealand settlers and also the indigenous population. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of traditional and agronomic uses of Brassicaceae oilseeds and mustards with a focus on their importance in Australia and New Zealand.

  15. Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahmudur; Khatun, Amina; Liu, Lei; Barkla, Bronwyn J

    2018-01-21

    Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard ( Alliaria petiolata ), white mustard ( Brassica alba ), Ethiopian mustard ( B. carinata ), Asian mustard ( B. juncea ), oilseed rape ( B. napus ), black mustard ( B. nigra ), rapeseed ( B. rapa ), white ball mustard ( Calepina irregularis ), ball mustard ( Neslia paniculata ), treacle mustard ( Erysimum repandum ), hedge mustard ( Sisymbrium officinale ), Asian hedge mustard ( S. orientale ), smooth mustard ( S. erysimoides ) and canola are the major economically important oilseed crops in many countries. Mustards were naturalized to Australia and New Zealand and Australia is currently the second largest exporter of Brassicaceae oilseeds to meet the global demand for a healthy plant-derived oil, high in polyunsaturated fats. Apart from providing edible oil, various parts of these plants and many of their phytochemicals have been used traditionally for both agronomic as well as medicinal purposes, with evidence of their use by early Australian and New Zealand settlers and also the indigenous population. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of traditional and agronomic uses of Brassicaceae oilseeds and mustards with a focus on their importance in Australia and New Zealand.

  16. Extraction, purification and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides from maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Shenghua; Zhao, Qingsheng; Chen, Jinjin; Wang, Liwei; Zhang, Guifeng; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Bing

    2014-10-13

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were separated from maca (Lepidium meyenii) aqueous extract (MAE). The crude polysaccharides were deproteinized by Sevag method. During the preparation process of maca polysaccharides, amylase and glucoamylase effectively removed starch in maca polysaccharides. Four Lepidium meyenii polysaccharides (LMPs) were obtained by changing the concentration of ethanol in the process of polysaccharide precipitation. All of the LMPs were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, glucose and galactose. Antioxidant activity tests revealed that LMP-60 showed good capability of scavenging hydroxyl free radical and superoxide radical at 2.0mg/mL, the scavenging rate was 52.9% and 85.8%, respectively. Therefore, the results showed that maca polysaccharides had a high antioxidant activity and could be explored as the source of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Widespread and evolutionary analysis of a MITE family Monkey King in Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shutao; Hou, Jinna; Long, Yan; Wang, Jing; Li, Cong; Xiao, Qinqin; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Zou, Xiaoxiao; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling

    2015-06-19

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are important components of eukaryotic genomes, with hundreds of families and many copies, which may play important roles in gene regulation and genome evolution. However, few studies have investigated the molecular mechanisms involved. In our previous study, a Tourist-like MITE, Monkey King, was identified from the promoter region of a flowering time gene, BnFLC.A10, in Brassica napus. Based on this MITE, the characteristics and potential roles on gene regulation of the MITE family were analyzed in Brassicaceae. The characteristics of the Tourist-like MITE family Monkey King in Brassicaceae, including its distribution, copies and insertion sites in the genomes of major Brassicaceae species were analyzed in this study. Monkey King was actively amplified in Brassica after divergence from Arabidopsis, which was indicated by the prompt increase in copy number and by phylogenetic analysis. The genomic variations caused by Monkey King insertions, both intra- and inter-species in Brassica, were traced by PCR amplification. Genomic sequence analysis showed that most complete Monkey King elements are located in gene-rich regions, less than 3kb from genes, in both the B. rapa and A. thaliana genomes. Sixty-seven Brassica expressed sequence tags carrying Monkey King fragments were also identified from the NCBI database. Bisulfite sequencing identified specific DNA methylation of cytosine residues in the Monkey King sequence. A fragment containing putative TATA-box motifs in the MITE sequence could bind with nuclear protein(s) extracted from leaves of B. napus plants. A Monkey King-related microRNA, bna-miR6031, was identified in the microRNA database. In transgenic A. thaliana, when the Monkey King element was inserted upstream of 35S promoter, the promoter activity was weakened. Monkey King, a Brassicaceae Tourist-like MITE family, has amplified relatively recently and has induced intra- and inter-species genomic

  18. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (I) Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in Three Maca Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Meissner, Henry O.; Mscisz, Alina; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Piatkowska, Ewa; Jólkowska, Justyna; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates were previously reported as physiologically-important constituents present in Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) and linked to various therapeutic functions of differently-colored Peruvian Maca hypocotyls. In two separate Trials, three colours of Maca hypocotyls “Black”, “Red” and “Yellow” (termed “Maca phenotypes”), were selected from mixed crops of Peruvian Maca for laboratory studies as fresh and after being dried. Individual Maca phenotypes were cultivated in the hi...

  19. Concentration- and Time-Dependent Effects of Isothiocyanates Produced from Brassicaceae Shoot Tissues on the Pea Root Rot Pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hossain, S.; Bergkvist, G.; Berglund, K.; Glinwood, R.; Kabouw, P.; Martensson, A.; Persson, P.

    2014-01-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) hydrolyzed from glucosinolates (GSLs) in Brassicaceae tissue are toxic to soil organisms. In this study, the effect of aliphatic and aromatic ITCs from hydrated dry Brassicaceae shoot tissues on the mycelium and oospores of the pea root rot pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches was

  20. Utilización de Lepidium Peruvianum Maca, como medio de cultivo para el crecimiento de Trypanosoma Cruzi

    OpenAIRE

    Saldaña C, Charles; Córdova P, Ofelia; Vargas V¹, Franklin

    2006-01-01

    Por sus características nutritivas de alto valor, se ensayó la posible utilidad del Lepidium peruvianum maca, como un medio para cultivar Trypanosoma cruzi. Bajo condiciones experimentales se procedió a incubar epimastigotes de T. cruzi en cuatro medios de cultivo bifásicos diferentes, a base de Lepidium peruvianum maca, los cuales fueron comparados con el medio de cultivo BHI como control. La incorporación de maca como medio de cultivo permitió el crecimiento de Trypanosoma cruzi; se determi...

  1. Is floral structure a reliable indicator of breeding system in the Brassicaceae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip A Salisbury

    Full Text Available This study investigated the usefulness of floral characters as a potential indicator of breeding system in the Brassicaceae. Initially, pod set, seed set and pollen tube growth experiments were carried out to confirm the breeding systems of 53 lines representing 25 different cultivated and weedy species from the Brassicaceae. The results of the pod set tests clearly differentiated between self-compatible and self-incompatible species. Floral characters were then evaluated on one or more lines of each of the 25 species. Fourteen floral characters were evaluated including, flower diameter, Cruden's outcrossing index, timing and direction of dehiscence and pollen-ovule ratio. Significant differences between species were evident in all of the floral characteristics evaluated. Flower diameter was generally larger in self-incompatible species than self-compatible species and pollen/ovule ratio was generally higher in self-incompatible species than self-compatible species. However, none of the floral characteristics was able to clearly differentiate the self-compatible and self-incompatible species and allow prediction of the breeding system with absolute confidence. The floral characteristic which was most effective at differentiating the two groups was anther direction at dehiscence.

  2. Phytophagy of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae fed on prey and Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. J. Grigolli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the development and reproduction of the zoophytophagous predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed kale, broccoli and cabbage affects its. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed on larvae of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae as prey with kale, cabbage, or broccoli. In the nymph period, the duration and prey consumption were similar with all the Brassicacea cultivar. However, nymph viability was higher for predators with broccoli leaves. The mean weight of 5th-instar nymphs, newly emerged females and the sex ratio were similar among the Brassicacea cultivars, while newly emerged males were heavier with kale and broccoli leaves. The supply of broccoli leaves resulted in greater oviposition, higher number of eggs per egg mass and longer longevity of P. nigrispinus males and females. Furthermore, the consumption of P. xylostella larvae by adult predators was higher with these cultivars. The net reproductive rate (R0 and mean generation time (T were highest for predators with prey and broccoli leaves. The reproductive parameters of P. nigrispinus were enhanced when fed on P. xylostella larvae with and broccoli leaves, which can be an alternative diet in laboratory rearing of this predator.

  3. UAE-HPLC-UV: New Contribution for Fast Determination of Total Isothiocyanates in Brassicaceae Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia M. Fusari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total isothiocyanates content (ITC is considered a good indicator of bioactive compounds responsible for beneficial effects related to Brassicaceae vegetables. Analytical performance is a critical factor for routine analysis in plant tissues. The extraction technique for isolating phytochemicals from Brassicaceae vegetables is currently the bottleneck of the methodology. The aim of this work was to optimize this step in the analytical process. Fast and less expensive alternative, based on ultrasound-assisted extraction technique (UAE for direct extraction of GLS into an aqueous phase and further analysis of the hydrolysis product, was optimized. Full factorial (2k design followed by Central Composite Design (CCD was used to obtain the optimum extraction conditions. Selected conditions were homogenization time (9 min; ultrasound bath time (5 min; and sample-to-solvent ratio (1 : 5 w/v mg mL−1. The proposed analytical methodology exhibits satisfactory analytical performance in terms of linearity, precision (RSD < 2.4%, and limits of detection (26 nmol g−1 w.w.. The new analytical methodology was applied to cauliflower, cabbage, watercress, and broccoli samples with recoveries higher than 86%. The UAE extraction technique was showed to be efficient for real samples analysis leading to sensible, selective, and reproducible methodology for ITC analysis.

  4. Capacidad antioxidante in vitro y efecto hipoglucemiante de la maca negra (Lepidium meyenii) preparada tradicionalmente

    OpenAIRE

    Troya-Santos, Jhon; Ale-Borja, Neptalí; Suárez-Cunza, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    La maca (Lepidium meyenii) es una planta peruana nativa de los Andes centrales a la que se le atribuyen diversas propiedades, como mejorar la función sexual y la espermatogénesis, mejorar el aprendizaje, y la reducción del estrés; las mismas que podrían estar relacionadas con la variedad de este hipocótilo. Sin embargo, estas propiedades no sólo están basadas en el ecotipo o el color sino también en el tipo de prácticas del procesamiento de la maca. Tradicionalmente, la maca es preparada haci...

  5. Optimized methodology for the simultaneous extraction of glucosinolates, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from maca (Lepidium meyenii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, D.; Chirinos, R.; Barreto, O.; Noratto, G.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Maca is a highly appreciated Andean crop with multiple attributed health claims due to its assortment of bioactive compounds. The extraction parameters of glucosinolates (GLs), total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of maca (Lepidium meyenii) hypocotyls were optimized using

  6. Extraction of Lepidium apetalum Seed Oil Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Anti-Oxidant Activity of the Extracted Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuchong Tang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Lepidium apetalum seed oil and its anti-oxidant activity were studied. The SFE process was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM with a central composite design (CCD. Independent variables, namely operating pressure, temperature, time and flow rate were evaluated. The maximum extraction of Lepidium apetalum seed oil by SFE-CO2 (about 36.3% was obtained when SFE-CO2 extraction was carried out under the optimal conditions of 30.0 MPa of pressure, 70 °C of temperature, 120 min of extraction time and 25.95 L/h of flow rate. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of four fatty acids in Lepidium apetalum seed oil, with a high content (91.0% of unsaturated fatty acid. The anti-oxidant activity of the oil was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging assay and 2,2′-azino- bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS test. Lepidium apetalum seed oil possessed a notable concentration-dependent antioxidant activity, with IC50 values of 1.00 and 3.75 mg/mL, respectively.

  7. Mannans and endo-β-mannanase transcripts are located in different seed compartments during Brassicaceae germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Barral, Néstor; Matilla, Angel J; Rodríguez-Gacio, María Del Carmen; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel

    2018-03-01

    Mannans but not endo-β-mannanases are mainly found in the mucilage layer of two Brassicaceae seeds. Nonetheless, mannanase mobilization from inner to outer seed layers cannot be ruled out. The contribution of endo-β-mannanase (MAN) genes to the germination of the wild-type Sisymbrium officinale and cultivated Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae) species has been explored. In both species, mannans have been localized to the imbibed external seed coat layer (mucilage) by fluorescence immunolocalization and MAN enzymatic activity increases in seeds as imbibition progresses, reaching a peak before 100% germination is achieved. The MAN gene families have been annotated and the expression of their members analyzed in vegetative and reproductive organs. In S. officinale and B. rapa, MAN2, MAN5, MAN6, and MAN7 transcripts accumulate upon seed imbibition. SoMAN7 is the most expressed MAN gene in S. officinale germinating seeds, as occurs with its ortholog in Arabidopsis thaliana, but in B. rapa, the most abundant transcripts are BrMAN2 and BrMAN5. These genes (MAN2, MAN5, MAN6, and MAN7) are localized, by mRNA in situ hybridization, to the micropylar at the endosperm layer and to the radicle in S. officinale, but in B. rapa, these mRNAs are faintly found to the micropylar living seed coat layer and are mainly present at the radicle tip and the vascular bundles. If the domestication process undergone by B. rapa is responsible for these different MAN expression patterns, upon germination remains to be elucidated. Since mannans and MAN genes are not spatially distributed in the same seed tissues, a movement of MAN enzymes that are synthesized with typical signal peptides from the embryo tissues to the mucilage layer (via apoplastic space) is necessary for the mannans to be hydrolyzed.

  8. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Assesing the effect of Lepidium meyenii "Maca" on the gastric mucosa in patients with functional dyspepsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benites Goñi, Harold Eduardo; Cok García, Jaime; Bussalleu Cavero, Alejandra; Bustamente Robles, Katherine Yelenia; Zegarra Chang, Arturo; Bravo, Eduar; Bussalleu Rivera, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the histological effect of Lepidium meyenii "Maca" on the gastric mucosa in patients with functional dyspepsia. This study consists of a clinical case series, in which the effect of Maca on the gastric histopathology of 29 Peruvian patients diagnosed with functional dyspepsia was examined. The presence of H. pylori, as well as the degree and depth of the gastric mucosa inflammation was evaluated from biopsies obtained before and after the treatment based solely of Maca 3 grams per day for four weeks. Average values of the degree and depth of mucosal inflammation before and after the treatment were compared showing no statistical difference among the samples. Sixteen patients were infected with H. pylori, and they remained infected after the treatment with Maca. A four week long treatment with Maca does not produce significant changes on gastric mucosa of patients with functional dyspepsia, neither on H. pylori eradication.

  10. La Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacón sp. nov. y su Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Chacon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio presenta la descripción taxonómica de un ejemplar tipo de la MACA obtenido el 9 de septiembre de 1989 cerca de Huarancaca, ciudad de Cerro de Pasco, del Departamento de Pasco, como Lepidium peruvianum Chacon sp. nov., especie nueva para el género Lepidium (CRUCIFERA, las características que la distinguen de las especies afines especialmente de Lepidium meyenii Walp. y de Lepidium gelidium Wedd. están especificadas en este estudio. Igualmente presenta el estudio fitoquímico de la MACA realizado en 1960-1962, su hábitat y aclimatación a niveles de la costa. Esta especie cuyo nombre es MACA es oriunda de los Andes Centrales del Perú y se la conoce tanto por su valor alimenticio como farmacológico desde antes de la época del incanato. Crece en los Departamentos de Pasco y Junín en altitudes de 4100 y 4300 m sobre el nivel del mar. El clima en esta región es frío y seco durante el año caracterizándose el verano (enero, febrero y marzo como lluvioso con un promedio de 250,8 mm y con una temperatura ambiental promedio de 4.8 °C. En invierno (junio, julio y agosto las lluvias son escasas llegando a 34.4 mm y el promedio de la temperatura ambiental es alrededor de 3.5 °C. Los análisis químicos de la raíz realizados en 1960 y 1961 han demostrado la presencia de glúcidos y cuatro tipos de alcaloides, presentadas en cromatografía de papel Whatman. Estos alcaloides que he denominado "Extracto alcaloideo/marzo 1961", son los principios activos que intervienen en la frecuencia de procreación y dela clara y marcada estimulación de la maduración de los folículos de Graaf realizados en experimentos con ratas y en los machos, un aumento en la cantidad de espermatozoides en los tubos seminíferos y aumento de mitosis y espermatogonia. Estos ensayos los he realizado en el Instituto de Patología de la Facultad de Medicina Humana [de la UNMSM] durante los años 1961 y 1962. Las observaciones histológicas e histoqu

  11. Physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) liquor residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinjin; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zha, Shenghua; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Bing

    2015-11-05

    Using maca (Lepidium meyenii) liquor residue as the raw material, dietary fiber (DF) was prepared by chemical (MCDF) and enzymatic (MEDF) methods, respectively, of which the physicochemical and functional properties were comparatively studied. High contents of DF were found in MCDF (55.63%) and MEDF (81.10%). Both fibers showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, glucose adsorption capacity and glucose retardation index. MEDF showed better functional properties, which could be attributed to its higher content of DF, more irregular surface and more abundant monosaccharide composition. The results herein suggest that maca DF prepared by enzymatic method from liquor residue is a good functional ingredient in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aerial parts of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) as functional vegetables with gastrointestinal prokinetic efficacy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wenwen; Chen, Xuemin; Huo, Qing; Cui, Yajie; Yu, Zejun; Yu, Longjiang

    2018-06-20

    Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) has been utilized in the Andean region because of its edibleness and medicinal value. The aerial parts of maca (APM) were analyzed for protein, total sugar, vitamins, amino acids, and minerals and its characteristic active ingredients at five different growth stages. The results showed the high protein, total sugar, vitamin C, niacin, potassium, and calcium contents of APM. All 17 amino acids and the characteristic active ingredients, namely, macamide, glucosinolates, adenosine, and total saponins, were detected. We examined the effects of maca plant powders on gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion and the levels of serum motilin and gastrin in atropine-treated mice. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) was investigated to identify the potential active material in APM. The results revealed that both maca plant powders and BITC can promote the gastrointestinal prokinetic efficacy. Thus, APM feature potential as new functional vegetable sources.

  13. Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum: a new source of carbohydrate to make a biodegradable film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedi, Samira; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Zahedi, Younes

    2014-01-30

    Microstructural, physical, mechanical and thermal properties of a novel biodegradable film based on Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum (LPSG) were investigated. LPSG films were successfully prepared by incorporation of four levels of glycerol (40%, 50%, 60% and 70%, w/w). As expected, increasing glycerol concentration from 40 to 70% (w/w), increased water vapor permeability (WVP), elongation at break (EB%), moisture content, moisture adsorption and water solubility of LPSG films; whilst, elastic modulus (EM), contact angle, melting point (Tm), enthalpy of melting (ΔHm) and glass transition point (Tg) decreased significantly. LPSG films became slightly greenish and yellowish in color but still transparent in appearance. The images taken from electron scanning microscopy indicated uniform surface, compact sheets with no holes or fracture. This study demonstrates that LPSG based films with desired properties can be obtained by adjusting glycerol content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) enhances the serum levels of luteinising hormone in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Fumiaki; Jikyo, Tamaki; Takeda, Ryosuke; Ogata, Misato

    2014-02-03

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility benefits. This study investigated the effect of Maca on the serum pituitary hormone levels during the pro-oestrus phase. Maca powder was made from the tubers of Lepidium meyenii Walp collected, dried, and reduced to powder at the plantation in Junín Plateau and was purchased from Yamano del Perú SAC. The Maca powder was identified by chemical profiling and taxonomic methods. Two groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided feed with normal feed containing 5%, 25%, or 50% Maca powder ad libitum for 7 weeks. At 1800h of the proestrus stage, the rats were euthanised, and blood samples were collected for serum isolation. The serum pituitary hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). No significant differences in feed intake or growth rate were observed among the rats. During the pro-oestrus stage, a 4.5-fold increase (PMaca powder compared with the control rats. No significant differences were observed in the levels of the other pituitary hormones, including growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A dose-dependent increase of LH serum levels was observed within the range of 3-30g Maca/kg. Furthermore, the enhancement of the LH serum levels was specific to the pro-oestrus LH surge. The present study demonstrates that Maca uniquely enhances the LH serum levels of pituitary hormones in female rats during the pro-oestrus LH surge and acts in a pharmacological, dose-dependent manner. These findings support the traditional use of Maca to enhance fertility and suggest a potential molecular mechanism responsible for its effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: a novel phytofood from Ladakh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarandeep Kaur

    Full Text Available Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (∼70-90%. Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18∶3 whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2(- scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements.

  16. CrusView: A Java-Based Visualization Platform for Comparative Genomics Analyses in Brassicaceae Species[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2013-01-01

    In plants and animals, chromosomal breakage and fusion events based on conserved syntenic genomic blocks lead to conserved patterns of karyotype evolution among species of the same family. However, karyotype information has not been well utilized in genomic comparison studies. We present CrusView, a Java-based bioinformatic application utilizing Standard Widget Toolkit/Swing graphics libraries and a SQLite database for performing visualized analyses of comparative genomics data in Brassicaceae (crucifer) plants. Compared with similar software and databases, one of the unique features of CrusView is its integration of karyotype information when comparing two genomes. This feature allows users to perform karyotype-based genome assembly and karyotype-assisted genome synteny analyses with preset karyotype patterns of the Brassicaceae genomes. Additionally, CrusView is a local program, which gives its users high flexibility when analyzing unpublished genomes and allows users to upload self-defined genomic information so that they can visually study the associations between genome structural variations and genetic elements, including chromosomal rearrangements, genomic macrosynteny, gene families, high-frequency recombination sites, and tandem and segmental duplications between related species. This tool will greatly facilitate karyotype, chromosome, and genome evolution studies using visualized comparative genomics approaches in Brassicaceae species. CrusView is freely available at http://www.cmbb.arizona.edu/CrusView/. PMID:23898041

  17. Decision Tree Algorithm-Generated Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Barcodes of rbcL Genes for 38 Brassicaceae Species Tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Wu, Kuo-Chuan; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2018-01-01

    DNA barcode sequences are accumulating in large data sets. A barcode is generally a sequence larger than 1000 base pairs and generates a computational burden. Although the DNA barcode was originally envisioned as straightforward species tags, the identification usage of barcode sequences is rarely emphasized currently. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association studies provide us an idea that the SNPs may be the ideal target of feature selection to discriminate between different species. We hypothesize that SNP-based barcodes may be more effective than the full length of DNA barcode sequences for species discrimination. To address this issue, we tested a r ibulose diphosphate carboxylase ( rbcL ) S NP b arcoding (RSB) strategy using a decision tree algorithm. After alignment and trimming, 31 SNPs were discovered in the rbcL sequences from 38 Brassicaceae plant species. In the decision tree construction, these SNPs were computed to set up the decision rule to assign the sequences into 2 groups level by level. After algorithm processing, 37 nodes and 31 loci were required for discriminating 38 species. Finally, the sequence tags consisting of 31 rbcL SNP barcodes were identified for discriminating 38 Brassicaceae species based on the decision tree-selected SNP pattern using RSB method. Taken together, this study provides the rational that the SNP aspect of DNA barcode for rbcL gene is a useful and effective sequence for tagging 38 Brassicaceae species.

  18. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, François; Strömvik, Martina V

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP) gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards), Fabaceae (legumes) and Poaceae (grasses) using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like) in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination of conserved motifs

  19. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauteux François

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards, Fabaceae (legumes and Poaceae (grasses using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. and rice (Oryza sativa L. respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination

  20. Numerical taxonomy of the genus Matthiola (Brassicaceae in Northeast of Iran based on morphological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rashid Taranloo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Matthiola R. BR. (Brassicaceae consists of 48 species in the Iranian plateau, of which only seven species are distributed in northeast of Iran. Six species erre collected from the region under study including M. afghanica, M. alyssifolia, M. chenopodiifolia, M. chorassanica, M. dumulosa and M. farinose. Two species, M. flavida and M. revoluta were recorded for the first time in this study. Some specimens of an unknown taxon entitled Matthiola sp. are also collected in the region and included in the present study. In this study, we tried to use a set of morphologically informative characters which could determine species boundaries and also provide appropriate identification key to the genus in the northeast of Iran. 71 morphological features including quantitative and qualitative were examined on 68 herbarium and field-collected accessions followed by statistical analyses. The results of the univariate analysis indicated that "presence/absence of trichome on the stem and leaf" and "presence/absence of glandular trichomes on the sepal and pedicel" did not significantly differentiate the species and they were excluded from the subsequent analysis. The results of multivariate analysis showed that the species under study were grouped within three groups. First group included specimens of the species M. alyssifolia, the species M. afghanica, M. chenopodiifolia, M. dumulosa, M. farinosa, M. flavida and Matthiola sp. were placed in second group and third group included specimens of the two species M. chorassanica and M. revoluta.

  1. Essential Oil Composition of Endemic Arabis purpurea Sm. & Arabis cypria Holmboe (Brassicaceae) from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Servi, Hüseyin; Özçınar, Özge; Nalbantsoy, Ayşe; Gücel, Salih

    2017-01-01

    There are very few reports on the phytochemistry of the Arabis L. (Brassicaceae) species in the literature. Here we present essential oil composition of aerial parts of two endemic Arabis species from Cyprus. The essential oils of Arabis purpurea Sm. and Arabis cypria Holmboe afforded very low oil yields (essential oil of A. purpurea that represent 82.75 ± 0.21 % (n = 3) of the oil. The major components of the oil were nonacosane 16.18 ± 0.13 %, heptacosane 14.91 ± 0.17 %, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone 12.44 ± 0.10 % and phytol 7.36 ± 0.10 % (n = 3). Forty three compounds were identified in the essential oil of A. cypria which represent 81.28 ± 1.55 % (n = 3) of the oil. The major components of the oil were nonacosane 20.25 ± 0.47 %, heptacosane 9.13 ± 1.88 %, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone 9.03 ± 0.44 % and 1-tetradecanol 4.38 ± 2.60 % (n = 3). To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the essential oil compositions of these species.

  2. High Diversity Revealed in Leaf-Associated Protists (Rhizaria: Cercozoa) of Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploch, Sebastian; Rose, Laura E; Bass, David; Bonkowski, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The largest biological surface on earth is formed by plant leaves. These leaf surfaces are colonized by a specialized suite of leaf-inhabiting microorganisms, recently termed "phyllosphere microbiome". Microbial prey, however, attract microbial predators. Protists in particular have been shown to structure bacterial communities on plant surfaces, but virtually nothing is known about the community composition of protists on leaves. Using newly designed specific primers targeting the 18S rDNA gene of Cercozoa, we investigated the species richness of this common protist group on leaves of four Brassicaceae species from two different locations in a cloning-based approach. The generated sequences revealed a broad diversity of leaf-associated Cercozoa, mostly bacterial feeders, but also including known plant pathogens and a taxon of potential endophytes that were recently described as algal predators in freshwater systems. This initial study shows that protists must be regarded as an integral part of the microbial diversity in the phyllosphere of plants. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  3. The effects of LED illumination spectra and intensity on carotenoid content in Brassicaceae microgreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazaitytė, Aušra; Sakalauskienė, Sandra; Samuolienė, Giedrė; Jankauskienė, Julė; Viršilė, Akvilė; Novičkovas, Algirdas; Sirtautas, Ramūnas; Miliauskienė, Jurga; Vaštakaitė, Viktorija; Dabašinskas, Laurynas; Duchovskis, Pavelas

    2015-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of irradiance levels and spectra produced by solid-state light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on carotenoid content and composition changes in Brassicaceae microgreens. A system of five high-power, solid-state lighting modules with standard 447-, 638-, 665-, and 731-nm LEDs was used in the experiments. Two experiments were performed: (1) evaluation of LED irradiance levels of 545, 440, 330, 220, and 110 μmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetically active flux density (PPFD) and (2) evaluation of the effects of 520-, 595-, and 622-nm LEDs supplemental to the standard set of LEDs. Concentrations of various carotenoids in red pak choi and tatsoi were higher under illumination of 330-440 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and at 110-220 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in mustard. All supplemental wavelengths increased total carotenoid content in mustard but decreased it in red pak choi. Carotenoid content increased in tatsoi under supplemental yellow light. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A conserved role for the ARC1 E3 ligase in Brassicaceae self-incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne eGoring

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitination plays essential roles in the regulation of many processes in plants including pollen rejection in self-incompatible species. In the Brassicaceae (mustard family, self-incompatibility drives the rejection of self-pollen by preventing pollen hydration following pollen contact with the stigmatic surface. Self-pollen is recognized by a ligand-receptor pair: the pollen S-locus Cysteine Rich/S-locus Protein 11 (SCR/SP11 ligand and the pistil S Receptor Kinase (SRK. Following self-pollen contact, the SCR/SP11 ligand on the pollen surface binds to SRK on the pistil surface, and the SRK-activated signaling pathway is initiated. This pathway includes the ARM Repeat Containing 1 (ARC1 protein, a member of the Plant U-box (PUB family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. ARC1 is a functional E3 ligase and is required downstream of SRK for the self-incompatibility response. This mini review highlights our recent progress in establishing ARC1’s conserved role in self-pollen rejection in Brassica and Arabidopsis species and discusses future research directions in this field.

  5. Comparison of Five Major Trichome Regulatory Genes in Brassica villosa with Orthologues within the Brassicaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K.; Kagale, Sateesh; Taheri, Ali; Withana-Gamage, Thushan S.; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Gruber, Margaret Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1), GLABRA 2 (GL2), ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1) and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY), were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM) levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae. PMID:24755905

  6. The role of the persistent fruit wall in seed water regulation in Raphanus raphanistrum (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousens, Roger D; Young, Kenneth R; Tadayyon, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Dry fruits remain around the seeds at dispersal in a number of species, especially the Brassicaceae. Explanations for this vary, but usually involve mechanisms of innate dormancy. We speculate that, instead, a persistent fruit may give additional protection through control of dehydration, to species growing in arid or Mediterranean environments where water is sporadic. X-rays and weight measurements were used to determine the extent to which Raphanus raphanistrum seeds within mature fruits imbibe water, and germination tests determined the roles of the fruit and seed coat in seed dormancy. Rates of water uptake and desiccation, and seedling emergence were compared with and without the fruit. Finally, germinability of seeds extracted from fruits was determined after various periods of moist conditions followed by a range of dry conditions. Most seeds rapidly take up water within the fruit, but they do not fully imbibe when compared with naked seeds. The seed coat is more important than the dry fruit wall in maintaining seed dormancy. The presence of a dry fruit slows emergence from the soil by up to 6-8 weeks. The fruit slows the rate of desiccation of the seed to a limited extent. The presence of the fruit for a few days during imbibition somehow primes more seeds to germinate than if the fruit is absent; longer moist periods within the pod appear to induce dormancy. The fruit certainly modifies the seed environment as external conditions change between wet and dry, but not to a great extent. The major role seems to be: (a) the physical restriction of imbibition and germination; and (b) the release and then re-imposition of dormancy within the seed. The ecological significance of the results requires more research under field conditions.

  7. Review on Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) A. wood (Brassicaceae): ethnobotany and glucosinolate chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaut, Sabine; Bleeker, René S

    2013-09-16

    Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) A. Wood, commonly called toothwort, is a spring perennial herb belonging to the Brassicaceae family. This endemic plant of Eastern North America has been widely used by multiple American First Nations (i.e. indigenous people of North America) for food and medicine for centuries. The aim of the review is to describe the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and bioactivity of Cardamine diphylla. The review covers literature on Cardamine diphylla, and the alternative name Dentaria diphylla, from English and French language sources. Multiple traditional uses of Cardamine diphylla by American First Nations are well documented. Initial health studies showed that the tested concentrations of the extract were not toxic against brine shrimp larvae and the same extract had a weak free-radical scavenging activity. However, bioactive compounds in the form of aliphatic and indole glucosinolates and some indole alkaloids have been isolated from this plant. Ecological research regarding Cardamine diphylla-insect interactions (such as feeding and oviposition) is also available in the literature. The wide range of traditional uses by multiple American First Nations suggests that the antibacterial, antiviral, immunostimulant, analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities of this plant should be explored in in vitro and in vivo tests. Traditional modes of preparation of the plant suggest that some of the medicinal properties could certainly be attributed to glucosinolate degradation products (i.e. isothiocyanates), but a clear assignment of active molecules and mechanisms of action remain to be elucidated. The presence of glucosinolates indicates that the plant could be probed for cancer chemopreventive properties. Overall, the review shows that more investigation is necessary to determine the possible benefits of Cardamine diphylla extracts to pharmaceutical companies as a nutraceutic specialty phytotherapeutic agent against respiratory

  8. Effects of different varieties of Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on bone structure in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Carla; Cárdenas-Valencia, Isaias; Leiva-Revilla, Johanna; Anza-Ramirez, Cecilia; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of different varieties of maca (Lepidium meyenii) on bone structure in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. 36 female rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: sham and OVX rats treated with vehicle, estradiol (40 microg/kg), black, yellow or red maca (63 mg/ml) for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment, uterine weight, femoral bone and lumbar vertebra histomorphology were assessed. Ovariectomy reduced weight, diameter and width of the femoral bone. Estradiol, black and red maca treatment reduced the effect of ovariectomy on these variables. Histological analyses revealed that estradiol, black and red maca treatments reversed the effect of ovariectomy by increasing the trabecular bone area in the second lumbar vertebra. Uterine weight was reduced in OVX rats, and estradiol but neither black nor red maca increased uterine weight. Red and black maca have protective effects on bone architecture in OVX rats without showing estrogenic effects on uterine weight. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) for treatment of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Yang, Eun Jin; Lim, Hyun-Ja; Ernst, Edzard

    2011-11-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii), an Andean plant of the brassica (mustard) family has been used for centuries in the Andes as an adaptogenic plant to manage anemia, infertility and female hormone balance. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for and against the effectiveness of the maca plant as a treatment for menopausal symptoms. We searched 17 databases from their inception up to June 2011 and included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared any type of maca-based intervention to a placebo for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane 'risk of bias' assessment tool. Four RCTs met all inclusion criteria. These RCTs tested the effects of maca on menopausal symptoms in healthy perimenopausal, early postmenopausal, and late postmenopausal women. Using the Kupperman Menopausal Index and the Greene Climacteric Score, all RCTs demonstrated favorable effects of maca. There have been very few rigorous trials of maca for menopausal symptoms. The results of our systematic review provide limited evidence for the effectiveness of maca as a treatment for menopausal symptoms. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the average methodological quality of the primary studies, were too limited to draw firm conclusions. Furthermore, the safety has not been proved yet. Therefore, the efficacy and safety should be tested in larger studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of maca (Lepidium meyenii) to improve semen quality: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Hye Won; You, Sooseong; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of maca (Lepidium meyenii) in improving semen quality. We searched 11 databases from their inception to March 2016 and included all clinical trials on the improvement of semen quality parameters in infertile and healthy men, regardless of the study design or the type of maca. The risk of bias for each study was assessed using the Cochrane criteria. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validation were performed independently by the first two authors. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion by the same two authors. Five studies - 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and 2 uncontrolled observational studies (UOSs) - met all of the inclusion criteria. One RCT found favorable effects of maca on sperm mobility in infertile men. The two other RCTs showed positive effects of maca on several semen quality parameters in healthy men. The two UOSs also suggested favorable effects of maca on semen quality. The results of our systematic review provide suggestive evidence for the effectiveness of maca in improving semen quality. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the risk of bias of the included studies prevent the drawing firm conclusions. More rigorous studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation, purification and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from the leaves of maca (Lepidium Meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicai, Kang; Limin, Hao; Liming, Zhang; Zhiqiang, Zheng; Yongwu, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Two fractions of polysaccharides (MLP-1 and MLP-2) were extracted from the leaves of maca (Lepidium Meyenii Walp.) by water, and purified using DEAE-52 ion exchange resin and sephadex G-200 clumns chromatography. An investigation was carried out for their structural characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro. The results indicated that MLP-1 was mainly composed of ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose, with the molar ratio of 0.12:0.32:1.50:0.32:1.03:1.00:0.93; the MLP-2 was a homopolysaccharide composed of glucose. The molecular weight (Mw) of MLP-1 was 42756Da, and the Mw of MLP-2 was 93541Da. The FT-IR spectra showed the general characteristic absorption peak of maca leaf polysaccharides (MLPs). The evaluation of antioxidant activity revealed that MLP-1 had strong scavenging effects in vitro on hydroxyl, superoxide anion and DPPH radicals, whose EC 50 (mg/mL) was 0.44, 0.21, and 0.82, respectively. Both MLP-1 and MLP-2 presented dose-dependently positive effects on the antioxidant-related parameters. The results suggested that the purified MLP-1 displayed better antioxidant capacities than that of MLP-1, which could be explored as potential antioxidant agents for the complementary medicine or functional foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolomic differentiation of maca (Lepidium meyenii) accessions cultivated under different conditions using NMR and chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Chan, Michael; Clément, Céline; Kreuzer, Michael; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2012-01-01

    To gain insights on the effects of color type, cultivation history, and growing site on the composition alterations of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) hypocotyls, NMR profiling combined with chemometric analysis was applied to investigate the metabolite variability in different maca accessions. Maca hypocotyls with different colors (yellow, pink, violet, and lead-colored) cultivated at different geographic sites and different areas were examined for differences in metabolite expression. Differentiations of the maca accessions grown under the different cultivation conditions were determined by principle component analyses (PCAs) which were performed on the datasets derived from their ¹H NMR spectra. A total of 16 metabolites were identified by NMR analysis, and the changes in metabolite levels in relation to the color types and growing conditions of maca hypocotyls were evaluated using univariate statistical analysis. In addition, the changes of the correlation pattern among the metabolites identified in the maca accessions planted at the two different sites were examined. The results from both multivariate and univariate analysis indicated that the planting site was the major determining factor with regards to metabolite variations in maca hypocotyls, while the color of maca accession seems to be of minor importance in this respect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Acute and chronic dosing of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Aaron; Gravitt, Karla; Carson, Culley C; Marson, Lesley

    2007-03-01

    The use of natural remedies for the treatment of sexual disorders is under current investigation. For generations people of the rural community in Peru have used Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Maca), because of their belief that it improves fertility and sexual desire. To determine the acute and chronic effects of Maca on male sexual behavior and to examine chronic administration of Maca on anxiety. Ejaculatory and mounting behavior and postejaculatory interval. Anxiety tests using an elevated plus maze, locomotion, and social interaction with another male. Maca (25 and 100 mg/kg) was orally administered to male rats for 30 days. Male sexual behavior was monitored after acute, 7 and 21 days of treatment. Anxiety behavior and locomotion were measured at 28-29 days using the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests. Maca treatment did not produce large changes in male sexual behavior. However, an increase in ejaculation latency and postejaculatory interval was observed after both acute and 7 days of treatment. After 21 days of treatment Maca had no effect on sexual behavior. Chronic administration of Maca did not increase locomotion or anxiety. Acute and short-term administration of Maca produced a small effect of rat male sexual behavior and long-term administration did not increase anxiety.

  14. Structural Characterization and Antifatigue Effect In Vivo of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) Polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weimin; Jin, Lu; Xie, Lianghua; Huang, Juqing; Wang, Nan; Chu, Bingquan; Dai, Xulin; Liu, Yu; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) polysaccharides (MP) with purity of 99.2% were obtained to investigate their structural characteristics and antifatigue effect in vivo. The physicochemical properties of MP were analyzed through high-performance gel filtration chromatography, IR, monosaccharide composition, methylation, GC-MS, and NMR analyses. The antifatigue effect of MP was evaluated by using a mouse weight-loaded swimming model. MP is an acidic heteropolysaccharide with an average molecular weight (M w ) of 793.5 kDa. It is composed of D-GalA: D-Glc: L-Ara: D-Man: D-Gal: L-Rha = 35.07:29.98:16.98:13.01:4.21:0.75 (mol, %). The findings revealed that MP contained β-1,3-Galp(A), β-1,3-Glcp, and α-1, 3-Manp linked alternatingly to form a backbone (5:4:1). MP (above mid-dosage 50 mg/kg bw/d) could effectively elongate swimming durations and accelerate average swimming speeds (within the 1st 5 min) of mice (P maca. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Anti-fatigue activity of polysaccharide fractions from Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Sun, Qingrui; Meng, Qingran; Wang, Lei; Xiong, Wentao; Zhang, Lianfu

    2017-02-01

    The two fractions of polysaccharide MPS-1 and MPS-2 were extracted from Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) by water, and purified using a DEAE-52 and a Sephadex G-100 column. The molecular weight (M W ) of MPS-1 was 7.6kDa, and the M W of MPS-2 was 6.7kDa. The MPS-1 was composed of xylose, arabinose, galactose and glucose, with the mole ratio 1:1.7:3.3:30.5; the MPS-2 was composed of arabinose, galactose and glucose, with the mole ratio 1:1.3:36.8. The IR spectrum implied that only α-pyranose existed in MPS-1, and both α-pyranose and β-pyranose existed in MPS-2. The anti-fatigue activities of MPS-1 and MPS-2 were measured by the forced swimming test, along with the determination of blood lactate (BLA), urea nitrogen (BUN), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and liver glycogen (LG). The results indicated that both MPS-1 and MPS-2 presented dose-dependently positive effects on the fatigue related parameters. Additionally, MPS-2 has a better anti-fatigue effect than MPS-1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Photosynthetic pigments and peroxidase activity of Lepidium sativum L. during assisted Hg phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata; Leszczynska, Joanna

    2017-05-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate metabolic answer of Lepidium sativum L. on Hg, compost, and citric acid during assisted phytoextraction. The chlorophyll a and b contents, total carotenoids, and activity of peroxidase were determined in plants exposed to Hg and soil amendments. Hg accumulation in plant shoots was also investigated. The pot experiments were provided in soil artificially contaminated by Hg and/or supplemented with compost and citric acid. Hg concentration in plant shoots and soil substrates was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) method after acid mineralization. The plant photosynthetic pigments and peroxidase activity were measured by standard spectrophotometric methods. The study shows that L. sativum L. accumulated Hg in its aerial tissues. An increase in Hg accumulation was noticed when soil was supplemented with compost and citric acid. Increasing Hg concentration in plant shoots was correlated with enhanced activation of peroxidase activity and changes in total carotenoid concentration. Combined use of compost and citric acid also decreased the chlorophyll a and b contents in plant leaves. Presented study reveals that L. sativum L. is capable of tolerating Hg and its use during phytoextraction assisted by combined use of compost and citric acid lead to decreasing soil contamination by Hg.

  17. Antioxidative response of Lepidium sativum L. during assisted phytoremediation of Hg contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata; Szczodrowska, Agnieszka

    2017-09-25

    In this study, Lepidium sativum L. was used in repeated phytoextraction processes to remove Hg from contaminated soil, assisted by combined use of compost and iodide (KI). L. sativum L. is sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and has been used in environmental tests. Its short vegetation period and ability to accumulate heavy metals make it suitable for use in repeated phytoextraction. The antioxidant enzymatic system of the plant (catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)) was analysed, to understand the effects of increasing Hg accumulation and translocation. Phytoextraction was repeated six times to decrease Hg contamination in soil, and the efficiency of each step was assessed. The results indicate that L. sativum L. is able to take up and accumulate Hg from contaminated soil. A corresponding increase in enzymatic antioxidants shows that the plant defence system is activated in response to Hg stress. Using compost and KI increases total Hg accumulation and translocation to the above-ground parts of L. sativum L. Repeating the process decreases Hg contamination in pot experiments in all variants of the process. The combined use of compost and KI during repeated phytoextraction increases the efficiency of Hg removal from contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Protein changes in Lepidium sativum L. exposed to Hg during soil phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata; Szczodrowska, Agnieszka; Leszczynska, Joanna

    2017-08-03

    Some investigations have been carried out in this study to find the best technique of soil reclamation in mercurypolluted soil. In this study, we examined Lepidium sativum L. as a plant useful for Hg phytoextraction. The simultaneous application of compost and thiosulfate was explored as a possible method of enhancing the process of phytoextraction. The results of the investigations of plant protein changes during assisted Hg phytoextraction were also provided. The results of the study show that combined use of compost and thiosulfate significantly increased both the total Hg accumulation and its translocation to aerial plant tissues. Plant protein analysis showed that L. sativum L. has the ability to respond to environmental stress condition by the activation of additional proteins. The additional proteins, like homocysteine methyltransferase, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylases (long and short chains), 14-3-3-like protein, and biosynthesis-related 40S ribosomal protein S15, were activated in plant shoots only in experiments carried out in Hg-polluted soil. There were no protein changes observed in plants exposed to compost and thiosulfate. It suggests that the combined use of compost and thiosulfate decreased Hg toxicity.

  19. Phytochemicals of Brassicaceae in plant protection and human health--influences of climate, environment and agronomic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Maria; Klingen, Ingeborg; Birch, Andrew N E; Bones, Atle M; Bruce, Toby J A; Johansen, Tor J; Meadow, Richard; Mølmann, Jørgen; Seljåsen, Randi; Smart, Lesley E; Stewart, Derek

    2011-05-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the role of glucosinolates and other phytochemical compounds present in the Brassicaceae in relation to plant protection and human health. Current knowledge of the factors that influence phytochemical content and profile in the Brassicaceae is also summarized and multi-factorial approaches are briefly discussed. Variation in agronomic conditions (plant species, cultivar, developmental stage, plant organ, plant competition, fertilization, pH), season, climatic factors, water availability, light (intensity, quality, duration) and CO(2) are known to significantly affect content and profile of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals such as the glucosinolates and leaf surface waxes play an important role in interactions with pests and pathogens. Factors that affect production of phytochemicals are important when designing plant protection strategies that exploit these compounds to minimize crop damage caused by plant pests and pathogens. Brassicaceous plants are consumed increasingly for possible health benefits, for example, glucosinolate-derived effects on degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, factors influencing phytochemical content and profile in the production of brassicaceous plants are worth considering both for plant and human health. Even though it is known that factors that influence phytochemical content and profile may interact, studies of plant compounds were, until recently, restricted by methods allowing only a reductionistic approach. It is now possible to design multi-factorial experiments that simulate their combined effects. This will provide important information to ecologists, plant breeders and agronomists. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Two hAT transposon genes were transferred from Brassicaceae to broomrapes and are actively expressed in some recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Renner, Susanne S.; Xu, Yuxing; Qin, Yan; Wu, Jianqiang; Sun, Guiling

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence is pointing to an important role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the evolution of higher plants. However, reports of HGTs of transposable elements (TEs) in plants are still scarce, and only one case is known of a class II transposon horizontally transferred between grasses. To investigate possible TE transfers in dicots, we performed transcriptome screening in the obligate root parasite Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Orobanchaceae), data-mining in the draft genome assemblies of four other Orobanchaceae, gene cloning, gene annotation in species with genomic information, and a molecular phylogenetic analysis. We discovered that the broomrape genera Phelipanche and Orobanche acquired two related nuclear genes (christened BO transposase genes), a new group of the hAT superfamily of class II transposons, from Asian Sisymbrieae or a closely related tribe of Brassicaceae, by HGT. The collinearity of the flanking genes, lack of a classic border structure, and low expression levels suggest that BO transposase genes cannot transpose in Brassicaceae, whereas they are highly expressed in P. aegyptiaca. PMID:27452947

  1. Assessment of cadmium accumulation, toxicity, and tolerance in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae plants--implications for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Umar, Shahid; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2014-09-01

    This study, based on a greenhouse pot culture experiment conducted with 15-day-old rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. cv. Pusa Gold; family Brassicaceae) and moong bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek cv. Pusa Ratna; family Fabaceae) plants treated with cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) soil), investigates their potential for Cd accumulation and tolerance, and dissects the underlying basic physiological/biochemical mechanisms. In both species, plant dry mass decreased, while Cd concentration of both root and shoot increased with increase in soil Cd. Roots harbored a higher amount of Cd (vs. shoot) in B. campestris, while the reverse applied to V. radiata. By comparison, root Cd concentration was higher in B. campestris than in V. radiata. The high Cd concentrations in B. campestris roots and V. radiata shoots led to significant elevation in oxidative indices, as measured in terms of electrolyte leakage, H2O2 content, and lipid peroxidation. Both plants displayed differential adaptation strategies to counteract the Cd burden-caused anomalies in their roots and shoots. In B. campestris, increasing Cd burden led to a significantly decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) content but a significant increase in activities of GSH reductase (GR), GSH peroxidase (GPX), and GSH sulfotransferase (GST). However, in V. radiata, increasing Cd burden caused significant increase in GSH content and GR activity, but a significant decline in activities of GPX and GST. Cross talks on Cd burden of tissues and the adapted Cd tolerance strategies against Cd burden-accrued toxicity indicated that B. campestris and V. radiata are good Cd stabilizer and Cd extractor, respectively, wherein a fine tuning among the major components (GR, GPX, GST, GSH) of the GSH redox system helped the plants to counteract differentially the Cd load-induced anomalies in tissues. On the whole, the physiological/biochemical characterization of the B. campestris and V. radiata responses to varying Cd

  2. Species delimitation and interspecific relationships of the genus Orychophragmus (Brassicaceae inferred from whole chloroplast genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Hu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIt is rather difficult to delimit recently diverged species and construct their interspecific relationships because of insufficient informative variations of sampled DNA fragments (Schluter, 2000; Arnold, 2006. The genome-scale sequence variations were found to increase the phylogenetic resolutions of both high- and low-taxonomic groups (e.g., Yoder et al., 2013; Lamichhaney et al., 2015. It is still expensive to collect nuclear genome variations between species for most none-model genera without the reference genome. However, chloroplast genomes (plastome are relatively easy to be assembled to examine interspecific relationships for phylogenetic analyses, especially in addressing unresolved relationship at low taxonomic levels (Wu et al., 2010; Nock et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2013; Huang et al., 2014; Carbonell-Caballero et al., 2015. Plastomes are haploid with maternal inheritance in most angiosperms (Corriveau and Coleman, 1988; Zhang and Liu, 2003; Hagemann, 2004 and are highly conservative in gene order and genome structure with rare recombinations (Jansen et al., 2007; Moore et al., 2010. In this study, we aimed to examine species delimitation and interspecific relationships in Orychophragmus through assembling chloroplast genomes of multiple individuals of tentatively delimited species (Hu et al., 2015a. Orychophragmus is a small genus in the mustard family (Brassicaceae, Cruciferae distributed in northern, central, and southeastern China (Zhou et al., 2001. Its plants have been widely cultivated as ornamentals, vegetables, or source of seed oil (Sun et al., 2011. Despite controversial species delimitations in the genus (Zhou et al., 1987; Tan et al., 1998; Wu and Zhao, 2003; Al-Shehbaz and Yang, 2000; Zhou et al., 2001; Sun et al., 2012, our recent study based on nuclear (nr ITS sequence variations suggested the recognition of seven species (Hu et al., 2015a. Orychophragmus is sister to Sinalliaria, which is a genus endemic

  3. Preliminary approach to detect amylolytic and pectinolytic activities from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. Ensaios preliminares de detecção de atividades amilolítica e pectinolítica em maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerby Giovanna Rondan-Sanabria

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Amylase (AM, pectinesterase (PE and polygalacturonase (PG were extracted from maca roots (Lepidium meyenii Walp. The response surface model was used to determine the optimum conditions of pH and temperature activity of each enzyme on the crude extract. The highest values of AM activity occurred at pH 6.1 and 33.6 °C, very close to the experimental central point. The PE activity had a maximum activity at pH 6.6 and 49.4 and PG activity showed optimum activity at pH 5.4 and 46 °C.O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar valores ideais de pH e temperatura para avaliar as atividades amilolítica (AM, pectinesterásica (PE e poligalacturonásica (PG em raízes de maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.. Foi utilizado o modelo de superfície de resposta para atingir valores confiáveis de atividades enzimáticas em extratos brutos. Os valores máximos de atividade AM ocorreram em pH 6,1 a 33,6 °C, muito próximos do ponto central dos experimentos. Para as atividades de PE e PG, o valores ótimos foram atingidos em pHs 6,6 e 5,4, a 49,4 e 46 °C, respectivamente.

  4. Evaulation of perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) management in a seasonal wetland in San Francisco Estuary prior to restoration of tidal hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide applications have shown potential for control and management of invasive perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) in rangelands and tidal wetlands. However, reported efficacy of management methods varies widely, and the effects of more recently labeled aquatic herbicides on non-target ve...

  5. A new Metaculus species (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on Diplotaxis tenuifolia (Brassicaceae) from Serbia: a combined description using morphology and DNA barcode data

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of eriophyoid mite, Metaculus diplotaxi n.sp. inhabiting Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC., has been described from Serbia. To investigate interspecific variability between Metaculus spp., on three different host plants of Brassicaceae we analyzed phenotypic variability of morphological t...

  6. One-step Multiplex RT-PCR Method for Simultaneous Detection of Seed Transmissible Bacterium and Virus Occurring on Brassicaceae Crop Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyusik Jeong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop specific and sensitive PCR-based procedures for simultaneous detection of economically important plant pathogenic bacteria and seed borne virus in commercial Brassicaceae crop seeds, Xanthomonns campestris pv. campestris (Xcc and Lettuce Mosaic Virus (LMV. Bacterial and virus diseases of Brassicaceae leaves are responsible for heavy losses. PCR with arbitral primers: selection of specific primers, performance of PCR with specific primers and determination of the threshold level for pathogens detection. To detect simultaneously the Xcc and LMV in commercial Brassicaceae crop seeds (lettuce, kohlrabi, radish, chinese cabbage and cabbage, two pairs of specific primer (LMV-F/R, Xcc-F/R were synthesized by using primer-blast program (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/tools/ primer-blast/. The multiplex PCR for the two pathogens in Brassicaceae crop seeds could detect specifically without interference among primers and/or cDNA of other plant pathogens. The pathogen detection limit was determined at 1 ng of RNA extracted from pathogens. In the total PCR results for pathogen detection using commercial kohlrabi (10 varieties, lettuce (50 varieties, radish (20 varieties, chinese cabbage (20 varieties and cabbage (20 varieties, LMV and Xcc were detected from 39 and 2 varieties, respectively. In the PCR result of lettuce, LMV and Xcc were simultaneously detected in 8 varieties.

  7. Is the hype around the reproductive health claims of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharry, Shruti; Heinrich, Michael

    2018-01-30

    Maca - Lepidium meyenii Walp. has been cultivated and used by Andean people for over 1300-2000 years in Peru as food and medicine. Starting in the late 1990's it has developed into an important herbal medicine in China and is now cultivated there widely, too AIM OF STUDY: This study aims to provide an insight into the emergence of maca on the global market as an alternative remedy to treat reproductive health related problems in both men and women and to critically assess these health claims. A search of electronic databases such as EMBASE and a hand-search was done to acquire peer-reviewed articles and reports about maca. Lepidium meyenii is used traditionally as a tonic, fertility enhancer for both humans and cattle, and to treat a variety of ailments such as rheumatism, respiratory disorders and anaemia among others. Maca root is cooked, baked, fermented as a drink and made into porridge. In the last twenty years, maca was introduced onto the global market and demand has dramatically grown over this time with its promotion on the internet, as the 'Peruvian Ginseng' for libido and fertility enhancement. It has also been said to treat menopausal symptoms, erectile dysfunction and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The sky-rocketing demand for the plant has seen a shift from traditional cultivation methods to mass production practices with the use of fertilisers and also pesticides; as maca is now grown in areas other than the Andes such as in the Yunnan province in China. This can potentially affect the phytochemistry and composition of the plant and thus, the quality, safety and efficacy of maca products. Meanwhile, research into maca's medicinal properties has followed the spike in popularity of maca and has been focused mainly on maca's aphrodisiac and fertility enhancing properties. So far, the in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted have yielded inconclusive results. Some of the key limitations reside in methodology and sample size. Chemical profiling, led

  8. Effect of Black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on one spermatogenic cycle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Nieto, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M

    2006-10-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m above sea level in the Peruvian central Andes. The hypocotyls of this plant are traditionally used in the Andean region for their supposed fertility-enhancing properties. The hypocotyls have different colours. Of these, Black maca has better effects on spermatogenesis. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that Black maca has early effects during a spermatogenic cycle (12 days) of male rats. For this, testicular spermatid, epididymal sperm and vas deferens sperm counts were measured after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 12 days of treatment with Black maca. Aqueous extract of Black maca was given orally by daily gavage at a dose of 2 g kg(-1). In a spermatogenic cycle, compared with day 1, daily sperm production (DSP) was lower at day 7 (control), whereas with Black maca, the difference was observed at day 12. Epididymal sperm count was higher in rats treated with Black maca at days 1, 3 and 7, but similar to controls at days 5 and 12; similarly sperm counts in vas deferens was higher in rats treated with Black maca in days 3, 5 and 7, but similar to controls at days 1 and 12. From this, it is suggested that first action of Black maca was at epididymal level increasing sperm count after 1 day of treatment, whereas an increase in sperm count was observed in vas deferens at day 3 of treatment. Finally, an increase in DSP was observed after 7 days of treatment with Black maca. Testicular testosterone was not affected after 7 days treatment with Black maca. In conclusion, Black maca affects sperm count as early as 1 day after beginning of treatment.

  9. Lepidium meyenii (Maca increases litter size in normal adult female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasco Manuel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i Reproductive indexes group, ii Implantation sites group and iii Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to

  10. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (I) Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in Three Maca Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Henry O; Mscisz, Alina; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Piatkowska, Ewa; Jólkowska, Justyna; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2015-09-01

    Glucosinolates were previously reported as physiologically-important constituents present in Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) and linked to various therapeutic functions of differently-colored Peruvian Maca hypocotyls. In two separate Trials, three colours of Maca hypocotyls "Black", "Red" and "Yellow" (termed "Maca phenotypes"), were selected from mixed crops of Peruvian Maca for laboratory studies as fresh and after being dried. Individual Maca phenotypes were cultivated in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes at 4,200m a.s.l. (Junin and Ninacaca). Glucosinolate levels, chromatographic HPLC profiles and DNA variability in the investigated Maca phenotypes are presented. Genotypic profiles were determined by the ISSR-PCR and RAPD techniques. Compared to the Black and Red phenotypes, the Yellow phenotype contained much lower Glucosinolate levels measured against Glucotropaeolin and m-methoxy-glucotropaeolin standards, and exhibited different RAPD and ISSR-PCR reactions. The Red Maca phenotype showed the highest concentrations of Glucosinolates as compared to the Black and Yellow Maca. It appears that the traditional system used by natives of the Peruvian Andean highlands in preparing Maca as a vegetable dish (boiling dried Maca after soaking in water), to supplement their daily meals, is as effective as laboratory methods - for extracting Glucosinolates, which are considered to be one of the key bioactive constituents responsible for therapeutic functions of Peruvian Maca phenotypes. It is reasonable to assume that the HPLC and DNA techniques combined, or separately, may assist in determining ID and "Fingerprints" identifying individual Peruvian Maca phenotypes, hence confirming the authenticity of marketable Maca products. The above assumptions warrant further laboratory testing.

  11. Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp, una revisión sobre sus propiedades biológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F Gonzales

    Full Text Available La maca (Lepidium meyenii es una planta que crece sobre los 4000 metros de altitud en los Andes Centrales del Perú, presenta diferentes variedades de acuerdo al color de su hipocótilo. La presente revisión resume los resultados de estudios sobre los efectos de la maca en la función sexual, la espermatogénesis, la función reproductiva femenina, la memoria, la depresión y la ansiedad, como energizante y contra la hiperplasia benigna de próstata, osteoporosis y síndrome metabólico. Se discute también su efecto antienvejecimiento y la seguridad en su consumo. Se han demostrado diferencias en el efecto de las variedades negra, amarilla y roja de maca. La maca negra es la que mejores resultados presenta sobre la espermatogénesis, la memoria y contra la fatiga, mientras que la maca roja es la variedad que mejor revierte la hiperplasia benigna de próstata y la osteoporosis inducida experimentalmente. Además, la maca reduce los niveles de glucosa, y su consumo se relaciona con la reducción de la presión arterial y un mejor puntaje de salud. Estudios experimentales han demostrado que el consumo a corto como a largo plazo no muestra toxicidad tanto in vivo como in vitro. A pesar que los estudios experimentales han demostrado que la maca presenta diversos efectos benéficos, son necesarios más estudios clínicos para confirmar estos resultados

  12. Differing mechanisms of simple nitrile formation on glucosinolate degradation in Lepidium sativum and Nasturtium officinale seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David J; Critchley, Christa; Pun, Sharon; Chaliha, Mridusmita; O'Hare, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates are sulphur-containing glycosides found in brassicaceous plants that can be hydrolysed enzymatically by plant myrosinase or non-enzymatically to form primarily isothiocyanates and/or simple nitriles. From a human health perspective, isothiocyanates are quite important because they are major inducers of carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes. Two of the most potent inducers are benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) present in garden cress (Lepidium sativum), and phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) present in watercress (Nasturtium officinale). Previous studies on these salad crops have indicated that significant amounts of simple nitriles are produced at the expense of the isothiocyanates. These studies also suggested that nitrile formation may occur by different pathways: (1) under the control of specifier protein in garden cress and (2) by an unspecified, non-enzymatic path in watercress. In an effort to understand more about the mechanisms involved in simple nitrile formation in these species, we analysed their seeds for specifier protein and myrosinase activities, endogenous iron content and glucosinolate degradation products after addition of different iron species, specific chelators and various heat treatments. We confirmed that simple nitrile formation was predominantly under specifier protein control (thiocyanate-forming protein) in garden cress seeds. Limited thermal degradation of the major glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin (benzyl glucosinolate), occurred when seed material was heated to >120 degrees C. In the watercress seeds, however, we show for the first time that gluconasturtiin (phenylethyl glucosinolate) undergoes a non-enzymatic, iron-dependent degradation to a simple nitrile. On heating the seeds to 120 degrees C or greater, thermal degradation of this heat-labile glucosinolate increased simple nitrile levels many fold.

  13. Uptake and phytotoxic effect of benzalkonium chlorides in Lepidium sativum and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adnan Hossain; Libby, Mark; Winnick, Daniel; Palmer, John; Sumarah, Mark; Ray, Madhumita B; Macfie, Sheila M

    2018-01-15

    Cationic surfactants such as benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) are used extensively as biocides in hospitals, food processing industries, and personal care products. BACs have the potential to reach the rooting zone of crop plants and BACs might thereby enter the food chain. The two most commonly used BACs, benzyl dimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride (BDDA) and benzyl dimethyl tetradecyl ammonium chloride (BDTA), were tested in a hydroponic system to assess the uptake by and phytotoxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.). Individually and in mixture, BACs at concentrations up to 100 mg L -1 did not affect germination; however, emergent seedlings were sensitive at 1 mg L -1 for lettuce and 5 mg L -1 for garden cress. After 12 d exposure to 0.25 mg L -1 BACs, plant dry weight was reduced by 68% for lettuce and 75% for garden cress, and symptoms of toxicity (necrosis, chlorosis, wilting, etc.) were visible. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis showed the presence of BACs in the roots and shoots of both plant species. Although no conclusive relationship was established between the concentrations of six macro- or six micro-nutrients, growth inhibition or BAC uptake, N and Mg concentrations in BAC-treated lettuce were 50% lower than that of control, indicating that BACs might induce nutrient deficiency. Although bioavailability of a compound in hydroponics is significantly higher than that in soil, these results confirm the potential of BACs to harm vascular plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilización de Lepidium Peruvianum Maca, como medio de cultivo para el crecimiento de Trypanosoma Cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Saldaña C

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Por sus características nutritivas de alto valor, se ensayó la posible utilidad del Lepidium peruvianum maca, como un medio para cultivar Trypanosoma cruzi. Bajo condiciones experimentales se procedió a incubar epimastigotes de T. cruzi en cuatro medios de cultivo bifásicos diferentes, a base de Lepidium peruvianum maca, los cuales fueron comparados con el medio de cultivo BHI como control. La incorporación de maca como medio de cultivo permitió el crecimiento de Trypanosoma cruzi; se determinó que el medio que contenía maca enriquecida con sangre entre los componentes sólidos y la infusión de maca en la fase líquida, presentó un mayor crecimiento (3,41 x 105 parásitos/mL con respecto a los otros medios de cultivo al quinto día (p<0,05.

  15. Arsenic absorption by members of the Brassicacea family, analysed by neutron activation, k0-method - preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, George; Matos, Ludmila Vieira da Silva; Silva, Maria Aparecida da; Ferreira, Alexandre Santos Martorano; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros Correia

    2009-01-01

    Natural arsenic contamination is a cause for concern in many countries of the world including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, Thailand and the United States of America and also in Brazil, specially in the Iron Quadrangle area, where mining activities has been contributing to aggravate natural contamination. Brassicacea is a plant family with edible species (arugula, cabbage, cauliflower, cress, kale, mustard, radish), ornamental ones (alysssum, field pennycress, ornamental cabbages and kales) and some species are known as metal and metalloid accumulators (Indian mustard, field pennycress), like chromium, nickel, and arsenic. The present work aimed at studying other taxa of the Brassicaceae family to verify their capability in absorbing arsenic, under controlled conditions, for possible utilisation in remediation activities. The analytical method chosen was neutron activation analysis, k 0 method, a routine technique at CDTN, and also very appropriate for arsenic studies. To avoid possible interference from solid substrates, like sand or vermiculite, attempts were carried out to keep the specimens in 1/4 Murashige and Skoog basal salt solution (M and S). Growth was stumped, plants withered and perished, showing that modifications in M and S had to be done. The addition of nickel and silicon allowed normal growth of the plant specimens, for periods longer than usually achieved (more than two months); yielding samples large enough for further studies with other techniques, like ICP-MS, and other targets, like speciation studies. The results of arsenic absorption are presented here and the need of nickel and silicon in the composition of M and S is discussed. (author)

  16. Arsenic absorption by members of the Brassicacea family, analysed by neutron activation, k{sub 0}-method - preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, George; Matos, Ludmila Vieira da Silva; Silva, Maria Aparecida da; Ferreira, Alexandre Santos Martorano; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros Correia [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: george@cdtn.br, e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Natural arsenic contamination is a cause for concern in many countries of the world including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, Thailand and the United States of America and also in Brazil, specially in the Iron Quadrangle area, where mining activities has been contributing to aggravate natural contamination. Brassicacea is a plant family with edible species (arugula, cabbage, cauliflower, cress, kale, mustard, radish), ornamental ones (alysssum, field pennycress, ornamental cabbages and kales) and some species are known as metal and metalloid accumulators (Indian mustard, field pennycress), like chromium, nickel, and arsenic. The present work aimed at studying other taxa of the Brassicaceae family to verify their capability in absorbing arsenic, under controlled conditions, for possible utilisation in remediation activities. The analytical method chosen was neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0} method, a routine technique at CDTN, and also very appropriate for arsenic studies. To avoid possible interference from solid substrates, like sand or vermiculite, attempts were carried out to keep the specimens in 1/4 Murashige and Skoog basal salt solution (M and S). Growth was stumped, plants withered and perished, showing that modifications in M and S had to be done. The addition of nickel and silicon allowed normal growth of the plant specimens, for periods longer than usually achieved (more than two months); yielding samples large enough for further studies with other techniques, like ICP-MS, and other targets, like speciation studies. The results of arsenic absorption are presented here and the need of nickel and silicon in the composition of M and S is discussed. (author)

  17. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) on testicular function of mice with chemically and physically induced subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia Cuya, M; Yarasca De La Vega, K; Lévano Sánchez, G; Vásquez Cavero, J; Temoche García, H; Torres Torres, L; Cruz Ornetta, V

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) in chemically and physically subfertile mice. After 35 days, the following groups of mice were evaluated: control, sham, chemical subfertility, chemical subfertility-maca-supplemented, physical subfertility, physical subfertility-maca-supplemented and maca-supplemented only. Motility (32.36% ± 5.34%) and sperm count (44.4 ± 5.37 × 10(6) /ml) in the chemically and physically subfertile mice (11.81% ± 4.06%, 17.34 ± 13.07 × 10(6) /ml) decreased compared to the control (75.53% ± 2.97% and 57.4 ± 19.6 10(6) /ml) and sham (53.5% ± 7.86% and 58.4 ± 14.10 10(6) /ml). Maca was able to reverse the deleterious effect of motility (76.36 ± 1.97) as well as sperm count (53.5 ± 9.18 × 10(6) /ml) on chemical subfertility. In contrast, maca did not reverse the effects of induced physical subfertility nor motility (18.78% ± 14.41%) or sperm count (20.17 ± 11.20 × 10(6) /ml). The percentage of sperm DNA fragmentation in the physically subfertile mice increased (11.1% ± 19.29%) compared to the control (0.84% ± 0.85%). However, in the physically subfertile group, maca decreased sperm DNA fragmentation (2.29% ± 2.30%) closer to the sham (1.04% ± 0.62%) and the control (0.84% ± 0.85%). The group supplemented only with maca showed 0.54% ± 0.50% of spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation. Yet, the differences observed were statistically not significant. In conclusion, it appears that maca activates the cytochrome P450 system after chemically induced subfertility. However, it does not reverse the low mitochondrial membrane potential in spermatozoa compromised in the physical subfertility group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. The Nutritional Composition of Maca in Hypocotyls (Lepidium meyenii Walp. Cultivated in Different Regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. was introduced to China in the recent two decades. Proximate compositions and secondary metabolites in dried maca tuber powders of different cultivation areas and colour types were analyzed and compared in order to provide the scientific guideline for its application. Cultivation region significantly affects the compositions of maca. The protein content of maca ranged from 9.31% to 21.02% by dry basis of maca powders and Xiaopingba-Y, Yulong-Y, and Pamirs-Y have the higher protein contents. The essential amino acids (EAA contents ranged from 189.19 to 312.90 mg/g protein. The crude lipid content of different maca ranged from 0.59% to 1.00% and has no significant difference (P>0.05. The total dietary fiber (TDF contents ranged from 17.82% to 26.00% and soluble dietary fiber (SDF ranged from 2.46% to 7.88%, respectively. Maca samples were rich in Na, Mg, Ca, and K elements which ranged 138.3–187.8, 625.2–837.2, 3838.9–4502.7, and 5394.8–8063.3 mg/kg dry matter (DM. Xiaopingba-Y has the highest benzyl glucosinolate content which was 2.31 mg/g DM. Peru-Y and Xiaopingba have the higher contents of total alkaloids contents which was 2.61 and 2.56 mg/kg DM. Yongsheng-Y, Yulong-Y, and Pamirs-Y were rich in N-benzyl hexadecanamide contents, which were 0.164, 0.174, and 0.173 mg/g DM, respectively. Significant higher protein, total dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber, total alkaloids, and benzyl glucosinolate contents were found in purple and black maca compared to yellow maca in Pamirs, while there was no significant difference in N-benzyl hexadecanamide content.

  19. Identification of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) and its adulterants by a DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Jin; Zhao, Qing-Sheng; Liu, Yi-Lan; Zha, Sheng-Hua; Zhao, Bing

    2015-09-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is an herbaceous plant that grows in high plateaus and has been used as both food and folk medicine for centuries because of its benefits to human health. In the present study, ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences of forty-three maca samples, collected from different regions or vendors, were amplified and analyzed. The ITS sequences of nineteen potential adulterants of maca were also collected and analyzed. The results indicated that the ITS sequence of maca was consistent in all samples and unique when compared with its adulterants. Therefore, this DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence can be used for the molecular identification of maca and its adulterants. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Peroxidase activity in root hairs of cress (lepidium sativum L.) Cytochemical localization and radioactive labelling of wall bound peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaar, K.

    1979-01-01

    The ultrastructural localization of peroxidase activity in young, growing root hairs of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) after assay with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine is reported. Prominent peroxidase activity has been found in the dictyosomes and the associated vesicles, in ribosomes on ER-cisternae, as well as in the cell wall. On the basis of both ultrastructural and cytochemical evidence it is proposed that peroxidase in root hairs is synthesized on the ER- and within dictyosome cisternae packaged and transported in secretory vesicles and extruded into the cell wall particularily at the tip region of a root hair. The kinetic of Golgi apparatus mediated peroxidasesecretion was monitored by measuring the 55 Fe protoheme content of primary cell walls. Peroxidase secretion seems to be enhanced during stress incubation in destilled water. Secretory activity in root hairs is 20 times higher than in cells of the root body. (author)

  1. Targeting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation, Stemness and Metastatic Potential Using Brassicaceae Extracts Enriched in Isothiocyanates: A 3D Cell Model-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucília P. Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC recurrence is often attributable to circulating tumor cells and/or cancer stem cells (CSCs that resist to conventional therapies and foster tumor progression. Isothiocyanates (ITCs derived from Brassicaceae vegetables have demonstrated anticancer effects in CRC, however little is known about their effect in CSCs and tumor initiation properties. Here we examined the effect of ITCs-enriched Brassicaceae extracts derived from watercress and broccoli in cell proliferation, CSC phenotype and metastasis using a previously developed three-dimensional HT29 cell model with CSC-like traits. Both extracts were phytochemically characterized and their antiproliferative effect in HT29 monolayers was explored. Next, we performed cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry analysis in HT29 spheroids treated with watercress and broccoli extracts and respective main ITCs, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC and sulforaphane (SFN. Soft agar assays and relative quantitative expression analysis of stemness markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling players were performed to evaluate the effect of these phytochemicals in stemness and metastasis. Our results showed that both Brassicaceae extracts and ITCs exert antiproliferative effects in HT29 spheroids, arresting cell cycle at G2/M, possibly due to ITC-induced DNA damage. Colony formation and expression of LGR5 and CD133 cancer stemness markers were significantly reduced. Only watercress extract and PEITC decreased ALDH1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, as well as β-catenin expression. Our research provides new insights on CRC therapy using ITC-enriched Brassicaceae extracts, specially watercress extract, to target CSCs and circulating tumor cells by impairing cell proliferation, ALDH1-mediated chemo-resistance, anoikis evasion, self-renewal and metastatic potential.

  2. Targeting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation, Stemness and Metastatic Potential Using Brassicaceae Extracts Enriched in Isothiocyanates: A 3D Cell Model-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucília P.; Silva, Patrícia; Duarte, Marlene; Rodrigues, Liliana; Duarte, Catarina M. M.; Albuquerque, Cristina; Serra, Ana Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence is often attributable to circulating tumor cells and/or cancer stem cells (CSCs) that resist to conventional therapies and foster tumor progression. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from Brassicaceae vegetables have demonstrated anticancer effects in CRC, however little is known about their effect in CSCs and tumor initiation properties. Here we examined the effect of ITCs-enriched Brassicaceae extracts derived from watercress and broccoli in cell proliferation, CSC phenotype and metastasis using a previously developed three-dimensional HT29 cell model with CSC-like traits. Both extracts were phytochemically characterized and their antiproliferative effect in HT29 monolayers was explored. Next, we performed cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry analysis in HT29 spheroids treated with watercress and broccoli extracts and respective main ITCs, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane (SFN). Soft agar assays and relative quantitative expression analysis of stemness markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling players were performed to evaluate the effect of these phytochemicals in stemness and metastasis. Our results showed that both Brassicaceae extracts and ITCs exert antiproliferative effects in HT29 spheroids, arresting cell cycle at G2/M, possibly due to ITC-induced DNA damage. Colony formation and expression of LGR5 and CD133 cancer stemness markers were significantly reduced. Only watercress extract and PEITC decreased ALDH1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, as well as β-catenin expression. Our research provides new insights on CRC therapy using ITC-enriched Brassicaceae extracts, specially watercress extract, to target CSCs and circulating tumor cells by impairing cell proliferation, ALDH1-mediated chemo-resistance, anoikis evasion, self-renewal and metastatic potential. PMID:28394276

  3. Myrigalone A Inhibits Lepidium sativum Seed Germination by Interference with Gibberellin Metabolism and Apoplastic Superoxide Production Required for Embryo Extension Growth and Endosperm Rupture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oracz, K.; Voegele, A.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Jacquemoud, D.; Turečková, Veronika; Urbanová, Terezie; Strnad, Miroslav; Sliwinska, E.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2012), s. 81-95 ISSN 0032-0781 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA MŠk ED0007/01/01; GA ČR GD522/08/H003 Keywords : Embryo cell extension growth * Endoreduplication * Endosperm rupture * Gibberellin metabolism * Lepidium sativum * Myrica gale * Phytotoxicity * Reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.134, year: 2012

  4. Temporal and host-related variation in frequencies of genes that enable Phyllotreta nemorum to utilize a novel host plant, Barbarea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, J.K.; Jong, de P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an intermediate specialist feeding on a small number of plants within the family Brassicaceae. The most commonly used host plant is Sinapis arvensis L., whereas the species is found more rarely on Cardaria draba (L.) Desv.,

  5. The molecular phylogeny of Matthiola R. Br. (Brassicaceae) inferred from ITS sequences, with special emphasis on the Macaronesian endemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Reyes-Betancort, Jorge Alfredo; Akhani, Hossein; Fernández-Palacios, Olga; de Paz, Julia Pérez; Febles-Hernández, Rosa; Marrero-Rodríguez, Aguedo

    2009-12-01

    Matthiola (Brassicaceae) is a genus that is widespread in the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian regions and includes two species that are endemic to the archipelagos of Madeira and the Canaries in Macaronesia, which is an insular oceanic hotspot of biodiversity harboring many radiating endemic plant lineages. Sequence analyses of the nuclear ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions in a comprehensive geographical sample of Matthiola, encompassing all the endemic Macaronesian populations known to date, suggest independent Mediterranean and NW African origins of the taxa in Madeira and the Canaries, respectively. These molecular data reveal a complex evolutionary landscape that converges with morphological analyses in the recognition of two new Madeiran species. The data also suggest that the Canarian infra-specific endemic taxa described thus far have high (but non-diagnostic) levels of morphological and genetic diversity, and should be included in the single endemic Matthiola bolleana. In agreement with earlier investigations that revealed a high genetic differentiation between the populations of Matthiola in Fuerteventura and Lanzarote, our phylogeny supports independent founder events from the same mainland congener to either island. The consistently derived position of the Moroccan populations within a mostly Canarian clade suggests a further back-colonization of the continent. Notably, the ITS sequence resolution offered by Matthiola is higher than that found in many of the radiating Canarian endemic lineages for which molecular phylogenetic studies abound. Hence, our research discovers largely unexplored pathways to understand plant diversification in this oceanic insular hotspot through the investigation of non-speciose endemics.

  6. Root parasitic plant Orobanche aegyptiaca and shoot parasitic plant Cuscuta australis obtained Brassicaceae-specific strictosidine synthase-like genes by horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dale; Qi, Jinfeng; Yue, Jipei; Huang, Jinling; Sun, Ting; Li, Suoping; Wen, Jian-Fan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Wu, Jinsong; Wang, Lei; Zhuang, Huifu; Wu, Jianqiang; Sun, Guiling

    2014-01-13

    Besides gene duplication and de novo gene generation, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is another important way of acquiring new genes. HGT may endow the recipients with novel phenotypic traits that are important for species evolution and adaption to new ecological niches. Parasitic systems expectedly allow the occurrence of HGT at relatively high frequencies due to their long-term physical contact. In plants, a number of HGT events have been reported between the organelles of parasites and the hosts, but HGT between host and parasite nuclear genomes has rarely been found. A thorough transcriptome screening revealed that a strictosidine synthase-like (SSL) gene in the root parasitic plant Orobanche aegyptiaca and the shoot parasitic plant Cuscuta australis showed much higher sequence similarities with those in Brassicaceae than with those in their close relatives, suggesting independent gene horizontal transfer events from Brassicaceae to these parasites. These findings were strongly supported by phylogenetic analysis and their identical unique amino acid residues and deletions. Intriguingly, the nucleus-located SSL genes in Brassicaceae belonged to a new member of SSL gene family, which were originated from gene duplication. The presence of introns indicated that the transfer occurred directly by DNA integration in both parasites. Furthermore, positive selection was detected in the foreign SSL gene in O. aegyptiaca but not in C. australis. The expression of the foreign SSL genes in these two parasitic plants was detected in multiple development stages and tissues, and the foreign SSL gene was induced after wounding treatment in C. australis stems. These data imply that the foreign genes may still retain certain functions in the recipient species. Our study strongly supports that parasitic plants can gain novel nuclear genes from distantly related host species by HGT and the foreign genes may execute certain functions in the new hosts.

  7. Dendrochronological study of the endangered shrub Vella pseudocytisus subsp. paui (Brassicaceae: implications for its recovery and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Génova, Mar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dendrochronology is useful to determine plant longevity, to provide insights into the structure and dynamics of plant populations and to study the relationships between growth and environmental determinants. The dendrochronology of endangered shrubs is unexplored, although their use represents an opportunity to produce better conservation guidelines. We collected for this study 63 samples from already dead specimens of Vella pseudocytisus subsp. paui (Brassicaceae, an endangered Spanish endemism from three localities. We analyzed the relationship between ring data and plant size to determine the accuracy of using size as a proxy for plant age. We also explored the relationships between ring data and environmental variables to detect growth determinants. This shrub showed a high longevity as older individuals presented nearly 50 growth rings. The relationship between age and size is weak although it could be established based on the logarithmic function of plant biovolume. Significant relationships were found between rainfall and ring widths, showing that water limited annual growth. Finally, age structure characterized differences among populations, highlighting the effects of disturbance and land use. These results provided new opportunities for management within the ongoing recovery plan for the species.La dendrocronología es útil para determinar la longevidad de la planta, proporcionar información sobre la estructura y dinámica de las poblaciones vegetales y estudiar las relaciones entre el crecimiento y las variables ambientales. Hasta ahora no se había hecho uso de la dendrocronología en arbustos en peligro de extinción, aunque su empleo puede mejorar las directrices de conservación. En este estudio se han recolectado 63 especímenes ya muertos de tres localidades de Vella pseudocytisus subsp. paui (Brassicaceae, un endemismo español en peligro de extinción. Se han analizado las relaciones entre los grosores del anillo de

  8. Characteristic fingerprinting based on macamides for discrimination of maca (Lepidium meyenii) by LC/MS/MS and multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu; Zhang, Ji; Li, Hong; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Li, Wan-Yi

    2016-10-01

    Macamides with a benzylalkylamide nucleus are characteristic and major bioactive compounds in the functional food maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp). The aim of this study was to explore variations in macamide content among maca from China and Peru. Twenty-seven batches of maca hypocotyls with different phenotypes, sampled from different geographical origins, were extracted and profiled by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-UV/MS/MS). Twelve macamides were identified by MS operated in multiple scanning modes. Similarity analysis showed that maca samples differed significantly in their macamide fingerprinting. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to differentiate samples according to their geographical origin and to identify the most relevant variables in the classification model. The prediction accuracy for raw maca was 91% and five macamides were selected and considered as chemical markers for sample classification. When combined with a PLS-DA model, characteristic fingerprinting based on macamides could be recommended for labelling for the authentication of maca from different geographical origins. The results provided potential evidence for the relationships between environmental or other factors and distribution of macamides. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. In silico profiling for secondary metabolites from Lepidium meyenii (maca) by the pharmacophore and ligand-shape-based joint approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fan; Tan, Xiao-Lei; Yan, Xin; Liu, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii Walpers (maca) is an herb known as a traditional nutritional supplement and widely used in Peru, North America, and Europe to enhance human fertility and treat osteoporosis. The secondary metabolites of maca, namely, maca alkaloids, macaenes, and macamides, are bioactive compounds, but their targets are undefined. The pharmacophore-based PharmaDB targets database screening joint the ligand shape similarity-based WEGA validation approach is proposed to predict the targets of these unique constituents and was performed using Discovery Studio 4.5 and PharmaDB. A compounds-targets-diseases network was established using Cytoscape 3.2. These suitable targets and their genes were calculated and analyzed using ingenuity pathway analysis and GeneMANIA. Certain targets were identified in osteoporosis (8 targets), prostate cancer (9 targets), and kidney diseases (11 targets). This was the first study to identify the targets of these bioactive compounds in maca for cardiovascular diseases (29 targets). The compound with the most targets (46) was an amide alkaloid (MA-24). In silico target fishing identified maca's traditional effects on treatment and prevention of osteoporosis, prostate cancer, and kidney diseases, and its potential function of treating cardiovascular diseases, as the most important of this herb's possible activities.

  10. Dose-response effect of Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone enanthate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, M; Villegas, L; Yucra, S; Rubio, J; Gonzales, G F

    2007-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to determine the effect of a freeze-dried aqueous extract of the red variety of Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in adult rats of the Holtzman strain. Rats were treated with freeze-dried aqueous extract of Red Maca at doses of 0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 g/kg body wt. A positive control group received Finasteride (0.6 mg/kg body wt.). After treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and the ventral prostate was extracted, and weighed. HPLC was used to determine the presence of glucosinolates in Red Maca. The prostate weight diminished in a dose-dependent fashion in rats treated with Red Maca. The effect of Red Maca was better than that observed with Finasteride. Finasteride, but not Red Maca, reduced seminal vesicles weight. Analysis of the HPLC indicated the presence of benzyl glucosinolate (Glucotropaeolin) with a content of 0.639%. Serum testosterone levels were not affected by Red Maca. Moreover, serum testosterone levels were not related to prostate or seminal vesicles weight in rats treated with vehicle and Red Maca. In conclusion, Red Maca administered orally in rats seems to exert an inhibitory effect at a level post DHT conversion, on the BPH-induced experimentally, although a direct measure of reductase action would still be required.

  11. Effect of butanolic fraction of yellow and black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on the sperm count of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, N; Farfan, C; Gonzales, G F

    2016-10-01

    Lepidium meyenii, known as maca, is a popular nutraceutical food which is grown over 4,000 m above sea level in the Peruvian central highlands. Maca contains alkaloids, but there are no studies on their biological effects. The butanol fraction obtained from methanol extract of maca hypocotyls contains alkaloids. The effects of butanol/aqueous fractions partitioned from methanol extract of yellow and black maca were examined. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity by 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl were used to evaluate maca fractions in vitro. Daily sperm production and sperm count in epididymis and vas deferens in mice were determined as biological effect of maca extracts in vivo. Yellow maca (21.7%±0.69) had better antioxidant capacity than black maca (18.2% ± 0.12; p maca. TPC is higher in the aqueous fraction than in the methanolic extract of yellow or black maca. Black maca administration resulted in higher concentration of sperm count in epididymis and vas deferens compared to yellow maca. A higher biological effect was observed in methanolic extract and in aqueous extract than in the butanol fraction of maca. In conclusion, better biological effect was observed in the methanolic extract of maca than in its partitioned fractions. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Evaluación preliminar del efecto de Lepidium meyenii Walp en el desarrollo embrionario de ratón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe D´Arrigo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La "maca", Lepidium meyenii Walp, especie vegetal nativa del Perú, es un recurso de gran valor nutricional. Además son varias las investigaciones realizadas en la última década en las cuales se ha comprobado sus efectos sobre la fertilidad de mamíferos. En este trabajo, evaluamos el posible efecto del extracto liofilizado del hipocótilo de L. meyenii Walp en el desarrollo de los embriones preimplantacionales de Mus musculus. Se suministró el liofilizado intra-peritonealmente, en una concentración de 0 g/Kg (grupo control y 1 g/Kg de peso corporal a dos grupos de ratonas preñadas respectivamente, desde el día 1 hasta el día 4 de preñez. Se evaluaron el estadío de desarrollo, condición y morfología embrionarias, no encontrándose efectos tóxicos del extracto acuoso liofilizado de "maca" en el desarrollo normal de los embriones pre-implantacionales de ratón.

  14. Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) enhances testicular gene expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Kawate, N; Inaba, T; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Tamada, H

    2017-12-01

    Although feeding diets containing the extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's Central Andes, increases serum testosterone concentration associated with enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells in male rats, changes in testicular steroidogenesis-related factors by the maca treatment are not known. This study examined the effects of maca on testicular gene expressions for luteinizing hormone receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and steroidogenic enzymes. Eight-week-old male rats were given the diets with or without (control) the maca extract powder (2%) for 6 weeks, and mRNA levels were determined by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the testicular mRNA level of HSD3B1 (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3β-HSD) increased by the treatment, whereas the levels of the other factors examined did not change. These results suggest that increased expression of 3β-HSD gene may be involved in the enhanced steroidogenic ability by the maca treatment in rat testes. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (II) Phytochemical Profiles of Four Prime Maca Phenotypes Grown in Two Geographically-Distant Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Meissner, Henry; Mscisz, Alina; Piatkowska, Ewa; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Holderna-Kedzia, Elzbieta; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    Peruvian Maca crops (Lepidium peruvianum), grown in two geographically-distant cultivation sites located at similar altitudes in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes (Junin at 4,200 m a.s.l. and Ancash 4,150 m a.s.l.), were used in the study. Four prime Maca phenotypes, distinguished by hypocotyl colours labelled as "Yellow", "Purple", "Red" and "Black" were selected to determine distribution in levels and corresponding ratios between individual Glucosinolates (Glucotropaeolin and m-methylglucotropaeolin) in an attempt to identify four Peruvian Maca phenotypes from analyses of powdered hypocotyls. There were highly significant differences (PMaca phenotypes harvested in two locations. The Junin crop represented a mostly "large" class (13.3 g) with "small" size hypocotyls (7.2 g), while a "small" class was predominant in Ancash (3.5 g). Powdered Yellow Maca showed significantly higher (PMaca being the least infected. Only minor, statistically-confirmed differences were detected in nutritive characteristics between the four Maca phenotypes grown in Junin, however highly significant differences (PMaca grown in Junin and Ancash. Irrespective of the cultivation location, Red phenotypes showed the highest content of Total Glucosinolates, followed by Black and Purple, with the Yellow phenotype showing consistently lower levels. Highly significant PMaca phenotypes grown in two locations, confirms an earlier assumption that sums of individual Glucosinolates, their ratios and profiles, may be feasible to explore in analytically identifying individual Maca phenotypes in pulverised marketed Maca products.

  16. Comparison of Mineral Element Content in a Functional Food Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from Asia and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contents of eight mineral elements in maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from China and Peru were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Cu contents in maca samples from China (2.5–31 mg kg−1 dry weight, dw were higher than the samples from Peru (<2.1 mg kg−1 dw. Na in two samples from China was found to be significantly of high content (2400 and 2600 mg kg−1 dw. The contents (mg kg−1 dw of B, Co, Cr, Li, Ni, and Zn were, respectively, 8.1–21, <0.023, <1.1~3.5, 0.020–0.17, 0.085–4.5, and 10–39 for the samples from China, while being 6.6–12, <0.023, <1.1~2.3, 0.035–0.063, 0.68–1.7, and 27–39 for the samples from Peru.

  17. Dynamics of glucosinolate-myrosinase system during Plutella xylostella interaction to a novel host Lepidium latifolium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tarandeep; Bhat, Rohini; Khajuria, Manu; Vyas, Ruchika; Kumari, Anika; Nadda, Gireesh; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

    2016-09-01

    Plutella xylostella L. is a notorious pest of cruciferous crops causing worldwide losses of $4-5 billion per year. Developing classical biological control to this pest include an introduction of host plants that act as natural enemies showing deviation from the preference-performance regimen in the evolutionary ecology of plant-insect interactions. The present study was designed to understand the role of glucosinolate-myrosinase system during P. xylostella interactions with a novel host. Adult moth preference and larval performance study were conducted on a novel host Lepidium latifolium L. (LL) that has high sinigrin content and was compared with its laboratory host Arabidopsis thaliana (AT). The glucosinolate-myrosinase system was studied in a time course experiment during larval feeding in choice and no-choice experiments. Adult moths visit and prefers LL over AT for oviposition. Conversely, LL leaves were not preferred and proved detrimental for P. xylostella larvae. Aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates were found to decrease significantly (p≤0.05) in AT during initial 12h of P. xylostella challenge, whereas, they were not affected in LL. Also, MYB transcription factor expression and myrosinase activity in LL do not suggest a typical host response to a specialist insect. This preference-performance mismatch of P. xylostella on LL mediated by glucosinolate pattern suggests that this novel plant could be utilized in P. xylostella management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mobile organic compounds in biochar - a potential source of contamination - phytotoxic effects on cress seed (Lepidium sativum) germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Wolfram; Mašek, Ondřej

    2014-05-01

    Biochar can be contaminated during pyrolysis by re-condensation of pyrolysis vapours. In this study two biochar samples contaminated by pyrolysis liquids and gases to a high degree, resulting in high volatile organic compound (high-VOC) content, were investigated and compared to a biochar with low volatile organic compound (low-VOC) content. All biochar samples were produced from the same feedstock (softwood pellets) under the same conditions (550 °C, 20 min mean residence time). In experiments where only gaseous compounds could access germinating cress seeds (Lepidium sativum), application amounts ranging from 1 to 30 g of high-VOC biochar led to total inhibition of cress seed germination, while exposure to less than 1 g resulted in only partial reduction. Furthermore, leachates from biochar/sand mixtures (1, 2, 5 wt.% of biochar) induced heavy toxicity to germination and showed that percolating water could dissolve toxic compounds easily. Low-VOC biochar didn't exhibit any toxic effects in either germination test. Toxicity mitigation via blending of a high-VOC biochar with a low-VOC biochar increased germination rate significantly. These results indicate re-condensation of VOCs during pyrolysis can result in biochar containing highly mobile, phytotoxic compounds. However, it remains unclear, which specific compounds are responsible for this toxicity and how significant re-condensation in different pyrolysis units might be. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of rice husks and their chars from hydrothermal carbonization on the germination rate and root length of Lepidium sativum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jürgen; Mukhina, Irina; Dicke, Christiane; Lanza, Giacomo; Kalderis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    Currently, char substrates gain a lot of interest, since they are being discussed as a component in growing media, which may become one option for the replacement of peat. Among different thermal conversion processes of biomass hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has been found to produce chars with similar acidic pH values like peat. The question however is, if these hydrochars, which may contain toxic phenolic compounds are suitable to be introduced as a new substitute for peat in horticulture. In this study rice husk were hydrothermally carbonized at 200° C for 6 hours, yielding in hydrochars containing organic contaminants such as phenols and furfurals, which may affect plants and soil organisms. We investigated potential toxic effects on the germination rate and the root length of cress salad (Lepidium sativum) in four fractions: i) soil control, ii) raw rice husk + soil, iii) unwashed rice char + soil and iv) acetone/water washed rice char + soil. It could be shown that phenols and furfurals, which were removed from the hydrochar after washing by 80 to 96% did not affect the germination rate and the root length of the cress plants. The lowest germination rate and root length were found in the soil control, the highest in the non-washed hydrochar treatment, indicating a fertilization effect and growth stimulation of cress salad by hydrochar. If this result can be confirmed for other target and non-target organisms in future studies, a new strategy for the production of growing media may be developed.

  20. Improving the physical and moisture barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum biodegradable film with stearic and palmitic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedi, Samira; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Zahedi, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Stearic and palmitic fatty acids (10%, 20% and 30%, W/W gum) were used to improve the barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum (LPSG) film. The impact of the incorporation of fatty acids into the film matrix was studied by investigating the physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of the films. Addition of stearic and palmitic fatty acids to LPSG films reduced their water vapor permeability (WVP), moisture content, water solubility and water adsorption. Increasing fatty acid concentration from 10% to 30%, reduced the elongation at break (EB). Lower values of tensile strength (TS) and elastic modulus (EM) were obtained in the presence of higher fatty acids concentrations. Incorporation of fatty acids led to production of opaque films and the opacity increased as function of fatty acids concentration. Results showed that moisture content, water solubility and WVP decreased as the chain length of fatty acid increased. Therefore, LPSG-fatty acids composite film could be used for packaging in which a low affinity toward water is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phylogeny and colonization history of Pringlea antiscorbutica (Brassicaceae), an emblematic endemic from the South Indian Ocean Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartish, Igor V; Aïnouche, Abdelkader; Jia, Dongrui; Bergstrom, Dana; Chown, Steven L; Winkworth, Richard C; Hennion, Françoise

    2012-11-01

    The origins and evolution of sub-Antarctic island floras are not well understood. In particular there is uncertainty about the ages of the contemporary floras and the ultimate origins of the lineages they contain. Pringlea R. Br. (Brassicaceae) is a monotypic genus endemic to four sub-Antarctic island groups in the southern Indian Ocean. Here we used sequences from both the chloroplast and nuclear genomes to examine the phylogenetic position of this enigmatic genus. Our analyses confirm that Pringlea falls within the tribe Thelypodieae and provide a preliminary view of its relationships within the group. Divergence time estimates and ancestral area reconstructions imply Pringlea diverged from a South American ancestor ~5 Myr ago. It remains unclear whether the ancestor of Pringlea dispersed directly to the South Indian Ocean Province (SIOP) or used Antarctica as a stepping-stone; what is clear, however, is that following arrival in the SIOP several additional long-distance dispersal events must be inferred to explain the current distribution of this species. Our analyses also suggest that although Pringlea is likely to have inherited cold tolerance from its closest relatives, the distinctive morphology of this species evolved only after it split from the South American lineage. More generally, our results lend support to the hypothesis that angiosperms persisted on the sub-Antarctic islands throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Taken together with evidence from other sub-Antarctic island plant groups, they suggest the extant flora of sub-Antarctic is likely to have been assembled over a broad time period and from lineages with distinctive biogeographic histories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Plant Size as Determinant of Species Richness of Herbivores, Natural Enemies and Pollinators across 21 Brassicaceae Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hella Schlinkert

    Full Text Available Large plants are often more conspicuous and more attractive for associated animals than small plants, e.g. due to their wider range of resources. Therefore, plant size can positively affect species richness of associated animals, as shown for single groups of herbivores, but studies usually consider intraspecific size differences of plants in unstandardised environments. As comprehensive tests of interspecific plant size differences under standardised conditions are missing so far, we investigated effects of plant size on species richness of all associated arthropods using a common garden experiment with 21 Brassicaceae species covering a broad interspecific plant size gradient from 10 to 130 cm height. We recorded plant associated ecto- and endophagous herbivores, their natural enemies and pollinators on and in each aboveground plant organ, i.e. flowers, fruits, leaves and stems. Plant size (measured as height from the ground, the number of different plant organ entities and their biomass were assessed. Increasing plant size led to increased species richness of associated herbivores, natural enemies and pollinating insects. This pattern was found for ectophagous and endophagous herbivores, their natural enemies, as well as for herbivores associated with leaves and fruits and their natural enemies, independently of the additional positive effects of resource availability (i.e. organ biomass or number of entities and, regarding natural enemies, herbivore species richness. We found a lower R2 for pollinators compared to herbivores and natural enemies, probably caused by the high importance of flower characteristics for pollinator species richness besides plant size. Overall, the increase in plant height from 10 to 130 cm led to a 2.7-fold increase in predicted total arthropod species richness. In conclusion, plant size is a comprehensive driver of species richness of the plant associated arthropods, including pollinators, herbivores and their

  3. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the B3 superfamily of transcription factors in Brassicaceae and major crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fred Y; Weselake, Randall J

    2013-05-01

    The plant-specific B3 superfamily of transcription factors has diverse functions in plant growth and development. Using a genome-wide domain analysis, we identified 92, 187, 58, 90, 81, 55, and 77 B3 transcription factor genes in the sequenced genome of Arabidopsis, Brassica rapa, castor bean (Ricinus communis), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa), respectively. The B3 superfamily has substantially expanded during the evolution in eudicots particularly in Brassicaceae, as compared to monocots in the analysis. We observed domain duplication in some of these B3 proteins, forming more complex domain architectures than currently understood. We found that the length of B3 domains exhibits a large variation, which may affect their exact number of α-helices and β-sheets in the core structure of B3 domains, and possibly have functional implications. Analysis of the public microarray data indicated that most of the B3 gene pairs encoding Arabidopsis-rice orthologs are preferentially expressed in different tissues, suggesting their different roles in these two species. Using ESTs in crops, we identified many B3 genes preferentially expressed in reproductive tissues. In a sequence-based quantitative trait loci analysis in rice and maize, we have found many B3 genes associated with traits such as grain yield, seed weight and number, and protein content. Our results provide a framework for future studies into the function of B3 genes in different phases of plant development, especially the ones related to traits in major crops.

  4. La maca roja (Lepidium Meyenii) y su acción en el tratamiento de la hiperplasia prostática benigna

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado Alvarado, Jesenia Ludy; Alvarado Alvarado, Jesenia Ludy

    2015-01-01

    La Maca (Lepidium Meyenii) es una valiosa raíz de reserva, llamada hipocólito, utilizada como alimento y sobre todo como remedio natural desde los tiempos de los incas. Nativa del Perú, la Maca se ha extendido por todo el mundo como planta medicinal, y aparece citada en la medicina Herbal Peruana para estimular el sistema inmunitario, tratar la anemia, la tuberculosis, los desórdenes menstruales, los síntomas de la menopausia, aumentar la fertilidad, como afrodisiaco, para tratar la disfun...

  5. Disminución del daño oxidativo y efecto hipoglicemiante de la maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) en ratas con diabetes inducida por streptozotocina

    OpenAIRE

    María Elena Rodrigo; Rubén Valdivieso; Silvia Suárez; Rosa Oriondo; Raquel Oré

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: La maca es consumida desde tiempos ancestrales como parte de la dieta. Se le ha atribuido propiedades medicinales y se encuentra incluida en la medicina tradicional peruana. Estudios recientes describen que la admistración de maca reduce la glicemia en animales normoglicémicos, pero los mecanismos involucrados no están muy claros. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto hipoglicemiante y antioxidante de la harina de maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) del ecotipo amarillo, en ratas con diabete...

  6. Determination of S-methyl-L-methionine (SMM) from Brassicaceae Family Vegetables and Characterization of the Intestinal Transport of SMM by Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Hae-Rim; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine S-methyl-L-methionine (SMM) from various Brassicaceae family vegetables by using validated analytical method and to characterize the intestinal transport mechanism of SMM by the Caco-2 cells. The SMM is well known to provide therapeutic activity in peptic ulcers. The amount of SMM from various Brassicaceae family vegetables ranged from 89.08 ± 1.68 μg/g to 535.98 ± 4.85 μg/g of dry weight by using validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method. For elucidating intestinal transport mechanism, the cells were incubated with or without transport inhibitors, energy source, or a metabolic inhibitor. Phloridzin and verapamil as inhibitors of sodium glucose transport protein (SGLT1) and P-glycoprotein, respectively, were not responsible for cellular uptake of SMM. Glucose and sodium azide were not affected by the cellular accumulation of SMM. The efflux ratio of SMM was 0.26, implying that it is not effluxed through Caco-2 cells. The apparent coefficient permeability (P app ) of SMM was 4.69 × 10 -5 cm/s, indicating that it will show good oral absorption in in vivo. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Evaluation of plant growth promoting activity and heavy metal tolerance of psychrotrophic bacteria associated with maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ortiz-Ojeda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The high Andean plateau of Peru is known to suffer harsh environmental conditions. Acidic soils containing high amount of heavy metals due to mining activities and withstanding very low temperatures affect agricultural activities by diminishing crop quality and yield. In this context, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR adapted to low temperatures and tolerant to heavy metals can be considered as an environment-friendly biological alternative for andean crop management. The aim of this work was to select and characterize psychrotrophic PGPR isolated from the rhizosphere of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. a traditional andean food crop. A total of 44 psychrotrophic strains isolated from 3 areas located in the Bombon plateu of Junin-Peru were tested for their PGPR characteristics like indole acetic acid (IAA production, phosphate solubilization and for their ability to improve seed germination. In addition, their capacity to grow in the presence of heavy metals like cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, cobalt (Co and mercury (Hg was tested. Of the total number of strains tested, 12 were positive for IAA production at 22 °C, 8 at 12 °C and 16 at 6 °C. Phosphate solubilization activities were higher at 12 °C and 6 °C than at 22 °C. Red clover plant assays showed that 16 strains were capable to improve seed germination at 22 °C and 4 at 12 °C. Moreover, 11 strains showed tolerance to Cd and Pb at varying concentrations. This study highlight the importance of obtaining PGPRs to be used in high andean plateu crops that are exposed to low temperatures and presence of heavy metals on soil.

  8. Chemical characterization and effects on Lepidium sativum of the native and bioremediated components of dry olive mill residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, E; García-Romera, I; Ocampo, J A; Carbone, V; Mari, A; Malorni, A; Sannino, F; De Martino, A; Capasso, R

    2007-09-01

    Dry olive mill residue (DOR) from the olive oil production by two phase centrifugation system was fractionated by a consecutive continuous solid-liquid extraction obtaining the EAF, PF, MF and WF fractions with ethyl acetate, n-propanol, methanol and water, respectively. The chemical, chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses showed EAF, PF and MF to be mainly composed of simple phenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids and glycosilated phenols (glycosides of phenols, secoiridoids and flavonoids), whereas WF was mainly consisting of polymerin, the metal organic polymeric mixture previously identified in olive oil mill waste waters and composed of carbohydrates, melanin, proteins and metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg and Fe). The identification in DOR of oleoside, 6'-beta-glucopyranosyl-oleoside and 6'-beta-rhamnopyranosyl-oleoside, and of its organic polymeric component, known as polymerin, are reported for the first time in this paper. The inoculation of the previously mentioned fractions with saprobe fungi Coriolopsis rigida, Pycnoporus cynnabarinus or Trametes versicolor indicated these fungi to be able to metabolize both the phenols and glycosilated phenols, but not polymerin. In correspondence, EAF, PF, MF and WF, which proved to be toxic on Lepidium sativum, decreased their toxicity after incubation with the selected fungi, WF showing to be also able to stimulate the growth of the selected seeds. The phytotoxicity appeared mainly correlated to the monomeric phenols and, to a lesser extent, to the glycosilated phenols, whereas polymerin proved to be non toxic. However, the laccase activity was not associated with the decrease of phytotoxicity. The valorization of DOR as a producer of high added value substances of industrial and agricultural interest in native form and after their bioremediation for a final objective of the total DOR recycling is also discussed.

  9. Auftreten von Falschem Mehltau bei Gartenkresse (Lepidium sativum L. in der Saatgutvermehrung – Evaluierung von Saatgutbehandlung und Wachstumsbedingungen in einem Gefäßversuch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeller, Stefanie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Die zur Familie der Brassicaceae gehörende Gartenkresse wird in Deutschland überwiegend im biologischen Anbau vermehrt. Seit einigen Jahren werden diese Gartenkressebestände von Erregern des Falschen Mehltaus (Hyaloperonospora parasitica, Perofascia lepidii befallen, was zu einem Totalausfall des Pflanzenbestandes führen kann. Daher ist die biologische Saatgutproduktion von Gartenkresse gefährdet, was eine Beeinträchtigung der Saatgutversorgung für die Keimsprossenerzeugung zur Folge hat. In den laufenden Untersuchungen wird der Einfluss von nicht chemischen Saatgutbehandlungsmaßnahmen (Wasserdampf, Elektronen, sowie Wachstumsbedingungen (Feuchte, Boden auf die Infektion mit Falschem Mehltau untersucht.

  10. SURVEY FOR ORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH DYER’S WOAD, ISATIS TINCTORIA L. (BRASSICACEAE, IN CENTRAL ITALY, AND PRELIMINARY HOST SPECIFICITY TESTS FOR SOME POTENTIAL CONTROL AGENTS (INSECTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Campobasso

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A survey conducted in central Italy found 126 species of phytophagous insects from five orders and 25 families on dyer’s woad, Isatis tinctoria L., a biennial or short-lived perennial. About 75% of the species found attacking this weed were polyphagous, 20% were restricted to the family Brassicaceae, and only 5% were restricted to the genus Isatis. Four of the one hundred twenty six species recovered were specific enough to merit further research as candidates for biological control of I. tinctoria L. in the United States. Preliminary host range tests were conducted for the weevils Ceutorhynchus rusticus Gyllenhal, Ceutorhynchus peyerimoffi Hustache, Aulacobaris fallax (H. Brisout, and the fleabeetle Psylliodes isatidis Heikertinger. All tests were conducted at the USDA-ARS-EBCL Rome substation from 2003 to 2006 and are reported herein.

  11. A continental-wide perspective: the genepool of nuclear encoded ribosomal DNA and single-copy gene sequences in North American Boechera (Brassicaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Kiefer

    Full Text Available 74 of the currently accepted 111 taxa of the North American genus Boechera (Brassicaceae were subject to pyhlogenetic reconstruction and network analysis. The dataset comprised 911 accessions for which ITS sequences were analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses yielded largely unresolved trees. Together with the network analysis confirming this result this can be interpreted as an indication for multiple, independent, and rapid diversification events. Network analyses were superimposed with datasets describing i geographical distribution, ii taxonomy, iii reproductive mode, and iv distribution history based on phylogeographic evidence. Our results provide first direct evidence for enormous reticulate evolution in the entire genus and give further insights into the evolutionary history of this complex genus on a continental scale. In addition two novel single-copy gene markers, orthologues of the Arabidopsis thaliana genes At2g25920 and At3g18900, were analyzed for subsets of taxa and confirmed the findings obtained through the ITS data.

  12. Ameliorative effect of Draba nemorosa extract on chronic heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    β-adrenoceptor blockers, and digitalis [5-7]. Although the guidelines on CHF therapy have been updated by American Heart Association. (AHA) and European Society of Cardiology. (ESC) [2], HF remains a major cause death [8]. Thus there is need to explore new therapeutic regimens for HF. The use of Traditional Chinese ...

  13. Hydroxyl and methoxyl derivatives of benzylglucosinolate in Lepidium densiflorum with hydrolysis to isothiocyanates and non-isothiocyanate products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagnotta, Eleonora; Agerbirk, Niels; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2017-01-01

    A system of benzylic glucosinolates was found and characterized in common pepperweed, Lepidium densiflorum Schrad. The major glucosinolate was the novel 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzylglucosinolate (3,5-dimethoxysinalbin), present at high levels in seeds, leaves, and roots. Medium......-level glucosinolates were 3,4-dimethoxybenzylglucosinolate and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylglucosinolate. Minor glucosinolates included benzylglucosinolate, 3-hydroxy- and 3-methoxybenzylglucosinolate, 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate (sinalbin), the novel 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylglucosinolate (3-methoxysinalbin), and indole......-type glucosinolates. A biosynthetic connection is suggested. NMR, UV, and ion trap MS/MS spectral data are reported, showing contrasting MS fragmentation of p-hydroxyls and p-methoxyls. Additional investigations by GC-MS focused on glucosinolate hydrolysis products. Whereas glucosinolates generally yielded...

  14. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicole A; Wilcox, Gisela; Walker, Karen Z; Ashton, John F; Cox, Marc B; Stojanovska, Lily

    2008-01-01

    To examine the estrogenic and androgenic activity of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) and its effect on the hormonal profile and symptoms in postmenopausal women. Fourteen postmenopausal women completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. They received 3.5 g/day of powered Maca for 6 weeks and matching placebo for 6 weeks, in either order, over a total of 12 weeks. At baseline and weeks 6 and 12 blood samples were collected for the measurement of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin, and the women completed the Greene Climacteric Scale to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms. In addition, aqueous and methanolic Maca extracts were tested for androgenic and estrogenic activity using a yeast-based hormone-dependent reporter assay. No differences were seen in serum concentrations of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin between baseline, Maca treatment, and placebo (P > 0.05). The Greene Climacteric Scale revealed a significant reduction in scores in the areas of psychological symptoms, including the subscales for anxiety and depression and sexual dysfunction after Maca consumption compared with both baseline and placebo (P Maca as no physiologically significant activity was observed in yeast-based assays employing up to 4 mg/mL Maca extract (equivalent to 200 mg/mL Maca). Preliminary findings show that Lepidium meyenii (Maca) (3.5 g/d) reduces psychological symptoms, including anxiety and depression, and lowers measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women independent of estrogenic and androgenic activity.

  15. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands, Promotes Skin Wound Healing at Sea Level and at High Altitude in Adult Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Denisse; Olavegoya, Paola; Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2017-12-01

    Nuñez, Denisse, Paola Olavegoya, Gustavo F. Gonzales, and Cynthia Gonzales-Castañeda. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii), a plant from the Peruvian highlands, promotes skin wound healing at sea level and at high altitude in adult male mice. High Alt Med Biol 18:373-383, 2017.-Wound healing consists of three simultaneous phases: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Previous studies suggest that there is a delay in the healing process in high altitude, mainly due to alterations in the inflammatory phase. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a Peruvian plant with diverse biological properties, such as the ability to protect the skin from inflammatory lesions caused by ultraviolet radiation, as well as its antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high altitude on tissue repair and the effect of the topical administration of the spray-dried extract of red maca (RM) in tissue repair. Studies were conducted in male Balb/c mice at sea level and high altitude. Lesions were inflicted through a 10 mm-diameter excisional wound in the skin dorsal surface. Treatments consisted of either (1) spray-dried RM extract or (2) vehicle (VH). Animals wounded at high altitude had a delayed healing rate and an increased wound width compared with those at sea level. Moreover, wounding at high altitude was associated with an increase in inflammatory cells. Treatment with RM accelerated wound closure, decreased the level of epidermal hyperplasia, and decreased the number of inflammatory cells at the wound site. In conclusion, RM at high altitude generate a positive effect on wound healing, decreasing the number of neutrophils and increasing the number of macrophages in the wound healing at day 7 postwounding. This phenomenon is not observed at sea level.

  16. Efecto de cuatro ecotipos de Lepidium peruvianum Chacón sobre la producción de óxido nítrico in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Los macrófagos desempeñan un rol importante en la respuesta innata y adaptativa, durante su activación producen mediadores citotóxicos como Óxido Nítrico (NO. El objetivo fue evaluar la producción de NO por macrófagos peritoneales de ratón cultivados con extractos metanólicos (EM de los ecotipos rojo, negro, morado y blanco de Lepidium peruvianum Chacón (también conocida como Lepidium meyenii Walp. Los EM se prepararon empleando maca pulverizada macerada en metanol (1:2 durante 10 días. Los macrófagos peritoneales se obtuvieron de ratones 3 días después de haberles inyectado 1 ml de Caldo Tioglicolato por vía intraperitoneal; se cultivaron por triplicado durante 18 h a 37 °C en medio RPMI 1640 suplementado con 10% de suero de bovino fetal. La dosis de EM fue de 800 μg/ml por ecotipo, se consideraron controles sin EM. La producción de NO se determinó por acumulación de nitrito en el medio y se evidenció con el reactivo de Peter Griess, las concentraciones de nitrito se calcularon en base a la curva estándar elaborada con NaNO2. Las concentraciones producidas de nitrito fueron de 7,45; 6,79; 5,76; 5,61 y 6,81 mM para los EM de los ecotipos morado, negro, blanco, rojo y control respectivamente. Los cuatro ecotipos indujeron la producción de NO, aunque con el ecotipo morado fue superior (p>0,05.

  17. Antioxidant and neuroprotector effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) methanol leaf extract against 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Huamán, Ángel; Casimiro-Gonzales, Sandra; Chávez-Pérez, Jorge Antonio; Gonzales-Arimborgo, Carla; Cisneros-Fernández, Richard; Aguilar-Mendoza, Luis Ángel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2017-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are normally produced during cell metabolism, there is strong evidence to suggest that ROS produced in excess impair the cell and may be etiologically related to various neurodegenerative diseases. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) methanol leaf extract on neurotoxicity in PC12 cell exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Fresh samples of "maca" leaves were processed in order to obtain foliar extracts and to evaluate the neurobiological activity on PC12 cells, subjected to the cytotoxic effect of 6-OHDA through the determination of the capacity antioxidant, cell viability and cytotoxicity assays on PC12 cells. The results of the tests of antioxidant activity, showed maximum values of 2262.37 and 1305.36 expressed in Trolox equivalents (TEAC), for the methanolic and aqueous fractions respectively. Cell viability assays at a dose of 10 μg extract showed an increase of 31% and 60% at 6 and 12 h of pretreatment, respectively. Cytotoxicity assays at the same dose and exposure time showed a 31.4% and 47.8% reduction in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The results allow us to affirm that the methanolic foliar extract of "maca" presents in vitro neurobiological activity of antioxidant protection, increase in cell viability and reduction of cytotoxicity against oxidative stress generated by 6-OHDA. In conclusion, the present study shows a protective role for Lepidium meyenii leaf extract on 6-OHDA-induced toxicity by an antioxidant effect.

  18. Pleistocene climate change and the origin of two desert plant species, Pugionium cornutum and Pugionium dolabratum (Brassicaceae), in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Abbott, Richard J; Yu, Qiu-Shi; Lin, Kao; Liu, Jian-Quan

    2013-07-01

    Pleistocene climate change has had an important effect in shaping intraspecific genetic variation in many species; however, its role in driving speciation is less clear. We examined the possibility of a Pleistocene origin of the only two representatives of the genus Pugionium (Brassicaceae), Pugionium cornutum and Pugionium dolabratum, which occupy different desert habitats in northwest China. We surveyed sequence variation for internal transcribed spacer (ITS), three chloroplast (cp) DNA fragments, and eight low-copy nuclear genes among individuals sampled from 11 populations of each species across their geographic ranges. One ITS mutation distinguished the two species, whereas mutations in cpDNA and the eight low-copy nuclear gene sequences were not species-specific. Although interspecific divergence varied greatly among nuclear gene sequences, in each case divergence was estimated to have occurred within the Pleistocene when deserts expanded in northwest China. Our findings point to the importance of Pleistocene climate change, in this case an increase in aridity, as a cause of speciation in Pugionium as a result of divergence in different habitats that formed in association with the expansion of deserts in China. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Seed Germination Ecology of the Cold Desert Annual Isatis violascens (Brassicaceae: Two Levels of Physiological Dormancy and Role of the Pericarp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan M Zhou

    Full Text Available The occurrence of various species of Brassicaceae with indehiscent fruits in the cold deserts of NW China suggests that there are adaptive advantages of this trait. We hypothesized that the pericarp of the single-seeded silicles of Isatis violascens restricts embryo expansion and thus prevents germination for 1 or more years. Thus, our aim was to investigate the role of the pericarp in seed dormancy and germination of this species. The effects of afterripening, treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3 and cold stratification on seed dormancy-break were tested using intact silicles and isolated seeds, and germination phenology was monitored in an experimental garden. The pericarp has a role in mechanically inhibiting germination of fresh seeds and promotes germination of nondormant seeds, but it does not facilitate formation of a persistent seed bank. Seeds in silicles in watered soil began to germinate earlier in autumn and germinated to higher percentages than isolated seeds. Sixty-two percent of seeds in the buried silicles germinated by the end of the first spring, and only 3% remained nongerminated and viable. Twenty to twenty-five percent of the seeds have nondeep physiological dormancy (PD and 75-80% intermediate PD. Seeds with nondeep PD afterripen in summer and germinate inside the silicles in autumn if the soil is moist. Afterripening during summer significantly decreased the amount of cold stratification required to break intermediate PD. The presence of both nondeep and intermediate PD in the seed cohort may be a bet-hedging strategy.

  20. Chemical Characterization and Biological Activities of Phenolic-Rich Fraction from Cauline Leaves of Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae) Growing in Sicily, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Natalizia; Filocamo, Angela; Ragusa, Salvatore; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi; Celano, Marilena; Maggisano, Valentina; Taviano, Maria Fernanda

    2017-08-01

    The present work focused on the evaluation of the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the phenolic-rich fraction (ItJ-EAF) obtained from cauline leaves collected in January from Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae) growing wild around Acireale (Sicily, Italy). The total phenolic, flavonoid, and condensed tannin contents of the fraction were determined spectrophotometrically, whereas the phenolic profile was assessed by HPLC-PDA/ESI-MS analysis. A total of 20 compounds were positively identified and twelve out of them were never previously reported in I. tinctoria leaves. The fraction exhibited good radical scavenging activity in DPPH test (IC 50  = 0.6657 ± 0.0024 mg/ml) and reducing power (3.87 ± 0.71 ASE/ml), whereas, it neither showed chelating activity nor was able to counteract H 2 O 2 induced oxidative stress damage in Escherichia coli. The antiproliferative effect was evaluated in vitro on two human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines (CAL-62 and 8505C) by MTT assay. At the highest tested concentration ItJ-EAF significantly reduced (80%) the growth of CAL-62 cells. No cytotoxicity against Artemia salina was observed. It can be concluded that I. tinctoria cauline leaves represent a source of phenolic compounds which could be potentially used as chemopreventive or adjuvant agents against cancer. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. Zn, Cd and Pb accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of pennycress Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) from the vicinity of a lead mine and smelter in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Drobne, Damjana; Regvar, Marjana

    2005-01-01

    Significant hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd and Pb in field samples of Thlaspi praecox Wulf. collected from a heavy metal polluted area in Slovenia was found, with maximal shoot concentrations of 14590 mg kg -1 Zn, 5960 mg kg -1 Cd and 3500 mg kg -1 Pb. Shoot/root ratios of 9.6 for Zn and 5.6 for Cd show that the metals were preferentially transported to the shoots. Shoot bioaccumulation factors exceeded total soil Cd levels 75-fold and total soil Zn levels 20-fold, further supporting the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn. Eighty percent of Pb was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for Pb. Low level colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of a Paris type was observed at the polluted site, whereas at the non-polluted site Arum type colonisation was more common. To our knowledge this is the first report of Cd hyperaccumulation and AMF colonisation in metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox. - Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) is a newly discovered Cd, Zn and Pb hyperaccumulator able to form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

  2. Zn, Cd and Pb accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of pennycress Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) from the vicinity of a lead mine and smelter in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: katarina.vogel@uni-lj.si; Drobne, Damjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2005-01-01

    Significant hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd and Pb in field samples of Thlaspi praecox Wulf. collected from a heavy metal polluted area in Slovenia was found, with maximal shoot concentrations of 14590 mg kg{sup -1} Zn, 5960 mg kg{sup -1} Cd and 3500 mg kg{sup -1} Pb. Shoot/root ratios of 9.6 for Zn and 5.6 for Cd show that the metals were preferentially transported to the shoots. Shoot bioaccumulation factors exceeded total soil Cd levels 75-fold and total soil Zn levels 20-fold, further supporting the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn. Eighty percent of Pb was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for Pb. Low level colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of a Paris type was observed at the polluted site, whereas at the non-polluted site Arum type colonisation was more common. To our knowledge this is the first report of Cd hyperaccumulation and AMF colonisation in metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox. - Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) is a newly discovered Cd, Zn and Pb hyperaccumulator able to form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

  3. Caracterización de las proteínas totales de tres ecotipos de maca (Lepidium peruvianum G. Chacón, mediante electroforesis unidimensional y bidimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Monteghirfo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Caracterizar las proteínas solubles que se encuentran en la raíz del Lepidium peruvianum G. Chacón, maca, mediante electroforesis unidimensional y electroforesis bidimensional. Diseño: Estudio de tipo observacional y transversal. Lugar: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición Alberto Guzmán Barrón. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Materiales: Raíces de Lepidium peruvianum G. Chacón ‘maca’ de los ecotipos blanco, amarillo y morado, procedentes de Junín que fueron obtenidas a través de la Universidad Nacional del Centro del Perú. Métodos: La extracción de las proteínas totales solubles se realizó con una solución antioxidante, seguida de electroforesis unidimensional y bidimensional para su caracterización. Principales medidas de resultados: Número de proteínas solubles, peso molecular de las proteínas y puntos isoelectricos de las proteínas más abundantes. Resultados: El análisis electroforético unidimensional mostró predominio de 2 proteínas (72% de las proteínas solubles totales. Una de 22,5 kDa, denominada en el presente trabajo ‘macatina’ (51% de la proteína total; la otra de 17,0 kDa (21% de la proteína soluble total. El mapa electroforético bidimensional mostró que tanto la ‘macatina’ como la proteína de 17,0 kDa son básicas y presentan 3 isómeros de carga que se distribuyen en un rango de punto isoeléctrico (pI de 7,1 a 8,2. Conclusiones: Las proteínas solubles mostraron un patrón electroforético complejo, siendo la macatina la proteína más abundante.

  4. Efecto neuroprotector del Lepidium meyenii, ecotipo negro (maca negra) en ratas crías frente al daño cerebral inducido por la ingesta de sulfato ferroso y vitamina C durante la gestación de las ratas madre

    OpenAIRE

    Troncoso, Luzmila; Guija, Emilio; Palomino, Felio; Soberón, Mercedes; Oliveira, Gisela; Núñez, Marco; Flores, Juana; Acuña, Sheresnarda; Terrazas, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto neuroprotector del Lepidium meyenii, ecotipo negro en ratas crías por ingesta de sulfato ferroso y vitamina C (SFC) durante la gestación de ratas madre. Diseño: Experimental, analítico. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición. Material biológico: Lepidium meyenii, ecotipo negro (maca negra: MN), ratas. Intervenciones: Se distribuyeron 30 ratas albinas de dos meses de edad, en tres grupos. Tratamiento en los últimos 7 días de gestación: grupo ...

  5. Protective effect of polysaccharide from maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Hep-G2 cells and alcoholic liver oxidative injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zhao, Mingxia; Zhao, Bing

    2017-06-01

    To study the characterization and hepatoprotective activity of polysaccharide from maca (Lepidium meyenii), the main polysaccharide from maca (MP-1) was obtained by DEAE-52 cellulose column. The average molecular weight of MP-1 was 1067.3kDa and the polysaccharide purity was 91.63%. In order to assess the antioxidant activities of MP-1, four kinds of methods were used, including scavenging hydroxyl radical, DPPH, superoxide anion radical, and FRAP, and the results indicated high antioxidant activities. Furthermore, hepatoprotective activity of MP-1 was studied both in vitro and vivo. In vitro, the alcohol induced Hep-G2 cells model was established to evaluate the protective effect of MP-1, which demonstrated MP-1 can alleviate alcohol damage in Hep-G2 cells. In vivo, the Institute of Cancer Researcch (ICR) mice were used to evaluate hepatoprotecive effects of MP-1 on alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Supplement with MP-1 supressed the triglyceride level both in serum and in hepatic tissue. In addition, MP-1 ameliorated serous transaminases increase induced by alcohol, including aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. Moreover, MP-1 also dramatically increased the superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione s-transferase levels in alcoholic mice. Meantime, histopathologic results MP-1 lighten inflammation induced by alcohol. These results indicate that MP-1 possesses hepatoprotective activity against hepatic injury induced by alcohol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenico, T; Cicero, A F G; Valmorri, L; Mercuriali, M; Bercovich, E

    2009-04-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a cultivated root belonging to the brassica family used in the Andean region for its supposed aphrodisiac properties. We carried out a double-blind clinical trial on 50 Caucasian men affected by mild erectile dysfunction (ED), randomised to treatment with Maca dry extract, 2400 mg, or placebo. The treatment effect on ED and subjective well-being was tested administrating before and after 12 weeks the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P). After 12 weeks of treatment, both Maca- and placebo-treated patients experienced a significant increase in IIEF-5 score (P Maca experienced a more significant increase than those taking placebo (1.6 +/- 1.1 versus 0.5 +/- 0.6, P Maca- and placebo-treated subjects experienced a significant improvement in psychological performance-related SAT-P score, but the Maca group higher than that of placebo group (+9 +/- 6 versus +6 +/- 5, P Maca-treated patients experienced a significant improvement in physical and social performance-related SAT-P score compared with the baseline (+7 +/- 6 and +7 +/- 6, both P Maca supplementation on subjective perception of general and sexual well-being in adult patients with mild ED.

  7. Photoprotection against the UVB-induced oxidative stress and epidermal damage in mice using leaves of three different varieties of Lepidium meyenii (maca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Rivera, Valery; Chirinos, Ana Lucía; Evelson, Pablo; Gonzales, Gustavo Francisco

    2011-08-01

    Skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) B radiation leads to epidermal damage and generation of reactive oxygen species. The photoprotective effect of extracts of three varieties of leaves (red, yellow, and black) from maca (Lepidium meyenii), a plant from the Peruvian highlands, was assessed in mouse skin exposed to UVB radiation. The hydroalcoholic extracts of three varieties of maca leaves were applied topically to the dorsal skin of young-adult male mice prior to exposition to UVB radiation. The three varieties had UVA/UVB absorptive properties and presented antioxidant activity, being highest with red maca, followed by black and yellow maca. The three varieties of maca leaves prevented the development of sunburn cells, epidermal hyperplasia, leukocytic infiltration, and other alterations produced by UVB radiation. Mice treated with black maca showed the highest superoxide dismutase levels, and mice treated with black and yellow maca showed higher catalase levels in skin, whereas red maca protected the skin and liver against significant increases in the lipid peroxidation activity observed in the unprotected animals. The presence of significant antioxidant activity and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation suggest that the observed protection could be partly attributable to this mechanism. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Aqueous extract of yellow maca (Lepidium meyenii) improves sperm count in experimental animals but response depends on hypocotyl size, pH and routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Salazar, L; Gonzales, G F

    2018-04-01

    Lepidium meyenii, a Peruvian plant growing over 4000 m.a.s.l., has effects on nutrition and fertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sperm count in 105 male mice receiving boiled aqueous extract of yellow maca hypocotyls from different sizes, under different pH conditions and using two different routes of administration. Five mice per group were treated daily for 3 days with vehicle (oral and intraperitoneal) or maca aqueous extracts (5 mg/0.5 ml/day) belonging to the first, second, third and fourth categories, according to their hypocotyl size. On day four, sperm count was evaluated at testis, epididymis and vas deferens. Sperm count was higher in mice receiving maca from the larger sizes (first and second categories). Reduction in maca extract pH increased sperm count, whereas an increase in the pH resulted in a reduction in sperm count. The effect of pH reduction is observed only in maca from the first and second categories. Aqueous extract of maca was effective only after oral administration. In conclusion, the larger size of hypocotyls presented the best biological effect, and the low pH in the extract and the transformation after gastrointestinal passage are both important for its biological action. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Role of maca (Lepidium meyenii) consumption on serum interleukin-6 levels and health status in populations living in the Peruvian Central Andes over 4000 m of altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gasco, Manuel; Lozada-Requena, Ivan

    2013-12-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a plant that grows at over 4,000 m above sea level in the central Peruvian Andes. The hypocotyls of this plant are traditionally consumed for their nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to determine the health status based on a health related quality of life (HRQL) questionnaire (SF-20) and serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in subjects that are maca consumers. For this, a cross-sectional study was designed to be performed in 50 subjects from Junin (4,100 m): 27 subjects were maca consumers and 23 were non-consumers. The SF-20 survey is used to obtain a summary measure of health status. The stand up from a chair and sit down (SUCSD) test (to assess lower-extremity function), hemoglobin measurement, blood pressure, sexual hormone levels, serum IL-6 levels and the score of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) were evaluated. Testosterone/estradiol ratio (P maca consumers when compared to non-consumers (P maca consumers successfully completed the SUCSD test compared to non-consumers (P maca was associated with low serum IL-6 levels and in turn with better health status scores in the SF-20 survey and low chronic mountain sickness scores.

  10. Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) increases serum testosterone concentration and enhances steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Yoshida, K; Kamiya, S; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Ogawa, H; Tamada, H

    2016-04-01

    Although Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's central Andes, has been traditionally used for enhancing fertility and reproductive performance in domestic animals and human beings, effects of maca on reproductive organs are still unclear. This study examined whether feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks affects weight of the reproductive organs, serum concentrations of testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH), number and cytoplasmic area of immunohistochemically stained Leydig cells, and steroidogenesis of cultured Leydig cells in 8-week-old male rats. Feeding the extract powder increased weight of seminal vesicles, serum testosterone level and cytoplasmic area of Leydig cells when compared with controls. Weight of prostate gland, serum LH concentration and number of Leydig cells were not affected by the maca treatment. The testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone and tended to increase when cultured with hCG by feeding the extract powder. The results show that feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks increases serum testosterone concentration associated with seminal vesicle stimulation in male rats, and this increase in testosterone level may be related to the enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells especially in the metabolic process following cholesterol. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Structural, electronic, topological and vibrational properties of a series of N-benzylamides derived from Maca (Lepidium meyenii) combining spectroscopic studies with ONION calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chain, Fernando E.; Ladetto, María Florencia; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A. N.; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, the structural, topological and vibrational properties of four members of the N-benzylamides series derived from Maca (Lepidium meyenii) whose names are, N-benzylpentadecanamide, N-benzylhexadecanamide, N-benzylheptadecanamide and N-benzyloctadecanamide, were studied combining the FTIR, FT-Raman and 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopies with density functional theory (DFT) and ONION calculations. Furthermore, the N-benzylacetamide, N-benzylpropilamide and N-benzyl hexanamide derivatives were also studied in order to compare their properties with those computed for the four macamides. These seven N-benzylamides series have a common structure, C8H8NO-R, being R the side chain [-(CH2)n-CH3] with a variable n number of CH2 groups. Here, the atomic charges, molecular electrostatic potentials, stabilization energies, topological properties of those macamides were analyzed as a function of the number of C atoms of the side chain while the frontier orbitals were used to compute the gap energies and some descriptors in order to predict their reactivities and behaviors in function of the longitude of the side chain. Here, the force fields, the complete vibrational assignments and the corresponding force constants were only reported for N-benzylacetamide, N-benzyl hexanamide and N-benzylpentadecanamide due to the high number of vibration normal modes that present the remains macamides.

  12. Long-term feeding of hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) enhances the steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells to alleviate its decline with ageing in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Ohta, Y; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Tamada, H

    2018-02-01

    This study examined whether feeding hydroalcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (maca) to 8-week-old (sexually maturing) or 18-week-old (mature) male rats for more than a half year affects serum testosterone concentration and testosterone production by Leydig cells cultured with hCG, 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone. Testosterone concentration was determined in the serum samples obtained before and 6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks after the feeding, and it was significantly increased only at the 6 weeks in the group fed with the maca extract to maturing rats when it was compared with controls. Testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with hCG by feeding the maca extract to maturing rats for 27 weeks (35 weeks of age) and when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol by feeding it to mature rats for 30 weeks (48 weeks of age). Overall testosterone production by cultured Leydig cells decreased to about a half from 35 to 48 weeks of age. These results suggest that feeding the maca extract for a long time to male rats may enhance the steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells to alleviate its decline with ageing, whereas it may cause only a transient increase in blood testosterone concentration in sexually maturing male rats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Effect of chronic treatment with three varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on reproductive parameters and DNA quantification in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, M; Aguilar, J; Gonzales, G F

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chronic effect of different varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca, Yellow Maca and Black Maca). Male rats were treated by gavage with aqueous extract of each variety of maca equivalent to 1 g hypocotyl kg(-1) body weight (BW) for 84 days. At the end of the treatment, daily sperm production (DSP), epididymal sperm count (ESC) and sperm count in vas deferens (SCVD) were assessed. In addition, testis DNA quantification was also determined. Any toxic effect was assessed in liver and spleen by histological studies. The results indicate that Yellow Maca and Black Maca improved ESC and that three varieties of maca increased the SCVD without affecting DSP. Moreover, testis DNA levels were not affected by treatment with any of the three varieties of maca. Histological picture of the liver in animals treated with the three varieties of maca was similar to that observed in controls. In conclusion, Yellow and Black Maca increased epididymal sperm count after 84 days of treatment without affecting DSP. Maca seems to act as a modulator of sperm count at the reproductive tract level.

  14. Effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on Semen Parameters and Serum Hormone Levels in Healthy Adult Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Melnikovova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Products of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca are touted worldwide as an alimentary supplement to enhance fertility and restore hormonal balance. Enhancing properties of maca on semen parameters in animals were previously reported by various authors, but we present to the best of our knowledge the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial in men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maca on semen parameters and serum hormone levels in healthy adult men. Methods. A group of 20 volunteers aged 20–40 years was supplied by milled hypocotyl of maca or placebo (1.75 g/day for 12 weeks. Negative controls of semen were compared to the samples after 6 and 12 weeks of maca administration; negative blood controls were compared to the samples after 12 weeks of treatment. Results. Sperm concentration and motility showed rising trends compared to placebo even though levels of hormones did not change significantly after 12 weeks of trial. Conclusion. Our results indicate that maca possesses fertility enhancing properties in men. As long as men prefer to use alimentary supplement to enhance fertility rather than prescribed medication or any medical intervention, it is worth continuing to assess its possible benefits.

  15. Hypocotyls of Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant of the Peruvian highlands, prevent ultraviolet A-, B-, and C-induced skin damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2008-02-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively in the Peruvian Central Andes, where ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is predominant. Determine if two extracts of maca can provide dermal protection against UVR. We have administered two maca extracts (0.13 mg/ml), one obtained after boiling and the other without boiling, on the dorsal surface of male Holtzman rats exposed to UVC radiation once a week during 3 consecutive weeks. A dose-response effect of an aqueous extract of maca after a boiling process under exposure of rats to UVA, UVB, or UVC was also studied. A commercial sunscreen was used as a positive control. UVR caused significant increase in skin epidermal thickness. The epidermal height in animals treated with maca was similar to those who did not receive UVR. The aqueous extract of maca after a boiling process had better effect than maca extract without a boiling process. A dose-response effect was observed with increasing doses of aqueous extract of maca after a boiling process. Maca extract had benzyl glucosinolates and polyphenols. Maca extracts protect the skin of rats against UV irradiations and can be suggested as an alternative means of solar protection.

  16. Structural Characterization of a Novel Polysaccharide from Lepidium meyenii (Maca) and Analysis of Its Regulatory Function in Macrophage Polarization in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmeng; Wu, Wenjia; Ren, Yao; Li, Xiaofeng; Tang, Yuqian; Min, Tian; Lai, Furao; Wu, Hui

    2017-02-15

    In our previous study, three novel polysaccharides, named MC-1, MC-2, and MC-3, were separated from the roots of maca (Lepidium meyenii), which is a food source from the Andes region. The structural information and immunomodulatory activity of MC-1 were then investigated. The structure and activity of MC-2 are still unknown. In this study, structural characterization revealed that MC-2 has an average molecular weight of 9.83 kDa and is composed of arabinose (20.9%), mannose (4.5%), glucose (71.9%), and galactose (2.7%). The main linkage types of MC-2 were proven to be (1→5)-α-l-Ara, (1→3)-α-l-Man, (1→)-α-d-Glc, (1→4)-α-d-Glc, (1→6)-α-d-Glc, and (1→6)-β-d-Gal by methylation and NMR analyses. Congo red assay showed that MC-2 possesses a triple-helix conformation. Immunostimulating assays indicated that MC-2 could induce M1 polarization of original macrophages and convert M2 macrophages into M1 phenotype. Although MC-2 could not shift M1 macrophages into M2, it could still inhibit inflammatory reactions induced by lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, Toll-like receptor 2, tTll-like receptor 4, complement receptor 3, and mannose receptor were confirmed as the membrane receptors for MC-2 on macrophages. These results indicate that MC-2 could potentially be used toward hypoimmunity and tumor therapies.

  17. Prevalencia de hongos en harina de Lepidium peruvianum «Maca» en mercados de Andahuaylas, Ica y Cañete - Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Orellana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la prevalencia de hongos en la harina de Lepidium peruvianum «maca» en un total de 60 muestras procedentes de los mercados de Andahuaylas (20, Ica (20 y Cañete (20. Las muestras fueron procesadas mediante el método de diluciones sucesivas y sembradas en superficie en Agar Papa Dextrosa (APD. El 96,7% del total de muestras estaban contaminadas; identificándose 9 géneros y un total de 14 especies de mohos filamentosos, incluyendo uno clasificado como Mycelia sterilia. El recuento general de colonias va desde 33x104 a 61x104 UFC/g., no existiendo diferencia significativa entre los centros de expendio. Los géneros con mayor incidencia fueron Penicillium y Fusarium. La alta prevalencia de hongos contaminantes en la harina de maca sugieren continuar estudios destinados a evaluar el efecto y riesgo sanitario que representa su consumo para la salud humana.

  18. Identification and characterization of microRNAs and their targets in high-altitude stress-adaptive plant maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sujay

    2017-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, short (~21-nucleotide), non-coding RNA molecules that play pivotal roles in plant growth, development, and stress response signaling. In this study using recently published draft genome sequence of a high-altitude plant maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp) and applying genome-wide computational-based approaches, a total of 62 potentially conserved miRNAs belonging to 28 families were identified and four (lme-miR160a, lme-miR164c, lme-miR 166a, and lme-miR 319a) of them further validated by RT-PCR. Deploying psRNATarget tool a total of 99 potential miRNA target transcripts were also identified in maca. Targets include a number of transcription factors like Squamosa promoter-binding, NAC, MYB, auxin response factor, APETALA, WRKY, and F-box protein. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first genome-based miRNA profiling of a high-altitude plant.

  19. Role of cadmium and ultraviolet-B radiation in plants. Influence on photosynthesis and element content in two species of Brassicaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson Joensson, Helene

    2001-02-01

    Plants are exposed to many different stress factors during their lifetime. often more than one factor at a time. which highlights the importance of research regarding interaction among stress factors. Cadmium and ultraviolet-B radiation (MB, 280-315 mm) are two potential stress factors in the environment, which have gained increased interest due to atmospheric pollution. In this work the interaction between Cd and UV-B radiation was investigated in two species of Brassicaceae; Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana, the latter including the wild type and phytochelatin-deficient cad1-3. In both species photosynthetic parameters and element content were studied after the plants were exposed to Cd and supplemental UV-B radiation for 14 days. A separate Cd uptake study was carried out on Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate the effect of different Cd pretreatments on Cd uptake. The experiments showed that Cd was the dominant factor, but in Brassica napus, Cd+UV-B showed some interaction effects on energy dissipation and chlorophyll ratios. Generally, Cd decreased the chlorophyll content and influenced photosynthesis by altering oxygen evolution, non-photochemical quenching and the quantum yield. Cadmium had large effects on the content of essential elements, particularly in roots, that may be due to competition during uptake. The Cd uptake study showed that the wild type contained much higher amounts of Cd than the phytochelatin-deficient cad1-3, although Cd uptake is expected to be independent of phytochelatin content. Phytochelatins chelate and transport Cd to the vacuole, thus removing Cd from the cytosol. This compartmentation may disrupt a possible feedback mechanism in the cytosol.

  20. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) - III: The Effects of Cultivation Altitude on Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in the Four Prime Maca Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Henry O; Mscisz, Alina; Baraniak, Marek; Piatkowska, Ewa; Pisulewski, Pawel; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    In two trials, dietary and Glucosinolates' characteristics in four Maca phenotypes have been examined with an extension into the determination of DNA sequences. Hypocotyls of the four prime phenotypes of Peruvian Maca - Lepidium peruvianum Chacon, labelled as "Yellow", "Black", "Red" and "Purple" were separated from mixed Maca crops cultivated in four geographically-distant locations in the Peruvian Andes at altitudes between 2,800m and 4,300 m a.s.l. It was found that at higher altitudes where Red and Purple Maca phenotypes were grown, the significantly higher ( P Maca physiological activity, were observed with the Purple phenotype showing the highest Glucosinolates' content at 4,300m a.s.l., followed by the Red-coloured hypocotyls. Black Maca showed a reversal, but also a significant ( P 0.05) and has consistently the lowest Glucosinolates content. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the altitude at which Red, Purple and Black phenotypes of L. peruvianum are grown, may be responsible for the variation in physiologic functionalities, leading to different than expected specific therapeutic and health benefits induced by Maca phenotypes grown at diverse altitudes. Although promising, insufficiently precise differences in DNA sequences failed to distinguish, without any reasonable doubt, four Maca phenotypes cultivated either in the same or geographically-distant locations, and harvested at different altitudes a.s.l. Further research on DNA sequences is needed, with more primers and larger number of Maca phenotypes, considering biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and adaptation pathways induced by harsh environment at altitudes where Maca is cultivated.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on phenol content, antioxidant activity and biological activity of black maca and red maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos-Concha, A; Nuñez, D; Gasco, M; Vasquez, C; Quispe, M; Gonzales, G F

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on UV spectrum on maca, total content of polyphenols, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities and in vivo biological activities of red and black maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii). Adult mice of the strain Swiss aged 3 months and weighing 30-35 g in average were used to determine biological activities. Daily sperm production, effect on testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia and forced swimming test were used to determine the effect of irradiation on biological activities of maca extracts. Irradiation did not show differences in UV spectrum but improves the amount of total polyphenols in red maca as well as in black maca extracts. In both cases, black maca extract has more content of polyphenols than red maca extract (p maca extract were administered to mice (p > 0.05). Black maca extract but not red maca extract has more swimming endurance capacity in the forced swimming test. Irradiation of black maca extract increased the swimming time to exhaustion (p maca extract (p > 0.05). Testosterone enanthate (TE) increased significantly the ventral prostate weight. Administration of red maca extract in animals treated with TE prevented the increase in prostate weight. Irradiation did not modify effect of red maca extract on prostate weight (p > 0.05). In conclusion, irradiation does not alter the biological activities of both black maca and red maca extracts. It prevents the presence of microorganisms in the extracts of black or red maca, but the biological activities were maintained.

  2. Efecto bifidogénico de jalea de Lepidium meyenii Walp. “maca” en el recuento de Bifidobacterium bifidum en yogurt probiótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena León Marroú

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los recuentos de Bifidobacterium bifidum en yogures probióticos tienden a disminuir de manera significativa por diferentes factores: pH, oxígeno disuelto, composición antagónica entre las especies, la composición química del medio, temperatura de almacenamiento, entre otros. Para asegurar que la eficacia de los productos que contienen B. bifidum sea máxima a menudo se incluyen factores bifidogénicos, los cuales tienen la propiedad de promover no solo el crecimiento adecuado, sino también su viabilidad durante el almacenamiento del producto final. El presente estudio investigó sobre el recuento de B. bifidum en yogurt probiótico elaborado en condiciones de laboratorio en relación a dos variables: adición de tres concentraciones diferentes de jalea de Lepidium meyenii “maca” (10 %, 20 % y 30 % y tiempo de almacenamiento. Se realizó el recuento de B. bifidum cada tres días, durante un mes. Se utilizó el método de recuento en placa por siembra en profundidad. Los resultados indicaron que todas las muestras a las que se añadieron jalea de L. meyenii “maca” en diferentes concentraciones mantuvieron recuentos de B. bifidum por encima de los valores establecidos por las normas internacionales. Se concluye que L. meyenii “maca”, en razón de algunos de sus componentes, ejerció un efecto bifidogénico y en concentración de 30 % de jalea fue mayor.

  3. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (I) Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic Study on Maca using Clinical Laboratory Model on Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Mscisz, A; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Kapczynski, W; Barchia, I

    2006-09-01

    Ovariectomized rats were used in a model laboratory study to examine biochemical and pharmacodynamic effects of pre-gelatinized organic preparation of Lepidium peruvianum Chacon (Maca-GO). Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic effects of Maca-GO (250 mg Maca-GO per kg body weight (bw) administered by intubation twice daily) were assessed in a 28 day model laboratory study on ovariectomized (by laparoscopy) Wistar rats with pharmacodynamic tests performed at the conclusion of the trial followed by blood collection for morphology and biochemical tests. Toxicity of Maca-GO used in the study was determined in bioassay on mice and rats. Anti-depressive function (Porsolt's test) and anxiolytic sedative and cognitive effects (using elevated-plus maze, locomotor activity and passive avoidance tests) were assessed against control (laparotomized female rats with intact ovaries). In addition to blood morphology, the following blood serum constituents were analyzed: Estrogen (E2), Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, and T4), Iron (Fe) and lipid profile (Triglycerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). Analytically-determined non-toxic status of Maca-GO was confirmed in bioassays when applied to mice and rats at levels of 0.5 and up to 15mg/kg bw which shows it safe use in humans with the LD50>15 mg/kg bw. Maca-GO showed a distinctive, (PMaca-GO on sex hormone levels show its potential as a safe preparation for use in correcting physiological symptoms characteristic in postmenopausal stage with an indication of potentially even more value for its use in pre-menopausal women.

  4. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) – III: The Effects of Cultivation Altitude on Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in the Four Prime Maca Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Henry O.; Mscisz, Alina; Baraniak, Marek; Piatkowska, Ewa; Pisulewski, Pawel; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    In two trials, dietary and Glucosinolates’ characteristics in four Maca phenotypes have been examined with an extension into the determination of DNA sequences. Hypocotyls of the four prime phenotypes of Peruvian Maca - Lepidium peruvianum Chacon, labelled as “Yellow”, “Black”, “Red” and “Purple” were separated from mixed Maca crops cultivated in four geographically-distant locations in the Peruvian Andes at altitudes between 2,800m and 4,300 m a.s.l. It was found that at higher altitudes where Red and Purple Maca phenotypes were grown, the significantly higher (PMaca physiological activity, were observed with the Purple phenotype showing the highest Glucosinolates’ content at 4,300m a.s.l., followed by the Red-coloured hypocotyls. Black Maca showed a reversal, but also a significant (P0.05) and has consistently the lowest Glucosinolates content. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the altitude at which Red, Purple and Black phenotypes of L. peruvianum are grown, may be responsible for the variation in physiologic functionalities, leading to different than expected specific therapeutic and health benefits induced by Maca phenotypes grown at diverse altitudes. Although promising, insufficiently precise differences in DNA sequences failed to distinguish, without any reasonable doubt, four Maca phenotypes cultivated either in the same or geographically-distant locations, and harvested at different altitudes a.s.l. Further research on DNA sequences is needed, with more primers and larger number of Maca phenotypes, considering biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and adaptation pathways induced by harsh environment at altitudes where Maca is cultivated. PMID:28824342

  5. The Influence of pH of Extracting Water on the Composition of Seaweed Extracts and Their Beneficial Properties on Lepidium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Katarzyna; Michalak, Izabela; Tuhy, Łukasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Baltic seaweeds were used to obtain aqueous extracts (E) through changing initial pH of deionised water added to algal biomass (EpH3·H 2 O, EpH7·H 2 O, and EpH10·H 2 O) and through changing pH of the mixture of algae and deionised water (EpH3, EpH7, and EpH10). Algal extracts were characterized in terms of the concentration of polyphenols and micro- and macroelements. The highest concentration of polyphenols was determined in extract EpH3 and the lowest in extract EpH10·H 2 O. It was found that the obtained extracts had similar concentrations of elements (except EpH3). The phytotoxicity of algal extracts (0.5, 2.5, and 10%) was examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum . No phytotoxic effects were observed. It was found that they had beneficial effects on the cultivated plants (length and weight). The best biostimulant effect was observed in the groups treated with EpH3 (2.5%), EpH7 (2.5%), and EpH7 (10%). The dry weight of plants was similar in all the groups. Algal extract also improved the multielemental composition of plant. The greatest concentration of total chlorophyll in plants was obtained by using extract EpH10·H 2 O, 0.5%. These results proved that algal extracts have high potential to be applied in cultivation of plants.

  6. The Influence of pH of Extracting Water on the Composition of Seaweed Extracts and Their Beneficial Properties on Lepidium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Godlewska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Baltic seaweeds were used to obtain aqueous extracts (E through changing initial pH of deionised water added to algal biomass (EpH3·H2O, EpH7·H2O, and EpH10·H2O and through changing pH of the mixture of algae and deionised water (EpH3, EpH7, and EpH10. Algal extracts were characterized in terms of the concentration of polyphenols and micro- and macroelements. The highest concentration of polyphenols was determined in extract EpH3 and the lowest in extract EpH10·H2O. It was found that the obtained extracts had similar concentrations of elements (except EpH3. The phytotoxicity of algal extracts (0.5, 2.5, and 10% was examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum. No phytotoxic effects were observed. It was found that they had beneficial effects on the cultivated plants (length and weight. The best biostimulant effect was observed in the groups treated with EpH3 (2.5%, EpH7 (2.5%, and EpH7 (10%. The dry weight of plants was similar in all the groups. Algal extract also improved the multielemental composition of plant. The greatest concentration of total chlorophyll in plants was obtained by using extract EpH10·H2O, 0.5%. These results proved that algal extracts have high potential to be applied in cultivation of plants.

  7. Efecto bifidogénico de jalea de Lepidium meyenii Walp. “maca” en el recuento de Bifidobacterium bifidum en yogurt probiótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena León Marroú

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los recuentos de Bifidobacterium bifidum en yogures probióticos tienden a disminuir de manera significativa por diferentes factores: pH, oxígeno disuelto, composición antagónica entre las especies, la composición química del medio, temperatura de almacenamiento, entre otros. Para asegurar que la eficacia de los productos que contienen B. bifidum sea máxima a menudo se incluyen factores bifidogénicos, los cuales tienen la propiedad de promover no solo el crecimiento adecuado, sino también su viabilidad durante el almacenamiento del producto final. El presente estudio investigó sobre el recuento de B. bifidum en yogurt probiótico elaborado en condiciones de laboratorio en relación a dos variables: adición de tres concentraciones diferentes de jalea de Lepidium meyenii “maca” (10 %, 20 % y 30 % y tiempo de almacenamiento. Se realizó el recuento de B. bifidum cada tres días, durante un mes. Se utilizó el método de recuento en placa por siembra en profundidad. Los resultados indicaron que todas las muestras a las que se añadieron jalea de L. meyenii “maca” en diferentes concentraciones mantuvieron recuentos de B. bifidum por encima de los valores establecidos por las normas internacionales. Se concluye que L. meyenii “maca”, en razón de algunos de sus componentes, ejerció un efecto bifidogénico y en concentración de 30 % de jalea fue mayor.

  8. Disminución del daño oxidativo y efecto hipoglicemiante de la maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp en ratas con diabetes inducida por streptozotocina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La maca es consumida desde tiempos ancestrales como parte de la dieta. Se le ha atribuido propiedades medicinales y se encuentra incluida en la medicina tradicional peruana. Estudios recientes describen que la admistración de maca reduce la glicemia en animales normoglicémicos, pero los mecanismos involucrados no están muy claros. Objetivos: Determinar el efecto hipoglicemiante y antioxidante de la harina de maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp del ecotipo amarillo, en ratas con diabetes inducida por estreptozotocina. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Harina de maca amarilla y ratas albinas Holtzmann machos con diabetes inducida. Intervenciones: Se administró la harina de maca amarilla a las ratas distribuidas en 4 grupos: grupo I control (solo dieta; II, harina de maca 4 g/día; III, harina de maca 6 g/día; y IV, dieta + glibenclamida 10 mg/kg de peso; el experimento duró 46 días. Se evaluó diariamente la glicemia y el peso; al final del experimento se determinó en sangre los niveles de insulina, parámetros de daño oxidativo (vitamina C y se midió la peroxidación lipídica (TBARS, como indicador del proceso oxidativo. Principales medidas de los resultados: Modificación de los niveles de glicemia, insulina, vitamina C y formación del complejo MDA-TBARS. Resultados: La administración de harina de maca en la dieta (4 a 6 g/día de animales diabéticos redujo la glicemia en 50%, incrementó los niveles de insulina 22% y mejoró los niveles de vitamina C respecto al grupo control. La administración de maca 4 g/día disminuyó el daño oxidativo, pues redujo la formación del complejo MDA-TBARS en 54% con respecto al grupo control. Conclusiones: La administración de harina de maca amarilla a animales diabéticos mejoró el metabolismo de la glucosa, regulando la glicemia y

  9. Extracto acuoso de Lepidium meyenii Walp (maca y su papel como adaptógeno, en un modelo animal de resistencia física

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Suárez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Lepidium meyenii Walp (maca es una raíz andina del Perú, utilizada como alimento por su valor nutricional y propiedades etnomedicinales; es parte de la medicina tradicional. Objetivos: Evaluar el papel de adaptógeno del extracto acuoso de maca amarilla sobre las enzimas del tejido muscular en un modelo animal de resistencia física y estrés oxidativo. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Extracto acuoso de la maca amarilla y ratas macho recién destetados. Intervenciones: Administración del extracto acuoso de la maca amarilla en ratas macho recién destetados, distribuidos en cuatro grupos: (I, de control, (II 0,4 mg de maca/g de peso (III 0,8 mg de maca/g de peso y (IV, 1,2 mg de maca/g de peso. El extracto acuoso fue administrado por cánula orogástrica. Se realizó un control de los pesos. Se aplicó la prueba de nado forzado después de 30 días de tratamiento. Los animales fueron sacrificados y se preparó homogenizado de músculo al 10%. Principales medidas de resultados: Actividad de las enzimas superóxido dismutasa (SOD, catalasa (CAT y lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH; y, como indicador de proceso oxidativo, se midió la peroxidación lipídica (TBARS. Resultados: El rendimiento en la prueba de resistencia fue la siguiente: (I 7,09 min; (II 11,25 min; (III 11,27 min; (IV 12,71 min, respectivamente. Las actividades enzimáticas de los grupos I, II, III y IV fueron: SOD (U/mL 36,6, 18,2, 17,2 y 18,2; CAT (U/L 18,6, 16,5, 13,4 y 10,3; y LDH (U/mL 11,6, 6,5, 6,0 y 5,8. TBARS (umol/g tejido: 5,82, 7,15, 4,11 y 4,06. Conclusiones: La administración del extracto acuoso de maca amarilla favorece la respuesta del organismo a una situación estresante y físicamente extenuante, lo que correspondería al papel de un adaptógeno.

  10. Short and long-term physiological responses of male and female rats to two dietary levels of pre-gelatinized maca (lepidium peruvianum chacon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Kedzia, B; Mrozikiewicz, P M; Mscisz, A

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify physiological responses of male and female rats to either a short- or long-term administration of two doses of Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) and observe relationships which may exist between groups of hormones and effects mediated by them. The effect of pre-gelatinized (extruded) organic Maca powder (Maca-GO) was studied on Sprague-Dowley male and female rats (1:1 ratio) receiving two dietary levels of Maca-GO (0.75 g/kg and 7.5 g/kg body weight) and assessed against control during 28 and 90 day laboratory trials on 30 and 60 rats respectively. Blood morphology, biochemistry (hormones, lipids and minerals) and histology of internal organs were determined. Homogenates of skeletal muscles and bones of rats were also analyzed. Maca-GO has low toxicity (LD=7.5 g/kg) and appears to be safe for short-term and extended use as dietary supplement or as a component of functional dietary and therapeutic preparations. There were different responses of male and female rats to different levels of Maca-GO administered during a short- and a longer-term periodl. When administered at higher dose for extended period of time (90 days), Maca-GO acted as a toner of hormonal processes in adult female rats at increased progesterone and a steady estradiol level, without affecting levels of blood FSH, LH and TSH. Obtained results justify further clinical research on use of Maca-GO in sportsmen, physically-active people of both sexes and peri-menopausal women to clarify mechanisms underlaying physiological mode of action of Maca-GO validaet in clinical study on humans. Substantial decrease in blood cortisol levels in a short- and longer-term trial and simultaneous tendency to lower blood ACTH, may indicate antidepressive effect of Maca-GO, which together with reduction in body weight, lowering triglycerides in blood plasma and increasing calcium and phosphorus deposition in bone and muscle tissues is worthy consideration in potential application to women at

  11. Influences of dietary supplementation with Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on stallion sperm production and on preservation of sperm quality during storage at 5 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, C; Tafuri, S; Ciani, F; Pasolini, M P; Ciotola, F; Albarella, S; Carotenuto, D; Peretti, V; Cocchia, N

    2018-03-01

    Stallion semen is damaged by oxidative stress during cooling and transport. Semen processing and extenders have been tested to improve the fertilizing capacity of semen and to preserve semen during transport. Dietary supplementation with natural antioxidants has been proposed to prevent oxidative damages. In this study, for the first time, the effect of dietary supplementation with Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on the characteristics of fresh and chilled stallion semen was evaluated. Maca is a traditional Andean crop used as a nutraceutical for the fertility-enhancing properties that are linked with antioxidant activity. The diet of five stallions was supplemented with 20 g of Maca powder daily for a total of 60 days. A control group of five stallions received the same diet without Maca. Semen was collected once before the administration of Maca (D0), twice during the administration at 30 and 60 days (D30 and D60), and finally twice at 30 and 60 days after the end of the administration (D90 and D120). Ejaculates were processed for cooled shipping at 5 °C and evaluated in the laboratory for total and progressive motility, acrosome integrity, and lipid peroxidation after collection and after 24, 48, and 72 h of storage. Dietary supplementation with Maca improved sperm concentration (from 213 ± 80.4 to 447 ± 73.1 × 10 6 spz/mL) and total sperm count (from 10,880 ± 4377 to 24,783 ± 4419 × 10 6 spz). The beneficial effects of Maca supplementation on motility and acrosome integrity in the raw semen were detected from the end of treatment with Maca (D60) until the end of the study (D120). Furthermore, during cooling storage, total motility, progressive motility, and acrosome integrity declined more slowly in the Maca-treated group than in the control group. Lipid peroxidation did not change during cooling storage in either group and did not show a significant difference between the two groups. In this study, the dietary supplementation with Maca

  12. Relación de glutatión reducido/oxidado (GSH/GSSG en ratas diabéticas tratadas con maca (Lepidium meyenii walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Cisneros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La diabetes mellitus y sus complicaciones representan un problema de salud pública. La hiperglucemia desencadena efectos bioquímicos dañinos para el organismo, como el estrés oxidativo y el proceso inflamatorio crónico, por lo que el uso de plantas medicinales con elevada capacidad antioxidante, como Lepidium meyenii Walp (maca, es una alternativa en el tratamiento de esta patología. Objetivo: Determinar si la ingestión de harina de maca mejora la relación glutatión reducido/oxidado (GSH/GSSG en ratas diabéticas. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Harina de maca amarilla y ratas albinas Holtzman machos adultas. Intervenciones: Se utilizó 24 ratas, a los cuales se les indujo la diabetes con estreptozotocina (STZ 40 mg/kg de masa corporal y que fueron distribuidas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos, de seis animales cada uno: control (CO, glibenclamida (GL 10 mg/kg de masa corporal, maca 4 g/día (M4 y maca 6 g/día (M6; el experimento duró 40 días. Se evaluó la glicemia, masa corporal y, al final del experimento, se determinó los niveles de GSH y GSSG en plasma y homogenizado de hígado. Principales medidas de resultados: Masa corporal, glicemia, GSH y GSSG en plasma y homogenizado de hígado. Resultados: A nivel plasmático, el glutatión circulante estuvo favorecido para la forma reducida. Los valores de la relación GSH/GSSG en los grupos tratados con maca estuvieron alrededor de 190, significativamente mayor al grupo CO. Conclusiones: La administración de harina de maca amarilla a ratas diabéticas incrementó la relación GSH/GSSG a nivel plasmático, contribuyendo a mejorar su estado redox.

  13. Developmental Control and Plasticity of Fruit and Seed Dimorphism in Aethionema arabicum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lenser, T.; Graeber, K.; Cevik, O.S.; Adiguzel, N.; Donmez, A. A.; Grosche, C.; Kettermann, M.; Mayland-Quellhorst, S.; Merai, Z.; Mohammadin, S.; Nguyen, T.P.; Rumpler, H.; Schulze, C.; Sperber, K.; Steinbrecher, T.; Wiegand, M.; Strnad, Miroslav; Scheid, O. M.; Rensing, S. A.; Schranz, M. E.; Theissen, G.; Mummenhoff, K.; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 172, č. 3 (2016), s. 1691-1707 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : diptychocarpus-strictus brassicaceae * phenotypic plasticity * arabidopsis-thaliana * lepidium brassicaceae * atriplex-sagittata * dispersal ability * desert annuals * coat mucilage * crepis-sancta * pod shatter Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.456, year: 2016

  14. Efecto citotóxico del extracto metanólico de tres ecotipos de Lepidium peruvianum Chacón sobre líneas celulares HeLa y HT-29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La búsqueda de compuestos naturales con actividad citotóxica y antitumoral es una de las prioridades actuales de la lucha contra el cáncer; motivo por el cual el objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la actividad citotóxica de los extractos metanólicos (EM de los ecotipos negro, morado y amarillo de Lepidium peruvianum, Chacón (conocida también como Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca sobre las líneas celulares HeLa (Human Epithelial Carcinoma y HT-29 (Human Colon Adenocarcinoma. Se determinó que la concentración inhibitoria del 50% del crecimiento celular (IC50 para la línea celular HT-29, con los ecotipos negro, morado y amarillo fue de 8,32 mg/ml, 9,28 mg/ml y 0,487 mg/ml respectivamente, mientras que para la línea celular HeLa fue de 2,4 mg/ml, 1,93 mg/ml y 0,66 mg/ml respectivamente. Adicionalmente, se evaluó un EM del ecotipo amarillo con dos años de almacenamiento (10 ºC determinándose como IC50 4,29 mg/ml para HT-29 y 4,17 mg/ml para HeLa. Se concluye que el efecto citotóxico del ecotipo amarillo sobre HT-29 y HeLa fue superior al mostrado por los ecotipos negro y morado; que la línea celular más sensible a los ecotipos amarillo, negro y morado es HeLa, y que el EM del ecotipo amarillo conservó sus propiedades citotóxicas pese al tiempo de almacenamiento, aunque éstas disminuyeron.

  15. Therapeutic Effects of Pre-Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum Chacon) used as a Non-Hormonal Alternative to HRT in Perimenopausal Women - Clinical Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Reich-Bilinska, H; Mscisz, A; Kedzia, B

    2006-06-01

    Roots of cruciferous plant Lepidium peruvianum Chacon cultivated in high plateaus of Andes and known under its common name Maca, have been traditionally-used as an energizing vegetable with therapeutic properties for both men and women. Maca has been recognized by natives of Peru as herbal remedy helping to treat conditions affecting menopausal women. The effects of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO) on quantitative physiological responses and alleviation of symptoms contributing to menopausal discomfort in perimenopausal women was examined. IN THIS, FOUR MONTHS, DOUBLE BLIND, CROSSOVER, RANDOMIZED PILOT TRIAL, MONTHLY MEASUREMENTS OF THE FOLLOWING BLOOD SERUM CONSTITUENTS WERE TAKEN: Estrogen (E2), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, T4), minerals (Ca, K, Fe) and lipid profile (Triglicerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). In monthly interviews conducted by gynecologist, body weight and blood pressure were registered and Menopausal Index according to Kupperman's was determined. Toxicity of Maca -GO determined on rats showed its safe use at the level of 7.5mg/kg body weight. A group of 20 women (aged 41-50 years), who fulfilled criteria of being in perimenopausal stage (E2 above 40pg/ml and FSH below 30IU/ml), were randomly allocated to two even groups, one receiving for two months Maca-GO and the other Placebo capsules followed by a crossover with treatment change for another two months period. All participants signed informed consent to participate. Two 500mg hard capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo were self-administered by participants twice daily with meals (total 2g/day). Two months administration of Maca-GO significantly alleviated symptoms of discomfort observed in majority of women involved in the study (74%-87%) as assessed by Kupperman's Menopausal index. This was associated with significant increase in E2 and FSH, Progesterone

  16. The transillumination technique as a method for the assessment of spermatogenesis using medicinal plants: the effect of extracts of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) and camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) on stages of the spermatogenic cycle in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Vasquez, Vanessa Bertha; Gasco, Manuel

    2013-10-01

    Transillumination technique for assessment of stages of spermatogenic cycle is a useful tool for toxicological studies. This study was designed to determine the effect of two medicinal plants on spermatogenesis in male rats using the transillumination technique. For this, the effect of the combination of a fruit with highest content of ascorbic acid (Myrciaria dubia, camu camu) and extract of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on seminiferous tubule stages scored by transillumination on intact tubules in adult male rats was assessed. Animals were treated during seven days with vehicle, black maca, camu camu or a mixture of black maca + camu camu and assessed for daily sperm production (DSP), stages of spermatogenic cycle as well as antioxidant activity and levels of flavonoids and polyphenols. Black maca increased stages of spermiation (VII-VIII) and mitosis of germ cells (IX-XI), whereas camu camu increased stages of mitosis (IX-XI) and meiosis (XII). Mixture of maca + camu camu increased stages of spermiation, mitosis and meiosis. All treatments increased DSP (pmaca. In conclusion, M. dubia (camu camu) has potential effects improving spermatogenesis and co-administered with maca increase stages of mitosis, meiosis and spermiation of the spermatogenic cycle as assessed by the transillumination technique. This technique is becoming increasingly a useful tool for assessment spermatogenesis.

  17. Effect of organic fertilizers on quality and quantity characteristics of blond psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk. clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L., qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L. and dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in experimental farm of Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during 2010. The design was split plot with three replications. Main plots were the medicinal plant species consist of: blond psyllium (Plantago ovate Forssk., clasping peperweed (Lepidium perfoilatum L., qodumeh Shirazi (Alyssum homolocarpum L. dragon's head (Lalementia iberica L. and subplots were various organic fertilizer consist of cow manure, vermicompost (based on cow manure, coffee compost and spent mushroom compost. Results showed that medicinal plants had significant difference for number of seeds per plant, shoot dry matter, seed yield, plant height and mucilage percentage. Effect of various organic matter on all traits except for 1000-seed weight was significant. Interaction of organic fertilizers and plant was significant for dry matter. Lalementia had the most mucilage percentage (27.75% and cow manure was the best fertilizer because it had the highest amounts of dry matter (1816 kg.ha-1, seed yield (467.5 kg.ha-1, number seed per plant (550 seeds.plant-1, plant height (23.17 cm and mucilage percentage (20.75%.

  18. Cruciferous weeds in oil seed rape – appearance and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klingenhagen, Günter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Different cruciferous weeds were drilled in autumn 2011 and 2012 in a field near Münster. Beside common species like hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale Scop., shepherd`s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris, pennycress (Thlaspiarvense, tall hedge mustard (Sisymbrium loeselii and flixweed (Descurainia sophia, we tried to establish weeds that are not common on arable land in Germany until now. These were: Yellow rocket (Barbarea vulgaris, hoary cress (Lepidium draba and Turkish rocket (Bunias orientalis. In autumn 2011 emergence of the sown weeds was poor. In the second year of experiment we got good emergence of the named weeds excluding hoary cress (Lepidium draba. In autumn 2011 and 2012 different herbicidecombinations were applied across the stripes. The best results were achieved with Colzor Trio (clomazone + dimethachlor + napropamid which was applied in pre-emergence state, a spray sequence Butisan Gold (metazachlor + quinmerac + dimethenamid-P applied in pre-emergence followed by Salsa (ethametsulfuronmethyl + Trend (adjuvant in post-emergence and Clearfield-Vantiga (metazachlor + quinmerac + imazamox + Dash (adjuvant, also applied in post-emergence state of the weeds.

  19. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) did not affect cell viability despite increased androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene expression in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, P; Cardenas, H; Orihuela, P A

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether aqueous extract of Lepidium meyenii (red Maca) could inhibit growth, potentiate apoptotic activity of two anticancer drugs Taxol and 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) or change mRNA expression for the androgen target genes, androgen receptor (Ar) and prostate-specific antigen (Psa) in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Red Maca aqueous extract at 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml was added to LNCaP cells, and viability was evaluated by the MTS assay at 24 or 48 hr after treatment. Furthermore, LNCaP cells were treated with 80 μg/ml of red Maca plus Taxol or 2ME 5 μM and viability was assessed 48 hr later. Finally, LNCaP cells were treated with red Maca 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml, and 12 hr later, mRNA level for Ar or Psa was assessed by real-time PCR. Treatment with red Maca did not affect viability of LNCaP cells. Apoptotic activity induced by Taxol and 2ME in LNCaP cells was not altered with red Maca treatment. Relative expression of the mRNA for Ar and Psa increased with red Maca 20 and 40 μg/ml, but not at 80 μg/ml. We conclude that red Maca aqueous extract does not have toxic effects, but stimulates androgen signalling in LNCaP cells. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. MÉTODOS DE INOCULACIÓN Y EVALUACIÓN DE EXTRACTOS BOTÁNICOS E ISOTIOCIANATOS DE LA FAMILIA BRASSICACEAE EN EL CONTROL DE LA ROYA DEL GLADIOLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ortega-Centeno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La roya del gladiolo causada por Uromyces transversalis (Thümen G. Winter, es una enfermedad de importancia cuarentenaria para México. Este hongo se controla mediante continuas aplicaciones de fungicidas químicos lo cual puede provocar resistencia, así como daños a la salud humana y contaminación al medio ambiente. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: identificar métodos adecuados de inoculación de U. transversalis en plantas de gladiolo en condiciones de laboratorio e in vivo, identificar los isotiocianatos principales presentes en los extractos provenientes de plantas de la familia Brassicacea y conocer su potencial fungicida junto con el de los isotiocianatos de bencilo y fenilo sobre U. transversalis en condiciones de campo e invernadero. Los experimentos se llevaron a cabo en los municipios de Yautepec y Ayala, Morelos y en el Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos (CEPROBI del Instituto Politécnico Nacional. Las variables evaluadas en campo fueron índice de severidad, área afectada, porcentaje de infección y progreso de la enfermedad, en invernadero sólo las dos últimas. Los métodos de inoculación por aspersión y nebulización permitieron la infección en tres y dos plantas, respectivamente. Los principales isotiocianatos presentes en los extractos alcohólicos aplicados fueron el fenilo, bencilo, 2- feniletilo, alilo y propilo. En los experimentos realizados en Yautepec y Ayala, se determinó que las plantas tratadas con los extractos a la concentración de 0.1 %, tuvieron un porcentaje de infección menor que las tratadas con las concentraciones al 0.2 y 0.5 %. En condiciones de invernadero, los isotiocianatos de fenilo y bencilo ejercieron un buen control del hongo. No se observó fitotoxicidad en las plantas tratadas con los extractos e isotiocianatos en condiciones de invernadero y en campo.

  1. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonzales-Arimborgo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii in adult human subjects living at low (LA and high altitude (HA. A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL, and chronic mountain sickness (CMS score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in

  2. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Arimborgo, Carla; Yupanqui, Irma; Montero, Elsa; Alarcón-Yaquetto, Dulce E; Zevallos-Concha, Alisson; Caballero, Lidia; Gasco, Manuel; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2016-08-18

    The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii) in adult human subjects living at low (LA) and high altitude (HA). A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL), and chronic mountain sickness (CMS) score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in the level of

  3. Diversity of organotrophic bacteria, activity of dehydrogenases and urease as well as seed germination and root growth Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum and Sinapis alba under the influence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska, Aneta; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Kucharski, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are organic compounds with highly toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties, which adversely affect the basic biological parameters of the soil, including the count of microorganisms, and the enzymatic activity. In addition to disturbances to the biological activity of the soil, PAHs may also exhibit toxic effects on plants. In view of the above, the study involved testing aimed at the determination of the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a form of naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene on the count, colony development (CD) index, ecophysiological (EP) diversity index of organotrophic bacteria, and the activity of soil dehydrogenases and soil urease. Moreover, an attempt was made to determine the soil's resistance based on the activity of the above-listed enzymes, and the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on seed germination and root growth was assessed by Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum, and Sinapis alba. In addition, the species of bacteria found in a soil subjected to strong pressure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were isolated. The experiment was performed in a laboratory on samples of loamy sand. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were introduced into the soil in an amount of 0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg kg(-1) of soil dry matter. Germination and growth of cress (L. sativum), white mustard (S. alba), and sweet sorghum (S. saccharatum) were determined using Phytotoxkit tests. It was found that the tested PAHs increased the average colony counts of organotrophic soil bacteria; pyrene did so to the greatest extent (2.2-fold relative to non-contaminated soil), phenanthrene to the smallest extent (1.4-fold relative to non-contaminated soil). None of the PAHs changed the value of the bacterial colony development (CD) index, while anthracene and pyrene increased the value of the eco-physiological (EP) diversity indicator. PAHs lowered the activity of the tested enzymes. The activity of

  4. Genetic relationships among some Hesperis L. (Brassicaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... 2 Department of Biology, University of Selçuk, 42090 Meram, Konya, Turkey. 3Refik Saydam ... polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique has drawn much attention in a wide ..... This project was supported by TÜBİTAK (project no.

  5. Induced polyploidization in Brassica campestris L. (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G; Dwivedi, K

    2014-01-01

    Present experimental design has been made up to obtain crop with higher ploidy level via synthetic polyploidization. Since ploidy manipulation is generally associated with the obtainment of some increased enviable traits of the crop and also provides them greater adaptability to unfavorable or harsh circumstances as compared to its diploids counterparts. Thus, herein present research autotetraploids of Brassica campestris L. have been lucratively achieved by the application of colchicine. Two methods of treatment were utilized i.e. seed treatment and seedling treatment. No polyploidy could be obtained through seed treatment while seedling treatment responded well towards polyploidy. However, the status of autotetraploidy has been confirmed by cytomorphological investigations of treated plants as against its diploids counterparts. For the purpose, morphological parameters such as increased stomata size, pollen diameter, flower size, reproductive organs whereas reduction in plant height, leaf length, leaf breadth, stomata frequency, number of flowers/inflorescence etc. were appraised. Further, cytological observations were made that had clearly revealed the doubling of genome in the autotetraploids as compared to diploids. Meanwhile, pollen fertility and size of pollen grains were evaluated as well.

  6. [Recent researching progress of Lepidium meyenii (Maca)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-yan; Zhao, Hai-yu; Si, Nan; Wang, Hong-jie; Gian, Bao-lin

    2015-12-01

    Maca as one of the star products in the international health care market in recent years, had a wide range of application value and promoted to all over the world. However, the basic research of Maca was not deep, lack of systematic and clear efficacy studies. Market products hype its aphrodisiac effect, which greatly impact more systematic in-depth research and exploration. Therefore, this paper briefly summarizes advance research in recent years including the status quo of the resources, growth cultivation, phytochemical, pharmacological effect and other aspects, which can provide reference for rational development and utilization of Maca.

  7. Brassicaceae endémicas del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christhian Monsalve

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brasicaceae are represented in Peru by 27 genera and 111 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004, mostly herbs. Here we recognize 34 endemic taxa in 12 genera. Two genera, Catadysia and Dactylocardamum, are also endemic to Peru. These endemic taxa are found mainly in the Very Humid and Dry Puna, and High-Andean regions, growing above 3000 m elevation. We applied IUCN categories and criteria to 31 endemic taxa. Six endemic species are known from the Peruvian park system.

  8. On the Circumscription of Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    MOAZZENI, Hamid; ZARRE, Shahin

    2006-01-01

    In the course of preparing a revision of Isatis L. and its allies in Iran, we verified Isatis tinctoria L. among the material studied. Although it has been previously recorded for Iran, we give a more extensive description and a map of its distribution in Iran. A key to distinguishing this species from its allies and a discussion of the affinities in this group are provided.

  9. The genusGuenthera Andr. in Bess. (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Campo, César

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of nine species -now included in Brassica— differ from all the other species in several characters, mainly in the stylar portion of their pistils always without seed primordia. Also in their branched subterranean stem (caudex with several leaf rosettes, their leaves entire to deeply pinnatifid but never pinnatisect, their shallowly notched cotyledons and their flattened, elliptic or ovoid seed contour. It is suggested to include these species under the generic denomination Guenthera Andr, in Bess. New ñames for the species and subspecies are provided, as well as a determination key for the species.Un grupo de nueve especies actualmente incluidas en Brassica difiere de todas las demás por varios caracteres, sobre todo por la porción estilar de sus pistilos, que siempre carece de primordios seminales. Además, por su tallo subterráneo ramificado, que forma un cáudex con varias rosetas; sus hojas de enteras hasta profundamente pinnatífidas, pero nunca pinnatisectas; sus cotiledones solo muy ligeramente escotados, y sus semillas, que tienden a ser elipsoidales o aplanadas. Se propone agruparlas todas bajo la denominación genérica Guenthera Andr, in Bess. Se detallan los nuevos nombres para las especies y Subespecies y se añade una clave para diferenciar las especies.

  10. Quantitative variation for apomictic reproduction in the genus Boechera (Brassicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliyu, O.M.; Schranz, M.E.; Sharbel, T.F.

    2010-01-01

    • Premise of the study: The evolution of asexual seed production (apomixis) from sexual relatives is a great enigma of plant biology. The genus Boechera is ideal for studying apomixis because of its close relation to Arabidopsis and the occurrence of sexual and apomictic species at low ploidy levels

  11. Interspecific and interploidal gene flow in Central European Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Marte H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of polyploidisation on gene flow between natural populations are little known. Central European diploid and tetraploid populations of Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata are here used to study interspecific and interploidal gene flow, using a combination of nuclear and plastid markers. Results Ploidal levels were confirmed by flow cytometry. Network analyses clearly separated diploids according to species. Tetraploids and diploids were highly intermingled within species, and some tetraploids intermingled with the other species, as well. Isolation with migration analyses suggested interspecific introgression from tetraploid A. arenosa to tetraploid A. lyrata and vice versa, and some interploidal gene flow, which was unidirectional from diploid to tetraploid in A. arenosa and bidirectional in A. lyrata. Conclusions Interspecific genetic isolation at diploid level combined with introgression at tetraploid level indicates that polyploidy may buffer against negative consequences of interspecific hybridisation. The role of introgression in polyploid systems may, however, differ between plant species, and even within the small genus Arabidopsis, we find very different evolutionary fates when it comes to introgression.

  12. Stress response and health affecting compounds in Brassicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Summary of the Thesis: Vegetables have always been considered as healthy food. So also Brassica vegetables are well known all over the world as a common food due to the presence of health affecting compounds (Chapter 2). A vast amount of data is available for health promoting compounds in

  13. 7 CFR 201.56-3 - Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, collards, garden cress, upland cress, water cress, kale, Chinese kale, Siberian kale, kohlrabi, mustard, pakchoi, radish, rape, rutabaga, and turnip. (a) General description. (1...

  14. Phylogeny and biogeography of Alyssum (Brassicaceae) based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The genus Alyssum consists of about 195 species native to Europe, Asia and northern ... In this study, the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Alyssum were studied ... Journal of Genetics, Vol. ...... Academic Press, New York, USA.

  15. Оценка чувствительности Allium сера и Lepidium sativum с использованием ксенобиотиков адамантанового ряда

    OpenAIRE

    Шутова, Юлия

    2010-01-01

    В данной статье проанализирована сравнительная чувствительность двух растительных тест-объектов: Allium cepa и Lepidium sativum по оценке токсического воздействия ксенобиотиков адамантанового ряда. Выявлено, что Allium cepa является более предпочтительным тест-объектом для оценки токсичности антропогенных ксенобиотиков....

  16. Antiviral activity of maca (Lepidium meyenii) against human influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Pumarola, Tomàs; Gonzales, Libertad Alzamora; Del Valle, Luis J

    2014-09-01

    To investigate antiviral activity of maca to reduce viral load in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with influenza type A and B viruses (Flu-A and Flu-B, respectively). Maca were extracted with methanol (1:2, v/v). The cell viability and toxicity of the extracts were evaluated on MDCK cells using method MTT assay. Antiviral activity of compounds against Flu-A and Flu-B viruses was assayed using a test for determining the inhibition of the cytopathic effect on cell culture and multiplex RT-PCR. The methanol extract of maca showed low cytotoxicity and inhibited influenza-induced cytopathic effect significantly, while viral load was reduced via inhibition of viral growth in MDCK infected cells. Maca contains potent inhibitors of Flu-A and Flu-B with a selectivity index [cytotoxic concentration 50%/IC50] of 157.4 and 110.5, respectively. In vitro assays demonstrated that maca has antiviral activity not only against Flu-A (like most antiviral agents) but also Flu-B viruses, providing remarkable therapeutic benefits. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii reduced prostate size in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Julio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have found that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. This effect seems to be due to aromatic glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are known for have both antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions. Maca is a cruciferous cultivated in the highlands of Peru. The absolute content of glucosinolates in Maca hypocotyls is relatively higher than that reported in other cruciferous crops. Therefore, Maca may have proapoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in the prostate. Methods Male rats treated with or without aqueous extracts of three ecotypes of Maca (Yellow, Black and Red were analyzed to determine the effect on ventral prostate weight, epithelial height and duct luminal area. Effects on serum testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 levels were also assessed. Besides, the effect of Red Maca on prostate was analyzed in rats treated with testosterone enanthate (TE. Results Red Maca but neither Yellow nor Black Maca reduced significantly ventral prostate size in rats. Serum T or E2 levels were not affected by any of the ecotypes of Maca assessed. Red Maca also prevented the prostate weight increase induced by TE treatment. Red Maca administered for 42 days reduced ventral prostatic epithelial height. TE increased ventral prostatic epithelial height and duct luminal area. These increases by TE were reduced after treatment with Red Maca for 42 days. Histology pictures in rats treated with Red Maca plus TE were similar to controls. Phytochemical screening showed that aqueous extract of Red Maca has alkaloids, steroids, tannins, saponins, and cardiotonic glycosides. The IR spectra of the three ecotypes of Maca in 3800-650 cm (-1 region had 7 peaks representing 7 functional chemical groups. Highest peak values were observed for Red Maca, intermediate values for Yellow Maca and low values for Black Maca. These functional groups correspond among others to benzyl glucosinolate. Conclusions Red Maca, a cruciferous plant from the highland of Peru, reduced ventral prostate size in normal and TE treated rats.

  18. Antiviral activity of maca (Lepidium meyenii) against human influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Pumarola, Tomas; Alzamora Gonzales, Libertad; Valle Mendoza, Luis Javier del

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate antiviral activity of maca to reduce viral load in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with influenza type A and B viruses (Flu-A and Flu-B, respectively). Methods Maca were extracted with methanol (1:2, v/v). The cell viability and toxicity of the extracts were evaluated on MDCK cells using method MTT assay. Antiviral activity of compounds against Flu-A and Flu-B viruses was assayed using a test for determining the inhibition of the cytopathic ...

  19. The Methyltetrahydro-β-Carbolines in Maca (Lepidium meyenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F. Gonzales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Maca, a plant native to the Peruvian highlands, contains (1R,3S-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA. The family of the tetrahydro-β-carbolines has been associated with both biologically helpful and harmful compounds. We present evidence that MTCA is a natural constituent of Maca, and on consumption no toxicity is found. This suggests that, when consumed as multi-component, MTCA may loose its adversity as drug action.

  20. Molecular genetic diversity study of Lepidium sativum population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vostro 2520

    Generally, Tigray and Amhara regions showed moderate to high diversity in ISSR analysis. ... other crops. The main purpose of its cultivation in. Ethiopia is to use it as a medicinal plant. It is used for human abdominal ache and diarrhea. Moreover, L. ... of 10 primers were obtained from the Genetic Research Laboratory.

  1. Arabis soyeri Reuter ex Huet subsp. soyeri (Brassicaceae en el Pirineo aragonés [Arabis soyeri Reuter & Huet subsp. soyeri (Brassicaceae, in the Aragonese Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente FERRÁNDEZ PALACIO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En esta nota confirmamos la presencia de Arabis soyeri subsp. soyeri en el Pirineo aragonés (provincia de Huesca. Esta cita oscense se sitúa en el límite SW de su área de distribución endémica. Además, comentamos algunos aspectos sobre su autoecología y conservación.SUMMARY: Arabis soyeri Reuter & Huet subsp. soyeri is confirmed for the flora of the Aragonese Pyrenees (Huesca province, Spain. Moreower, this new station is located on the south-western border of its endemic range. Some aspects on its autecology and conservation are discussed as well.

  2. Germination and root elongation bioassays in six different plant species for testing Ni contamination in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Giovanna; Conti, Federica D; Gardi, Ciro; Menta, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    In vitro short-term chronic phytotoxicity germination and root elongation test were applied to test the effects of nickel (Ni) in seed germination and root elongation in six plants species: Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae), Lepidium sativum and Brassica nigra (Brassicaceae), Trifolium alexandrinum and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae), Phacelia tanacetifolia (Boraginaceae). A naturally Ni rich soil was used to compare the results obtained. Unlike root elongation, germination was not affected by Ni in any of the six species tested. EC50 values, calculated on the root elongation, showed that Ni toxicity decreases in the following order: P. tanacetifolia > B. nigra > C. sativus > L. sativum > M. sativa > T. alexandrinum. The test conducted using soil elutriate revealed a significantly lower effect in both seed germination and root elongation when compared to the results obtained using untreated soil. Conversely, the test performed on soil confirmed the high sensitivity of C. sativus, P. tanacetifolia and L. sativum to Ni.

  3. Ethnomedicinal utilization of wild edible vegetables in district harnai of balochistan province-pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tareen, N.M.; Ahmad, M.

    2016-01-01

    Wild edible plants have a tremendous influence on human being even before civilization. These plants contain considerably high nutritional value. Present survey was conducted to explore edible wild vegetables species and their ethnomedicinal uses by the inhabitants of district Harnai, Balochistan, Pakistan. Information was obtained through informed free listing interviews with randomly selected informants and field interviews with key informants selected after free listing. A total of 59 wild edible vegetables belonging to 41 genera, 59 species and 20 plant families are used not only as vegetables and salads but treatment of various diseases The most common plant families in terms of the number of species are the Brassicaceae (10 species), Apiaceae (9 species) and Asteraceae (6 species). The most common parts of the plants used as vegetables and medicine are their leaves (44.45%) and whole plant (22.22%). Plants are often used as decoction (34%), powder (26%). Highest plants species are used for gastrointestinal diseases (45 species). Highest ICF value (0.4) was recorded for dermatological disorders category. 100% fidelity level was found for two plant species i.e., Descurainia sophia, and Caralluma tuberculata. The highest use value was reported for the Lepidium sativum (0.63). Highest RFC value was calculated for Caralluma tuberculata (0.14). Highest use report was calculated for three species Apium graveolens Lepidium sativum and Mentha longifolia, (7 UR for each). The highest FIV was calculated for family Brassicaceae (14 FIV).Our study reveals that plants are still used as a major source of food like vegetables as well as medicine for the local people. Too little or no information is available on their uses, cooking methods and nutritional and physiotherapeutic values. Necessary steps should be taken to perform phytochemical and pharmacological studies to explore the potential nutritional values and herbal drug discovery of such plants. (author)

  4. A new species of Hesperis (Brassicaceae) from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, G.; Tan, Kit

    2006-01-01

    Hesperis kuerschneri, from the vilayet of Denizli in the Western Taurus is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities are with H. theophrasti, which has several infraspecific taxa in the Balkans and Anatolia. The new species occurs on steep serpentine scree slopes...... together with other serpentine plants of the Western Taurus and is rather local in distribution....

  5. Pleiotropic effects of flowering time genes in the annual crucifer Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tienderen, P.H.; Hammad, I.; Zwaal, F.C.

    1996-01-01

    Variation in flowering time of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied in an experiment with mutant lines. The pleiotropic effects of flowering time genes on morphology and reproductive yield were assessed under three levels of nutrient supply. At all nutrient levels flowering time and number of rosette

  6. Antioxidant responses of Annelids, Brassicaceae and Fabaceae to pollutants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F; Brulle, F; Dumez, S; Lemiere, S; Platel, A; Nesslany, F; Cuny, D; Deram, A; Vandenbulcke, F

    2015-04-01

    Pollutants, such as Metal Trace Elements (MTEs) and organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides), can impact DNA structure of living organisms and thus generate damage. For instance, cadmium is a well-known genotoxic and mechanisms explaining its clastogenicity are mainly indirect: inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and/or induction of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Animal or vegetal cells use antioxidant defense systems to protect themselves against ROS produced during oxidative stress. Because tolerance of organisms depends, at least partially, on their ability to cope with ROS, the mechanisms of production and management of ROS were investigated a lot in Ecotoxicology as markers of biotic and abiotic stress. This was mainly done through the measurement of enzyme activities The present Review focuses on 3 test species living in close contact with soil that are often used in soil ecotoxicology: the worm Eisenia fetida, and two plant species, Trifolium repens (white clover) and Brassica oleracea (cabbage). E. fetida is a soil-dwelling organism commonly used for biomonitoring. T. repens is a symbiotic plant species which forms root nodule with soil bacteria, while B. oleracea is a non-symbiotic plant. In literature, some oxidative stress enzyme activities have already been measured in those species but such analyses do not allow distinction between individual enzyme involvements in oxidative stress. Gene expression studies would allow this distinction at the transcriptomic level. A literature review and a data search in molecular database were carried out on the basis of keywords in Scopus, in PubMed and in Genbank™ for each species. Molecular data regarding E. fetida were already available in databases, but a lack of data regarding oxidative stress related genes was observed for T. repens and B. oleracea. By exploiting the conservation observed between species and using molecular biology techniques, we partially cloned missing candidates involved in oxidative stress and in metal detoxification in E. fetida, T. repens and B. oleracea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brassica juncea Brassicaceae genotypes using phenotypic differences and SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinu V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de mostaza del género Brassica representan uno de los cultivos de semillas oleaginosas más importantes en India, sin embargo, su diversidad genética es poco conocida. Para la utilización de genotipos en programas de cultivos resulta esencial un mayor conocimiento sobre este tema. Debido a ello, se evaluó la diversidad genética entre 44 genotipos de mostaza de la India Brassica juncea incluyendo variedades y líneas puras de diferentes zonas agro-climáticas de la India y algunos genotipos exóticos Australia, Polonia y China. Para ello, se utilizaron marcadores SSR específicos del genoma A y B y datos fenotípicos del rendimiento de 12 cosechas y sus características. De los 143 primers evaluados, 134 reportaron polimorfismo y un total de 355 alelos fueron amplificados. Se generaron dendrogramas a partir de los coeficientes de similitud de Jaccard y de disimilitud Manhattan, basados en un algoritmo de vinculación promedio UPGMA. Se utilizaron datos de marcadores genéticos y datos fenotípicos. Los genotipos se agruparon en cuatro grupos basados en las distancias genéticas. Ambos patrones de agrupamiento, tanto los basados en los coeficientes de similitud de Jaccard como los basados en los de disimilitud Manhattan, separaron independientemente los genotipos por su genealogía y origen, de una manera efectiva. El PCoA reveló que la agrupación de genotipos basada en datos de marcadores SSR, es más convincente que los datos fenotípicos, sin embargo, se observó que la correlación entre las matrices de distancia fenotípica y genética resultó muy baja r=0.11. Por lo tanto, para estudios de diversidad basados en marcadores moleculares es necesario realizar más pruebas. Los marcadores SSR constituyen herramientas más eficientes para discriminar entre genotipos de B. juncea, que las características cuantitativas.

  8. Widespread and evolutionary analysis of a MITE family Monkey King in Brassicaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Shutao; Hou, Jinna; Long, Yan; Wang, Jing; Li, Cong; Xiao, Qinqin; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Zou, Xiaoxiao; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling

    2015-01-01

    Background Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are important components of eukaryotic genomes, with hundreds of families and many copies, which may play important roles in gene regulation and genome evolution. However, few studies have investigated the molecular mechanisms involved. In our previous study, a Tourist-like MITE, Monkey King, was identified from the promoter region of a flowering time gene, BnFLC.A10, in Brassica napus. Based on this MITE, the characteristics ...

  9. Resprouting after disturbance in the short-lived herb Rorippa palustris (Brassicaceae): an experiment with juveniles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Jana; Kočvarová, Marie; Klimešová, Jitka

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2004), s. 143-150 ISSN 1146-609X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GD206/03/H034; GA ČR GA206/01/1039 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : root-sprouting * bud bank * disturbance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.034, year: 2004

  10. Combined effects of water, nutrient, and UV-B stress on female fitness in Brassica (Brassicaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.K.; Zangori, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Our knowledge of the effects of increased levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on plant fitness is limited mainly to yield studies in a few crop species. Previous greenhouse and garden studies of Brassica have found greater detrimental effects of UV-B on fitness in gardens than in the greenhouse, suggesting the possibility that additional stresses in the field decrease the ability of Brassica to cope with UV-B. Possible interactions between UV-B and water/nutrient stress in determining plant fitness have rarely, if ever, been studied experimentally. Here we report measurements of female fitness in two species of Brassica in an experiment in which both UV-B and levels of water and nutrients were varied in a 2 X 2 factorial design. Water and nutrient stress reduced female fitness in both species, while UV-B caused fitness reductions in only one of the species. There was evidence for interactions between UV-B and water/nutrient stress for only a few of the traits measured; most traits, including those closely related to fitness, showed no evidence of an interaction

  11. Sinapate esters provide greater UV-B attenuation than flavonoids in Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheahan, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Mutants affected in flavonoid (tt4) or sinapate ester (fah1) biosynthesis were used to assess the relative importance of these phenolic UV photoprotectants in Arabidopsis. Flavonoid and sinapate ester absorption was more specific for UV-B than major nonphenolic chromophores in crude extracts. A new method of evaluating phenolic UV-B attenuation was developed using fluorescence analysis. When excited by UV-B, sinapate ester containing leaves and cotyledons had enhanced sinapate ester fluorescence and reduced chlorophyll fluorescence relative to those without sinapate esters. Although fluorescence analysis gave no evidence of UV-B attenuation by flavonoids, enhanced chlorophyll and protein loss were observed upon UV-B exposure in flavonoid-deficient leaves, suggesting they have another mechanism of UV-B protection. The hydroxycinnamates have been largely ignored as UV-B attenuating pigments. and the results indicate that greater attention should be paid to their role in attenuating UV-B

  12. Models of the fate of glucosinolates in Brassicaceae from processing to digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Glucosinolates are secondary metabolites of Brassica vegetables. Glucosinolates are not bioactive themselves, but their hydrolysis products isothiocyanates have been associated with health benefits. The concentrations of glucosinolates and their break down products are

  13. Nectar and pollen production in Arabis procurrens Waldst. & Kit. and Iberis sempervirens L. (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Strzałkowska-Abramek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological environment in urban areas is specific in many aspects. There are evidences that ornamental plants cultivated in local urban gardens may help in conservation of pollinators. In this study, the flowering pattern, the abundance of flowering, nectar and pollen production as well as insect visitation in Arabis procurrens Waldst. & Kit. and Iberis sempervirens L. were investigated. The species were grown in the UMCS Botanical Garden in Lublin, southeastern Poland. Arabis procurrens bloomed from the middle of April until middle of May and I. sempervirens from the end of April until middle of June. In both species, most flowers opened in the morning hours (40–45% of total were opened by 8:00 h GMT + 2 h. The average sugar yield of A. procurrens was ca. 53% lower compared to I. sempervirens (mean = 1.08 g/m2 and 2.32 g/m2, respectively. In both species, considerable differences in the amount of produced sugars were noted between years. The mass of pollen produced in the flowers of A. procurrens was approx. 35% lower compared to that of I. sempervirens (mean = 0.06 mg and 0.09 mg per flower, respectively. Pollen produced per unit area was correlated with the number of flowers. On average, the species produced 1.46 g (A. procurrens and 2.54 g (I. sempervirens of pollen per 1 m2. The flowers of A. procurrens attracted mainly dipterans (56.3% of total visitors, while I. sempervirens lured chiefly solitary bees (47.4% of total visitors, however in both cases, honeybees, bumblebees and lepidopterans were also recorded. The A. procurrens and I. sempervirens due to flowering in early spring period may be promoted for use in small gardens (rock or pot gardens for both aesthetic value and as plants that support insect visitors in nectar and pollen rewards.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of Erysimum (Brassicaceae from the Baetic Mountains (SE Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Baetic mountains, located in the southern Iberian Peninsula, is a major hotspot of biodiversity in the Mediterranean Basin, constituting one of the most important glacial refugia for vascular plants in Europe. Despite their relatively limited extension, the Baetic Mountains contain almost 50% of the total endemic Erysimum species in the Iberian Peninsula. The broadly distributed Erysimum genus has diversified profusely in the Mediterranean region, with more than a hundred species described in the area, out of a total of c. 200 species included in the genus. We used two plastid DNA regions (ndhF and trnT-L and one nuclear DNA region (ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2, with 3,556 bp total length, to carry out phylogenetic analysis by Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony, in order to explore the evolutionary relationships between the Erysimum species inhabiting these ranges. Analyses of concatenated sequences from the two genomes identified two main clades with no overlap in species composition so that samples from the same species fell within the same major clade. The phylogenetic relationships depicted by those two clades do not give support to the E. nevadense group, previously proposed on taxonomic grounds. In addition, our results indicated recurrent changes in flower colour in the Baetic Erysimum species although, alternatively, reticulate evolution, which is suggested by incongruent position of taxa in the different trees, may have also affected this trait.Las cordilleras Béticas, localizadas en el sudeste de la Península Ibérica, representan una importante zona para la biodiversidad de la cuenca mediterránea, constituyendo uno de los refugios glaciares más destacados de plantas vasculares en Europa. A pesar de su extensión relativamente limitada, las cordilleras Béticas albergan casi el 50% del total de las especies endémicas de Erysimum de la Península Ibérica. Erysimum es un género ampliamente distribuido, que se ha diversificado profusamente en la región mediterránea, con más de un centenar de especies descritas en dicha área, del total de las alrededor de 200 especies incluidas en el género. Usamos dos regiones de ADN plastidial (ndhF y trnT-L y una región de ADN nuclear (ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2, con una longitud total de 3.556 pb, para llevar a cabo análisis filogenéticos mediante inferencia bayesiana, máxima verosimilitud y máxima parsimonia, con el fin de explorar las relaciones evolutivas entre las especies de Erysimum que habitan en éstas cordilleras. El análisis de secuencias concatenadas de los dos genomas identifica dos clados principales y las muestras de la misma especie aparecen siempre en un clado o en el otro pero no en ambos. Las relaciones filogenéticas que indican esos dos clados no apoyan la circunscripción del grupo taxonómico E. nevadense, previamente definido en dicho género. Además, los análisis indican cambios recurrentes en el color floral de las especies de Erysimum que habitan los Sistemas Béticos aunque la evolución reticulada, que sugiere la posición de algunos taxones en uno y otro árbol, puede haber también afectado a este rasgo, lo que sería una hipótesis alternativa.

  15. Supernetwork identifies multiple events of plastid trnF(GAA) pseudogene evolution in the Brassicaceae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koch, M.A.; Dobeš, Ch.; Kiefer, Ch.; Schmickl, R.; Klimeš, Leoš; Lysak, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2007), s. 63-73 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB601630606; GA ČR GA206/03/1219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Cruciferae evolution * trnF gene * supernetwork Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.438, year: 2007

  16. Gravity control of growth form in brassica rapa and arabidopsis thaliana (brassicaceae): consequences for secondary metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, J.; Bisbee, P.A.; Darnell, R.L.; Kuang, A.; Levine, L.H.; Musgrave, M.E.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    How gravity influences the growth form and flavor components of plants is of interest to the space program because plants could be used for food and life support during prolonged missions away from the planet, where that constant feature of Earth’s environment does not prevail. We used plant growth

  17. The Brassicaceae family displays divergent, shoot-skewed NLR resistance gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, David; Gupta, Vikas; Bachmann, Asger

    2018-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat resistance genes (NLRs) allow plants to detect microbial effectors. We hypothesized that NLR expression patterns could reflect organ-specific differences in effector challenge and tested this by carrying out a meta-analysis of expression data for 1,235 ...

  18. A Method for Preparing Spaceflight RNAlater-Fixed Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae Tissue for Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Schultz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: In spaceflight experiments, tissues for morphologic study are fixed in 3% glutaraldehyde, while tissues for molecular study are fixed in RNAlater; thus, an experiment containing both study components requires multiple fixation strategies. The possibility of using RNAlater-fixed materials for standard SEM-based morphometric investigation was explored to expand the library of tissues available for analysis and maximize usage of samples returned from spaceflight, but these technologies have wide application to any situation where recovery of biological resources is limited. Methods and Results: RNAlater-fixed samples were desalinated in distilled water, dehydrated through graded methanol, plunged into liquid ethane, and transferred to cryovials for freeze-substitution. Sample tissues were critical point dried, mounted, sputter-coated, and imaged. Conclusions: The protocol resulted in acceptable SEM images from RNAlater-fixed Arabidopsis thaliana tissue. The majority of the tissues remained intact, including general morphology and finer details such as root hairs and trichomes.

  19. Root transcript profiling of two Rorippa (brassicaceae) species reveals gene clusters associated with extreme submergence tolerance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasidharan, R.; Mustroph, A.; Boonman, A.; Akman, M.; Ammerlaan, A.M.H.; Breit, T.M.; Schranz, M.E.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.; Tienderen, van P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Complete submergence represses photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, causing rapid mortality in most terrestrial plants. However, some plants have evolved traits allowing them to survive prolonged flooding, such as species of the genus Rorippa, close relatives of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis

  20. Chemosystematic significance of flavonoids isolated from Diplotaxis acris (Brassicaceae) and related taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Sameh R; Marzouk, Mona M; Kassem, Mona E S; Abdel Latif, Rasha R; Mohammed, Reda S

    2017-02-01

    The chemosystematic relationship of four Diplotaxis species; Diplotaxis acris, Diplotaxis erucoides, Diplotaxis harra and Diplotaxis muralis were surveyed from the flavonoids point of view. These species were found to produce 33 flavonoids (7 flavones and 26 flavonols), including 11 compounds were isolated in the present study from D. acris. Among them, seven flavonoids were identified for the first time; luteolin (4), kaempferol (8), kaempferol 3-O-β-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (13), quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside (16), quercetin 7-O-β-glucopyranoside (20), isorhamnetin (22) and isorhamnetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (32). Their structures were recognized on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic techniques (1D & 2D NMR, UV, EI & ESI/MS). The isolated flavonoids may provide useful taxonomic characters at the infraspecific levels of classification where the flavonoid profile of D. acris and D. harra is similar and different from the other species.

  1. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae) using the micro-plate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, I.; Wakeel, A.; Jan, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Isatis tinctoria L. has well-documented history as conventional therapeutic herb. In present study its crude extract was examined for broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity using micro-titer plate method. Four different plant parts were extracted with 14 different solvents. All fractions were analyzed against seven bacterial and four fungal strains. Ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-hexane and acetone showed maximum antibacterial activity with minimum IC50 value (=200 mu g/ml). Leaves>branches> roots>flower is the order of different parts based on antibacterial activity. Although, in some cases like against Klebsiella pneumonia and Micrococcus luteus the flower showed better results as compared to other parts. Roots showed better results against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts showed better antimicrobial activity as compared to antibiotics (cefotaxime). The activity of the extracts against gram positive was better than gram negative. For antifungal activity, ethyl acetate > n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:1) > chloroform> acetone was the order of the fraction with increasing growth inhibition rate. All the parts (except branches) were observed having antifungal activity. The most resistant strains found in this study were Mucor mycosis, none of the fraction have more than 30% inhibition on used concentration. Plant crude extract being having broad spectrum antimicrobial activity is suggested for pre-clinical and clinical trials. (author)

  2. Nectar resorption in flowers of Sinapis alba L., Brassicaceae and Platanthera chlorantha Custer (Rchb.), Orchidaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masierowska, M.L.; Stpiczynska, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the flowers of Sinapis alba nectar is secreted by two pairs of nectaries and accumulated as drops between filaments and in the cavity of sepals whereas in Platanthera chlorantha nectar is produced and accumulated within a spur. Previous studies of these species revealed that after a period of secretion and cessation, rapid nectar resorption occurs. The aim of this study was the observation of nectar resorption by the nectaries using radiolabelled sucrose. During the peak of secretion the nectar accumulated in unpollinated flowers was replaced with the same volume of labelled sucrose and after 12-48 hrs of incubation, at the resorption phase, parts of S. alba flowers with nectaries as well as fragments of P. chlorantha spur were sampled and fixed for microautoradiographic studies. In S. alba the presence of [ 14 C(U)] sucrose was detected at the base of nectaries, in phloem elements of main vascular strands supplying glands, whereas both epidermis and nectary parenchyma showed no traces of radiolabelled sugars. In P. chlorantha the presence of labelled sucrose was stated mainly in the walls of nectary cells, which indicate an apoplastic route of reabsorbed nectar. (author)

  3. Evolutionary History of the Genus Capsella (Brassicaceae - Capsella orientalis , New for Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Neuffer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the evolutionary history of the genus Capsella , we included the hitherto poorly known species C. orientalis and C. thracica into our studies together with C. grandifl ora , C. rubella , and C. bursa-pastoris . We sequenced the ITS, and four loci of noncoding cpDNA regions (trnL – F, rps16, trnH – psbA, trnQ – rps16. In common garden fi eld experiments C. orientalis turned out as early fl owering with a specifi c leaf type. The crossing ability of the species was tested in pollen germination experiments. Capsella orientalis (self-compatible, SC; 2n = 16 forms a clade (eastern lineage with C . bursa-pastoris (SC; 2n = 32, which is a sister clade (western lineage to C. grandifl ora (self-incompatible, SI; 2n = 16 and C. rubella (SC; 2n = 16. Capsella bursa-pastoris is an autopolyploid species of multiple origin, whereas the Bulgarian endemic C. thracica (SC; 2n = 32 is allopolyploid and emerged from interspecifi c hybridisation between C. bursa-pastoris and C. grandifl ora . The common ancestor of the two lineages was diploid and SI, and its distribution ranged from eastern Europe to central Asia, predominantly confi ned to steppe like habitats. Biogeographic dynamics during the Pleistocene caused geographic and genetic subdivisions within the common ancestor giving rise to the two extant lineages. Capsella orientalis is verifi ed at several positions in western Mongolia.

  4. Stem base diseases of winter wheat grown after forecrops of the family Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A study into the sanitary state of roots and culm base of winter wheat was carried out in 1999-2002 in the Production and Experimental Station in Bałcyny near Ostróda. Experimental wheat was cultivated after spring cross plants such as spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleiferus Metz., white mustard (Sinapis alba L, chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L., oleiferous radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L., false flax (Camelina sativa L., crambe (Crambe abbysinica Hoechst. and after oats (Avena sativa L. as a control. The other experimental factor was the method of after-harvest residue management, i.e. ploughing in the stubble, ploughing in the stubble and straw, ploughing in the stubble and straw with nitrogen added. The occurrence of root rot and stem base diseases was affected by weather conditions and forecrop species. Winter wheat roots were attacked to the lowest degree when spring rape and radish were used as forecrops, and to the highest degree - when grown after oat. The culm base was most intensely infected with fusarium foot rot (Fusarium spp.. The remaining root-rot diseases occurred every year but with different intensity. The method of utilization of after-harvest residues did not have a clear effect on the intensity of infection of the roots and culm base of winter wheat.

  5. Unearthing a sesterterpene biosynthetic repertoire in the Brassicaceae through genome mining reveals convergent evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Ancheng C.; Kautsar, Satria A.; Hong, Young J.; Medema, Marnix H.; Bond, Andrew D.; Tantillo, Dean J.; Osbourn, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Sesterterpenoids are a rare terpene class harboring untapped chemo-diversity and bioactivities. Their structural diversity originates primarily from the scaffold-generating sesterterpene synthases (STSs). In fungi, all six known STSs are bifunctional, containing C-terminal trans-prenyltransferase

  6. Protein-free cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and rheological properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    Protein-free cress seed gum (PFCSG) was obtained by precipitation of crude cress seed gum (CSG) withethanol followed by treatment with protease. Molecular weight, moisture, ash and uronic acids contentdecreased after elimination of protein. Elimination of protein improved significantly rheologica...

  7. Purification of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different purification methods (ethanol, isopropanol and ethanol-isopropanol) on the physicochemical and functional characteristics of cress seed gum. Sugar composition and molecular weight of the samples varied significantly. All the...

  8. Stepwise extraction of Lepidium sativum seed gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    Cress seed gum (CSG) was fractionated using stepwise extraction with water, yielding three fractions (F1, F2, F3) whose average molecular weights ranged from 863 to 1080 kDa. The chemical composition (monosaccharide, ash, moisture, CHN and uronic acid contents) and molecular weight of the fractio...

  9. The Composition Analysis of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from Xinjiang and Its Antifatigue Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieying Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment would affect the nutritional composition of maca, especially its secondary metabolite. The chemical compositions and function of Xinjiang maca were not very clear. The chemical compositions and bioactivity of Xinjiang maca were determined. A mouse model was also used to evaluate the antifatigue activity of Xinjiang maca as a forced swimming test was performed and certain biochemical parameters related were estimated. The results show that the Xinjiang maca is rich in protein content and amino acids, especially branched chain amino acids such as Valine and Isoleucine related to the effect of antifatigue. It also has considerable minerals ions such as Ca and Mg. Besides, bioactive ingredients such as maca amide, glucosinolate, and alkaloid of Xinjiang maca are similar to those of maca from other areas, which qualify the biological value of Xinjiang maca. The results of mice model suggest that maca has a dose-dependent antifatigue activity by decreasing blood lactic acid, as well as increasing liver glycogen content and the forced swimming time.

  10. Pseudomonas sp. LMTK32 production in modified media for pelleting seeds of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Guerra Lopez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomass of Pseudomonas sp. LMTK32 was produced from modification of culture media Yeast Extract Mannitol Broth (YEMB with the aim of increasing the number of viable cells with the ability to promote the germination of maca seeds pelleted with the bacteria and reduce production costs. In the optimization process, the yeast extract and mannitol components of the LMC culture media were replaced by commercial sources of sucrose and glutamate, whose concentrations were determined in flasks by statistical design from Box-Behnken; in addition, the effect of the inoculum percentage on the time of biomass production was determined. Subsequently, it was determined at the bioreactor level that 28.57 h-1 was the adequate value of the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa at 600 rpm, producing 1.28 x 10 11 CFU / mL. In the LMC M1 modified media, using 12.06 g / L-1 of sucrose, 11.50 g / L-1 of sodium glutamate and 10.9% of inoculant obtained 15x108 CFU / mL, increasing in 48% the number of viable cells with respect to the YEMB control treatment (7.8x10 8 CFU / mL. At the in vitro level, the pelleting of maca seeds with Pseudomonas sp. LMTK32 produced in bioreactor and in the modified media M1 favored its germination. From commercial organic substrates, efficient bacterial inoculants can be produced in the development of maca crops, without altering their ability to promote plant growth.

  11. Correlations between Antioxidant Activity and Alkaloids and Phenols of Maca (Lepidium meyenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Gan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of maca has been considered to be the basis for other bioactivities, and revealing the active antioxidant compounds would help to elucidate a variety of bioactive compounds. In this study, the correlation between the antioxidant activity of maca and secondary metabolites, including ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (HRSA, lipid peroxidation inhibition ability (LPIA, total phenolic contents (TPCs, total alkaloid contents (TACs, and total sterol contents (TSCs, was investigated by measuring. Chloroform was selected to be an efficient extraction solvent for antioxidant compounds in maca by polarity fractions test. The results showed that TPC exhibited significant linear correlations (P<0.05 to FRAP and LPIA, while TAC had significant linear correlations (P<0.05 to FRAP, HRSA, and LPIA. These results suggested that alkaloids and phenols were the most important substances for the antioxidation of maca, of which the antioxidant effect of alkaloids seemed to be higher than that of phenols.

  12. Estudio de la Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp., cultivo andino con propiedades terapéuticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sifuentes-Penagos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La maca es un producto originario de los Andes Centrales del Perú, resistente a granizadas, heladas y sequías prolongadas. Se cultiva desde la época incaica en altitudes comprendidas entre los 3800 a 4500 m.s.n.m. Esta planta herbácea, presenta no sólo un alto valor nutricional sino también es valorada por su papel medicinal. Entre los componentes químicos de este cultivo andino que se han relacionado con sus acciones terapéuticas como el aumento de la fertilidad, niveles de energía, acción antioxidante, mejora del deseo sexual y la tasa de crecimiento, destacan: los glucosinolatos, esteroles, ácidos grasos (macaeno y sus respectivas amidas (macamidas, alcaloides (lepidilinas A y B, macaridina y polifenoles. El objetivo de este trabajo fue, recopilar las diferentes investigaciones que se han llevado a cabo sobre las propiedades terapéuticas de la maca y los compuestos responsables de las mismas.

  13. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Rubio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to test two different doses of aqueous extract of black maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX mice and their relation with malonalehyde (MDA, acetylcholinesterase (Ache and monoamine oxidase (MAO brain levels. Female mice were divided into five groups: (i naive (control, (ii sham, (iii OVX mice and OVX mice treated with (iv 0.50 g kg−1 and (v 2.00 g kg−1 black maca. Mice were orally treated with distilled water or black maca during 35 days starting 7 days after surgery. Memory and learning were assessed using the water Morris maze (from day 23–27 and the step-down avoidance test (days 34 and 35. At the end of each treatment, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and brains were dissected out for MDA, Ache and MAO determinations. Black maca (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg increased step-down latency when compared to OVX control mice. Black maca decreased MDA and Ache levels in OVX mice; whereas, no differences were observed in MAO levels. Finally, black maca improved experimental memory impairment induced by ovariectomy, due in part, by its antioxidant and Ache inhibitory activities.

  14. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Julio; Qiong, Wang; Liu, Xinmin; Jiang, Zhen; Dang, Haixia; Chen, Shi-Lin; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to test two different doses of aqueous extract of black maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX) mice and their relation with malonalehyde (MDA), acetylcholinesterase (Ache) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) brain levels. Female mice were divided into five groups: (i) naive (control), (ii) sham, (iii) OVX mice and OVX mice treated with (iv) 0.50 g kg(-1) and (v) 2.00 g kg(-1) black maca. Mice were orally treated with distilled water or black maca during 35 days starting 7 days after surgery. Memory and learning were assessed using the water Morris maze (from day 23-27) and the step-down avoidance test (days 34 and 35). At the end of each treatment, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and brains were dissected out for MDA, Ache and MAO determinations. Black maca (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg) increased step-down latency when compared to OVX control mice. Black maca decreased MDA and Ache levels in OVX mice; whereas, no differences were observed in MAO levels. Finally, black maca improved experimental memory impairment induced by ovariectomy, due in part, by its antioxidant and Ache inhibitory activities.

  15. Unintentional and Sequential Lead Exposure from a Ceramic Mug and Maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Arbor, Kelly; Vo, Kathy; Wong, Flavia; Gajek, Ryszard

    2018-06-01

    Although the incidence of lead poisoning has decreased in the USA over the last 30 years, human exposures to lead-containing products are still reported. We present a case of unintentional lead exposure from a store-bought ceramic mug and a nutritional supplement. A 32-year-old female was found to have a whole blood lead concentration of 44 μg/dL. Evaluation of her home, occupation, and hobbies initially did not identify a source of lead exposure. Further investigation revealed that the likely etiology of the exposure was lead leaching from a ceramic mug used by the patient to drink hot lemon water while she was pregnant. She stopped drinking from the mug and her blood lead levels decreased, but increased a year later after she began to ingest a maca root powder supplement. Upon discontinuation of maca root powder ingestion, her blood lead levels decreased further. Over time, the acidity and heat of the hot lemon water used in the ceramic mug enhanced the breakdown of its leaded glaze. Maca powder, which is available as a nutritional supplement and is used to treat fatigue and enhance fertility, may contain lead and other minerals. Consumers, particularly women of childbearing age, and their physicians should be aware that imported products available from commercial retailers and internet vendors may contain significant amounts of lead.

  16. [Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on INF-γ levels in ovariectomized rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Revilla, Johanna; Guerra-Castañon, Félix; Olcese-Mori, Paola; Lozada, Iván; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Carla; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2014-01-01

    Compare the effect of different doses of red maca on gamma interferon (IFN-γ) levels in ovariectomized rats (OVX). Adult female rats were randomly divided into the following six groups: Group 1: pseudo-ovariectomized rats (PO); Group 2: OVX rats; Group 3: OVX rats treated with 4 ug/kg estradiol; and Group 4, 5 and 6: OVX rats treated with red maca extracts with 2.15, 4.3 and 8.6 mg polyphenols/body weight kilogram, respectively. OVX rats showed low levels of IFN-γ compared to PO rats. Estradiol and red maca reversed the effect of ovariectomy on the IFN-γ levels. A positive dose-response effect of red maca on IFN-γ levels was shown (r = 0.57, p maca administration increases levels of IFN-γ in ovariectomized rats.

  17. The Composition Analysis of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) from Xinjiang and Its Antifatigue Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jieying; Chen, Longfei; Li, Jinwei; Duan, Zhenhua; Zhu, Song; Fan, Liuping

    2017-01-01

    Environment would affect the nutritional composition of maca, especially its secondary metabolite. The chemical compositions and function of Xinjiang maca were not very clear. The chemical compositions and bioactivity of Xinjiang maca were determined. A mouse model was also used to evaluate the antifatigue activity of Xinjiang maca as a forced swimming test was performed and certain biochemical parameters related were estimated. The results show that the Xinjiang maca is rich in protein conte...

  18. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on INF-γ levels in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva-Revilla, Johanna; Guerra-Castañon, Félix; Olcese-Mori, Paola; Lozada, Iván; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Carla; Gonzales, Gustavo F.

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos. Comparar el efecto de diferentes dosis de maca roja sobre los niveles de interferón gamma (IFN-γ) en ratas ovariectomizadas (OVX). Materiales y métodos. Ratas hembras adultas fueron divididas al azar en los siguientes seis grupos: Grupo 1: ratas pesudo-ovariectomizadas (PO); Grupo 2: ratas OVX; Grupo 3: ratas OVX tratadas con 4 ug/kg de estradiol, y Grupo 4, 5 y 6: ratas OVX tratadas con extractos de maca con 2,15, 4,3 y 8,6 mg polifenoles/kilogramo de peso corporal, respectivament...

  19. 76 FR 66250 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lepidium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Habitat Section 3 of the Act defines critical habitat as the specific areas within the geographical area... management considerations or protection, and specific areas outside the geographical area occupied by a... minimize impacts to critical habitat. Based on this reasoning, we also do not anticipate critical habitat...

  20. Study of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp., Andean crop with therapeutic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sifuentes-Penagos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The maca is a native product of the Central Andes of Peru, it is resistant to hail, to frost and to prolonged droughts. It is cultivated from the Inca period in altitudes between 3800 - 4500 meters above sea level. This herbaceous plant, has not only a high nutritional value, but it is also valued for its medicinal role. Among the chemical components of this andean crop that have been related with therapeutic actions the increasing fertility and the energy levels, the antioxidant actions, the improving sexual desire and the growth rate. There are glucosinolates, sterols, fatty acids (macaene and their corresponding amides (macamides, alkaloids (lepidilines A and B, macaridine and polyphenols. This article presents a compilation of the researches that has been performed on the therapeutic properties of maca and its compounds responsible of them.

  1. Dilute solution, flow behavior, thixotropy and viscoelastic characterization of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, rheological properties of cress seed gum (CSG) and its fractions (F1, F2, F3; fractionated using stepwise extraction with water) were investigated. Cress seed gum and its fractions revealed random coil conformation in dilute regimes; chain flexibility and intrinsic viscosity...... indicated that CSG and the fractions exhibited significantly different rheological properties....

  2. Allevation of Oxidative Damages Induced by Salinity in Cress (Lepidium sativum by Pretreating with Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Asadi karam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the main stresses that have negative effectcs on seedling growth, and plant production. It inhibits growth of plants through disturbance of the balance between production of ROS and antioxidant defense mechanism which results in oxidative stress. Because, arginine is a vital regulator of physiological and developmental processes the effect of different concentrations of arginine pretreatment of the plant on alleviation of oxidative stress induced by salt 50 and 100Mm NaCl was investigated. Arginine pretreatment increased chlorophyll a, b, carotenoid and seedling growth under salinity condition. Results also showed that salt stress increased proline, protein, H2O2, soluble sugar and the activity of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and catalase. Pretreatment of plants with Arg reduced proline, soluble sugar, H2O2 and antioxidant enzymes activity content significantly. The conclusion is that in garden cress plants, pretreatment with concentration of 5 µM and 10 μM arginine may protect cress under salinity stress, probably through the contracting with ROS and or induction of anti-oxidative enzymes

  3. 76 FR 27183 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lepidium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... specific area as critical habitat will result in the extinction of the species. We are considering the... Whether any specific exclusions may result in the extinction of the species and why (see Exclusions... important pollinators with a relatively limited flight distance, the solitary bee, assuming that potential...

  4. Effect of processing on nutrients and fatty acid composition of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Tanu; Grover, Kiran; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2016-12-15

    Garden cress seeds were undergone for different processing methods and analyzed for its nutritional composition. Effect of processing on nutrient retention was evaluated to attain the best processed form of seeds with maximum amount of nutrients. Soaking improved protein and ash by 2.10 and 2.48 percent respectively. Boiling improved fat and fibre by 1.66 and 8.32 percent respectively. Maximum retention of iron and zinc was found with roasting. It also improved calcium by 3.18 percent. Percent ionizable iron and bioavailability was found maximum with boiling (13.59 and 6.88% respectively). In vitro starch and protein digestibility were found maximum on boiling (57.98 and 32.39% respectively) with a decrease of 9.65 and 14.13 percent in phytin phosphorus and oxalate respectively. Amino acids and fatty acids were decreased with heat treatment and maximum retention was found with soaking. Overall improvement in nutrient composition and maximum nutrient retention was found with boiling method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Efeitos da radiação ultravioleta-B sobre a morfologia foliar de Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. (Brassicaceae Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on leaf morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Torres Boeger

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A redução da camada de ozônio resulta no aumento da radiação ultravioleta que atinge a superfície terrestre, especialmente a radiação ultravioletaB (UV-B. O aumento da radiação poderá induzir a mudanças estruturais e fisiológicas nas plantas, influenciando no seu crescimento e desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os efeitos da radiação UV-B ambiente sobre a morfologia das folhas de Arabidopsis thaliana desenvolvidas em condições controladas. As sementes de A. thaliana cresceram em câmaras de crescimento, com 300 µmol m-2s-1 de radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (PAR com ou sem 6 kJ m-2 s-1 de radiação UV-Bbe (UV-Bbe; UV-B biologicamente efetiva. Após 21 dias, 10 folhas de cada tratamento (com e sem radiação UV-B foram coletadas para avaliar área foliar, massa fresca e seca, AEF, densidades estomáticas e de tricomas de ambas as faces da folha, espessura da lâmina foliar e concentração de compostos fenólicos e de clorofila total, a e b. As folhas tratadas com radiação UV-B apresentaram menor área foliar, massa fresca e seca, densidade de tricomas na face adaxial e densidade de estômatos na face abaxial da folha. Entretanto, apresentaram os maiores valores médios de espessura total da lâmina e do mesofilo, maior concentração de clorofila total, clorofila a e clorofila b e compostos fenólicos foliares do que as folhas não tratadas com radiação UV-B. Essas diferenças morfológicas significativas (p Reduction of the ozone layer results in the increase in ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface, especially the ultraviolet-B (UV-B. The increase of radiation may induce structural and physiological changes in plants, influencing their growth and development. This paper evaluates the effects of ambient UV-B radiation upon to the leaf morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana developed under controlled conditions. The seeds of A. thaliana grown in environmental chamber, with 300 µmol m-2s-1 de photosynthetically active radiation (PAR with and without 6 kJ m-2 s-1 of radiation UV-Bbe (UV-Bbe; UV-B biologically effective. After 21 days, ten leaves of each treatment (with and without UV-B radiation were collected to measure leaf area, fresh and dry mass, AEF, stomata and trichome densities of both leaf surfaces, leaf thickness and concentration of phenolic compounds and total chlorophyll, and chlorophyll a and b. Leaves treated with UV-B radiation presented smaller leaf area, fresh and dry weight, hair density, and stomata density on the adaxial epidermis. However, leaves treated with UV-B presented higher mean values for total thickness, mesophyll thickness, higher concentration of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and b, and phenolic compounds when compared to leaves without UV-B radiation. These significant morphological differences (p < 0.05 between leaves treated with and without UV-B radiation indicate that A. thaliana is not insensible to UV-B radiation and possess mechanisms that minimize the negative effects on leaf development and growth. Although, the plant responses to UV-B radiation involves several physiological mechanisms, that need more detailed investigation.

  6. Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae as a potential Brassica napus pollinator (cv. Hyola 432 (Brassicaceae, in Southern Brazil Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae como potencial polinizador de Brassica napus (cv. Hyola 432 (Brassicaceae, no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS. Rosa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus Linnaeus is considered a self-compatible crop; however, studies show that bee foraging elevates their seed production. Considering bee food shortages during the winter season and that the canola is a winter crop, this study aimed to evaluate the foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 regarding those flowers, and to verify if it presents adequate behaviour for successfully pollinating this crop in Rio Grande do Sul State. The study was carried out in a canola field, in Southern Brazil. The anthesis stages were morphologically characterised and then related to stigma receptivity and pollen grain viability. Similarly, the behaviour of A. mellifera individuals on flowers was followed, considering the number of flowers visited per plant, the amount of time spent on the flowers, touched structures, and collected resources. Floral fidelity was inferred by analysing the pollen load of bees collected on flowers. The bees visited from 1-7 flowers/plant (x = 2.02; sd = 1.16, the time spent on the flowers varied between 1-43 seconds (x = 3.29; sd = 2.36 and, when seeking nectar and pollen, they invariably touched anthers and stigmas. The pollen load presented 100% of B. napus pollen. The bees' attendance to a small number of flowers/plants, their short permanence on flowers, their contact with anthers and stigma and the integral floral constancy allows their consideration as potential B. napus pollinators.Brassica napus Linnaeus é considerada uma cultura autocompatível, entretanto, estudos indicam que o forrageio de abelhas eleva sua produtividade de sementes. Considerando-se a escassez de alimento para abelhas no inverno e a canola sendo uma cultura desse período, objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento de forrageio de Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 nas suas flores e verificar se apresenta comportamento propício ao sucesso de polinização dessa cultura no Rio Grande do Sul. O estudo foi desenvolvido em lavoura de canola, no Sul do Brasil. Os estágios da antese foram caracterizados morfologicamente e relacionados à receptividade do estigma e à viabilidade dos grãos de pólen. Paralelamente, o comportamento de indivíduos de A. mellifera nas flores foi acompanhado, considerando-se o número de flores visitadas por planta, o tempo de permanência nas flores, as estruturas tocadas e os recursos coletados. A fidelidade floral foi inferida analisando-se a carga polínica de abelhas coletadas em flores. As abelhas visitaram entre 1-7 flores/planta (x = 2,02; sd = 1,16, o tempo de permanência nas flores variou entre 1-43 segundos (x = 3,29; sd = 2,36 e, ao buscarem néctar e pólen, invariavelmente tocavam anteras e estigmas. A carga polínica apresentou 100% de pólen de B. napus. A visita a poucas flores/planta, a curta permanência sobre as flores, o contato das abelhas com anteras e estigma e a plena constância floral, permitem considerá-las como potenciais polinizadoras de B. napus.

  7. Phylogeography of Thlaspi arvense (Brassicaceae in China Inferred from Chloroplast and Nuclear DNA Sequences and Ecological Niche Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao An

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thlaspi arvense is a well-known annual farmland weed with worldwide distribution, which can be found from sea level to above 4000 m high on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP. In this paper, a phylogeographic history of T. arvense including 19 populations from China was inferred by using three chloroplast (cp DNA segments (trnL-trnF, rpl32-trnL and rps16 and one nuclear (n DNA segment (Fe-regulated transporter-like protein, ZIP. A total of 11 chloroplast haplotypes and six nuclear alleles were identified, and haplotypes unique to the QTP were recognized (C4, C5, C7 and N4. On the basis of molecular dating, haplotypes C4, C5 and C7 have separated from others around 1.58 Ma for cpDNA, which corresponds to the QTP uplift. In addition, this article suggests that the T. arvense populations in China are a mixture of diverged subpopulations as inferred by hT/vT test (hT ≤ vT, cpDNA and positive Tajima’s D values (1.87, 0.05 < p < 0.10 for cpDNA and 3.37, p < 0.01 for nDNA. Multimodality mismatch distribution curves and a relatively large shared area of suitable environmental conditions between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM as well as the present time recognized by MaxEnt software reject the sudden expansion population model.

  8. Using fitness parameters to evaluate three oilseed Brassicaceae species as potential oil crops in two contrasting environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thlaspi arvense and Camelina sativa have gained considerable attention as biofuel crops. But in some areas, these species, including C. microcarpa, are becoming rare weeds because of agriculture intensification. Including them as crops could guarantee their conservation in agricultural systems. The ...

  9. Phylogeny and colonization history of Pringlea antiscorbutica (Brassicaceae), an emblematic endemic from the South Indian Ocean Province

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartish, Igor V.; Ainouche, A.; Jia, Dongrui; Bergstrom, D.; Chown, S.L.; Winkworth, R.C.; Hennion, F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2012), s. 748-756 ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biogeography * long -distance dispersal * molecular dating Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.066, year: 2012

  10. Structure of a Berberine Bridge Enzyme-Like Enzyme with an Active Site Specific to the Plant Family Brassicaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Bastian; Wallner, Silvia; Steiner, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Berberine bridge enzyme-like (BBE-like) proteins form a multigene family (pfam 08031), which is present in plants, fungi and bacteria. They adopt the vanillyl alcohol-oxidase fold and predominantly show bi-covalent tethering of the FAD cofactor to a cysteine and histidine residue, respectively....... The Arabidopsis thaliana genome was recently shown to contain genes coding for 28 BBE-like proteins, while featuring four distinct active site compositions. We determined the structure of a member of the AtBBE-like protein family (termed AtBBE-like 28), which has an active site composition that has not been...... be exploited for catalysis. The structure also indicates a shift of the position of the isoalloxazine ring in comparison to other members of the BBE-like family. The dioxygen surrogate chloride was found near the C(4a) position of the isoalloxazine ring in the oxygen pocket, pointing to a rapid reoxidation...

  11. Morphological characteristics of a rare endemic species, Erysimum croceum M. Pop. (Brassicaceae from Trans-Ili Alatau, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karime T. Abidkulova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Erysimum croceum is a rare endemic species listed in the Red Book of Kazakhstan. In 2015–2017 we studied three populations of this species on the territory of the Ile-Alatau National Park (Trans-Ili Alatau, Northern Tian-Shan. As a result of the inventory of sampling plots, we estimated the elevation range occupied by the species and identified age structure and population density. Our results confirmed earlier reports of low population counts of E. croceum. We also studied biometric characteristics of virginal and generative individuals of E. croceum from different populations, and measured parameters of their seeds. The morphometric parameters were highly variable across the studied populations. The only exception was the morphometric parameters of the seeds, which had low or very low variability. We conclude that these parameters are the most stable characteristics of the species. The results of the study can contribute to our understanding of population structure and dynamics of E. croceum and assist in developing effective conservation strategies for this species.

  12. Fruit and seed heteromorphism in the cold desert annual ephemeral Diptychocarpus strictus (Brassicaceae) and possible adaptive significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Juanjuan; Tan, Dunyan; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2010-06-01

    Diptychocarpus strictus is an annual ephemeral in the cold desert of northwest China that produces heteromorphic fruits and seeds. The primary aims of this study were to characterize the morphology and anatomy of fruits and seeds of this species and compare the role of fruit and seed heteromorphism in dispersal and germination. Shape, size, mass and dispersal of siliques and seeds and the thickness of the mucilage layer on seeds were measured, and the anatomy of siliques and seeds, the role of seed mucilage in water absorption/dehydration, germination and adherence of seeds to soil particles, the role of pericarp of lower siliques in seed dormancy and seed after-ripening and germination phenology were studied using standard procedures. Plants produce dehiscent upper siliques with a thin pericarp containing seeds with large wings and a thick mucilage layer and indehiscent lower siliques with a thick pericarp containing nearly wingless seeds with a thin mucilage layer. The dispersal ability of seeds from the upper siliques was much greater than that of intact lower siliques. Mucilage increased the amount of water absorbed by seeds and decreased the rate of dehydration. Seeds with a thick mucilage layer adhered to soil particles much better than those with a thin mucilage layer or those from which mucilage had been removed. Fresh seeds were physiologically dormant and after-ripened during summer. Non-dormant seeds germinated to high percentages in light and in darkness. Germination of seeds from upper siliques is delayed until spring primarily by drought in summer and autumn, whereas the thick, indehiscent pericarp prevents germination for >1 year of seeds retained in lower siliques. The life cycle of D. strictus is morphologically and physiologically adapted to the cold desert environment in time and space via a combination of characters associated with fruit and seed heteromorphism.

  13. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on pollen quantity, quality, and seed yield in Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchik, S.M.; Day, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Three experiments examined the influence of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280-320 nm) exposure on reproduction in Brassica rapa (Brassicacaeae). Plants were grown in a greenhouse under three biologically effective UV-B levels that stimulated either an ambient stratospheric ozone level (control), 16% (open-quotes low enhancedclose quotes), or 32% (open-quotes high enhancedclose quotes) ozone depletion levels at Morgantown, WV, USA in mid-March. In the first experiment,pollen production and viability per flower were reduced by ∼50% under both enhanced UV-B levels relative to ambient controls. While plants under high-enhanced UV-B produced over 40% more flowers than plants under the two lower UV-B treatments, whole-plant production of viable pollen was reduced under low-enhanced UV-B to 34% of ambient controls. In the second experiment, the influence of source-plant UV-B exposure on in vitro pollen from plants was examined and whether source-plant UV-B exposure influenced in vitro pollen germination and viability. Pollen from plants under both enhanced-UV-B was reduced from 65 to 18%. Viability of the pollen from plants grown under both enhanced UV-B treatments was reduced to a much lesser extent: only from ∼43 to 22%. Thus, ambient source-plant pollen was more sensitive to enhanced UV-B levels to fertilize plants growing under ambient-UV-B levels, and assessed subsequent seed production and germination. Seed abortion rates were higher in plants pollinated with pollen from the enhanced UV-B treatments, than from ambient UV-B. Despite this, seed yield (number and mass) per plant was similar, regardless of the UV-B exposure of their pollen source. Our findings demonstrate that enhanced UV-B levels associated with springtime ozone depletion events have the capacity to substantially reduce viable pollen production, and could ultimately reduce reproductive success of B. rapa. 37 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Preferential exclusion of hybrids in mixed pollinations between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and weedy B. campestris (Brassicaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, T.P.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Østergård, Hanne

    1997-01-01

    amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Using data on the proportion of fully developed seeds and the proportion of these seeds that were hybrids, a statistical model was constructed to estimate the fitness of conspecific and heterospecific pollen and the survival of conspecific and heterospecific zygotes...... for competition between male gametophytes and/or seeds within pods. To test whether competition influences the success of hybridization, pollen from the two species was mixed in different proportions and applied to stigmas of both species. The resulting seeds were scored for paternity by isozyme and randomly...... to seeds. B. campestris pollen in B. napus styles had a significantly lower fitness than the conspecific pollen, whereas no difference between pollen types was found in B. campestris styles. Hybrid zygotes survived to significantly lower proportions than conspecific zygotes in both species, with the lowest...

  15. Floral nectar production and carbohydrate composition and the structure of receptacular nectaries in the invasive plant Bunias orientalis L. (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisow, Bożena; Masierowska, Marzena; Antoń, Sebastian

    2016-11-01

    The data relating to the nectaries and nectar secretion in invasive Brassicacean taxa are scarce. In the present paper, the nectar production and nectar carbohydrate composition as well as the morphology, anatomy and ultrastructure of the floral nectaries in Bunias orientalis were investigated. Nectary glands were examined using light, fluorescence, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The quantities of nectar produced by flowers and total sugar mass in nectar were relatively low. Total nectar carbohydrate production per 10 flowers averaged 0.3 mg. Nectar contained exclusively glucose (G) and fructose (F) with overall G/F ratio greater than 1. The flowers of B. orientalis have four nectaries placed at the base of the ovary. The nectarium is intermediate between two nectary types: the lateral and median nectary type (lateral and median glands stay separated) and the annular nectary type (both nectaries are united into one). Both pairs of glands represent photosynthetic type and consist of epidermis and glandular tissue. However, they differ in their shape, size, secretory activity, dimensions of epidermal and parenchyma cells, thickness of secretory parenchyma, phloem supply, presence of modified stomata and cuticle ornamentation. The cells of nectaries contain dense cytoplasm, plastids with starch grains and numerous mitochondria. Companion cells of phloem lack cell wall ingrowths. The ultrastructure of secretory cells indicates an eccrine mechanism of secretion. Nectar is exuded throughout modified stomata.

  16. Antimalarial activity of 80 % methanolic extract of Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. (Brassicaceae) seeds against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluye, Abrham Belachew; Melese, Eshetie; Adinew, Getnet Mequanint

    2015-10-15

    Resistances to currently available drugs and insecticides, significant drug toxicities and costs and lack of vaccines currently complicated the treatment of malaria. A continued search for safe, effective and affordable plant-based antimalarial agents thus becomes crucial and vital in the face of these difficulties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimalarial activity of 80 % methanolic extract of the seeds of Brassica nigra against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain) was used to test the antimalarial activity of the extract. In suppressive and prophylactic models, Swiss albino male mice were randomly grouped into five groups of five mice each. Group I mice were treated with the vehicle, group II, III and IV were treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively and the last group (V) mice were treated with chloroquine (10 mg/kg). The level of parasitemia, survival time and variation in weight of mice were used to determine the antimalarial activity of the extract. Chemosuppressive activities produced by the extract of the seeds of Brassica nigra were 21.88, 50.00 (P activities were 17.42, 21.21 and 53.79 % (P activities and the plant may contain biologically active principles which are relevant in the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria, thus supporting further studies of the plant for its active components.

  17. 3D Plant Cell Architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae Using Focused Ion Beam–Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Focused ion beam–scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM combines the ability to sequentially mill the sample surface and obtain SEM images that can be used to create 3D renderings with micron-level resolution. We have applied FIB-SEM to study Arabidopsis cell architecture. The goal was to determine the efficacy of this technique in plant tissue and cellular studies and to demonstrate its usefulness in studying cell and organelle architecture and distribution. Methods: Seed aleurone, leaf mesophyll, stem cortex, root cortex, and petal lamina from Arabidopsis were fixed and embedded for electron microscopy using protocols developed for animal tissues and modified for use with plant cells. Each sample was sectioned using the FIB and imaged with SEM. These serial images were assembled to produce 3D renderings of each cell type. Results: Organelles such as nuclei and chloroplasts were easily identifiable, and other structures such as endoplasmic reticula, lipid bodies, and starch grains were distinguishable in each tissue. Discussion: The application of FIB-SEM produced 3D renderings of five plant cell types and offered unique views of their shapes and internal content. These results demonstrate the usefulness of FIB-SEM for organelle distribution and cell architecture studies.

  18. Nickel and other metal uptake and accumulation by species of Alyssum (Brassicaceae) from the ultramafics of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaderian, S.M.; Mohtadi, A.; Rahiminejad, M.R.; Baker, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Some plants growing on serpentine (ultramafic) soils are able to hyperaccumulate nickel in their above-ground parts. The genus Alyssum L. contains the greatest number of Ni-hyperaccumulator plants so far reported. There are substantial areas of serpentine soils at many locations in Iran. This paper presents the analyses for Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Mg and Ca in soils and Alyssum species from the ultramafics of west and northwest Iran. Soil analysis for total elements in these areas indicates that typical concentrations of Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe, Mg and Ca are up to about 1240, 365, 800, 51,150, 152,390 and 11,790 μg g -1 , respectively. During this study, seven Alyssum species were collected. Analysis of leaf dry matter shows that Alyssum bracteatum can contain up to 2300 μg Ni g -1 , while the other species contain much lower concentrations of Ni and other elements. A. bracteatum is endemic to Iran and the first Ni hyperaccumulator reported from this species. - Analysis of leaf dry matter shows that Alyssum bracteatum, endemic to Iran, can contain up to 2300 μg Ni g -1 , while other species contain much lower concentrations of Ni and other elements

  19. Transcriptome sequencing of Crucihimalaya himalaica (Brassicaceae) reveals how Arabidopsis close relative adapt to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qin; Wang, Qia; Han, Xi; Guan, Yanlong; Sun, Hang; Zhong, Yang; Huang, Jinling; Zhang, Ticao

    2016-02-01

    The extreme environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) provides an ideal natural laboratory for studies on adaptive evolution. Few genome/transcriptome based studies have been conducted on how plants adapt to the environments of QTP compared to numerous studies on vertebrates. Crucihimalaya himalaica is a close relative of Arabidopsis with typical QTP distribution, and is hoped to be a new model system to study speciation and ecological adaptation in extreme environment. In this study, we de novo generated a transcriptome sequence of C. himalaica, with a total of 49,438 unigenes. Compared to five relatives, 10,487 orthogroups were shared by all six species, and 4,286 orthogroups contain putative single copy gene. Further analysis identified 487 extremely significantly positively selected genes (PSGs) in C. himalaica transcriptome. Theses PSGs were enriched in functions related to specific adaptation traits, such as response to radiation, DNA repair, nitrogen metabolism, and stabilization of membrane. These functions are responsible for the adaptation of C. himalaica to the high radiation, soil depletion and low temperature environments on QTP. Our findings indicate that C. himalaica has evolved complex strategies for adapting to the extreme environments on QTP and provide novel insights into genetic mechanisms of highland adaptation in plants.

  20. Structure of a Berberine Bridge Enzyme-Like Enzyme with an Active Site Specific to the Plant Family Brassicaceae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daniel, B.; Wallner, S.; Steiner, B.; Oberdorfer, G.; Kumar, P.; van der Graaff, E.; Roitsch, Thomas; Sensen, Ch. W.; Gruber, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2016), e0156892 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Covalently attached fad * flavoproteins * arabidopsis * metabolism * identification * oxidation * mutagenesis * alkaloids * software * protein s Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  1. Protective Effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) Aqueous Extract and Lycopene on Testosterone Propionate-Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying; Aboshora, Waleed; Li, Jing; Xiao, Tiancun; Zhang, Lianfu

    2017-08-01

    The inhibitory effect of maca extractant, lycopene, and their combination was evaluated in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) mice induced by testosterone propionate. Mice were divided into a saline group, solvent control group and testosterone propionate-induced BPH mice [BPH model group, solvent BPH model group, benzyl glucosinolate group (1.44 mg/kg), maca group (60 mg/kg), lycopene treated (15, 5, and 2.5 mg/kg), maca (30 mg/kg) combine lycopene treated (7.5, 2.5, and 1.25 mg/kg), and finasteride treated]. Benzyl glucosinolate was used in order to evaluate its pharmacological activity on BPH to find out whether it is the major active component of maca aqueous extract. Finasteride was used as positive control. The compounds were administered once for 30 successive days. Compared with solvent BPH model group, BPH mice fed with maca (30 mg/kg) and lycopene (7.5 mg/kg) combination exhibited significant reductions in the prostatic index, prostatic acid phospatase, estradiol, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone levels in serum. They also had similar histological compared with those aspects observed in the mice in the solvent control group. The results indicated that combination of maca and lycopene synergistically inhibits BPH in mice. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Efecto de la maca roja (Lepidium meyenii sobre los niveles de IFN-γ en ratas ovariectomizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Leiva-Revilla

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Comparar el efecto de diferentes dosis de maca roja sobre los niveles de interferón gamma (IFN-γ en ratas ovariectomizadas (OVX. Materiales y métodos. Ratas hembras adultas fueron divididas al azar en los siguientes seis grupos: Grupo 1: ratas pesudo-ovariectomizadas (PO; Grupo 2: ratas OVX; Grupo 3: ratas OVX tratadas con 4 ug/kg de estradiol, y Grupo 4, 5 y 6: ratas OVX tratadas con extractos de maca con 2,15, 4,3 y 8,6 mg polifenoles/kilogramo de peso corporal, respectivamente. Resultados. Las ratas OVX mostraron niveles bajos de IFN-γ en comparación con las ratas PO. El estradiol y la maca roja revirtieron el efecto de la ovariectomía sobre los niveles de IFN-γ. La maca roja presenta un incremento dosis-respuesta de los niveles de IFN-γ (r=0,57, p<0,05. Conclusiones. La administración de la maca roja incrementa los niveles de IFN-γ en ratas ovariectomizadas.

  3. Efecto de la maca roja (Lepidium meyenii) sobre los niveles de IFN-γ en ratas ovariectomizadas

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva-Revilla, Johanna; Laboratorio de Endocrinología y Reproducción, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú.; Guerra-Castañon, Félix; Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú.; Olcese-Mori, Paola; Laboratorio de Endocrinología y Reproducción, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú.; Lozada, Iván; Laboratorio de Inmunología, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú.; Rubio, Julio; Laboratorio de Endocrinología y Reproducción, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú.; Gonzales, Carla; Laboratorio de Endocrinología y Reproducción, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú.; Gonzales, Gustavo F; Laboratorio de Endocrinología y Reproducción, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima-Perú.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Compare the effect of different doses of red maca on gamma interferon (IFN-γ) levels in ovariectomized rats (OVX). Materials and methods. Adult female rats were randomly divided into the following six groups: Group 1: pseudo-ovariectomized rats (PO); Group 2: OVX rats; Group 3: OVX rats treated with 4 ug/kg estradiol; and Group 4, 5 and 6: OVX rats treated with red maca extracts with 2.15, 4.3 and 8.6 mg polyphenols/body weight kilogram, respectively. Results. OVX rats showed low ...

  4. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) in combination with silymarin as food supplements: In vivo safety assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valentová, K.; Stejskal, D.; Bartek, J.; Dvořáčková, S.; Křen, Vladimír; Ulrichová, J.; Šimánek, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2008), s. 1003-1013 ISSN 0278-6915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : food supplement * volunteers * blood pressure Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2008

  5. Uptake of barium and strontium by cress (Lepidium sativum) in water culture and the presence of an inhibiting soluble factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestling, O.; Kopp, P.; Burkart, W.

    1991-01-01

    Seeds of cress were sown in various densities on plastic grids placed in half-litre dishes filled with either a dilute salt solution or distilled water. After 2 days the radionuclides 133 Ba, 134 Cs and 85 Sr were added, and after another 5 days the plants were harvested and the radioactivity measured by γ-ray spectrometry. Plants in alternated sparse cultures concentrated less radioactivity of Ba and Sr than the corresponding non-alternated cultures. Furthermore, when water from very dense cultures on which plants had grown for a week was sterile-filtered and added to fresh cultures, it was shown that this conditioned water strongly inhibited the uptake of Ba and Sr. The difference in radionuclide concentration in the plants as a function of plant density disappeared when the concentrations of Ca and Mg in the nutrient solution were raised to 0.15 and 0.40 mM, respectively. Apparently a chelating substance, possibly excreted from the plant roots, is responsible for the inhibition of the uptake of bivalent cations, and this agent becomes saturated when bivalent cations are present at sufficiently high concentrations. (author)

  6. Adaptógenos: plantas medicinales tradicionales comercializadas como suplementos dietéticos en la conurbación Buenos Aires-La Plata (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M. Arenas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se presentan los resultados de un estudio sobre tres especies de las cuales se comercializan productos considerados adaptógenos: Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae, "maca", Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae, "noni", y Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae, "pipi". Los datos provienen de estudios en Etnobotánica urbana realizados en la conurbación Buenos Aires-La Plata, se presentan los usos tradicionales de las especies, sus vías de ingreso, comercialización y difusión como suplementos dietéticos en el contexto pluricultural urbano, los modos actuales de empleo y los saberes relacionados, que forman parte del conocimiento botánico local. De este modo, se evalúan las modificaciones en los usos originalmente asignados, como consecuencia de la expansión de los productos en el marco de la globalización, y los cambios consecuentes en los patrones tradicionales de saberes, creencias y prácticas referidos a estos recursos vegetales

  7. Extraction and analysis of intact glucosinolates--a validated pressurized liquid extraction/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry protocol for Isatis tinctoria, and qualitative analysis of other cruciferous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Tobias; Cutting, Brian; Ernst, Beat; Hamburger, Matthias

    2007-09-28

    Glucosinolates have attracted significant interest due to the chemopreventive properties of some of their transformation products. Numerous protocols for the extraction and analysis of glucosinolates have been published, but limited effort has been devoted to optimize and validate crucial extraction parameters and sample preparation steps. We carried out a systematic optimization and validation of a quantitative assay for the direct analysis of intact glucosinolates in Isatis tinctoria leaves (woad, Brassicaceae). Various parameters such as solvent composition, particle size, temperature, and number of required extraction steps were optimized using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). We observed thermal degradation of glucosinolates at temperatures above 50 degrees C, and loss of >60% within 10min at 100 degrees C, but no enzymatic degradation in the leaf samples at ambient temperature. Excellent peak shape and resolution was obtained by reversed-phase chromatography on a Phenomenex Aqua column using 10mM ammonium formate as ion-pair reagent. Detection was carried out by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. Analysis of cruciferous vegetables and spices such as broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and black mustard (Sinapis nigra L.) demonstrated the general applicability of the method.

  8. Manipulating the antioxidant capacity of halophytes to increase their cultural and economic value through saline cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boestfleisch, Christian; Wagenseil, Niko B; Buhmann, Anne K; Seal, Charlotte E; Wade, Ellie Merrett; Muscolo, Adele; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-08-13

    Halophytes, salt-tolerant plants, are a source of valuable secondary metabolites with potential economic value. The steady-state pools of many stress-related metabolites are already enhanced in halophytes when compared with glycophytes, but growth under conditions away from the optimum can induce stress and consequently result in changes to secondary metabolites such as antioxidants. However, direct evidence for increasing the concentration of valuable secondary metabolites as a consequence of altering the salinity of the growing environment still remains equivocal. To address this, we analysed a range of metabolites with antioxidant capacity (including total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbate, reduced/oxidized glutathione and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes) in seedlings and plants from different families (Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rhizophoraceae) and habitats grown under different salt concentrations. We show that it is possible to manipulate the antioxidant capacity of plants and seedlings by altering the saline growing environment, the length of time under saline cultivation and the developmental stage. Among the species studied, the halophytes Tripolium pannonicum, Plantago coronopus, Lepidium latifolium and Salicornia europaea demonstrated the most potential as functional foods or nutraceuticals. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  9. The first report of Pb and Zn accumulation in some native plants from the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Duran, Paola; Poma, Wilfredo; Sánchez, Isidoro; Barceló, Juan; Roca, Núria; Boluda, Rafael; Roca-Pérez, Luís.; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2010-05-01

    Until recent decades little has been known about the remediation of mining sites using metalophytes in Latin America. Metal mining has helped to create severe and diverse environmental problems. The present study proposed to identify and characterize spontaneously growing heavy metal tolerant plant species in the area around the polimetalic mine in Hualgayoc (Cajamarca, Peru). These species are potentially useful for phytorremediation. Plant and soils from their rhizosphere were sampled and analized for concentration of As, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. Translocation Factor (TF) defined the metals concentrations ratio between shoots and root biomass and Shoot Accumulation Factor (SAF) the metal concentration ratio between shoot and soil concentration were determined and used to measure the effectiveness of a plant in concentrating metals into its biomass. The soils were neutral pH (7,4±0,5) with variable content of organic carbon (2,4±1,1) and loam texture: sand (42,9±10,8) and clay (16,7±4,6). According to the total metals, all samples exceeded toxicity thresholds, high Pb (20016 ± 32559 mg•kg-1) and Zn (22512 ± 13056 mg•kg-1) concentrations were detected. High shoot Pb and Zn concentrations were found in Plantaginaceae Plantago orbignyana (6998 and 9617 μg/g); Brassicaceae Lepidium bipinnatifidum (6886 and 5034 mg•kg-1) and Asteraceae Senecio sp (4253 and 3870 mg•kg-1) and Baccharis latifolia (2554 and 1284 mg•kg-1 respectively). The high values of TFs indicates that the plants effectively traslocated metales. Lepidium bipinnatifidum shows the highest TFs values (143 in Pb and 21,5 in Zn). The SAF values were much lower than those reported for other species such as Paspalum sp in the Peruvian copper mine, which may be due to a high top soil Pb and Zn concentrations. These species can surely be considered as interesting for phytoextraction, due not only to its accumulative capacity but also since they showed an elevated transfer factor and grew in the

  10. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinildes Silva-Filho

    Full Text Available Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  11. Origin of the CMS gene locus in rapeseed cybrid mitochondria: active and inactive recombination produces the complex CMS gene region in the mitochondrial genomes of Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masao; Kikuchi, Rie; Imamura, Jun; Handa, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    CMS (cytoplasmic male sterile) rapeseed is produced by asymmetrical somatic cell fusion between the Brassica napus cv. Westar and the Raphanus sativus Kosena CMS line (Kosena radish). The CMS rapeseed contains a CMS gene, orf125, which is derived from Kosena radish. Our sequence analyses revealed that the orf125 region in CMS rapeseed originated from recombination between the orf125/orfB region and the nad1C/ccmFN1 region by way of a 63 bp repeat. A precise sequence comparison among the related sequences in CMS rapeseed, Kosena radish and normal rapeseed showed that the orf125 region in CMS rapeseed consisted of the Kosena orf125/orfB region and the rapeseed nad1C/ccmFN1 region, even though Kosena radish had both the orf125/orfB region and the nad1C/ccmFN1 region in its mitochondrial genome. We also identified three tandem repeat sequences in the regions surrounding orf125, including a 63 bp repeat, which were involved in several recombination events. Interestingly, differences in the recombination activity for each repeat sequence were observed, even though these sequences were located adjacent to each other in the mitochondrial genome. We report results indicating that recombination events within the mitochondrial genomes are regulated at the level of specific repeat sequences depending on the cellular environment.

  12. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  13. Gas exchange, growth, and defense responses of invasive Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae) and native Geum vernum (Rosaceae) to elevated atmospheric CO2 and warm spring temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laurel J; Cipollini, Don

    2013-08-01

    Global increases in atmospheric CO2 and temperature may interact in complex ways to influence plant physiology and growth, particularly for species that grow in cool, early spring conditions in temperate forests. Plant species may also vary in their responses to environmental changes; fast-growing invasives may be more responsive to rising CO2 than natives and may increase production of allelopathic compounds under these conditions, altering species' competitive interactions. We examined growth and physiological responses of Alliaria petiolata, an allelopathic, invasive herb, and Geum vernum, a co-occurring native herb, to ambient and elevated spring temperatures and atmospheric CO2 conditions in a factorial growth chamber experiment. At 5 wk, leaves were larger at high temperature, and shoot biomass increased under elevated CO2 only at high temperature in both species. As temperatures gradually warmed to simulate seasonal progression, G. vernum became responsive to CO2 at both temperatures, whereas A. petiolata continued to respond to elevated CO2 only at high temperature. Elevated CO2 increased thickness and decreased nitrogen concentrations in leaves of both species. Alliaria petiolata showed photosynthetic downregulation at elevated CO2, whereas G. vernum photosynthesis increased at elevated temperature. Flavonoid and cyanide concentrations decreased significantly in A. petiolata leaves in the elevated CO2 and temperature treatment. Total glucosinolate concentrations and trypsin inhibitor activities did not vary among treatments. Future elevated spring temperatures and CO2 will interact to stimulate growth for A. petiolata and G. vernum, but there may be reduced allelochemical effects in A. petiolata.

  14. Spasmolytic, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of 5-phenylpentyl isothiocyanate, a new glucosinolate autolysis product from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb., Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekić, Milan S; Radulović, Niko S; Stojanović, Nikola M; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Najman, Stevo; Stojanović, Sanja

    2017-10-01

    Detailed analyses of horseradish autolysates led to the identification of a new natural product, 5-phenylpentyl isothiocyanate (PhPeITC). The structural assignment was corroborated by synthesis, and the identity unequivocally established by spectral means. The occurrence of PhPeITC is the first direct proof of the existence of a 5-phenylpentyl glucosinolate in the aerial parts of this species as one of the possible "mustard oil" precursors. To verify its possible contribution to the horseradish functional food status, horseradish above- and underground autolysates, together with five ω-phenylalkyl isothiocyanates were tested for their spasmolytic, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Specifically, the cytotoxic effect on Caco-2, HeLa (cancer) and MDCK (non-cancer) cell lines was established. Additionally, the five tested ITCs exerted significant spasmolytic activity (on rat distal colon), with PhPeITC being almost 100 times more potent than papaverine. A non-selective antimicrobial activity of all ITCs was revealed in the case of 6 bacterial and 2 fungal strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Zinc tolerance and accumulation in stable cell suspension cultures and in vitro regenerated plants of the emerging model plant Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Miranda-Vergara, Maria Cristina; Barkla, Bronwyn J

    2009-03-01

    Arabidopsis halleri is increasingly employed as a model plant for studying heavy metal hyperaccumulation. With the aim of providing valuable tools for studies on cellular physiology and molecular biology of metal tolerance and transport, this study reports the development of successful and highly efficient methods for the in vitro regeneration of A. halleri plants and production of stable cell suspension lines. Plants were regenerated from leaf explants of A. halleri via a three-step procedure: callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and shoot development. Efficiency of callus proliferation and regeneration depended on the initial callus induction media and was optimal in the presence of 1 mg L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 0.05 mg L(-1) benzylaminopurine. Subsequent shoot and root regeneration from callus initiated under these conditions reached levels of 100% efficiency. High friability of the callus supported the development of cell suspension cultures with minimal cellular aggregates. Characterization of regenerated plants and cell cultures determined that they maintained not only the zinc tolerance and requirement of the whole plant but also the ability to accumulate zinc; with plants accumulating up to 50.0 micromoles zinc g(-1) FW, and cell suspension cultures 30.9 micromoles zinc g(-1) DW. Together this work will provide the experimental basis for furthering our knowledge of A. halleri as a model heavy metal hyperaccumulating plant.

  16. Ecotypic and allozyme variation of Capsella bursa-pastoris and C. rubella (Brassicaceae along latitude and altitude gradients on the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffrogge, Raimund

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Life-history traits (onset of flowering, leaf number, rosette diameter, plant height, branching number, fruit dimensions, seed number of Capsella species from the Iberian Península associated with colotúzing ability were compared in a random block field experiment. Data were evaluated by a principal component analysis. Allozymes (AAT, LAP, GDH and leaf types were recorded. C. bursa-pastoris plants originating from low and high elevations of the summer dry Mediterranean climatic zone (Sierra Nevada were early flowering, whereas those originating from the Pyrenees with an alpine climate were late. In C. bursa-pastoris the "rhomboidea" leaf type was very frequent, whereas in C. rubella it was the "heteris" leaf type. There was a change of leaf type frequencies along geographical clines which is explained by adaptive components of the leaf shape. The allozymes displayed a geographical distribuüon pattem and in C. bursa-pastoris a certain multilocus genotype appeared to be a molecular marker for an early flowering ecotype(inicio de la floración, número de hojas, diámetro de la roseta, altura de la planta, número de ramas, dimensiones del fruto y número de semillas de plantas de Capsella procedentes de la Península Ibérica mediante un experimento de bloques aleatorios en el campo. Los datos se evaluaron con un análisis de componentes principales. También se registraron el tipo de hojas y el perfil aloenzimático de las plantas. Las plantas de Capsella bursa-pastoris procedentes de altitudes altas y bajas de la zona climática Mediterránea de verano seco (Sierra Nevada mostraron ser de floración temprana, mientras que las plantas de los Pirineos, con un clima alpino, presentaron una floración tardía. En C. bursa-pastoris el tipo de hoja "rhomboidea" resultó ser el más frecuente, en tanto que en C. rubella lo fue el tipo "heteris". Se observó un cambio en las frecuencias de los tipos de hojas a lo largo de una clina geográfica, lo que se explicaría por los componentes adaptativos que posee la forma de la hoja. Las aloenzimas presentaron un patrón de distribución geográfico y en C. bursa-pastoris un determinado genotipo multilocus podría ser un marcador molecular para el ecotipo de floración temprana.

  17. Alelopatia de Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de Bidens pilosa (L. e Glycine max (L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p17 O presente trabalho buscou avaliar a possível presença de potencial alelopático na camelina, bem como o seu efeito sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de soja e picão-preto, a fim de verificar a possibilidade do cultivo dela com a soja no sistema de rotação de culturas e de seu uso como herbicida. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado e as avaliações realizadas diariamente. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: porcentagem de germinação, tempo e velocidade média de germinação e comprimento médio de raiz. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao Teste F e as médias comparadas pelo Teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os resultados obtidos comprovam a presença de potencial alelopático na camelina. Foi verificado que esta espécie pode ser considerada uma opção para o cultivo com a soja devido à interferência alelopática positiva provocada na cultura e ainda, que ela apresenta capacidade para utilização no controle de plantas invasoras como o picão-preto, já que atuou atrasando o desenvolvimento das plântulas testadas.

  18. Influência de temperatura, luz e giberelina na germinação de sementes de Thlaspi caerulescens J. Presl & C. Presl (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thlaspi caerulescens é espécie hiperacumuladora de metais como Cd2+, Ni2+ e Zn2+, considerada como uma plantamodelo para estudar a acumulação e tolerância a metais pesados. No entanto, a baixa produção de sementes em nossas condições climáticas tornam necessária a determinação de condições que possam maximizar a germinação e o vigor de suas sementes. Para identificar as melhores condições para a germinação, sementes de T. caerulescens foram colocadas na presença (15 mmol.m-2.s-1, 8 h luz/16 h escuro ou ausência de luz nas temperaturas de 10, 15, 20 e 25 ºC, em papel germitest previamente umedecido com solução de ácido giberélico (GA3 a 0,05% ou água destilada. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de germinação (%G e o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG. Maior porcentagem de germinação (66% foi observada nos tratamentos com GA3 e temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC, na presença de luz. Maiores valores do IVG foram obtidos com a utilização de GA3 nas temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC, tanto na presença quanto na ausência de luz. Maiores germinação e IVG de T. caerulescens foram observados com uso de GA3 na presença de luz nas temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC.

  19. Range-wide genetic structure of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae): glacial persistence in multiple refugia and origin of the Northern Hemisphere disjunction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrámková-Fuxová, G.; Záveská, E.; Kolář, Filip; Lučanová, Magdalena; Španiel, S.; Marhold, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 185, č. 3 (2017), s. 321-342 ISSN 0024-4074 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Cruciferae * extra-Mediterranean refugia * DNA sequencing Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.277, year: 2016

  20. Secondary structure analyses of the nuclear rRNA internal transcribed spacers and assessment of its phylogenetic utility across the Brassicaceae (mustards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P Edger

    Full Text Available The internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster, termed ITS1 and ITS2, are the most frequently used nuclear markers for phylogenetic analyses across many eukaryotic groups including most plant families. The reasons for the popularity of these markers include: 1. Ease of amplification due to high copy number of the gene clusters, 2. Available cost-effective methods and highly conserved primers, 3. Rapidly evolving markers (i.e. variable between closely related species, and 4. The assumption (and/or treatment that these sequences are non-functional, neutrally evolving phylogenetic markers. Here, our analyses of ITS1 and ITS2 for 50 species suggest that both sequences are instead under selective constraints to preserve proper secondary structure, likely to maintain complete self-splicing functions, and thus are not neutrally-evolving phylogenetic markers. Our results indicate the majority of sequence sites are co-evolving with other positions to form proper secondary structure, which has implications for phylogenetic inference. We also found that the lowest energy state and total number of possible alternate secondary structures are highly significantly different between ITS regions and random sequences with an identical overall length and Guanine-Cytosine (GC content. Lastly, we review recent evidence highlighting some additional problematic issues with using these regions as the sole markers for phylogenetic studies, and thus strongly recommend additional markers and cost-effective approaches for future studies to estimate phylogenetic relationships.

  1. The occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil and root of medicinal plants in Bu-Ali Sina garden in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study of symbiotic relationship between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and medicinal plants is very important. Information about the symbiosis of medicinal plant species with AMF in the semi-arid regions of Iran is rare. This information allows increasing knowledge of the biology and ecology of these plant species. Materials and methods: The existence of AM symbiosis in 48 medicinal plant species (belonging to 9 families was studied by root staining. Soil around the root of each species was sampled and analyzed for all soil properties which may be interrelated to AM symbiosis. The importance of different soil properties in AMF and plant biological relationship and the dependency of root colonization and spore formation by AMF on soil properties were statistically analyzed. Results: Among them Lepidium sativum, Brassica oleracea, Cheiranthus cheiri, Beta vulgaris, Spinacia oleracea, Malva sylvestris, Zygophyllum fabago, Arctium Lappa have not been colonized by AM fungi. Colonization and spore density of perennial plants were slightly higher than those of annual plants and were varied among different plant families. Soil texture and available phosphorous were the most important soil properties affecting fungal root colonization and spore numbers. Discussion and conclusion: Although in accordance with other researches, most of the medicinal plants from Brassicaceae family had no mycorrhizal symbiosis, a few of them had this type of symbiosis. Dependency of spore formation by AM fungi on soil properties was higher than dependency of root colonization percentage on soil properties. Increasing root colonization and spore numbers with increasing the percentage of sand and decreasing the percentage of clay and available phosphorous in soils show that plants are more depended on mycorrhizal symbiosis in hard environments and less productive soils.

  2. Postharvest Ultrasound-Assisted Freeze-Thaw Pretreatment Improves the Drying Efficiency, Physicochemical Properties, and Macamide Biosynthesis of Maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Jin; Gong, Peng-Fei; Liu, Yi-Lan; Liu, Bo-Yan; Eggert, Dawn; Guo, Yuan-Heng; Zhao, Ming-Xia; Zhao, Qing-Sheng; Zhao, Bing

    2018-04-01

    A novel technique of ultrasound-assisted freeze-thaw pretreatment (UFP) was developed to improve the drying efficiency of maca and bioactive amide synthesis in maca. The optimal UFP conditions are ultrasonic processing 90 min at 30 °C with 6 freeze-thaw cycles. Samples with freeze-thaw pretreatment (FP), ultrasound pretreatment (UP), and UFP were prepared for further comparative study. A no pretreatment (NP) sample was included as a control. The results showed that UFP improved the drying efficiency of maca slices, showing the highest effective moisture diffusivity (1.75 × 10 -9 m 2 /s). This result was further supported by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rehydration capacity and protein content of maca slices were improved by UFP. More importantly, contents of bioactive macamides and their biosynthetic precursors were increased in 2.5- and 10-fold, respectively. In conclusion, UFP is an efficient technique to improve drying efficiency, physicochemical properties, and bioactive macamides of maca, which can be applied in the industrial manufacture of maca products. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Application of multi-block analysis and mixture design with process variable for development of chocolate cake containing yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) and maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormena, Marcela Marta Lazaretti; de Medeiros, Luana Tabalipa; de Lima, Patrícia Casarin; Possebon, Gabriela; Fuchs, Renata Hernandez Barros; Bona, Evandro

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a chocolate cake formulation was developed with partial substitution of wheat flour by yacon and maca flour. A simplex-centroid design was applied to determine the proportions of the three flours, and the amount of water was included as a process variable at three distinct levels. According to the overall acceptability of the cakes, the tasters were separated into two groups using k-means. After segmentation, regression models were constructed for overall acceptability of each group; R 2 adjusted values of 92.5% for group 1 and 98.9% for group 2 were obtained. Using the sequential simplex method an optimized formulation was determined for group 1 (0.49 kg wheat kg -1 total flour , 0.37 kg yacon kg -1 total flour , 0.14 kg maca kg -1 total flour and 140.0 mL of water) and another for group 2 (0.35 kg wheat kg -1 total flour , 0.65 kg yacon kg -1 total flour and 120.0 mL of water). In addition to these formulations, a third formulation was proposed with a greater maca proportion (0.32 kg maca kg -1 total flour ), which does not significantly alter the overall acceptability of both groups. The three optimized formulations and two control formulations were evaluated through free-choice profiling. The data were evaluated using the multi-block method common components and specific weights analysis (CCSWA). It was observed that a greater proportion of maca intensified brownness and burnt aroma and taste, whereas a larger proportion of yacon produced a better appearance, softness, sweetness and chocolate flavor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Preservation of Cognitive Function by Lepidium meyenii (Maca) Is Associated with Improvement of Mitochondrial Activity and Upregulation of Autophagy-Related Proteins in Middle-Aged Mouse Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xiao-Fang; Gu, Yan-Rong; Wan, Zhong-Xiao; Lu, A-Ming; Qin, Zheng-Hong; Luo, Li

    2016-01-01

    Maca has been used as a foodstuff and a traditional medicine in the Andean region for over 2,000 years. Recently the neuroprotective effects of maca also arouse interest of researchers. Decrease in mitochondrial function and decline in autophagy signaling may participate in the process of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate if maca could improve cognitive function of middle-aged mice and if this effect was associated with improvement of mitochondrial activity and modulation of autophagy signaling in mouse cortex. Fourteen-month-old male ICR mice received maca powder administered by gavage for five weeks. Maca improved cognitive function, motor coordination, and endurance capacity in middle-aged mice, accompanied by increased mitochondrial respiratory function and upregulation of autophagy-related proteins in cortex. Our findings suggest that maca is a newly defined nutritional plant which can improve mitochondrial function and upregulate autophagy-related proteins and may be an effective functional food for slowing down age-related cognitive decline.

  5. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, HPLC and UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS Analysis of Main Macamides and Macaenes from Maca (Cultivars of Lepidium meyenii Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Xiao Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE, using petroleum ether as the solvent, was systematically applied to extract main macamides and macaenes from Maca hypocotyls. Extraction yield was related with four variables, including ratio of solution to solid, extraction temperature, extraction time, and extraction power. On the basis of response surface methodology (RSM, the optimal conditions were determined to be the ratio of solution to solid as 10:1 (mL/g, the extraction temperature of 40 °C, the extraction time of 30 min, and the extraction power of 200 W. Based on the optimal extraction method of UAE, the total contents of ten main macamides and two main macaenes of Maca cultivated in twenty different areas of Tibet were analyzed by HPLC and UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. This study indicated that UAE was able to effectively extract macamides alkaloids from Maca hypocotyls. Quantitative analysis showed that geographical origins, not ecotypes, played a more important role on the accumulation of active macamides in Maca.

  6. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, HPLC and UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS Analysis of Main Macamides and Macaenes from Maca (Cultivars of Lepidium meyenii Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Xiao; Li, Ke-Ke; Pubu, Duoji; Jiang, Si-Ping; Chen, Bin; Chen, Li-Rong; Yang, Zhen; Ma, Chao; Gong, Xiao-Jie

    2017-12-10

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), using petroleum ether as the solvent, was systematically applied to extract main macamides and macaenes from Maca hypocotyls. Extraction yield was related with four variables, including ratio of solution to solid, extraction temperature, extraction time, and extraction power. On the basis of response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal conditions were determined to be the ratio of solution to solid as 10:1 (mL/g), the extraction temperature of 40 °C, the extraction time of 30 min, and the extraction power of 200 W. Based on the optimal extraction method of UAE, the total contents of ten main macamides and two main macaenes of Maca cultivated in twenty different areas of Tibet were analyzed by HPLC and UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. This study indicated that UAE was able to effectively extract macamides alkaloids from Maca hypocotyls. Quantitative analysis showed that geographical origins, not ecotypes, played a more important role on the accumulation of active macamides in Maca.

  7. Evaluation of the structural, electronic, topological and vibrational properties of N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-hexadecanamide isolated from Maca (Lepidium meyenii) using different spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chain, Fernando; Iramain, Maximiliano Alberto; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A. N.; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

    2017-01-01

    N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-hexadecanamide (DMH) was characterized by using Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman (FT-Raman), Ultraviolet- Visible (UV-Visible) and Hydrogen and Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H and 13C NMR) spectroscopies. The structural, electronic, topological and vibrational properties were evaluated in gas phase and in n-hexane employing ONIOM and self-consistent force field (SCRF) calculations. The atomic charges, molecular electrostatic potentials, stabilization energies and topological properties of DMH were analyzed and compared with those calculated for N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-acetamide (DMA) in order to evaluate the effect of the side chain on the properties of DMH. The reactivity and behavior of this alkamide were predicted by using the gap energies and some descriptors. Force fields and the corresponding force constants were reported for DMA only in gas phase and n-hexane due to the high number of vibration normal modes showed by DMH, while the complete vibrational assignments are presented for DMA and both forms of DMH. The comparisons between the experimental FTIR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible and 1H and 13C NMR spectra with the corresponding theoretical ones showed a reasonable concordance.

  8. Antidepressant-like behavioral, anatomical, and biochemical effects of petroleum ether extract from maca (Lepidium meyenii) in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zhong; Cheng, Ai-Fang; Yu, Yuan-Tao; Yu, Long-Jiang; Jin, Wenwen

    2014-05-01

    Maca has been consumed as a medical food in Peru for thousands of years, and exerts anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. Our present study aimed to evaluate the behavior and anatomical and biochemical effects of petroleum ether extract from maca (ME) in the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression in mice. Three different doses of maca extract (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) were orally administrated in the six-week CUMS procedure. Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control drug. Maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) significantly decreased the duration of immobility time in the tail suspension test. After treatment with maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg), the granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus appeared thicker. Maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) also induced a significant reduction in corticosterone levels in mouse serum. In mouse brain tissue, after six weeks of treatment, noradrenaline and dopamine levels were increased by maca extract, and the activity of reactive oxygen species was significantly inhibited. Serotonin levels were not significantly altered. These results demonstrated that maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) showed antidepressant-like effects and was related to the activation of both noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems, as well as attenuation of oxidative stress in mouse brain.

  9. Eficacia de la maca fresca (Lepidium meyenii walp en el incremento del rendimiento físico de deportistas en altura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Ronceros

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el efecto de la maca fresca sobre el rendimiento físico de deportistas en la altura. Diseño: Estudio experimental, prospectivo y comparativo. Materiales y Métodos: La muestra estuvo constituida por 10 deportistas de altura, quienes fueron sometidos a actividad física para medir el consumo máximo de oxígeno (VMO2 basal; luego, se les administró durante 60 días 1500 mg/día de maca fresca en presentación micropulverizado y se determinó el consumo máximo de oxígeno. En cada evaluación se realizó dosaje de transaminasa glutámico oxalacética (TGO, transaminasa glutámico pirúvica (TGP y creatinina sérica. Resultados: En la evaluación basal, se encontró que VMO2 2 mL/kg/min. Al realizar la evaluación luego de 60 días del consumo de la maca fresca, se encontró que la media del VMO2 fue 57,75 mL/kg/min (p=0,001. Se demostró un incremento del rendimiento físico de los deportistas en promedio de 10,3%. En todos los casos, los valores de TGO, TGP y creatinina sérica se mantuvieron en el rango de normalidad y no se presentaron reacciones adversas. Conclusiones: La maca fresca es un producto con actividad energética, que permite el incremento del rendimiento físico de deportistas en la altura a una dosis de 1500 mg/día, durante un período de administración de 60 días.

  10. Analysis of Maceaene and Macamide Contents of Petroleum Ether Extract of Black, Yellow, and Purple Lepidium Meyenii (Maca and Their Antioxidant Effect on Diabetes Mellitus Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congyang Qiu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Maceaene and macamide contents as well as antioxidant effect of petroleum ether extract of black maca (BM, yellow maca (YM, and purple maca (PM on diabetes mellitus (DM rats were investigated. The results showed that seven, six, and five analogues of macamides were identified from the petroleum ether extracts of BM, YM, and PM, respectively. BM extract exhibited the highest contents of total macamides. Comparatively, the PM extract has the lowest macamide quantity. The maceaene contents in all the extracts showed no significant difference (p>0.05. Macamide contents in maca with the same color were not statistically different. Pharmacological results showed that 60-day oral administration of the petroleum ether extract of maca (100 mg/kg.d can significantly decrease lipid oxidation as indicated by the decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and carbonylated proteins (CP concentrations on DM rat model (P<0.05. Among them, oral administration of PM extract showed the lowest TBRAS and CP concentrations. All maca extracts can enhance antioxidant enzyme (SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase activity of liver and red blood cells (RBC of DM rat. However, only oral administration of PM extract can increase SOD and CAT activity of both RBC and liver. The glutathion (GSH contents in plasma were significantly increased in DM rats treated with PM extract (p<0.05. But, oral administration of BM and YM extracts did not enhance GSH levels. Take together, the data suggested that PM extract exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity on DM rat model. And, maceaene and macamide in maca extract was not correlated with its antioxidant ability.

  11. Biometric studies of the organs of cultures of Lepidium sativum following exposure to some polluted areas with regard to the pre-exposure ecological conditions of germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Tayyar, A J

    1981-06-01

    The present study deals with the reactions of the garden pepper cress when exposed to immission. It is mainly concerned with the question whether the plant changes its habit and individual organs or reduces than in size; it is investigated whether these changes will be modified by different ecological influences on germination. Places of exposition were: a site highly frequented by road traffic, a residential area where the influence of domestic fuel dominated and an open-land test station surrounded by fields and trees. Furthermore a gassing with 0,01, 0,1 and 0,2 ppm-SO/sub 2/ has carried out. Once the seed leafs were developed the cultures were taken to the exposition sites where they were left until ripeness. The following values were then determined: Overall weight of the plant, the epigeous scion wight, root weight, overall length, length of scion and roots, seed weight total and piece number of seeds. Results: Plants were found to differ in size considerably this is partly due to germination - and growth conditions, and partly to the influence of immissions.

  12. Efecto antioxidante del extracto hidroalcohólico de Lepidium meyenii en el modelo experimental de isquemia- reperfusión cerebral en ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Granda, Christian Jhonatan

    2014-01-01

    The strokes are common worldwide, and two thirds of this pathology occurs in developing countries like Peru. However, in Latin-American level, there is not enough epidemiologic information about this disease. Currently, many researches are being developed around the world aiming to decrease the neuronal injury that is produced by ischemia- reperfusion during this pathology. For this reason, the antioxidant mechanisms have been used to decrease the damage by the free radicals from the ischem...

  13. Preservation of Cognitive Function by Lepidium meyenii (Maca Is Associated with Improvement of Mitochondrial Activity and Upregulation of Autophagy-Related Proteins in Middle-Aged Mouse Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maca has been used as a foodstuff and a traditional medicine in the Andean region for over 2,000 years. Recently the neuroprotective effects of maca also arouse interest of researchers. Decrease in mitochondrial function and decline in autophagy signaling may participate in the process of age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate if maca could improve cognitive function of middle-aged mice and if this effect was associated with improvement of mitochondrial activity and modulation of autophagy signaling in mouse cortex. Fourteen-month-old male ICR mice received maca powder administered by gavage for five weeks. Maca improved cognitive function, motor coordination, and endurance capacity in middle-aged mice, accompanied by increased mitochondrial respiratory function and upregulation of autophagy-related proteins in cortex. Our findings suggest that maca is a newly defined nutritional plant which can improve mitochondrial function and upregulate autophagy-related proteins and may be an effective functional food for slowing down age-related cognitive decline.

  14. Perennial Pepperweed Patches - San Francisco Estuary [ds295

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer contains polygon data for the perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) database. This database represents distribution data collected within the areas...

  15. Research on possibilities of utilization of chosen Brassicaceae plants in protection of cucumber against damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Fusarium culmorum (W.G.SmithSacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew J. Burgieł

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine the usefulness of dried leaves of savoy cabbage, red cabbage, horse radish and fringed cabbage in protection of cucumber against damping-off caused by fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum. In the laboratory experiments, pathogens were grown on PDA containing dried leaves (3g·100 cm-3 and in atmosphere containing volatile substances evolved from plant material. The addition of radish horse leaves into PDA caused total inhibition of R. solani development. Remaining plants were also characterized by high fungistatic activity (% of growth inhibition about 85%. F. culmorum was less sensitive. The horse radish leaves showed the strongest activity (65 %, weakest in combination with fringed cabbage leaves (38,9%. The similar regularity in the case of fumigation activity was observed. The effectiveness of dried leaves in protection of cucumber against damping-off was confirmed in greenhouse experiment. The amendment of soil inoculated with R. solani in dose 2 g per 500 cm3 of soil significantly increased the number of cucumber sprouts compared to the control. In the experiment with F. culmorum only in combination with horse radish and red cabbage leaves significant action was observed.

  16. Glucosinolate diversity within a phylogenetic framework of the tribe Cardamineae (Brassicaceae) unraveled with HPLC-MS/MS and NMR-based analytical distinction of 70 desulfoglucosinolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Carl Erik; Huang, Xiao-Chen; Hansen, Cecilie I C; Cipollini, Don; Ørgaard, Marian; Matthes, Annemarie; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Koch, Marcus A; Agerbirk, Niels

    2016-12-01

    As a basis for future investigations of evolutionary trajectories and biosynthetic mechanisms underlying variations in glucosinolate structures, we screened members of the crucifer tribe Cardamineae by HPLC-MS/MS, isolated and identified glucosinolates by NMR, searched the literature for previous data for the tribe, and collected HPLC-MS/MS data for nearly all glucosinolates known from the tribe as well as some related structures (70 in total). This is a considerable proportion of the approximately 142 currently documented natural glucosinolates. Calibration with authentic references allowed distinction (or elucidation) of isomers in many cases, such as distinction of β-hydroxyls, methylthios, methylsulfinyls and methylsulfonyls. A mechanism for fragmentation of secondary β-hydroxyls in MS was elucidated, and two novel glucosinolates were discovered: 2-hydroxy-3-methylpentylglucosinolate in roots of Cardamine pratensis and 2-hydroxy-8-(methylsulfinyl)octylglucosinolate in seeds of Rorippa amphibia. A large number of glucosinolates (ca. 54 with high structural certainty and a further 28 or more suggested from tandem MS), representing a wide structural variation, is documented from the tribe. This included glucosinolates apparently derived from Met, Phe, Trp, Val/Leu, Ile and higher homologues. Normal side chain elongation and side chain decoration by oxidation or methylation was observed, as well as rare abnormal side chain decoration (hydroxylation of aliphatics at the δ rather than β-position). Some species had diverse profiles, e.g. R. amphibia and C. pratensis (19 and 16 individual glucosinolates, respectively), comparable to total diversity in literature reports of Armoracia rusticana (17?), Barbarea vulgaris (20-24), and Rorippa indica (>20?). The ancestor or the tribe would appear to have used Trp, Met, and homoPhe as glucosinolate precursor amino acids, and to exhibit oxidation of thio to sulfinyl, formation of alkenyls, β-hydroxylation of aliphatic chains and hydroxylation and methylation of indole glucosinolates. Two hotspots of apparent biochemical innovation and loss were identified: C. pratensis and the genus Barbarea. Diversity in other species mainly included structures also known from other crucifers. In addition to a role of gene duplication, two contrasting genetic/biochemical mechanisms for evolution of such combined diversity and redundancy are discussed: (i) involvement of widespread genes with expression varying during evolution, and (ii) mutational changes in substrate specificities of CYP79F and GS-OH enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Glucosinolate diversity within a phylogenetic framework of the tribe Cardamineae (Brassicaceae) unraveled with HPLC-MS/MS and NMR-based analytical distinction of 70 desulfoglucosinolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Carl Erik; Huang, Xiao-Chen; Hansen, Cecilie Ida Cetti

    2016-01-01

    . This included glucosinolates apparently derived from Met, Phe, Trp, Val/Leu, Ile and higher homologues. Normal side chain elongation and side chain decoration by oxidation or methylation was observed, as well as rare abnormal side chain decoration (hydroxylation of aliphatics at the δ rather than β...

  18. Capacidade reprodutiva e preferência da traça-das-crucíferas para diferentes brassicáceas Reproductive capacity and preference of the diamondback moth feeding on different brassicacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A De Bortoli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi comparar diferentes cultivares de brassicáceas em relação à capacidade reprodutiva e preferência para alimentação e oviposição da traça-das-crucíferas. Os experimentos foram realizados utilizando-se as cultivares de repolho Midori, Chato-de-Quintal, híbridos da Top Seed® - Agristar (TPC 308, TPC 681 e TPC 668, couve-flor Bola de Neve, couve brócolis Ramoso Piracicaba Precoce e couve Manteiga da Geórgia, sendo esta última utilizada como padrão de suscetibilidade. Por meio dos dados biológicos de P. xylostella foram estimados os parâmetros necessários para a construção de tabela de vida de fertilidade, para comparação das cultivares testadas em relação à capacidade reprodutiva da praga. Em gaiolas de criação da traça-das-crucíferas foram colocados quatro quartos de folha, dois a dois, que justapostos formavam um círculo de 8 cm de diâmetro, confrontando-se os materiais dois a dois. As partes foram dispostas equidistantemente, para realização do teste de dupla chance de escolha (preferência para alimentação e oviposição e de múltipla chance de escolha, confrontando todos os substratos (preferência para alimentação. As cultivares que proporcionaram melhor desenvolvimento e reprodução para a traça-das-crucíferas foram couve Manteiga da Geórgia e couve brócolis. Para preferência alimentar constatou-se alta suscetibilidade em couve Manteiga e TPC 681 e para preferência de oviposição alta preferência para couve-flor Bola de Neve. Com isso, sugere-se a divisão das cultivares estudadas em quatro classes distintas: repolho Midori como moderadamente resistente (MR; couve-flor Bola de Neve e repolho Chato-de-Quintal como suscetíveis (S; couve brócolis, TPC308, TPC681 e TPC668 como moderadamente suscetíveis (MS; e couve Manteiga como altamente suscetível (AS.We compared different cultivars of crucifer in relation to reproductive capacity and preference for feeding and oviposition of the diamondback moth. The experiments were carried out with the following cultivars: Midori and Chato-de-Quintal cabbage, hybrids of cabbage Top Seed® - Agristar (TPC 308, TPC 681 and TPC 668, cauliflower Bola de Neve, broccolis Ramoso Piracicaba Precoce and collard green Manteiga da Geórgia, being this last one used as the susceptible control. Through the biological parameters of P. xylostella we elaborated a fertility life table, Comparing the cultivars in relation to the pest reproductive capacity. Four leaf parts were placed in diamondback moth rearing chambers, being two leaves of the treatment and two of the control which, put together formed a circle with 8 cm in diameter. The parts were disposed in an equidistantly form, to perform the dual-choice test (feeding and oviposition preference and multiple-choice test, confronting all substrates (feeding preference. The cultivars that provided better development and reproduction for the diamondback moth were collard green Manteiga da Georgia and broccolis Ramoso Piracicaba Precoce. For feeding preference high susceptibility was verified in collard green Manteiga da Geórgia and TPC 681 and for oviposition preference high preference was observed for cauliflower Bola de Neve. Four different groups of cultivars could be formed: cabbage Midori as moderately resistant (MR; cauliflower Bola de Neve and cabbage Chato-de-Quintal as susceptible (S; broccolis, TPC 308, TPC 681 and TPC 668 as moderately susceptible (MS; and collard green as highly susceptible (HS.

  19. Effect of industrial dust on some test organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuck, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of industrial dust on the growth of Lepidium sativum Cress and on spore germination and germ-tube development of Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum was studied. Lepidium sativum was strongly inhibited and in most cases the fungi were stimulated. The effect was related to the species of trees and the district, where the dust-samples were collected.

  20. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Mscisz, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Barchia, I

    2006-12-01

    This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E230 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene's Score (GMS) and Kupperman's Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (PMaca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT).

  1. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (II) Physiological and Symptomatic Responses of Early-Postmenopausal Women to Standardized doses of Maca in Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multi-Centre Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Mscisz, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Kapczynski, W; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Barchia, I

    2006-12-01

    This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-corrected, outpatient, multi-centre (five sites) clinical study, in which a total of 168 Caucasian early-postmenopausal women volunteers (age>49 years) participated after fulfilling the criteria: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) >30 IU/ml and estrogen (E2) Maca (Maca-GO) treatment, according to different monthly treatment sequences scheduled for each site. Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day) during three (Trial I; n=102) or four (Trial II; n=66) months study periods. At the baseline and follow- up monthly intervals, blood levels of FSH, E2, progesterone (PRG) and lutinizing hormone (LH), as well as serum cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TRG), high- and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) were measured. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene's Score (GMS) and Kupperman's Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly results in one model and Maca versus Placebo contrast in another model. A total of 124 women concluded the study. Maca-GO significantly stimulated production of E2 (PMaca-GO significantly reduced both frequency and severity of individual menopausal symptoms (hot flushes and night sweating in particular) resulting in significant (P<0.001) alleviation of KMI (from 22 to 10), thus, offering an attractive non-hormonal addition to the choices available to early-postmenopausal women in the form of a natural plant alternative to Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) - hence, reducing dependence on hormone therapy programs.

  2. Descontaminación microbiana de la maca (Lepidium meyenii aplicando el sistema de esterilización orgánica (OSS para preservar sus propiedades nutricionales y sensoriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Guevara Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo aplicar el sistema de esterilización orgánica (OSS en maca, determinando los parámetros del proceso: tiempo y temperatura de inyección de vapor saturado que reduzcan el recuento de microorganismos aerobios, mohos, levaduras, E. Coli, salmonella y coliformes totales, y evaluando la influencia del proceso en el contenido total de glucosinolatos. La máxima descontaminación microbiana de la maca se logró aplicando una carga de 5 kg/saquillo, por 6 min. Con una temperatura de inyección de vapor saturado de 100 °C. Bajo estas condiciones, la reducción de la carga microbiana fue de 99,9% (< 10 UFC/g, 50% (< 10 UFC/g y 93,3% (< 10 UFC/g para aerobios, mohos, y levaduras, respectivamente; el comportamiento de patógenos fue muy similar al de la materia prima: E. coli < 3 UFC/g, ausencia de salmonella (25 g y < 3 UFC/g para coliformes totales. El contenido de glucosinolatos se mantuvo durante el proceso en 1,5 μmol/g, lo que evidenció que al aplicar la tecnología OSS se logra conservar la calidad nutricional, sensorial y funcional de la maca.

  3. Influencia del tamaño de partícula, humedad y temperatura en el grado de gelatinización durante el proceso de extrusión de maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp)

    OpenAIRE

    Vílchez Túpac, Luz M.; Guevara Pérez, Américo; Encina Zelada, Christian R.

    2012-01-01

    Se trabajó con maca procedente de la meseta del Bombón - Junín, que al ser evaluada reportó el siguiente contenido químico-proximal (porcentaje en base seca): proteína 14,61, grasa 0,90, fibra 5,85, ceniza 4,97 y carbohidratos 79,53. Fueron 20 los tratamientos sometidos a extrusión, obteniendo mejores resultados al trabajar con un tamaño de partícula comprendido entre 0,17 a 0,20 cm, 12% de humedad, temperatura de inicio de extrusión 100°C, rotación del tornillo 254 r.p.m. (velocidad baja) y ...

  4. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of N-3- methoxybenzyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methoxybenzyl-palmitamide (MPM) derived from Lepidium meyenii (Maca). Methods: MPM and N-benzylpalmitamide (BPM, as the internal standard, IS) were prepared by one-pot synthesis method and characterized. For the analysis of MPM in rat ...

  5. 18 - 23 LG Hassan accepted

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Key words: Lepidium sativum, proximate analysis, amino acid, minerals, and antinutrients. INTRODUCTION ... and soluble oxalate was determined using the meth- ods of Krishna and .... Oxalic acid combine with divalent cation such as Ca2+, ...

  6. Aphrodisiac properties of some Zimbabwean medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... 2Department of Agriculture, Animal health and Human Ecology, University of South ... ten used as aphrodisiac cross the blood brain barrier and ..... Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) roots on spermatogenesis of male rats.

  7. methoxybenzyl-palmitamide in rat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Macamide, Maca tuber, Lepidium meyenii, Pharmacokinetics, Tissue distribution, UPLC- .... evaluate the matrix effect (ME) of blank plasma ... dosing and brain, lung, heart, stomach, kidney, ..... Health and Human Services 2013.

  8. MX Siting Investigation. DTN/OBTS Field Surveys. Volume III. Biological Resources Nevada and Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-30

    Tumble mustard F MYCW Lepidium fremontii Desert pepperweed F CW,W CACTACEAE Echinocereus engelmannii Hedgehog cactus S MY Ferocactus acant’,jodes...Lepidium sp. Pepperweed F MS Sisymbrium altissimum Tumble mustard F Js Sisymbrium sp. Tumble mustard F BS CACTACEAE Echinocereus engelmannii Engelmannii...Streptanthella F BS,W lorostris StetnhlaTwist flower F PJ cordatus CACTACEAE Echinocereus Hedgehog cactus S BIS triglochidiatus Opuntia erinacea Prickly pear S PJ

  9. Ecological genomics of Boechera stricta: Identification of a QTL controlling the allocation of methionine- vs branched-chain amino acid-derived glucosinolates and levels of insect herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schranz, M.E.; Manzaneda, A.J.; Windsor, A.J.; Clauss, M.; Mitchell-Olds, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the Brassicaceae, glucosinolates influence the feeding, reproduction and development of many insect herbivores. Glucosinolate production and effects on herbivore feeding have been extensively studied in the model species, Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crops, both of which constitutively

  10. Intra-specific Differences in Root and Shoot Glucosinolate Profiles among White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Biere, A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Dam, van N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Shoot glucosinolate profiles of Brassicaceae are known to vary within species, across environmental conditions, and between developmental stages. Here we study whether root profiles follow the intra-specific, environmental, and developmental variation observed for aerial parts in white cabbage

  11. Crossfit analysis: a novel method to characterize the dynamics of induced plant responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Smilde, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Many plant species show induced responses that protect them against exogenous attacks. These responses involve the production of many different bioactive compounds. Plant species belonging to the Brassicaceae family produce defensive glucosinolates, which may greatly influence their

  12. Crossfit analysis: a novel method to characterize the dynamics of induced plant responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.J.; van Dam, N.M.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Smilde, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many plant species show induced responses that protect them against exogenous attacks. These responses involve the production of many different bioactive compounds. Plant species belonging to the Brassicaceae family produce defensive glucosinolates, which may greatly influence their

  13. Experimental hybridization of species in the genus Rorippa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarolímová, Vlasta

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 77, - (2005), s. 277-296 ISSN 0032-7786 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Brassicaceae * interspecific hybridization * ploidy level Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.545, year: 2005

  14. Assessment of a cabbage/pak choï crop association to manage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-20

    Jul 20, 2005 ... INTRODUCTION. The Brassicaceae has ... diversified culture where the resources are .... cabbage cultures. This tomato .... improve biological control: case study on pea and ... Phloem sap intricacy and interplay with aphid ...

  15. QTL list: [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT84688 Brassica oleracea Brassicaceae ... Flower buds_Aliphatic glucosinolates (Aliphatic) Glucosinolate Synt...hesis 4 fito375 LG_02 ... 90 7.1 ... 10.1371/journal.pone.0091428 24614913

  16. QTL list: [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thesis 4 pW125dE LG_03 ... 46 3.3 ... 10.1371/journal.pone.0091428 24614913 ... QT84689 Brassica oleracea Brassicaceae ... Flower buds_Aliphatic glucosinolates (Aliphatic ) Glucosinolate Syn

  17. QTL list: [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT84692 Brassica oleracea Brassicaceae ... Flower buds_Aliphatic glucosinolates (Aliphatic) Glucosinolate Synt...hesis 4 BRMS042, BRMS050 LG_07 ... 43 20.3 ... 10.1371/journal.pone.0091428 24614913

  18. QTL list: [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT84691 Brassica oleracea Brassicaceae ... Flower buds_Aliphatic glucosinolates (Aliphatic) Glucosinolate Synt...hesis 4 ... LG_03 ... 100 5.3 ... 10.1371/journal.pone.0091428 24614913

  19. Elucidating the Roles of Transport Processes in Glucosinolate Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Svend Roesen

    Glucosinolates are plant defense compounds characteristic of the economically important plant family of Brassicaceae, which comprises crops as oilseed rape, cabbage, broccoli and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Recently, two Arabidopsis glucosinolate transporters, GTR1 and GTR2...

  20. Sequestration of Glucosinolates and Iridoid Glucosides in Sawfly Species of the Genus Athalia and Their Role in Defense Against Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opitz, Sebastian E. W.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Müller, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the larval sequestration abilities and defense effectiveness of four sawfly species of the genus Athalia (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) that feed as larvae either on members of the Brassicaceae or Plantaginaceae were investigated. Brassicaceae are characterized by glucosinolates (GLSs...... hemolymph of the GLSsequestering conspicuous A. rosae larvae. The results show that glucoside sequestration is widespread in the genus Athalia, but that the specific glucoside uptake can result in different defense effectiveness against a predator species....

  1. Efecto del extracto metanólico y las fracciones acuosa y butanólica de Lepidium meyenii variedad roja sobre la función renal en ratas Sprague-Dawley macho tratadas durante 90 días

    OpenAIRE

    Bernuy Hurtado, Jeanette Marlene

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: La fracción n-butanólica del extracto metanólico de maca contiene alcaloides que se ha sugerido pueden ser tóxicos. Objetivo: conocer el efecto de la administración del extracto metanólico y la fracción acuosa y butanólica de maca roja por vía orogástrica sobre la función renal de ratas Sprague-Dawley macho durante 90 días. Métodos: Se distribuyeron en: Grupo 1: control (agua destilada), Grupo 2: (1g de extracto metanólico de maca roja/k/día), Grupo 3: (0.89gr de fracción acuosa...

  2. In Vitro antibacterial activity of rumex nervosus, plantago lanceolata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The finding indicated that Rumex nervosus showed have the highest zone of inhibition (20mm) against the genus Salmonella followed by Plantago lanceolata with the zone of inhibition (16mm) against L. monocytogenes. On the other hand, Lepidium sativum and Solanum incanum did not have any antibacterial activity ...

  3. 7 CFR 361.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... trichoglume Robyns Pea, field—Pisum sativum L. Peanut—Arachis hypogaea L. Poa trivialis—(see Bluegrass, rough... intybus L. Chives—Allium schoenoprasum L. Citron—Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai var...—Lepidium sativum L. Cress, upland—Barbarea verna (Mill.) Asch. Cress, water—Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L...

  4. Heavy Metals in selected Edible Vegetables and their daily intake in Sanandaj, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alasvand Zarasvand, M.; Maleki, A.

    2009-01-01

    The levels of four different heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu)] were determined in various vegetables [leek (Allium ampeloprasum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), parsley (Petroselium cripsum), gardem cress (lepidium sativum) and tarragon (Artemisia dracuncullus)] cultivated around the Sanandaj city. (Author)

  5. 7 CFR 201.2 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... antidotale Retz. Panicgrass, green—Panicum maximum Jacq. var. trichoglume Robyns Pea, field—Pisum sativum L.... Chard, Swiss—Beta vulgaris L. subsp. cicla (L.) Koch Chicory—Cichorium intybus L. Chives—Allium....) Laterrade Cowpea—Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Cress, garden—Lepidium sativum L. Cress...

  6. Promotion of Testa Rupture during Garden Cress Germination Involves Seed Compartment-Specific Expression and Activity of Pectin Methylesterases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scheler, C.; Weitbrecht, K.; Pearce, S.; Hampstead, A.; Buettner-Mainik, A.; Lee, K.J.D.; Voegele, A.; Mueller, K.; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 1 (2015), s. 200-215 ISSN 0032-0889 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : AVOCADO PERSEA-AMERICANA * ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA * LEPIDIUM-SATIVUM Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.280, year: 2015

  7. Heavy Metals in selected Edible Vegetables and their daily intake in Sanandaj, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alasvand Zarasvand, M; Maleki, A

    2009-07-01

    The levels of four different heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu)] were determined in various vegetables [leek (Allium ampeloprasum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), parsley (Petroselium cripsum), gardem cress (lepidium sativum) and tarragon (Artemisia dracuncullus)] cultivated around the Sanandaj city. (Author)

  8. Phytotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride and Uptake of Fluoride in Willow Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Gosewinkel Karlson, Ulrich; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The willow tree (Salix viminalis) toxicity test and a cress seed germination test (Lepidium sativum) were used to determine uptake and phytotoxicity of NaF. Concentrations in hydroponic solutions were 0-1000 mg F/L and 0-400 mg F/L in the preliminary and definitive test. A third test was done...

  9. 77 FR 16252 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ..., you may use one of the following methods to request hard copies or a CD-ROM of the documents. Please... barnebyi (Barneby reed-mustard). Lepidium barnebyanum (Barneby ridge-cress). Astragalus holmgreniorum... cactus). Astragalus ampullarioides (Shivwitz milk-vetch). Schoenocrambe suffrutescens (Shrubby reed...

  10. 78 FR 37564 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    .... Alternatively, you may use one of the following methods to request hard copies or a CD-ROM of the documents...) Barneby ridge-cress (Lepidium barnebyanum), Barney reed-mustard (Schoenocrambe barnebyi), Holmgren milk... (Pediocactus despainii), Shivwitz milk-vetch (Astragalus ampullarioides), shrubby reed-mustard (Schoenocrambe...

  11. Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mg, Al, Ti, and S contents in plants and soil of heaps of nickel smelting works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasova, V; Hajduk, J

    1977-01-01

    The writers established the Fe, Ce, Cr, Ni, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti and S contents in the neopedon of heaps piling up from processing of nickel ore as well as in the plants: Cardaria draba, Salsola cali, Agropyrum repens, Bromus erectus, Calamagrostis epigeios, Cynodon dactylon and Matricaria inodora, growing on such heaps. Ca, Mg and S contents were found to be higher in dicotyledons and Fe, Al, Ti, Ni and Cr contents higher in monocotyledons. The analyzed dicotyledons appeared to be concentrators of Ca and S. Highest Fe, Al, Ti, Ni and Cr contents were found in individuals of the species Agropyrum repens. The neopedon as well as the plants had extraordinarily high Cr concentrations. The species Salsola cali has been found to possess an unusually higher affinity to the dump substrate after processing of nickel ore and to be a concentrator of Mg. 16 references, 1 table.

  12. Optimization of seed germination in an Iranian serpentine endemic, Fortuynia garcinii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salehi Eskandari, Behrooz; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Schat, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Fortuynia garcinii (Brassicaceae) is endemic to serpentine soils in central Iran. It has indehiscent silicles. The effects of its fruit pericarp on seed imbibition and germination were determined. The effects of moist chilling (15 days) and gibberellic acid (GA3, four levels), both alone and

  13. Integrating winter camelina into maize and soybean cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.] is an industrial oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family with multiple uses. Currently, camelina is not used as a cover crop, but it has the potential to be used as such in maize (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] systems. The objectives of this st...

  14. New floristic records in the Balkans: 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    -50, 59-61, 70, 71, 79, 80), Berberidaceae (62), Brassicaceae (17, 27, 35), Campanulaceae (3, 4, 42-44), Caryophyllaceae (5, 28, 72, 81), Commelinaceae (22), Crassulaceae (29), Fabaceae (7-10, 36, 51-58, 63, 82, 83), Geraniaceae (18), Guttiferae (73), Iridaceae (31-33), Lamiaceae (74), Liliaceae s.l. (11...

  15. New floristic records in the Balkans: 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarkos, G.; Christodoulou, V.; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    ), Berberidaceae (81), Boraginaceae (1–3, 82), Brassicaceae (4, 5, 26, 27), Campanulaceae (6, 28, 29, 83), Caprifoliaceae (30), Chenopodiaceae (7), Cistaceae (8), Cornaceae (31), Crassulaceae (32–34), Dipsacaceae (84), Euphorbiaceae (64), Fabaceae (9–13, 35, 36, 65, 74), Gentianaceae (37, 38), Geraniaceae (39, 72...

  16. New floristic records in the Balkans: 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    ), Boraginaceae (6, 7), Brassicaceae (8, 9, 43-49, 70), Campanulaceae (10, 11, 98), Caryophyllaceae (12- (6, 7), (8, 9, 43-49, 70), (10, 11, 98), (12- 14, 50, 71, 72), Chenopodiaceae (15), Crassulaceae (61, 91), Cyperaceae (22, 23), Dryopteridaceae (59), Fabaceae (62, 73-75, 92, 99), Geraniaceae (63), Lamiaceae...

  17. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    FORMATION OF ADVANCED GLYCATED END PRODUCTS IN RAT BRAIN. ... groups III-V were treated daily with whey protein (1g/kg b.w) or Brassicaceae extract (1mg/kg b.w) or combined ... Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and ... Signal transduction is involved in cell function [Agrawal etal., 2005], development [etal.

  18. When fathers are instant losers: homogenization of rDNA loci in recently formed Cardamine X schulzii trigenomic allopolyploid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zozomová-Lihová, J.; Mandáková, T.; Kovaříková, Alena; Muehlhausen, A.; Mummenhoff, K.; Lysák, M. A.; Kovařík, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 203, č. 4 (2014), s. 1096-1108 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Brassicaceae * concerted evolution * hybridization Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 7.672, year: 2014

  19. Role of glucosinolates in insect-plant relationships and multitrophic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopkins, R.J.; Dam, van N.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates present classical examples of plant compounds affecting insect-plant interactions. They are found mainly in the family Brassicaceae, which includes several important crops. More than 120 different glucosinolates are known. The enzyme myrosinase, which is stored in specialized plant

  20. Scientific Opinion on erucic acid in feed and food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Erucic acid is the trivial name of the fatty acid cis-13-docosenoic acid and occurs at high concentrations mainly in the seeds of species of the Brassicaceae (e.g. rape seed or mustard seed). The European Commission requested EFSA to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human...

  1. Weeds that can do both tricks: vegetative versus generative regeneration of short-lived root-sprouting herbs Rorippa palustris and Barbarea vulgaris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Kociánová, Alena; Martínková, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2008), s. 131-135 ISSN 0043-1737 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Adventitious sprouting * disturbance * Brassicaceae Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.793, year: 2008

  2. Biotechnology for improving hydroxy fatty acid production in lesquerella

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Lesquerella [Physaria fendleri (A. Gray)], formerly Lesquerella fendleri, (Brassicaceae), being developed as a new industrial oilseed crop in the southwestern region of the United States, is valued for its unusual hydroxy fatty acid (HFA) in seed. The majority of HFA in lesquerella is lesquerolic...

  3. The Three Lineages of the Diploid Hybrid Verticillium longisporum Differ in Virulence and Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakazi, Fluturë; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sandoya, German; Hayes, Ryan J; von Tiedemann, Andreas; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2015-05-01

    Verticillium longisporum is an economically important vascular pathogen of Brassicaceae crops in different parts of the world. V. longisporum is a diploid hybrid that consists of three different lineages, each of which originated from a separate hybridization event between two different sets of parental species. We used 20 isolates representing the three V. longisporum lineages and the relative V. dahliae, and performed pathogenicity tests on 11 different hosts, including artichoke, cabbage, cauliflower, cotton, eggplant, horseradish, lettuce, linseed, oilseed rape (canola), tomato, and watermelon. V. longisporum was overall more virulent on the Brassicaceae crops than V. dahliae, which was more virulent than V. longisporum across the non-Brassicaceae crops. There were differences in virulence between the three V. longisporum lineages. V. longisporum lineage A1/D1 was the most virulent lineage on oilseed rape, and V. longisporum lineage A1/D2 was the most virulent lineage on cabbage and horseradish. We also found that on the non-Brassicaceae hosts eggplant, tomato, lettuce, and watermelon, V. longisporum was more or equally virulent than V. dahliae. This suggests that V. longisporum may have a wider potential host range than currently appreciated.

  4. Genotype-environment interactions affect flower and fruit herbivory and plant chemistry of Arabidopsis thaliana in a transplant experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosleh Arany, A.; de Jong, T.; Kim, H.K.; Van Dam, N.M.; Choi, Y.L.; van Mil, H.G.J.; Verpoorte, R.; van der Meijden, E.

    2009-01-01

    Large differences exist in flower and fruit herbivory between dune and inland populations of plants of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae). Two specialist weevils Ceutorhynchus atomus and C. contractus (Curculionidae) and their larvae are responsible for this pattern in herbivory. We test, by means

  5. QTL list: QTL1 [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT58275 Brassica oleracea Brassicaceae QTL1 fusarium resistance fusarium wilt resi...stance trait, Foc-Bo1 (fusarium wilt-resistant) gene (QTL2) 3 ... LG_O04 ... 42.2 2.06 ... 10.1007/s11032-011-9665-8 ...

  6. QTL list: QTL2 [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT58276 Brassica oleracea Brassicaceae QTL2 fusarium resistance fusarium wilt resi...stance trait, Foc-Bo1 (fusarium wilt-resistant) gene (QTL2) 3 ... LG_O07 ... 30.1 19.5 ... 10.1007/s11032-011-9665-8 ...

  7. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) in plants: origin, classification, and use as phylogenetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deragon, Jean-Marc; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2006-12-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a class of dispersed mobile sequences that use RNA as an intermediate in an amplification process called retroposition. The presence-absence of a SINE at a given locus has been used as a meaningful classification criterion to evaluate phylogenetic relations among species. We review here recent developments in the characterisation of plant SINEs and their use as molecular makers to retrace phylogenetic relations among wild and cultivated Oryza and Brassica species. In Brassicaceae, further use of SINE markers is limited by our partial knowledge of endogenous SINE families (their origin and evolution histories) and by the absence of a clear classification. To solve this problem, phylogenetic relations among all known Brassicaceae SINEs were analyzed and a new classification, grouping SINEs in 15 different families, is proposed. The relative age and size of each Brassicaceae SINE family was evaluated and new phylogenetically supported subfamilies were described. We also present evidence suggesting that new potentially active SINEs recently emerged in Brassica oleracea from the shuffling of preexisting SINE portions. Finally, the comparative evolution history of SINE families present in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea revealed that SINEs were in general more active in the Brassica lineage. The importance of these new data for the use of Brassicaceae SINEs as molecular markers in future applications is discussed.

  8. Arabidopsis genotypes resistant and susceptible to diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Putellidea): No net effects on insect growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutella xylostella (L.), diamondback moth (DBM) is a destructive pest of the Brassicaceae including Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynhold. Ecotypes of Arabidopsis vary in the amounts of leaf area consumed when fed on by DBM, which has been used as a measure of resistance to DBM. Recombinant inbred lin...

  9. AFLP markers for the R-gene in the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum, conferring resistance to defenses in Barbarea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuker, C.J.; Victoir, K.; Jong, de P.W.; Meijden, van der E.; Brakefield, P.M.; Vrieling, K.

    2005-01-01

    A so-called R-gene renders the yellow-striped flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) resistant to the defenses of the yellow rocket Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. (Brassicacea) and enables it to use it as a host plant in Denmark. In this study, genetic markers for an

  10. An atlas of over 90.000 conserved noncoding sequences provides insight into crucifer regulatory regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haudry, A.; Platts, A.E.; Vello, E.; Hoen, D.R.; Leclerq, M.; Williamson, R.J.; Forczek, E.; Joly-Lopez, Z.; Steffen, J.G.; Hazzouri, K.M.; Dewar, K.; Stinchcombe, J.R.; Schoen, D.J.; Wang, X.; Schmutz, J.; Town, C.D.; Edger, P.P.; Pires, J.C.; Schumaker, K.S.; Jarvis, D.E.; Mandakova, T.; Lysak, M.; Bergh, van den E.; Schranz, M.E.; Harrison, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the central importance of noncoding DNA to gene regulation and evolution, understanding of the extent of selection on plant noncoding DNA remains limited compared to that of other organisms. Here we report sequencing of genomes from three Brassicaceae species (Leavenworthia alabamica,

  11. Isolation and identification of 4-a-rhamnosyloxy benzyl glucosinolate in Noccaea caerulescens showing intraspecific variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de R.M.; Krosse, S.; Swolfs, A.E.M.; Brinke, te E.; Prill, N.; Leimu, R.; Galen, van P.M.; Wang, Y.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Dam, van N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are secondary plant compounds typically found in members of the Brassicaceae and a few other plant families. Usually each plant species contains a specific subset of the ~130 different glucosinolates identified to date. However, intraspecific variation in glucosinolate profiles is

  12. Spatiotemporal distribution and impact of diamondback moth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine the distribution of parasitoid species, their parasitism rates on pest populations in relation to environmental conditions in the main ... not familiar with this control method and their cultural practices (including the use of .... Dakar Niayes has good growing conditions for several Brassicaceae crops but several.

  13. Scientific opinion: Erucic acid in feed and food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Erucic acid is the trivial name of the fatty acid cis-13-docosenoic acid and occurs at high concentrations mainly in the seeds of species of the Brassicaceae (e.g. rape seed or mustard seed). The European Commission requested EFSA to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human

  14. Rapid Communication. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hym.: Eulophidae parasitoid of Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfalizadeh Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae is reported on Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae in northwestern Iran. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae was reared for the first time on B. tremblayi, and compared with Tamarixia tremblayi, another parasitoid of B. tremblayi. This is a new record of T. monesus from the Middle East.

  15. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don) Dur. And schinz (apocynaceae) ... Signaling pathways regulated by Brassicaceae extract inhibit the formation of advanced glycated end products in rat brain · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  16. Use of organic waste as biofumigant for controlling root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, D. I. P.; Lisnawita; Oemry, S.; Safni, I.; Lubis, K.; Tantawi, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    Root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) is one of the important pathogens that causes big impact on potato crop yields. One of the control strategies for controlling this nematode is the use of biofumigants. Biofumigants are volatile toxic compound derived from plants, and have biocide properties against insects and plant pathogens. Organic waste such as Brassicaceae, Leguminoceae, and Solanaceae can be used as biofumigant sources. This research was conducted to determine the effectiveness of Brassicaceae, Leguminoceae, and Solanaceae as biofumigants against Meloidogyne spp. The experiment was set in a completely randomized design (CRD) with the treatments were organic wastes including Brassicaceae, Leguminoceae, and Solanaceae, both single and combinations, and 2 controls (positive and negative controls) with 3 replications. Each of the biofumigant treatments was prepared and stored for 2 weeks. Potato tubers were transplanted 15 days after germination into polybag inoculated with 1,000 Meloidogyne spp. J2s. The results showed that Brassicaceae + Solanaceae were effective in decreasing the number of galls in potato plants, however only Solanaceae improved plant growth.

  17. QTL list: [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT29022 Brassica oleracea Brassicaceae ... regeneration from protoplasts_O2/C8 A trai...t contributing to the plant-regeneration ability of protoplast-derived microcalli ... XsORA43-185/178 LG_O02/C8 ... 17 4.75 ... 10.1007/s00122-003-1570-z 14740090

  18. QTL list: [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT29023 Brassica oleracea Brassicaceae ... regeneration from protoplasts_O9/C7 A trai...t contributing to the plant-regeneration ability of protoplast-derived microcalli ... LG_O02/C8 ... 11 2.93 ... 10.1007/s00122-003-1570-z 14740090

  19. QTL list: [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT29021 Brassica oleracea Brassicaceae ... regeneration from protoplasts_O2/C8 A trai...t contributing to the plant-regeneration ability of protoplast-derived microcalli ... XsORA43-185/178 LG_O02/C8 ... 17 4.64 ... 10.1007/s00122-003-1570-z 14740090

  20. QTL list: [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT29024 Brassica oleracea Brassicaceae ... regeneration from protoplasts_O9/C7 A trai...t contributing to the plant-regeneration ability of protoplast-derived microcalli ... LG_O02/C8 ... 11 4.65 ... 10.1007/s00122-003-1570-z 14740090

  1. QTL list: [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT29020 Brassica oleracea Brassicaceae ... regeneration from protoplasts_O2/C8 A trai...t contributing to the plant-regeneration ability of protoplast-derived microcalli ... XsORA43-185/178 LG_O02/C8 ... 16 3 ... 10.1007/s00122-003-1570-z 14740090

  2. QTL list: [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available QT29025 Brassica oleracea Brassicaceae ... regeneration from protoplasts_O9/C7 A trai...t contributing to the plant-regeneration ability of protoplast-derived microcalli ... LG_O02/C8 ... 11 4.68 ... 10.1007/s00122-003-1570-z 14740090

  3. A previously undescribed jasmonate compound in flowering Arabidopsis thaliana - The identification of cis-(+)-OPDA-Ile

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Floková, K.; Feussner, K.; Herrfurth, C.; Miersch, O.; Mik, V.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Feussner, I.; Wasternack, Claus; Novák, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, FEB (2016), s. 230-237 ISSN 0031-9422 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) * Jasmonates * Cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoyl-L- iso leucine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.205, year: 2016

  4. Phylogenetic signal in growth and reproductive traits and in their plasticity: the Descurainia radiation in the Canary Islands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herben, Tomáš; Rydlová, Věra; Fér, T.; Suda, Jan; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Wildová, Radka; Wild, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 3 (2014), s. 384-398 ISSN 0024-4074 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/0081 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : phenotypic plasticity * Brassicaceae * phylogenetic constraints Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.534, year: 2014

  5. Flavonoids from cabbage are feeding stimulants for diamondback moth larvae additional to glucosinolates : chemoreception and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.A.; Wang, C.Z.; Nielsen, J.K.; Gols, R.; Qiu, Y.T.

    2002-01-01

    In caterpillars two styloconic contact chemoreceptors on the maxillary galea are assumed to contain the main taste receptors involved in host plant selection. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. is a specialist feeder of plants in the Brassicaceae, a plant family characterized by the

  6. Can we “cultivate” erucic acid in southern Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Zanetti

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years, considerable progress has been made in the field of “green chemistry”, as regards both research aspects and market development. In particular, extraction of erucic acid (C22:1 from plants and its industrial applications have received increasing attention. At present, known species producing oils yielding large quantities of erucic acid belong, with few exceptions, to the Brassicaceae family. Among these, the two major sources of erucic acid in the world are HEAR (High Erucic Acid Rapeseed, Brassica napus var. oleifera and crambe (Crambe abyssinica, both mainly cultivated in the USA. Their cultivation has also recently been considered and extended to southern Europe, supported by specific research projects. The quantity of erucic acid in Brassicaceae oils ranges greatly, from 55% in Crambe abyssinica to nearly zero in some varieties of Brassica napus var. oleifera. Even more differentiated and peculiar to each species and variety is adaptability to specific climatic and soil conditions. In this regard, the major limitation to the cultivation of some interesting Brassicaceae species, crambe in particular, is their poor tolerance to cold. Among Brassicaceae producing erucic acid, the less frequently cultivated species, such as Brassica juncea and B. carinata, if grown in areas with relatively mild winters, may give yields of seed and oil similar to those of the most productive rapeseed genotypes. Within this framework, in order to achieve high production of erucic acid, it is essential to identify the most productive genotypes, among available species, for each environment. In this report, seed and oil productions of some important Brassicaceae species for extraction of erucic acid, derived from 15 years of field trials in northern Italy, are discussed in relation to the possibility of autumn or spring sowing.

  7. Genome-wide survey of flavonoid biosynthesis genes and gene expression analysis between black- and yellow-seeded Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunmin Qu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids, the compounds that impart color to fruits, flowers, and seeds, are the most widespread secondary metabolites in plants. However, a systematic analysis of these loci has not been performed in Brassicaceae. In this study, we isolated 649 nucleotide sequences related to flavonoid biosynthesis, i.e., the Transparent Testa (TT genes, and their associated amino acid sequences in 17 Brassicaceae species, grouped into Arabidopsis or Brassicaceae subgroups. Moreover, 36 copies of 21 genes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway were identified in A. thaliana, 53 were identified in B. rapa, 50 in B. oleracea, and 95 in B. napus, followed the genomic distribution, collinearity analysis and genes triplication of them among Brassicaceae species. The results showed that the extensive gene loss, whole genome triplication, and diploidization that occurred after divergence from the common ancestor. Using qRT-PCR methods, we analyzed the expression of eighteen flavonoid biosynthesis genes in 6 yellow- and black-seeded B. napus inbred lines with different genetic background, found that 12 of which were preferentially expressed during seed development, whereas the remaining genes were expressed in all B. napus tissues examined. Moreover, fourteen of these genes showed significant differences in expression level during seed development, and all but four of these (i.e., BnTT5, BnTT7, BnTT10, and BnTTG1 had similar expression patterns among the yellow- and black-seeded B. napus. Results showed that the structural genes (BnTT3, BnTT18 and BnBAN, regulatory genes (BnTTG2 and BnTT16 and three encoding transfer proteins (BnTT12, BnTT19, and BnAHA10 might play an crucial roles in the formation of different seed coat colors in B. napus. These data will be helpful for illustrating the molecular mechanisms of flavonoid biosynthesis in Brassicaceae species.

  8. Chemical profiling analysis of Maca using UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS coupled with UHPLC-ESI-QqQ MS and the neuroprotective study on its active ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yanyan; Li, Peng; Brantner, Adelheid; Wang, Hongjie; Shu, Xinbin; Yang, Jian; Si, Nan; Han, Lingyu; Zhao, Haiyu; Bian, Baolin

    2017-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca), originated from Peru, has been cultivated widely in China as a popular health care food. However, the chemical and effective studies of Maca were less in-depth, which restricted its application seriously. To ensure the quality of Maca, a feasible and accurate strategy was established. One hundred and sixty compounds including 30 reference standards were identified in 6 fractions of methanol extract of Maca by UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS. Among them, 15 representative active...

  9. Moderately inhibitory effects of N-dodecyloxymethylene-N-methylpiperidinium and N-dodecyloxymethylene-N-methylmorpholinium chlorides on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław J. Knypl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available N-Dodecyloxymethylene-N-methylpiperidinium chloride (DMMP and N-dodecyloxyme-thylene-N-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMMM retarded germination of seeds of 9 cultivated plant species when applied at a concentration of 10-3 M, and inhibited germination at a concentration of 10-2 M. The exceptions were represented by Lepidium sativum L. and Linum usitatissimum L. seeds which germinated well even in 10-2 M solutions of either DMMP or DMMM.

  10. Vascular plant biodiversity of the lower Coppermine River valley and vicinity (Nunavut, Canada: an annotated checklist of an Arctic flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery M. Saarela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Coppermine River in western Nunavut is one of Canada’s great Arctic rivers, yet its vascular plant flora is poorly known. Here, we report the results of a floristic inventory of the lower Coppermine River valley and vicinity, including Kugluk (Bloody Falls Territorial Park and the hamlet of Kugluktuk. The study area is approximately 1,200 km2, extending from the forest-tundra south of the treeline to the Arctic coast. Vascular plant floristic data are based on a review of all previous collections from the area and more than 1,200 new collections made in 2014. Results are presented in an annotated checklist, including citation of all specimens examined, comments on taxonomy and distribution, and photographs for a subset of taxa. The vascular plant flora comprises 300 species (311 taxa, a 36.6% increase from the 190 species documented by previous collections made in the area over the last century, and is considerably more diverse than other local floras on mainland Nunavut. We document 207 taxa for Kugluk (Bloody Falls Territorial Park, an important protected area for plants on mainland Nunavut. A total of 190 taxa are newly recorded for the study area. Of these, 14 taxa (13 species and one additional variety are newly recorded for Nunavut (Allium schoenoprasum, Carex capitata, Draba lonchocarpa, Eremogone capillaris subsp. capillaris, Sabulina elegans, Eleocharis quinqueflora, Epilobium cf. anagallidifolium, Botrychium neolunaria, Botrychium tunux, Festuca altaica, Polygonum aviculare, Salix ovalifolia var. arctolitoralis, Salix ovalifolia var. ovalifolia and Stuckenia pectinata, seven species are newly recorded for mainland Nunavut (Carex gynocrates, Carex livida, Cryptogramma stelleri, Draba simmonsii, Festuca viviparoidea subsp. viviparoidea, Juncus alpinoarticulatus subsp. americanus and Salix pseudomyrsinites and 56 range extensions are reported. The psbA-trnH and rbcL DNA sequence data were used to help identify the three Botrychium

  11. Floristic changes at Khersan Glacier Territory, Alamkuh Mountain, Central Alborz, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOUROSH KAVOUSI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Kavousi K, Nejadsattari T, Asri Y, Ejtehadi H, Khavari-Nejad RA. 2016. Floristic changes at Khersan Glacier Territory, Alamkuh Mountain, Central Alborz, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 17: 11-15. Extensive investigation in subnival-nival area around Khersan glacier moraine introduced 71 vascular plant species. From this list 43 species have been listed in Noroozi (2001 in “ subnival-nival vascular plant species of Iran : a unique high mountain flora and its threat from climate warming ” and the others are new for subnival- nival area of Iran. Among this plant list 31 species had introduced with Kotschy (1861a,b, Bornmuller (1904, Melchior (1937, Klein (1982, european researchers and the other is named for the first time from Khersan glacier territory. Many species such as Astragalus macrosemius, Pseudocamelina kleinii, Crepis multicaulis subsp. congesta, Didymophysa fedtschenkoana and Draba melanopus due to glacier condition have very sensitive habitat, vulnerable and only gathered from restrict area with conservation value. Vegetation change happened in many nival and subnival area with upward movement in the same habitat and movement from lower altitude at alpine towards summit in subnival and nival. Carex oreophila, Campanula stevenii, Bromus barchystachyus, Oxytropis immersa, Erigeron uniflorus,Trachydium pauciradiatum, Scorzonera radicosa and some other species are surprisingly movement to subnival area and many nival and subnival species such as Didymophysa aucheri, Didymophysa fedtschenkoana, Dracocephalum aucheri and Arabis caucasica have come significantly upward in nival. The movement is different in all side of Khersan glacier moraine in north, south and the east (beside moraine tongue slops and limited with presence of soil natural generation and other ecological remarks. Limitation for soil generation starts at different altitude in northern, southern and eastern slopes of Khersan glacier valley. This study examined

  12. Protein-accumulating cells and dilated cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum in three glucosinolate-containing genera: Armoracia, Capparis, Drypetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, L B; Behnke, H D; Mabry, T J

    1977-01-01

    Three glucosinolate-containing species, Armoracia rusticana Gaertner, Meyer et Scherbius (Brassicaceae), Capparis cynophallophora L. (Capparaceae) and Drypetes roxburghii (Wall.) Hurusawa (Euphorbiaceae), are shown by both light and electron microscopy to contain protein-accumulating cells (PAC). The PAC of Armoracia and Copparis (former "myrosin cells") occur as idioblasts. The PAC of Drypetes are usual members among axial phloem parenchyma cells rather than idioblasts. In Drypetes the vacuoles of the PAC are shown ultrastructurally to contain finely fibrillar material and to originate from local dilatations of the endoplasmic reticulum. The vacuoles in PAC of Armoracia and Capparis seem to originate in the same way; but ultrastructurally, their content is finely granular. In addition, Armoracia and Capparis are shown by both light and electron microscopy to contain dilated cisternae (DC) of the endoplasmic reticulum in normal parenchyma cells, in accord with previous findings for several species within Brassicaceae. The relationship of PAC and DC to glucosinolates and the enzyme myrosinase is discussed.

  13. Determination of glucosinolates in 19 Chinese medicinal plants with spectrophotometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Liang, Hao; Yuan, Qipeng; Hong, Yuancheng

    2010-08-01

    Glucosinolates were evaluated in 19 traditional Chinese medicinal plants involved in seven different families: Brassicaceae, Capparaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Caricaceae and Rubiaceae. The total glucosinolate contents were determined by spectrophotometry. Results showed that the high contents of total glucosinolates were found in some herbs of Brassicaceae, Capparaceae and Euphorbiaceae families, while low total glucosinolate contents were observed in two Rubiaceae herbs. In addition, eight glucosinolates (glucoraphanin, glucoraphenin, sinalbin, sinigrin, progoitrin, 4-hydroglucobrassicin, glucoiberin and glucoibervirin) in these herbs were measured using HPLC, and the data showed that individual glucosinolates and their contents varied at different degrees among the distinct species. The highest contents of cancer-protective compounds were found in the seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (glucoraphenin), Sinapis alba (sinalbin) and Phyllanthus emblica L. (sinigrin).

  14. Gene duplication, silencing and expression alteration govern the molecular evolution of PRC2 genes in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Hazuka Y; Suenaga, Kazuya; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Yoshida, Takanori; Kawabe, Akira

    2016-10-13

    PRC2 genes were analyzed for their number of gene duplications, d N /d S ratios and expression patterns among Brassicaceae and Gramineae species. Although both amino acid sequences and copy number of the PRC2 genes were generally well conserved in both Brassicaceae and Gramineae species, we observed that some rapidly evolving genes experienced duplications and expression pattern changes. After multiple duplication events, all but one or two of the duplicated copies tend to be silenced. Silenced copies were reactivated in the endosperm and showed ectopic expression in developing seeds. The results indicated that rapid evolution of some PRC2 genes is initially caused by a relaxation of selective constraint following the gene duplication events. Several loci could become maternally expressed imprinted genes and acquired functional roles in the endosperm.

  15. Analyse fonctionnelle de la protéine WSCP chez Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Boex-Fontvieille , Edouard

    2010-01-01

    Class II WSCP proteins (Watersoluble Chlorophyll binding Proteins) are soluble proteins that interact with chlorophyll and its derivatives in Brassicaceae. These proteins belong to the protease inhibitor family and they are induced by abiotic stress under light conditions. To date, their functions in plants are not well documented. The aim of this study is to characterize the physiological function of a WSCP protein in model plants Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrated initially that theWSCP ...

  16. Comparison of Different Solvents and Extraction Methods for Isolation of Phenolic Compounds from Horseradish Roots (Armoracia rusticana)

    OpenAIRE

    Lolita Tomsone; Zanda Kruma; Ruta Galoburda

    2012-01-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial herb belonging to the Brassicaceae family and contains biologically active substances. The aim of the current research was to determine best method for extraction of phenolic compounds from horseradish roots showing high antiradical activity. Three genotypes (No. 105; No. 106 and variety ‘Turku’) of horseradish roots were extracted with eight different solvents: n-hexane, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, 2-propanol, acetone, ethanol (95%), ethanol...

  17. Genome Sequence of the Necrotrophic Plant Pathogen Alternaria brassicicola Abra43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmas, Elodie; Briand, Martial; Kwasiborski, Anthony; Colou, Justine; N’Guyen, Guillaume; Iacomi, Béatrice; Grappin, Philippe; Campion, Claire; Simoneau, Philippe; Barret, Matthieu

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alternaria brassicicola causes dark spot (or black spot) disease, which is one of the most common and destructive fungal diseases of Brassicaceae spp. worldwide. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain Abra43. The assembly comprises 29 scaffolds, with an N50 value of 2.1 Mb. The assembled genome was 31,036,461 bp in length, with a G+C content of 50.85%. PMID:29439047

  18. The genome sequence of Barbarea vulgaris facilitates the study of ecological biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen L.; Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye; Agerbirk, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The genus Barbarea has emerged as a model for evolution and ecology of plant defense compounds, due to its unusual glucosinolate profile and production of saponins, unique to the Brassicaceae. One species, B. vulgaris, includes two ‘types’, G-type and P-type that differ in trichome density, and t...... deter larvae to the extent that they die. The B. vulgaris genome will promote the study of mechanisms in ecological biochemistry to benefit crop resistance breeding....

  19. Non-Host Plant Volatiles Disrupt Sex Pheromone Communication in a Specialist Herbivore

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fumin; Deng, Jianyu; Schal, Coby; Lou, Yonggen; Zhou, Guoxin; Ye, Bingbing; Yin, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhihong; Shen, Lize

    2016-01-01

    The ecological effects of plant volatiles on herbivores are manifold. Little is known, however, about the impacts of non-host plant volatiles on intersexual pheromonal communication in specialist herbivores. We tested the effects of several prominent constitutive terpenoids released by conifers and Eucalyptus trees on electrophysiological and behavioral responses of an oligophagous species, Plutella xylostella, which feeds on Brassicaceae. The non-host plant volatile terpenoids adversely affe...

  20. Isoflavonoids are present in Arabidopsis thaliana despite the absence of any homologue to known isoflavonoid synthases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapčík, O.; Honys, David; Koblovská, R.; Macková, Z.; Vítková, M.; Klejdus, B.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, 2-3 (2006), s. 106-114 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/03/0352; GA AV ČR KJB6038409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * Brassicaceae * HPLC-MS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.847, year: 2006

  1. Mechanisms of Selenium Enrichment and Measurement in Brassicaceous Vegetables, and Their Application to Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Wiesner-Reinhold

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient for human health. Se deficiency affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries, and there is increasing awareness that suboptimal supply of Se can also negatively affect human health. Selenium enters the diet primarily through the ingestion of plant and animal products. Although, plants are not dependent on Se they take it up from the soil through the sulphur (S uptake and assimilation pathways. Therefore, geographic differences in the availability of soil Se and agricultural practices have a profound influence on the Se content of many foods, and there are increasing efforts to biofortify crop plants with Se. Plants from the Brassicales are of particular interest as they accumulate and synthesize Se into forms with additional health benefits, such as methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys. The Brassicaceae are also well-known to produce the glucosinolates; S-containing compounds with demonstrated human health value. Furthermore, the recent discovery of the selenoglucosinolates in the Brassicaceae raises questions regarding their potential bioefficacy. In this review we focus on Se uptake and metabolism in the Brassicaceae in the context of human health, particularly cancer prevention and immunity. We investigate the close relationship between Se and S metabolism in this plant family, with particular emphasis on the selenoglucosinolates, and consider the methodologies available for identifying and quantifying further novel Se-containing compounds in plants. Finally, we summarize the research of multiple groups investigating biofortification of the Brassicaceae and discuss which approaches might be most successful for supplying Se deficient populations in the future.

  2. Valutazione della sostenibilità ambientale tramite metodologia LCA di sistemi per lo sfruttamento di fonti alternative di energia e materiali

    OpenAIRE

    Chiavetta, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    La dissertazione ha riguardato l’analisi di sostenibilità di un sistema agronomico per la produzione di olio vegetale a fini energetici in terreni resi marginali dall’infestazione di nematodi. Il processo indagato ha previsto il sovescio di una coltura con proprietà biofumiganti (brassicacea) coltivata in precessione alla specie oleosa (soia e tabacco) al fine di contrastare il proliferare dell’infestazione nel terreno. Tale sistema agronomico è stato confrontato attraverso una analisi di cic...

  3. Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek and Adjacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Revision,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    pauciflora FAMILY ALABAMA STATUS^ FEDERAL STATUS? Liliacear E3 NL Araliaceae E NL Resaceae E NL Cyperaceae T NL Liliaceae T NL Brassicaceae T NL...Berberidaceae SSC NL Fabaceae SSC NL Oxalidaceae SSC NL Ranunculaceae SSC NL Ranunculaceae SSC NL Scrophulariaceae SSC NL Valerianaceae SSC NL 1...dispersing into small groups of nuclear families to exploit the uplands. Later, during the Woodland period, the River settlement zone continued to be the

  4. Transport and detoxification of cadmium, copper and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Leitenmaier, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    SummaryIn this thesis, various aspects on heavy metal accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens have been investigated. T. caerulescens belongs to the family of Brassicaceae and hyperaccumulates zinc. Its ecotype Ganges, originating from Southern France, additionally takes up cadmium actively. It is known from previous studies that hyperaccumulators have highly overexpressed metal transporters and that most of them store the metal in the vacuole of large epidermal cells....

  5. Isothiocyanates: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Kala*; Syed Salman Ali; Nabeel Ahmad; Sadaf Jamal Gilani; Najam Ali Khan

    2018-01-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are naturally occurring molecules belonging to highly reactive organosulphur synthons, with the general structure R–N=C=S. The precursor molecule glucosinolate anions are hydrolyzed enzymatically (under the effect of myrosinase enzymes) or unenzymatically to produce nitriles or isothiocyanates depending upon conditions such as pH and temperature. Brassicaceae  Family is known to contain abundant ITCs. A significant number of isothiocyanates has been isolated from differ...

  6. BoS: a large and diverse family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wessler, Susan R

    2005-05-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous non-LTR retrotransposons that populate eukaryotic genomes. Numerous SINE families have been identified in animals, whereas only a few have been described in plants. Here we describe a new family of SINEs, named BoS, that is widespread in Brassicaceae and present at approximately 2000 copies in Brassica oleracea. In addition to sharing a modular structure and target site preference with previously described SINEs, BoS elements have several unusual features. First, the head regions of BoS RNAs can adopt a distinct hairpin-like secondary structure. Second, with 15 distinct subfamilies, BoS represents one of the most diverse SINE families described to date. Third, several of the subfamilies have a mosaic structure that has arisen through the exchange of sequences between existing subfamilies, possibly during retrotransposition. Analysis of BoS subfamilies indicate that they were active during various time periods through the evolution of Brassicaceae and that active elements may still reside in some Brassica species. As such, BoS elements may be a valuable tool as phylogenetic makers for resolving outstanding issues in the evolution of species in the Brassicaceae family.

  7. Effect of Tea Saponin-Treated Host Plants on Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in Larvae of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuo; Chen, Yixin; Bai, Yan; Cai, Hongjiao; Wei, Hui; Tian, Houjun; Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Yong; Yang, Guang; Gu, Xiaojun; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2018-06-06

    Tea saponin (TS) is extracted from the seeds of the tea plant and is generally regarded as a safe compound that has insecticidal properties and can act synergistically with other compounds. In this study, the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were compared in midgut tissues of third instar larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The larvae were fed on three different host plants, cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata [Capparales: Brassicaceae]), radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radiculus Persi [Capparales: Brassicaceae]), or rape (Brassica campestris L. [Capparales: Brassicaceae]), that had been treated with TS. Higher SOD, POD, and CAT activities were found in DBM larvae fed on cabbage after LC20 (concentration that induced 20% larval mortality) or LC50 (concentration that induced 50% larval mortality) treatment than on the control. On rape, TS treatments led to lower SOD and CAT activities than in the control and to higher POD activities after 24 h. MDA content increased in larvae fed on rape but decreased in larvae fed on radish after 12 h. Our results indicated that DBM larvae are more susceptible to TS on rape than on cabbage and radish, suggesting that this treatment may be an economic and effective means of controlling DBM on rape.

  8. Flowers of Çoruh Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Çakmakçı

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coruh valley has an important biological diversity in term of plants, flora-fauna, wildlife and ecosystems. These regions contain the landraces, wild and weedy relatives, other wild, herbaceous and flowering trees, herbaceous flowering plants, medicinal and aromatic and flowering and ornamental shrubs plants species which are especially economically important plant for floriculture, eco-tourism, botanical tourism and nature tourism. Many important medicinal and aromatic and ornamental plants species are found in this region and naturally grow. It is considered that Acantholimon, Achillea, Alkanna, Allium, Amygdalus, Angelica, Anemone, Anthemis, Arabis, Arctium, Artemisia, Asparagus, Asperula, Astragalus, Calamintha, Calendula, Calutea, Campanula, Capparis, Cardamine, Centaurea, Cephalanthera, Cephalaria, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Chysanthemum, Colchicum, Consolida, Coriandrum, Cornus, Coronilla, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Crocus, Cyclamen, Dactylorhiza, Digitalis, Dianthus, Draba, Echinops, Equisetum, Ferula, Filipendula, Fritillaria, Fumaria, Gagea, Galanthus, Galium, Genista, Gentiana, Geranium, Geum, Gladiolus, Glychirrza, Helichrysum, Hesperis, Hypericum, İnula, İris, Isatis, Juniperus, Lilium, Linaria, Linum, lysimachia, Malus, Malva, Marrubium, Melissa, Mentha, Micromeria, Morina, Muscari, Mysotis, Narcissus, Neotchichatchewia, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Orchis, Ornithogalum, Origanum, Paeonia, Papaver, Pedicularis, Peganum, Phelypaea, Platanthera, Plantago, Pilosella, Pelargonium, Potentilla, Polygonum, Polygala, Primula, Punica, Prunus, Pyrus, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Rosa, Rubia, Rubus, Rumex, Salvia, Sambucus, Satureja, Scilla, Scorzonera, Scutellaria, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sideritis, Sophora, Sorbus, Stachys, Tanecetum, Teucrium, Thymus, Trigonella, Tulipa, Tussilago, Uechtriitzia, Vaccinium, Verbascum, Verbena, Veronica, Viburnum and Ziziphora species commonly found in the region may be may be evaluated economically.

  9. Eriophyid-myte (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae as moontlike beheeragente van ongewenste uitheemse plante in Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Craemer

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Eriophyid-myte kom waarskynlik op die meeste hoër plante voor en is oor die algemeen baie gasheerspesifiek. Sommiges is skadelik genoeg om oorweeg te word vir biologiese beheerprogramme teen ongewenste plante. Algemene belangstelling in die gebruik van eriophyids vir onkruidbeheer het onlangs ontstaan en vyf spesies is reeds, meestal suksesvol, gebruik vir onkruidbeheer in ander lande. Eriophyid-myte is nog nie as onkruidbeheeragente in Suid-Afrika benut nie. Sewentien spesies wat simptome veroorsaak wat moontlik nuttig kan wees vir die beheer van 12 plantspesies, wat as onkruide in Suid-Afrika beskou word, word gelys en bespreek. Die onkruide is: Acacia saligna (Port Jackson, Acroptilon repens (Russiese dissel, Cardaria draba (peperbos cardaria, Chromolaena odorata (paraffienbos. Convolvulus arvensis (akkerwinde, Cuscuta epithymum (dodder, Hypericum perforatum (St. Janskruid, Lantana camara (lantana, Melia azedarach (sering, Opuntia inermis (doringturksvy, Solanum elaeagnifolium (satansbos, S. mauritianum (luisboom en Spartium junceum (Spaanse besem. Sommige van hierdie eriophyid-spesies kan moontlik suksesvol as onkruidbeheeragente in Suid-Afrika gebruik word en derhalwe is verdere navorsing in hierdie verband geregverdig.

  10. CARACTERÍSTICAS FITOQUÍMICAS DE MUESTRAS COMERCIALES DE MACA EN TRES REGIONES DE PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Palma-Gutiérrez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar las características fitoquímicas de productos comerciales denominados maca, procedente de centros de expendios formales e informales de las provincias de Lima, Callao y Junín, Perú. Metodología: Se estudiaron productos de harina de maca colectadas por conveniencia. Fueron en total ocho muestras: tres muestras de venta formal con registro sanitario (RS y cuatro muestras de venta informal (sin RS, y otra muestra fue clasificada taxonómicamente por el método de Cerrate E., como Lepidium peruvianum, la cual se colectó en la Meseta de Bombón (Junín. La marcha fitoquímica se realizó según el método de colorimetría descrito por Lock et al, que catalogó cualitativamente la presencia del fitoquímico en “+++” (abundante, “++” (moderado, “+” (leve y “-” (ausencia. Se indagaron los siguientes metabolitos: alcaloides, lactonas y cumarinas, triterpenos/esteroides, catequinas, resinas, azúcares reductores, saponinas, fenoles, taninos, aminoácidos libres, quinonas, flavonoides y antocianidinas. Resultados: Los fitoquímicos se presentaron de forma heterogénea entre las 8 muestras. Resalta la presencia de alcaloides (+++ en una muestra tanto de venta formal como de informal, frente a (+ de Lepidium peruvianum. Asimismo, se evidenció flavonoides en dos muestra de venta informal (++ y en Lepidumperuvianum (+. Igualmente, se observó esteroides en una muestra de venta formal (++, en dos de venta informal (+++ y en Lepidium peruvianum (++. Conclusiones: Se evidenció la presencia de todos los fitoquímicos indagados, con excepción de las saponinas.

  11. CARACTERÍSTICAS FITOQUÍMICAS DE MUESTRAS COMERCIALES DE MACA EN TRES REGIONES DE PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Palma-Gutiérrez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar las características fitoquímicas de productos comerciales denominados maca, procedente de centros de expendios formales e infor- males de las provincias de Lima, Callao y Junín, Perú. Metodología: Se estudiaron productos de harina de maca colectadas por conveniencia. Fueron en total ocho muestras: tres muestras de venta formal con registro sanitario (RS y cuatro muestras de venta informal (sin RS, y otra muestra fue clasificada taxonómicamente por el método de Cerrate E., como Lepidium peruvianum, la cual se colectó en la Meseta de Bombón (Junín. La marcha fitoquímica se realizó según el método de colorimetría descrito por Lock et al, que catalogó cualitativamente la presencia del fitoquímico en “+++” (abundante, “++” (moderado, “+” (leve y “-” (ausencia. Se indagaron los siguientes metabolitos: alcaloides, lactonas y cumarinas, triterpenos/esteroides, catequinas, resinas, azúcares reductores, saponinas, fenoles, taninos, aminoácidos libres, quinonas, flavonoides y antocianidinas. Resultados: Los fitoquímicos se presentaron de forma heterogénea entre las 8 muestras. Resalta la presencia de alcaloides (+++ en una muestra tanto de venta formal como de informal, frente a (+ de Lepidium peruvianum. Asimismo, se evidenció flavonoides en dos muestra de venta informal (++ y en Lepidumperuvianum (+. Igualmente, se observó esteroides en una muestra de venta formal (++, en dos de venta informal (+++ y en Lepidium peruvianum (++. Conclusiones: Se evidenció la presencia de todos los fitoquímicos indagados, con excepción de las saponinas.

  12. Phytotoxic Activities of Mediterranean Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Rolim de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae, Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae. The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  13. Maca polysaccharides: A review of compositions, isolation, therapeutics and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujuan; Xu, Fangxue; Zheng, Mengmeng; Xi, Xiaozhi; Cui, Xiaowei; Han, Chunchao

    2018-05-01

    Maca polysaccharides, some of the major bioactive substances in Lepidium meyenii (Walp.) (Maca), have various biological properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-fatigue, anti-tumor, and immunomodulatory effects, as well as hepatoprotective activity and regulation function. Although many therapeutics depend on multiple structures of maca polysaccharides in addition to providing sufficient foundations for maca polysaccharide products in industrial applications, the relationships between the pharmacological effects and structures have not been established. Therefore, this article summarizes the extraction and purification methods, compositions, pharmacological effects, prospects and industrial applications of maca polysaccharides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation induced mitotic delay and stimulation of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, A.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the radiation induced mitotic delay and stimulation of growth are discussed in connection with the results of studies in Lemna minor and Lepidium sativum. The action of temperature seems to be of major importance. As many authors suggest that various chemical agents and slight intoxications also affect mitosis in a way similar to that induced by ionizing radiation, the radiation induced stimulation has lost its specific character and approaches might be found for further investigations of this phenomenon. (MG) [de

  15. GARDEN CRESS GERMINABILITY AND SEEDLING VIGOUR AFTER TREATMENT WITH PLANT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Lisjak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The usage of biologically active and environmentally friendly compounds has increasingly important role in the primary food production. This study was conducted in order to examine the impact of five commercial plant extracts on the seed vigour of garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.. The applied plant extracts significantly increased the germination. The highest fresh weight of seedlings, and also the lowest dry matter accumulation were observed in the treatment KE-plantasalva® without the sea salt addition. Equisetum extract inhibited the root elongation and resulted in the highest percentage of dry matter accumulated in seedlings, but also the lowest fresh weight.

  16. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volumes II-I and II-II. Biological Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada and Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah. Supplement. Spring Survey of the IOC Valleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    pinnata X K CACTACEAE Coryphantha vivipara x Opuntia echinocarpa K 0 x K K K 5putaerinacea K Op’untia sp. x X -12- TABLE 3-1 (Cont.) Shelter site...pilosus x Lepidium montanun X CACTACEAE Opuntia echinocarpa x x Opuntia erinacea X X X CHENOPODIACEAE Atriplex canescens X X X Ceratoides lanata X X X X...Stanleya pinnata X CACTACEAE Coryphantha vivipara var. rosea X Echinocereus engelmannii X opuntia echinocarpa X X X X X X X X Opuntia erinacea XX X X X X x

  17. In vitro evaluering van die effektiwiteit van vyf plante wat tradisioneel teen seksueel oordraagbare siektes gebruik word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Swart

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Tot soveel as 60% van die Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking raadpleeg tradisionele genesers vir siektetoestande, insluitende seksueel oordraagbare siektes (SOS. Medisinale plante speel ’n belangrike rol in die behandeling van SOS deur tradisionele genesers, maar sonder enige wetenskaplike bewyse van effektiwiteit. Vir hierdie studie is 5 plante vanuit die literatuur gekies op grond van hul gebruik deur tradisionele genesers vir die behandeling van SOS. Siftingstoetse vir die bepaling van aktiwiteit teen bakterieë en teen SOS is op die plante uitgevoer. Die plante was Clematis brachiata, Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Lepidium bonariense, Ranunculus multifidus en Typha capensis. Siftingstoetse is uitgevoer met die organismes Candida albicans, Neisseria gonorrhoeae en Haemophilus ducreyi wat met SOS geassosieer word, terwyl Bacillus subtilus, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa en Aspergillus niger ook in die siftingstoetse ingesluit is. Slegs Lepidium bonariense het aktiwiteit teen die gebruikte organismes getoon. Dit is dus duidelik dat daar ’n behoefte bestaan om die effektiwiteit van medisinale plante wetenskaplik te bepaal en te kommunikeer.

  18. A comparative study of salt tolerance parameters in 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Orsini, Francesco

    2010-07-01

    Salinity is an abiotic stress that limits both yield and the expansion of agricultural crops to new areas. In the last 20 years our basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance and adaptation to saline environments has greatly improved owing to active development of advanced tools in molecular, genomics, and bioinformatics analyses. However, the full potential of investigative power has not been fully exploited, because the use of halophytes as model systems in plant salt tolerance research is largely neglected. The recent introduction of halophytic Arabidopsis-Relative Model Species (ARMS) has begun to compare and relate several unique genetic resources to the well-developed Arabidopsis model. In a search for candidates to begin to understand, through genetic analyses, the biological bases of salt tolerance, 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared: Barbarea verna, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hirschfeldia incana, Lepidium densiflorum, Malcolmia triloba, Lepidium virginicum, Descurainia pinnata, Sisymbrium officinale, Thellungiella parvula, Thellungiella salsuginea (previously T. halophila), and Thlaspi arvense. Among these species, highly salt-tolerant (L. densiflorum and L. virginicum) and moderately salt-tolerant (M. triloba and H. incana) species were identified. Only T. parvula revealed a true halophytic habitus, comparable to the better studied Thellungiella salsuginea. Major differences in growth, water transport properties, and ion accumulation are observed and discussed to describe the distinctive traits and physiological responses that can now be studied genetically in salt stress research. 2010 The Author.

  19. Analysis of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants from Dir, Swat and Peshawar districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.; Khattak, M.R.; Khan, F.A.; Rehman, I.; Khan, F.U.

    2011-01-01

    Essential and non-essential heavy metals like Manganese, Zinc, Iron, Nickel, Copper, Chromium, Lead and Cadmium were analyzed quantitatively in selected medicinal plants including, Acorus calamus, Artemisia annua, Chenopodium foliosum, Cupressus arizonica, Euphorbia helioscopia L, Lepidium sativum, Nerium oleander, Ranunculus mariculatus , Tecoma stans, Urtica dioica by using atomic absorption spectrometry. The main purpose of this study was to quantify essential and non-essential heavy metals in selected herbs, which are extensively used in the preparation of herbal products and standardized extracts. The high conc. of iron, Mn was found in Nerium oleander 26.52 mg/kg, 94.40 mg/kg. Zn in Lepidium sativum 77.00 mg/kg and high conc. of K 94600 and Na 400 mg/kg was found in Tecoma stans. The concentration of other heavy metals particularly Cu, Ni and Pb were also found in higher conc. in the selected herbs. The main purpose of the present study was to evaluate the contents of toxic metals and their concentration level which may have adverse effect on human health, besides providing a scientific data. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Preclinical Assays to Investigate an Anthroposophic Pharmaceutical Process Applied to Mistletoe (Viscum album L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Baumgartner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from European mistletoe (Viscum album L. developed in anthroposophic medicine are based on specific pharmaceutical procedures to enhance remedy efficacy. One such anthroposophic pharmaceutical process was evaluated regarding effects on cancer cell toxicity in vitro and on colchicine tumor formation in Lepidium sativum. Anthroposophically processed Viscum album extract (APVAE was produced by mixing winter and summer mistletoe extracts in the edge of a high-speed rotating disk and was compared with manually mixed Viscum album extract (VAE. The antiproliferative effect of VAE/APVAE was determined in five cell lines (NCI-H460, DU-145, HCC1143, MV3, and PA-TU-8902 by WST-1 assay in vitro; no difference was found between VAE and APVAE in any cell line tested (P>0.14. Incidence of colchicine tumor formation was assessed by measurement of the root/shoot-ratio of seedlings of Lepidium sativum treated with colchicine as well as VAE, APVAE, or water. Colchicine tumor formation decreased after application of VAE (−5.4% compared to water, P<0.001 and was even stronger by APVAE (−8.8% compared to water, P<0.001. The high-speed mistletoe extract mixing process investigated thus did not influence toxicity against cancer cells but seemed to sustain morphostasis and to enhance resistance against external noxious influences leading to phenomenological malformations.

  1. Interspecific differences in the effects of sulfur dioxide on angiosperm sexual reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBay, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to test the potential direct effects of SO 2 on sexual reproduction in several plant species with different reproductive structures and processes. In marked contrast to the sensitivity to SO 2 reported by other investigators for pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro, and recorded for Lepidium virginicum in this study, 4 of 5 species tested were tolerant with respect to fruit and seed set after exposure to 0.6 ppm SO 2 for 8 hours during flowering. Seed set in the one sensitive species, Geranium carolinianum, was reduced 40% from the control after exposure to SO 2 , but only when relative humidity (RH) was at or above 90%. The effect of SO 2 on Lepidium pollen germination in vitro was greater than the effect of SO 2 on sexual reproduction in vivo. Sulfur dioxide reduced pollen germination in vitro 94% from the control. The same concentration of SO 2 , at 90% Rh, reduced pollen germination in vivo 50% from the control, but had no effect on seed set. Predictions of effects of SO 2 on reproduction in vivo based on effects of SO 2 on pollen germination and pollen tube growth in vitro are not valid

  2. Phytotoxic substances in soils of polluted beech forest stands; Phytotoxische Stoffe in Boeden immissionsbelasteter Buchenwaelder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glavac, V.; Parlar, H.; Michalas, F.; Droefke, P.

    1992-12-31

    Extensive germination experiments and growth experiments were carried out under controlled laboratory conditions with garden cress (Lepidium sativum ssp. sativum). The experiments show that the germination capacity ability of the plants in soil areas under old beech trees which are influenced by the trunk runoff water is impaired considerably. The investigations with nutrient solutions permit the following conclusion: The absence or occurrence of germinating plant species in the tree foot area is not influenced by the minerals alone but above all by organic compounds. In this investigation, the growth-inhibiting effect of several phenolic acids occurring in beech forests is recognized. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die umfangreichen Keim- und Wachstumsversuche mit der Gartenkresse (Lepidium sativum ssp.sativum), die unter kontrollierten Laborbedingungen durchgefuehrt wurden, zeigen, dass die Keimfaehigkeit der Pflanzen in den vom Stammablaufwasser beeinflussten Bodenbereichen der Altbuchen deutlich gehemmt wird. Die Untersuchungen mit Naehrloesungen lassen die Schlussfolgerung zu, dass nicht die Mineralstoffe allein, sondern vor allem organische Verbindungen das Fehlen oder Vorkommen aufkeimender Pflanzenarten im Baumflussbereich weitgehend bedingen. In dieser Untersuchung wird die wachstumshemmende Wirkung von mehreren im Oekosystem Buchenwald vorkommenden phenolischen Saeuren nachgewiesen. (orig.)

  3. DEMOGRAPHY OF ALPINE SHORT-LIVED PLANTS, LONGEVITY AND ONTOGENY STAGE DURATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Kazantseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim - to evaluate lifespan (full cycle and ontogeny stage durations of nine alpine short-lived North- West Caucasus plants.Methods. For calculation we used a new method which was developed and suggested earlier by us. This method is based on a discrete ontogeny description and on the probability theory and random processes. The data on the monitoring of the marked individuals were collected during six years.Results. We found out that the lifespan of Anthyllis vulneraria is 2.6±0.3 years (hereinafter “±” is Standard error, Draba hispida – 4.5±0.3, Murbeckiella huetii – 4.6±1.1, Carum meifolium – 7.8±1.4, Eritrichium caucasicum – 9.1±1.4, Trifolium badium – 10.3±2.6, Sedum tenellum – 11±2.05, Androsace albana – 12.1±2.5, Minuartia recurva – 22.9±4.5. Also we demonstrated the matrix population models for studied plants, which show the probability of transition of individuals from one ontogeny stage to another in time interval (in our experiment – 1 year.Conclusion. Mortality of seedlings and juvenile plants, except Murbeckiella huetii, is around and more than 50%. Two years is the minimal amount of time that is necessary for full cycle of short-lived alpine plants, as it was shown for Anthyllis vulneraria, Murbeckiella huetii и Trifolium badium. A 3-12 years lifespan was calculated for other studied species. Persistence of Eritrichium caucasicum and Androsace albana populations provided by resistance of adult vegetative plants.

  4. Detection of herbaceous-plant pararetrovirus in lichen herbarium samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrzik, K; Koloniuk, I; Sarkisová, T; Číhal, L

    2016-06-01

    Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) - a plant pararetrovirus that naturally causes diseases in Brassicaceae and Solanaceae plant hosts worldwide - has been detected by PCR for the first time in herbarium samples of Usnea sp. lichens. The virus's presence in these lichens did not result in any micro- or macromorphological changes, and the herbarium records were classified as representative for the distinct species. Sequence analyses classified all the detected viruses into one lineage of CaMV isolates. We have shown here that herbarium samples could be a good source for virus study, especially where a longer time span is involved.

  5. Franjas marginales de Brassica campestris L. (nabo) en cultivo de repollo. Efecto sobre pulgones y sus parasitoides: Título abreviado: Franjas marginales de Brassica campestris L. ....

    OpenAIRE

    Curis, M. C; Saravia Steudtner, F; Favaro, J. C; Sánchez, D; Bertolaccini, I

    2014-01-01

    La diversidad vegetal en los agroecosistemas afecta la dinámica poblacional de las plagas y de sus enemigos naturales, siendo una alternativa de control el uso de franjas trampa en algunos cultivos. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar como una franja marginal de Brassicas campestris L. (Brassicales, Brassicaceae), afecta a la población de los pulgones de B. oleracea var. capitata y de sus parasitoides. El estudio se llevó a cabo en Santa Fe, a partir de febrero de 2012. Se estableció en un...

  6. Evidence for suppression of immunity as a driver for genomic introgressions and host range expansion in races of Albugo candida, a generalist parasite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMullan, Mark; Gardiner, Anastasia; Bailey, Kate

    2015-01-01

    How generalist parasites with wide host ranges can evolve is a central question in parasite evolution. Albugo candida is an obligate biotrophic parasite that consists of many physiological races that each specialize on distinct Brassicaceae host species. By analyzing genome sequence assemblies...... by normally non-infecting races. This facilitates introgression and the exchange of effector repertoires, and may enable the evolution of novel races that can undergo clonal population expansion on new hosts. We discuss recent studies on hybridization in other eukaryotes such as yeast, Heliconius butterflies...

  7. Study of Plant Species Composition of Grasslands in Mugla Village Region (Western Rhodopes, South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen S. Stoyanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the diversity of grass species in the region of the village of Mugla (the Western Rhodopes. One hundred forty-one species of higher plants belonging to 40families were registered. (Apiaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae,Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Cyperaceae, Dipsacaceae, Equisetaceae, Ericaceae,Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Geraniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Hypericaceae, Juncaceae,Lamiaceae, Lemnaceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Menyanthaceae, Oleacea, Onagraceae, Orchidaceae,Parnassiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Polygalaceae, Primulaceae,Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Valerianaceae andViolaceae. Their conservation status was presented, as well as medicinal plants.

  8. Floristic diversity of 'Chinarite' protected area – Rodopi municipality, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dospatliev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Study on the species composition of vascular plants in 'Chinarite' protected area in Belashtitsa village, Rodopi Municipality, Bulgaria was conducted using the floristic analysis method. A total of 147 species of vascular plants were identified, belonging to 124 genera and 51 families. The families Poaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Brassicaceae, Apiaceae, Rosaceae and Fabaceae are the most highly represented. The comparative analysis shows that the angiosperm taxa are dominating in the studied area. Dicotyledonous plants are prevailing among them, while monocotyledonous are significantly less in number. Molinia caerulea species, identified in the present study, has not been reported to have been found so far in the Thracian lowland floristic region.

  9. Procedimiento de obtención y usos de vesículas de membrana plasmática extraídas de plantas enriquecidas en proteínas transportadoras de membrana

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal, Micaela; García, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A.; Martínez-Ballesta, M. Carmen

    2011-01-01

    [ES] La presente invención se refiere a un método de obtención de vesículas de membrana enriquecidas en proteínas transportadoras de membrana de origen vegetal para su uso cosmético o terapéutico, que pueden contener a su vez otras sustancias como son compuestos bioactivos naturales. Preferiblemente se obtienen en vegetales, a partir de la familia Brassicaceae (cruciferas). Además, la presente invención también se refiere a un procedimiento para el incremento de estas proteínas de...

  10. Procedimiento de obtención y usos de vesículas de membrana plasmática extraídas de plantas enriquecidas en proteínas transportadoras de membrana

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal, Micaela; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A.; Martínez-Ballesta, M. Carmen

    2011-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere a un método de obtención de vesículas de membrana enriquecidas en proteínas transportadoras de membrana de origen vegetal para su uso cosmético o terapéutico, que pueden contener a su vez otras sustancias como son compuestos bioactivos naturales. Preferiblemente se obtienen en vegetales, a partir de la familia Brassicaceae (crucíferas). Además, la presente invención también se refiere a un procedimiento para el incremento de estas proteínas de origen vegetal....

  11. Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae preying on Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VS Sturza

    Full Text Available Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are insect pests primarily related to Brassicaceae crops. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, they are found on forage turnip, Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg., which is commonly grown during fall/winter seasons. This work reports the predation of Microtheca spp. larvae by Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae larvae, on forage turnip crop, in Santa Maria, RS. This register provides new information about Microtheca spp. natural enemies in Brazil, which might be a new option for integrate pest management of these species.

  12. PCP-B class pollen coat proteins are key regulators of the hydration checkpoint in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen-stigma interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ludi; Clarke, Lisa A; Eason, Russell J; Parker, Christopher C; Qi, Baoxiu; Scott, Rod J; Doughty, James

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of pollen-pistil compatibility is strictly regulated by factors derived from both male and female reproductive structures. Highly diverse small cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) have been found to play multiple roles in plant reproduction, including the earliest stages of the pollen-stigma interaction. Secreted CRPs found in the pollen coat of members of the Brassicaceae, the pollen coat proteins (PCPs), are emerging as important signalling molecules that regulate the pollen-stigma interaction. Using a combination of protein characterization, expression and phylogenetic analyses we identified a novel class of Arabidopsis thaliana pollen-borne CRPs, the PCP-Bs (for pollen coat protein B-class) that are related to embryo surrounding factor (ESF1) developmental regulators. Single and multiple PCP-B mutant lines were utilized in bioassays to assess effects on pollen hydration, adhesion and pollen tube growth. Our results revealed that pollen hydration is severely impaired when multiple PCP-Bs are lost from the pollen coat. The hydration defect also resulted in reduced pollen adhesion and delayed pollen tube growth in all mutants studied. These results demonstrate that AtPCP-Bs are key regulators of the hydration 'checkpoint' in establishment of pollen-stigma compatibility. In addition, we propose that interspecies diversity of PCP-Bs may contribute to reproductive barriers in the Brassicaceae. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Floristic diversity in bashemsin valley of kackar mountains national park of rize, turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baykal, H.

    2016-01-01

    The floristical structure of Bashemsin and its environs as a protected and isolated area within Kackar Mountains National Park, situated in Rize, a province in the Blacksea region of Turkey, is studied. 1830 plant specimens were collected and 503 taxa were identified in 234 genera and 75 families. Sixteen Pteridophytes and 487 Spermatophytes were determined. Two of Spermatophytes are Gymnospermae while 485 of them are Angiospermae (98 Monocotyledones and 389 Dicotyledones). The richest families in taxa are Asteraceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, and Fabaceae (55 Asteraceae, 49 Poaceae, 28 Brassicaceae, and 27 Fabaceae). Phytogeographic elements are listed in order as: Euro-Siberian 247 (49.1%), Irano-Turanian 17 (3.4%), Mediterranean 6 (1.2%), multiregional-unknown phytogeographic root 233 (46.3%). Hemicryptophytes are the richest with 224 (44.5%) taxa and it is followed by cryptophytes 144 (28.6%), therophytes 53 (10.5%), chamaephytes 59 (11.7%), phanerophytes 19 (3.8%), vasicular parasites 2 (0.4%), nanophanerophytes/chamaephytes 1 (0.2%) and hydrophytes 1 (0.2%). 34 endemic taxa were determined (6.7%). 13 threatened taxa were detected in the research area and we determined that Sorbus caucasica Zinserl. var. yaltirikii Goksin population has fallen into CR endangered category with only 2 individuals in the study area. (author)

  14. Evolutionary divergence of the plant elicitor peptides (Peps) and their receptors: interfamily incompatibility of perception but compatibility of downstream signalling

    KAUST Repository

    Lori, M.

    2015-05-22

    Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are potent inducers of pattern-triggered immunity and amplify the immune response against diverse pathogens. Peps have been discovered and studied extensively in Arabidopsis and only recently orthologs in maize were also identified and characterized in more detail. Here, the presence of PROPEPs, the Pep precursors, and PEPRs, the Pep receptors, was investigated within the plant kingdom. PROPEPs and PEPRs were identified in most sequenced species of the angiosperms. The conservation and compatibility of the Pep-PEPR-system was analysed by using plants of two distantly related dicot families, Brassicaceae and Solanaceae, and a representative family of monocot plants, the Poaceae. All three plant families contain important crop plants, including maize, rice, tomato, potato, and canola. Peps were not recognized by species outside of their plant family of origin, apparently because of a divergence of the Pep sequences. Three family-specific Pep motifs were defined and the integration of such a motif into the Pep sequence of an unrelated Pep enabled its perception. Transient transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana with the coding sequences of the AtPEPR1 and ZmPEPR1a led to the recognition of Pep peptides of Brassicaceae or Poaceae origin, respectively, and to the proper activation of downstream signalling. It was concluded that signalling machinery downstream of the PEPRs is highly conserved whereas the leucine-rich repeat domains of the PEPRs co-evolved with the Peps, leading to distinct motifs and, with it, interfamily incompatibility.

  15. The effects of glucosinolates and their breakdown products on necrotrophic fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobi Buxdorf

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are a diverse class of S- and N-containing secondary metabolites that play a variety of roles in plant defense. In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that contain different amounts of glucosinolates and glucosinolate-breakdown products to study the effects of these phytochemicals on phytopathogenic fungi. We compared the fungus Botrytis cinerea, which infects a variety of hosts, with the Brassicaceae-specific fungus Alternaria brassicicola. B. cinerea isolates showed variable composition-dependent sensitivity to glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, while A. brassicicola was more strongly affected by aliphatic glucosinolates and isothiocyanates as decomposition products. We also found that B. cinerea stimulates the accumulation of glucosinolates to a greater extent than A. brassicicola. In our work with A. brassicicola, we found that the type of glucosinolate-breakdown product is more important than the type of glucosinolate from which that product was derived, as demonstrated by the sensitivity of the Ler background and the sensitivity gained in Col-0 plants expressing epithiospecifier protein both of which accumulate simple nitrile and epithionitriles, but not isothiocyanates. Furthermore, in vivo, hydrolysis products of indole glucosinolates were found to be involved in defense against B. cinerea, but not in the host response to A. brassicicola. We suggest that the Brassicaceae-specialist A. brassicicola has adapted to the presence of indolic glucosinolates and can cope with their hydrolysis products. In contrast, some isolates of the generalist B. cinerea are more sensitive to these phytochemicals.

  16. Expression of a transferred nuclear gene in a mitochondrial genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichun Qiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of mitochondrial genes to the nucleus, and subsequent gain of regulatory elements for expression, is an ongoing evolutionary process in plants. Many examples have been characterized, which in some cases have revealed sources of mitochondrial targeting sequences and cis-regulatory elements. In contrast, there have been no reports of a nuclear gene that has undergone intracellular transfer to the mitochondrial genome and become expressed. Here we show that the orf164 gene in the mitochondrial genome of several Brassicaceae species, including Arabidopsis, is derived from the nuclear ARF17 gene that codes for an auxin responsive protein and is present across flowering plants. Orf164 corresponds to a portion of ARF17, and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences are 79% and 81% identical, respectively. Orf164 is transcribed in several organ types of Arabidopsis thaliana, as detected by RT-PCR. In addition, orf164 is transcribed in five other Brassicaceae within the tribes Camelineae, Erysimeae and Cardamineae, but the gene is not present in Brassica or Raphanus. This study shows that nuclear genes can be transferred to the mitochondrial genome and become expressed, providing a new perspective on the movement of genes between the genomes of subcellular compartments.

  17. Insect Attraction versus Plant Defense: Young Leaves High in Glucosinolates Stimulate Oviposition by a Specialist Herbivore despite Poor Larval Survival due to High Saponin Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites used in plant defense. For insects specialized on Brassicaceae, such as the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), glucosinolates act as “fingerprints” that are essential in host plant recognition. Some plants in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae) contain, besides glucosinolates, saponins that act as feeding deterrents for P. xylostella larvae, preventing their survival on the plant. Two-choice oviposition tests were conducted to study the preference of P. xylostella among Barbarea leaves of different size within the same plant. P. xylostella laid more eggs per leaf area on younger leaves compared to older ones. Higher concentrations of glucosinolates and saponins were found in younger leaves than in older ones. In 4-week-old plants, saponins were present in true leaves, while cotyledons contained little or no saponins. When analyzing the whole foliage of the plant, the content of glucosinolates and saponins also varied significantly in comparisons among plants that were 4, 8, and 12 weeks old. In Barbarea plants and leaves of different ages, there was a positive correlation between glucosinolate and saponin levels. This research shows that, in Barbarea plants, ontogenetical changes in glucosinolate and saponin content affect both attraction and resistance to P. xylostella. Co-occurrence of a high content of glucosinolates and saponins in the Barbarea leaves that are most valuable for the plant, but are also the most attractive to P. xylostella, provides protection against this specialist herbivore, which oviposition behavior on Barbarea seems to be an evolutionary mistake. PMID:24752069

  18. Regulatory elements of the floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS identified by phylogenetic footprinting and shadowing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, R. L., Hamaguchi, L., Busch, M. A., and Weigel, D.

    2003-06-01

    OAK-B135 In Arabidopsis thaliana, cis-regulatory sequences of the floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS (AG) are located in the second intron. This 3 kb intron contains binding sites for two direct activators of AG, LEAFY (LFY) and WUSCHEL (WUS), along with other putative regulatory elements. We have used phylogenetic footprinting and the related technique of phylogenetic shadowing to identify putative cis-regulatory elements in this intron. Among 29 Brassicaceae, several other motifs, but not the LFY and WUS binding sites previously identified, are largely invariant. Using reporter gene analyses, we tested six of these motifs and found that they are all functionally important for activity of AG regulatory sequences in A. thaliana. Although there is little obvious sequence similarity outside the Brassicaceae, the intron from cucumber AG has at least partial activity in A. thaliana. Our studies underscore the value of the comparative approach as a tool that complements gene-by-gene promoter dissection, but also highlight that sequence-based studies alone are insufficient for a complete identification of cis-regulatory sites.

  19. Influence of changes in crop cultivation areas on pollen contents of honey (Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-L. VARIS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen counts were done on honey collected by a Finnish honey corporation in late summer 1997 from the entire beekeeping area of Finland. The most common pollen type was Brassicaceae pollen, which was represented by 60% of the grains counted. It was followed by Salix spp. (10%, Trifolium repens + T. hybridum (10% and T. pratense + T. medium (6.5% species. Pollen grains of Phacelia spp, Filipendula ulmaria, Apiaceae, Sorbus aucuparia, Malus domestica, and Rubus idaeus were also numerous. These pollen types constituted 96% of all the pollen examined. These results and those of the earlier pollen counts in Finland were compared with the cultivation areas of the most important nectariferous crops. In the 1930s white clover was the most important honey source in Finland and its pollen was very dominant in honey. Since the 1950s oilseed crops have been grown in increasing rates and pure timothy-meadow fescue pastures and hay stands with heavy N applications have decreased the share of Trifolium species. The proportion of Brassicaceae pollen has continuously increased with the increase of the growing area of turnip rape Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera and rape, B. napus ssp. oleifera. At the same time the proportion of T. repens + T. hybridum pollen has decreased so that their mutual relationships are now reversed compared to the beginning of the 1960s. Changes in land use were thus very clearly to be seen in the pollen content of honey.;

  20. A Study on the Phylogeny of the Dyer's Woad Rust Fungus and Other Species of Puccinia from Crucifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, B R; Hansen, D R; Wolf, P G; Flint, K M; Thomson, S V

    1997-05-01

    ABSTRACT The identity of a Puccinia species occurring on the introduced weed dyer's woad (Isatis tinctoria) was studied using sequences from the internal transcribed spacer of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The relationship of this fungus to other Puccinia species occurring on the family Brassicaceae in Europe and North America was examined, and we tested the hypothesis that P. thlaspeos and P. monoica are correlated species. The data suggest that the Puccinia species from dyer's woad is closely related to the North American species P. consimilis and may be derived from an indigenous strain of P. consimilis that switched hosts. Thus, the Puccinia species from dyer's woad is probably native to North America and is unlikely to cause disease epidemics on indigenous plants if used as a biological control agent against dyer's woad. P. thlaspeos appears to be polyphyletic and, therefore, P. thlaspeos and P. monoica do not appear to be correlated species. Additional DNA sequence data will be needed to clarify further the phylogeny of Puccinia species on the family Brassicaceae.

  1. Insect attraction versus plant defense: young leaves high in glucosinolates stimulate oviposition by a specialist herbivore despite poor larval survival due to high saponin content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R Badenes-Perez

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites used in plant defense. For insects specialized on Brassicaceae, such as the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, glucosinolates act as "fingerprints" that are essential in host plant recognition. Some plants in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae contain, besides glucosinolates, saponins that act as feeding deterrents for P. xylostella larvae, preventing their survival on the plant. Two-choice oviposition tests were conducted to study the preference of P. xylostella among Barbarea leaves of different size within the same plant. P. xylostella laid more eggs per leaf area on younger leaves compared to older ones. Higher concentrations of glucosinolates and saponins were found in younger leaves than in older ones. In 4-week-old plants, saponins were present in true leaves, while cotyledons contained little or no saponins. When analyzing the whole foliage of the plant, the content of glucosinolates and saponins also varied significantly in comparisons among plants that were 4, 8, and 12 weeks old. In Barbarea plants and leaves of different ages, there was a positive correlation between glucosinolate and saponin levels. This research shows that, in Barbarea plants, ontogenetical changes in glucosinolate and saponin content affect both attraction and resistance to P. xylostella. Co-occurrence of a high content of glucosinolates and saponins in the Barbarea leaves that are most valuable for the plant, but are also the most attractive to P. xylostella, provides protection against this specialist herbivore, which oviposition behavior on Barbarea seems to be an evolutionary mistake.

  2. Diversity and ecological characteristics of flora of mastuj valley, district chitral, hindukush range, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Shah, S.M.; Badshahi, L.; Durrani, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study revealed that the floristic diversity consisted of 571 species belonging to 82 families including 65 dicots, 13 monocots, 2 gymnosperms and 2 pteridophyte families. There were 334 genera including 3 Pteridophytes, 2 gymnosperms, 54 monocot and 275 dicot genera. Asteraceae (91 Spp., 15.95 %), Poaceae (58 Spp., 10.16 %), Papilionaceae (38 Spp., 6.65 %), Lamiaceae and Rosaceae (each with 26 Spp., 4.55 %), Polygonaceae (25 spp; 4.38), Caryophyllaceae (23 spp.; 4.03%), Apiaceae (21 Spp., 3.68 %), Boraginaceae and Brassicaceae (20 Spp., each with 3.50 %) were the leading families. There were 45 (13.47%), 32 (9.58%), 19 (5.69%), 18 (5.39%) and 16 (4.79%) genera respectively in Asteraceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Apiaceae and Papilionaceae. Flora consisted of 91.59% wild species, 92.64% deciduous species, 92.12% nonspiny species, 80.04% mesophytes and 94.57% heliophytes. Biological spectrum was dominated by therophytes (234 spp., 40.98%), followed by hemicryptophytes (154 spp., 26.97%), geophytes (82 spp., 14.36%), chamaephytes (44 spp., 7.71%), nanophanerophytes (31 spp, 5.43%) and megaphanerophytes (24 spp., 4.20%). The leaf size spectra was dominated by nanophylls (40.98%), leptophylls (24.87%), mesophylls 18.56%) and microphylls (9.11%). Further plant exploration is suggested in this remote inaccessible valley in the Hindukush Range, Pakistan. (author)

  3. Caracterización palinológica de las mieles de la llanura del río Senguerr (Chubut-Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Forcone

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Forcone, A. & Tellería, M. C. 2000. Caracterización palinológica de las mieles de la llanuradel río Senguerr (Chubut-Argentina. Darwiniana 38(3-4: 267-271.Con el fin de conocer las plantas melíferas de la llanura del río Senguerr, se realizó el análisispalinológico de 19 muestras de miel. El estudio permitió identificar 57 tipos morfológicos y demostrarque las principales fuentes de néctar pertenecen a las familias Fabaceae, Rosaceae, Brassicaceae yAsteraceae. Del total de muestras analizadas 9 resultaron mixtas y 10 monoflorales, de estas últimas, 8fueron de Melilotus sp. y 2 de Rosaceae. Las mieles estudiadas pueden ser caracterizadas por unaasociación polínica de Trifolieae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, Acaena sp., Glycyrrhiza astragalina Gillies exHook. & Arn. and Cyperaceae. En la mayoría de las muestras el contenido polínico fue inferior a 2000granos/gramo

  4. Camelina as a sustainable oilseed crop: contributions of plant breeding and genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, Johann; Eynck, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Camelina is an underutilized Brassicaceae oilseed plant with a considerable agronomic potential for biofuel and vegetable oil production in temperate regions. In contrast to most Brassicaceae, camelina is resistant to alternaria black spot and other diseases and pests. Sequencing of the camelina genome revealed an undifferentiated allohexaploid genome with a comparatively large number of genes and low percentage of repetitive DNA. As there is a close relationship between camelina and the genetic model plant Arabidopsis, this review aims at exploring the potential of translating basic Arabidopsis results into a camelina oilseed crop for food and non-food applications. Recently, Arabidopsis genes for drought resistance or increased photosynthesis and overall productivity have successfully been expressed in camelina. In addition, gene constructs affecting lipid metabolism pathways have been engineered into camelina for synthesizing either long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, hydroxy fatty acids or high-oleic oils in particular camelina strains, which is of great interest in human food, industrial or biofuel applications, respectively. These results confirm the potential of camelina to serve as a biotechnology platform in biorefinery applications thus justifying further investment in breeding and genetic research for combining agronomic potential, unique oil quality features and biosafety into an agricultural production system. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Molecular characterization of the CRa gene conferring clubroot resistance in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Etsuo; Aruga, Daisuke; Kitagawa, Satoshi; Matsumura, Hideo; Hayashida, Nobuaki

    2012-12-01

    Clubroot disease is one of the major diseases affecting Brassicaceae crops, and a number of these crops grown commercially, such as Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), are known to be highly susceptible to clubroot disease. To provide protection from this disease, plant breeders have introduced genes for resistance to clubroot from the European turnip into susceptible lines. The CRa gene confers specific resistance to the clubroot pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae isolate M85. Fine mapping of the CRa locus using synteny to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome and partial genome sequences of B. rapa revealed a candidate gene encoding a TIR-NBS-LRR protein. Several structural differences in this candidate gene were found between susceptible and resistant lines, and CRa expression was observed only in the resistant line. Four mutant lines lacking clubroot resistance were obtained by the UV irradiation of pollen from a resistant line, and all of these mutant lines carried independent mutations in the candidate TIR-NBS-LRR gene. This genetic and molecular evidence strongly suggests that the identified gene is CRa. This is the first report on the molecular characterization of a clubroot Resistance gene in Brassicaceae and of the disease resistance gene in B. rapa.

  6. The Whole Genome Assembly and Comparative Genomic Research of Thellungiella parvula (Extremophile Crucifer Mitochondrion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial (mt genome of an extremophile species Thellungiella parvula (T. parvula have been determined with the lengths of 255,773 bp. T. parvula mt genome is a circular sequence and contains 32 protein-coding genes, 19 tRNA genes, and three ribosomal RNA genes with a 11.5% coding sequence. The base composition of 27.5% A, 27.5% T, 22.7% C, and 22.3% G in descending order shows a slight bias of 55% AT. Fifty-three repeats were identified in the mitochondrial genome of T. parvula, including 24 direct repeats, 28 tandem repeats (TRs, and one palindromic repeat. Furthermore, a total of 199 perfect microsatellites have been mined with a high A/T content (83.1% through simple sequence repeat (SSR analysis and they were distributed unevenly within this mitochondrial genome. We also analyzed other plant mitochondrial genomes’ evolution in general, providing clues for the understanding of the evolution of organelles genomes in plants. Comparing with other Brassicaceae species, T. parvula is related to Arabidopsis thaliana whose characters of low temperature resistance have been well documented. This study will provide important genetic tools for other Brassicaceae species research and improve yields of economically important plants.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of the GALACTINOL SYNTHASE Gene Family in Rapeseed and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghai Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Galactinol synthase (GolS is a key enzyme in raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO biosynthesis. The finding that GolS accumulates in plants exposed to abiotic stresses indicates RFOs function in environmental adaptation. However, the evolutionary relationships and biological functions of GolS family in rapeseed (Brassica napus and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum remain unclear. In this study, we identified 20 BnGolS and 9 NtGolS genes. Subcellular localization predictions showed that most of the proteins are localized to the cytoplasm. Phylogenetic analysis identified a lost event of an ancient GolS copy in the Solanaceae and an ancient duplication event leading to evolution of GolS4/7 in the Brassicaceae. The three-dimensional structures of two GolS proteins were conserved, with an important DxD motif for binding to UDP-galactose (uridine diphosphate-galactose and inositol. Expression profile analysis indicated that BnGolS and NtGolS genes were expressed in most tissues and highly expressed in one or two specific tissues. Hormone treatments strongly induced the expression of most BnGolS genes and homologous genes in the same subfamilies exhibited divergent-induced expression. Our study provides a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of GolS genes among the Brassicaceae and Solanaceae as well as an insight into the biological function of GolS genes in hormone response in plants.

  8. Immunity at Cauliflower Hydathodes Controls Systemic Infection by Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Aude; Jauneau, Alain; Auriac, Marie-Christine; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Martinez, Yves; Chiarenza, Serge; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Berthomé, Richard; Noël, Laurent D

    2017-06-01

    Hydathodes are water pores found on leaves of a wide range of vascular plants and are the sites of guttation. We report here on the detailed anatomy of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea ) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) hydathodes. Hydathode surface presents pores resembling stomata giving access to large cavities. Beneath, the epithem is composed of a lacunar and highly vascularized parenchyma offering a direct connection between leaf surface and xylem vessels. Arabidopsis hydathode pores were responsive to ABA and light similar to stomata. The flg22 flagellin peptide, a well-characterized elicitor of plant basal immunity, did not induce closure of hydathode pores in contrast to stomata. Because hydathodes are natural infection routes for several pathogens, we investigated hydathode infection by the adapted vascular phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris ( Xcc ), the causal agent of black rot disease of Brassicaceae. Microscopic observations of hydathodes six days postinoculation indicated a digestion of the epithem cells and a high bacterial multiplication. Postinvasive immunity was shown to limit pathogen growth in the epithem and is actively suppressed by the type III secretion system and its effector proteins. Altogether, these results give a detailed anatomic description of Brassicaceae hydathodes and highlight the efficient use of this tissue as an initial niche for subsequent vascular systemic dissemination of Xcc in distant plant tissues. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Immunity at Cauliflower Hydathodes Controls Systemic Infection by Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Aude; Jauneau, Alain; Auriac, Marie-Christine; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Martinez, Yves; Chiarenza, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Hydathodes are water pores found on leaves of a wide range of vascular plants and are the sites of guttation. We report here on the detailed anatomy of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hydathodes. Hydathode surface presents pores resembling stomata giving access to large cavities. Beneath, the epithem is composed of a lacunar and highly vascularized parenchyma offering a direct connection between leaf surface and xylem vessels. Arabidopsis hydathode pores were responsive to ABA and light similar to stomata. The flg22 flagellin peptide, a well-characterized elicitor of plant basal immunity, did not induce closure of hydathode pores in contrast to stomata. Because hydathodes are natural infection routes for several pathogens, we investigated hydathode infection by the adapted vascular phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Xcc), the causal agent of black rot disease of Brassicaceae. Microscopic observations of hydathodes six days postinoculation indicated a digestion of the epithem cells and a high bacterial multiplication. Postinvasive immunity was shown to limit pathogen growth in the epithem and is actively suppressed by the type III secretion system and its effector proteins. Altogether, these results give a detailed anatomic description of Brassicaceae hydathodes and highlight the efficient use of this tissue as an initial niche for subsequent vascular systemic dissemination of Xcc in distant plant tissues. PMID:28184011

  10. Identification of metabolic QTLs and candidate genes for glucosinolate synthesis in Brassica oleracea leaves, seeds and flower buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sotelo

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are major secondary metabolites found in the Brassicaceae family. These compounds play an essential role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stresses, but more interestingly they have beneficial effects on human health. We performed a genetic analysis in order to identify the genome regions regulating glucosinolates biosynthesis in a DH mapping population of Brassica oleracea. In order to obtain a general overview of regulation in the whole plant, analyses were performed in the three major organs where glucosinolates are synthesized (leaves, seeds and flower buds. Eighty two significant QTLs were detected, which explained a broad range of variability in terms of individual and total glucosinolate (GSL content. A meta-analysis rendered eighteen consensus QTLs. Thirteen of them regulated more than one glucosinolate and its content. In spite of the considerable variability of glucosinolate content and profiles across the organ, some of these consensus QTLs were identified in more than one tissue. Consensus QTLs control the GSL content by interacting epistatically in complex networks. Based on in silico analysis within the B. oleracea genome along with synteny with Arabidopsis, we propose seven major candidate loci that regulate GSL biosynthesis in the Brassicaceae family. Three of these loci control the content of aliphatic GSL and four of them control the content of indolic glucosinolates. GSL-ALK plays a central role in determining aliphatic GSL variation directly and by interacting epistatically with other loci, thus suggesting its regulatory effect.

  11. Quality of medicinal plants traditionally used in Sudan as affected by ionizing radiation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musa, H A. A. [Department of Botany and Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2009-11-15

    This investigation was conducted to study the effect of gamma-radiation doses of 5, 10 and 15 KGy on the microbial and chemical quality as well as antioxidant activity of nine medical plants from 8 plant species grown in Sudan. The plant materials were collected from the country-side of Khartoum State as well as from local markets. Plant parts were selected according to their traditional uses as medicinal plants. Irradiation treatment was carried out or dried ground samples using doses of 5,10, 15 KGy from experimental cobalt-60 gamma source. Plants extracts were prepared using 80% methanol. The control and irradiated samples were analyzed for total bacterial count (cfu/g), secondary compounds, tannin content, total phenol, and antioxidant activity. Tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, anthraquinones, saponin and phenols were evaluated through major compounds in extracts. The total bacterial count indicated that the non- irradiated samples of Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Cassia senna (pods), Cassia senna (leaves), Acacia nilotica L., Brassica nigra L. Koch, Lepidium sativum L., Cymbopogon citratus and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. were highly contaminated with bacteria. The sample of Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. showed a lower count of bacteria (9x10'' 3 Cfu/g), which did not exceed the acceptable level. The samples irradiated with 5, 10 and 15 KGy of gamma radiation dose had significantly lower bacterial counts than the non-irradiated control. The highest sensitivity to gamma rays at 5 KGy dose was observed in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and Acacia nilotica L. while the lowest sensitivity was in Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. At 15 KGy dose Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Cymbopogon citratus showed complete absence of microorganisms. The highest reduction in tannin content (mg/L catechin) due to irradiation with 15 KGy dose was observed in Cymbopogon citratus, followed by Cymbopogon schoenanthus L., Cassia senna L. leaves Acacia nilotica L. and Hibiscus sabdariffa L.. Irradiation

  12. Effect of NaCl salinity on the germination and seedling growth of some medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Z; Hussain, F [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany

    2010-04-15

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Plantago ovata Forssk., and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were tested in 0.05 (Control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl. ANOVA revealed highly significant differences for plumule growth while germination percentage, radicle growth, seedling fresh and dry weight and moisture contents showed non-significant variation under various salt concentrations. However, the differences among the species for all the parameters studied were highly significant. The findings suggest that these medicinal species might tolerate moderate levels of salinity and can be tried for cultivation on marginal salted soils. (author)

  13. Vegetative growth performance of five medicinal plants under NaCl salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Z; Hussain, F [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany

    2010-02-15

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., Plantago ovata Forssk, and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were grown in pots containing loamy soil with 0.21(Control) 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl to see their salinity tolerance. Various concentrations of salt had a highly significant effect upon the survival %age, plant height, number of branches, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root moisture contents. Number of leaves also varied significantly. However, leaf length and shoot moisture contents exhibited non-significant differences. Differences among the test species for all the parameters under consideration were also highly significant. The findings suggest that the test species are tolerant to moderate salinity i.e., 7.5 dS/m and might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass. (author)

  14. Triterpene saponins from the aerial parts of Dianthus caryophyllus var. remontant Hort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Gumnicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triterpene saponins from the aerial parts of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus var. remontant Hort. have been studied. Three gypsogenic acid glycosides including 3-O-glucopyranoside, 3,28-O-di-glucopyranoside and 3-O-glucopyranosy1,28-0-[glucopyranosyl(1→6glucopyranoside] have been identified by means of LSI mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C NMR. Inhibitory activities of isolated compounds against growth of the fungus Trichoderma viride and the growth of the roots of Lepidium sativum and D. caryophyllus seedlings were measured. None of the isolated compounds showed pronounced activity in T. viride test. Seedling root growth was affected severely at the presence of gypsogenic acid 3-O-glucopyranoside. Bidesmosidic form showed marginal stimulatory activity. The obtained data are discussed in relation to the activity of medicagenic acid 3-O-glucopyranoside, the compound differing just with 2-OH substitution from gypsogenic acid glycosides.

  15. vegetative growth performance of five medicinal plants under NaCl salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., Plantago ovata Forssk, and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were grown in pots containing loamy soil with 0.21(Control) 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl to see their salinity tolerance. Various concentrations of salt had a highly significant effect upon the survival %age, plant height, number of branches, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root moisture contents. Number of leaves also varied significantly. However, leaf length and shoot moisture contents exhibited non-significant differences. Differences among the test species for all the parameters under consideration were also highly significant. The findings suggest that the test species are tolerant to moderate salinity i.e., 7.5 dS/m and might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass. (author)

  16. Effect of NaCl salinity on the germination and seedling growth of some medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Plantago ovata Forssk., and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were tested in 0.05 (Control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl. ANOVA revealed highly significant differences for plumule growth while germination percentage, radicle growth, seedling fresh and dry weight and moisture contents showed non-significant variation under various salt concentrations. However, the differences among the species for all the parameters studied were highly significant. The findings suggest that these medicinal species might tolerate moderate levels of salinity and can be tried for cultivation on marginal salted soils. (author)

  17. Altered gravity causes the changes in the proteins NoA100 in plant cell nucleoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Margarita A.; Gonzalez-Camacho, Fernando; Kordyum, Elizabeth L.; Medina, Francisco Javier

    2005-08-01

    A nucleolar protein homologous to the mammalian nucleolin and to the onion nucleolin-like protein NopA100 was detected in nuclear soluble protein fraction from Lepidium sativum root meristematic cells, using the specific silver staining method and the cross-reaction with the anti-NopA100 antibody. In 2D Western blots of soluble nuclear fraction, NopA100 was revealed as a smear extending through a certain range of pI. In extracts obtained from seedlings grown under clinorotation, the extension of the pI range was shorter than in the stationary control indicating a lower phosphorylation of the protein. This suggests that altered gravity causes a decrease in the rate of nucleolar activity.

  18. Action of illuminating gas on plants. I. Action of the gas on the germination of spores and seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiimer, C

    1917-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of coal gas on plants. Results indicate that anaerobic fungi can grow even in undiluted gas and cress seeds (Lepidium sativum) remain alive for weeks in undiluted gas, but the seeds can germinate normally if the gas is diluted 5 times its volume of air. However, if the gas is passed through the soil in which the seeds have been placed, they will not germinate. If water is added to the soil, germination can proceed normally. The chemicals of coal gas which affects plants include sulfur compounds, benzene and ethylene. Carbon monoxide is also a prime constituent of coal gas, but it has no affect on plants.

  19. Digitally enhanced thin layer chromatography: further development and some applications in isotopic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthorpe, Daniel P; Lockley, William J S

    2013-09-01

    Improvements to thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis can be made easily and cheaply by the application of digital colour photography and image analysis. The combined technique, digitally enhanced TLC (DE-TLC), is applicable to the accurate quantification of analytes in mixtures, to reaction monitoring and to other typical uses of TLC. Examples are given of the application of digitally enhanced TLC to: the deuteromethylations of theophylline to [methyl-(2)H3]caffeine and of umbelliferone to [(2)H3]7-methoxycoumarin; the selection of tertiary amine bases in deuterodechlorination reactions; stoichiometry optimisation in the borodeuteride reduction of quinizarin (1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone) and to the assessment of xanthophyll yields in Lepidium sativum seedlings grown in deuterated media. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Quality of medicinal plants traditionally used in Sudan as affected by ionizing radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa, H. A. A.

    2009-11-01

    This investigation was conducted to study the effect of gamma-radiation doses of 5, 10 and 15 KGy on the microbial and chemical quality as well as antioxidant activity of nine medical plants from 8 plant species grown in Sudan. The plant materials were collected from the country-side of Khartoum State as well as from local markets. Plant parts were selected according to their traditional uses as medicinal plants. Irradiation treatment was carried out or dried ground samples using doses of 5,10, 15 KGy from experimental cobalt-60 gamma source. Plants extracts were prepared using 80% methanol. The control and irradiated samples were analyzed for total bacterial count (cfu/g), secondary compounds, tannin content, total phenol, and antioxidant activity. Tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, anthraquinones, saponin and phenols were evaluated through major compounds in extracts. The total bacterial count indicated that the non- irradiated samples of Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Cassia senna (pods), Cassia senna (leaves), Acacia nilotica L., Brassica nigra L. Koch, Lepidium sativum L., Cymbopogon citratus and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. were highly contaminated with bacteria. The sample of Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. showed a lower count of bacteria (9x10'' 3 Cfu/g), which did not exceed the acceptable level. The samples irradiated with 5, 10 and 15 KGy of gamma radiation dose had significantly lower bacterial counts than the non-irradiated control. The highest sensitivity to gamma rays at 5 KGy dose was observed in Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and Acacia nilotica L. while the lowest sensitivity was in Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. At 15 KGy dose Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Cymbopogon citratus showed complete absence of microorganisms. The highest reduction in tannin content (mg/L catechin) due to irradiation with 15 KGy dose was observed in Cymbopogon citratus, followed by Cymbopogon schoenanthus L., Cassia senna L. leaves Acacia nilotica L. and Hibiscus sabdariffa L.. Irradiation

  1. Effect of saline soil parameters on endo mycorrhizal colonisation of dominant halophytes in four Hungarian sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuzy, A.; Biro, B.; Toth, T.

    2010-07-01

    Soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of dominant halophytes (Artemisia santonicum, Aster tripolium, Festuca pseudovina, Lepidium crassifolium, Plantago maritima and Puccinellia limosa) at four locations with saline soils in Hungary. The correlations- between arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal colonisation parameters (% colonisation, % arbuscules) and soil physical, chemical and biological parameters were determined Endomycorrhiza colonisation was found to be negatively correlated with the electric conductivity of the soil paste, the salt-specific ion concentrations and the cation exchange capacity, showing the sensitivity of AM fungi at increasing salt concentrations, independently of the types of salt-specific anions. A positive correlation was detected between the mycorrhiza colonisation and the abundance of oligotroph bacteria known to be the less variable and more stable (k-strategist) group. This fact and the negative correlation found with the humus content underlines the importance of nutrient availability and the limitations of the symbiotic interactions in stressed saline or sodic soils. (Author) 29 refs.

  2. Ant species accumulation on Lord Howe Island highlights the increasing need for effective biosecurity on islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D. Hoffmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Two species of the genus Fallopia (F. sachalinensis, F. japonica, Polygonaceae native to Asia, and their hybrid (F. × bohemica, belong to the most noxious plant invaders in Europe. They impact highly on invaded plant communities, resulting in extremely poor native species richness. The low number of native species in invaded communities points to the possible existence of mechanisms suppressing their germination. In this study we assessed, under laboratory conditions, whether there are phytotoxic effects of the three Fallopia congeners on seed germination of three target species: two native species commonly growing in habitats that are often invaded by Fallopia taxa (Urtica dioica, Calamagrostis epigejos, and Lepidium sativum, a species commonly used in allelopathic bioassays as a control. Since Fallopia taxa form dense stands with high cover, we included varying light conditions as an additional factor, to simulate the effects of shading by leaf canopy on germination.

  3. The sustainable utilization of malting industry wastewater biological treatment sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, T. A.; Svintsov, A. V.; Chernysh, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article deals with the research of using the sludge from malting industry wastewater’s biological treatment and the calcium carbonate slurry as organo-mineral fertilizing additives. The sludge, generated as a result of industrial wastewater biological treatment, is subject to dumping at solid domestic waste landfills, which has a negative impact on the environment, though its properties and composition allow using it as an organic fertilizer. The physical and chemical properties of both wastes have been studied; the recommendations concerning the optimum composition of soil mix, containing the above-mentioned components, have been provided. The phytotoxic effect on the germination capacity and sprouts of cress (Lepidium sativum), barley (Hordéum vulgáre) and oats (Avena sativa) in soil mixes has been determined. The heavy metals and arsenic contents in the sludge does not exceed the allowable level; it is also free of pathogenic flora and helminthes.

  4. Comparative study of eco- and cytotoxicity during biotransformation of anthraquinone dye Alizarin Blue Black B in optimized cultures of microscopic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczyńska-Tkaczyk, Kamila; Święciło, Agata; Szychowski, Konrad A; Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select optimal conditions (C and N sources, initial pH and temperature) for biodecolorization of 0.03% anthraquinone dye Alizarin Blue Black B (ABBB) by microscopic fungi: Haematonectria haematococca BwIII43, K37 and Trichoderma harzianum BsIII33. The phenolic compounds, phytotoxicity (Lepidium sativum L.), biotoxicity (Microtox), cytotoxicity and yeast viability assay were performed to determine the extent of ABBB detoxification. Biodecolorization and detoxification of 0.03% ABBB in H. haematococca BwIII43 and T. harzianum BsIII33 cultures was correlated with extracellular oxidoreductases activity. In turn, secondary products, toxic to human fibroblasts and respiring sod1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, were formed in H. haematococca K37 strain cultures, despite efficient decolorization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Essential Oil of Monarda didyma L. (Lamiaceae Exerts Phytotoxic Activity in Vitro against Various Weed Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Ricci

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of Monarda didyma L. cultivated in central Italy was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. The major compounds of the oil were thymol (59.3%, p-cymene (10.3%, terpinolene (9.2%, δ-3-carene (4.4%, myrcene (3.7%, and camphene (3.4%. The essential oil was tested in vitro for its anti-germination activity against Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg., Avena fatua L., Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L. seeds, demonstrating good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. The exposure of the employed weed seeds to M. didyma essential oil and thymol solution (59.3% increased the level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA, markers of oxidative stress, in emerging 5-day-old rootlets.

  6. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Calamintha nepeta plants from the wild in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Malova, Hanna; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi, collected in the Campania Region, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In all, 42 compounds were identified. The oil was characterized by a prevalence of the sesquiterpenic fraction (80.8%). The main components were 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (18.5%), allo-aromadendrene epoxide (11.4%) and cadalene (5.7%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro potential phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radical growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The essential oil showed no antioxidant activity.

  7. Bioactive Compounds from Plants Used in Peruvian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included.

  8. Rhizobacteria and plant symbiosis in heavy metal uptake and its implications for soil bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobariu, Dana Luminița; Fertu, Daniela Ionela Tudorache; Diaconu, Mariana; Pavel, Lucian Vasile; Hlihor, Raluca-Maria; Drăgoi, Elena Niculina; Curteanu, Silvia; Lenz, Markus; Corvini, Philippe François-Xavier; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2017-10-25

    Certain species of plants can benefit from synergistic effects with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that improve plant growth and metal accumulation, mitigating toxic effects on plants and increasing their tolerance to heavy metals. The application of PGPR as biofertilizers and atmospheric nitrogen fixators contributes considerably to the intensification of the phytoremediation process. In this paper, we have built a system consisting of rhizospheric Azotobacter microbial populations and Lepidium sativum plants, growing in solutions containing heavy metals in various concentrations. We examined the ability of the organisms to grow in symbiosis so as to stimulate the plant growth and enhance its tolerance to Cr(VI) and Cd(II), to ultimately provide a reliable phytoremediation system. The study was developed at the laboratory level and, at this stage, does not assess the inherent interactions under real conditions occurring in contaminated fields with autochthonous microflora and under different pedoclimatic conditions and environmental stresses. Azotobacter sp. bacteria could indeed stimulate the average germination efficiency of Lepidium sativum by almost 7%, average root length by 22%, average stem length by 34% and dry biomass by 53%. The growth of L. sativum has been affected to a greater extent in Cd(II) solutions due its higher toxicity compared to that of Cr(VI). The reduced tolerance index (TI, %) indicated that plant growth in symbiosis with PGPR was however affected by heavy metal toxicity, while the tolerance of the plant to heavy metals was enhanced in the bacteria-plant system. A methodology based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) and differential evolution (DE), specifically a neuro-evolutionary approach, was applied to model germination rates, dry biomass and root/stem length and proving the robustness of the experimental data. The errors associated with all four variables are small and the correlation coefficients higher than 0

  9. DNA Barcoding the Canadian Arctic Flora: Core Plastid Barcodes (rbcL + matK) for 490 Vascular Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jeffery M.; Sokoloff, Paul C.; Gillespie, Lynn J.; Consaul, Laurie L.; Bull, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate identification of Arctic plant species is critical for understanding potential climate-induced changes in their diversity and distributions. To facilitate rapid identification we generated DNA barcodes for the core plastid barcode loci (rbcL and matK) for 490 vascular plant species, representing nearly half of the Canadian Arctic flora and 93% of the flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sequence recovery was higher for rbcL than matK (93% and 81%), and rbcL was easier to recover than matK from herbarium specimens (92% and 77%). Distance-based and sequence-similarity analyses of combined rbcL + matK data discriminate 97% of genera, 56% of species, and 7% of infraspecific taxa. There is a significant negative correlation between the number of species sampled per genus and the percent species resolution per genus. We characterize barcode variation in detail in the ten largest genera sampled (Carex, Draba, Festuca, Pedicularis, Poa, Potentilla, Puccinellia, Ranunculus, Salix, and Saxifraga) in the context of their phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy. Discrimination with the core barcode loci in these genera ranges from 0% in Salix to 85% in Carex. Haplotype variation in multiple genera does not correspond to species boundaries, including Taraxacum, in which the distribution of plastid haplotypes among Arctic species is consistent with plastid variation documented in non-Arctic species. Introgression of Poa glauca plastid DNA into multiple individuals of P. hartzii is problematic for identification of these species with DNA barcodes. Of three supplementary barcode loci (psbA–trnH, psbK–psbI, atpF–atpH) collected for a subset of Poa and Puccinellia species, only atpF–atpH improved discrimination in Puccinellia, compared with rbcL and matK. Variation in matK in Vaccinium uliginosum and rbcL in Saxifraga oppositifolia corresponds to variation in other loci used to characterize the phylogeographic histories of these Arctic-alpine species. PMID

  10. Inventory of the Alpine Flora of Haramosh and Bagrote Valleys (Karakoram Range) District Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S. W.; Abbas, Q.; Khatoon, S.; Raza, G.; Hussain, A.

    2016-01-01

    Inventorying of plant biodiversity of Haramosh and Bugrote valleys (District Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan) was done for fourteen years from 2001- 2014. The fourteen years inventorying revealed a rich plant biodiversity consisting of 232 species belonging to 106 genera and 34 families of flowering plants. The Alpine zone had 18 genera with 4 or more species; Pedicularis with 10 species was the largest genus of this zone, followed by Potentilla and Carex (each with 9 species) and Draba (8 species). Genera containing 9 or 10 species occurred only in Alpine zone. In the Alpine zone, 15 of the larger families were represented by 189 species, forming 81.46 percent of the Alpine flora. Although the highest number of species belonging to these larger families was present in the subalpine zone, but in terms of percentage their contribution was the highest in the Alpine flora. Percentage-wise the contribution of these families gradually increased from Desert zone to Alpine zone, because of their particular distribution patterns. Although the total number of species was the highest in the Subalpine zone, but in the species specific to any one zone, the Alpine zone had the highest number, that is, 96 of the total 232 species of Alpine zone were exclusively found in this zone only. Out of these 96 species specific to the Alpine zone, 53 belonged to such 22 genera that were exclusively found in the Alpine zone only. The Alpine zone was characterized by herbs and low shrubs, with Potentilla species as the dominants. A clear trend of migration of certain species both from lower to higher latitudes and altitudes was observed. The species richness index of Alpine zone however showed increasing trend probably due to species migrations towards the alpine zone. The major threats to the plant biodiversity were recognized as the deforestation and habitat loss due to over-exploitation of species, over-grazing by livestock, and climate changes due to global warming, which were

  11. The concept of ’Musa-pelo and the medicinal use of shrubby legumes (Fabaceae in Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moteetee

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Kingdom of Lesotho, 20 plant species are commonly known as  'Musa-pelo. The term literally means ‘the one who brings back or tums around the heart’.  'Musa-pelo is traditionally used as a sedative and is given as a first aid treatment to bereaved people who are under severe psychological duress or stress. Of the 20 species known as  'Musa-pelo, 17 belong to nine genera of the Fabaceae  (Argyrolobium, Crotalaria, Indigofera, Lessertia, Lotononis, Melolobium, Sutherlandia, Tephrosia and  Trifolium. The three remaining species namely Cleome monophylla, Heliophila carnosa and  Cysticapnos pruinosa, belong to the families Capparaceae, Brassicaceae and Fumariaceae, respectively. In this paper, the concept of 'Musa-pelo in traditional medicine is explored.

  12. An early nodulin-like protein accumulates in the sieve element plasma membrane of Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Junaid A.; Wang, Qi; Sjölund, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Membrane proteins within the sieve element-companion cell complex have essential roles in the physiological functioning of the phloem. The monoclonal antibody line RS6, selected from hybridomas raised against sieve elements isolated from California shield leaf (Streptanthus tortuosus; Brassicaceae...... was revealed by reverse transcription-PCR of Arabidopsis leaf RNA using degenerate primers to be an early nodulin (ENOD)-like protein that is encoded by the expressed gene At3g20570. Arabidopsis ENOD-like proteins are encoded by a multigene family composed of several types of structurally related phytocyanins...... from the precursor protein, resulting in a mature peptide of approximately 15 kD that is attached to the sieve element plasma membrane via a carboxy-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchor. Many of the Arabidopsis ENOD-like proteins accumulate in gametophytic tissues, whereas in both...

  13. The genome sequence of Barbarea vulgaris facilitates the study of ecological biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen L.; Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye; Agerbirk, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The genus Barbarea has emerged as a model for evolution and ecology of plant defense compounds, due to its unusual glucosinolate profile and production of saponins, unique to the Brassicaceae. One species, B. vulgaris, includes two ‘types’, G-type and P-type that differ in trichome density......, and their glucosinolate and saponin profiles. A key difference is the stereochemistry of hydroxylation of their common phenethylglucosinolate backbone, leading to epimeric glucobarbarins. Here we report a draft genome sequence of the G-type, and re-sequencing of the P-type for comparison. This enables us to identify...... candidate genes underlying glucosinolate diversity, trichome density, and study the genetics of biochemical variation for glucosinolate and saponins. B. vulgaris is resistant to the diamondback moth, and may be exploited for “dead-end” trap cropping where glucosinolates stimulate oviposition and saponins...

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) root extracts in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocco, Stefania; Calabrone, Luana; Adesso, Simona; Larocca, Marilena; Franceschelli, Silvia; Autore, Giuseppina; Martelli, Giuseppe; Rossano, Rocco

    2015-12-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family. Horseradish root is used as a condiment due to its extremely pungent flavour, deriving from the high content of glucosinolates and their breakdown products such as isothiocyanates and other sulfur compounds. Horseradish also has a long history in ethnomedicine. In this study the anti-inflammatory potential of three accessions of Armoracia rusticana on lipopolysaccharide from E. coli treated J774A.1 murine macrophages was evaluated. Our results demonstrate that Armoracia rusticana reduced nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release and nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages, acting on nuclear transcription factor NF-κB p65 activation. Moreover Armoracia rusticana reduced reactive oxygen species release and increased heme-oxygenase-1 expression, thus contributing to the cytoprotective cellular effect during inflammation.

  15. Pollen Foraging by Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L. in Greece: Botanical and Geographical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimou Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen is very important for honey bee colony development and nutrition. It is also a valuable product for human consumption, considered to have high nutritional value. In this study, we performed melissopalynological analysis of 285 pollen load samples collected from 44 apiaries throughout Greece. The analysis revealed 229 plant taxa represented in total. The abundance of each pollen type varied among the geographical areas from which the samples were collected. We also observed variation among samples collected from the same geographical region. The most frequently found families were Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Rosaceae. The most frequently observed taxa were Brassicaceae, Carduus type, Cistus and Papaver rhoeas. Statistical analysis showed that the geographical classification of pollen samples among northern, central and southern Greece is possible.

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Pollen Extracts on Pathogenic Microflora from Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Alexandru Marghitas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bee-pollen was used for thousands of years as functional food and medicinal plant product. Various beneficial effects were attributed to it and its consumption was increased over the years. The tests have been made on 16 pollen samples of the following families: Rosaceae, Salicaceae, Fabaceae, Tiliaceae, Asteraceae, Brassicaceae and two polifloral pollen assortment, using difuzimetric method. Among the tested bacteria, the Onobrychis viciifolia pollen has the highest sensitivity 11.86±1.79 mm while the low antibacterial activity was registered for Brassica sp. pollen  8.65±2.65 mm. As the use of antibiotic substances over a long period of time resulted in larger doses of residues in milk and representing a potential biohazard, the use of ethanol extracts from beepollen is a real alternative in the treatment of cows with various diseases.

  17. Urinary diseases and ethnobotany among pastoral nomads in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Aref

    2005-08-02

    This article is derived from a broad, twenty-year study of ethnobotany and folk medicine among pastoral nomads in the Middle East which took place from 1984 to 2004. The article presents examples of different treatments of diseases and disorders of the urinary tract carried out by healer herbalists. The preparation of remedies includes boiling infusions, extraction of dry or fresh leaves, flowers, seeds or whole plants. Some of these plants were used both as food and as medicine, by ingesting different parts of the plants, such as leaves, flowers, fruits, and so on, either while soft, cooked or dried. Data were collected by using unstructured interviews and by observation. These plants were identified by healers, patients, and university botanists. This paper identified eighty-five plant species, which belong to thirty-six families. The most representative families are: Asteraceae (8), Brassicaceae (6), Poaceae (6), Umbelliferae (6).

  18. Non-Host Plant Volatiles Disrupt Sex Pheromone Communication in a Specialist Herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fumin; Deng, Jianyu; Schal, Coby; Lou, Yonggen; Zhou, Guoxin; Ye, Bingbing; Yin, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhihong; Shen, Lize

    2016-01-01

    The ecological effects of plant volatiles on herbivores are manifold. Little is known, however, about the impacts of non-host plant volatiles on intersexual pheromonal communication in specialist herbivores. We tested the effects of several prominent constitutive terpenoids released by conifers and Eucalyptus trees on electrophysiological and behavioral responses of an oligophagous species, Plutella xylostella, which feeds on Brassicaceae. The non-host plant volatile terpenoids adversely affected the calling behavior (pheromone emission) of adult females, and the orientation responses of adult males to sex pheromone were also significantly inhibited by these terpenoids in a wind tunnel and in the field. We suggest that disruption of both pheromone emission and orientation to sex pheromone may explain, at least in part, an observed reduction in herbivore attack in polyculture compared with monoculture plantings. We also propose that mating disruption of both male and female moths with non-host plant volatiles may be a promising alternative pest management strategy. PMID:27585907

  19. The leaf volatile constituents of Isatis tinctoria by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condurso, Cettina; Verzera, Antonella; Romeo, Vincenza; Ziino, Marisa; Trozzi, Alessandra; Ragusa, Salvatore

    2006-08-01

    The leaf volatile constituents of Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae) have been studied by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS). Seventy components were fully characterized by mass spectra, linear retention indices, and injection of standards; the average composition (ppm) as single components and classes of substances is reported. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, acids, alcohols, aldehydes and esters, aromatic aldehydes, esters and ethers, furans, isothiocyanates and thiocyanates, sulfurated compounds, nitriles, terpenes and sesquiterpenes were identified. Leaf volatiles in Isatis tinctoria L. were characterized by a high amount of isothiocyanates which accounted for about 40 % of the total volatile fraction. Isothiocyanates are important and characteristic flavour compounds in Brassica vegetables and the cancer chemo-protective attributes are recently responsible for their growing interest.

  20. Etude des groupements d'adventices dans le Maroc occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douira, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the weeds groupings in western Morocco. An ecological floristic study was carried out in the principal areas of Morocco severely infested by the sterile oats. From 110 readings taken in cereals, the 324 listed species belong to 47 botanical families including 39 dicotyledons. Six families: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Apiaceae add up 59% of the total staff complement alone. The biological aspect shows a prevalence of the therophytes with 80%, followed by the hemicryptophytes and the geophytes with respectively 11 and 7%. Mediterranean taxa are dominating with 62% of the total staff complement. The taking into account of the index partial of noxiousness made it possible to release 27 problematic species whose Avena sterilis, Phalaris paradoxa, Phalaris brachystachys, Scolymus maculates, Lolium multiflorum, Papaver rhoeas and Lolium rigidum are most harmful by far. The factorial analysis of correspondences (A.F.C., by the means of the edaphic variables, made it possible to highlight six ecological groups.

  1. Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Life Table Indices of Plutella xylostella in Multigenerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahmoudvand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, is a major pest of Brassicaceae family in Iran. This study investigated the sublethal effects of pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analogue, on DBM, for two subsequent generations. The leaf dip bioassay method was adopted in conducting this experiment. Sublethal concentrations resulted in a significant decrease in fecundity, oviposition period, and pupal weight of parents and offspring generations. Also, the development time of DBM was prolonged after exposure to pyriproxyfen. The biological parameters such as net reproductive rate (R0 and intrinsic (rm and finite (λ rate of increase were lower than control in treatment groups, significantly. From our investigations, pyriproxyfen is a good choice for control of the diamondback moth population through continuous generations.

  2. Non-Host Plant Volatiles Disrupt Sex Pheromone Communication in a Specialist Herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fumin; Deng, Jianyu; Schal, Coby; Lou, Yonggen; Zhou, Guoxin; Ye, Bingbing; Yin, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhihong; Shen, Lize

    2016-09-02

    The ecological effects of plant volatiles on herbivores are manifold. Little is known, however, about the impacts of non-host plant volatiles on intersexual pheromonal communication in specialist herbivores. We tested the effects of several prominent constitutive terpenoids released by conifers and Eucalyptus trees on electrophysiological and behavioral responses of an oligophagous species, Plutella xylostella, which feeds on Brassicaceae. The non-host plant volatile terpenoids adversely affected the calling behavior (pheromone emission) of adult females, and the orientation responses of adult males to sex pheromone were also significantly inhibited by these terpenoids in a wind tunnel and in the field. We suggest that disruption of both pheromone emission and orientation to sex pheromone may explain, at least in part, an observed reduction in herbivore attack in polyculture compared with monoculture plantings. We also propose that mating disruption of both male and female moths with non-host plant volatiles may be a promising alternative pest management strategy.

  3. Determination of free inositols and other low molecular weight carbohydrates in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Oswaldo; Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; Sanz, María Luz; Martínez-Castro, Isabel

    2011-03-23

    Different low molecular weight carbohydrates including saccharides, polyalcohols, sugar acids, and glycosides have been identified and quantified in different edible vegetables from Asteraceae, Amarantaceae, Amarylidaceae, Brassicaceae, Dioscoreaceae, and Solanaceae families by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Apart from glucose, fructose, and sucrose, other saccharides such as sedoheptulose in chicory, spinach, cabbage, purple yam, eggplant, radish, and oak leaf lettuce, rutinose in eggplant skin, and a glycosyl-inositol in spinach have been identified. chiro-Inositol was found in all vegetables of the Asteraceae family (3.1-32.6 mg 100 g(-1)), whereas scyllo-inositol was detected in those of purple yam, eggplant, artichoke, chicory, escarole, and endive (traces-23.2 mg 100 g(-1)). α-Galactosides, kestose, glucaric acid, and glycosyl-glycerols were also identified and quantified in some of the analyzed vegetables. Considering the bioactivity of most of these compounds, mainly chicory leaves, artichokes, lettuces, and purple yam could constitute beneficial sources for human health.

  4. Efficient expression of SRK intracellular domain by a modeling-based protein engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kohji; Hirano, Yoshinori; Takayama, Seiji; Hakoshima, Toshio

    2017-03-01

    S-locus protein kinase (SRK) is a receptor kinase that plays a critical role in self-recognition in the Brassicaceae self-incompatibility (SI) response. SRK is activated by binding of its ligand S-locus protein 11 (SP11) and subsequently induced phosphorylation of the intracellular kinase domain. However, a detailed activation mechanism of SRK is still largely unknown because of the difficulty in stably expressing SRK recombinant proteins. Here, we performed modeling-based protein engineering of the SRK kinase domain for stable expression in Escherichia coli. The engineered SRK intracellular domain was expressed about 54-fold higher production than wild type SRK, without loss of the kinase activity, suggesting it could be useful for further biochemical and structural studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Flora in abandoned fields and adjacent crop fields on rendzina soils in the Zamość region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziemińska-Smyk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A floristic inventory of segetal flora was carried out in abandoned fields and adjacent crop fields on rendzina soils in the Zamość region in the year 2010. This study found a total of 130 weed species belonging to 30 botanical families. The following families were represented most frequently: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Brassicaceae. In the segetal flora, apophytes are dominant (55% of the total flora, with the highest number of meadow and xerothermic grassland species among them. Archeophytes (38% predominate in the group of anthropophytes. The species characterized by the highest constancy classes and reaching the highest cover indices posed the greatest threat to crops in the study area. The following weeds are most frequently found in fallow fields: Consolida regalis, Cichorium intybus, and Sinapis arvensis, while Papaver rhoeas is the greatest threat to cereal crops grown on rendzina soils.

  6. The trophic plasticity of genus phelipanche pomel (orobanchaceae in bulgaria Trofichna plastichnost na rod phelipanche pomel (orobanchaceae v bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiril STOYANOV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New data about the natural parasitism of Phelipanche ramosa (L Pomel, P. mutelii (Shultz Pomel, P. oxyloba, P. arenaria and P. purpurea in Bulgaria are collected. The information for the hosts describes 46 new trophic systems with species from the families: Brassicaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Araliaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Geraniaceae, Dioscoreaceae and Verbenaceae. The samples are collected outside the crop fields, far from the known host crops, from different parts of the country. Some of the registered hosts are new for Bulgaria. The voucher specimens with physical connection to the hosts are deposited in the Herbarium of The Agricultural University - Plovdiv (SOA. The collected data suggest that genus Phelipanche is represented by two trophic groups according to the known sections. Sect. Phelipanche unites the polyphags P. ramosa, P. oxyloba and P. mutelii. Sect. Arenariae consist oligophags - P. arenaria and P. purpurea.

  7. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  8. Flavonoids from Capsella bursa-pastoris and their hepatoprotective activities in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinge Ma

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two new flavonoids (1 and 2, named 4',7-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-8-prenylflavonoid and 4',7-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-6,8-diprenylflavonoid, together with seven known flavonoids (3–9 were isolated from the aerial parts of Capsella bursa-pastoris (L. Medik., Brassicaceae, for the first time. The chemical structures of the purified compounds (1–9 were identified by their spectroscopic data and references. Moreover, compounds (1–9 were evaluated for their hepatoprotective activities against D-galactosamine induced toxicity in WB-F344 cells by using a MTT colorimetric method. As a result, compounds 2, 3, 6, and 9 (10 µM exhibited moderate hepatoprotective activities.

  9. ROOT VEGETABLES, BREEDING TRENDS, RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of root vegetables is their unique specificity and high economic importance. The benefits and medicinal properties of root vegetables being highly demanded by the market requirements to the commodity are highlighted in the article. The main directions of breeding program for root vegetable crops, including species of Apiaceae family with carrot, parsnips; Chenopodioideae family with red beet; Brassicaceae family with radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga. Initial breeding accessions of carrot, red beet, radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga have been selected out to be used for breeding program for heterosis. The mf and ms breeding lines were developed, and with the use of them the new gene pool was created. Variety supporting breeding program and methods were also proposed. 

  10. Sinigrin and Its Therapeutic Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Mazumder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sinigrin (allyl-glucosinolate or 2-propenyl-glucosinolate is a natural aliphatic glucosinolate present in plants of the Brassicaceae family, such as broccoli and brussels sprouts, and the seeds of Brassica nigra (mustard seeds which contain high amounts of sinigrin. Since ancient times, mustard has been used by mankind for its culinary, as well as medicinal, properties. It has been systematically described and evaluated in the classical Ayurvedic texts. Studies conducted on the pharmacological activities of sinigrin have revealed anti-cancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing properties and biofumigation. This current review will bring concise information about the known therapeutic activities of sinigrin. However, the information on known biological activities is very limited and, hence, further studies still need to be conducted and its molecular mechanisms also need to be explored. This review on the therapeutic benefits of sinigrin can summarize current knowledge about this unique phytocompounds.

  11. Colorless chlorophyll catabolites in senescent florets of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiser, Matthias H; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-02-11

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  12. Monograph on alternaria diseases of crucifers. Technical bulletin No. 1994-6E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, P R

    1994-12-31

    The brassicas include an important group of oilseed crops such as canola and commercial vegetables such as cabbage and broccoli. Infection by species of the fungus Alternaria causes severe yield losses to those crops. This document compiles the most recent information on fundamental and applied knowledge of Alternaria species infecting Brassicaceae crops and weeds. It includes a review of the symptoms, geographical distribution, yield losses, and disease assessment methods of infections from the four most widely distributed species of Alternaria; information on the characteristics of the pathogen, its host range, disease cycle, process of infection, epidemiology, fine structures and electron microscopy, resistance, and phytotoxins; and techniques for disease infection and management. The document concludes with an evaluation of future strategies and priorities in the management of Alternaria diseases.

  13. Diversified glucosinolate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisch, Tina; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2015-01-01

    glucosides in A. petiolata. However, we detected hydrogen cyanide (HCN) release from sinigrin and added thiocyanate ion and benzyl thiocyanate in A. petiolata indicating an enzymatic pathway from glucosinolates via allyl thiocyanate and indole glucosinolate derived thiocyanate ion to HCN. Alliarinoside......Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard, Brassicaceae) contains the glucosinolate sinigrin as well as alliarinoside, a γ-hydroxynitrile glucoside structurally related to cyanogenic glucosides. Sinigrin may defend this plant against a broad range of enemies, while alliarinoside confers resistance...... to specialized (glucosinolate-adapted) herbivores. Hydroxynitrile glucosides and glucosinolates are two classes of specialized metabolites, which generally do not occur in the same plant species. Administration of [UL-14C]-methionine to excised leaves of A. petiolata showed that both alliarinoside and sinigrin...

  14. Food as a Source for Quorum Sensing Inhibitors: Iberin from Horseradish Revealed as a Quorum Sensing Inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Bragason, Steinn Kristinn; Phipps, Richard Kerry

    2012-01-01

    of traditional antibiotics to treat infections caused by bacterial biofilms and multidrug-resistant bacteria. Several QSIs of natural origin have been identified, and in this study, several common food products and plants were extracted and screened for QSI activity in an attempt to isolate and characterize...... to transcend problems with selective pressures for antibiotic resistance, is to interrupt bacterial communication, also known as quorum sensing (QS), by means of signal antagonists, the so-called QS inhibitors (QSIs). Furthermore, QSI agents offer a potential solution to the deficiencies associated with use......-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as iberin—an isothiocyanate produced by many members of the Brassicaceae family. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and DNA microarray studies showed that iberin specifically blocks expression of QS-regulated genes in P...

  15. Bunias orientalis L. as a natural overwintering host OF Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kobyłko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A virus was isolated, using mechanical inoculation, from hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L. plants exhibiting yellow mottling and blistering on leaves, which were frequently accompanied by asymmetric leaf narrowing. It systemically infected certain plants from the family Brassicaceae (Brassica rapa, Bunias orientalis, Hesperis matronalis, Sinapis alba as well as Cleome spinosa and Nicotiana clevelandii, and locally Atriplex hortensis, Chenopodium quinoa, Ch. amaranticolor, N. tabacum. In the sap, it maintained infectivity for 3-4 days and lost it after heating for 10 min. at a temperature of 55 - 60oC or when diluted with water at 10-3. Virus particles were thread- like with a length of 675 - 710 nm. Based on an analysis of biological properties of the pathogen, serological response, particle morphology and data from field observations, it was identified as an isolate of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, and hill mustard was recognised as a natural overwintering host for this pathogen.

  16. Isothiocyanates: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Kala*

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Isothiocyanates (ITCs are naturally occurring molecules belonging to highly reactive organosulphur synthons, with the general structure R–N=C=S. The precursor molecule glucosinolate anions are hydrolyzed enzymatically (under the effect of myrosinase enzymes or unenzymatically to produce nitriles or isothiocyanates depending upon conditions such as pH and temperature. Brassicaceae  Family is known to contain abundant ITCs. A significant number of isothiocyanates has been isolated from different plant sources and some of them have been synthesized. Several isothiocyanates have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activities, etc. Pharmacokinetic profiles of these sulphur containing compounds are well established. However, safety profiles of ITCs need consideration and a well-designed study with appropriate control, for their production as lead compounds. This review summarises the chemistry, sources, pharmacokinetics, pharmacological activity and toxicity profiles of the isothiocyanates.

  17. A using of biometric methods for the delineation of floral units on the plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria E. Kharchenko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available On the base of the using of biometric analysis of linear dimensions of the leaves, stipules, bracts and bracteoles in the Brassicaceae (Arabidopsis thaliana, Matthiola longipetala, Lobularia maritime, Lamiaceae (Lamium purpureum, Salvia tesquicola and Boraginaceae (Cynoglossum offisinale, Echium vulgare, Nonea pulla, it has found that the linear dimensions of the leaves and bracts are changed in a similar pattern, which is different from the pattern of change of the stipules and bracteole. In this regard, the biometric analysis of the linear dimensions of the leaves on the shoot can be used as an additional criterion for establishing of the boundaries and composition of floral pieces, as well as for the homologation of shoot elements.

  18. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm and its comparative analysis with that of normal cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Yoshiyuki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant mitochondrial genome has unique features such as large size, frequent recombination and incorporation of foreign DNA. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is caused by rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome, and a novel chimeric open reading frame (ORF created by shuffling of endogenous sequences is often responsible for CMS. The Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm is one of the most extensively studied cytoplasms in Brassicaceae. Although the gene orf138 has been isolated as a determinant of Ogura-type CMS, no homologous sequence to orf138 has been found in public databases. Therefore, how orf138 sequence was created is a mystery. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two radish mitochondrial genomes, namely, Ogura- and normal-type genomes, and analyzed them to reveal the origin of the gene orf138. Results Ogura- and normal-type mitochondrial genomes were assembled to 258,426-bp and 244,036-bp circular sequences, respectively. Normal-type mitochondrial genome contained 33 protein-coding and three rRNA genes, which are well conserved with the reported mitochondrial genome of rapeseed. Ogura-type genomes contained same genes and additional atp9. As for tRNA, normal-type contained 17 tRNAs, while Ogura-type contained 17 tRNAs and one additional trnfM. The gene orf138 was specific to Ogura-type mitochondrial genome, and no sequence homologous to it was found in normal-type genome. Comparative analysis of the two genomes revealed that radish mitochondrial genome consists of 11 syntenic regions (length >3 kb, similarity >99.9%. It was shown that short repeats and overlapped repeats present in the edge of syntenic regions were involved in recombination events during evolution to interconvert two types of mitochondrial genome. Ogura-type mitochondrial genome has four unique regions (2,803 bp, 1,601 bp, 451 bp and 15,255 bp in size that are non-syntenic to normal-type genome, and the gene orf138

  19. Urinary diseases and ethnobotany among pastoral nomads in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Aref

    2005-01-01

    This article is derived from a broad, twenty-year study of ethnobotany and folk medicine among pastoral nomads in the Middle East which took place from 1984 to 2004. The article presents examples of different treatments of diseases and disorders of the urinary tract carried out by healer herbalists. The preparation of remedies includes boiling infusions, extraction of dry or fresh leaves, flowers, seeds or whole plants. Some of these plants were used both as food and as medicine, by ingesting different parts of the plants, such as leaves, flowers, fruits, and so on, either while soft, cooked or dried. Data were collected by using unstructured interviews and by observation. These plants were identified by healers, patients, and university botanists. This paper identified eighty-five plant species, which belong to thirty-six families. The most representative families are: Asteraceae (8), Brassicaceae (6), Poaceae (6), Umbelliferae (6). PMID:16270930

  20. Dispersal of solitary bees and bumblebees in a winter oilseed rape field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Dispersal distributions of solitary bees and bumblebees were studied in a winter oilseed rape field. Window-traps were placed in the rape field along a line transect perpendicular to the field edge. 19 species of solitary bees were recorded and all but four species are polylectic, including...... Brassicaceae as host-plant family. Through non-linear regression, the decline in solitary bee individuals versus distance from field edge significantly fitted a steep two-parameter exponential decay function. Activity of solitary bees was clearly highest within 30 metres from the field edge. Apparently......, solitary bees do not play any noteworthy role in the pollination of winter oilseed rape in Denmark. The traps yielded ten species of bumblebees, and a significant linear correlation was found between numbers of individuals and distance from the field edge. This result is attributed to bumblebee foraging...