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Sample records for leonurus japonicus houtt

  1. Isolation and characterization of a novel thermostable non-specific lipid transfer protein-like antimicrobial protein from motherwort (Leonurus japonicus Houtt) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xingyong; Li, Jun; Li, Xianbi; She, Rong; Pei, Yan

    2006-12-01

    In screening for potent antimicrobial proteins from plant seeds, a novel heat-stable antimicrobial protein, designated LJAMP2, was purified from seeds of the motherwort (Leonurus japonicus Houtt), a medicine herb, with a procedure involving cation exchange chromatography on a CM FF column, and reverse phase HPLCs on C8 column and C18 column. LJAMP2 exhibited a molecular mass of 6.2 kDa determined. Automated Edman degradation determined the partial N-terminal sequence of LJAMP2 to be NH2-AIGCNTVASKMAPCLPYVTGKGPLGGCCGGVKGLIDAARTTPDRQAVCNCLKTLAKSYSG, which displays homology with plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs). In vitro bioassays showed that LJAMP2 inhibits the growth of a variety of microbes, including filamentous fungi, bacteria and yeast. The growth of three phytopathogenic fungi, Alternaria brassicae, Botrytis maydis, and Rhizoctonia cerealis, are inhibited at 7.5 microM of LJAMP2, whereas Bacillus subtilis is about 15 microM. The IC(50) of LJAMP2 for Aspergillus niger, B. maydis, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium digitatum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are 5.5, 6.1, 9.3, 40.0, and 76.0 microM, respectively.

  2. Stachydrine in Leonurus cardiaca, Leonurus japonicus, Leonotis leonurus: detection and quantification by instrumental HPTLC and 1H-qNMR analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, K; Volk, R B; Rauwald, H W

    2013-07-01

    Stachydrine ((2S)-1,1-dimethylpyrrolidinium-2-carboxylic acid) may be regarded as an essential active principle of the aerial parts of Leonurus japonicus Houtt. (Leonuri herba, yimucao; Chin.Ph., DAB) which are used in TCM and Kampo for the treatment of various gynaecological and cardiovascular disorders. Medically and botanically closely related Lamioideae drugs are the fruits of L. japonicus (Leonuri fructus, chongweizi; Chin.Ph.), the aerial parts of European Leonurus cardiaca L. (Leonuri cardiacae herba; Ph.Eur.) as well as the aerial parts of their South African relative Leonotis leonurus (L.) R.Br. (Leonotis leonuri herba). Regarding L. cardiaca, stachydrine might be an exceptionally interesting constituent as Dragendorff-positive substances like stachydrine were found to be enriched in an antiarrhythmic L. cardiaca refined extract, which was most recently developed via bioassay guided fractionation. The few pharmacological publications on this betaine do indeed describe cardiovascular, hypotensive, and tissue protective effects. However, its pharmacopeial analytics poses a severe difficulty, as it does not contain any chromophoric group suitable for customary HPLC-UV detection. For quality control of yimucao according to Chin.Ph. the entirety of its N-containing compounds is photometrically quantified after Reinecke's complexation. Unfortunately, this method suffers from a relatively low reproducibility. Since no reliable quantification method for stachydrine is available up to now, a highly reproducible instrumental HPTLC method was newly developed, using postchromatographic derivatization by Vágújfalvi reagent, thus changing non absorbing stachydrine into a detectable derivative at 517 nm, and an automatic HPTLC system with scanner and analysis software (winCATS). This method was shown to be precise with respect to concentration and yielded highly reproducible data over numerous inter-day repetitions. Not only did the independent evaluation of the

  3. Helmintofauna de cavalas, Scomber japonicus Houtt, do Rio de Janeiro

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    A. Arandas Rêgo

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores identificaram as seguintes espécies de helmintos, coletados de 50 cavalas, Scomber japonicus, no Rio de Janeiro: Kuhnia scombri (Kuhn, 1829 e Grubea cochlear (Diesing, 1858 (Monogenea; Opechona orientalis (Layman, 1930, Lecithocladium harpodontis Srivastava, 1942 e Nematobothrium scombri (Taschenberg, 1879 (Digenea; plerocercos de Trypanorhyncha Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 e Rhinebothrium sp. (Cestoda; Bolbosoma sp. (Acanghocephala e Anisakidae larvares (Nematoda, identificados aos tipos larvares Raphidascaris, Phocanema, Contracaecum e Anisakis tipo 1. Os digenéticos foram os de maior incidência, 84% dos peixes mostraram-se parasitados por uma ou mais espécies. Quanto às espécies, a de maior incidência foi Nematobothrium scombri (Digenea, Didymozoidae, em 46% dos peixes. São pela primeria vez assinalados Scomber japonicus larvas de Phillobothiidae, possivelmente Rhinebothrium, além de larvas de Anisakis do tipo 1. São pela primeira vez assinaladas no Brasil as espécies, Grubea cochlear, Kuhnia scombri, Nematobothrium scombri e Opechona orientalis.There were identified twelve species of helminths from fifty "Spanish Mackerel", Scomber japonicus Houtt, in Rio de Janeiro; Kuhnia scombri (Kuhn, 1829, and Grubea cochlear (Diesing, 1859 (Monogenea; Opechona orientalis (Layman, 1930, Lecithocladium harpodontis Srivastava, 1942 e Nematobothrium scombri (Taschengerg, 1879 (Digenea; plerocercus of Trypanorhyncha, Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 and Rhinebothrium sp. (Cestoda; Bolbosoma sp. (Acanthocephala and larval Anisakidae (Nematoda, types Raphidascaris, Phocanema, Contracaecum and Anisakis I. Larval Phillobothriid, following species are referred in Brazil for the first time: Grubea cochlear, Kuhnia scombri, Nematobothrium scombri and Opechona orientalis.

  4. ¹H-qNMR for direct quantification of stachydrine in Leonurus japonicus and L. cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Kenny; Ortwein, Jutta; Hennig, Lothar; Rauwald, Hans Wilhelm

    2014-07-01

    (1)H-qNMR-spectroscopy was successfully applied to quantify the pharmacologically active alkaloid stachydrine ((2S)-1,1-dimethylpyrrolidinium-2-carboxylic-acid) in aerial parts of Leonurus japonicus (Leonuri herba, yimucao; Chin.Ph.2010, DAB2012) which are used in TCM and Kampo for the treatment of various gynaecological and cardiovascular disorders. Pharmacological publications on this betaine describe cardiovascular, hypotensive, and tissue-protective effects. However, its pharmacopeial analytics poses severe difficulties as it does not contain any chromophore suitable for HPLC-UV-detection. Nine samples from three countries were prepared as decoctions and freeze-dried. (1)H-NMR-spectra were recorded in D2O. The direct-quantitative (1)H-qNMR-procedure was carried out using the N-CH3-singlet at δ 3.03 ppm in comparison to the δ 6.18 ppm singlet of the two vinylic protons of maleic-acid, which was identified as a most favourable internal standard. The quantification limit of stachydrine was 0.44 mg/g drug material. Neither reference-compounds for calibration-curves nor sample-pre-purification was necessary. This protocol revealed stachydrine contents in the range from 0.09 up to 1.01% (w/w) for the tested yimucao samples. Furthermore, between 0.18 and 0.21% of stachydrine was found in the L. japonicus fruit-drug (Leonuri fructus, chongweizi; Chin.Ph.2010) which was examined for this constituent for the first time. In four co-investigated samples of the closely related and similarly used European herb Leonurus cardiaca Ph.Eur., even higher contents up to 1.55% were attested. The presented quantitative (1)H-qNMR-method was shown to be precise with respect to concentration, and yielded highly reproducible data in a series of inter-day repetitions. Methodically, (1)H-qNMR may be a powerful tool for quality assurance of stachydrine containing plants and herbal drugs, especially for industrial routine protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Two new labdane diterpenes from fresh leaves of Leonurus japonicus and their degradation during drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Daikonya, Akihiro; Kumagai, Takeo; Goda, Yukihiro; Takahashi, Yutaka; Kawahara, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Degradation of the components of Leonurus Herb was examined during drying. Compounds 1 and 2 were detected on TLC at lower temperature, but not at higher temperature. Their chemical structures were determined by spectral methods. They immediately decomposed even at 40°C in chloroform solution. They are believed to be transformed through a retro-aldol reaction. Compounds 1 and 2 have not been previously reported.

  6. Evaluation of the effectiveness of different herbicides against a new weed Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Houtt. in wheat crop

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    Muhammad Asghar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different post emergence herbicides for the control of monocot weed the Japanese broom (Bromus japonicus in wheat crop. Five herbicides viz., metribuzin, isoproturon, metribuzin plus isoproturon, Atlantis and sulfosulfuron were used at their recommended doses in RCBD with three replications. The weedy check was kept as control where no herbicide was sprayed. All the herbicides were applied as post-emergence after second irrigation at 60 days after sowing the crop. The lowest weed counts per m2 (0.583 and highest percent of weed mortality (99.07% were observed where metribuzin plus isoproturon was used. This was followed by Atlantis with 3.26 weeds per m2 with 95.14% mortality of weeds. However, significantly higher 1000 grain weight was noted with Atlantis (29.50 g and metribuzin plus isoproturon (28.58 g. The treatments did not differ significantly with respect to 1000 grain weight. All the herbicide helped to increase the yield from 16 to 22%, but did not differ significantly with respect to yield gain. The highest yield (3759.40 kg ha-1 was produced by Atlantis followed by sulfosulfuron (3757.20 kg ha-1 . On the basis of cost benefit ratio sulfosulfuron (34.95 proved to be the best followed by metribuzin (16.78. Therefore, sulfosulfuron and metribuzin are recommended for the control of Bromus weed in wheat crop.

  7. Central nervous system depressant activityof Leonurus sibiricus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of aerial parts of Leonurus sibiricus was shown to possess central nervous system depressant action by significantly decreased the time of onset of sleep and potentiated the pentobarbital induced sleeping time in mice. Keywords: Leonurus sibiricus, labiatae, central nervous depressant, sedation

  8. Penaeus japonicus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    five populations, but the Fst value between ECS and ETS was significant. Fu's F statistics and analysis ... widely recognized as suffering from two main weaknesses. First, the mitochondrial genome ..... expansion model of alleles for Kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) in the adjacent waters of Taiwan. distribution yielded a ...

  9. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Leonurus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total phenolic compounds in the extracts were determined as gallic acid equivalents, and total flavonoid contents were calculated as quercetin equivalents from a calibration curve. Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Fe2+ chelating, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), phenol, Leonurus cardiaca, Grammosciadium ...

  10. Leonurun, a Novel Labdane Diterpenoid from Leonotis leonurus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Leonotis leonurus is a shrub found in many parts of South Africa and is colloquially known as wild dagga.1 It has been used for many years as a traditional medicine to treat a number of ailments both orally (bronchitis, coughs, colds and others) and topically (piles, eczema, skin rashes, and boils).2 The leaves of the.

  11. Effect of acetone extract of Rumex japonicas Houtt on hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of the acetone extract of Rumex japonicas Houtt. (AER) on rat myocardial cells. Methods: R. japonicas was extracted with 75 % aqueous ethanol by reflux to afford total extract (TER). TER was suspended in water and then extracted with acetone to afford acetone fraction of R.

  12. Evaluation of raw nepodin extraction from Rumex japonicus and R. obtusifolius and their DNA polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Motoyasu; Mori, Takako; Yonezawa, Takayuki; Saito, Yukiko; Teruya, Toshiaki; Woo, Je-Tae

    2018-01-01

    Nepodin, found in the roots of Rumex japonicus Houtt. (Polygonaceae), inhibits osteoclast differentiation and has an antidiabetic effect. We propose nepodin as an ingredient of new functional foods or as a drug candidate for reducing the risk of reduced locomotion resulting from diseases such as osteoporosis. Although there are no previous reports of R. obtusifolius L., which is found throughout Japan, having roots containing nepodin, we found nepodin in the roots of this species. Therefore, R. obtusifolius as well as R. japonicus was considered a candidate raw material for nepodin extraction. We also discuss the suitability of R. japonicus and R. obtusifolius as sources of raw nepodin for cultivation on the Ryukyu Islands. In this study, all specimens on the Ryukyu Islands were identified as R. japonicus. Conversely, all specimens on mainland Japan were R. obtusifolius. The DNA sequence of the chloroplast trnL-trnF intergenic spacer region and partial nuclear internal transcribed spacer was consistent with the identification of R. japonicus and R. obtusifolius by morphological characteristics of the perianth segments. Therefore, to avoid erroneous identification and misuse of the plant species used for extraction of raw materials, it is preferable to develop DNA markers for these two regions. The content of nepodin varied from undetectable to 0.34% of the fresh weight (%FW) in R. japonicus and from undetectable to 0.21%FW in R. obtusifolius. From a pharmacological perspective, as plants that might be suitable as raw materials for nepodin extraction, it became clear that both R. japonicus and R. obtusifolius can be used with the same expected extraction efficiency. Based on our findings, R. obtusifolius could not be confirmed as inhabiting the Ryukyu Islands. For this reason, to conserve the endemic genetic characteristics of the Ryukyu Islands and to prevent genetic pollution by R. obtusifolius, only R. japonicus should be cultivated on the Ryukyu Islands.

  13. New labdane-type diterpenoids from Leonotis leonurus support circumscription of Lamiaceae s.l.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available -type diterpenoids from the leaves of Leonotis leonurus (Lamiaceae) D. Naidooa*, V. Maharaja, N.R. Crouchb, A. Ngwanec a Bioprospecting Research Group, Biosciences Division, CSIR, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa b Ethnobotany Unit, South African National...

  14. Pembuatan Serbuk Pala (Myristicafragrans Houtt) Instan Dengan Menggunakan Alat Pengering Semprot

    OpenAIRE

    NURDJANNAH, NANAN

    2005-01-01

    Instant nutmeg (Myristica fragrance Houtt) powderformulation using spray dryerThe main product of nutmeg (Myristicafragrans Houtt) are nutmegseed (mature and immature) and fuly. The meat is the biggest part ofnutmeg fruit (about 83.3%) only small portion is used for sweet products.The other opportunity is to process it for instant powder beverage. Theobjective of this experiment was to formulate the instant nutmeg powderusing spray dryer with dextrin and maltodextrin as the filler substances....

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus japonicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotus japonicus Lotus japonicus Lotus_japonicus_L.png Lotus_japonicus_NL.png Lotus_japonicus_S.png Lotus_jap...onicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=L ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+jap...onicus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NS ...

  16. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Leonurus: The herb to benefit the mothers and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Han; Liu, Zhi-Ke; Yang, Da-Song; Zhang, Xing-Jie; Sun, Han-Dong; Xiao, Wei-Lie

    2018-03-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Leonurus, also named motherwort, are traditionally used for anti-gynecological disorder in East Asia, and for sedative in Europe. Chemical investigation of the genus Leonurus not only enriched the natural products library, but also enlarged the pharmacological application of this traditional herb. In this review, we systematically summarized the structures of 259 compounds isolated from the genus Leonurus, featured with 147 labdane diterpenoids. The reported bioactivity studies up to 2017 are presented in the second part, with the main focus on the isolated compounds and also concerning the extracts. In addition to the traditional uterine contraction and sedative activity, recently the cardiovascular protection effect of leonurine has drawn most attention. Other than that, neuroprotection, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-platelet aggregation and many other activities have been assigned to various compounds from the genus Leonurus. Among 70 bioactivity references cited in this review, 57% of them were concentrated on two alkaloids (leonurine and stachydrine), whereas only 20% are about the 147 diterpenoids. Anti-inflammation is the major bioactivity discovered so far for the labdane diterpenoids from the genus Leonurus, whose further therapeutic potential still remains for exploration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. "Wild cannabis": A review of the traditional use and phytochemistry of Leonotis leonurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsuala, Baudry N; Enslin, Gill; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2015-11-04

    Leonotis leonurus, locally commonly known as "wilde dagga" (=wild cannabis), is traditionally used as a decoction, both topically and orally, in the treatment of a wide variety of conditions such as haemorrhoids, eczema, skin rashes, boils, itching, muscular cramps, headache, epilepsy, chest infections, constipation, spider and snake bites. The dried leaves and flowers are also smoked to relieve epilepsy. The leaves and flowers are reported to produce a mild euphoric effect when smoked and have been said to have a similar, although less potent, psychoactive effect to cannabis. To amalgamate the botanical aspects, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activity, toxicity and commercial aspects of the scientific literature available on L. leonurus. An extensive review of the literature from 1900 to 2015 was carried out. Electronic databases including Scopus, SciFinder, Pubmed, Google Scholar and Google were used as data sources. All abstracts, full-text articles and books written in English were considered. The phytochemistry of particularly the non-volatile constituents of L. leonurus has been comprehensively investigated due to interest generated as a result of the wide variety of biological effects reported for this plant. More than 50 compounds have been isolated and characterised. L. leonurus contains mainly terpenoids, particularly labdane diterpenes, the major diterpene reported is marrubiin. Various other compounds have been reported by some authors to have been isolated from the plant, including, in the popular literature only, the mildly psychoactive alkaloid, leonurine. Leonurine has however, never been reported by any scientific analysis of the extracts of L. leonurus. Despite the publication of various papers on L. leonurus, there is still, however, the need for definitive research and clarification of other compounds, including alkaloids and essential oils from L. leonurus, as well as from other plant parts, such as the roots which are

  18. Metodologia para germinação de sementes de Leonurus sibiricus L Methodology for Leonurus sibiricus L. seed germination

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    L.F.R Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar a influência de diferentes temperaturas, o comportamento fotoblástico e a absorção de água de sementes de Leonurus sibiricus L. Essa espécie medicinal é originária da Índia, distribuída pela Ásia, África e América, utilizada no tratamento de reumatismo, problemas dermatológicos e respiratórios. Para tanto, as sementes foram submetidas a temperaturas entre 5 a 40ºC, com intervalos de 5ºC, e alternadas de 20/30, 20/25 e 25/30ºC, com 5 repetições de 50 sementes cada, em condições de luz e escuro. No estudo da absorção de água as sementes foram colocadas para germinar na temperatura de 20ºC e na presença da luz e pesadas para avaliar o ganho de água durante todo o processo germinativo, até a protrusão da radícula. Pelos resultados verificou-se que os maiores porcentuais de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação ocorreram na temperatura constante de 20ºC, e nas temperaturas alternadas 20/25, 25/30, 25/30ºC sob luz. Houve germinação na temperatura mínima de 10ºC e na máxima 40ºC. No ensaio de absorção de água verificou-se que as sementes iniciam a protrusão da radícula com 65 horas de exposição e seguem padrão trifásico na curva de absorção. O modelo estatístico ajustado para a espécie foi y = 1,869 (1 - 0,414 exp ( -0,201t + exp [-2,397 + 0,037 (t - 65], com R²= 0,9998.The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different temperatures on the photoblastic response and water uptake of Leonurus sibiricus L. seeds. This medicinal species is from India and has been distributed over Asia, Africa and America, where it is used in the treatment of rheumatic, dermatological and respiratory disorders. Thus, seeds were subjected to temperatures between 5 and 40ºC, at 5ºC intervals, and 20/30, 20/25 and 25/30ºC alternate temperatures, with five replicates of 50 seeds each, under light and dark conditions. In the study of water uptake, seeds

  19. Validation evaluation of the technological process of leonurus turkestanicus liquid extract production

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    Олеся Владимировна Сермухамедова

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The transfer of Leonurus turkestanicus liquid extract production technology and its validation at LLC «FitOleum» (GMP compliance report conclusion CT PK 1617-2006 «Good Manufacturing Practice. Remedies production. Basic provisions» № 18, Nov. 21, 2014..Methods. Different known statistical methods have been used to evaluate and to interpret both technological parameters and indicators that were determined during quality control of herbal material, intermediate product, and final product. A Statistical process control (SPC concept is applied as a basis for all accepted international instruments ICH Q8 «Pharmaceutical Development», ICH Q10 «Pharmaceutical Quality System», PAT Concept, and FDA Guidance for Process Validation.Results. As a result of research normative documents that regulate manufacturing process in the test conditions have been developed. A comparable data across technological parameters of three consistently manufactured test production series have been obtained, as well as validity of the extract production technological process has been proved.Conclusion. On the basis of research, the experimental-industrial procedure for Leonurus turkestanicus herb liquid extract production at the LLC «FitOleum» has been developed

  20. Chemical constituents and potential cytotoxic activity of n-hexane fraction from Myristica fatua Houtt leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajriah, S.; Megawati, Hudiyono, S.; Kosela, S.; Hanafi, M.

    2017-07-01

    The aims of this research were to determine the chemical constituents of n- hexane fraction from Myristica fatua Houtt leaves by Gas Chromatograpy/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and their cytotoxic activities against MCF-7 cell lines. The results indicated that sesquiterpenes and fatty acids were major compounds of this fraction, there were trans-calamenene (17.75 %), hexadecanoic acid (11.14 %), caryophyllene (7.49 %), α-muurolene (6.99 %), and γ-muurolene (6.60 %). In vitro anticancer activity test against breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines showed potential cytotoxic at IC50 2.19 μg/mL.

  1. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  2. Protective effect of Lannea coromandelica Houtt. Merrill. against three common pathogens

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    Rupinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayurvedic text reports suggested Lannea coromandelica is used in various microbial origin disorders like dysentery, sore eyes and leprosy, genital wounds. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial effect of L. coromandelica Houtt. Merrill. (Anacardiaceae on microbes which cause female reproductive tract infection. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous bark extract (Ext. of L. coromandelica were screened against strains of Streptococcus pyogens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Antimicrobial assay had been done with agar well diffusion method. Results: Ethanolic extracts [100% (16 mg, 75% (12 mg and 50% (8 mg] of L. coromandelica exhibited zone of inhibition (ZI 19.21 mm, 18.45 mm, 16.41 mm and 18.12 mm, 17.35 mm, 16.35 mm against S. aureus and S. pyogens, respectively. However, only 100% and 75% ethanolic extract showed (ZI-19.18 mm, 16.29 mm activity against C. albicans. Nevertheless, aqueous extract (100% showed higher antifungal activity (ZI-16.97 mm. Ciprofloxacin and amphotericin B were used as a standard drugs in the present study. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that L. coromandelica Houtt. Merrill. have antibacterial activity against S. pyogens, S. aureus and antifungal property against C. albicans. Our findings corroborate the ethnobotanical use of L. coromandelica in traditional medicine system (Ayurveda of India.

  3. Legume and Lotus japonicus Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Mun, Terry; Sato, Shusei

    2014-01-01

    Since the genome sequence of Lotus japonicus, a model plant of family Fabaceae, was determined in 2008 (Sato et al. 2008), the genomes of other members of the Fabaceae family, soybean (Glycine max) (Schmutz et al. 2010) and Medicago truncatula (Young et al. 2011), have been sequenced. In this sec....... In this section, we introduce representative, publicly accessible online resources related to plant materials, integrated databases containing legume genome information, and databases for genome sequence and derived marker information of legume species including L. japonicus...

  4. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in Marrubium vulgare and Leonurus cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöss, W; Zapp, J

    1998-05-01

    Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes has been investigated in different parts of field-grown plants of MARRUBIUM VULGARE (Lamiaceae) and LEONURUS CARDIACA (Lamiaceae). Furanic labdane diterpenes were produced and accumulated only in the aerial parts. Greatest amounts were measured in leaves and flowers. Up to 4 mg furanic labdane diterpenes per g fresh weight were found. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in plantlets seemingly depends on a developmental programme. No furanic labdane diterpenes were detected in plantlets during the first four to five weeks following germination. At this time the leaves became more differentiated and the number of trichomes on leaves was obviously increasing. Young leaves and buds contained most furanic labdane diterpenes. It was proven that at least a part of the non-volatile furanic labdane diterpenes is stored in peltate glandular trichomes. NMR signals of marrubiin were investigated with correlated spectra. Some (1)H- and (13)C-NMR assignments reported in literature were revised.

  5. Dengue antiviral activity of polar extract from Melochia umbellata (Houtt) Stapf var. Visenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariani Soekamto, Nunuk; Liong, S.; Fauziah, S.; Wahid, I.; Firdaus; Taba, P.; Ahmad, F.

    2018-03-01

    A research on the dengue antiviral activity test on the polar bark extract of M. umbelatta (Houtt.) Stapf var. Vicenia have been done to determine the relation to its activity againts brine shrimp Artemia salina. The bark was extracted by maceration with n-hexane, chloroform, and ethylacetate. The activity of the ethyl acetate extract was then tested against A. salina and dengue virus. It was found that the ethyl acetate extract was active to A. salina with the LC50 value of 101.66 μg/mL and also very active to dengue virus with the IC50 value of 1.67μg/mL. It is clear that the toxicity to brine shrimp A. salina has a positive correlation with the dengue anti virus.

  6. EVALUACIÓN DEL ENSILAJE DEL PASTO RATANA (Ischaemum indicum HOUTT. CON TRES DIFERENTES ADITIVOS

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    Carlos Boschini-Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluación del ensilaje del pasto Ratana (Ischaemum indicum Houtt. con tres diferentes aditivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las características del proceso de fermentación del pasto Ratana (Ischaemum indicum Houtt. y la calidad del ensilado, al agregar tres aditivos. El experimento se llevó a cabo en la provincia de Limón, Costa Rica, durante el periodo de julio a diciembre del 2011; zona con una temperatura de 24,5 °C; una altura de 249 msnm y precipitación de 4577,2 mm anuales distribuidos principalmente de mayo a diciembre. Se empleó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones y nueve tratamientos: ensilado con melaza, maíz molido o pulpa de cítricos deshidratada como aditivos, en tres niveles de adición ortogonales. Las pérdidas de material más importantes se produjeron con melaza o pulpa de cítricos (p0,05 en los porcentajes de materia seca (MS, fibra neutrodetergente (FND, fibra ácido detergente (FAD, hemicelulosa y cenizas en los ensilajes de ninguno de los tratamientos. La proteína cruda (PC, celulosa y extracto etéreo (EE difirieron según el porcentaje de aditivo agregado (p<0,05. Los niveles de pH encontrados fueron estadísticamente menores (p<0,05 en los tratamientos que incluyeron melaza (4,84, que en los ensilados con maíz (5,10 o citropulpa (5,02. Finalmente, todos los tratamientos analizados presentaron características organolépticas correspondientes a ensilados de buena calidad.

  7. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase activities of benzoic acid derivate from the bark of Myristica fatua Houtt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, Darmawan, Akhmad; Fajriah, Sofa; Primahana, Gian; Dewi, Rizna Triana; Minarti, Meiliawati, Lia

    2017-11-01

    Myrictica fatua Houtt widely used in Indonesian as one of the traditional medicinal plants. Cancer and diabetic mellitus (DM) type 2 are two degenerative diseases caused by the presence of excessive free radicals in the body. Antioxidant and anti-diabetic active compounds were needed to reduce the risk of the diseases. One of the chemical compound groups that can be used as antioxidant and antidiabetic is phenolic compound. Isolation of the methanolic extract of the bark of M. fatua Houtt using chromatography methods led to the isolation of phenolic compound. Methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate showed antioxidant and antidiabetic activities through DPPH free radicals scavenger and α-glucosidase inhibitions activities test showed IC50 value 7.96 and 7.68 ug / mL, respectively

  8. Evaluation of Ratana grass (Ischaemum indicum Houtt. silage with three different kinds additives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Boschini-Figueroa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work, was to evaluate the characteristics of the fermentation process of Ratana Grass (Ischaemum indicum Houtt. and the quality of the ensilage produced, when three different additives were added. The experiment was carried out at Limón, Costa Rica, between the months of July and December, at an area located 249 m.a.s.l., with a mean temperature of 24.5 °C and 4577.2 mm of rain distributed mainly between May and December. A randomized complete block design, with four repetitions and nine treatments was used with the following additives: soilage with molasses, ground corn or dehydrated citrus pulp on three orthogonal levels of addition. Molasses and dehydrated citrus pulp produced the most important losses (p<0.05 with fresh matter reductions of 13.27% and 14.42% respectively; while the treatments with ground corn reported 11.68% of fresh matter losses. No differences were obtained (p>0.05 for dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose and ashes percentages on any treatment. Crude protein (CP, cellulose and ether extract (EE differed according to the amount of additive used (p<0.05. pH levels found were statistically lower for the molasses treatments (4.84, compared to the ground corn (5.10 or dehydrated citrus pulp (5.02 treatments. Finally, all analyzed treatments showed organoleptic characteristics corresponding to good quality silages.

  9. Effect of subchronic administration of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) ethanolic extract to hematological parameters in rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachri, M. S.; Yuliani, S.; Sari, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    Nutmeg is dried kernel of broadly ovoid seed of Myristica fragrans Houtt. It has been mentioned in ethnomedical literature as aphrodisiac, stomachic, carminative, tonic, and nervous stimulant. In order to establish the safety of nutmeg, the effect of the repeated administration of nutmeg is needed. The study was aimed to determine the toxic effect of subchronic administration of nutmeg ethanolic extract to hematological parameters in rat. A total of 28 male adult Wistar rats divided into 4 groups. Group I as control was given by 0.5% CMC-suspension, group II, III, and IV were given by 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw, respectively, of nutmeg ethanolic extract. The treatments were administered daily for 31 days. On day 31 bloods were taken from orbital sinus. The hematological parameter consisted of the numbers of erythrocyte and leukocyte as well as hemoglobin and total protein levels were measured. The data were statistically analyzed by one way Anova followed by LSD test. All of observed hematological parameters in rats showed that there were no significant difference between the nutmeg ethanolic extract treated groups and control group. The result indicated that the subchronic administration of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw of nutmeg ethanolic extract did not cause the change of hematological parameters in rat.

  10. [Study on chemical constituents of the essential oil from Myristica fragrans Houtt. by supercritical fluid extraction and steam distillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qin; Zhang, Guoying; Sun, Xiaomin; Liu, Xinxin

    2004-11-01

    Essential oils were extracted from Myristica fragrans Houtt. by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and steam distillation (SD). Their components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared. 48 compounds were identified for the essential oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide, and its main components have been found to be myristic acid, myristicin, terpinen-4-ol, alpha-pinene and safrole. 38 compounds were identified for the essential oil obtained by SD, and its main components have been found to be beta-pinene, terpinen-4-ol, alpha-pinene, gamma-terpinene and beta-phellandrene.

  11. Does autocthonous primary production influence oviposition by Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in container habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Amanda R; Walker, Edward D; Kaufman, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is recently invasive in North America and has expanded its range rapidly since 1998. Throughout its native and expanded range, Ae. j. japonicus larvae are commonly observed in many types of natural and artificial water-filled containers that vary in organic matter content and exposure to sunlight. Larvae are most often found in containers with decaying leaf material or algae, and we postulated that the added autocthonous primary production from algae could be both an important food source for larvae and an influential oviposition attractant to adult Ae. j. japonicus. We tested this hypothesis by placing plastic containers with varied levels of shading to manipulate algal density in the field, and then monitored oviposition by natural populations of Ae. j. japonicus. Over 99% of larvae hatching from eggs laid on the walls of our containers were Ae. j. japonicus, indicating that this species is a dominant colonizer of artificial containers in the study areas. Although full shading treatments effectively reduced algal biomass (significant reduction in chlorophyll a levels), at only one of three sites did this appear to affect Ae. j. japonicus oviposition. We conclude that algae in larval habitats are not a major factor in oviposition choices of adult Ae. j. japonicus females except when in situ primary production is high enough to substantially alter overall organic matter content cues.

  12. An experimental study of sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin; Ahmad, Shamshad; Latif, Abdul; Qasmi, Iqbal Ahmad; Amin, Kunwar Mohammad Yusuf

    2005-01-01

    Background Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) has been mentioned in Unani medicine to be of value in the management of male sexual disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the aphrodisiac effect of 50% ethanolic extract of nutmeg along with its likely adverse effects and acute toxicity using various animal models. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) to different groups of male rats daily for seven days. The female rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were studied and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. Likely adverse effects and acute toxicity of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 500 mg/kg, produced significant augmentation of sexual activity in male rats. It significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency, Intromission Latency and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. It also significantly increased Mounting Frequency with penile anaesthetisation as well as Erections, Quick Flips, Long Flips and the aggregate of penile reflexes with penile stimulation. The extract was also observed to be devoid of any adverse effects and acute toxicity. Conclusion The resultant significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats without any conspicuous adverse effects indicates that the 50% ethanolic extract of nutmeg possesses aphrodisiac activity, increasing both libido and potency, which might be attributed to its nervous stimulating property. The present study thus provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use of nutmeg in the management of male sexual disorders. PMID:16033651

  13. An experimental study of sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasmi Iqbal

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg has been mentioned in Unani medicine to be of value in the management of male sexual disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the aphrodisiac effect of 50% ethanolic extract of nutmeg along with its likely adverse effects and acute toxicity using various animal models. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. to different groups of male rats daily for seven days. The female rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were studied and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. Likely adverse effects and acute toxicity of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 500 mg/kg, produced significant augmentation of sexual activity in male rats. It significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency, Intromission Latency and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. It also significantly increased Mounting Frequency with penile anaesthetisation as well as Erections, Quick Flips, Long Flips and the aggregate of penile reflexes with penile stimulation. The extract was also observed to be devoid of any adverse effects and acute toxicity. Conclusion The resultant significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats without any conspicuous adverse effects indicates that the 50% ethanolic extract of nutmeg possesses aphrodisiac activity, increasing both libido and potency, which might be attributed to its nervous stimulating property. The present study thus provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use of nutmeg in the management of male sexual disorders.

  14. Extracts from Leonurus sibiricus L. increase insulin secretion and proliferation of rat INS-1E insulinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S; Jakab, M; Jav, S; Streif, D; Pitschmann, A; Zehl, M; Purevsuren, S; Glasl, S; Ritter, M

    2013-10-28

    Traditional Mongolian medicine (TMM) uses preparations from herbs as one form of medication for the treatment of a diversity of diseases including diabetes mellitus (DM). We evaluated the effect of extracts from the plant Leonurus sibiricus L. (LS), used in TMM to treat typical symptoms of type 2 DM, on insulin secretion, electrophysiological properties, intracellular calcium concentration and cell proliferation of INS-1E insulinoma cells under standard cell culture conditions (SCC; 11.1mM glucose). Insulin secretion was measured by ELISA, electrical properties were assessed by whole cell patch clamping, intracellular calcium concentration (Cai) by Fluo-4 time lapse imaging, insulin receptor expression was verified by RT-PCR and cell proliferation assessed by CellTiter-Glo® cell viability assay. Insulin released from INS-1E cells into the culture medium over 24h was significantly increased in presence of 500 mg/L aqueous LS extract (LS OWE) as well as methanolic LS extract (LS MeOH/H2O) but not in the presence of the butanol-soluble extract (LS MeOH/BuOH). Acute application of LS OWE resulted in a depolarization of the cell membrane potential paralleled by an initial increase and subsequent decline and silencing of action potential frequency, by KATP channel inhibition, persisting depolarization and an increase in Cai. The electrophysiological effects were comparable to those of 100 μM tolbutamide, which, however failed to elevate insulin secretion under SCC. Furthermore all LS extracts stimulated INS-1E cell proliferation. The finding that extracts from Leonurus sibiricus L. enhance insulin secretion and/or foster cell proliferation may provide possible explanations for the underlying therapeutic principles in the empirical use of LS-containing formulations in DM and DM-related disorders as applied in TMM. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Larvicidal Activity of Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) H.W.Li (Labiatae) aerial parts at flowering stage against the larvae of Aedes aegypti L. Methods: The essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation.

  16. Density Dependence, Landscape, and Weather Impacts on Aquatic Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) Abundance Along an Urban Altitudinal Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Luis Fernando; Moji, Kazuhiko

    2018-02-28

    The Asian Bush Mosquito, Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) is an important globally invasive mosquito species. In comparison with other major invasive mosquitoes, relatively little is known about Ae. j. japonicus population dynamics in the field. Here, we present results from a 54-biweek long study of Ae. j. japonicus abundance in ovitraps set across the altitudinal gradient of Mt. Konpira, Nagasaki, Japan. Spatially, we found that Ae. j. japonicus fourth instar larvae (Aj4il) were more abundant at the base and top of Mt. Konpira and in ovitraps with more platykurtic water temperature (WT) distributions. In contrast, we found that temporally Aj4il were more abundant when ovitrap WT was more leptokurtic with 2 weeks of lag, and with high relative humidity SD with 2 months of lag. We also found that Aj4il were unlikely present when ovitrap WT was below 12.41°C. Parameter estimates for the Ricker model suggested that Ae. j. japonicus population growth was under density-dependence regulation, with a stable population dynamics whose fluctuations were associated with changes in ovitrap WT kurtosis and demographic stochasticity. Our results suggest that Aj4il abundance is more sensitive to temperature changes in kurtosis than mean values, potentially limiting the predictive ability of Ae. j. japonicus niche models based on the increase of average temperatures with global warming, and suggesting this mosquito species has a relatively coarse-grained response to temperature changes.

  17. Introduction and establishment of Aedes (Finlaya) Japonicus japonicus (Theobald) on the island of Hawaii: implications for arbovirus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larish, Linda Burnham; Savage, Harry M

    2005-09-01

    On November 24, 2003, 1 female adult specimen of Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) was collected in a New Jersey (NJ) light trap on the island of Hawaii. From June through October, 2004, female and male adults were collected by NJ light traps and gravid traps placed at multiple sites on the island of Hawaii. Larvae were collected in artificial containers and reared to adults for identification. Aedes (Fin.) j. japonicus is the 8th mosquito species to be introduced and established in the State of Hawaii. Currently, this species is known only from the island of Hawaii. Aedes (Fin.) j. japonicus is a competent laboratory vector for a number of arboviruses. Increased quarantine inspections, inspection and treatment of imported used tires and plants, disinsection of airline cargo holds, enhanced vector surveillance, and the development of sanitary corridors around airports and port facilities are necessary to reduce the introduction of vectors and pathogens.

  18. Effects of Competition and Predation by Native Mosquitoes on the North American Invasion of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, T Z; Kesavaraju, B; Leisnham, P T

    2014-11-01

    The success and effects of a biological invasion can be dependent on species interactions with resident competitors and predators. Indirect interactions between competition and predation, such as keystone predation, can influence both invasion success and the impact of an invasive species on resident competitors. The invasive mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) has been established within the North American range of the indigenous competitor Aedes triseriatus (Say) and indigenous mosquito predator Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coquillett). The effects of Tx. rutilus predation on competition between Ae. j. japonicus and Ae. triseriatus were tested in laboratory microcosms. Consistent with a prior study, there was minimal evidence of competitive asymmetry between Ae. j. japonicus and Ae. triseriatus, with similar effects of intraspecific versus interspecific interactions on both species. Tx. rutilus predation caused high mortality of both Ae. j. japonicus and Ae. triseriatus, and minimized the effects of density-dependent competition. Ae. japonicus females that survived predation had larger adult body sizes than those in treatments without predators. Ae. triseriatus females that survived Tx. rutilus predation were larger and developed quicker than individuals in treatments without predators. Intraspecific competition and predation negatively affected the finite rate of population increase for Ae. j. japonicus, but only affected individual fitness correlates for Ae. triseriatus, indicating that the overall population performance of the invader is more sensitive to these interactions than the native species. Based on these results, we predict that predation is likely to be an important barrier to the establishment and spread of Ae. j. japonicus in tree holes in North America. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  19. Presence and Potential Distribution of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalan, Katja; Ivovic, Vladimir; Glasnovic, Peter; Buzan, Elena

    2017-11-07

    In Slovenia, two invasive mosquito species are present, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae). In this study, we examined their actual distribution and suitable habitats for new colonizations. Data from survey of species presence in 2013 and 2015, bioclimatic variables and altitude were used for the construction of predictive maps. We produced various models in Maxent software and tested two bioclimatic variable sets, WorldClim and CHELSA. For the variable selection of A. albopictus modeling we used statistical and expert knowledge-based approach, whereas for A. j. japonicus we used only a statistically based approach. The best performing models for both species were chosen according to AIC score-based evaluation. In 2 yr of sampling, A. albopictus was largely confined to the western half of Slovenia, whereas A. j. japonicus spread significantly and can be considered as an established species in a large part of the country. Comparison of models with WorldClim and CHELSA variables for both species showed models with CHELSA variables as a better tool for prediction. Finally, we validated the models performance in predicting distribution of species according to collected field data. Our study confirms that both species are co-occurring and are sympatric in a large part of the country area. The tested models could be used for future prevention of invasive mosquitoes spreading in other countries with similar bioclimatic conditions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg and Syzygium aromaticum (L Merr. & Perry. (clove in male mice: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Abdul

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spices are considered as sexual invigorators in the Unani System of Medicine. In order to explore the sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg and Syzygium aromaticum (L Merr. & Perry. (clove an experimental study was conducted in normal male mice. Methods The extracts (50% ethanolic of nutmeg and clove were administered (500 mg/kg; p.o. to different groups of male Swiss mice. Mounting behaviour, mating performance, and general short term toxicity of the test drugs were determined and compared with the standard drug Penegra (Sildenafil citrate. Results The extracts of the nutmeg and clove were found to stimulate the mounting behaviour of male mice, and also to significantly increase their mating performance. The drugs were devoid of any conspicuous general short term toxicity. Conclusion The extracts (50% ethanolic of nutmeg and clove enhanced the sexual behaviour of male mice.

  1. Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove) in male mice: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin; Ahmad, Shamshad; Latif, Abdul; Qasmi, Iqbal Ahmad

    2003-10-20

    Spices are considered as sexual invigorators in the Unani System of Medicine. In order to explore the sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove) an experimental study was conducted in normal male mice. The extracts (50% ethanolic) of nutmeg and clove were administered (500 mg/kg; p.o.) to different groups of male Swiss mice. Mounting behaviour, mating performance, and general short term toxicity of the test drugs were determined and compared with the standard drug Penegra (Sildenafil citrate). The extracts of the nutmeg and clove were found to stimulate the mounting behaviour of male mice, and also to significantly increase their mating performance. The drugs were devoid of any conspicuous general short term toxicity. The extracts (50% ethanolic) of nutmeg and clove enhanced the sexual behaviour of male mice.

  2. Antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Ophiopogon japonicus (Liliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hanqiao; Xing, Yongmei; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Dawei; Guo, Shunxing; Wang, Chunlan

    2012-11-28

    Drug resistance in bacteria has become a global concern and the search for new antibacterial agents is urgent and ongoing. Endophytes provide an abundant reservoir of bioactive metabolites for medicinal exploitation, and an increasing number of novel compounds are being isolated from endophytic fungi. Ophiopogon japonicus, containing compounds with antibacterial activity, is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant used for eliminating phlegm, relieving coughs, latent heat in the lungs, and alleviating diabetes mellitus. We investigated the antimicrobial activities of 30 strains of O. japonicus. Fungal endophytes were isolated from roots and stems of O. japonicus collected from Chongqing City, southwestern China. Mycelial extracts (MC) and fermentation broth (FB) were tested for antimicrobial activity using peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibition fluorescence assays and MTT cell proliferation assays. A total of 30 endophytic strains were isolated from O. japonicus; 22 from roots and eight from stems. 53.33% of the mycelial extracts (MC) and 33.33% of the fermentation broths (FB) displayed potent inhibition of PDF. 80% of MC and 33.33% of FB significantly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. 70% of MC and 36.67% of FB showed strong activities against Cryptococcus neoformans. None showed influence on Escherichia coli. The secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi from O. japonicus are potential antimicrobial agents.

  3. Antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Ophiopogon japonicus (Liliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hanqiao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance in bacteria has become a global concern and the search for new antibacterial agents is urgent and ongoing. Endophytes provide an abundant reservoir of bioactive metabolites for medicinal exploitation, and an increasing number of novel compounds are being isolated from endophytic fungi. Ophiopogon japonicus, containing compounds with antibacterial activity, is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant used for eliminating phlegm, relieving coughs, latent heat in the lungs, and alleviating diabetes mellitus. We investigated the antimicrobial activities of 30 strains of O. japonicus. Methods Fungal endophytes were isolated from roots and stems of O. japonicus collected from Chongqing City, southwestern China. Mycelial extracts (MC and fermentation broth (FB were tested for antimicrobial activity using peptide deformylase (PDF inhibition fluorescence assays and MTT cell proliferation assays. Results A total of 30 endophytic strains were isolated from O. japonicus; 22 from roots and eight from stems. 53.33% of the mycelial extracts (MC and 33.33% of the fermentation broths (FB displayed potent inhibition of PDF. 80% of MC and 33.33% of FB significantly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. 70% of MC and 36.67% of FB showed strong activities against Cryptococcus neoformans. None showed influence on Escherichia coli. Conclusion The secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi from O. japonicus are potential antimicrobial agents.

  4. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Euonymus japonicus (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Su; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of the Euonymus japonicus, the first sequenced of the genus Euonymus, was reported in this study. The total length was 157 637 bp, containing a pair of 26 678 bp inverted repeat region (IR), which were separated by small single copy (SSC) region and large single copy (LSC) region of 18 340 bp and 85 941 bp, respectively. This genome contains 107 unique genes, including 74 coding genes, four rRNA genes, and 29 tRNA genes. Seventeen genes contain intron of E. japonicus, of which three genes (clpP, ycf3, and rps12) include two introns. The maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic analysis revealed that E. japonicus was closely related to Manihot and Populus.

  5. The dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus is a large sciaenid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    closed ... importance of squid and teleosts, and a concomitant decrease in the importance of crustacea with growth. Feeding frequency and ... It is concluded that A. japonicus is a top predator that influences the pelagic and demersal food chains of ...

  6. Do dart tags suppress growth of dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recapture and otolith-reading methods were compared. Mark-recapture data showed that A. japonicus are resident in an area between the Breede River Estuary and Cape Agulhas on the southeast coast of South Africa. Maximum recapture length was ...

  7. Ciona intestinalis and Oxycomanthus japonicus, representatives of marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakura, Yasunori; Inaba, Kazuo; Satoh, Nori; Kondo, Mariko; Akasaka, Koji

    2009-10-01

    The study of marine invertebrates is useful in various biological research fields. However, genetic analyses of these animals are limited, mainly due to difficulties in culturing them, and the genetic resources of marine invertebrates have not been organized. Recently, advances have been made in the study of two deuterostomes, an ascidian Ciona intestinalis and a feather star Oxycomanthus japonicus. The draft genome sequence of Ciona intestinalis has been determined, and its compact genome, which has less redundancy of genes compared with vertebrates, provides us with a useful experimental system for analyzing the functions of genes during development. The life cycle of Ciona intestinalis is approximately 2-3 months, and the genetic techniques including a perfect inland culture system, germline transformation with a transposon Minos, enhancer detection and insertional mutagenesis, have been established. The feather star Oxycomanthus japonicus conserves the characteristics of the basic echinoderm body plan with a segmented mesoderm, which is a fascinating characteristic for understanding the evolution of echinoderms. Oxycomanthus japonicus shows strong regeneration ability and is a suitable subject for analysis of the mechanisms of regeneration. In consideration of these features, the National BioResource Project (NBRP) has started to support the supply of wild-types, transgenic lines and inbred lines of Ciona intestinalis and Oxycomanthus japonicus.

  8. Estuarine habitat use by juvenile dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial and temporal area-use patterns of estuarinedependent juvenile dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus in the Great Fish Estuary, South Africa, were examined using acoustic telemetry. In all, 29 individuals (307–400 mm total length) were surgically equipped with individually coded transmitters and monitored for a ...

  9. First record of Dinoderus (Dinoderastes japonicus in Italy (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Nardi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dinoderus (Dinoderastes japonicus, a species native of the Eastern Palaearctic, is reported for the first time from Italy on the basis of a female specimen collected in a beech forest (Veneto Region, Treviso Province, Foresta del Cansiglio. The possible establishment of this alien species in Italy is briefly discussed.

  10. The Effect of Leonurus sibiricus Plant Extracts on Stimulating Repair and Protective Activity against Oxidative DNA Damage in CHO Cells and Content of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Sitarek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leonurus sibiricus L. has been used as a traditional and medicinal herb for many years in Asia and Europe. This species is known to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity and has demonstrated a reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. All tested extracts of L. sibiricus showed protective and DNA repair stimulating effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells exposed to H2O2. Preincubation of the CHO cells with 0.5 mg/mL of plant extracts showed increased expression level of antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, and GPx. LC-MS/MS and HPLC analyses revealed the presence of nine phenolic compounds in L. sibiricus plant extracts: catechin, verbascoside, two flavonoids (quercetin and rutin, and five phenolic acids (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid. The roots and aerial parts of in vitro L. sibiricus plant extracts, which had the strongest antioxidant properties, may be responsible for stimulating CHO cells to repair oxidatively induced DNA damage, as well as protecting DNA via enhanced activation of the antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, and GPx regulating intracellular antioxidant capacity. The content of phenolic compounds in in vitro raised plants was greater than the levels found in plants propagated from seeds.

  11. Antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of four plants with therapeutic potential on gynecological diseases; Semen persicae, Leonurus cardiaca, Hedyotis diffusa, and Curcuma zedoaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shaojian; Fattahi, Amir; Raffel, Nathalie; Hoffmann, Inge; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dittrich, Ralf; Schrauder, Michael

    2017-11-25

    Little information is available concerning antioxidant effects of plant teas (water boiled) which are used more commonly in traditional Chinese medicine than other extracts. Thus, we addressed this issue by evaluating the ability of teas from four different plants with therapeutic potential on gynecological diseases. The aqueous extracts of Semen persicae, Leonurus cardiaca, Hedyotis diffusa, and Curcuma zedoaria rhizome were prepared and then their effects on copper-induced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation were evaluated by spectrophotometric method. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method was recruited to isolate LDL-C from healthy individuals. Our results showed that adding 10, 20, and 30 µl S. persicae could increase the lag phase duration of LDL-C oxidation compared with control reaction 12, 21, and 33%, respectively. The most effective delay (87%) was observed when 30 µl H. diffusa was added to the reaction. In cases of L. cardiaca and C. zedoaria, we found no significant influence on the lag phase duration (p > 0.05). Moreover, our findings about starting point of the decomposition phase were almost in parallel with the lag phase results, as 30 µl of S. persicae or H. diffusa teas could significantly increase the initiation time of decomposition (p < 0.05). In conclusion our results showed that both S. persicae and H. diffusa teas and not L. cardiaca and C. zedoaria could have medicinal therapeutic effects partly through direct oxidation prevention.

  12. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  13. Nutritional Composition, α-Glucosidase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Ophiopogon japonicus Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ophiopogon japonicus tubers have been widely used as food and traditional Chinese medicine in China. However, their nutritional composition has not been fully reported yet. This study aimed to analyze the nutritional composition of O. japonicus tubers. The α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the extracts obtained from O. japonicus tubers were also evaluated by in vitro assays. The results indicated that O. japonicus tubers are rich in carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, and amino acids. Among four extracts, the n-butanol fraction (nBF and chloroform/methanol extract (CME of O. japonicus tubers had high amounts of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and exhibited good α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. The α-glucosidase inhibition of nBF was higher than acarbose. Overall, O. japonicus tubers are full of nutritional compounds and have good α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities.

  14. Determination of mineral constituents in medicinally important plants Nigell sativa, Myristica fragrans Houtt and allium sativum Linn. using atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.J.; Jakhrani, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Medicinal properties have been attributed to a large variety of plants cultivated in different parts of Pakistan. Only few of these plants have been analyzed for their mineral content and large number remain unanalyzed. It is imperative to analyse the plants for their trace element content, which have healing power for mankind in numerous ailment and disorders. Present study has been undertaken in our laboratories to see the commonly occurring elements among some medicinal plants and in its decoction such as Nigella sativa, Allium sativum, Myristica fragrans houtt, for fifteen elements has been carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Two procedures were employed for decomposition of organic matter present in the plant samples. The result obtained from both the procedures was compared with each other. For all three plant samples relatively higher results were obtained when samples were decomposed with Nitric acid and hydrogen per oxide mixture. The level of essential elements was to be found high as compared to concentration of toxic elements. The level of important elements such as Zinc, Iron was present in considerable amount. (author)

  15. Antioxidants in aqueous extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) suppress mitosis and cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa L. cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohamed, Kamaruzaman Bin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Sofiman, Othman Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    In this study, freeze-dried water extract from the leaves of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) was tested for mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials using the Allium cepa assay. Freeze-dried water extract alone and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CP) (50 mg/kg) were separately dissolved in tap water at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg. Onions (A. cepa) were suspended in the solutions and controls for 48 h in the dark. Root tips were prepared for microscopic evaluation. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals’ scavenging power of the extract was tested using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as standards. Water extract of Myristica fragrans scavenged free radicals better than BHA, but worse than BHT. The extract alone, as well as in combination with CP suppressed cell division, and induced chromosomal aberrations that were insignificantly different from the negative control (P≤0.05). However, cytotoxic and mutagenic actions of CP were considerably suppressed. The observed effects on cell division and chromosomes of A. cepa may be principally connected to the antioxidant properties of the extract. The obtained results suggest mitodepressive and antimutagenic potentials of water extract of the leaves of M. fragrans as desirable properties of a promising anticancer agent. PMID:22042656

  16. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) floats for surveillance of Ochlerotatus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jamesina J; Crans, Wayne J

    2003-12-01

    Blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS) were placed in a variety of habitats to investigate their potential as an egg-collection device for container-dwelling Aedes and Ochlerotatus species. Eggs from Ochlerotatus japonicus, Oc. triseriatus, Oc. hendersoni, and Aedes albopictus were collected with EPS floats. The float provides an inexpensive, low-maintenance alternative to the Centers for Disease Control ovitrap for sampling container-dwelling mosquito species that are important vectors of disease. Eggs collected on the floats have many potential applications, including use in routine population surveillance; detection of Oc. japonicus, Ae. albopictus, and other container-dwelling species in new areas; species distribution studies; natural transovarial transmission studies; ovipositional studies; collection of local field populations for insecticide resistance assays; assessment of adulticiding efficacy; and establishment of new laboratory colonies.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Chirolophis japonicus (Perciformes: Stichaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haibo; Bao, Xiangbo; Wang, Bin; Liu, Weidong

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Chirolophis japonicus was sequenced for the first time in this study. It is a closed-circular molecule of 16 521 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, an origin of light strand replication (OL), and a control region (CR). The overall base composition of the heavy-strand is 25.5% A, 28.6% T, 18.3% G, and 27.6% C, and the lengths of 2 rRNA genes are 946 and 1692 bp, respectively. Maximum likelihood tree based on all the amino acid sequences of 13 mitochondrial PCGs was constructed, in which C. japonicus is close to three species of infraorder Zoarcales. These results are expected to provide useful molecular data for species identification and further phylogenetic studies of genus Chirolophis.

  18. Carbon sources effect on pectinase production from Aspergillus japonicus 586

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Maria F. S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different carbon sources on the pectinesterases, endo- and exo-polygalacturonase activities from Aspergillus japonicus 586 was evaluated in liquid media (Manachini solutions supplemented with different substrate concentrations. The culture medium was inoculated with 5.10(6 spores/ml and mantained under agitation (140 rpm, at 30°C, during 122 h. The enzyme evaluation was carried out 24 h after filtration. The crude extract from A. japonicus 586 indicated that the best enzymatic activities were afforded in the presence of 0.5% pectin (pectinesterease, 0.2% pectin and 0.2% glycerol (endopolygalacturonase, and 0.5% pectin associated to 0.5% glucose (exopolygalacturonase. Carbon sources concentration, isolated or associated, significantly affects the pectinesterase, and endo- and exopolygalacturonase activities. Pectin, glucose and saccharose, when added to the culture medium in high concentrations, exhibited a repression effect on all the analyzed enzymes.

  19. Background and History of the Lotus japonicus Model Legume System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The combination of favourable biological features, stable transformation procedures, application of genetics and genome-based global approaches has established Lotus japonicus as a model legume and provided a platform for addressing important biological questions often, but not exclusively......, focusing on endosymbiosis. Several important discoveries have been made, and the Lotus community has contributed novel results, promoting our understanding of plant biology as well as our understanding of properties and characteristics typical for plants belonging to the legume family. Progress has been...

  20. Classical and molecular genetics of the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Q; Gresshoff, P M

    1997-01-01

    The model legume Lotus japonicus was demonstrated to be amenable to classical and molecular genetic analysis, providing the basis for the genetic dissection of the plant processes underlying nodulation and nitrogen fixation. We have developed an efficient method for the sexual hybridization of L. japonicus and obtained F1 progeny derived from a cross of L. japonicus B-129-S9 Gifu x B-581 Funakura. Over half of the cross-pollinations resulted in fertile hybrid seed, which were confirmed morphologically and by single arbitrary primer DNA amplification polymorphisms using the DAF technique. Molecular and morphological markers segregated in true Mendelian fashion in a F2 population of 100 plants. Several DAF loci were linked using the MAPMAKER software to create the first molecular linkage groups of this model legume. The mapping population was advanced to generate a set of immortal recombinant inbred lines (F6; RILs), useful for sharing plant material fixed genetically at most genomic regions. Morphological loci for waved stem shape (Ssh), dark leaf color (Lco), and short flowering period (Fpe) were inherited as single dominant Mendelian loci. DAF markers were dominant and were detected between Gifu and Funakura at about one per primer, suggesting that the parents are closely related. One polymorphism (270G generated by single octomer primer 8.6m) was linked to a morphological locus controlling leaf coloration. The results demonstrate that (i) Lotus japonicus is amenable to diploid genetic analysis, (ii) morphological and molecular markers segregate in true diploid fashion, (iii) molecular polymorphisms can be obtained at a reasonable frequency between the related Gifu and Funakura lines, and iv) the possibility exists for map-based cloning, marker assisted selection and mapping of symbiotic mutations through a genetic and molecular map.

  1. Antibacterial, Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Antiproliferative Properties of Essential Oils from Hairy and Normal Roots of Leonurus sibiricus L. and Their Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Sitarek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils obtained from the NR (normal roots and HR (hairy roots of the medicinal plant Leonurus sibiricus root were used in this study. The essential oil compositions were detected by GC-MS. Eighty-five components were identified in total. Seventy components were identified for NR essential oil. The major constituents in NR essential oil were β-selinene (9.9%, selina-4,7-diene (9.7%, (E-β-caryophyllene (7.3%,myli-4(15-ene (6.4%, and guaia-1(10,11-diene (5.9%. Sixty-seven components were identified in HR essential oil, the main constituents being (E-β-caryophyllene (22.6%, and germacrene D (19.8%. The essential oils were tested for cytotoxic effect, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. Both essential oils showed activity against grade IV glioma cell lines (IC50 = 400 μg/mL, antimicrobial (MIC and MFC values of 2500 to 125 μg/mL, and anti-inflammatory (decreased level of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in LPS-stimulated cells.The essential oils exhibited moderate antioxidant activity in ABTS (EC50 = 98 and 88 μg/mL assay. This is the first study to examine composition of the essential oils and their antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities. The results indicate that essential oils form L. sibiricus root may be used in future as an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents with potential application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Infection of Lotus japonicus Roots by Mesorhizobium loti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markmann, Katharina; Radutoiu, Elena Simona; Stougaard, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Like the two important crop legumes soybean and common bean, the model legume Lotus japonicus develops determinate root nodules. L. japonicus is normally infected through root hair infection threads in a process closely synchronised with the progressing primordial cell divisions and organ...

  3. Evaluation of body weight of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate ( R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model ( R 2 =0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.

  4. KARAKTERISASI KOMPOSIT FILM EDIBLE PEKTIN DAGING BUAH PALA (Myristica fragrans Houtt DAN TAPIOKA [Characterization of Edible Film Composite Made of Pectin from Nutmeg Mesocarp and Tapioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payung Layuk 1

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to investigate the properties of pectin derived from mesocarp of nutmeg (Mysristica fragrans Houtt and edible film made from the pectin and added tapioca. Pectin was extracted from mesocarp of nutmeg using 0.5% of EDTA at pH 1.5-2, and temperature at 90°C for 1 hour. The first group of edible film was prepared using 1% (w/v of pectin, 1.6% CaCl2, 1% glycerol and various concentration of tapioca (0-2%, w/v. Second group of edible film was prepared using 1% of pectin, 1.6 % CaCl2, 1% glycerol and 2% tapioca and various concentration of palmitic acid (0-0,08 w/v. Physical, mechanical and barrier properties of the films were examined and its capability to reduce weight loss of small pieces of apples during storage was also measured.The result showed that yield of isolated pectin was 20.73% (w/w having methoxyl content 11.43%, and polygalacturonic acid of 79.47%. Proximate analysis showed that protein, ash and water content in the isolated pectin were 7.86, 3.03 and 7.60%, respectively. Characteristics of first group of film showed that the higher concentration of tapioca added resulted in the higher of tensile strength and thickness. Data of the second groups of films showed that addition of palmitic acid up to 0,08% has no effects on tensile strength, thickness, elongation and water vapour transmission rate (WVTR of films. Small piece of apples coated or wrapped with edible film (1% pectin – 1,6% CaCl2-2% tapioca-1% glycerol and 0.04% palmitic acid had lower weight loss and better colour than those of control during storage.

  5. Characterization of phenoloxidase from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingwei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bai; Jiang, Bei; Yang, Aifu; Chen, Zhong; Gao, Shan; Sun, Hongjuan

    2014-06-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a crucial immune-related enzyme in invertebrates. In this study, three POs of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were detected in coelomic fluid using linear-gradient native-PAGE combined with catechol staining and then partially purified by gel excising. The results showed that the three POs had a color of mahogany (AjPO1), yellow (AjPO2) and purple (AjPO3) respectively with molecular weights smaller than 21kDa in native-PAGE after staining with catechol. Enzymatic activities analysis revealed that AjPO1, AjPO2 and AjPO3 had optimal temperature of 45, 95 and 85°C and pH of 5.0, 8.0 and 8.0, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that the Km values of AjPO1 for catechol, l-DOPA, dopamine and hydroquinone were 3.23, 0.86, 3.98 and 1.20mmol/l, respectively, those of AjPO2 were 0.31, 0.38, 2.05 and 1.30mmol/l, respectively, and those of AjPO3 were 5.95, 1.28, 5.81 and 0.62mmol/l, respectively. These results suggest that the three POs are laccase-type phenoloxidase. The activities of all three A. japonicus POs were significantly promoted by Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), and strongly inhibited by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA), sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC) and some common antioxidants. The inhibitions by EDTA and DETC suggest that the three A. japonicus POs are copper-containing metalloenzymes. Immune-responsive analysis showed that the total PO activities in coelomocytes (TPAC) increased greatly after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and declined significantly after polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) challenge, implying that A. japonicus PO immune system, which is composed of several isoenzymes with different characteristics, is closely involved in the defense against the infection of Gram-negative bacteria and double-stranded RNA viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Larval Mosquito Habitat Utilization and Community Dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Community Dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae ) Author(s): Kristen Bartlett-Healy, Isik Unlu, Peter Obenauer, Tony Hughes...japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...Community Dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae ) KRISTEN BARTLETT-HEALY,1,2,3 ISIK UNLU,1,3,4 PETER OBENAUER,5 TONY HUGHES,6

  7. Feeding behavior and digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiamin; Zhang, Libin; Pan, Yang; Lin, Chenggang; Wang, Fang; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-02-01

    The feeding behavior and digestive physiology of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are not well understood. A better understanding may provide useful information for the development of the aquaculture of this species. In this article the tentacle locomotion, feeding rhythms, ingestion rate (IR), feces production rate (FPR) and digestive enzyme activities were studied in three size groups (small, medium and large) of sea cucumber under a 12h light/12h dark cycle. Frame-by-frame video analysis revealed that all size groups had similar feeding strategies using a grasping motion to pick up sediment particles. The tentacle insertion rates of the large size group were significantly faster than those of the small and medium-sized groups (P<0.05). Feeding activities investigated by charge coupled device cameras with infrared systems indicated that all size groups of sea cucumber were nocturnal and their feeding peaks occurred at 02:00-04:00. The medium and large-sized groups also had a second feeding peak during the day. Both IR and FPR in all groups were significantly higher at night than those during the daytime (P<0.05). Additionally, the peak activities of digestive enzymes were 2-4h earlier than the peak of feeding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the light/dark cycle was a powerful environment factor that influenced biological rhythms of A. japonicus, which had the ability to optimize the digestive processes for a forthcoming ingestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on the Immunomodulation Effect of Isodon japonicus Extract via Splenocyte Function and NK Anti-Tumor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-A Hwang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we investigated the potential immune-enhancing activity of Isodon japonicus on murine splenocyte and natural-killer (NK cells in vitro. The ethanol extract of I. japonicus significantly enhanced the proliferation of splenocyte and induced the significant enhancement of NK cells’ activity against tumor cells (YAC-1. In addition, I. japonicus increased the production of interferon (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, suggesting that the increase in NK cell cytotoxicity could be due to the enhancement of the NK cell production of both cytokines. Taken together, I. japonicus extract inhibited the growth of human leukemia cells (K562 by 74%. Our observation indicated that the anti-tumor effects of I. japonicus may be attributed to its ability to serve as a stimulant of NK anti-tumor activity. In addition, our results support the development of functional food studies on I. japonicus.

  9. Transcriptome sequencing and characterization for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka, 1867.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sea cucumbers are a special group of marine invertebrates. They occupy a taxonomic position that is believed to be important for understanding the origin and evolution of deuterostomes. Some of them such as Apostichopus japonicus represent commercially important aquaculture species in Asian countries. Many efforts have been devoted to increasing the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs for A. japonicus, but a comprehensive characterization of its transcriptome remains lacking. Here, we performed the large-scale transcriptome profiling and characterization by pyrosequencing diverse cDNA libraries from A. japonicus. RESULTS: In total, 1,061,078 reads were obtained by 454 sequencing of eight cDNA libraries representing different developmental stages and adult tissues in A. japonicus. These reads were assembled into 29,666 isotigs, which were further clustered into 21,071 isogroups. Nearly 40% of the isogroups showed significant matches to known proteins based on sequence similarity. Gene ontology (GO and KEGG pathway analyses recovered diverse biological functions and processes. Candidate genes that were potentially involved in aestivation were identified. Transcriptome comparison with the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus revealed similar patterns of GO term representation. In addition, 4,882 putative orthologous genes were identified, of which 202 were not present in the non-echinoderm organisms. More than 700 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 54,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were detected in the A. japonicus transcriptome. CONCLUSION: Pyrosequencing was proven to be efficient in rapidly identifying a large set of genes for the sea cucumber A. japonicus. Through the large-scale transcriptome sequencing as well as public EST data integration, we performed a comprehensive characterization of the A. japonicus transcriptome and identified candidate aestivation-related genes. A large number of potential genetic

  10. Molecular Phylogenetics of Aedes japonicus, a Disease Vector That Recently Invaded Western Europe, North America, and the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    japonicus The genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) includes the principal vectors of yellow fever , dengue, and aperi- odic lymphatic filariasis (Foster...heralded epidemics of yellow fever as well as dengue fever (Tabachnick and Powell1979), and the introduction of Ae. ( Stg.) albopictus exacer- bated...vector of chikungunya fever virus, leading to recent epidem- ics in Asia and Europe (de Lamballerie et al. 2008). Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus

  11. Schizosaccharomyces japonicus: A Polysaccharide-Overproducing Yeast to Be Used in Winemaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Romani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed starter cultures made of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 and Schizosaccharomyces japonicus #13 were inoculated in commercial grape must, and the impact of different inoculum ratios (1:1; 1:100; 1:10,000 on growth and fermentation kinetics and on the analytical profiles of the experimental wines was here evaluated. Results obtained showed that S. japonicus #13 affects S. cerevisiae growth and fermentative capability only for S. cerevisiae/S. japonicus inoculum ratio 1:10,000. The analytical profiles of the wines produced by mixed starter cultures indicated that this non-Saccharomyces yeast modulates the concentration of malic and acetic acids and of some of the most important volatile compounds, such as β-phenyl ethanol, in an inoculum-ratio-dependent fashion. Moreover, all experimental wines obtained with S. japonicus #13 in mixed cultures reached concentrations of total polysaccharides significantly higher than those obtained with pure cultures of S. cerevisiae EC1118, and total polysaccharides increased with the increase of S. japonicus #13 cell concentration. Based on these results, S. japonicus #13 might be profitably inoculated in combination with S. cerevisiae EC1118 to enhance wine complexity and aroma and to improve wine stability by increasing the final concentration of polysaccharides.

  12. Meat quality of Kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus: preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vonghia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the peneids, Marsupenaeus japonicus, a cold-temperate species, carnivorous, is the mostly cultured prawn in Italy and in the Mediterranean Sea basin, thanks to the good adaptability to the temperature and salinity variations, to the good resistance to the manipulations (better resistance out of water, to its appreciate nourishing qualities and to the good growth rate (Lumare, 1998.Whereas the literature on cultured fish fillet is rich (Gjedrem, 1997; Lanari et al., 1999; Parisi et al., 2003, few are the information about the shrimp meat quality traits.Therefore, the present work aimed at typifying the variations of the meat quality characteristics in shrimps from semi-intensive (supplemented with an artificial diet or extensive rearing systems.

  13. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  14. Sustainability evaluation of different systems for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) farming based on emergy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is affected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evaluated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed that A. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farming system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio of A. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming system. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable development were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current extensive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system. A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems of A. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  15. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  16. A Novel Phenolic Compound, Chloroxynil, Improves Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Transformation in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Cutler, Sean; Isobe, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a commonly used method for plant genetic engineering. However, the limitations of Agrobacterium host-plant interactions and the complexity of plant tissue culture often make the production of transgenic plants difficult. Transformation efficiency in many legume species, including soybean and the common bean, has been reported to be quite low. To improve the transformation procedure in legumes, we screened for chemicals that increase the transformation efficiency of Lotus japonicus, a model legume species. A Chemical library was screened and chemicals that increase in transient transformation efficiency of L. japonicus accession, Miyakojima MG-20 were identified. The transient transformation efficiency was quantified by reporter activity in which an intron-containing reporter gene produces the GUS protein only when the T-DNA is expressed in the plant nuclei. We identified a phenolic compound, chloroxynil, which increased the genetic transformation of L. japonicus by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. Characterization of the mode of chloroxynil action indicated that it enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation through the activation of the Agrobacterium vir gene expression, similar to acetosyringone, a phenolic compound known to improve Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency. Transient transformation efficiency of L. japonicus with 5 μM chloroxynil was 60- and 6- fold higher than that of the control and acetosyringone treatment, respectively. In addition, transgenic L. japonicus lines were successfully generated by 5 μM chloroxynil treatment.Furthermore, we show that chloroxynil improves L. japonicus transformation by Agrobacterium strain GV3101 and rice transformation. Our results demonstrate that chloroxynil significantly improves Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation efficiency of various agriculturally important crops.

  17. Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus - two invasive mosquito species with different temperature niches in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cunze

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes albopictus and Ae. japonicus are two of the most widespread invasive mosquito species that have recently become established in western Europe. Both species are associated with the transmission of a number of serious diseases and are projected to continue their spread in Europe. Methods In the present study, we modelled the habitat suitability for both species under current and future climatic conditions by means of an Ensemble forecasting approach. We additionally compared the modelled MAXENT niches of Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus regarding temperature and precipitation requirements. Results Both species were modelled to find suitable habitat conditions in distinct areas within Europe: Ae. albopictus within the Mediterranean regions in southern Europe, Ae. japonicus within the more temperate regions of central Europe. Only in few regions, suitable habitat conditions were projected to overlap for both species. Whereas Ae. albopictus is projected to be generally promoted by climate change in Europe, the area modelled to be climatically suitable for Ae. japonicus is projected to decrease under climate change. This projection of range reduction under climate change relies on the assumption that Ae. japonicus is not able to adapt to warmer climatic conditions. The modelled MAXENT temperature niches of Ae. japonicus were found to be narrower with an optimum at lower temperatures compared to the niches of Ae. albopictus. Conclusions Species distribution models identifying areas with high habitat suitability can help improving monitoring programmes for invasive species currently in place. However, as mosquito species are known to be able to adapt to new environmental conditions within the invasion range quickly, niche evolution of invasive mosquito species should be closely followed upon in future studies.

  18. Hemotropic mycoplasma infection in wild black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Takehiro; Suzuki, Jin; Sasaoka, Fumina; Sashida, Hinako; Watanabe, Yusaku; Fujihara, Masatoshi; Nagai, Kazuya; Harasawa, Ryô

    2013-04-12

    This is the first report on Mycoplasma infection in wild bears. We report a novel hemotropic Mycoplasma (also called hemoplasma) detected in a free-ranging black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) in Japan. We then used real-time PCR to look for hemoplasma DNA in blood samples collected from 15 bears and found that eight (53%) were positive. Among these eight PCR samples, seven showed a melting temperature of around 85.5°C, while the remaining one showed a single peak at 82.26°C. Almost the entire region of the 16S rRNA gene as well as the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region from the sample that showed a melting temperature of 82.26°C was successfully amplified by means of end-point PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and the ITS region were then determined and compared with those of authentic Mycoplasma species. Our examinations revealed the presence of a novel hemoplasma in Japanese black bears. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diplodiscus mehrai Pande, 1937 and D. japonicus (Yamaguti, 1936: morphology of developmental stages and molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besprozvannykh V. V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the snails Anisus centrifugops were infected with two types of cercariae relating to the genus Diplodiscus, differing from each other by body and organ sizes were found in a pond in the territory of Vladivostok (Primorsky region, Russia. Further study of their morphology and life cycles allowed us to establish that these flukes belong to Diplodiscus japonicus (Yamaguti, 1936 and D. mehrai Pande, 1937. Morphological and molecular data confirmed the validity of D. japonicus which had previously been synonymized with D. amphichrus Tubangui, 1933 and D. mehrai Pande, 1937.

  20. Isolation and properties of pectinases from the fungus Aspergillus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, M V; Grishutin, S G; Gusakov, A V; Okunev, O N; Sinitsyn, A P

    2003-05-01

    Using anion-exchange chromatography on different carriers and phenyl-Sepharose hydrophobic chromatography, five pectolytic enzymes were isolated from the culture liquid of a mutant strain of Aspergillus japonicus: two endo-polygalacturonases (I and II, 38 and 65 kD, pI 5.6 and 3.3), pectin lyase (50 kD, pI 3.8), and two pectinesterases (I and II) with similar molecular weights (46 and 47 kD) and the same pI (3.8). The pectinesterases apparently represent two isoforms of the same enzyme. All purified enzymes were homogenous according to SDS-PAGE and polyacrylamide gel-IEF, except for endo-polygalacturonase II that gave two bands on isoelectric focusing, but one band on electrophoresis. All enzymes had maximal activity in an acid medium (at pH 4.0-5.5). The pectin lyase and pectinesterase were stable at 40-50 degrees C. The thermal stability of both endo-polygalacturonases was much lower (after 3 h of incubation at 30 degrees C, endo-polygalacturonases I and II lost 40 and 10% of the activity, respectively). The activity of endo-polygalacturonases I and II towards polygalacturonic acid strongly depended on NaCl concentration (optimal concentration of the salt was 0.1-0.2 M); the enzymes were also capable of reducing the viscosity of pectin solution, but rather slowly. The pectin lyase had no activity towards polygalacturonic acid. The activity of the pectin lyase increased with increasing degree of methylation of pectins. Both endo-polygalacturonases demonstrated synergism with the pectinesterase during the hydrolysis of highly methylated pectin. On the contrary, in the mixture of pectin lyase and pectinesterase an antagonism between the two enzymes was observed.

  1. Geographic variation in the Buzzard Buteo buteo (L.): japonicus-group (Aves: Accipitridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Anthony H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the geographic variation in the japonicus-group ) of Buteo buteo. Four subspecies are distinguished, varying in size, plumage design and colour. Of these, three are morphologically distinctive; burmanicus distributed in northeastern Eurasia, refectus a disjunct population breeding

  2. Activation of an endogenous retrotransposon associated with epigenetic changes in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukai, Eigo; Stougaard, Jens; Hayashi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Long terminal repeat retrotransposons occupy a large portion of genomes in flowering plants. In spite of their abundance, the majority are silenced and rarely transpose. One of the examples of a highly active retrotransposon is Lotus Retrotransposon 1(LORE1), of the model legume Lotus japonicus (...

  3. N-glycan maturation mutants in Lotus japonicus for basic and applied glycoprotein research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carina T; Loke, Ian; Lorentzen, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Studies of protein N-glycosylation are important for answering fundamental questions on the diverse functions of glycoproteins in plant growth and development. Here we generated and characterised a comprehensive collection of Lotus japonicusLORE1 insertion mutants, each lacking the activity of on...

  4. Antithrombotic Effect of Fermented Ophiopogon japonicus in Thrombosis-Induced Rat Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Lin; Xi, Mei-Zhu; Choi, Young-Bin; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the antithrombotic and thrombolytic ability of second fermented extract of Ophiopogon japonicus (FEOJ) was verified in thrombosis-induced rats. Thrombosis was induced by oral administration of 2% carrageenan for 4 weeks. Five experimental groups (n = 9/group) involved in the study were control group, thrombosis group, low-dose FEOJ group (2 mL/kg, low-dose Ophiopogon japonicus [LOJ]), middle-dose FEOJ group (6 mL/kg, medium-dose Ophiopogon japonicus [MOJ]), and high-dose FEOJ group (12 mL/kg, high-dose Ophiopogon japonicus [HOJ]). The clotting time (CT), bleeding time (BT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen (FBG) were assessed in blood samples, and histological studies were performed on liver and lung tissues. The results demonstrated delayed CT only in MOJ and HOJ groups and delayed BT in all FEOJ groups compared with those in thrombosis and control groups (P thrombosis groups (P thrombosis, and LOJ groups, the tendency for decreased concentration of FBG (statistically nonsignificant) in MOJ and HOJ groups has been observed. Histological examination of livers and lungs revealed that thrombosis was partially improved in FEOJ group compared with the thrombosis group. In conclusion, CT, BT, PT, and APTT were prolonged in FEOJ group more than in control and thrombosis groups, thereby, depicting antithrombotic and thrombolytic effects. However, concentration-dependent effects of FEOJ were more prominent in MOJ and HOJ groups than in the LOJ group.

  5. Neoergasilus japonicus, a parasitic copepod from redbelly tilapia Tilapia zillii in Okinawa Prefecture, southern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    長澤, 和也; 上野, 大輔

    2015-01-01

    The ergasilid copepod Neoergasilus japonicus (Harada, 1930) is described using a gravid female from the dorsal fin of a redbelly tilapia, Tilapia zillii (Gervais, 1848), in Haebaru Reservoir, Okinawa-jima Island, Okinawa Prefecture, southern Japan. The morphology of the first and fourth thoracic legs is reported in detail.

  6. Influence of salinity on the early development and biochemical dynamics of a marine fish, Inimicus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xu; Huang, Xuxiong; Wen, Wen

    2017-05-01

    Fertilised eggs of the devil stringer (Inimicus japonicus) were incubated at different salinity levels (21, 25, 29, 33, and 37), and then the hatching performances, morphological parameters, and biochemical composition (protein, lipid and carbohydrate) of the larvae were assayed to determine the influence of salinity on the early development of I. japonicus. The tested salinity levels did not affect the times of hatching or mouth opening for yolk-sac larvae. However, the salinity significantly influenced the hatching and survival rates of open-mouthed larvae, as well as the morphology of yolk-sac larvae. The data indicated that 30.5 to 37.3 and 24.4 to 29.8 were suitable salinity ranges for the survival of embryos and larvae of I. japonicus, respectively. Larvae incubated at a salinity level of 29 had the greatest full lengths, and decreasing yolk volume was positively correlated with the environmental salinity. With increasing salinity, the individual dry weights of newly hatched larvae or open-mouthed larvae decreased significantly. Newly hatched larvae incubated at a salinity level of 29 had the greatest metabolic substrate contents and gross energy levels, while the openmouthed larvae's greatest values occurred at a salinity level of 25. Larvae incubated in the salinity range of 33 to 37 had the lowest nutritional reserves and energy values. Thus, the I. japonicus yolk-sac larvae acclimated more readily to the lower salinity level than the embryos, and higher salinity levels negatively influenced larval growth and development. In conclusion, the environmental salinity level should be maintained at 29-33 during embryogenesis and at 25-29 during early larval development for this species. Our results can be used to provide optimum aquaculture conditions for the early larval development of I. japonicus.

  7. Changes in collagenous tissue microstructures and distributions of cathepsin L in body wall of autolytic sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yan-Fei; Li, Dong-Mei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Tan, Ming-Qian; Du, Ming; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The autolysis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) was induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and the changes of microstructures of collagenous tissues and distributions of cathepsin L were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. Intact collagen fibers in fresh S. japonicus dermis were disaggregated into collagen fibrils after UV stimuli. Cathepsin L was identified inside the surface of vacuoles in the fresh S. japonicus dermis cells. After the UV stimuli, the membranes of vacuoles and cells were fused together, and cathepsin L was released from cells and diffused into tissues. The density of cathepsin L was positively correlated with the speed and degree of autolysis in different layers of body wall. Our results revealed that lysosomal cathepsin L was released from cells in response to UV stimuli, which contacts and degrades the extracellular substrates such as collagen fibers, and thus participates in the autolysis of S. japonicus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ectopic expression of miR156 represses nodulation and causes morphological and developmental changes in Lotus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhishuo; Amyot, Lisa; Tian, Lining; Xu, Ziqin; Gruber, Margaret Y.; Hannoufa, Abdelali

    2014-01-01

    The effects of microRNA156 overexpression on general plant architecture, branching, flowering time and nodulation were investigated in the model legume, Lotus japonicus. We cloned an miR156 homolog, LjmiR156a, from L. japonicus, and investigated its SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE (SPL) genes and its biological function at enhancing vegetative biomass yield, extending flowering time, and its impact on nodulation. Thirteen potential targets for LjmiR156 were identified in vitro and thei...

  9. Identification and expression characterization of WntA during intestinal regeneration in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoni; Sun, Lina; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhang, Libin; Miao, Ting; Xing, Lili; Huo, Da

    2017-08-01

    Wnt genes encode secreted glycoproteins that act as signaling molecules; these molecules direct cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival during animal development, maintenance of homeostasis and regeneration. At present, although the regeneration mechanism in Apostichopus japonicus has been studied, there is a little research on the Wnt signaling pathway in A. japonicus. To understand the potential role of the Wnt signaling pathway in A. japonicus, we cloned and sequenced the WntA gene in A. japonicus. Protein localization analysis showed that WntA protein was ubiquitously expressed in epidermal cells, the muscle and submucosa of the intestinal tissue. After stimulation and evisceration, the dynamic changes in expression of the WntA gene and protein showed that WntA was constitutively expressed during different stages of intestine regeneration in A. japonicus, with higher levels during the early wound healing stage and late lumen formation in the residual and nascent intestinal tissues, indicating its response to intestinal regeneration. Simultaneously, cell proliferation and apoptosis analysis showed that the patterns of cell proliferation were similar to the patterns of WntA protein expression during different intestinal regeneration stages in this organism. Taken together, these results suggested that WntA might participate in intestinal regeneration and may be connected with cell proliferation, apoptosis in different intestinal layers. This research could establish a basis for further examination of WntA functions in A. japonicus and Wnt genes in other echinoderms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Lotus japonicus ndx gene family is involved in nodule function and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Gustafsen, Camilla; Jensen, Dorthe Bødker

    2003-01-01

    To elucidate the function of the ndx homeobox genes during the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, two Lotus japonicus ndr genes were expressed in the antisense orientation under the control of the nodule-expressed promoter Psenod12 in transgenic Lotus japonicus plants. Many of the transformants obtained...... segregated into plants that failed to sustain proper development and maintenance of root nodules concomitant with down-regulation of the two ndx genes. The root nodules were actively fixing nitrogen 3 weeks after inoculation, but the plants exhibited a stunted growth phenotype. The nodules on such antisense...... supplied to the plants in which the two ndx genes are down-regulated. The results presented here, indicate that the ndx genes play a role in the development of structural nodule features, required for proper gas diffusion into the nodule and/or transport of the assimilated nitrogen to the plant....

  11. The evolution of plant chemical defence - new roles for hydroxynitrile glucosides in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Camilla

    tissue disruption, their hydrolysis by a specific β-glucosidase results in the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide. Hydrolysis of the non-cyanogenic rhodiocyanosides by β-glucosidase activity is shown to produce an anti-fungal furanone. The biosynthetic pathways for these related hydroxynitrile glucosides...... share the first step, and paralogous enzymes with distinct roles, such as the UDP-glucosyltransferases UGT85K2 and UGT85K3, catalyse subsequent reactions. The results presented in this PhD thesis provide unique insight in the biosynthesis of hydroxynitrile glucosides in Lotus japonicus in terms of gene...... function and evolution. Further, it contributes to our understanding of the formation and role of biosynthetic gene clusters in plant chemical defence. The bifurcation in hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis and catabolism observed in Lotus japonicus makes it a very suitable model system to study...

  12. Preparative Isolation of Three Anthraquinones from Rumex japonicus by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuying Guo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three anthraquinones—emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion—were successfully purified from the dichloromethane extract of the Chinese medicinal herb Rumex japonicus by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC. The extract was separated with n-hexane–ethanol–water (18:22:3, v/v/v as the two-phase solvent system and yielded 3.4 mg of emodin, 24.1 mg of chrysophanol, and 2.0 mg of physcion from 500 mg of sample with purities of 99.2 %, 98.8% and 98.2%, respectively. The HSCCC fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and the chemical structures of the three anthraquinones were confirmed by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR analysis. This is the first time these anthraquinones have been obtained from R. japonicus by HSCCC.

  13. Biological activities and biomedical potential of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gun-Woo Oh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the phylum Echinodermata, commonly known as echinoderms, are exclusively marine invertebrates. Among the Echinodermata, sea cucumber belongs to the family Holothuroidea. The sea cucumber Stichopus (Apostichous japonicus (Selenka is an invertebrate animal inhabiting the coastal sea around Korean, Japan, China, and Russia. Sea cucumber has a significant commercial value, because it contains valuable nutrients such as vitamins and minerals. They possess a number of distinctive biologically and pharmacologically important compounds. In particular, the body wall of sea cucumber is a major edible part. It consists of peptide, collagen, gelatin, polysaccharide, and saponin, which possess several biological activities such as anti-cancer, anti-coagulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, the regenerative capacity of sea cucumber makes it a medically important organism. This review presents the various biological activities and biomedical potential of sea cucumber S. japonicus.

  14. Genetic suppressors of the Lotus japonicus har1-1 hypernodulation phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Jeremy; Karas, Bogumil; Ross, Loretta

    2006-01-01

    approach of genetic mapping, targeting induced local lesions in genomics, and sequencing, all non-nodulating mutant lines were characterized and shown to represent new alleles of at least nine independent symbiotic loci. The class of mutants with reduced nodulation capacity was of particular interest...... mutant lines carried more subtle symbiotic phenotypes, either forming white ineffective nodules or showing reduced nodulation capacity. When challenged with Glomus intraradices, 18 of the 61 suppressor lines were unable to establish a symbiosis with this arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus. Using a combined...... because some of them may specify novel plant functions that regulate nodule development in L. japonicus. To facilitate mapping of the latter class of mutants, an introgression line, in which the har1-1 allele was introduced into a polymorphic background of L. japonicus ecotype MG20, was constructed...

  15. Allene oxide synthase, allene oxide cyclase and jasmonic acid levels in Lotus japonicus nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zdyb

    Full Text Available Jasmonic acid (JA, its derivatives and its precursor cis-12-oxo phytodienoic acid (OPDA form a group of phytohormones, the jasmonates, representing signal molecules involved in plant stress responses, in the defense against pathogens as well as in development. Elevated levels of JA have been shown to play a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza and in the induction of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In this study, the gene families of two committed enzymes of the JA biosynthetic pathway, allene oxide synthase (AOS and allene oxide cyclase (AOC, were characterized in the determinate nodule-forming model legume Lotus japonicus JA levels were to be analysed in the course of nodulation. Since in all L. japonicus organs examined, JA levels increased upon mechanical disturbance and wounding, an aeroponic culture system was established to allow for a quick harvest, followed by the analysis of JA levels in whole root and shoot systems. Nodulated plants were compared with non-nodulated plants grown on nitrate or ammonium as N source, respectively, over a five week-period. JA levels turned out to be more or less stable independently of the growth conditions. However, L. japonicus nodules formed on aeroponically grown plants often showed patches of cells with reduced bacteroid density, presumably a stress symptom. Immunolocalization using a heterologous antibody showed that the vascular systems of these nodules also seemed to contain less AOC protein than those of nodules of plants grown in perlite/vermiculite. Hence, aeroponically grown L. japonicus plants are likely to be habituated to stress which could have affected JA levels.

  16. Metabolic rates and biochemical compositions of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) tissue during periods of inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Wang, Fang; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Yunwei

    2010-03-01

    Estivation, hibernation, and starvation are indispensable inactive states of sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus in nature and in culture ponds. Generally, temperature is the principal factor that induces estivation or hibernation in the sea cucumber. The present study provided insight into the physiological adaptations of A. japonicus during the three types of inactivity (hibernation, estivation, and starvation) by measuring the oxygen consumption rates ( Vo2) and biochemical compositions under laboratory conditions of low (3°C), normal (17°C) and high (24°C) temperature. The results show that the characteristics of A. japonicus in dormancy (hibernation and estivation) states were quite different from higher animals, such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, but more closely resembled a semi-dormant state. It was observed that the shift in the A. japonicus physiological state from normal to dormancy was a chronic rather than acute process, indicated by the gradual depression of metabolic rate. While metabolic rates declined 44.9% for the estivation group and 71.7% for the hibernation group, relative to initial rates, during the 36 d culture period, metabolic rates were not maintained at constant levels during these states. The metabolic depression processes for sea cucumbers in hibernation and estivation appeared to be a passive and an active metabolic suppression, respectively. In contrast, the metabolic rates (128.90±11.70 μg/g h) of estivating sea cucumbers were notably higher (107.85±6.31 μg/g h) than in starving sea cucumbers at 17°C, which indicated that the dormancy mechanism here, as a physiological inhibition, was not as efficient as in higher animals. Finally, the principle metabolic substrate or energy source of sea cucumbers in hibernation was lipid, whereas in estivation they mainly consumed protein in the early times and both protein and lipid thereafter.

  17. First record of Neoergasilus japonicus (Poecilostomatoida: Ergasilidae), a parasitic copepod new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The parasitic copepod Neoergasilus japonicus, native to eastern Asia, was first collected from 4 species of fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus; and yellow perch, Perca flavescens) in July 1994 in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan. Further sampling in the bay in 2001 revealed infections on 7 additional species (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; carp, Cyprinus carpio; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; goldfish, Carassius auratus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris; and smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu). An additional 21 species examined in 2001 were devoid of the parasite. A limited collection of fish from Lake Superior (n = 8) and Lake Michigan (n = 46) in 1994 showed no infection. Neoergasilus japonicus is most frequently found attached to the dorsal fin and, in decreasing frequency, on the anal, tail, pelvic, and pectoral fins. Prevalence generally ranged from 15 to 70 and intensity from 1 to 10. The greatest number of copepods on a single host was 44. The copepod Neoergasilus japonicus appears to disperse over long distances rather quickly, spreading across Europe in 20 yr and then moving on to North America over a span of 10 yr. Its main vehicle of transport and introduction into the Great Lakes is probably exotic fish hosts associated with the fish-culture industry.

  18. Apoptosis induction is involved in UVA-induced autolysis in sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hang; Fu, Hui; Dong, Xiufang; Feng, Dingding; Li, Nan; Wen, Chengrong; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Zhu, Beiwei

    2016-05-01

    Autolysis easily happens to sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus, S. japonicus) for external stimulus like UV exposure causing heavy economic losses. Therefore, it is meaningful to reveal the mechanism of S. japonicas autolysis. In the present study, to examine the involvement of apoptosis induction in UVA-induced autolysis of S. japonicas, we investigated the biochemical events including the DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation and free radical formation. Substantial morphological changes such as intestine vomiting and dermatolysis were observed in S. japonicus during the incubation after 1-h UVA irradiation (10W/m(2)). The degradation of the structural proteins and enhancement of cathepsin L activity were also detected, suggesting the profound impact of proteolysis caused by the UVA irradiation even for 1h. Furthermore, the DNA fragmentation and specific activity of caspase-3 was increased up to 12h after UVA irradiation. The levels of phosphorylated p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated c-Jun.-N-terminal kinase (JNK) were significantly increased by the UVA irradiation for 1h. An electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis revealed that UVA enhanced the free radical formation in S. japonicas, even through we could not identify the attributed species. These results suggest that UVA-induced autolysis in S. japonicas at least partially involves the oxidative stress-sensitive apoptosis induction pathway. These data present a novel insight into the mechanisms of sea cucumber autolysis induced by external stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka during periods of inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rongbin; Zang, Yuanqi; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2013-03-01

    The growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, were investigated during periods of inactivity. The body weight, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A. japonicus were measured during starvation, experimental aestivation and aestivation. The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period ( P < 0.05). The OCR of sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments, but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment. The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments, whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment. The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24°C. To some extent, the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response. These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism of A. japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  20. Modulation of phenolic metabolism under stress conditions in a Lotus japonicus mutant lacking plastidic glutamine synthetase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita eGarcía-Calderón

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed to investigate the possible implications of the lack of plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2 in phenolic metabolism during stress responses in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Important changes in the transcriptome were detected in a GS2 mutant called Ljgln2-2, compared to the wild type, in response to two separate stress conditions, such as drought or the result of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Detailed transcriptomic analysis showed that the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds was affected in the mutant plants in these two different types of stress situations. For this reason, the genes and metabolites related to this metabolic route were further investigated using a combined approach of gene expression analysis and metabolite profiling. A high induction of the expression of several genes for the biosynthesis of different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic pathway was detected by qRT-PCR. The extent of induction was always higher in Ljgln2-2, probably reflecting the higher stress levels present in this genotype. This was paralleled by accumulation of several kaempferol and quercetine glycosides, some of them described for the first time in L. japonicus, and of high levels of the isoflavonoid vestitol. The results obtained indicate that the absence of GS2 affects different aspects of phenolic metabolism in L .japonicus plants in response to stress.

  1. Sterilization of Hulecoeteomyia japonica japonica (=Aedes japonicus japonicus) (Theobald, 1901) by high-energy photon irradiation: implications for a sterile insect technique approach in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrino, F.; Mathis, A.; Veronesi, E.; Lang, S.

    2017-01-01

    Hulecoeteomyia japonica japonica (=Aedes japonicus japonicus) (Diptera: Culicidae) (Theobald 1901), a container breeding invasive species in North America and Europe, is attracting particular attention for its high local abundances and possible roles in the transmission of human and animal pathogens. The preferential habitats of this species are forested and bushy areas, which renders control measures extremely inefficient. Use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) may contribute to the implementation of area-wide integrated pest management strategies, as has been successfully proven with other aedine mosquito species. The present study investigates the effects of irradiation at a dose of 40 Gy on fitness parameters in H. j. japonica. Irradiation was performed on 16–24- h-old pupae from a colonized strain (PA) using a True- Beam linear accelerator. Males from the PA strain were crossed with females of the same colony or with field-collected females. Irradiation induced a slight increase in mortality in male pupae, but did not alter the survival and mating abilities of emerging adult males. Rates of blood feeding and fertility were lower when PA strain males were kept with field-collected females rather than PA females. Irradiated males induced reductions in fertility (residual fertility: 2.6%) and fecundity in mated females. The data indicate that the SIT is a suitable technique to enhance the control of this species. (author)

  2. Lipid composition of Evonimus japonicus L., Piracanttia coccinea L. and Amelanchier cannadensis L. seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanov, M.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid composition of Evonimus japonicus L., Piracantha coccinea L. and Amelanchier cannadensis L. seed oils. The seeds of Evonimus japonicus L., Piracantha coccinea L. and Amelanchier cannadensis L. contained 45.4%, 3.7% and 7.2% oil respectively. Oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids predominated in the triacylglycerols. The content of phospholipids in the oils, mainly phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acids was 1.1%, 7.5% and 2.8% respectively. The sterols amounts were found to be 0.4% in Evonimus japonicus L oil, 0.6% in Piracantha coccinea L. oil and 0.9% in Amelanchier cannadensis L. oil. β-Sitosterol was the main component in all oils. Campesterol, stigmasterol, brassicasterol, cholesterol, 7-estigmasterol, Δ7,25-estigmasterol, Δ5-avenasterol and Δ7-avenasterol were identified in small quantities too. All of the tocopherols were identified in the oils.

    El contenido en aceite de las semillas Evonimus japonicus L., Piracantha coccinea L. y Amelanchier cannadensis L. y Amelancliier cannadensis L fue del 45,4%, 3,7% y 7,2% respectivamente. Los ácidos oleico, linoleico y palmítico predominaron en los triacilgliceroles. El contenido de fosfolípidos en los aceites, principalmente fosfatidilcolina, fosfatidilinositol, fosfatidiletanolamina y ácidos fosfatídicos fue del 1,1 %, 7,5% y 2,8% respectivamente. Las cantidades de esteroles encontradas fueron del 0,4% en el aceite de Evonimus japonicus L, 0,6% en el aceite de Piracantha coccinea L y 0,9% en el aceite de Amelanchier cannadensis L. El componente principal en todos los aceites fue el β-sitosterol. Se identificaron también en pequeñas cantidades campesterol, estigmasterol, brasicasterol, colesterol, Δ7-estigmasterol, Δ7,25-estigmasterol, Δ5-avenasterol y

  3. Antioxidative-related genes expression following perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure in the intertidal mud crab, Macrophthalmus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiyun; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Kwak, Tae-Soo; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2015-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent environmental contaminant that is used as a surfactant in various industries and consumer products. The intertidal mud crab, Macrophthalmus japonicus, is one of the most abundant macrobenthic creatures. In this study, we have investigated the effect of PFOS on the molecular transcription of antioxidant and detoxification signaling in M. japonicus crab. The selected stress response genes were superoxide dismutases (CuZnSOD and MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx), peroxiredoxin (Prx), and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Significant up-regulation of SODs and CAT was observed after 24 and 96 h exposure to PFOS at different concentrations. The gene expression levels of GPx, PHGPx, and TrXR were significantly up-regulated after exposure to PFOS for 96 h. The transcript levels of CAT and PHGPx were induced in dose- and time-dependent manners after PFOS treatments. However, Prx gene expression was significantly up-regulated in M. japonicus crabs exposed to 10 and 30 μg L-1 PFOS for 96 h. Additionally, PFOS toxicity in M. japonicus induced reduced survival rates at relatively high concentrations of PFOS exposure. Our findings support the contention that exposures to PFOS induced the response of genes related to oxidative stress and detoxification in M. japonicus crabs.

  4. Effect of Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 supplemented in diets on growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fajun; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-10-01

    The effect of a potential probiotic on the growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) was investigated. Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 isolated from sea cucumber culturing ponds was added to sea cucumber basal feed as a probiotic in different doses (0, the control; 1×104 (YD134), 1×106 (YD136) and 1×108 (YD138) CFU g-1 of diet), and administered orally to A. japonicus (initial mean wet weight 5.44 g ± 0.17 g). The sea cucumbers were fed in 20 aquaria, 5 each treatment, for 60 d. At the end of growth trial, 20 sea cucumbers from each treatment were challenged with Vibrio splendidus. A. japonicus in YD134 and YD136 exhibited significantly better growth performance than control ( P catalase in coelomic fluid were measured to evaluate the immune response of A. japonicus to the probiotics. Results showed that all parameters were significantly improved when YD11 was supplemented in the dose of 1×106 CFU g-1 ( P < 0.05). The cumulative incidence and mortality after the Vibrio splendidus challenge decreased significantly in sea cucumbers of YD136. Accordingly, 1×106 CFU g-1 of YD13 in diet was recommended for the growth promotion and immune enhancement of A. japonicus.

  5. Identification of the geographical origins of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in northern China by using stable isotope ratios and fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xufeng; Liu, Yu; Li, Ying; Zhao, Xinda

    2017-03-01

    Geographic traceability is an important issue for food quality and safety control of seafood. In this study,δ 13 C and δ 15 N values, as well as fatty acid (FA) content of 133 samples of A. japonicus from seven sampling points in northern China Sea were determined to evaluate their applicability in the origin traceability of A. japonicus. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied to different data sets in order to evaluate their performance in terms of classification or predictive ability. δ 13 C and δ 15 N values could effectively discriminate between different origins of A. japonicus. Significant differences in the FA compositions showed the effectiveness of FA composition as a tool for distinguishing between different origins of A. japonicus. The two technologies, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, can be promising methods to discriminate A. japonicus from different geographical areas. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Parasitism of Argulus japonicus in cultured and wild fish of Guangdong, China with new record of three hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsarakibi, Muhamd; Wadeh, Hicham; Li, Guoqing

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate the ability of Argulus japonicus to infect a wide range of freshwater fishes, as well as to understand the effects of fish origin and host body size on the incidence of A. japonicus. Samples of cultured and wild fish were collected randomly from July 2010 to March 2013, using angling, long-lining, gill-netting, and trapping from rivers and fish farms in Guangdong province, South China. Eight fish species were found to be heavily infected including the common carp, the goldfish, the black carp, the silver carp, the brown trout, the rainbow trout, the mandarin fish, and the perch. Furthermore, the black carp, the brown trout, and the mandarin fish were recorded as new hosts for the first time. During the present study, a total of 2,271 fishes were examined, out of which 712 fishes were found to be infected by a total of 1,443 A. japonicus. Abundance and intensity of A. japonicus infection were significantly influenced by origin of fishes (cultured and wild) and total length (class I, 350 mm) of fish species, whereas varied impacts on prevalence of infection were observed. The correlation between total length of fishes and prevalence of A. japonicus infection was variable, where no significant correlation was observed in the black carp, the silver carp, the mandarin fish, and the perch. In spite of the weak negative correlation between body size of the silver carp and prevalence of infection, A. japonicus was the most abundant and intensive in the silver carp. Thus, aquaculturists should pay particular attention to the control of these fish lice due to its host biodiversity.

  7. Biosynthesis of the Nitrile Glucosides Rhodiocyanoside A and D and the Cyanogenic Glucosides Lotaustralin and Linamarin in Lotus japonicus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Karin; Morant, Marc; Jørgensen, Bodil; Olsen, Carl Erik; Asamizu, Erika; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Bak, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Lotus japonicus was shown to contain the two nitrile glucosides rhodiocyanoside A and rhodiocyanoside D as well as the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin. The content of cyanogenic and nitrile glucosides in L. japonicus depends on plant developmental stage and tissue. The cyanide potential is highest in young seedlings and in apical leaves of mature plants. Roots and seeds are acyanogenic. Biosynthetic studies using radioisotopes demonstrated that lotaustralin, rhodiocyanoside A, and rhodiocyanoside D are derived from the amino acid l-Ile, whereas linamarin is derived from Val. In silico homology searches identified two cytochromes P450 designated CYP79D3 and CYP79D4 in L. japonicus. The two cytochromes P450 are 94% identical at the amino acid level and both catalyze the conversion of Val and Ile to the corresponding aldoximes in biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides and nitrile glucosides in L. japonicus. CYP79D3 and CYP79D4 are differentially expressed. CYP79D3 is exclusively expressed in aerial parts and CYP79D4 in roots. Recombinantly expressed CYP79D3 and CYP79D4 in yeast cells showed higher catalytic efficiency with l-Ile as substrate than with l-Val, in agreement with lotaustralin and rhodiocyanoside A and D being the major cyanogenic and nitrile glucosides in L. japonicus. Ectopic expression of CYP79D2 from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) in L. japonicus resulted in a 5- to 20-fold increase of linamarin content, whereas the relative amounts of lotaustralin and rhodiocyanoside A/D were unaltered. PMID:15122013

  8. Biosynthesis of the nitrile glucosides rhodiocyanoside A and D and the cyanogenic glucosides lotaustralin and linamarin in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Karin; Morant, Marc; Jørgensen, Bodil; Olsen, Carl Erik; Asamizu, Erika; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Bak, Søren

    2004-05-01

    Lotus japonicus was shown to contain the two nitrile glucosides rhodiocyanoside A and rhodiocyanoside D as well as the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin. The content of cyanogenic and nitrile glucosides in L. japonicus depends on plant developmental stage and tissue. The cyanide potential is highest in young seedlings and in apical leaves of mature plants. Roots and seeds are acyanogenic. Biosynthetic studies using radioisotopes demonstrated that lotaustralin, rhodiocyanoside A, and rhodiocyanoside D are derived from the amino acid l-Ile, whereas linamarin is derived from Val. In silico homology searches identified two cytochromes P450 designated CYP79D3 and CYP79D4 in L. japonicus. The two cytochromes P450 are 94% identical at the amino acid level and both catalyze the conversion of Val and Ile to the corresponding aldoximes in biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides and nitrile glucosides in L. japonicus. CYP79D3 and CYP79D4 are differentially expressed. CYP79D3 is exclusively expressed in aerial parts and CYP79D4 in roots. Recombinantly expressed CYP79D3 and CYP79D4 in yeast cells showed higher catalytic efficiency with l-Ile as substrate than with l-Val, in agreement with lotaustralin and rhodiocyanoside A and D being the major cyanogenic and nitrile glucosides in L. japonicus. Ectopic expression of CYP79D2 from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) in L. japonicus resulted in a 5- to 20-fold increase of linamarin content, whereas the relative amounts of lotaustralin and rhodiocyanoside A/D were unaltered.

  9. Determination of stable carbon isotope compositions in individual amino acids of anchovy engraulis japonicus by GC-C-IRMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haizhen; Cai Deling; Zhang Longjun

    2005-01-01

    The stable carbon isotope compositions of individual amino acids in muscle tissues of the anchovy, Engraulis japonicus, a key species of animal in the Yellow and the East China Sea ecosystem, were determined by the gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Eleven amino acid compounds were identified and their δ( 13 C) values were successfully measured. The new ability to measure stable carbon isotope compositions of individual amino acids offers a potential method for understanding digest, absorption and metabolism of anchovy, Engraulis japonicus, pathway of carbon transfer through food web and evaluating trophic quality of diet. (authors)

  10. Seasonal changes in food uptake by the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in a farm pond: Evidence from C and N stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenlong; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Shin, Paul K. S.; Wang, Fang

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the seasonal changes in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope values of several typical food sources of Apostichopus japonicus in a farm pond, including particulate organic matter (POM), macroalgae, benthic microalgae and animals such as nematode and copepod. The stable isotope technique was used to quantify relative contributions of various sources to the food uptake by A. japonicus. The results showed that significant changes occurred in the C and N stable isotope values of sea cucumber food sources due to the seasonality of micro- or macroalgae prosperity and the fluctuation of environmental conditions. The sea cucumber A. japonicus exhibited corresponding alterations in feeding strategy in response to the changes in food conditions. Calculation with a stable isotope mixing model showed that macroalgae was the principal food source for A. japonicus throughout the 1-yr investigation, with the relative contribution averaging 28.1%-63.2%. The relative contributions of other food sources such as copepod and nematode, POM, benthic microalgae to the total food uptake by sea cucumber averaged 22.6%-39.1%, 6.3% -22.2%, 2.8%-6.5%, and 2.8%-4.2%, respectively. Together these results indicated that the seasonal changes in food sources led to the obvious temporal differences in the relative contribution of various food sources utilized by A. japonicus. Such findings provide the basic scientific information for improving the aquaculture techniques of A. japonicus, particularly for optimizing the food environment of A. japonicus culture in farm ponds.

  11. Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaji, Y; Kishida, M; Watanabe, Y; Kawamura, T; Xie, S; Yamashita, Y; Sassa, C; Tsukamoto, Y

    2010-10-01

    Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles were investigated. Under transmitted light, translucent (W(t)) and opaque otoliths (W(o)) were detected in juveniles collected from Wakasa Bay between July 2005 and April 2006, whereas only opaque otoliths (G(o)) were detected in Goto-nada Sea individuals between May and June 2006. Three groups of juveniles were distinguished based on differences in hatch season, otolith size and growth history, and body morphometrics. As T. japonicus has different spawning seasons according to spawning grounds, each group was estimated to hatch in different waters. Juveniles with W(t) otoliths were considered to have stayed in coastal habitat longer, as the hatch area was estimated to be near Wakasa Bay. Juveniles with W(o) and G(o) otoliths appear to recruit to coastal waters at larger size, since their hatch areas were estimated to be far from each collection area. Larger otoliths of W(t) were attributed to otolith accretion after the second growth flexion, which was observed only for W(t) . Standard length of W(t) fish at the second otolith growth flexion was estimated to correspond to recruitment size to coastal rocky reefs in Wakasa Bay. Body morphometrics were correlated with otolith size after removing body size effect, suggesting that morphological variations of T. japonicus juveniles were also associated with the timing of recruitment to coastal habitat. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Effects of methoprene on oviposition by Aedes japonicus and Culex spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, M.; Suom, C.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gettman, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    The mosquito larvicide methoprene is a juvenile growth hormone mimic that is widely used to control mosquitoes. This chemical disrupts normal mosquito development, drastically inhibiting emergence from the pupal to the adult stage. If the presence of methoprene attracts or deters mosquitoes from ovipositing it could have implications for mosquito control. This study evaluates whether methoprene attracts or deters mosquitoes likely to oviposit in catch basins. In a field experiment, methoprene formulated as liquid larvicide did not affect oviposition of either Culex spp. or Aedes japonicus in 19 liter plastic buckets.

  13. Frontal glands in the pseudoscolex of Paraechinophallus japonicus (Yamaguti, 1934) (Cestoda, Bothriocephalidea, Echinophallidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poddubnaya, L. G.; Scholz, Tomáš; Levron, Céline; Kuchta, Roman; Gibson, D. I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2007), s. 325-334 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR GP524/07/P039; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cestoda * Bothriocephalidea * Paraechinophallus japonicus * psudescolex * frontal glands * tumuli * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.814, year: 2007

  14. The evolution of plant chemical defence - new roles for hydroxynitrile glucosides in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Camilla

    Plants are sessile organisms well-known to produce a vast array of chemical compounds of which many are used in chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens. The biosynthesis of these plant chemical defence compounds poses a considerable risk of self-toxicity for the plant itself. Several...... function and evolution. Further, it contributes to our understanding of the formation and role of biosynthetic gene clusters in plant chemical defence. The bifurcation in hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis and catabolism observed in Lotus japonicus makes it a very suitable model system to study...

  15. Anti-obesity effects of chikusetsusaponins isolated from Panax japonicus rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuda Hiromichi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rhizomes of Panax japonicus are used as a folk medicine for treatment of life-style related diseases such as arteriosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus as a substitute for ginseng roots in China and Japan. Obesity is closely associated with life-style-related diseases. This study was performed to clarify whether chikusetsusaponins prevent obesity induced in mice by a high-fat diet for 9 weeks. Methods We performed two in vivo experiments. In one, female ICR mice were fed a high-fat diet with or without 1 or 3% chikusetsusaponins isolated from P. japonicus rhizomes for 9 weeks. In the other, lipid emulsion with or without chikusetsusaponins was administered orally to male Wistar rats, and then the plasma triacylglycerol level was measured 0.5 to 5 h after the orally administered lipid emulsion. For in vitro experiments, the inhibitory effects of total chikusetsusaponins and various purified chikusetsusaponins on pancreatic lipase activity were determined by measuring the rate of release of oleic acid from triolein in an assay system using triolein emulsified with lecithin. Results Total chikusetsusaponins prevented the increases in body weight and parametrial adipose tissue weight induced by a high-fat diet. Furthermore, consumption of a high-fat diet containing 1 or 3% total chikusetsusaponins significantly increased the fecal content and triacylglycerol level at day 3 compared with the high-fat diet groups. Total chikusetsusaponins inhibited the elevation of the plasma triacylglycerol level 2 h after the oral administration of the lipid emulsion. Total chikusetsusaponins, chikusetsusaponin III, 28-deglucosyl-chikusetsusaponin IV and 28-deglucosyl-chikusetsusaponin V inhibited the pancreatic lipase activity. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of chikusetsusaponins isolated from P. japonicus rhizomes in mice fed a high-fat diet may be partly mediated through delaying the

  16. Dihydroagarofuranoid Sesquiterpenes as Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors from Celastraceae Plants: Maytenus disticha and Euonymus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Julio; Cespedes, Carlos L; Muñoz, Evelyn; Balbontin, Cristian; Valdes, Francisco; Gutierrez, Margarita; Astudillo, Luis; Seigler, David S

    2015-12-02

    Natural cholinesterase inhibitors have been found in many biological sources. Nine compounds with agarofuran (epoxyeudesmane) skeletons were isolated from seeds and aerial parts of Maytenus disticha and Euonymus japonicus. The identification and structural elucidation of compounds were based on spectroscopic data analyses. All compounds had inhibitory acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. These natural compounds, which possessed mixed or uncompetitive mechanisms of inhibitory activity against AChE, may be considered as models for the design and development of new naturally occurring drugs for management strategies for neurodegenerative diseases. This is the first report of these chemical structures for seeds of M. disticha.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the larvae Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus (Clupeiformes, Engraulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Xian, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the larvae Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus collected from Yangtze estuary was determined by next-generation sequencing. The mitogenome is a circular molecule16,675 bp in length, including the typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region. The TAS, central CSB and CSB were detected in the control region. The gene contents of the mitogenome are identical to those observed in most bony fishes.

  18. Ontogeny of turbiditaxis in hatchery-reared Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, R; Masuda, R; Yamashita, Y

    2018-02-26

    The ontogenetic change in turbiditaxis (i.e. attraction to turbid waters) was examined in the larvae and juveniles of Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus by testing three levels of turbidity (0, 20 and 100 ppm of kaolin). Larvae of 12, 20 and 30 mm standard length (L S ) exhibited turbiditaxis to both 20 and 100 ppm of kaolin, whereas 6 mm L S larvae and 45 mm L S juveniles did not exhibit any turbiditaxis. Turbiditaxis might explain the ontogenetic habitat shift from coastal to offshore waters reported for this species. © 2018 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Lotus japonicus nodulation requires two GRAS domain regulators, one of which is functionally conserved in a non-legume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Lombardo, Fabien; Miwa, Hiroki

    2006-01-01

    A new nodulation-defective mutant of Lotus japonicus does not initiate nodule cortical cell division in response to Mesorhizobium loti, but induces root hair deformation, Nod factor-induced calcium spiking, and mycorrhization. This phenotype, together with mapping data, suggested that the mutation...... could be in the ortholog of the Medicago truncatula NSP1 gene (MtNSP1). The sequence of the orthologous gene (LjNSP1) in the L. japonicus mutant (Ljnsp1-1) revealed a mutation causing a premature stop resulting in loss of the C-terminal 23 amino acids. We also sequenced the NSP2 gene from L. japonicus...

  20. Presymbiotic factors released by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita induce starch accumulation in Lotus japonicus roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutjahr, Caroline; Novero, Mara; Guether, Mike; Montanari, Ombretta; Udvardi, Michael; Bonfante, Paola

    2009-01-01

    * Nutrient exchange is the key symbiotic feature of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). As evidence is accumulating that plants sense presymbiotic factors from AM fungi and prepare for colonization, we investigated whether modifications in plant sugar metabolism might be part of the precolonization program. * Inoculation of Lotus japonicus roots in a double Millipore sandwich with the AM fungus Gigaspora margarita prevented contact between the symbionts but allowed exchange of signal molecules. Starch content was used as a marker for root carbohydrate status. * Mycorrhizal colonization of L. japonicus roots led to a decrease in starch concentration. In roots inoculated in the double sandwich, the polysaccharide accumulated after 1 wk and persisted for at least 4 wk. The response was absent in the castor myc(-) mutant, sym4-2, while transcript levels of both CASTOR and POLLUX were slightly enhanced in the wild-type L. japonicus roots, suggesting a requirement of the corresponding proteins for the starch-accumulation response. Exudates obtained from fungal spores germinated in the absence of the plant also induced starch accumulation in wild-type L. japonicus roots. * We conclude that factors released from germinating AM fungal spores induce changes in the root carbon status, possibly by enhancing sugar import, which leads to starch accumulation when colonization is prevented.

  1. Effect of salinity on acute copper and zinc toxicity to Tigriopus japonicus: the difference between metal ions and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junbeom; Kim, Soyoun; Yoo, Jisu; Lee, Jae-Seong; Park, June-Woo; Jung, Jinho

    2014-08-30

    We investigated the effects of salinity (5‰, 15‰, 25‰ and 35‰) on metal ion (Cu and Zn) and nanoparticle (NP) CuO and ZnO toxicity to Tigriopus japonicus. Increasing the test media volume without renewal increased the 96-h LC50 for Cu (32.75 mg L(-1)) compared to the reported value (3.9 mg L(-1)). There was no significant difference in acute toxicity at different salinities between acclimated and unacclimated T. japonicus (p>0.05). Increasing salinity decreased the dissolved concentrations of Cu and Zn ions due to the precipitation of the metal ions, consequently reducing the acute toxicity to T. japonicus. The effect of salinity on acute CuO and ZnO NP toxicity was similar to that on metal ion toxicity. Since the aggregation of NPs generally enhanced at higher salinities, both the dissolution and aggregation of CuO and ZnO NPs may control the effect of salinity on acute toxicity to T. japonicus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lotus japonicus flowers are defended by a cyanogenic β-glucosidase with highly restricted expression to essential reproductive organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniela; Pičmanová, Martina; Abou Hachem, Maher; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Rook, Fred; Takos, Adam M

    2015-09-01

    Flowers and leaves of Lotus japonicus contain α-, β-, and γ-hydroxynitrile glucoside (HNG) defense compounds, which are bioactivated by β-glucosidase enzymes (BGDs). The α-HNGs are referred to as cyanogenic glucosides because their hydrolysis upon tissue disruption leads to release of toxic hydrogen cyanide gas, which can deter herbivore feeding. BGD2 and BGD4 are HNG metabolizing BGD enzymes expressed in leaves. Only BGD2 is able to hydrolyse the α-HNGs. Loss of function mutants of BGD2 are acyanogenic in leaves but fully retain cyanogenesis in flowers pointing to the existence of an alternative cyanogenic BGD in flowers. This enzyme, named BGD3, is identified and characterized in this study. Whereas all floral tissues contain α-HNGs, only those tissues in which BGD3 is expressed, the keel and the enclosed reproductive organs, are cyanogenic. Biochemical analysis, active site architecture molecular modelling, and the observation that L. japonicus accessions lacking cyanogenic flowers contain a non-functional BGD3 gene, all support the key role of BGD3 in floral cyanogenesis. The nectar of L. japonicus flowers was also found to contain HNGs and additionally their diglycosides. The observed specialisation in HNG based defence in L. japonicus flowers is discussed in the context of balancing the attraction of pollinators with the protection of reproductive structures against herbivores.

  3. Organization and expression of genes in the genomic region surrounding the glutamine synthetase gene Gln1 from Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thykjaer, T; Danielsen, D; She, Q

    1997-01-01

    The diploid Lotus japonicus was previously suggested as a model for the legume plant family. We present here the nucleotide sequence and the derived gene organization of a small part of the genome in this model plant. Two functional genes with the same transcriptional orientation were identified...

  4. Effect of food on specific dynamic action (SDA) of green and red types of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Jiang, Hongbo; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli

    2017-10-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA), the energy expended on all physiological processes that is associated with meal digestion and absorption, is strongly affected by food type. Effects of formulated diet (FMD), macroalgae (ALG) and sea mud (SMD) diets on the postprandial metabolic response of the green type and the red type of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were studied in order to understand their feeding physiology. Food offered to A. japonicus was different in protein, lipid content and energy but not in meal mass. SDA of A. japonicus resulted in a 1.3-2.7 folds of increase in oxygen consumption that can persist for up to 4.8-31.7 h after digesting three different diets. In a given type of sea cucumber, the magnitude of SDA was the highest when fed with FMD, medium with ALG, and the lowest with SMD, which is probably due to the differences in diet components and protein contents. The red type sea cucumber showed greater SDA magnitude than the green type with each diet treatment, which might result from the difference in factorial scope between the two types of sea cucumber. However, the smallest magnitude or even no difference was observed between the two types of A. japonicus in SMD group, perhaps owing to the poor nutrition and digestion of sea mud.

  5. Characterization of tyrosinase inhibitory constituents from the aerial parts of Humulus japonicus using LC-MS/MS coupled online assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyo Hee; Oh, Kyung-Eon; Jo, Yang Hee; Ahn, Jong Hoon; Liu, Qing; Turk, Ayman; Jang, Jae Young; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Ki Yong; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2018-01-15

    In the screening of natural products for the development as cosmetic ingredients, the EtOAc-soluble fraction of Humulus japonicus showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity. HPLC-MS/MS coupled online tyrosinase assay of EtOAc-soluble fraction of H. japonicus characterized the twenty-eight constituents including two unknown ones and their tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Fractionation of H. japonicus using various chromatographic techniques yielded thirty-eight compounds. The chemical structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. As characterized by HPLC-MS/MS analysis, we isolated twenty-four predicted compounds and further identified two unknown ones, named humulusides A (1) and B (2). Additional ten compounds were also identified by purification. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity of isolated compounds were evaluated, which was closely correlated with the results from HPLC-MS/MS coupled online tyrosinase assay. Consistent with predicted data, two major compounds, trans-N-coumaroyltyramine (14) and cis-N-coumaroyltyramine (15) showed tyrosinase inhibition with IC 50 values of 40.6 and 36.4 μM. Taken together, H. japonicus is suggested as whitening ingredient in cosmetic products. In addition, HPLC-MS/MS coupled tyrosinase assay is powerful tool for predicting active compounds with short time and limited amounts, although identification of new compounds and verification of predicted data are also needs to be demonstrated by further experiment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phoretic mites and their hyperphoretic fungi associated with flying Ips typographus japonicus Niijima (Col., Scolytidae) in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Moser; T.J. Perry; K. Furuta

    1997-01-01

    Flying Ips typographus japonicus from Hokkaido (Japan) carried 12 species of phoretic mites, three of which were not previously recorded in Europe. The mite biologies were diverse, including specialists feeding on microorganisms, beetle eggs, and nematodes which were common under beetle elytra. Hyperphoretic on these mites were seven distinct species of fungal spores...

  7. Effects of stomatal development on stomatal conductance and on stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in Syringa oblata and Euonymus japonicus Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing-Jie; Chow, Wah Soon; Liu, Yu-Jun; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Chuang-Dao

    2014-12-01

    During leaf development, the increase in stomatal conductance cannot meet photosynthetic demand for CO2, thus leading to stomatal limitation of photosynthesis (Ls). Considering the crucial influences of stomatal development on stomatal conductance, we speculated whether stomatal development limits photosynthesis to some extent. To test this hypothesis, stomatal development, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis were carefully studied in both Syringa oblata (normal greening species) and Euonymus japonicus Thunb (delayed greening species). Our results show that the size of stomata increased gradually with leaf expansion, resulting in increased stomatal conductance up to the time of full leaf expansion. During this process, photosynthesis also increased steadily. Compared to that in S. oblata, the development of chloroplasts in E. japonicus Thunb was obviously delayed, leading to a delay in the improvement of photosynthetic capacity. Further analysis revealed that before full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation increased rapidly in both S. oblata and E. japonicus Thunb; after full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation continually increased in E. japonicus Thunb. Accordingly, we suggested that the enhancement of photosynthetic capacity is the main factor leading to stomatal limitation during leaf development but that stomatal development can alleviate stomatal limitation with the increase of photosynthesis by controlling gas exchange. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in pyridine metabolism profile during growth of trigonelline-forming Lotus japonicus cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuling; Matsui, Ayu; Sakuta, Masaaki; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    Changes in the profile of pyridine metabolism during growth of cells were investigated using trigonelline-forming suspension-cultured cells of Lotus japonicus. Activity of the de novo and salvage pathways of NAD biosynthesis was estimated from the in situ metabolism of [(3)H] quinolinic acid and [(14)C] nicotinamide. Maximum activity of the de novo pathway for NAD synthesis was found in the exponential growth phase, whereas activity of the salvage pathway was increased in the lag phase of cell growth. Expression profiles of some genes related to pyridine metabolism were examined using the expression sequence tags obtained from the L. japonicus database. Transcript levels of NaPRT and NIC, encoding salvage enzymes, were enhanced in the lag phase of cell growth, whereas the maximum expression of NADS was found in the exponential growth phase. Correspondingly, the activities of the salvage enzymes, nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.11) and nicotinamidase (EC 3.5.1.19), increased one day after transfer of the stationary phase cells to the fresh medium. The greatest in situ trigonelline synthesis, both from [(3)H] quinolinic acid and [(14)C] nicotinamide, was found in the stationary phase of cell growth. The role of trigonelline in leguminous plants is discussed.

  9. Mechanical stress induces neuroendocrine and immune responses of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jie; Li, Fenghui; Sun, Huiling; Gao, Fei; Yan, Jingping; Gai, Chunlei; Chen, Aihua; Wang, Qingyin

    2015-04-01

    Grading procedure in routine sea cucumber hatchery production is thought to affect juvenile sea cucumber immunological response. The present study investigated the impact of a 3-min mechanical perturbation mimicking the grading procedure on neuroendocrine and immune parameters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. During the application of stress, concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine in coelomic fluid increased significantly, indicating that the mechanical perturbation resulted in a transient state of stress in sea cucumbers. Coelomocytes concentration in coelomic fluid increased transiently after the beginning of stressing, and reached the maximum in 1 h. Whereas, coelomocytes phagocytosis at 3 min, superoxide anion production from 3 min to 0.5 h, acid phosphatase activity at 0.5 h, and phenoloxidase activity from 3 min to 0.5 h were all significantly down-regulated. All of the immune parameters recovered to baseline levels after the experiment was conducted for 8 h, and an immunostimulation occurred after the stress considering the phagocytosis and acid phosphatase activity. The results suggested that, as in other marine invertebrates, neuroendocrine/immune connections exist in sea cucumber A. japonicus. Mechanical stress can elicit a profound influence on sea cucumber neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrine messengers act in turn to modulate the immunity functions. Therefore, these effects should be considered for developing better husbandry procedures.

  10. Lotus Base: An integrated information portal for the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Terry; Bachmann, Asger; Gupta, Vikas; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig U

    2016-12-23

    Lotus japonicus is a well-characterized model legume widely used in the study of plant-microbe interactions. However, datasets from various Lotus studies are poorly integrated and lack interoperability. We recognize the need for a comprehensive repository that allows comprehensive and dynamic exploration of Lotus genomic and transcriptomic data. Equally important are user-friendly in-browser tools designed for data visualization and interpretation. Here, we present Lotus Base, which opens to the research community a large, established LORE1 insertion mutant population containing an excess of 120,000 lines, and serves the end-user tightly integrated data from Lotus, such as the reference genome, annotated proteins, and expression profiling data. We report the integration of expression data from the L. japonicus gene expression atlas project, and the development of tools to cluster and export such data, allowing users to construct, visualize, and annotate co-expression gene networks. Lotus Base takes advantage of modern advances in browser technology to deliver powerful data interpretation for biologists. Its modular construction and publicly available application programming interface enable developers to tap into the wealth of integrated Lotus data. Lotus Base is freely accessible at: https://lotus.au.dk.

  11. Two Lotus japonicus symbiosis mutants impaired at distinct steps of arbuscule development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Martin; Kosuta, Sonja; Gutjahr, Caroline; Haage, Kristina; Hardel, Simone Liesel; Schaub, Miriam; Brachmann, Andreas; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Findlay, Kim; Wang, Trevor L; Parniske, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi form nutrient-acquiring symbioses with the majority of higher plants. Nutrient exchange occurs via arbuscules, highly branched hyphal structures that are formed within root cortical cells. With a view to identifying host genes involved in AM development, we isolated Lotus japonicus AM-defective mutants via a microscopic screen of an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population. A standardized mapping procedure was developed that facilitated positioning of the defective loci on the genetic map of L. japonicus, and, in five cases, allowed identification of mutants of known symbiotic genes. Two additional mutants representing independent loci did not form mature arbuscules during symbiosis with two divergent AM fungal species, but exhibited signs of premature arbuscule arrest or senescence. Marker gene expression patterns indicated that the two mutants are affected in distinct steps of arbuscule development. Both mutants formed wild-type-like root nodules upon inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti, indicating that the mutated loci are essential during AM but not during root nodule symbiosis. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Evolution of crop production under a pseudo-space environment using model plants, Lotus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Motohashi, Kyohei; Omi, Naomi; Sato, Seigo; Aoki, Toshio; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We have been studying space agriculture and/or spacecraft agriculture to provide food and oxygen for the habitation area in the space environment. However, careful investigation should be made concerning the results of exotic environmental effects on the endogenous production of biologically active substances in indi-vidual cultivated plants in a space environment. We have already reported that the production of functional substances in cultivated plants as crops are affected by gravity. The amounts of the main physiological substances in these plants grown under terrestrial control were different from that grown in a pseudo-microgravity. These results suggested that the nutrition would be changed in the plants/crops grown in the space environment when human beings eat in space. This estimation required us to investigate each of the useful components produced by each plant grown in the space environment. These estimations involved several study fields, includ-ing nutrition, plant physiology, etc. On the other hand, the analysis of model plant genomes has recently been remarkably advanced. Lotus japonicus, a leguminous plant, is also one of the model plant. The leguminosae is a large family in the plant vegetable kingdom and almost the entire genome sequence of Lotus japonicus has been determined. Nitrogen fixation would be possible even in a space environment. We are trying to determine the best conditions and evolution for crop production using the model plants.

  13. Histochemical localization and characterization of AKP, ACP, NSE, and POD from cultured Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiye; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Fengrong; Sun, Hushan

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the distribution of four enzymes involved in the immune response of Apostichopus japonicus. We collected samples of the tentacles, papillate podium, integument, respiratory tree, and digestive tract and stained them for acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), non-specific esterase (NSE) and peroxidase (POD) activity. The distribution and content of ACP, AKP, NSE, and POD differed among the tissues. The coelomic epithelium of the tentacle, papillate podium, and integument and the mucous layer of respiratory tree were positive for ACP activity. The coelomic epithelium and cuticular layer of the tentacle, papillate podium, and integument and the mucous layer and tunica externa of the respiratory tree and digestive tract stained positive or weakly positive for AKP activity. Almost all the epithelial tissues stained positive, strongly positive, or very strongly positive for NSE activity. The cuticular layer of the tentacle and integument and the mucous layer, tunica submucosa, and tunica externa of the respiratory tree and digestive tract stained positive for POD activity. We hypothesize that these enzymes play a role in the immune response in A. japonicus.

  14. [Use of entomopathogenic fungi to degrade wax secreted by Ceroplastes japonicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijuan; Xie, Yingping; Xue, Jiaoliang; Fan, Jinhua

    2013-05-04

    We used entomopathogenic fungi to degrade insect wax. We used four fungal strains, Lecanicilliurn lecanii V3. 4504, V3. 4505, Beauveria bassiana FDB01, and Metarhizium anisopliae TSL06. Wax coverings of female adults of Ceroplastes japonicus Green (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccoidea) were used as the sole carbon source in the mineral medium. All of the 4 strains could grow, reproduce, produce enzymes, and degrade wax. During a 7-day culture, the highest lipase activities of the 4 strains, V3. 4504, V3. 4505, FDB01, and TSL06 were 0.128 +/- 0.017, 0.056 +/- 0.002, 0.124 +/- 0.011, and 0.149 +/- 0.005 U/mL, respectively. The dehydrogenases activities of the 4 strains were 0.075 +/- 0.003, 0.074 +/- 0.003, 0.061 +/- 0.04, and 0. 066 +/- 0. 002 U/mL respectively. The degradation rates of wax by the 4 strains were 18.20 +/- 0.019, 11.00 +/- 0.011, 15.4 +/- 0.017, and 23.10 +/- 0.031%, respectively. The 4 strains could depredate wax of C. japonicus.

  15. Phylogeography of the sandy beach amphipod Haustorioides japonicus along the Sea of Japan: Paleogeographical signatures of cryptic regional divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Yoshitake; Sakuma, Kay; Fujii, Tetsuo; Kojima, Shigeaki

    2018-01-01

    Recent findings of genetic breaks within apparently continuous marine populations challenge the traditional vicariance paradigm in population genetics. Such "invisible" boundaries are sometimes associated with potential geographic barriers that have forced divergence of an ancestral population, habitat discontinuities, biogeographic disjunctions due to environmental gradients, or a combination of these factors. To explore the factors that influence the genetic population structure of apparently continuous populations along the Sea of Japan, the sandy beach amphipod Haustorioides japonicus was examined. We sampled a total of 300 individuals of H. japonicus from the coast of Japan, and obtained partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene. The sequences from 19 local populations were clustered into five groups (Northwestern Pacific, Northern, Central, Southern Sea of Japan, and East China Sea) based on a spatial genetic mixture analysis and a minimum-spanning network. AMOVA and pairwise Fst tests further supported the significant divergence of the five groups. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the relationship among the haplotypes of H. japonicus and outgroups, which inferred the northward range expansion of the species. A relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian analysis inferred the early-to middle-Pleistocene divergence of the populations. Among the five clusters, the Central Sea of Japan showed the highest values for genetic diversity indices indicating the existence of a relatively stable and large population there. The hypothesis is also supported by Bayesian Skyline Plots that showed sudden population expansion for all the clusters except for Central Sea of Japan. The present study shows genetic boundaries between the Sea of Japan and the neighboring seas, probably due to geographic isolation during the Pleistocene glacial periods. We further found divergence between the populations along the apparently continuous coast of the Sea of Japan. Historical changes in the

  16. Effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of the red sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Senhao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Ren, Yichao; Wang, Fang

    2015-05-01

    Three color variants of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are recognized, the red one is highly valued in the market. When the red variant is cultured in ponds in China, its body color changes from red to celadon in 3-6 months. The effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of this animal were investigated. Juveniles of red A. japonicus were cultured in cages suspended at a range of water depths (20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm). The specific growth rate of red sea cucumbers was significantly higher in animals cultured at deeper water layers compared with those grown at shallowers. Body weights were greatest for sea cucumbers cultured at a depth of 150 cm and their survival rates were highest at a depth of 200 cm. A scale to evaluate the color of red sea cucumbers ( R value) was developed using a Pantone standard color card. All stocked animals in the 9-month trial retained a red color, however the red body color was much more intense in sea cucumbers cultured at shallower depths, while animals suspended in deeper layers became pale. In a separate trial, A. japonicus were cultured in suspended cages with seven different colored substrates. Substrate color had a significant effect on the growth and body-color of red A. japonicus. The yield were greatest for A. japonicus cultured on a yellow substrate, followed by green > white > orange > red > black and blue. All sea cucumbers in the 7-month trial retained a red color, although the red was most intense (highest R value) in animals cultured on a blue substrate and pale (lowest R value) for animals cultured on a green substrate.

  17. Genome analysis methods: Lotus japonicus [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotus japonicus Draft 2n=12 472 Mb 2008 Sanger (Clone-based) ... 315.1 Mb 3-5x Parace...l Genome Assembler 954 110,940 Kazusa Annotation PipelinE for Lotus japonicus (KAPSEL) 37,971 (v2.5) KDRI; http://www.kazusa.or.jp/lotus/ v2.5 v2.5 10.1093/dnares/dsn008 18511435 ...

  18. Individual Apostichopus japonicus fecal microbiome reveals a link with polyhydroxybutyrate producers in host growth gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yohei; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Thompson, Fabiano L; Sakai, Yuichi; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-02-24

    Gut microbiome shapes various aspects of a host's physiology, but these functions in aquatic animal hosts have yet to be fully investigated. The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka is one such example. The large growth gap in their body size has delayed the development of intensive aquaculture, nevertheless the species is in urgent need of conservation. To understand possible contributions of the gut microbiome to its host's growth, individual fecal microbiome comparisons were performed. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing revealed significantly different microbiota in larger and smaller individuals; Rhodobacterales in particular was the most significantly abundant bacterial group in the larger specimens. Further shotgun metagenome of representative samples revealed a significant abundance of microbiome retaining polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) metabolism genes in the largest individual. The PHB metabolism reads were potentially derived from Rhodobacterales. These results imply a possible link between microbial PHB producers and potential growth promotion in Deuterostomia marine invertebrates.

  19. Proteome analysis of pod and seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup-Pedersen, G.; Dam, S.; Laursen, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    of the pod and seed proteomes in five developmental stages, paves the way for comparative pathway analysis and provides new metabolic information. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem-mass spectrometry. These analyses lead to the identification of 604 pod proteins and 965......Legume pods serve important functions during seed development and are themselves sources of food and feed. Compared to seeds, the metabolism and development of pods are not well-defined. The present characterization of pods from the model legume Lotus japonicus, together with the detailed analyses...... and photosynthesis. Proteins detected only in pods included three enzymes participating in the urea cycle and four in nitrogen and amino group metabolism, highlighting the importance of nitrogen metabolism during pod development. Additionally, five legume seed proteins previously unassigned in the glutamate...

  20. Global changes in transcription orchestrate metabolic differentiation during symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colebatch, Gillian; Desbrosses, Guilhem; Ott, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    from specific sets of induced genes. In addition to the expected signs of hypoxia, numerous indications were obtained that nodule cells also experience P-limitation and osmotic stress. Several potential regulators of these stress responses were identified. Metabolite profiling by gas chromatography......Research on legume nodule metabolism has contributed greatly to our knowledge of primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism in plants in general, and in symbiotic nitrogen fixation in particular. However, most previous studies focused on one or a few genes/enzymes involved in selected metabolic...... pathways in many different legume species. We utilized the tools of transcriptomics and metabolomics to obtain an unprecedented overview of the metabolic differentiation that results from nodule development in the model legume, Lotus japonicus. Using an array of more than 5000 nodule cDNA clones...

  1. The Proteome of Seed Development in the Model Legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S.; Ornfelt, Jane H.

    2009-01-01

    We have characterized the development of seeds in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Like soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum), Lotus develops straight seed pods and each pod contains approximately 20 seeds that reach maturity within 40 days. Histological sections show the characteristic...... three developmental phases of legume seeds and the presence of embryo, endosperm, and seed coat in desiccated seeds. Furthermore, protein, oil, starch, phytic acid, and ash contents were determined, and this indicates that the composition of mature Lotus seed is more similar to soybean than to pea......, and two convicilins, LCP1 and LCP2, were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. For two distinct developmental phases, seed filling and desiccation, a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach was used, and 665 and 181 unique...

  2. Characteristics of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus's population in the Sea of Japan (Kievka Bay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, G. S.; Sukhin, I. Yu.

    2011-06-01

    In Kievka Bay of the Sea of Japan, the population of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus inhabits the areas of coarse sediments and complex bottom topography. These distributional patterns are closely related to the species' ecology, i.e., to the demand for protection against the wave turbulence. The aggregationing coverage of the sea cucumber population is about 80 hectares, where ˜200 thousand animals were accounted for in the last years. The aggregation's area varies during the year, which is closely related to the species' biological peculiarities, such as their behavioral patterns and the redistribution of their food resources. A significant increase of the juvenile population occurred after the farm-reared sea cucumber spat were released in 2003.

  3. Histamine production by Enterobacter aerogenes in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus at various storage temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu ZOU

    Full Text Available Abstract Growth of Enterobacter aerogenes and accumulation of histamine in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus were investigated through measuring bacterial count, histidine decarboxylase (HDC activity and histamine content in fish samples stored at various temperatures from 4 to 37 °C. Results showed that bacterial count and HDC activity rapidly increased in chub mackerel inoculated with E. aerogenes at storage temperature above 20 °C and reached the highest values (8.64 log CFU/g and 31.68 U/g at 37 °C. Meanwhile, fish samples stored at 25 and 37 °C for 18 h, formed histamine at above 50 mg/100 g of the potential hazard level. In contrast, bacterial growth and histamine formation were controlled for 36 h by cold storage at low temperature (4 °C. Therefore, strict temperature control was necessary for preservation and processing of chub mackerel in order to assure this marine fish safety.

  4. Histamine production by Enterobacter aerogenes in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus at various storage temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu ZOU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Growth of Enterobacter aerogenes and accumulation of histamine in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus were investigated through measuring bacterial count, histidine decarboxylase (HDC activity and histamine content in fish samples stored at various temperatures from 4 to 37 °C. Results showed that bacterial count and HDC activity rapidly increased in chub mackerel inoculated with E. aerogenes at storage temperature above 20 °C and reached the highest values (8.64 log CFU/g and 31.68 U/g at 37 °C. Meanwhile, fish samples stored at 25 and 37 °C for 18 h, formed histamine at above 50 mg/100 g of the potential hazard level. In contrast, bacterial growth and histamine formation were controlled for 36 h by cold storage at low temperature (4 °C. Therefore, strict temperature control was necessary for preservation and processing of chub mackerel in order to assure this marine fish safety.

  5. New insight into hybridization and unidirectional introgression between Ammodytes japonicus and Ammodytes heian (Trachiniformes, Ammodytidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Koo Kim

    Full Text Available Based on northern (NOL and southern (SOL mitochondrial lineages, recently, it proposed the new species Ammodytes heian and revived the species name Ammodytes japonicus to describe sand lances from the northwestern Pacific Ocean. This study used molecular methods to investigate genetic relationships between the two sand lance species in Korea and Japan. In total, 154 specimens were collected from four locations in Korea (Baengnyeongdo in the Yellow Sea, Tongyeong in the Korean Strait, and Jumunjin and Gijang in the East Sea, and 50 specimens were collected from a single location in Japan (Wakkanai in the Okhotsk Sea. Mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated that the individuals from Baengnyeongdo and Tongyeong all belonged to the SOL, whereas those from Gijang, Jumunjin, and Wakkanai included individuals from both the NOL and SOL (over 75% NOL. Population structure analyses were performed on the same individuals using seven microsatellite DNA markers. The population structure analysis based on 201 specimens identified two clusters (named as northern group and southern group, with the admixture proportion (q of < 0.1 for the northern group in the Backyeongdo and Tongyeong sand lances and < 0.1 for the southern group in the Wakkanai sand lances. The high heterogeneity indicated that the former was probably A. japonicus and the latter probably A. heian. However, the admixture proportion in the Jumunjin and Gijang sand lances was 0.71-0.75 for the southern group, indicating that hybridization and unidirectional introgression from SOL to NOL occurs in southwestern margin of the East Sea. Our findings illustrate the speciation process based on different patterns of gene flow between Korean and Japanese sand lance, which is strongly influenced by both the paleo-climatic change and the contemporary local oceanic current pattern.

  6. Heterogeneity in the expression and subcellular localization of POLYOL/MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORTER genes in Lotus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Tian

    Full Text Available Polyols can serve as a means for the translocation of carbon skeletons and energy between source and sink organs as well as being osmoprotective solutes and antioxidants which may be involved in the resistance of some plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. Polyol/Monosaccharide transporter (PLT proteins previously identified in plants are involved in the loading of polyols into the phloem and are reported to be located in the plasma membrane. The functions of PLT proteins in leguminous plants are not yet clear. In this study, a total of 14 putative PLT genes (LjPLT1-14 were identified in the genome of Lotus japonicus and divided into 4 clades based on phylogenetic analysis. Different patterns of expression of LjPLT genes in various tissues were validated by qRT-PCR analysis. Four genes (LjPLT3, 4, 11, and 14 from clade II were expressed at much higher levels in nodule than in other tissues. Moreover, three of these genes (LjPLT3, 4, and 14 showed significantly increased expression in roots after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti. Three genes (LjPLT1, 3, and 9 responded when salinity and/or osmotic stresses were applied to L. japonicus. Transient expression of GFP-LjPLT fusion constructs in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts indicated that the LjPLT1, LjPLT6 and LjPLT7 proteins are localized to the plasma membrane, but LjPLT2 (clade IV, LjPLT3, 4, 5 (clade II and LjPLT8 (clade III proteins possibly reside in the Golgi apparatus. The results suggest that members of the LjPLT gene family may be involved in different biological processes, several of which may potentially play roles in nodulation in this nitrogen-fixing legume.

  7. Two putative-aquaporin genes are differentially expressed during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Lotus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovannetti Marco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM are widespread symbioses that provide great advantages to the plant, improving its nutritional status and allowing the fungus to complete its life cycle. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of AM symbiosis are not yet fully deciphered. Here, we have focused on two putative aquaporin genes, LjNIP1 and LjXIP1, which resulted to be upregulated in a transcriptomic analysis performed on mycorrhizal roots of Lotus japonicus. Results A phylogenetic analysis has shown that the two putative aquaporins belong to different functional families: NIPs and XIPs. Transcriptomic experiments have shown the independence of their expression from their nutritional status but also a close correlation with mycorrhizal and rhizobial interaction. Further transcript quantification has revealed a good correlation between the expression of one of them, LjNIP1, and LjPT4, the phosphate transporter which is considered a marker gene for mycorrhizal functionality. By using laser microdissection, we have demonstrated that one of the two genes, LjNIP1, is expressed exclusively in arbuscule-containing cells. LjNIP1, in agreement with its putative role as an aquaporin, is capable of transferring water when expressed in yeast protoplasts. Confocal analysis have demonstrated that eGFP-LjNIP1, under its endogenous promoter, accumulates in the inner membrane system of arbusculated cells. Conclusions Overall, the results have shown different functionality and expression specificity of two mycorrhiza-inducible aquaporins in L. japonicus. One of them, LjNIP1 can be considered a novel molecular marker of mycorrhizal status at different developmental stages of the arbuscule. At the same time, LjXIP1 results to be the first XIP family aquaporin to be transcriptionally regulated during symbiosis.

  8. Characterization and expression analysis of a complement component gene in sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Zhou, Zunchun; Yang, Aifu; Dong, Ying; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Bei; Wang, Bai

    2015-12-01

    The complement system plays a crucial role in the innate immune system of animals. It can be activated by distinct yet overlapping classical, alternative and lectin pathways. In the alternative pathway, complement factor B (Bf) serves as the catalytic subunit of complement component 3 (C3) convertase, which plays the central role among three activation pathways. In this study, the Bf gene in sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), termed AjBf, was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of AjBf was 3231 bp in length barring the poly (A) tail. It contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2742 bp encoding 913 amino acids, a 105 bp 5'-UTR (5'-terminal untranslated region) and a 384 bp 3'-UTR. AjBf was a mosaic protein with six CCP (complement control protein) domains, a VWA (von Willebrand factor A) domain, and a serine protease domain. The deduced molecular weight of AjBf protein was 101 kDa. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the expression level of AjBf in A. japonicus was obviously higher at larval stage than that at embryonic stage. Expression detection in different tissues showed that AjBf expressed higher in coelomocytes than in other four tissues. In addation, AjBf expression in different tissues was induced significantly after LPS or PolyI:C challenge. These results indicated that AjBf plays an important role in immune responses to pathogen infection.

  9. Novel branch patterns and anticoagulant activity of glycosaminoglycan from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    A novel glucosidic pattern of fucose branches was found in the glycosaminoglycan from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in China. The methylation of desulfated/carboxyl-reduced polysaccharides and analysis of unsaturated disaccharides generated from the enzymolysis of the defucosed polysaccharides demonstrated that the branch is formed by one fucopyranosyl residue, 46.5% of which is linked through the O-3 position of β-D-glucuronic acid, while 8.7% and 43.9% are linked through the O-6 and O-4 positions of the N-acetylgalactosamine moiety. The β-D-glucuronic acid, N-acetyl-β-D-galactosamine, α-L-fucose and sulfate ester with the molecular ratio of 0.97:1.00:1.13:3.85 composed the backbone → 4)GlcUAβ(1 → 3)GalNAcβ(1 → and sulfated fucose branches. The sulfation patterns of fucose branches and the linkage pattern of the backbone structure were determined by 1/2 dimension NMR. The most abundant branch species were 2,4-di-O-sulfated and 3,4-di-O-sulfated fucose, but 4-mono-O-sulfated residue was also present. The structure of presently obtained glycosaminoglycan is different from that previously obtained from Stichopus japonicus (Kariya et al., Carbohyd. Res. 297 (1997) 273-279), which suggests that the structures of glycosaminoglycans from the same species of different regions somehow differ. The anticoagulant assay indicated that the polysaccharide possessed a high anticoagulant activity and the sulfated fucose branches were essential to the activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of endogenous cysteine proteinases on structures of collagen fibres from dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Ma, Dong-Dong; Liu, Zi-Qiang; Liu, Yan-Fei; Song, Liang; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Li, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Konno, Kunihiko; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-10-01

    Autolysis of sea cucumber, caused by endogenous enzymes, leads to postharvest quality deterioration of sea cucumber. However, the effects of endogenous proteinases on structures of collagen fibres, the major biologically relevant substrates in the body wall of sea cucumber, are less clear. Collagen fibres were prepared from the dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus), and the structural consequences of degradation of the collagen fibres caused by endogenous cysteine proteinases (ECP) from Stichopus japonicus were examined. Scanning electron microscopic images showed that ECP caused partial disaggregation of collagen fibres into collagen fibrils by disrupting interfibrillar proteoglycan bridges. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed increased structural disorder of fibrillar collagen caused by ECP. SDS-PAGE and chemical analysis indicated that ECP can liberate glycosaminoglycan, hydroxyproline and collagen fragments from collagen fibres. Thus ECP can cause disintegration of collagen fibres by degrading interfibrillar proteoglycan bridges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural and biochemical changes in dermis of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) during autolysis in response to cutting the body wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Da-Yong; Liu, Zi-Qiang; Lu, Ting; Song, Liang; Li, Dong-Mei; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Qi, Hang; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2018-02-01

    The autolysis of sea cucumber body wall is caused by endogenous proteolysis of its structural elements. However, changes in collagen fibrils, collagen fibres and microfibrils, the major structural elements in sea cucumber body wall during autolysis are less clear. Autolysis of sea cucumber (S. japonicus) was induced by cutting the body wall, and the structural and biochemical changes in its dermis were investigated using electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, electrophoresis, and chemical analysis. During autolysis, both collagen fibres and microfibrils gradually degraded. In contrast, damage to microfibrils was more pronounced. Upon massive autolysis, collagen fibres disaggregated into collagen fibril bundles and individual fibrils due to the fracture of interfibrillar bridges. Meanwhile, excessive unfolding of collagen fibrils occurred. However, there was only slight damage to collagen monomers. Therefore, structural damage in collagen fibres, collagen fibrils and microfibrils rather than monomeric collagen accounts for autolysis of S. japonicus dermis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic Screening Identifies Cyanogenesis-Deficient Mutants of Lotus japonicus and Reveals Enzymatic Specificity in Hydroxynitrile Glucoside Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takos, A.; Lai, D.; Mikkelsen, L.

    2010-01-01

    Cyanogenesis, the release of hydrogen cyanide from damaged plant tissues, involves the enzymatic degradation of amino acid-derived cyanogenic glucosides (alpha-hydroxynitrile glucosides) by specific beta-glucosidases. Release of cyanide functions as a defense mechanism against generalist herbivores....... We developed a high-throughput screening method and used it to identify cyanogenesis deficient (cyd) mutants in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Mutants in both biosynthesis and catabolism of cyanogenic glucosides were isolated and classified following metabolic profiling of cyanogenic glucoside...... content. L. japonicus produces two cyanogenic glucosides: linamarin (derived from Val) and lotaustralin (derived from Ile). Their biosynthesis may involve the same set of enzymes for both amino acid precursors. However, in one class of mutants, accumulation of lotaustralin and linamarin was uncoupled...

  13. Comparison of intestinal microbiota and activities of digestive and immune-related enzymes of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in two habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xiumei; Chen, Muyan; Li, Wentao; Zhang, Peidong

    2017-09-01

    Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus stock enhancement by releasing hatchery-produced seeds is a management tool used to recover its population under natural environmental conditions. To assess the suitability of releasing sites, we examined the microbiota of the gut contents of A. japonicus from two populations (one in sandy-muddy seagrass beds and one in rocky intertidal reefs) and the microbiota in their surrounding sediments. The activities of digestive and immune-related enzymes in the A. japonicus were also examined. The results indicated that higher bacterial richness and Shannon diversity index were observed in all the seagrass-bed samples. There were significant differences in intestinal and sediment microorganisms between the two habitats, with a 2.87 times higher abundance of Firmicutes in the seagrass bed sediments than that in the reefs. Meanwhile, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were significantly higher abundant in the gut content of A. japonicus from seagrass bed than those from the reefs. In addition, the seagrass-bed samples exhibited a relatively higher abundance of potential probiotics. Principal coordinates analysis and heatmap showed the bacterial communities were classified into two groups corresponding to the two habitat types. Moreover, compared to A. japonicus obtained from rocky intertidal habitat, those obtained from the seagrass bed showed higher lysozyme, superoxide dismutase and protease activities. Our results suggest that bacterial communities present in seagrass beds might enhance the digestive function and immunity of A. japonicus. Therefore, compared with the rocky intertidal reef, seagrass bed seems to be more beneficial for the survival of A. japonicus.

  14. Cell wall polysaccharides released during the alcoholic fermentation by Schizosaccharomyces pombe and S. japonicus: quantification and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domizio, P.; Liu, Y.; Bisson, L.F.; Barile, D.

    2016-01-01

    The present work demonstrates that yeasts belonging to the Schizosaccharomyces genus release a high quantity of polysaccharides of cell wall origin starting from the onset of the alcoholic fermentation. By the end of the alcoholic fermentation, all of the Schizosaccharomyces yeast strains released a quantity of polysaccharides approximately 3-7 times higher than that released by a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain under the same fermentative conditions of synthetic juice. A higher content of polysaccharide was found in media fermented by Schizosaccharomyces japonicus with respect to that of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Some of the strains evaluated were also able to produce high levels of pyruvic acid, which has been shown to be an important compound for color stability of wine. The presence of strains with different malic acid consumption patterns along with high polysaccharide release would enable production of naturally modified wines with enhanced mouth feel and reduced acidity. The chemical analysis of the released polysaccharides demonstrated divergence between the two yeast species S. pombe and S. japonicus. A different mannose/galactose ratio and a different percentage of proteins was observed on the polysaccharides released by S. pombe as compared to S. japonicus. Analysis of the proteins released in the media revealed the presence of a glycoprotein with a molecular size around 32-33 kDa only for the species S. japonicus. Mass spectrometry analysis of carbohydrate moieties showed similar proportions among the N-glycan chains released in the media by both yeast species but differences between the two species were also observed. These observations suggest a possible role of rapid MALDI-TOF screening of N-glycans compositional fingerprint as a taxonomic tool for this genus. Polysaccharides release in the media, in particular galactomannoproteins in significant amounts, could make these yeasts particularly interesting also for the industrial

  15. Root nodule symbiosis in Lotus japonicus drives the establishment of distinctive rhizosphere, root, and nodule bacterial communities

    OpenAIRE

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Jensen, Dorthe Bodker; Koprivova, Anna; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Radutoiu, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are known as pioneer plants colonizing marginal soils, and as enhancers of the nutritional status in cultivated soils. This beneficial activity has been explained by their capacity to engage in symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. We performed a community profiling analysis of Lotus japonicus wild type and mutants to investigate the role of the nodulation pathway on the structure of the root-associated bacterial microbiota. We found that several bacterial orders were ...

  16. Ecotoxicity of triphenyltin on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus at various biological organisations: from molecular to population-level effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Andy Xianliang; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-09-01

    Triphenyltin compounds (TPTs), as effective biocides for different industrial and agricultural purposes, have been detected in coastal marine environments worldwide, in particular in Asian countries. However, little is known about their toxicity to marine organisms. This study comprehensively investigated the molecular, individual and population responses of the marine copepod, Tigriopus japonicus upon waterborne exposure to TPT chloride (TPTCl). Our results indicated that TPTCl was highly toxic to adult T. japonicus, with a 96-h LC50 concentration at 6.3 μg/L. As shown in a chronic full life-cycle test, T. japonicus exposed to 1.0 μg/L TPTCl exhibited a delay in development and a significant reduction of population growth, in terms of the intrinsic rate of increase (r m ). Based on the negative relationship between the r m and exposure concentration, a critical effect concentration was estimated at 1.6 μg/L TPTCl; at or above which population extinction could occur. At 0.1 μg/L TPTCl or above, the sex ratio of the second generation of the copepod was significantly altered and changed to a male-biased population. At molecular level, the inhibition of the transcriptional expression of glutathione S-transferase related genes might lead to dysfunction of detoxification, and the inhibition of retinoid X receptor mRNA expression implied an interruption of the growth and moulting process in T. japonicus. As the only gene that observed up-regulated in this study, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating its function in protecting the copepod from TPT-mediated oxidative stress. The study advances our understanding on the ecotoxicity of TPT, and provides some initial data on its toxic mechanisms in small crustaceans like copepods.

  17. Expression responses of five cold tolerant related genes to two temperature dropping treatments in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengze; Chang, Yaqing; Pang, Zhenguo; Ding, Jun; Ji, Nanjing

    2015-03-01

    Environmental conditions, including ambient temperature, play important roles in survival, growth development, and reproduction of the Japanese sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Low temperatures result in slowed growth and skin ulceration disease. In a previous study, we investigated the effect of low temperature on gene expression profiles in A. japonicus by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Genes encoding Ferritin, Lysozyme, Hsp70, gp96, and AjToll were selected from a subtracted cDNA library of A. japonicus under acute cold stress. The transcriptional expression profiles of these genes were investigated in different tissues (coelomocyte, respiratory tree, intestine, longitudinal muscle) after exposure to acute and mild temperature dropping treatments. The results show that (1) the five cold-tolerance-related genes were found in all four tissues and the highest mRNA levels were observed in coelomocyte and respiratory tree; (2) under the temperature dropping treatments, three types of transcriptional regulation patterns were observed: primary suppression followed by up-regulation at -2°C, suppressed expression throughout the two treatments, and more rarely an initial stimulation followed by suppression; and (3) gene expression suppression was more severe under acute temperature dropping than under mild temperature dropping treatment. The five cold-tolerance-related genes that were distributed mainly in coelomocyte and respiratory tissues were generally down-regulated by low temperature stress but an inverse up-regulation event was found at the extreme temperature (-2°C).

  18. Effects of potential probiotic Bacillus cereus EN25 on growth, immunity and disease resistance of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yancui; Yuan, Lei; Wan, Junli; Sun, Zhenxing; Wang, Yiyan; Sun, Hushan

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine effects of potential probiotic Bacillus cereus EN25 (isolated from mud of sea cucumber culturing water bodies) on growth, immunity and disease resistance against Vibrio splendidus infection in juvenile sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus. Animals were respectively fed diets with B. cereus EN25 at 0 (control), 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) CFU/g for 30 days. Results showed that dietary B. cereus EN25 had no significant effects on growth, total coelomocytes counts and acid phosphatase activity of A. japonicus (P > 0.05). Dietary EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g had significantly improved the phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity and total nitric oxide synthase activity of animals (P  0.05), whereas dietary EN25 at 10(9) CFU/g had significantly decreased its activity (P < 0.05). The cumulative mortality after V. splendidus challenge decreased significantly in sea cucumbers fed with EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed dietary B. cereus EN25 at 10(7) CFU/g could significantly improve immunity and disease resistance in juvenile A. japonicus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The study on highly expressed proteins as a function of an elevated ultraviolet radiation in the copepod, Tigriopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Igor Z.; Lee, Seunghan; Lee, Kanghyun; Wiacek, Magdalena; Lee, Wonchoel

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze constantlyhighly expressed proteins as a function of elevated midultraviolet (UVB, 280-315 nm) radiation in Tigriopus japonicus sensu lato ( T. japonicus s.l). We also analyzed associations between kinetics of radiation avoidance, measured as a covered distance per time unit, and highly expressed proteins. The obtained results indicate an increase in T. japonicus s.l. mobility between the control (no radiation) and mild UV radiation levels (15 kJ·m-2). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with MALDI-MS-MS resulted in 2D protein map comprising of 686 protein spots, of which 19 were identified as highly expressed proteins across all experimental conditions. Obtained results indicate that calpain, vitellogenin, and collagenase are housekeeping protein that are expressed at a constant level independently of environmental changes and that adoption of a locomotive system for the avoidance of a UV source may be, at least partially, supported by hepatopancreas-driven metabolism.

  20. Role of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) in the environmental stressor-exposed intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Il-Chan; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2013-09-01

    To identify and characterize CHH (TJ-CHH) gene in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, we analyzed the full-length cDNA sequence, genomic structure, and promoter region. The full-length TJ-CHH cDNA was 716 bp in length, encoding 136 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequences of TJ-CHH showed a high similarity of the CHH mature domain to other crustaceans. Six conserved cysteine residues and five conserved structural motifs in the CHH mature peptide domain were also observed. The genomic structure of the TJ-CHH gene contained three exons and two introns in its open reading frame (ORF), and several transcriptional elements were detected in the promoter region of the TJ-CHH gene. To investigate transcriptional change of TJ-CHH under environmental stress, T. japonicus were exposed to heat treatment, UV-B radiation, heavy metals, and water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of Iranian crude oil. Upon heat stress, TJ-CHH transcripts were elevated at 30 °C and 35 °C for 96 h in a time-course experiment. UV-B radiation led to a decreased pattern of the TJ-CHH transcript 48 h and more after radiation (12 kJ/m(2)). After exposure of a fixed dose (12 kJ/m(2)) in a time-course experiment, TJ-CHH transcript was down-regulated in time-dependent manner with a lowest value at 12h. However, the TJ-CHH transcript level was increased in response to five heavy metal exposures for 96 h. Also, the level of the TJ-CHH transcript was significantly up-regulated at 20% of WAFs after exposure to WAFs for 48 h and then remarkably reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that the enhanced TJ-CHH transcript level is associated with a cellular stress response of the TJ-CHH gene as shown in decapod crustaceans. This study is also helpful for a better understanding of the detrimental effects of environmental changes on the CHH-triggered copepod metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of cathepsin B from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huahui; Lv, Miao; Lv, Zhimeng; Li, Chenghua; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhao, Xuelin; Duan, Xuemei; Jin, Chunhua

    2017-01-01

    Cathepsin B (CTSB), a member of lysosomal cysteine protease, is involved in multiple levels of physiological and biological processes, and also plays crucial roles in host immune defense against pathogen infection in vertebrates. However, the function of CTSB within the innate immune system of invertebrates, particularly in marine echinoderms, has been poorly documented. In this study, the immune function of CTSB in Apostichopus japonicus (designated as AjCTSB), a commercially important and disease vulnerable aquaculture specie, was investigated by integrated molecular and protein approaches. A 2153 bp cDNA representing the full-length of AjCTSB was cloned via overlapping ESTs and RACE fragments. AjCTSB contained an open reading frame of 999 bp encoding a secreted protein of 332 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 36.8 kDa. The deduced amino acid of AjCTSB shared a typical activity center containing three conserved amino acid residues (Cys 108 , His 277 and Asn 297 ). Phylogenetic tree analysis also supported that AjCTSB was a new member of CTSB family with clustering firstly with invertebrate CTSBs. Quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that AjCTSB was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues with the highest levels in intestine. The Vibrio splendidus challenged sea cucumber and LPS-exposed coelomocytes could both significantly boost the expression of AjCTSB. Moreover, the purified recombinant AjCTSB exhibited dose-dependent CTSB activities at the concentration ranged from 0 to 0.24 μg μL -1 . Further functional analysis indicated that coelomocytes apoptosis was significantly inhibited by 0.16-fold in vivo and the apoptosis execution Ajcaspase 3 was extremely reduced in Apostichopus japonicus coelomocytes treated with specific AjCTSB siRNA. Collectively, all these results suggested that AjCTSB was an important immune factor and might be served as apoptosis enhancers in pathogen challenged sea cucumber. Copyright © 2016

  2. Changes of exoskeleton surface roughness and expression of crucial participation genes for chitin formation and digestion in the mud crab (Macrophthalmus japonicus) following the antifouling biocide irgarol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiyun; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Kim, Won-Seok; Kwak, Tae-Soo; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2016-10-01

    Irgarol is a common antifoulant present in coastal sediment. The mud crab Macrophthalmus japonicus is one of the most abundant of the macrobenthos in the costal environment, and its exoskeleton has a protective function against various environmental threats. We evaluated the effects of irgarol toxicity on the exoskeleton of M. japonicus, which is the outer layer facing the environment. We analyzed transcriptional expression of exoskeleton, molting, and proteolysis-related genes in the gill and hepatopancreas of these exposed M. japonicus. In addition, changes in survival and exoskeleton surface characteristics were investigated. In the hepatopancreas, mRNA expression of chitinase 1 (Mj-chi1), chitinase 4 (Mj-chi4), and chitinase 5 (Mj-chi5) increased in M. japonicus exposed to all concentrations of irgarol. Mj-chi1 and Mj-chi4 expressions from 1 to 10μgL(-1) were dose- and time-dependent. Ecdysteroid receptor (Mj-EcR), trypsin (Mj-Tryp), and serine proteinase (Mj-SP) in the hepatopancreas were upregulated in response to different exposure levels of irgarol at day 1, 4, or 7. In contrast, gill Mj-chi5, Mj-Tryp, and Mj-SP exhibited late upregulated responses to 10μgL(-1) irgarol compared to the control at day 7. Mj-chi1 showed early upregulation upon exposure to 10μgL(-1) irgarol and Mj-chi4 showed no changes in transcription in the gill. Gill Mj-EcR presented generally downregulated expression patterns. In addition, decreased survival and change of exoskeleton surface roughness were observed in M. japonicus exposed to the three concentrations of irgarol. These results suggest that exposure to irgarol induces changes in the exoskeleton, molting, and proteolysis metabolism of M. japonicus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The application of compound-specific isotope analysis of fatty acids for traceability of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in the coastal areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Xufeng; Li, Ying; Wang, Haixia

    2017-11-01

    Geographical origin traceability is an important issue for controlling the quality of seafood and safeguarding the interest of consumers. In the present study, a new method of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of fatty acids was established to evaluate its applicability in establishing the origin traceability of Apostichopus japonicus in the coastal areas of China. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied to distinguish between the origins of A. japonicus. The results show that the stable carbon isotope compositions of fatty acids of A. japonicus significantly differ in terms of both season and origin. They also indicate that the stable carbon isotope composition of fatty acids could effectively discriminate between the origins of A. japonicus, except for between Changhai Island and Zhangzi Island in the spring of 2016 because of geographical proximity or the similarity of food sources. The fatty acids that have the highest contribution to identifying the geographical origins of A. japonicus are C22:6n-3, C16:1n-7, C20:5n-3, C18:0 and C23:1n-9, when considering the fatty acid contents, the stable carbon isotope composition of fatty acids and the results of the PCA and DA. We conclude that CSIA of fatty acids, combined with multivariate statistical analysis such as PCA and DA, may be an effective tool for establishing the traceability of A. japonicus in the coastal areas of China. The relevant conclusions of the present study provide a new method for determining the traceability of seafood or other food products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Ultrastructure and morphology of antennal sensilla of the adult diving beetle Cybister japonicus Sharp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Mei Song

    Full Text Available The morphology and distribution of the antennal sensilla of adult diving beetle Cybister japonicus Sharp (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera, have been examined. Five types of sensilla on the antennae were identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Sensilla placodea and elongated s. placodea are the most abundant types of sensilla, distributing only on the flagellum. Both these types of sensilla carry multiple pore systems with a typical function as chemoreceptors. Three types of s. coeloconica (Type I-III were also identified, with the characterization of the pit-in-pit style, and carrying pegs externally different from each other. Our data indicated that both type I and type II of s. coleconica contain two bipolar neurons, while the type III of s. coleconica contains three dendrites in the peg. Two sensory dendrites in the former two sensilla are tightly embedded inside the dendrite sheath, with no space left for sensilla lymph. There are no specific morphological differences in the antennal sensilla observed between males and females, except that the males have longer antennae and more sensilla than the females.

  5. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyu Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings. When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.

  6. The first detection of Babesia species DNA from Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Kazuhito; Aoki, Mikiko; Ichikawa, Madoka; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we tried to detect protozoan blood parasites from the liver or blood of 156 Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) in Iwate Prefecture of Japan by polymerase chain reaction. Two amplicons (approximately 540 bp and 480 bp) were detected by amplification for V4 hyper-variable regions of the 18S rRNA gene. Approximately 540-bp products were obtained in 119 samples (76.3%) and were considered to be DNA of Hepatozoon ursi. Approximately 480-bp products were obtained in 22 samples (14.1%) and were considered to be DNA of Babesia species. The nucleotide sequences (1635 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia sp. were very similar (99.3%) to those (AY190123, AY190124) of Babesia sp. detected previously from Ixodes ovatus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Babesia sp. detected in this study closely related to Babesia sp. derived from raccoons in Japan and the U.S.A. This is the first report of Babesia species detected from Japanese black bears. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of stored body fat in nuisance-killed Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Asano, Makoto; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Oi, Toru; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2011-02-01

    We evaluated the stored body fat of Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) killed as nuisances in Gifu and Fukushima prefectures, Japan, during 2005-2007. We employed femur marrow fat (FMF), modified kidney fat index (mKFI), and abdominal subcutaneous fat (ASF) as indices for quantitative evaluation. We examined the basic characteristics of these indices, such as seasonality, age and sex dependency, and the quantitative relationship among them. mKFI and ASF increased towards the beginning of the denning period (December), while FMF was relatively stable throughout the sampling period (July-December). In cubs, all indices showed significantly lower values than in the older age classes. There seemed to be a catabolizing order between FMF and mKFI, but not between mKFI and ASF. We also evaluated the yearly change in the indices, and discussed its relevance to the incidence of bear intrusion into human residential areas. Bears nuisance-killed in summer (July-September) 2006 had a significantly larger amount of stored body fat than those killed in summer 2007, although the number of nuisance kills was larger in 2006 than in 2007. This suggests that poor nutritional condition is not a direct cause of bear intrusion.

  8. Sensitive Wavelengths Selection in Identification of Ophiopogon japonicus Based on Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyan Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging (HSI technology has increasingly been applied as an analytical tool in fields of agricultural, food, and Traditional Chinese Medicine over the past few years. The HSI spectrum of a sample is typically achieved by a spectroradiometer at hundreds of wavelengths. In recent years, considerable effort has been made towards identifying wavelengths (variables that contribute useful information. Wavelengths selection is a critical step in data analysis for Raman, NIRS, or HSI spectroscopy. In this study, the performances of 10 different wavelength selection methods for the discrimination of Ophiopogon japonicus of different origin were compared. The wavelength selection algorithms tested include successive projections algorithm (SPA, loading weights (LW, regression coefficients (RC, uninformative variable elimination (UVE, UVE-SPA, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS, interval partial least squares regression (iPLS, backward iPLS (BiPLS, forward iPLS (FiPLS, and genetic algorithms (GA-PLS. One linear technique (partial least squares-discriminant analysis was established for the evaluation of identification. And a nonlinear calibration model, support vector machine (SVM, was also provided for comparison. The results indicate that wavelengths selection methods are tools to identify more concise and effective spectral data and play important roles in the multivariate analysis, which can be used for subsequent modeling analysis.

  9. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.

  10. New insight into hybridization and unidirectional introgression between Ammodytes japonicus and Ammodytes heian (Trachiniformes, Ammodytidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Koo; Bae, Seung Eun; Lee, Soo Jeong; Yoon, Moon Geun

    2017-01-01

    Based on northern (NOL) and southern (SOL) mitochondrial lineages, recently, it proposed the new species Ammodytes heian and revived the species name Ammodytes japonicus to describe sand lances from the northwestern Pacific Ocean. This study used molecular methods to investigate genetic relationships between the two sand lance species in Korea and Japan. In total, 154 specimens were collected from four locations in Korea (Baengnyeongdo in the Yellow Sea, Tongyeong in the Korean Strait, and Jumunjin and Gijang in the East Sea), and 50 specimens were collected from a single location in Japan (Wakkanai in the Okhotsk Sea). Mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated that the individuals from Baengnyeongdo and Tongyeong all belonged to the SOL, whereas those from Gijang, Jumunjin, and Wakkanai included individuals from both the NOL and SOL (over 75% NOL). Population structure analyses were performed on the same individuals using seven microsatellite DNA markers. The population structure analysis based on 201 specimens identified two clusters (named as northern group and southern group), with the admixture proportion (q) of hybridization and unidirectional introgression from SOL to NOL occurs in southwestern margin of the East Sea. Our findings illustrate the speciation process based on different patterns of gene flow between Korean and Japanese sand lance, which is strongly influenced by both the paleo-climatic change and the contemporary local oceanic current pattern.

  11. Antiviral effects of Stichopus japonicus acid mucopolysaccharide on hepatitis B virus transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yongning; Li, Wei; Lu, Linlin; Zhou, Li; Victor, David W.; Xuan, Shiying

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant global pathogen and efficient cure for HBV patients is still a challenging goal. We previously reported that acidic mucopolysaccharide from stichopus japonicus selenka (SJAMP) could inhibit HBsAg and HBeAg expression in vitro. However, the potential anti-HBV effects of SJAMP in vivo have not yet been explored. In this study, we show that SJAMP exhibits potent anti-HBV activity in HBV transgenic mice in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, sixty HBV transgenic male BALB/c mice were randomly selected to receive the treatment of PBS, low dose SJAMP (30 mg kg-1), middle dose SJAMP (40 mg kg-1), high dose SJAMP (50 mg kg-1) and IFN (45 IU kg-1) for 30 d. SJAMP treatment suppressed serum HBV-DNA, and liver HBsAg and HBcAg levels in HBV-transgenic mice. The present study highlights the potential application of SJAMP in HBV therapy.

  12. A new karst dwelling species of the Gekko japonicus group (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from central Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2017-05-08

    A new species of the Gekko japonicus group is described from Khammouane Province, central Laos, based on morphological characters and molecular data. Morphologically, Gekko nadenensis sp. nov. is differentiated from the remaining congeners by a combination of the following characters: size moderate (SVL 61.0-77.1 mm); nares bordered with rostral; internasals absent; postmentals enlarged; interorbital scales between anterior corners of the eyes 28-30; dorsal tubercles absent; ventral scales between mental and cloacal slit 175-185; midbody scale rows 123-140; ventral scale rows 38-40; subdigital lamellae on first toes 13-15, on fourth toes 14-16; finger and toe webbing present at base; tubercles on dorsal surface of fore and hind limbs absent; precloacal pores six (3+3 or 5+1) in a discontinuous row in males, absent in the female; postcloacal tubercles 1 or 2; tubercles absent on dorsal surface of tail base; subcaudals distinctly enlarged; dorsal surface of body with greyish brown blotches. Molecular analyses demonstrated the new species is closely related to G. bonkowskii and G. thakhekensis, but separated from them by approximately 7% in genetic divergence as shown by a fragment of the mitochondrial ND2 gene.

  13. Phenoloxidase from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus: cDNA cloning, expression and substrate specificity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingwei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Sun, Hongjuan; Chen, Zhong; Yang, Aifu; Gao, Shan; Wang, Bai; Jiang, Bei; Guan, Xiaoyan

    2014-02-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a crucial component of the immune system of echinoderms. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of PO (AjPO) was cloned from coelomocytes of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR method, which is 2508 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2040 bp encoding 679 amino acids. AjPO contains a transmembrane domain, and three Cu-oxidase domains with copper binding centers formed by 10 histidines, one cysteine and one methionine respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AjPO was clustered with laccase-type POs of invertebrates. Using the isolated membrane proteins as crude AjPO, the enzyme could catalyze the substrates catechol, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine and hydroquinone, but failed to oxidize tyrosine. The results described above collectively proved that AjPO was a membrane-binding laccase-type PO. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that AjPO mRNA was expressed in muscle, body wall, coelomocytes, tube feet, respiratory tree and intestine with the highest expression level in coelomocytes. AjPO could be significantly induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), Zymosan A and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C), suggesting AjPO is closely involved in the defense against the infection of bacteria, fungi and double-stranded RNA viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of immune-related genes in embryos and larvae of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aifu; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Jiang, Bei; Wang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Zhong; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bai; Sun, Dapeng

    2010-11-01

    The echinoderm immunity system has been extensively investigated in adults in several classes such as echinoid and holothuroidea. However, the defense mechanism in embryos and larvae remains largely unexplored. To profile the immune-related genes expression in embryos and larvae and to monitor the stimulation of the innate immune response by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) challenge, we investigated the expression patterns of nine immune-related genes in embryos and larvae of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) at eleven developmental stages using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression of six encoding proteins including heat shock protein70 (Hsp70), Hsp90, Hsp gp96, thymosin-beta, ferritin and DD104 protein was detected at all eleven development stages according to mRNA expression data. However, the expression of mannan-binding C-type lectin (MBCL) was detected at early auricularia to juvenile stages, while lysozyme and serine proteinase inhibitor (SPI) were detected only at juvenile stage. Out of these nine genes, three (MBCL, lysozyme and SPI) were found to be up-regulated in mRNA expression upon LPS challenge, whereas the other six showed no significant change. Our study presents a first preliminary view into the expression patterns of immune-related genes at different developmental stages of sea cucumber, which increases the available information on echinoderm immunity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Shoaling behaviour of Lates japonicus revealed through a digital camera logger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gonzalvo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protecting endangered species is one of the main targets of conservation biology, but the study of these species is often a sensitive issue. The need to risk, and often take, the life of some specimens during the experiments is not easily justified. Technological advances provide scientists with tools that can reduce damage to studied species, while increasing the quality of the data obtained. Here, we analyse the social behaviour of an endangered Japanese fish, Akame (Lates japonicus, using an attached underwater camera. Social behaviour, especially concerning aggregations, is a key factor in conservation plans and fisheries management to avoid by-catch and to establish coherent protected areas. In this experiment, a fish-borne underwater still-camera logger was attached to a captured Akame, recording the individual in its natural environment in July, 2009. The images obtained from the camera revealed several groups of large adults moving together, showing for the first time in this species an aggregative behaviour. This discovery opens the door for initiation of protective measures to preserve these groups, which in turn, can help to ensure continuity of this fish in the Shimanto River by protecting the specific areas where these shoals gather.

  16. Early Lotus japonicus root transcriptomic responses to symbiotic and pathogenic fungal exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eGiovannetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate Lotus japonicus transcriptomic responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM germinated spore exudates (GSE, responsible for activating nuclear Ca2+ spiking in plant root epidermis. A microarray experiment was performed comparing gene expression in Lotus rootlets treated with GSE or water after 24 h and 48 h. The transcriptional pattern of selected genes that resulted to be regulated in the array was further evaluated upon different treatments and timings. In particular, Lotus rootlets were treated with: GSE from the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum trifolii; short chitin oligomers (acknowledged AM fungal signals and long chitin oligomers (as activators of pathogenic responses. This experimental set up has revealed that AM GSE generates a strong transcriptomic response in Lotus roots with an extensive defense-related response after 24 hours and a subsequent downregulation after 48 hours. A similar subset of defense-related genes resulted to be upregulated also upon treatment with C. trifolii GSE, although with an opposite trend. Surprisingly, long chitin oligomers activated both defense-like and symbiosis-related genes. Among the genes regulated in the microarray, promoter-GUS assay showed that LjMATE1 activates in epidermal cells and root hairs.

  17. Depolymerized glycosaminoglycan and its anticoagulant activities from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Lv; Zhang, Boyuan; Lv, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    A controlled Cu(2+) catalytic free-radical depolymerization process of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was established. The results showed a good linear relationship between 1/Mw and time during the depolymerization. A series of fractions with different molecular weight were obtained, and the physicochemical properties of them were investigated and compared utilizing the chemical method, IR spectra and NMR spectra. The results showed no significant variations of the backbone and branches structures during the depolymerization. Furthermore, the anticoagulant activities of the depolymerized fractions were evaluated by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). The APTT decreases in proportion to the molecular weight following a linear relationship and the prolongation of APTT activity requires at least oligosaccharide of 4 trisaccharide units (about 4000 Da). Their anticoagulant activity of low molecular weight fraction (Mw = 24,755 Da) is similar to LMWH with significantly less bleeding risk. The results suggest that the low molecular weight fraction could be used as a novel anticoagulant with less undesired side effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of different microbes on fermenting feed for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Wang, Yingeng; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Zheng; Liao, Meijie; Rong, Xiaojun

    2015-10-01

    The effects of different microbes on fermenting feed for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were compared to select the optimal fermentation strain in this study. Saccharomgces cerevisae, Candida utilis, Bacillus subtilis and Geotrichum candidum were independently added into the experimental compound feed, while only saline was mixed with the control feed. The fermentation treatments were inoculated with 10% seed solution under the condition of 25°C and 70% water content, which lasted for 5 days to elucidate the optimal microbe strain for fermenting effect. Physicochemical indexes and sensorial characteristics were measured per day during the fermentation. The indexes included dry matter recovery (DMR), crude protein (CP), the percentage of amino acid nitrogen to total nitrogen (AA-N/tN), the percentage of ammonia nitrogen to total nitrogen (NH3-N/tN), and the ratio of fermentation strains and vibrios to the total microbes, color, smell and viscosity. The results showed that DMR, CP and AA-N/tN of the S. cerevisae group reached the highest level on day 3, but the ratio of fermentation strain was second to C. utilis group. In addition, its NH3-N/tN and the ratio of vibrios were maintained at low levels, and the sensory evaluation score including smell, color and viscosity was the highest in S. cerevisae group on day 3. Therefore, S. cerevisae could be the optimal strain for the feed fermentation for sea cucumber. This research developed a new production method of fermentation feed for sea cucumber.

  19. Mutagenic effects of carbon ion beam irradiations on dry Lotus japonicus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shanwei [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, Libin, E-mail: libinzhou@impcas.ac.cn [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Wenjian; Du, Yan [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, Lixia; Feng, Hui; Mu, Jinhu [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Yuze [College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, No. 1 Yingmen Village, Anning District, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730070 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Carbon ion beam irradiation is a powerful method for creating mutants and has been used in crop breeding more and more. To investigate the effects of carbon ion beams on Lotus japonicus, dry seeds were irradiated by 80 MeV/u carbon ion beam at dosages of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy. The germination rate, survival rate and root length of M{sub 1} populations were explored and the dose of 400 Gy was selected as the median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) for a large-scale mutant screening. Among 2472 M{sub 2} plants, 127 morphological mutants including leaf, stem, flower and fruit phenotypic variation were found, and the mutation frequency was approximately 5.14%. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) assays were utilized to investigate the DNA polymorphism between seven mutants and eight plants without phenotypic variation from M{sub 2} populations. No remarkable differences were detected between these two groups, and the total polymorphic rate was 0.567%.

  20. TRBP and eIF6 homologue in Marsupenaeus japonicus play crucial roles in antiviral response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    Full Text Available Plants and invertebrates can suppress viral infection through RNA silencing, mediated by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC. Trans-activation response RNA-binding protein (TRBP, consisting of three double-stranded RNA-binding domains, is a component of the RISC. In our previous paper, a TRBP homologue in Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Fc-TRBP was reported to directly bind to eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (Fc-eIF6. In this study, we further characterized the function of TRBP and the involvement of TRBP and eIF6 in antiviral RNA interference (RNAi pathway of shrimp. The double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs B and C of the TRBP from Marsupenaeus japonicus (Mj-TRBP were found to mediate the interaction of TRBP and eIF6. Gel-shift assays revealed that the N-terminal of Mj-TRBP dsRBD strongly binds to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA and that the homodimer of the TRBP mediated by the C-terminal dsRBD increases the affinity to dsRNA. RNAi against either Mj-TRBP or Mj-eIF6 impairs the dsRNA-induced sequence-specific RNAi pathway and facilitates the proliferation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. These results further proved the important roles of TRBP and eIF6 in the antiviral response of shrimp.

  1. Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

    In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

  2. Non-Heme Iron Loading Capacities of Anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) Meat Fractions under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Wu, Haohao; Zeng, Mingyong; Huang, Hai

    2017-01-11

    A ferric oxyhydroxide nanoparticle (FeONP)-mediated mechanism has been suggested recently for anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) meat (AM) enhancement of non-heme iron absorption. The current paper fractionates AM biomass into protein (70.67%), lipid (20.98%), and carbohydrate (i.e., glycogen and mucopolysaccharide, 1.07%) and evaluates their capacities in templating the formation of FeONPs under simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Results show that their iron-loading capacities (mg/g) follow the ascending order glycogen (2.43 ± 0.65), protein (20.16 ± 0.56), AM (28.19 ± 0.86), lipid (33.60 ± 1.12), and mucopolysaccharide (541.33 ± 32.33). Protein and lipid act in synergy to contribute the overwhelming majority (about 90%) of AM's iron-loading capacity. l-α-Phosphatidylcholine and l-α-lysophosphatidylcholine are the predominant iron-loading fractions in the lipid digest. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy exhibit coating of inorganic cores of the formed FeONPs with peptides or phospholipid-based mixed micelles. Overall, protein and phospholipid are key players in the nanoparticle-mediated "meat factor" mechanism.

  3. Formation of ferric oxyhydroxide nanoparticles mediated by peptides in anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) muscle protein hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haohao; Liu, Zunying; Dong, Shiyuan; Zhao, Yuanhui; Huang, Hai; Zeng, Mingyong

    2013-01-09

    Nanosized iron fortificants appear to be promising and can be synthesized in a greener way using peptides as biotemplates. Anchovy is a huge underdeveloped source of muscle protein that enhances human nonheme iron absorption. This paper shows that peptides in anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus ) muscle protein hydrolysate (AMPH) mediate the formation of monodispersed ferric oxyhydroxide nanoparticles (FeONPs) with diameters of 20-40 nm above pH 3.0. Peptides in AMPH nucleate iron through carboxyl groups and crystal growth then occur as a result of condensation of carboxylate-ligated hydroxide iron centers, yielding Fe-O-Fe cross-link bonds. Monomers of FeONPs are formed after steric obstruction of further crystal growth by peptide backbones with certain lengths and further stabilized by surface-adsorbed peptides. The iron-loading capacity of peptides in AMPH is up to 27.5 mg iron/g peptide. Overall, the present study provides a greener alternative route to the synthesis of FeONPs.

  4. CLE peptide-encoding gene families in Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, compared with those of soybean, common bean and Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastwell, April H; de Bang, Thomas Christian; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    these complete CLE peptide-encoding gene families with those of fellow legumes, Glycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris, in addition to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This approach provided insight into the evolution of CLE peptide families and enabled us to establish putative M. truncatula and L. japonicus...... in controlling legume nodulation. Here, the entire family of CLE peptide-encoding genes was identified in Medicago truncatula (52) and Lotus japonicus (53), including pseudogenes and non-functional sequences that were identified. An array of bioinformatic techniques were used to compare and contrast...

  5. Proteomic analysis reveals the important roles of alpha-5-collagen and ATP5β during skin ulceration syndrome progression of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zelong; Jiang, Jingwei; Pan, Yongjia; Sun, Hongjuan; Guan, Xiaoyan; Gao, Shan; Chen, Zhong; Dong, Ying; Zhou, Zunchun

    2018-03-20

    Apostichopus japonicus is one of the most important aquaculture species in China. Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) of sea cucumber is a common and serious disease affected the development of A. japonicus culture industry. To better understand the response mechanisms of A. japonicus during SUS progression, the protein variations in the body wall of A. japonicus at different stages of SUS were investigated by a comparative proteomic approach based on isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification. A total of 1449 proteins were identified from the samples at different SUS stages. Among these proteins, 145 proteins were differentially expressed in the SUS-related samples compared to those of healthy A. japonicus. These differentially expressed proteins involved a wide range of functions. Among these differentially expressed proteins, only two proteins, alpha-5-collagen and an unknown function protein, were differentially expressed during the whole progression of SUS compared with healthy A. japonicus. In addition, ATP synthase subunit beta (ATP5β) interacted with a variety of proteins with different functions during the SUS progression. These results implied that alpha-5-collagen and ATP5β could play important roles during the SUS progression of A. japonicus. Our study provided a new sight to understand the molecular responses of sea cucumber during the SUS progression and accumulated data for the prevention of SUS in sea cucumber aquaculture. The current study aimed to reveal how the body wall of Apostichopus japonicus response to skin ulceration syndrome (SUS). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proteomic study analyzing the differences in protein profile of sea cucumber during the whole SUS progression. By analyzing the expression differences of the proteome via isobaric labeling-based quantitative proteomic, we identified some proteins which may play important roles during the SUS progression. According to the enrichment analyses of these

  6. Analysis of Lotus japonicus nuclear pore NUP107-160 subcomplex mutants reveals pronounced structural plasticity and functional redundancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eBinder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Lotus japonicus nucleoporin genes, NUP85, NUP133 and NENA (SEH1, lead to defects in plant-microbe symbiotic signaling. The homologous proteins in yeast and vertebrates are part of the conserved NUP84/NUP107-160 sub-complex, which is an essential component of the nuclear pore scaffold and has a pivotal role in NPC assembly. Loss and down-regulation of NUP84/NUP107-160 members has previously been correlated with a variety of growth and molecular defects, however, in L. japonicus only surprisingly specific phenotypes have been reported. We investigated whether Lotus nup85, nup133 and nena mutants exhibit general defects in NPC composition and distribution. Whole mount immunofluorescence confirmed a typical nucleoporin-like localization for NUP133, which was unchanged in the nup85-1 mutant. Severe NPC clustering and aberrations in the nuclear envelope have been reported for Saccharomyces cerevisiae nup85 and nup133 mutants. However, upon transmission electron microscopy analysis, we did not detect any significant changes in L. japonicus nup85 and nena, and only a slight reduction in the average distances between neighboring NPCs in nup133. Using quantitative immunodetection on protein-blots we observed that loss of individual nucleoporins affected the protein levels of other NUP107-160 complex members. Unlike the single mutants, nup85/nup133 double mutants exhibited severe temperature dependent growth and developmental defects, suggesting that the loss of more than one NUP107-160 member affects basal functions of the NPC.

  7. UV-B radiation-induced oxidative stress and p38 signaling pathway involvement in the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Kyun-Woo; Kim, Min-Jung; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation presents an environmental hazard to aquatic organisms. To understand the molecular responses of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus to UV-B radiation, we measured the acute toxicity response to 96 h of UV-B radiation, and we also assessed the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, glutathione (GSH) content, and antioxidant enzyme (GST, GR, GPx, and SOD) activities after 24 h of exposure to UV-B with LD50 and half LD50 values. Also, expression patterns of p53 and hsp gene families with phosphorylation of p38 MAPK were investigated in UV-B-exposed copepods. We found that the ROS level, GSH content, and antioxidant enzyme activity levels were increased with the transcriptional upregulation of antioxidant-related genes, indicating that UV-B induces oxidative stress by generating ROS and stimulating antioxidant enzymatic activity as a defense mechanism. Additionally, we found that p53 expression was significantly increased after UV-B irradiation due to increases in the phosphorylation of the stress-responsive p38 MAPK, indicating that UV-B may be responsible for inducing DNA damage in T. japonicus. Of the hsp family genes, transcriptional levels of hsp20, hsp20.7, hsp70, and hsp90 were elevated in response to a low dose of UV-B radiation (9 kJ m(-2)), suggesting that these hsp genes may be involved in cellular protection against UV-B radiation. In this paper, we performed a pathway-oriented mechanistic analysis in response to UV-B radiation, and this analysis provides a better understanding of the effects of UV-B in the intertidal benthic copepod T. japonicus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of acute salinity stress on ion homeostasis, Na+/K+-ATPase and histological structure in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chenfan; Tian, Yi; Shang, Yanpeng; Wang, Liqiang; Jiang, Yanan; Chang, Yaqing

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus ) are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental condition such as salinity and studies are urgently needed to assess their effects to guide aquaculture efforts. The effects of acute salinity stress on coelomic fluid osmotic pressure, ion concentrations, the activity of Na + /K + -ATPase in respiratory trees and the histological variations were measured to evaluate the salinity tolerance of sea cucumbers. Significant correlations in osmotic pressure were observed between coelomic fluid and ambient environmental salinity. In coelomic fluid, Na + concentration was observed fluctuated during salinity 18 psu and the inflection point presented at the 6 h. The Na + /K + -ATPase activity in respiratory trees indicated the "U-shaped" fluctuant change and the change trend was opposite with the Na + concentration. The ions (K + , Cl - ) concentration decreased and showed the same tendency at salinity 40 psu with salinity 18 psu. The total coelomocytes counts and phagocytosis of coelomic fluid Na + /K + -ATPase activity indicated fluctuating changes under different salinity stress. Histological variation revealed a negative relation between decreasing salt concentration and tissue integrity. Tissue damages were significantly observed in intestines, muscles and tube feet under low salinity environment (18, 23 and 27 psu). The connective tissue in intestines of A. japonicus exposed to 18 and 23 psu damaged and partly separated from the mucosal epithelium. The significant variations occurred in tube feet, which presented the swelling in connective tissue and a fracture in longitudinal muscles under low salinity (18 psu). The morphological change of tube feet showed the shrinkage of connective tissue under high salinity (40 psu). The amount of infusoria in the respiratory trees decreased or even disappeared in salinity treatment groups (18 and 23 psu). The results inferred that osmoconformity and ionoregulation were

  9. Expression analysis of microRNAs related to the skin ulceration syndrome of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongjuan; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Yang, Aifu; Jiang, Jingwei; Chen, Zhong; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bai; Gao, Shan; Jiang, Bei

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in many biological processes. To investigate the miRNAs related to skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) of Apostichopus japonicus, small RNA libraries of body wall, intestine, respiratory tree and coelomocytes from healthy and diseased A. japonicus were sequenced on Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform. A total of 247 conserved and 10 novel miRNAs were identified across all libraries. After pair-wise comparisons, 215 miRNAs in body wall, 36 in intestine, 2 in respiratory tree and 38 in coelomocytes showed significant expression differences. Further analyses were conducted on some tissue-specific differentially expressed miRNAs: miR-8 and miR-486-5p in body wall, miR-200-3p, let-7-5p and miR-125 in intestine, miR-278a-3p and bantam in respiratory, miR-10a and miR-184 in coelomocytes. Notably, these miRNAs in some species were reported to function in various physiological or pathological processes associated with immune regulations. Using stem-loop quantitative real time PCR, six representative miRNAs in four tissues were selected to validate the sequencing results. The Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) of the six miRNAs ranged from 0.777 to 0.948, which confirmed the consistency and accuracy between these two approaches. This study provides comprehensive expression and regulation patterns of functional miRNAs in different tissues and gives insights into the tissue-specific immune response mechanisms in SUS-infected A. japonicus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioenergetic trade-offs in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in response to CO2-driven ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Shao, Senlin; Yang, Xiaolong; Yang, Dazuo; Xu, Qinzeng; Zong, Humin; Liu, Shilin

    2016-05-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) caused by excessive CO2 is a potential ecological threat to marine organisms. The impacts of OA on echinoderms are well-documented, but there has been a strong bias towards sea urchins, and limited information is available on sea cucumbers. This work examined the effect of medium-term (60 days) exposure to three pH levels (pH 8.06, 7.72, and 7.41, covering present and future pH variability) on the bioenergetic responses of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, an ecologically and economically important holothurian in Asian coasts. Results showed that the measured specific growth rate linearly decreased with decreased pH, leading to a 0.42 %·day(-1) decrease at pH 7.41 compared with that at pH 8.06. The impacts of pH on physiological energetics were variable: measured energy consumption and defecation rates linearly decreased with decreased pH, whereas maintenance energy in calculated respiration and excretion were not significantly affected. No shift in energy allocation pattern was observed in A. japonicus upon exposure to pH 7.72 compared with pH 8.06. However, a significant shift in energy budget occurred upon exposure to pH 7.41, leading to decreased energy intake and increased percentage of energy that was lost in feces, thereby resulting in a significantly lowered allocation into somatic growth. These findings indicate that adult A. japonicus is resilient to the OA scenario at the end of the twenty-first century, but further acidification may negatively influence the grazing capability and growth, thereby influencing its ecological functioning as an "ecosystem engineer" and potentially harming its culture output.

  11. The prevalence of non-indigenous parasitic copepod (Neoergasilus japonicus) spreads with fishes of pet trade in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Khovand, Hosein; Kheirandish, Reza

    2016-12-01

    Ergasilids are copepods living in the river mouth of freshwaters and parasitic on Teleost fish family in both natural and artificial environments. So far, 5 species of the copepod have been discovered that belong to the genus Neoergasilus . This copepod is most likely to be disseminated through aquarium trades, aquaculture and over-nutrition, or construction of sand carrying water. The females of Ergasilidae are external parasites attaching to the anal and dorsal fins and sometimes to gills and nasal cavities of fish living in freshwaters. In total, 552 pieces of ornamental fish (301 males and 251 females) with length of 5-10 cm from fish (Poecilia sphenops) species (Singapore, Sandy, Dirigible and scorpion's tail) were collected from ornamental fish stores in different regions of Kerman, Iran during 1 year in 2012-2013 and tested in order to examine Neoergasilus japonicus infestation. From 188 adult females Neoergasilus japonicus specimens recorded on the fish host, 8 (4.26 %) were on the anal, 120 (63.83 %) on the dorsal, 10 (5.32 %), on the pectoral, 45 (23.94 %) on the pelvic, and 5 (2.66 %) on the caudal fins. In this study, the prevalence of parasitic copepod infestation from Dec. to May was 26.31, 27.69, 26.19, 14, 18.75, and 7.5 %, respectively. There was no significant difference between infestation prevalence in indigenous and non-native fishes (P = 0.18). There were significant differences between different months of year in the prevalence and intensity of Neoergasilus japonicas (P < 0.05). There was significant difference between frequency distribution of Neoergasilus Japonicus infestation in different organs (P < 0.05). The male fish infestation (16.3 %) was significantly higher than female fish infestation (5.6 %) (P < 0.05). Considering that the Neoergasilus japonicus was first observed in native and nonnative ornamental fish in Kerman, further studies should be conducted on the copepod infestation in stores supplying ornamental

  12. The Proteome of Seed Development in the Model Legume Lotus japonicus1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S.; Ørnfelt, Jane H.; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Friis, Carsten; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Besenbacher, Søren; Krusell, Lene; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Stougaard, Jens

    2009-01-01

    We have characterized the development of seeds in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Like soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum), Lotus develops straight seed pods and each pod contains approximately 20 seeds that reach maturity within 40 days. Histological sections show the characteristic three developmental phases of legume seeds and the presence of embryo, endosperm, and seed coat in desiccated seeds. Furthermore, protein, oil, starch, phytic acid, and ash contents were determined, and this indicates that the composition of mature Lotus seed is more similar to soybean than to pea. In a first attempt to determine the seed proteome, both a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis approach and a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach were used. Globulins were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and five legumins, LLP1 to LLP5, and two convicilins, LCP1 and LCP2, were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. For two distinct developmental phases, seed filling and desiccation, a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach was used, and 665 and 181 unique proteins corresponding to gene accession numbers were identified for the two phases, respectively. All of the proteome data, including the experimental data and mass spectrometry spectra peaks, were collected in a database that is available to the scientific community via a Web interface (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi). This database establishes the basis for relating physiology, biochemistry, and regulation of seed development in Lotus. Together with a new Web interface (http://bioinfoserver.rsbs.anu.edu.au/utils/PathExpress4legumes/) collecting all protein identifications for Lotus, Medicago, and soybean seed proteomes, this database is a valuable resource for comparative seed proteomics and pathway analysis within and beyond the legume family. PMID:19129418

  13. The proteome of seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S; Ornfelt, Jane H; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Staerfeldt, Hans Henrik; Friis, Carsten; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Besenbacher, Søren; Krusell, Lene; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J; Stougaard, Jens

    2009-03-01

    We have characterized the development of seeds in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Like soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum), Lotus develops straight seed pods and each pod contains approximately 20 seeds that reach maturity within 40 days. Histological sections show the characteristic three developmental phases of legume seeds and the presence of embryo, endosperm, and seed coat in desiccated seeds. Furthermore, protein, oil, starch, phytic acid, and ash contents were determined, and this indicates that the composition of mature Lotus seed is more similar to soybean than to pea. In a first attempt to determine the seed proteome, both a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis approach and a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach were used. Globulins were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and five legumins, LLP1 to LLP5, and two convicilins, LCP1 and LCP2, were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. For two distinct developmental phases, seed filling and desiccation, a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach was used, and 665 and 181 unique proteins corresponding to gene accession numbers were identified for the two phases, respectively. All of the proteome data, including the experimental data and mass spectrometry spectra peaks, were collected in a database that is available to the scientific community via a Web interface (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi). This database establishes the basis for relating physiology, biochemistry, and regulation of seed development in Lotus. Together with a new Web interface (http://bioinfoserver.rsbs.anu.edu.au/utils/PathExpress4legumes/) collecting all protein identifications for Lotus, Medicago, and soybean seed proteomes, this database is a valuable resource for comparative seed proteomics and pathway analysis within and beyond the legume family.

  14. Development of fatty acid biomarkers for the identification of wild and aquacultured sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhnyj, P. A.; Pivnenko, T. N.; Kovalev, N. N.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the fatty acids (FAs) of the organs and tissues of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were profiled in order to compare the FA composition of sea cucumber collected from natural habitat (wild) and cages (cultured). The differences in FA contents in dermomuscular tube, peripharyngeal annulus, gonad and intestine (with or without content) between the wild and the cultured were determined. The main fatty acids in all organs and tissues were 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7, 20:4n-6, 22:6n-3, 18:0, and 18:1n-7. The basically different FAs of body wall and digestive tube were 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-11. The ratio of saturated to mono- and polyunsaturated FAs in digestive tube was independent on inside content while there was a redistribution of the total amount of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The comparison of FA composition of the wild and the cultured sea cucumber showed that 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-7 predominated the wild while 20:4n-6 predominated the cultured. The content of branched-chain fatty acids in the wild was 3%-4% and about 9% in the cultured. The possible FAs for identifying the wild and the cultured sea cucumbers were selected. It was suggested that the indexes such as the ratio of either (n-3:n-6) to (n-7:n-6) or (n-3) + (n-7) to (n-6) may serve as the biomarkers distinguishing the wild and the cultured sea cucumber.

  15. Identification and expression analysis of a new invertebrate lysozyme in Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Jun; Mao, Yong; Liu, Min; Niu, Su-Fang; Qiao, Ying; Su, Yong-Quan; Wang, Chun-Zhong; Zheng, Zhi-Peng

    2016-02-01

    Lysozyme is an important component of the innate immunity system against invading pathogens. An invertebrate (i-type) lysozyme from the hepatopancreas of Kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (Mj-ilys) was identified. The full-length cDNA of Mj-ilys was 580bp with a 429 bp open reading frame encoding a 142 amino acid polypeptide. The encoded polypeptide was predicted to have a 17 amino acid signal peptide, and a 125 amino acid mature protein with a theoretical mass of 14.099 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.18. A Destabilase conserved domain was predicted in Mj-ilys amino acid sequences which may be stable by 10 cysteine residues forming 5 disulfide bonds. Mj-ilys may loss the muramidase and isopeptidase activities due to the lack of the key catalytic residues. Mj-ilys had high homologous of 80-82% with i-type lysozymes of penaeid shrimps. It was first grouped with other i-type lysozyme of shrimps and crabs in a phylogenetic tree predicted by the Neighbor-Joining method. Mj-ilys mRNA was expressed mainly in hepatopancreas and almost undetectable in other tissues. The mRNA expression of Mj-ilys were all found from fertilized eggs to post-larvae of 17 days (PL17), and its expression exhibited significant differences among each developmental stage. After white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge (3.6 × 10(8) virions/μl), the time-dependent expression pattern of Mj-ilys in hepatopancreas and gills showed significantly different. These results indicated that Mj-ilys is potentially involved in the ontogenesis and immune defense in Kuruma shrimp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis of papilla and skin in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxu Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Papilla and skin are two important organs of the sea cucumber. Both tissues have ectodermic origin, but they are morphologically and functionally very different. In the present study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of the papilla and skin from the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus in order to identify and characterize gene expression profiles by using RNA-Seq technology. We generated 30.6 and 36.4 million clean reads from the papilla and skin and de novo assembled in 156,501 transcripts. The Gene Ontology (GO analysis indicated that cell part, metabolic process and catalytic activity were the most abundant GO category in cell component, biological process and molecular funcation, respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis between the papilla and skin allowed the identification of 1,059 differentially expressed genes, of which 739 genes were expressed at higher levels in papilla, while 320 were expressed at higher levels in skin. In addition, 236 differentially expressed unigenes were not annotated with any database, 160 of which were apparently expressed at higher levels in papilla, 76 were expressed at higher levels in skin. We identified a total of 288 papilla-specific genes, 171 skin-specific genes and 600 co-expressed genes. Also, 40 genes in papilla-specific were not annotated with any database, 2 in skin-specific. Development-related genes were also enriched, such as fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, collagen-α2 and Integrin-α2, which may be related to the formation of the papilla and skin in sea cucumber. Further pathway analysis identified ten KEGG pathways that were differently enriched between the papilla and skin. The findings on expression profiles between two key organs of the sea cucumber should be valuable to reveal molecular mechanisms involved in the development of organs that are related but with morphological differences in the sea cucumber.

  17. Intraretinal variability and specialization of cones in Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus, Engraulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashev, S L; Kornienko, M S; Gnyubkina, V P; Frolova, L T

    2016-04-01

    The retina of anchovies is characterized by an unusual arrangement and ultrastructure of cones. In the retina of Japanese anchovies, Engraulis japonicus, three types of cones are distributed into rows. The nasal, central, temporal, and ventro-temporal regions of the retina were occupied exclusively by the long and short cones. Triple cones, made up of two lateral components and one smaller central component, were found only in the dorsal and ventro-nasal retinal regions. In the outer segments of all short and long cones from the ventro-temporal region, the lamellae were oriented along the cell axis and were perpendicular to the lamellae in the long cones, providing a morphological basis for the detection of polarization. This lamellar orientation is unique to all vertebrates. The cones were examined with respect to regional differentiation in their size and spectral properties via light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and microspectrophotometry. Various dimensions of cones were measured in preparations of isolated cells. The cones from the ventro-temporal region had different dimensions than cones of the same type located in other retinal regions. Triple cones from the dorsal region were significantly larger than triple cones from the ventro-nasal region. The spectral absorbance of the lateral components of triple cones in the ventro-nasal retina was identical to the absorbance of all long and short cones from the ventro-temporal region. These are shifted to shorter wavelengths relative to the absorbance of the lateral components of the triple cones located in the dorsal retina. Thus, the retina of the Japanese anchovy shows some features of regional specialization common in other fishes that improves spatial resolution for the upwards and forwards visual axis and provides spectral tuning in downwelling light environment. That results from the differentiation of cone types by size and by different spectral sensitivity of various retinal areas. © 2016

  18. Different transcriptomic responses of two marine copepods, Tigriopus japonicus and Pseudodiaptomus annandalei, to a low dose of mercury chloride (HgCl2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minghua; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Li, Yan; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) pollution is a ubiquitous and serious concern in marine environments, but the response mechanisms of marine animals to Hg pollution (i.e., toxicity/tolerance) are poorly understood. To compare the global responses of two marine copepods (Tigriopus japonicus and Pseudodiaptomus annandalei), we analyzed whole transcriptomes using RNA-seq technology in response to Hg treatment (a nominal 10μg/L HgCl 2 in seawater) for 5h. Hg was strikingly accumulated in both copepods under treatment. The Hg concentration in P. annandalei was higher under metal exposure by approximately 1.4-fold compared with treated T. japonicus. Among transcriptomic data, 101 genes in T. japonicus and 18 genes in P. annandalei were differentially regulated in response to Hg exposure. The up-regulated genes in T. japonicus were concerned with stress, growth, and development, while the down-regulated ones were mainly related to immune response. In P. annandalei, most of the differentially expressed genes were up-regulated, and all were involved in stress response. Our work indicated that Hg exhibits endocrine-disrupting potential at the transcriptomic level in marine copepods. Overall, our study demonstrates the species-specific molecular responses of these two copepods to Hg pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea): the first representative from the subclass Aspidochirotacea with the echinoderm ground pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Tian, Mei; Liu, Zhihong; Cheng, Hanliang; Tan, Jie; Meng, Xueping; Ren, Jianfeng

    2009-06-15

    Complete mitochondrial genome plays an important role in the accurate revelation of phylogenetic relationships among metazoans. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea), which is the first representative from the subclass Aspidochirotacea. The mitochondrial genome of A. japonicus is 16,096 bp in length. The heavy strand consists of 31.8% A, 20.2% C, 17.9% G, and 30.1% T bases (AT skew=0.027; GC skew=0.062). It contains thirteen protein-coding genes (PCGs), twenty-two transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. There are a total of 3793 codons in all thirteen mitochondrial PCGs, excluding incomplete termination codons. The most frequently used amino acid is Leu (15.77%), followed by Ser (9.73%), Met (8.62%), Phe (7.94%), and Ala (7.28%). Intergenetic regions in the mitochondrial genome of A. japonicus are 839 bp in total, with three relatively large regions of Unassigned Sequences (UAS) greater than 100 bp. The gene order of A. japonicus is identical to that observed in the five studied sea urchins, which confirms that the gene order shared by the two classes (Holothuroidea and Echinoidea) is a ground pattern of echinoderm mitochondrial genomes. Bayesian tree based on the cob gene supports the following relationship: (outgroup, (Crinoids, (Asteroids, Ophiuroids, (Echinoids, Holothuroids)))).

  20. Improving the quality of Laminaria japonica-based diet for Apostichopus japonicus through degradation of its algin content with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xitao; Wang, Lili; Che, Jian; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jiancheng; Li, Xiaoyu; Hu, Weiqing; Xu, Yongping

    2015-07-01

    Laminaria japonica feedstuff is used as a substitute for Sargassum thunbergii in the small-scale culturing of Apostichopus japonicus (sea cucumber) because of its abundant sources and low price in China. However, the difficulty associated with the degradation of algin by A. japonicus and, hence, its utilization have limited the practical value of L. japonica feedstuff in sea cucumber farming. In this study, A. japonicus individuals were fed with L. japonica feedstuff pretreated, via fermentation with the algin-degrading bacterial strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WB1, and their growth performance, nonspecific immune responses, and resistance against Vibrio infection were then determined over a 60-day period. Growth performance of these individuals was similar to those fed with a commercial feedstuff made from S. thunbergii (mean weight gain of 5.79 versus 5.69 g on day 60), but was significantly (P content had been degraded by B. amyloliquefaciens WB1 could improve the growth performance of A. japonicus as well its resistance to bacterial infection. It could therefore act as an alternative to S. thunbergii and is economical at the same time.

  1. Effects of salt stress on the expression of antioxidant genes and proteins in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Maria C; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Clemente, Maria R; Becana, Manuel

    2009-03-01

    Salt stress negatively affects many physiological processes in plants. Some of these effects may involve the oxidative damage of cellular components, which can be promoted by reactive oxygen species and prevented by antioxidants. The protective role of antioxidants was investigated in Lotus japonicus exposed to two salinization protocols: S1 (150 mM NaCl for 7 d) and S2 (50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl, each concentration for 6 d). Several markers of salt stress were measured and the expression of antioxidant genes was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and, in some cases, immunoblots and enzyme activity assays. Leaves of S1 plants suffered from mild osmotic stress, accumulated proline but noNa+, and showed induction of many superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase genes. Leaves of S2 plants showed increases in Na+ and Ca2+, decreases in K+, and accumulation of proline and malondialdehyde. In leaves and roots of S1 and S2 plants, the mRNA, protein and activity levels of the ascorbate-glutathione enzymes remained constant, with a few exceptions. Notably, there was consistent up-regulation of the gene encoding cytosolic dehydroascorbate reductase, and this was possibly related to its role in ascorbate recycling in the apoplast. The overall results indicate that L. japonicus is more tolerant to salt stress than other legumes, which can be attributed to the capacity of the plant to prevent Na+reaching the shoot and to activate antioxidant defenses.

  2. Production of the Functional Trisaccharide 1-Kestose from Cane Sugar Molasses Using Aspergillus japonicus β-Fructofuranosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Katsuki; Kondo, Nobuhiro; Toyota, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Sachio

    2017-01-01

    We report the production of the functional trisaccharide 1-kestose, O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside, by β-fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus japonicus using sugar cane molasses as substrate. Sucrose in cane sugar molasses acted as a fructosyl donor and acceptor for the enzyme. The tetrasaccharide nystose, O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside, was produced from 1-kestose. Cane sugar molasses mixed with water provided a better substrate solution for β-fructofuranosidase compared to undiluted molasses due to the high concentration of product inhibitors such as glucose and fructose in molasses. The maximum concentration of 1-kestose obtained was 84.9 mg/ml and the maximum production efficiency was 32.3% after 24 h reaction at 40 °C. The maximum efficiency of combined fructo-oligosaccharide (1-kestose and nystose) production was 40.6%. 1-Kestose was therefore produced via a fructosyl-transfer reaction catalyzed by β-fructofuranosidase from A. japonicus.

  3. Identification and functional characterization of a sulfate transporter induced by both sulfur starvation and mycorrhiza formation in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Marco; Tolosano, Matteo; Volpe, Veronica; Kopriva, Stanislav; Bonfante, Paola

    2014-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) are one of the most widespread symbioses in the world. They allow plants to receive mineral nutrients from the symbiotic fungus which in turn gets back up to 20% of plant carbon and completes its life cycle. Especially in low-nutrient conditions, AM fungi are capable of significantly improving plant phosphate and nitrogen acquisition, but fewer data are available about sulfur (S) nutrition. We focused on S metabolism in Lotus japonicus upon mycorrhizal colonization under sulfur starvation or repletion. We investigated both tissue sulfate concentrations and S-related gene expression, at cell-type or whole-organ level. Gene expression and sulfate tissue concentration showed that Rhizophagus irregularis colonization can improve plant S nutritional status under S starvation. A group 1 sulfate transporter, LjSultr1;2, induced by both S starvation and mycorrhiza formation, was identified. Its transcript was localized in arbuscule-containing cells, which was confirmed with a promoter-GUS assay, and its function was verified through phenotyping of TILLING mutants in nonmycorrhizal seedlings. LjSultr1;2 thus appears to encode a key protein involved in plant sulfate uptake. In contrast to phosphate transporters, a single gene, LjSultr1;2, seems to mediate both direct and symbiotic pathways of S uptake in L. japonicus. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during aestivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye; Chen, Muyan; Wang, Tianming; Sun, Lina; Xu, Dongxue; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a technique that is widely used for gene expression analysis, and its accuracy depends on the expression stability of the internal reference genes used as normalization factors. However, many applications of qRT-PCR used housekeeping genes as internal controls without validation. In this study, the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes in three tissues (intestine, respiratory tree, and muscle) of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was assessed during normal growth and aestivation using the geNorm, NormFinder, delta CT, and RefFinder algorithms. The results indicate that the reference genes exhibited significantly different expression patterns among the three tissues during aestivation. In general, the β-tubulin (TUBB) gene was relatively stable in the intestine and respiratory tree tissues. The optimal reference gene combination for intestine was 40S ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18), TUBB, and NADH dehydrogenase (NADH); for respiratory tree, it was β-actin (ACTB), TUBB, and succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome B small subunit (SDHC); and for muscle it was α-tubulin (TUBA) and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 α subcomplex subunit 13 (NDUFA13). These combinations of internal control genes should be considered for use in further studies of gene expression in A. japonicus during aestivation.

  5. Identification and characterization of 43 microsatellite markers derived from expressed sequence tags of the sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qun; Li, Qi; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng

    2011-06-01

    The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is a commercially and ecologically important species in China. A total of 3056 potential unigenes were generated after assembling 7597 A. japonicus expressed sequence tags (ESTs) downloaded from Gen-Bank. Two hundred and fifty microsatellite-containing ESTs (8.18%) and 299 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. The average density of SSRs was 1 per 7.403 kb of EST after redundancy elimination. Di-nucleotide repeat motifs appeared to be the most abundant type with a percentage of 69.90%. Of the 126 primer pairs designed, 90 amplified the expected products and 43 showed polymorphism in 30 individuals tested. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 26 with an average of 7.0 alleles, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.067 to 1.000 and from 0.066 to 0.959, respectively. These new EST-derived microsatellite markers would provide sufficient polymorphism for population genetic studies and genome mapping of this sea cucumber species.

  6. 16S rRNA gene phylogenesis of culturable predominant bacteria from diseased Apostichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haiyan; Jiang, Guoliang; Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xin

    2009-06-01

    Cultured Apostichopus japonicus in China suffers from a kind of skin ulceration disease that has caused severe economic loss in recent years. The disease, pathogens of which are supposed to be bacteria by most researchers, is highly infectious and can often cause all individuals in the same culture pool to die in a very short time. The 16S rRNA gene phylogenesis of the culturable bacteria from the lesions of diseased individuals was conducted to study the biodiversity of the bacterial communities in the lesions and to identify probable pathogen(s) associated with this kind of disease. S. japonica samples were selected from a hatchery located in the eastern part of Qingdao, China. Bacterial universal primers GM5F and DS907R were used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria colonies, and touchdown PCR was performed to amplify the target sequences. The results suggest that γ- proteobacteria (Alteromonadales and Vibrionales) of CFB group, many strains of which have been also determined as pathogens in other marine species, are the predominant bacterial genera of the diseased Apostichopus japonicus individuals.

  7. Impact of CO2-driven acidification on the development of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Shao, Senlin; Dupont, Sam; Meng, Leiming; Liu, Yongjian; Wang, Lijun

    2015-06-15

    We evaluated the impact of ocean acidification on the early development of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. The effect of pH-levels (pH 8.04, 7.85, 7.70 and 7.42) were tested on post-fertilization success, developmental (stage duration) and growth rates. Post-fertilization success decreased linearly with pH leading to a 6% decrease at pH 7.42 as compared to pH 8.1. The impact of pH on developmental time was stage-dependent: (1) stage duration increased linearly with decreasing pH in early-auricularia stage; (2) decreased linearly with decreasing pH in the mid-auricularia stage; but (3) pH decline had no effect on the late-auricularia stage. At the end of the experiment, the size of doliolaria larvae linearly increased with decreasing pH. In conclusion, a 0.62 unit decrease in pH had relatively small effects on A. japonicus early life-history compared to other echinoderms, leading to a maximum of 6% decrease in post-fertilization success and subtle effects on growth and development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro metabolism of steroid hormones by ovary and hepatopancreas of the crustacean Penaeid shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Summavielle

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Radioimmunoassay (RIA was applied to identify selected metabolites obtained in in vitro incubations of ovarian and hepatopancreatic tissues from female Marsupenaeus japonicus in previtellogenic and vitellogenic maturation stages. Depending on the precursors used, progesterone, 17?-hydroxyprogesterone or testosterone, it was possible to observe the presence of several enzymatic activities through metabolites detected in incubations. The present study provides evidence that the ovary of the shrimp M. japonicus is capable of synthesising 17?-estradiol from progesterone, evidencing the presence of 17?-hydroxylase, C17-C20 lyase, 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17?-HSD and aromatase. Enzymatic activities of aromatase, 3?-HSD and 17?-hydroxylase were detected in hepatopancreas, but not that of C17-C20 lyase. These results suggest that 17?-estradiol could be the vitellogenesis stimulating ovarian hormone (VSOH, and together with former in vivo and in vitro studies this leads us to propose that in fact there may be a physiological role for steroid hormones in the maturation cycle of crustaceans.

  9. Characterization and identification of enzyme-producing microflora isolated from the gut of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenghui; Gao, Fei; Tan, Jie; Fan, Chaojing; Sun, Huiling; Yan, Jingping; Chen, Siqing; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Gut microorganisms play an important role in the digestion of their host animals. The purpose of this research was to isolate and assess the enzyme-producing microbes from the Apostichopus japonicus gut. Thirty-nine strains that can produce at least one of the three digestive enzymes (protease, amylase, and cellulase) were qualitatively screened based on their extracellular enzyme-producing abilities. The enzyme-producing strains clustered into eight groups at the genetic similarity level of 100% by analyzing the restriction patterns of 16S rDNA amplified with Mbo I. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 37 strains belonged to the genus Bacillus and two were members of the genus Virgibacillus. Enzyme-producing capability results indicate that the main enzyme-producing microflora in the A. japonicus gut was Bacillus, which can produce protease, amylase, and cellulase. Virgibacillus, however, can only produce protease. The high enzyme-producing capability of the isolates suggests that the gut microbiota play an important role in the sea cucumber digestive process.

  10. Enhanced hyphal growth of arbuscular mycorrhizae by root exudates derived from high R/FR treated Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Maki; Yamamoto, Naoya; Miyamoto, Taro; Shimomura, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2016-06-02

    Red/Far Red (R/FR) sensing positively influences the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis of both legume and nonlegume plants through jasmonic acid (JA) and strigolactone signaling. We previously reported that root exudates obtained from high R/FR-grown plants contained more strigolactone than low R/FR-grown plants. To determine whether JA and JA derivatives were secreted from roots, we investigated the expression levels of JA-responsive genes in L. japonicus Miyakojima MG20 plants treated with root exudates prepared from either high or low R/FR light-treated plants. The root exudates from high R/FR light-treated plants were found to enhance the expression levels of JA-responsive genes significantly. Moreover, exogenous JA increased AM fungal hyphal elongation as did the root exudates derived from high R/FR-grown L. japonicus plants. We conclude that increased JA accumulation and secretion into root exudates from high R/FR light-grown plants is the best explanation for increased colonization and enhanced mycorrhization under these conditions.

  11. Effects of trimethoprim on life history parameters, oxidative stress, and the expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Min-Chul; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Lee, Young Hwan; Park, Jun Chul; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-09-01

    Trimethoprim (TMP) is an antibiotic that has been detected in various environments including marine habitats; however, the toxic effects of TMP are poorly understood in non-target marine organisms. In this study, the effects of TMP on mortality, development, reproduction, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and transcription levels of antioxidant and xenobiotic detoxification-related enzyme genes were investigated in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus. The TMP half lethal dose at 48 h (LC50-48 h) in nauplius and TMP LC50-96 h in adult T. japonicus copepods was determined as 156 mg/L and 200 mg/L, respectively. In TMP-exposed T. japonicus, delayed developmental time and impaired reproduction were observed as harmful effects on the life history parameters. Increased ROS levels were also shown in response to TMP exposure at the highest concentration (100 mg/L TMP) and the expression of antioxidant- (e.g. GST-kappa, GST-sigma) and xenobiotic detoxification (e.g. CYPs)-related genes were upregulated in a time and/or dose-dependent manner in response to TMP. Particularly, significant upregulation of three CYP genes (Tj-CYP3024A2, Tj-CYP3024A3 and Tj-CYP3027C2) were examined, suggesting that these CYP genes are likely playing an important role in the TMP detoxification metabolism in T. japonicus. In summary, we found that TMP induced oxidative stress via the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant- and xenobiotic detoxification-related genes, leading to changes in life history parameters such as developmental delay and reproduction impairment. Three Tj-CYP genes (Tj-CYP3024A2, Tj-CYP3024A3 and Tj-CYP3027C2) could be useful as potential T. japonicus biomarkers in response to antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hyper-expansion of large DNA segments in the genome of kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Hidehiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher crustaceans (class Malacostraca represent the most species-rich and morphologically diverse group of non-insect arthropods and many of its members are commercially important. Although the crustacean DNA sequence information is growing exponentially, little is known about the genome organization of Malacostraca. Here, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library and performed BAC-end sequencing to provide genomic information for kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus, one of the most widely cultured species among crustaceans, and found the presence of a redundant sequence in the BAC library. We examined the BAC clone that includes the redundant sequence to further analyze its length, copy number and location in the kuruma shrimp genome. Results Mj024A04 BAC clone, which includes one redundant sequence, contained 27 putative genes and seemed to display a normal genomic DNA structure. Notably, of the putative genes, 3 genes encode homologous proteins to the inhibitor of apoptosis protein and 7 genes encode homologous proteins to white spot syndrome virus, a virulent pathogen known to affect crustaceans. Colony hybridization and PCR analysis of 381 BAC clones showed that almost half of the BAC clones maintain DNA segments whose sequences are homologous to the representative BAC clone Mj024A04. The Mj024A04 partial sequence was detected multiple times in the kuruma shrimp nuclear genome with a calculated copy number of at least 100. Microsatellites based BAC genotyping clearly showed that Mj024A04 homologous sequences were cloned from at least 48 different chromosomal loci. The absence of micro-syntenic relationships with the available genomic sequences of Daphnia and Drosophila suggests the uniqueness of these fragments in kuruma shrimp from current arthropod genome sequences. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that hyper-expansion of large DNA segments took place in the kuruma shrimp genome. Although we

  13. MHC class II DQB diversity in the Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are one of the most important genetic systems in the vertebrate immune response. The diversity of MHC genes may directly influence the survival of individuals against infectious disease. However, there has been no investigation of MHC diversity in the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus). Here, we analyzed 270-bp nucleotide sequences of the entire exon 2 region of the MHC DQB gene by using 188 samples from the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) from 12 local populations. Results Among 185 of 188 samples, we identified 44 MHC variants that encoded 31 different amino acid sequences (allotypes) and one putative pseudogene. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that MHC variants detected from the Japanese black bear are derived from the DQB locus. One of the 31 DQB allotypes, Urth-DQB*01, was found to be common to all local populations. Moreover, this allotype was shared between the black bear on the Asian continent and the Japanese black bear, suggesting that Urth-DQB*01 might have been maintained in the ancestral black bear population for at least 300,000 years. Our findings, from calculating the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, indicate that balancing selection has maintained genetic variation of peptide-binding residues at the DQB locus of the Japanese black bear. From examination of genotype frequencies among local populations, we observed a considerably lower level of observed heterozygosity than expected. Conclusions The low level of observed heterozygosity suggests that genetic drift reduced DQB diversity in the Japanese black bear due to a bottleneck event at the population or species level. The decline of DQB diversity might have been accelerated by the loss of rare variants that have been maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. Nevertheless, DQB diversity of the black bear appears to be relatively high compared with some other endangered mammalian

  14. MHC class II DQB diversity in the Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasukochi Yoshiki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes are one of the most important genetic systems in the vertebrate immune response. The diversity of MHC genes may directly influence the survival of individuals against infectious disease. However, there has been no investigation of MHC diversity in the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus. Here, we analyzed 270-bp nucleotide sequences of the entire exon 2 region of the MHC DQB gene by using 188 samples from the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus from 12 local populations. Results Among 185 of 188 samples, we identified 44 MHC variants that encoded 31 different amino acid sequences (allotypes and one putative pseudogene. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that MHC variants detected from the Japanese black bear are derived from the DQB locus. One of the 31 DQB allotypes, Urth-DQB*01, was found to be common to all local populations. Moreover, this allotype was shared between the black bear on the Asian continent and the Japanese black bear, suggesting that Urth-DQB*01 might have been maintained in the ancestral black bear population for at least 300,000 years. Our findings, from calculating the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, indicate that balancing selection has maintained genetic variation of peptide-binding residues at the DQB locus of the Japanese black bear. From examination of genotype frequencies among local populations, we observed a considerably lower level of observed heterozygosity than expected. Conclusions The low level of observed heterozygosity suggests that genetic drift reduced DQB diversity in the Japanese black bear due to a bottleneck event at the population or species level. The decline of DQB diversity might have been accelerated by the loss of rare variants that have been maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. Nevertheless, DQB diversity of the black bear appears to be relatively high compared with some other

  15. Genetic identification of anisakid nematodes isolated from largehead hairtail (Trichiurus japonicus in Korea

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    Jeong-Ho Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nematode species belonging to genus Anisakis occur at their third larval stage in numerous marine teleost fish species worldwide and known to cause accidental human infection through the ingestion of raw or undercooked fish or squids. They may also draw the attention of consumers because of the visual impact of both alive and dead worms. Therefore, the information on their geographical distribution and clear species identification is important for epidemiological survey and further prevention of human infection. Results For identification of anisakid nematodes species isolated from largehead hairtail (Trichiurus japonicus, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis of internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA were conducted. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 gene was also sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was conducted. From the largehead hairtail (n = 9, 1259 nematodes were isolated in total. Most of the nematodes were found encapsulated throughout the viscera (56.2 %, 708/1259 or moving freely in the body cavity (41.5 %, 523/1259, and only 0.3 % (4/1259 was found in the muscles. By PCR-RFLP, three different nematode species were identified. Anisakis pegreffii was the most dominantly found (98.7 %, 1243/1259 from the largehead hairtail, occupying 98.7 % (699/708 of the nematodes in the mesenteries and 98.1 % (513/523 in the body cavity. Hybrid genotype (Anisakis simplex × A. pegreffii occupied 0.5 %, and Hysterothylacium sp. occupied 0.2 % of the nematodes isolated in this study. Conclusions The largehead hairtail may not significantly contribute accidental human infection of anisakid nematode third stage larvae because most of the nematodes were found from the viscera or body cavity, which are not consumed raw. But, a high prevalence of anisakid nematode larvae in the largehead hairtail is still in concern because they may raise food safety

  16. MHC class II DQB diversity in the Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukochi, Yoshiki; Kurosaki, Toshifumi; Yoneda, Masaaki; Koike, Hiroko; Satta, Yoko

    2012-11-29

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are one of the most important genetic systems in the vertebrate immune response. The diversity of MHC genes may directly influence the survival of individuals against infectious disease. However, there has been no investigation of MHC diversity in the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus). Here, we analyzed 270-bp nucleotide sequences of the entire exon 2 region of the MHC DQB gene by using 188 samples from the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) from 12 local populations. Among 185 of 188 samples, we identified 44 MHC variants that encoded 31 different amino acid sequences (allotypes) and one putative pseudogene. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that MHC variants detected from the Japanese black bear are derived from the DQB locus. One of the 31 DQB allotypes, Urth-DQB*01, was found to be common to all local populations. Moreover, this allotype was shared between the black bear on the Asian continent and the Japanese black bear, suggesting that Urth-DQB*01 might have been maintained in the ancestral black bear population for at least 300,000 years. Our findings, from calculating the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, indicate that balancing selection has maintained genetic variation of peptide-binding residues at the DQB locus of the Japanese black bear. From examination of genotype frequencies among local populations, we observed a considerably lower level of observed heterozygosity than expected. The low level of observed heterozygosity suggests that genetic drift reduced DQB diversity in the Japanese black bear due to a bottleneck event at the population or species level. The decline of DQB diversity might have been accelerated by the loss of rare variants that have been maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. Nevertheless, DQB diversity of the black bear appears to be relatively high compared with some other endangered mammalian species. This result suggests that

  17. Phaeobacter marinintestinus sp. nov., isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Hwa; Song, Eun-Ji; Seo, Myung-Ji; Hyun, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jin-Woo; Lee, So-Young; Roh, Seong Woon; Nam, Young-Do

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, and rod-shaped bacterial strain designated UB-M7(T) was isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) collected from Pohang in South Korea. Strain UB-M7(T) displayed optimal growth at 25 °C, pH 7.0-7.5, and with 2.0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain UB-M7(T) clustered with Phaeobacter arcticus DSM 23566(T), Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 16374(T), Phaeobacter gallaeciensis BS107(T), and Phaeobacter leonis 306(T), exhibiting 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 96.8, 96.6, 96.4, and 96.2 %, respectively. Strain UB-M7(T) was found to exhibit the highest gyrB sequence similarity value of 80.6 % to the type strain of P. arcticus. The major respiratory quinone of strain UB-M7(T) was found to be ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The major cellular fatty acids (>5 % of the total fatty acids) are summed features 8 (comprising C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c), 11-methyl C18:1 ω7c, and cyclo C19:0 ω8c. The DNA G+C content was found to be 58.5 mol% and DNA-DNA relatedness value with P. arcticus JCM 14644(T) was 17.2 ± 2.4 %. The major polar lipids of strain UB-M7(T) were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine; one phospholipid, and three other lipids remain unidentified. Based on its phenotypic, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic properties it is concluded that strain UB-M7(T) represents a novel species in the genus Phaeobacter, for which the name Phaeobacter marinintestinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is UB-M7(T) (=KCCM 43045(T) = JCM 19926(T)).

  18. The effect of ice crystals formations on the flesh quality of frozen horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Miyazaki, Riho; Saitou, Shinobu; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Takeshita, Satoshi; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Taniyama, Shigeto

    2017-11-15

    It is known that the formation of ice crystals has a negative impact on the flesh quality of frozen meat. This study focuses on how the formation of ice crystals in the dorsal ordinary muscle affects the flesh quality of frozen horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus). Freeze-thawed muscle specimens (F-TMS) of horse mackerel were first stored at -24C and then thawed. The K-value, expressible water, breaking strength of unfrozen muscle specimens (UMS) and F-TMS, and histological structure (light microscope [LM], scanning electron microscope [SEM] of UMS, frozen muscle specimens [FMS], and F-TMS) were investigated. K-values were higher in the F-TMS than in the UMS, and the increasing rate of K-value in F-TMS was approximately 1.4-fold higher than UMS. Similarly, the percentage of expressible water was higher in the F-TMS than in the UMS. The breaking strength of the UMS decreased with storage period, but it remained at a higher level than that of F-TMS. Numerous ice crystal formations in muscle cells of FMS and small interstices between cells of F-TMS were observed under LM. Moreover, we observed a relatively collapsed honeycomb structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM) under SEM, and found that collagen fibril networks of endomysiums became looser after thawing. Therefore, ice crystals contribute to vulnerabilities in the ECM. These results suggest that a decrease of freshness and the degradation of physical properties caused by ECM destruction may be due to the formation of ice crystals in muscle structures during freezing, leading to the deterioration of flesh quality during storage. The flesh quality deteriorated after thawing on the basis of degradation of physical properties. Moreover, it could be presumed that the K-value increase was exacerbated by ice crystals, and the decreasing speed of chemical freshness was sped up accompanied by ice storage after thawing. Thus, the formation of ice crystals, which destroyed the muscle cells and structures, may be one of

  19. Swim bladder function and buoyancy control in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Hughes, Julian M

    2014-04-01

    Physoclist fish are able to regulate their buoyancy by secreting gas into their hydrostatic organ, the swim bladder, as they descend through the water column and by resorbing gas from their swim bladder as they ascend. Physoclists are restricted in their vertical movements due to increases in swim bladder gas volume that occur as a result of a reduction in hydrostatic pressure, causing fish to become positively buoyant and risking swim bladder rupture. Buoyancy control, rates of swim bladder gas exchange and restrictions to vertical movements are little understood in marine teleosts. We used custom-built hyperbaric chambers and laboratory experiments to examine these aspects of physiology for two important fishing target species in southern Australia, pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). The swim bladders of pink snapper and mulloway averaged 4.2 and 4.9 % of their total body volumes, respectively. The density of pink snapper was not significantly different to the density of seawater (1.026 g/ml), whereas mulloway were significantly denser than seawater. Pink snapper secreted gas into their swim bladders at a rate of 0.027 ± 0.005 ml/kg/min (mean ± SE), almost 4 times faster than mulloway (0.007 ± 0.001 ml/kg/min). Rates of swim bladder gas resorption were 11 and 6 times faster than the rates of gas secretion for pink snapper and mulloway, respectively. Pink snapper resorbed swim bladder gas at a rate of 0.309 ± 0.069 ml/kg/min, 7 times faster than mulloway (0.044 ± 0.009 ml/kg/min). Rates of gas exchange were not affected by water pressure or water temperature over the ranges examined in either species. Pink snapper were able to acclimate to changes in hydrostatic pressure reasonably quickly when compared to other marine teleosts, taking approximately 27 h to refill their swim bladders from empty. Mulloway were able to acclimate at a much slower rate, taking approximately 99 h to refill their swim bladders. We estimated that the

  20. Succession and seasonal variation in epilithic biofilms on artificial reefs in culture waters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Du, Rongbin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Dong, Shuanglin; Sun, Shichun

    2017-01-01

    Periphytic biofilms in aquaculture waters are thought to improve water quality, provide an additional food source, and improve the survival and growth of some reared animals. In the Asia- Pacific region, particularly in China, artificial reefs are commonly used in the commercial farming of sea cucumbers. However, few studies have examined the epilithic biofilms on the artificial reefs. To gain a better understanding of the succession of epilithic biofilms and their ecological processes in sea cucumber culture waters, two experiments were conducted in culture waters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in Rongcheng, China, using artificial test panels. On the test panels of succession experiment, more than 67 species were identified in the biofilms. On the test panels of seasonal variation experiment, more than 46 species were recorded in the biofilms. In both experiments, communities of epilithic biofilms were dominated by diatoms, green algae and the annelid Spirorbis sp. In the initial colonization, the dominant diatoms were Cocconeis sp., Amphora spp. and Nitzschia closterium in June, which were succeeded by species of Navicula, Cocconeis and Nitzschia (July to September), and then by Licmophora abbreviata, Nitzschia closterium and Synedra spp. in the following months. A diatom bloom in the autumn and filamentous green algae burst in the summer were also observed. Ecological indices well annotated the succession and seasonal changes in epilithic communities. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis found significant differences in diatom community composition among months and seasons. Fast growth of biofilms was observed in the summer and autumn, whereas the biomass of summer biofilms was largely made up of filamentous green algae. Present results show that the components of epilithic biofilms are mostly optimal foods of A. japonicus, suggesting that biofilms on artificial reefs may contribute important nutritional sources for sea cucumbers during their

  1. Molecular responses of Lotus japonicus to parasitism by the compatible species Orobanche aegyptiaca and the incompatible species Striga hermonthica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Yukihiro; Ueda, Hiroaki; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Lotus japonicus genes responsive to parasitism by the compatible species Orobanche aegyptiaca and the incompatible species Striga hermonthica were isolated by using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) strategy. O. aegyptiaca and S. hermonthica parasitism specifically induced the expression of genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and phytoalexin biosynthesis, respectively. Nodulation-related genes were almost exclusively found among the Orobanche-induced genes. Temporal gene expression analyses revealed that 19 out of the 48 Orobanche-induced genes and 5 out of the 48 Striga-induced genes were up-regulated at 1 dai. Four genes, including putative trypsin protease inhibitor genes, exhibited systemic up-regulation in the host plant parasitized by O. aegyptiaca. On the other hand, S. hermonthica attachment did not induce systemic gene expression.

  2. Extracellular cellulolytic enzyme system of Aspergillus japonicus. Pt. 3. Isolation, purification and characterization of multiple forms of endoglucanase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, R.K.; Dube, Syamalima; Dube, D.K.

    1988-02-01

    The crude culture filtrate of Aspergillus japonicus exhibits marked cellulose and xylan degrading activities. Affinity chromatography of the crude enzyme preparation on concanavalin A (Con A)-Sepharose 4B resolves it into three fractions. The eluted fraction A contains CMCase (CM Case I) and xylanase activities; fraction B shows only CMCase activity (CMCase II); and fraction C exhibits CMCase (CMCase III) and xylanase activities. On further purification by gel filtration, only fraction B imparts a homogeneous preparation that gives a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 8.3. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of this homogeneous form shows the molecular weight about 57 000 daltons. The first two forms have the least activity toward tamarind kernel polysaccharide (TKP) but the last form, endoglucanase III, is highly reactive to it.

  3. Lotus japonicus flowers are defended by a cyanogenic β-glucosidase with highly restricted expression to essential reproductive organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Daniela; Pičmanová, Martina; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2015-01-01

    Flowers and leaves of Lotus japonicus contain α-, β-, and γ-hydroxynitrile glucoside (HNG) defense compounds, which are bioactivated by β-glucosidase enzymes (BGDs). The α-HNGs are referred to as cyanogenic glucosides because their hydrolysis upon tissue disruption leads to release of toxic...... hydrogen cyanide gas, which can deter herbivore feeding. BGD2 and BGD4 are HNG metabolizing BGD enzymes expressed in leaves. Only BGD2 is able to hydrolyse the α-HNGs. Loss of function mutants of BGD2 are acyanogenic in leaves but fully retain cyanogenesis in flowers pointing to the existence...... of an alternative cyanogenic BGD in flowers. This enzyme, named BGD3, is identified and characterized in this study. Whereas all floral tissues contain α-HNGs, only those tissues in which BGD3 is expressed, the keel and the enclosed reproductive organs, are cyanogenic. Biochemical analysis, active site architecture...

  4. Nervous system development of two crinoid species, the sea lily Metacrinus rotundus and the feather star Oxycomanthus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Yoko; Amemiya, Shonan

    2009-12-01

    Nervous system development in echinoderms has been well documented, especially for sea urchins and starfish. However, that of crinoids, the most basal group of extant echinoderms, has been poorly studied due to difficulties in obtaining their larvae. In this paper, we report nervous system development from two species of crinoids, from hatching to late doliolaria larvae in the sea lily Metacrinus rotundus and from hatching to cystidean stages after settlement in the feather star Oxycomanthus japonicus. The two species showed a similar larval nervous system pattern with an extensive anterior larval ganglion. The ganglion was similar to that in sea urchins which is generally regarded as derived. In contrast with other echinoderm and hemichordate larvae, synaptotagmin antibody 1E11 failed to reveal ciliary band nerve tracts. Basiepithelial nerve cells formed a net-like structure in the M. rotundus doliolaria larvae. In O. japonicus, the larval ganglion was still present 1 day after settlement when the adult nervous system began to appear inside the crown. Stalk nerves originated from the crown and extended down the stalk, but had no connections with the remaining larval ganglion at the base of the stalk. The larval nervous system was not incorporated into the adult nervous system, and the larval ganglion later disappeared. The aboral nerve center, the dominant nervous system in adult crinoids, was formed at the early cystidean stage, considerably earlier than previously suggested. Through comparisons with nervous system development in other ambulacraria, we suggest the possible nervous system development pattern of the echinoderm ancestor and provide new implications on the evolutionary history of echinoderm life cycles.

  5. A complete mitochondrial genome from Echinochasmus japonicus supports the elevation of Echinochasminae Odhner, 1910 to family rank (Trematoda: Platyhelminthes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Nguyen, Khue Thi; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Dung, Do Trung; Blair, David

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the trematode Echinochasmus japonicus Tanabe, 1926 was fully determined and annotated. The circular mt molecule of this species is 15,865bp in length, containing 12 protein-coding genes (arranged in the following order: cox3-cob-nad4L-nad4-atp6-nad2-nad1-nad3-cox1-cox2-nad6-nad5), two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS) and 22 transfer RNA genes (trnH; trnQ; trnF; trnM; trnV; trnA; trnD; trnN; trnP; trnI; trnK; trnS 1(AGN) ; trnW; trnT; trnC; trnL 1(CUN) ; trnS 2(UCN) ; trnL 2(UUN) ; trnG; and trnE). The atp8 gene is absent. The 3' end of nad4L overlaps the 5' end of nad4 by 40bp. An array of eight identical tandem repeats (240bp each) was found between trnG and trnE in the long non-coding region of the individual worm sequenced. Numbers of these repeats varied among E. japonicus samples. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated mt protein sequences of 40 trematode species/strains supports the elevation of Echinochasminae Odhner, 1910 to family rank, close to the families Echinostomatidae and Fasciolidae. As echinochasmid and echinostomatid species can parasitize humans, the future characterization of additional mt genomes is needed for development of mt markers for identification and phylogenetic, population, epidemiological and hybridization studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural and Functional Analysis of a Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase Important for Efficient Utilization of Chitin in Cellvibrio japonicus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Zarah; Nelson, Cassandra E.; Dalhus, Bjørn; Mekasha, Sophanit; Loose, Jennifer S. M.; Crouch, Lucy I.; Røhr, Åsmund K.; Gardner, Jeffrey G.; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Cellvibrio japonicus is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that is primarily known for its ability to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides through utilization of an extensive repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Several putative chitin-degrading enzymes are also found among these carbohydrate-active enzymes, such as chitinases, chitobiases, and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). In this study, we have characterized the chitin-active LPMO, CjLPMO10A, a tri-modular enzyme containing a catalytic family AA10 LPMO module, a family 5 chitin-binding module, and a C-terminal unclassified module of unknown function. Characterization of the latter module revealed tight and specific binding to chitin, thereby unraveling a new family of chitin-binding modules (classified as CBM73). X-ray crystallographic elucidation of the CjLPMO10A catalytic module revealed that the active site of the enzyme combines structural features previously only observed in either cellulose or chitin-active LPMO10s. Analysis of the copper-binding site by EPR showed a signal signature more similar to those observed for cellulose-cleaving LPMOs. The full-length LPMO shows no activity toward cellulose but is able to bind and cleave both α- and β-chitin. Removal of the chitin-binding modules reduced LPMO activity toward α-chitin compared with the full-length enzyme. Interestingly, the full-length enzyme and the individual catalytic LPMO module boosted the activity of an endochitinase equally well, also yielding similar amounts of oxidized products. Finally, gene deletion studies show that CjLPMO10A is needed by C. japonicus to obtain efficient growth on both purified chitin and crab shell particles. PMID:26858252

  7. Ectopic expression of miR156 represses nodulation and causes morphological and developmental changes in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhishuo; Amyot, Lisa; Tian, Lining; Xu, Ziqin; Gruber, Margaret Y; Hannoufa, Abdelali

    2015-04-01

    The effects of microRNA156 overexpression on general plant architecture, branching, flowering time and nodulation were investigated in the model legume, Lotus japonicus. We cloned an miR156 homolog, LjmiR156a, from L. japonicus, and investigated its SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE (SPL) genes and its biological function at enhancing vegetative biomass yield, extending flowering time, and its impact on nodulation. Thirteen potential targets for LjmiR156 were identified in vitro and their expression profiles were determined in aerial and underground parts of mature plants, including genes coding for eight SPLs, one WD-40, one RNA-directed DNA polymerase, two transport proteins, and one histidine-phosphotransfer protein. Two SPL and one WD-40 cleavage targets for LjmiR156-TC70253, AU089191, and TC57859-were identified. Transgenic plants with ectopic expression of LjmiR156a showed enhanced branching, dramatically delayed flowering, underdeveloped roots, and reduced nodulation. We also examined the transcript levels of key genes involved in nodule organogenesis and infection thread formation to determine the role of miR156 in regulating symbiosis. Overexpression of LjmiR156a led to repression of several nodulation genes during the early stages of root development such as three ENOD genes, SymPK, POLLUX, CYCLOPS, Cerberus, and Nsp1, and the stimulation of NFR1. Our results show that miR156 regulates vegetative biomass yield, flowering time and nodulation by silencing downstream target SPLs and other genes, suggesting that the miR156 regulatory network could be modified in forage legumes (such as alfalfa and trefoils) and in leafy vegetables (like lettuce and spinach) to positively impact economically valuable crop species.

  8. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of lectin gene cDNA isolated from sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) body wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhuang; Li, Hui; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Wei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Xiuli

    2017-12-01

    As a `living fossil' of species origin and `rich treasure' of food and nutrition development, sea cucumber has received a lot of attentions from researchers. The cDNA library construction and EST sequencing of blood had been conducted previously in our lab. The bioinformatic analysis provided a gene fragment which is highly homologous with the genes of lectin family, named AjL ( Apostichopus japonicus lectin). To characterize and determine the phylogeny of AjL genes in early evolution, we isolated a full-length cDNA of lectin gene from the body wall of A. japonicus. The open reading frame of this gene contained 489 bp and encoded a 163 amino acids secretory protein being homologous to lectins of mammals and aquatic organisms. The deduced protein included a lectin-like domain. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that AjL migrated as a specific band (about 36.09 kDa under reducing), and agglutinated against rabbit red blood cells. AjL was similar to chain A of CEL-IV in space structure. We predicted that AjL may play the same role of CEL-IV. Our results suggested that more than one lectin gene functioned in sea cucumber and most of other species, which was fused by uncertain sequences during the evolution and encoded different proteins with diverse functions. Our findings provided the insights into the function and characteristics of lectin genes invertebrates. The results will also be helpful for the identification and structural, functional, and evolutionary analyses of lectin genes.

  9. PII Overexpression in Lotus japonicus Affects Nodule Activity in Permissive Low-Nitrogen Conditions and Increases Nodule Numbers in High Nitrogen Treated Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apuzzo, Enrica; Valkov, Vladimir Totev; Parlati, Aurora; Omrane, Selim; Barbulova, Ani; Sainz, Maria Martha; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Rogato, Alessandra; Chiurazzi, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    We report here the first characterization of a GLNB1 gene coding for the PII protein in leguminous plants. The main purpose of this work was the investigation of the possible roles played by this multifunctional protein in nodulation pathways. The Lotus japonicus LjGLB1 gene shows a significant transcriptional regulation during the light-dark cycle and different nitrogen availability, conditions that strongly affect nodule formation, development, and functioning. We also report analysis of the spatial profile of expression of LjGLB1 in root and nodule tissues and of the protein's subcellular localization. Transgenic L. japonicus lines overexpressing the PII protein were obtained and tested for the analysis of the symbiotic responses in different conditions. The uncoupling of PII from its native regulation affects nitrogenase activity and nodule polyamine content. Furthermore, our results suggest the involvement of PII in the signaling of the nitrogen nutritional status affecting the legumes' predisposition for nodule formation.

  10. Estimating the success rate of ovulation and early litter loss rate in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) by examining the ovaries and uteri

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Oi, Toru; Sawada, Seigo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop a method for estimating the success/failure rates of reproductive processes, especially those of ovulation and neonate nurturing, in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), we examined offspring status, corpora lutea (CLs), placental scars (PSs) and corpora albicantia (CAs) in 159 females (0-23 years old) killed as nuisances on Honshu Island of Japan during 2001-2009. PSs were found to remain in the uterus at least until November of the year of...

  11. Developmental retardation, reduced fecundity, and modulated expression of the defensome in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus exposed to BDE-47 and PFOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Min-Chul [Department of Biological Science, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jung Soo [Pathology Team, National Fisheries Research & Development Institute, Busan 619-902 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu [Department of Biological Science, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The repercussions of BDE-47 and PFOS were occurred on development and fecundity. • BDE-47 and PFOS can induce oxidative stress through the generation of ROS. • The expression of defensome was changed in response to BDE-47 and PFOS. • ROS-induced DNA damage in BDE-47 and PFOS exposure lead to apoptosis and DNA repair. - Abstract: 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely dispersed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the marine ecosystem. However, their toxic effects on marine organisms are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of BDE-47 and PFOS on development and reproduction at the organismal level and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and gene expression patterns of the defensome at the cellular level in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. In copepods exposed to BDE-47 and PFOS, we observed developmental retardation and reduced fecundity, suggesting repercussions on in vivo endpoints through alterations to the normal molting and reproduction system of T. japonicus. BDE-47 and PFOS increased levels of ROS in T. japonicus in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that POPs can induce oxidative stress through the generation of ROS. Additionally, transcript profiles of genes related to detoxification (e.g., CYPs), antioxidant functions (e.g., GST- sigma, catalase, MnSOD), apoptosis (e.g., p53, Rb), and cellular proliferation (e.g., PCNA) were modulated over 72 h in response to BDE-47 (120 μg/L) and PFOS (1000 μg/L). These findings indicate that BDE-47 and PFOS can induce oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage repair systems with transcriptional regulation of detoxification, antioxidant, and apoptosis-related genes, resulting in developmental retardation and reduced fecundity in the copepod T. japonicus.

  12. The protein precursors of peptides that affect the mechanics of connective tissue and/or muscle in the echinoderm Apostichopus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice R Elphick

    Full Text Available Peptides that cause muscle relaxation or contraction or that modulate electrically-induced muscle contraction have been discovered in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Phylum Echinodermata; Class Holothuroidea. By analysing transcriptome sequence data, here the protein precursors of six of these myoactive peptides (the SALMFamides Sticho-MFamide-1 and -2, NGIWYamide, stichopin, GN-19 and GLRFA have been identified, providing novel insights on neuropeptide and endocrine-type signalling systems in echinoderms. The A. japonicus SALMFamide precursor comprises eight putative neuropeptides including both L-type and F-type SALMFamides, which contrasts with previous findings from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus where L-type and F-type SALMFamides are encoded by different genes. The NGIWYamide precursor contains five copies of NGIWYamide but, unlike other NG peptide-type neuropeptide precursors in deuterostomian invertebrates, the NGIWYamide precursor does not have a C-terminal neurophysin domain, indicating loss of this character in holothurians. NGIWYamide was originally discovered as a muscle contractant, but it also causes stiffening of mutable connective tissue in the body wall of A. japonicus, whilst holokinins (PLGYMFR and derivative peptides cause softening of the body wall. However, the mechanisms by which these peptides affect the stiffness of body wall connective tissue are unknown. Interestingly, analysis of the A. japonicus transcriptome reveals that the only protein containing the holokinin sequence PLGYMFR is an alpha-5 type collagen. This suggests that proteolysis of collagen may generate peptides (holokinins that affect body wall stiffness in sea cucumbers, providing a novel perspective on mechanisms of mutable connective tissue in echinoderms.

  13. Demographic response of cutlassfish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) to fluctuating palaeo-climate and regional oceanographic conditions in the China seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijun; Zhang, Aibing; Weese, David; Li, Shengfa; Li, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jing

    2014-09-16

    Glacial cycles of the Quaternary have heavily influenced the demographic history of various species. To test the evolutionary impact of palaeo-geologic and climatic events on the demographic history of marine taxa from the coastal Western Pacific, we investigated the population structure and demographic history of two economically important fish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) that inhabit the continental shelves of the East China and northern South China Seas using the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses. A molecular rate of 2.03% per million years, calibrated to the earliest flooding of the East China Sea shelf (70-140 kya), revealed a strong correlation between population sizes and primary production. Furthermore, comparison of the demographic history of T. japonicus populations from the East China and South China Seas provided evidence of the postglacial development of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Delta. In the South China Sea, interspecific comparisons between T. japonicus and T. nanhaiensis indicated possible evolutionary responses to changes in palaeo-productivity that were influenced by East Asian winter monsoons. This study not only provides insight into the demographic history of cutlassfish but also reveals potential clues regarding the historic productivity and regional oceanographic conditions of the Western Pacific marginal seas.

  14. Demographic response of cutlassfish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) to fluctuating palaeo-climate and regional oceanographic conditions in the China seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijun; Zhang, Aibing; Weese, David; Li, Shengfa; Li, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Glacial cycles of the Quaternary have heavily influenced the demographic history of various species. To test the evolutionary impact of palaeo-geologic and climatic events on the demographic history of marine taxa from the coastal Western Pacific, we investigated the population structure and demographic history of two economically important fish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) that inhabit the continental shelves of the East China and northern South China Seas using the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses. A molecular rate of 2.03% per million years, calibrated to the earliest flooding of the East China Sea shelf (70–140 kya), revealed a strong correlation between population sizes and primary production. Furthermore, comparison of the demographic history of T. japonicus populations from the East China and South China Seas provided evidence of the postglacial development of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Delta. In the South China Sea, interspecific comparisons between T. japonicus and T. nanhaiensis indicated possible evolutionary responses to changes in palaeo-productivity that were influenced by East Asian winter monsoons. This study not only provides insight into the demographic history of cutlassfish but also reveals potential clues regarding the historic productivity and regional oceanographic conditions of the Western Pacific marginal seas. PMID:25223336

  15. An adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) gene from Apostichopus japonicus; molecular cloning and expression analysis in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Chai, Xin-Yue; Tu, Jie; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Li, Chao-Feng; Jiang, Sen-Hao; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-02-01

    The adenine nucleotide translocases (ANTs) play a vital role in energy metabolism via ADP/ATP exchange in eukaryotic cells. Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) is an important economic species in China. Here, a cDNA representing an ANT gene of A. japonicus was isolated and characterized from respiratory tree and named AjANT. The full-length AjANT cDNA is 1924 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 38 bp, 3'-UTR of 980 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 906 bp encoding a polypeptide of 301 amino acids. The protein contains three homologous repeat Mito_carr domains (Pfam00153). The deduced AjANT protein sequence has 49-81% in comparison to ANT proteins from other individuals. The predicted tertiary structure of AjANT protein is highly similar to animal ANT proteins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AjANT is closely related to Holothuroidea ANT genes. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that AjANT expression is higher in the respiratory tree than in other examined tissues. After thermal stress or LPS challenge, expression of AjANT was significantly fluctuant compared to the control. These results suggested that changes in the expression of ANT gene might be involved in immune defense and in protecting A. japonicus against thermal stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of the essential oil of Dipsacus japonicus flowering aerial parts and its insecticidal activity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi Long; Jiang, Guo Hua; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Qi Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Water-distilled essential oil from the aerial parts of Dipsacus japonicus Miq. (Dipsacaceae) at the flowering stage was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forty-six compounds, accounting for 96.76% of the total oil, were identified and the main compounds of the essential oil were linalool (11.78%), trans-geraniol (8.58%), 1,8-cineole (7.91%), beta-caryophyllene (5.58%), alpha-terpineol (5.32%), beta-selinene (5.15%), and spathulenol (5.04%). The essential oil of D. japonicus possessed contact toxicity against two grain storage insects, Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum adults, with LD50 values of 18.32 microg/ adult and 13.45 microg/adult, respectively. The essential oil of D. japonicus also exhibited pronounced fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais (LC50 = 10.11 mg/l air) and T. castaneum adults (LC50 = 5.26 mg/l air). Of the three major compounds, 1,8-cineole exhibited stronger fumigant toxicity than the crude essential oil against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC50 values of 2.96 mg/l air and 4.86 mg/l air, respectively.

  17. Regulation of nuclear envelope dynamics via APC/C is necessary for the progression of semi-open mitosis in Schizosaccharomyces japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Keita; Shiwa, Yuh; Takada, Hiraku; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Niki, Hironori

    2013-09-01

    Three types of mitosis, which are open, closed or semi-open mitosis, function in eukaryotic cells, respectively. The open mitosis involves breakage of the nuclear envelope before nuclear division, whereas the closed mitosis proceeds with an intact nuclear envelope. To understand the mechanism and significance of three types of mitotic division in eukaryotes, we investigated the process of semi-open mitosis, in which the nuclear envelope is only partially broken, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces japonicus. In anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) mutants of Sz. japonicus, the nuclear envelope remained relatively intact during anaphase, resulting in impaired semi-open mitosis. As a suppressor of apc2 mutant, a mutation of Oar2, which was a 3-oxoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] reductase, was obtained. The level of the Oar2, which had two destruction-box motifs recognized by APC/C, was increased in APC/C mutants. Furthermore, the defective semi-open mitosis observed in an apc2 mutant was restored by mutated oar2+. Based on these findings, we propose that APC/C regulates the dynamics of the nuclear envelope through degradation of Oar2 dependent on APC/C during the metaphase-to-anaphase transition of semi-open mitosis in Sz. japonicus. © 2013 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2013 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. DNA methylation levels analysis in four tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus based on fluorescence-labeled methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (F-MSAP) during aestivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye; Chen, Muyan; Storey, Kenneth B; Sun, Lina; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-03-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in regulating transcriptional change in response to environmental stimuli. In the present study, DNA methylation levels of tissues of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were analyzed by the fluorescence-labeled methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (F-MSAP) technique over three stages of the aestivation cycle. Overall, a total of 26,963 fragments were amplified including 9112 methylated fragments among four sea cucumber tissues using 18 pairs of selective primers. Results indicated an average DNA methylation level of 33.79% for A. japonicus. The incidence of DNA methylation was different across tissue types in the non-aestivation stage: intestine (30.16%), respiratory tree (27.61%), muscle (27.94%) and body wall (56.25%). Our results show that hypermethylation accompanied deep-aestivation in A. japonicus, which suggests that DNA methylation may have an important role in regulating global transcriptional suppression during aestivation. Further analysis indicated that the main DNA modification sites were focused on intestine and respiratory tree tissues and that full-methylation but not hemi-methylation levels exhibited significant increases in the deep-aestivation stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ROS production in homogenate from the body wall of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus under UVA irradiation: ESR spin-trapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hang; Dong, Xiu-fang; Zhao, Ya-ping; Li, Nan; Fu, Hui; Feng, Ding-ding; Liu, Li; Yu, Chen-xu

    2016-02-01

    Sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus (S. japonicus) shows a strong ability of autolysis, which leads to severe deterioration in sea cucumber quality during processing and storage. In this study, to further characterize the mechanism of sea cucumber autolysis, hydroxyl radical production induced by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation was investigated. Homogenate from the body wall of S. japonicas was prepared and subjected to UVA irradiation at room temperature. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectra of the treated samples were subsequently recorded. The results showed that hydroxyl radicals (OH) became more abundant while the time of UVA treatment and the homogenate concentration were increased. Addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, EDTA, desferal, NaN3 and D2O to the homogenate samples led to different degrees of inhibition on OH production. Metal cations and pH also showed different effects on OH production. These results indicated that OH was produced in the homogenate with a possible pathway as follows: O2(-) → H2O2 → OH, suggesting that OH might be a critical factor in UVA-induced S. japonicus autolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultraviolet B radiation induces impaired lifecycle traits and modulates expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Lee, Min-Chul; Park, Jun Chul; Kim, Hui-Su; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Han, Jeonghoon, E-mail: jeonghoon@skku.edu; Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Impaired effects of UV-B on the copepod Tigriopus japonicus were examined. • Modulation of entire CYP genes were analyzed in response to UV-B. • CYP inhibitor (PBO) confirmed the role of CYP in UV-B induced mortality. • Low-dose UV-B found induce developmental delays, and higher doses cause reproductive impairments. • Study predicted the mechanistic effects of UV-B in copepods through the AhR-mediated up-regulation of CYP genes. - Abstract: To evaluate the effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation at the developmental, reproductive, and molecular levels in aquatic invertebrates, we measured UV-B-induced acute toxicity, impairments in developmental and reproductive traits, and UV-B interaction with the entire family of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in the intertidal benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus. We found a significant, dose-dependent reduction (P < 0.05) in the survival of T. japonicus that began as a developmental delay and decreased fecundity. The 48 h LD10 and LD50 were 1.35 and 1.84 kJ/m{sup 2}, and the CYP inhibitor (PBO) elevated mortality, confirming the involvement of CYP genes in UV-B induced toxicity. Low-dose UV-B (1.5 kJ/m{sup 2}) induced developmental delays, and higher doses (6–18 kJ/m{sup 2}) caused reproductive impairments in ovigerous females. The significant up-regulation of CYP genes belonging to clans 2/3/MT/4/20 in T. japonicus exposed to UV-B (12 kJ/m{sup 2}) confirmed molecular interaction between UV-B and CYP genes. Moreover, orphan CYPs, such as CYP20A1, provide good insight on the deorphanization of invertebrate CYPs. Overall, these results demonstrate the involvement of UV-B radiation in the expression of all the CYP genes in T. japonicus and their susceptibility to UV-B radiation. This will provide a better understanding of the mechanistic effects of UV-B in copepods through the predicted AhR-mediated up-regulation of CYP genes.

  1. Impact of water temperature on the growth and fatty acid profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Ye, Zhi; Tian, Xiangli

    2016-08-01

    The present study determined the changes in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in response to the varied water temperature. Sea cucumbers with similar size (4.02±0.11g) were cultured for 8 weeks at 14°C, 18°C, 22°C and 26°C, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the specific growth rate (SGR) and the profiles of FAs in neutral lipids and phospholipids of the juvenile sea cucumbers cultured at different temperatures were determined. The SGRs of the sea cucumbers cultured at 26°C significantly decreased 46.3% compared to thos cultured at 18°C. Regression analysis showed that the SGR-temperature (T) relationship can be expressed as SGR=-0.0073T(2)+0.255T -1.0231 (R(2)=0.9936) and the highest SGR was predicted at 17.5°C. For the neutral lipids, the sum of saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) of the sea cucumbers that were cultured at the water temperature from 18°C-26°C did not change significantly, indicating the insensitivity of FA profiles for the neutral lipids of sea cucumbers in response to increasing water temperature. For phospholipids, the sum of PUFAs in the sea cucumbers dramatically decreased with the gradually increased water temperature. The sum of SFAs and MUFAs of sea cucumbers, however, increased with the gradually elevated water temperature. In particular, the contents of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the phospholipids of the sea cucumbers decreased 37.2% and 26.1%, respectively, when the water temperature increased from 14°C to 26°C. In summary, the sea cucumbers A. japonicus can regulate the FA compositions, especially the contents of EPA and DHA, in the phospholipids so as to adapt to varied water temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between uterine morphology and peripheral concentrations of sex steroid hormone in wild Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Masako; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Osawa, Takeshi

    2009-07-01

    Developing a better understanding of the reproductive physiology and breeding condition peculiar to wild Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) is crucial for estimation of their habitat distribution. The aim of this study was to clarify the changes in morphology of the genital organs, cellular proliferation in the endometrium and sex steroid hormone concentrations along with the reproductive cycle in Japanese black bears. Samples were collected from a total of 24 female Japanese black bears (1-15 presumptive years old) that were caught in the wild in Iwate prefecture during the period between August 1999 and September 2005. Twenty-two out of the 24 animals were hunted from May to October. The ovaries from the 24 animals and the uteri from 23 animals were observed macroscopically and histologically to examine the relationship between morphology of the genital organs and the month of the year the animal was caught. The staining pattern of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the endometrium was characterised. Peripheral concentrations of oestradiol-17beta and progesterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. All the animals that had a corpus luteum (n=12) were captured from August to October. The thickness of the endometrium in the animals captured from August to October (n=16) was significantly greater than those in animals captured from May to July (n=5) (Pblack bears.

  3. Acute and chronic toxicities of Irgarol alone and in combination with copper to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Vivien W W; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Lui, Gilbert C S; Lam, Michael H W

    2013-01-01

    Irgarol 1051 has been widely used as a booster biocide in combination with copper (Cu) in antifouling paints. The combined toxicity of Irgarol with Cu on marine organisms, however, has not been fully investigated. This study investigated the acute and chronic toxicities of binary mixtures of Irgarol and CuSO(4) to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus. The acute combined toxicity of Irgarol and Cu was simple additive as revealed by two response surface models and their contours. However, based on chronic full life-cycle tests, when Irgarol was combined with Cu at an environmentally realistic concentration (10 μg L(-1)), a slightly synergistic effect was observed at a high Irgarol concentration (940 μg L(-1)), as shown by a significant increase in larval mortality. As Cu contamination is widespread in coastal environments, our results entail the importance of considering the combined toxic effect of the booster biocide and Cu for setting ecologically realistic water quality criteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and characterization of a new IgE-binding protein in mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) by MALDI-TOF-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bangping; Li, Zhenxing; Zheng, Lina; Liu, Yixuan; Lin, Hong

    2011-03-01

    As fish is one source of the `big eight' food allergens, the prevalence of fish allergy has increased over the past few years. In order to better understand fish allergy, it is necessary to identify fish allergens. Based on the sera from fish-allergenic patients, a 28 kDa protein from local mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), which has not been reported as a fish allergen, was found to be reactive with most of the patients' sera. The 28 kDa protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry). Mascot search in NCBI database (Date: 08/07/2010) showed that the top protein matched, i.e. triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from Xiphophorus maculatus and Poecilia reticulata, had a mowse (molecular weight search) score of 98. In addition, TPI from Epinephelus coioides also matched this mackerel protein with a mowse score of 96. Because TPI is considered as an allergen in other non-fish organisms, such as lychee, wheat, latex, archaeopotamobius ( Archaeopotamobius sibiriensis) and crangon ( Crangon crangon), we consider that it may also be an allergen in mackerel.

  5. Construction and characterization of a cDNA library from head kidney of Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhan-tao; Cong, Xiao; Yuan, Jin-duo; Yang, Gui-wen; Chen, Ying; Pan, Jie; An, Li-guo

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, a cDNA expression library from head kidney of Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) was constructed for the first time. The first-strand cDNA was synthesized with Moloney Murine Leukaemia virus reverse transcriptase and the double-stranded cDNA was digested by Xho I enzyme. Size fractionation was performed on CHROMA SPIN-400 columns. cDNA fragments longer than 500 bps were ligated into the lambdaZAPExpress vector. The recombinant DNA was packaged in vitro with Gigapack III gold packaging extract. The titers of the primary and amplified library were 1.0 x 10(5) and 5.0 x 10(9) pfu/ml, respectively. To characterize the constructed cDNA library, 15 phage plaques were selected randomly to test the inserted fragments. The results showed that the inserts were mostly longer than 500 bps. To test the utility, the library was screened with primers designed for three immune-related genes of, Myxovirus resistant (Mx), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and Toll-like receptor (TLR). Results of Blastn and alignment showed that they are members of Mx, TNF-alpha and TLR gene families, respectively, which meets our anticipates for this cDNA library as an immune-related one. These results confirmed that the cDNA library constructed will provide a useful tool for gene cloning and expression analysis in immune system of Japanese sea bass.

  6. Postmortem changes in physiochemical and sensory properties of red snow crab (Chionoecetes japonicus leg muscle during freeze storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Young Jun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the maximal storable period of the raw crab for a non-thermal muscle separation, the quality changes of the leg meat of red snow crab (Chionoecetes japonicus during freeze storage were investigated. Fresh red snow crabs were stored at −20 °C for 7 weeks, and the leg muscle was separated by a no heating separation (NHS method every week. During the storage, considerable loss of the leg muscle did not occur and microbiological risk was very low. In contrast, discoloration appeared at 2-week storage on around carapace and the leg muscle turned yellow at storage 3-week. In physiochemical parameters, protein and free amino acids gradually decreased with storage time, expected that proteolytic enzymes still activated at −20 °C. At 4-week storage, the sensory acceptance dropped down below point 4 as low as inedible and notable inflection points in pH and acidity were observed. The volatile base nitrogen was low, though a little increase was recorded. These results suggested that the maximal storable period at −20 °C of the raw material was within 2 weeks and it was depended on external factor such as the discoloration. The present study might be referred as basic data for approaches to solve quality loss occurred in non-thermal muscle separation.

  7. Influence of spring river flow on the recruitment of Japanese seaperch Lateolabrax japonicus into the Chikugo estuary, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shoji

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM zone is considered to serve as a predation refuge for fish during the early life stages due to the high turbidity and high prey concentration. River flow can be one of the important determinants for survival of early life stages of estuarine dependent fish because it affects both the physical and biological properties of the ETM. We tested the hypothesis that fluctuation of river flow explains the variability in recruitment of Japanese seaperch Lateolabrax japonicus around the ETM region of the Chikugo River estuary, upper Ariake Bay, Japan. Japanese seaperch recruitment showed a 43.3-fold fluctuation from 1990 to 2000 and was inversely correlated with the mean daily river flow of the Chikugo River in March. The recruitment was high and variable in years of low March river flow and was poor in years of high March river flow. We conclude that high river flow potentially decreases Japanese seaperch recruitment in the Chikugo River estuary by blocking the larval migration into the river and by increasing the probability of larval dispersion to the downriver/upper bay areas, where potential predators (jellyfish and Sagitta spp. were more abundant, and prey (Sinocalanus sinensis availability and turbidity were lower.

  8. Effect of culture methods on individual variation in the growth of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus within a cohort and family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tianlong; Zhang, Libin; Zhang, Tao; Bai, Yucen; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-07-01

    There is substantial individual variation in the growth rates of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus individuals. This necessitates additional work to grade the seed stock and lengthens the production period. We evaluated the influence of three culture methods (free-mixed, isolated-mixed, isolated-alone) on individual variation in growth and assessed the relationship between feeding, energy conversion efficiency, and individual growth variation in individually cultured sea cucumbers. Of the different culture methods, animals grew best when reared in the isolated-mixed treatment (i.e., size classes were held separately), though there was no difference in individual variation in growth between rearing treatment groups. The individual variation in growth was primarily attributed to genetic factors. The difference in food conversion efficiency caused by genetic differences among individuals was thought to be the origin of the variance. The level of individual growth variation may be altered by interactions among individuals and environmental heterogeneity. Our results suggest that, in addition to traditional seed grading, design of a new kind of substrate that changes the spatial distribution of sea cucumbers would effectively enhance growth and reduce individual variation in growth of sea cucumbers in culture.

  9. Nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Zhu, Changbo

    2014-06-01

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system; while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7% (N) and 29.2% (P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰ and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9% and 38% higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well; it scavenged 14.3% and 70.8% of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

  10. Taxonomic status of the three color variants in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus): evidence from mitochondrial phylogenomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Cao, Zhengfei; Li, Yuchun; Zhao, Hong; Huang, Jianjun; Liang, Zhenlin; Huang, Luqi

    2016-07-01

    Color variation in sea cucumber is one of the most crucial traits affecting price and taste in East Asian countries. However, the relationship and taxonomic status of the three color variants are still unclear. We used 14 samples that covered all three color variants and their geographic distributions, to construct the first phylogeny for the color variants based on the complete mitochondrial genome sequence and a number of tree-building methods (maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian inference (BI)). The divergence times within color variants were estimated by the Bayesian molecular clock approach using the BEAST program. Our results showed that the color variants were not monophyletic in the well-resolved phylogenetic tree, which strongly refuted their separate species status. The molecular dating estimate revealed that the sea cucumber was a young group, which originated in the early Miocene period (22.03 mya) and rapidly diverged after the late Miocene period. It is interesting that individuals within each variant or geographic distribution were not always closely related and thus did not share a common origin. We propose that although they differ in body color, the three color morphs all belong to a single species of Apostichopus japonicus and the historical marine climate and the hydrographic complexity of the ocean currents could be responsible for their present distribution patterns.

  11. Effects of Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 on digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuexin; Sun, Feixue; Zhang, Congyao; Bao, Pengyun; Cao, Shuqing; Zhang, Meiyan

    2014-12-01

    A marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 was supplemented to feed in a feeding experiment aiming to determine its ability of enhancing the digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumber individuals were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 105, 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 for 45 days. Results showed that intestinal trypsin and lipase activities were significantly enhanced by 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 in comparison with control ( P < 0.01). The phagocytic activity in the coelomocytes of sea cucumber fed the diet supplemented with 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 was significantly higher than that of those fed control diet ( P < 0.05). In addition, 105 and 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 significantly enhanced lysozyme and phenoloxidase activities in the coelomic fluid of sea cucumber, respectively, in comparison with other diets ( P < 0.01). Sea cucumbers, 10 each diet, were challenged with Vibrio splendidus NB13 after 45 days of feeding. It was found that the cumulative incidence and mortality of sea cucumber fed with BC228 containing diets were lower than those of animals fed control diet. Our findings evidenced that BC228 supplemented in diets improved the digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber, stimulated its immune response and enhanced its resistance to the infection of V. splendidus.

  12. Genomic regions and genes related to inter-population differences in body size in the ground beetle Carabus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komurai, Ryohei; Fujisawa, Tomochika; Okuzaki, Yutaka; Sota, Teiji

    2017-08-10

    Body size is a key trait in diversification among animal species, and revealing the gene regions responsible for body size diversification among populations or related species is important in evolutionary biology. We explored the genomic regions associated with body size differences in Carabus japonicus ground beetle populations by quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of F 2 hybrids from differently sized parents from two populations using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing and de novo assembly of the beetle whole genome. The assembled genome had a total length of 191 Mb with a scaffold N50 of 0.73 Mb; 14,929 protein-coding genes were predicted. Three QTLs on different linkage groups had major effects on the overall size, which is composed chiefly of elytral length. In addition, we found QTLs on autosomal and X chromosomal linkage groups that affected head length and width, thoracic width, and elytral width. We determined the gene loci potentially related to control of body size in scaffolds of the genome sequence, which contained the QTL regions. The genetic basis of body size variation based on a small number of major loci would promote differentiation in body size in response to selection pressures related to variations in environmental conditions and inter-specific interactions.

  13. Effects of ergothioneine from mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) on melanosis and lipid oxidation of kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnacion, Angel B; Fagutao, Fernand; Hirono, Ikuo; Ushio, Hideki; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2010-02-24

    The antimelanosic and antioxidative properties of a hot water extract prepared from the fruiting body of the edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) were evaluated by dietary supplementation in Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) for possible aquaculture application. The extract contained ergothioneine (ERT) at a level of 2.05 mg/mL. A commercial standard of l-ergothioneine (l-ERT) and the mushroom extract showed inhibitory activity against mushroom polyphenoloxidase (PPO). Feeding of the extract had no adverse effects on the immune systems of the shrimp under the present experimental conditions. Supplementation of the extract in the diet significantly suppressed PPO activities in the hemolymphs of the shrimp. Expression of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) gene decreased in the hemocyte of the Kuruma shrimp fed with the mushroom extract. Consequently, development of melanosis was significantly suppressed in the supplement fed shrimp during ice storage. Lipid oxidation was also effectively controlled in the supplement fed group throughout the storage period. In vitro experiments showed that l-ERT effectively inhibited the activation of proPO in the hemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS). The transcript of the proPO gene in the hemocyte showed lower expression in the l-ERT-treated HLS. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of the mushroom extract in shrimp could be a promising approach to control post mortem development of melanosis and lipid oxidation in shrimp muscles.

  14. Identification of genes involved in the response of haemocytes of Penaeus japonicus by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) following microbial challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nanhai; Liu, Haipeng; Xu, Xun

    2004-08-01

    Penaeus japonicus were injected with a heat-killed microorganism suspension and 291 randomly selected cDNA fragments generated by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) were sequenced. A total of 71 cDNA clones corresponding to 25 genes were found to have enhanced expression, of which eight are found for the first time in shrimp. The most abundant gene in the subtractive library was Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, clearly indicating this protease inhibitor in the response. A number of genes encoding signaling molecules, such as Ras-related nuclear protein (Ran), growth factor receptor bound protein (Grb), TGF-beta receptor interacting protein, integrin binding protein and interferon receptor bound protein were found for the first time in the shrimp, and they may be involved in the regulation of the host defense against the injected microbes. Furthermore, cDNAs of chaperonin, proteasome, antioxidant as well as genes associated with actin reorganization, which may be necessary for phagocytosis and encapsulation, were also expressed at a higher level after the challenge. These results may facilitate the understanding of shrimp immune responses.

  15. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormones of two cold water crab species, Chionoecetes opilio and C. japonicus: isolation of cDNA sequences and localization of CHH neuropeptide in eyestalk ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J Sook; Ahn, I S; Yu, O H; Kim, D S

    2015-04-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is primarily known for its prototypical function in hyperglycemia which is induced by the release of CHH. The CHH release takes place as an adaptive response to the energy demands of the animals experiencing stressful environmental, physiological or behavioral conditions. Although >63 decapod CHH nucleotide sequences are known (GenBank), the majority of them is garnered from the species inhabiting shallow and warm water. In order to understand the adaptive role of CHH in Chionoecetes opilio and Chionoecetes japonicus inhabiting deep water environments, we first aimed for the isolation of the full-length cDNA sequence of CHH from the eyestalk ganglia of C. opilio (ChoCHH) and C. japonicus (ChjCHH) using degenerate PCR and 5' and 3' RACE. Cho- and ChjCHH cDNA sequences are identical in 5' UTR and ORF with 100% sequence identity of the putative 138aa of preproCHHs. The length of 3' UTR ChjCHH cDNA sequence is 39 nucleotides shorter than that of ChoCHH. This is the first report in decapod crustaceans that two different species have the identical sequence of CHH. ChoCHH expression increases during embryogenesis of C. opilio and is significantly higher in adult males and females. C. japonicus males have slightly higher ChjCHH expression than C. opilio males, but no statistical difference. In both species, the immunostaining intensity of CHH is stronger in the sinus gland than that of X-organ cells. Future studies will enable us to gain better understanding of the comparative metabolic physiology and endocrinology of cold, deep water species of Chionoecetes spp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute and chronic toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl 126 to Tigriopus japonicus: effects on survival, growth, reproduction, and intrinsic rate of population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-03-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus has a wide geographical distribution and is considered as a suitable model species for the assessment of toxicity of marine pollutants. The aim of the present study was to test the impacts of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) on the growth, development, and reproduction of T. japonicus in two successive generations. We first quantified the 96-h 50% lethal concentration (2.83 mg/L; all reported concentrations are nominal values), the no-observed-effect concentration (0.6 mg/L), and the lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC; 1.2 mg/L) of PCB126 in the nauplii. Nauplii were more sensitive than the adults, which still survived at the highest tested PCB126 concentration (8 mg/L). In the chronic toxicity testing, 10 life history traits were quantified for T. japonicus. No obvious effect on any of these traits was observed in the first generation (F0) at tested concentrations (life-cycle exposure (F1), however, PCB126 had an obvious toxic effect on the reproduction (>1 µg/L) and growth (>0.1 µg/L). Thus, copepods became more sensitive to PCB126 exposure as generations developed. Among the different traits tested, body size was the most sensitive parameter. Reproduction (fecundity, number of clutches, nauplii/clutch) and intrinsic population growth were also significantly impacted by PCB exposure. The survivorship, sex ratio, hatching time, and development were not affected. Environmental risk assessment of contaminants must therefore be based on a long-term multigenerational exposure to provide a realistic measurement of the influences of pollutants on aquatic life. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  17. Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on antioxidant depletion, the ERK signaling pathway, and copper bioavailability in the copepod (Tigriopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Won, Eun-Ji; Kang, Hye-Min; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-02-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are nanoparticles widely applicable in various industrial fields. However, despite the usefulness of MWCNTs in industry, their oxidative stress-induced toxicity, combined toxicity with metal, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation have not been widely investigated in marine organisms. We used the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus as a test organism to demonstrate the adverse effects induced by MWCNTs in aquatic test organisms. The dispersion of the MWCNTs in seawater was maintained over 48 h without aggregation. MWCNTs caused a decrease in acute copper toxicity compared to the copper-only group in response to 20 and 100 mg/L MWCNTs, but not in response to 4 mg/L MWCNT, indicating that MWCNT may suppress acute copper toxicity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enzymatic activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase were significantly down-regulated in response to 100 mg/L MWCNT exposure. Glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity did not change significantly, indicating that MWCNTs may cause failure of the antioxidant system in T. japonicus. However, MWCNT induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation without p38 and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, suggesting that ERK activation plays a key role in cell signaling pathways downstream of CNT exposure. This suggests that this pathway can be used as a biomarker for CNT exposure in T. japonicus. This study provides a better understanding of the cellular-damage response to MWCNTs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Construction of cDNA library from intestine, mesentery and coelomocyte of Apostichopus japonicus Selenka infected with Vibrio sp. and a preliminary analysis of immunity-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongzhan; Zheng, Fengrong; Sun, Xiuqin; Cai, Yimei

    2012-06-01

    The aquaculture of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea) has grown rapidly during recent years and has become an important sector of the marine industry in Northern China. However, with the rapid growth of the industry and the use of non-standard culture techniques, epidemic diseases of A. japonicus now pose increasing problems to the industry. To screen the genes with stress response to bacterial infection in sea cucumber at a genome wide level, we constructed a cDNA library from A. japonicus Selenka (Aspidochirotida: Stichopodidae) after infecting them with Vibrio sp. for 48 h. Total RNA was extracted from the intestine, mesentery and coelomocyte of infected sea cucumber using Trizol and mRNA was isolated by Oligotex mRNA Kits. The ligated cDNAs were transformed into DH5α, and a library of 3.24×105 clones (3.24×105 cfu mL-1) was obtained with the sizes of inserted fragments ranging from 0.8 to 2.5 kb. Sequencing the cDNA clones resulted in a total of 1106 ESTs that passed the quality control. BlastX and BlastN searches have identified 168 (31.5%) ESTs sharing significant homology with known sequences in NCBI protein or nucleotide databases. Among a panel of 25 putative immunity-related genes, serum lectin isoform, complement component 3, complement component 3-like genes were further studied by real-time PCR and they all increased more than 5 fold in response to Vibrio sp. challenge. Our library provides a valuable molecular tool for future study of invertebrate immunity against bacterial infection and our gene expression data indicates the importance of the immune system in the evolution and development of sea cucumber.

  19. A novel MKK gene (AjMKK3/6) in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus: Identification, characterization and its response to pathogenic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Ge; Li, Kaiquan; Sun, Jingxian; Song, Jian; Zhan, Yaoyao; Zhang, Xiangxiang; Yang, Limeng; Chang, Yaqing

    2017-02-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs) are key components of MAP kinase (MAPK) cascades and function as redox-regulated signaling factors in pathological and physiological processes. In this study, we identified a novel MKK3/6 gene in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (designated as AjMKK3/6) by transcriptome database mining and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. Sequence analysis and protein structure prediction showed that AjMKK3/6 is highly conserved as compared to those from other invertebrate and vertebrate species. Molecular phylogeny result revealed that AjMKK3/6 exhibited a closest relationship with that from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to determine the expression profiles of AjMKK3/6 in healthy adult A. japonicus tissues and in coelomocytes after Vibrio splendidus infection in vivo, respectively. As results shown, AjMKK3/6 was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues of healthy adult A. japonicus with a relative expression level from high to low as body wall > tube feet > coelomocytes > respiratory tree > intestine > longitudinal muscle. Significant expression changes of AjMKK3/6 in coelomocytes were observed at 12 h- and 72 h-after V. splendidus infection, respectively. In general, the current study will enrich our knowledge of characterizations and immno-functions of MKK3/6 in sea cucumbers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. RNA-Seq reveals dynamic changes of gene expression in key stages of intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea; Echinodermata have the capacity to regenerate lost tissues and organs. Although the histological and cytological aspects of intestine regeneration have been extensively studied, little is known of the genetic mechanisms involved. There has, however, been a renewed effort to develop a database of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs in Apostichopus japonicus, an economically-important species that occurs in China. This is important for studies on genetic breeding, molecular markers and special physiological phenomena. We have also constructed a library of ESTs obtained from the regenerative body wall and intestine of A. japonicus. The database has increased to ~30000 ESTs. RESULTS: We used RNA-Seq to determine gene expression profiles associated with intestinal regeneration in A. japonicus at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post evisceration (dpe. This was compared to profiles obtained from a normally-functioning intestine. Approximately 5 million (M reads were sequenced in every library. Over 2400 up-regulated genes (>10% and over 1000 down-regulated genes (~5% were observed at 3 and 7dpe (log2Ratio ≥ 1, FDR ≤ 0.001. Specific "Go terms" revealed that the DEGs (Differentially Expressed Genes performed an important function at every regeneration stage. Besides some expected pathways (for example, Ribosome and Spliceosome pathway term, the "Notch signaling pathway," the "ECM-receptor interaction" and the "Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction" were significantly enriched. We also investigated the expression profiles of developmental genes, ECM-associated genes and Cytoskeletal genes. Twenty of the most important differentially expressed genes (DEGs were verified by Real-time PCR, which resulted in a trend concordance of almost 100% between the two techniques. CONCLUSION: Our studies demonstrated dynamic changes in global gene expression during intestine regeneration and presented a series of candidate genes and enriched

  1. Lotus japonicus nodulation requires two GRAS-domain regulators, NSP1 and NSP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Lombardo, Fabien; Miwa, Hiroki

    A nodulation-defective mutant of Lotus japonicus does not initiate nodule cortical cell division in response to Mesorhizobium loti, but induces root hair deformation, Nod factor-induced calcium spiking, and mycorrhization. We have shown that this mutant has a premature stop in the NSP1 (Nodulation...... Signalling Pathway 1) gene (Ljnsp1-1) resulting in loss of the C-terminal 23 amino acids (aa) and we recently identified another mutant in NSP1 (Ljnsp1-2) with a truncated protein of 341 aa. Additionally, we have sequenced and isolated a mutant in LjNSP2 (Ljnsp2-3) that has a premature stop codon showing...

  2. Effect of graded levels of dietary seaweed (Ulva sp.) on growth, hematological and serum biochemical parameters in dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, sciaenidae

    OpenAIRE

    Molatelo Junior Madibana; Victor Mlambo; Brett Lewis; Chris Fouché

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of incorporating graded levels of green macroalgae seaweed (Ulva sp.) into diets of juvenile dusky kob (Argyrosomus japonicus) on growth performance, hematology and serum biochemistry. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain 0 (Ulva0), 50 (Ulva50), 100 (Ulva100), 150 (Ulva150) and 200 (Ulva200) g seaweed meal/kg commercial kob feed on a dry matter basis. Seventy-seven dusky kob fingerlings (mean body mass 9.14â¯Â±â¯0.30â¯g) were distribu...

  3. Glomerular lipidosis accompanied by renal tubular oxalosis in wild and laboratory-reared Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Atsuko; Murakami, Mami; Sakai, Hiroki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Murata, Koichi; Yanai, Tokuma

    2011-12-01

    Glomerular lipidosis is a disease characterized by lipid accumulation in mesangial cells but that has not been fully investigated in avian species. We examined four wild and two laboratory-reared Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus)--an endangered avian species--presenting vacuolar deposits in the glomeruli. All cases had vacuolar deposits in the glomeruli. In the wild cases, fewer than 30% of all glomeruli were affected, compared with more than 90% in the laboratory-reared cases. In the wild cases, most deposits were mild and restricted to the mesangial areas of glomeruli. In the laboratory-reared cases, nearly all of the deposits covered entire glomeruli. Electron microscopy of mild deposits revealed vacuoles in the cytoplasm of mesangial cells. These vacuoles were positive for Sudan III, Sudan black B, oil red O, Nile blue, periodic acid-Schiff, Schultz test, and digitonin stain and were negative for performaric acid-Schiff stains. Based on these results, we diagnosed the glomerular lesion as glomerular lipidosis caused by uptake of low-density lipoprotein in mesangial cells. Except for one wild case, all cases exhibited renal tubular oxalosis. The severity of tubular oxalosis tended to be related to the severity of glomerular lipidosis: In cases of mild glomerular lipidosis, tubular oxalosis was also mild or absent. We therefore diagnosed the primary lesion as glomerular lipidosis accompanied by tubular oxalosis. The four wild cases came from different zones and therefore had no opportunities to interbreed and no common relatives. We believe these data support the hypothesis that glomerular lipidosis is a disease of the general population ofJapanese rock ptarmigans. This is the first report of glomerular lipidosis accompanied by renal tubular oxalosis in an avian species.

  4. Immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes in the corpus luteum and placenta of the Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus japonicus, during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, T; Taki, S; Nakayama, K; Mason, J I; Kominami, S; Harada, N; Kita, I

    2001-04-01

    The Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus japonicus, is a seasonal breeder and shows delayed implantation for several months during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to clarify the steroidogenic capability of the corpus luteum and placenta during pregnancy, including both delayed implantation and fetal development, by immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes in these organs of the Japanese black bear. Ovaries and placentae from 15 wild Japanese black bears, which had been killed legally by hunters and were thought to be pregnant, were used in an immunocytochemical study to localize the cholesterol side chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), 17alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method using polyclonal antisera raised in mammals against P450scc, 3betaHSD, P450c17 and P450arom. P450scc and 3betaHSD were localized in all luteal cells throughout pregnancy. P450c17 was present in a few luteal cells, especially in the outer area of the corpus luteum throughout pregnancy, but the number of positively immunostained cells decreased during the post-implantation period. Cells positively immunostained for P450c17 were significantly smaller than negatively immunostained cells (P black bear, corpora lutea are a source of progesterone which may play an important role in the maintenance of delayed implantation and fetal development during pregnancy. Corpora lutea have a minimum capability to synthesize androgen in small luteal cells and oestrogen in normal-sized luteal cells during pregnancy, and placentae have the ability to synthesize oestrogen during late pregnancy.

  5. Impacts of mercury exposure on life history traits of Tigriopus japonicus: Multigeneration effects and recovery from pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heyang; Shi, Lin; Wang, Dazhi; Wang, Minghua

    2015-09-01

    Here, through a multigenerational life-cycle test, Tigriopus japonicus were exposed to different mercuric chloride treatments in seawater (nominal concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 10, and 50μg/L) for five successive generations (F0-F4), and subsequently all the treatments were recovered in clean environments for one generation (F5). Six life history traits (survival, developmental time for nauplius phase, developmental time to maturation, fecundity, number of clutches, and number of nauplii/clutch) were examined for each generation. Mercury (Hg) accumulation was also analyzed for the adult copepods in the F1, F3, and F5. The results indicated that Hg accumulated in a dose-dependent manner for the F1, F3, and F5 generations. Moreover, higher Hg contents were observed in F3 than F1 at the same exposure levels. Among the six life history traits, only fecundity and number of nauplii/clutch showed a greater sensitivity to Hg toxicity, and the inhibitory effects worsened from F0 to F3, which was explained by a trend for higher metal accumulation with increasing generations. In the recovery generation (F5), none of the traits differed from the control, highlighting that Hg might not induce any epigenetic or parental effects in the following generations. Thus, we hypothesized that although cumulative effects might have been involved in Hg multigenerational toxicity, physiological acclimation, that is, phenotypic plasticity could explain Hg tolerance obtained by marine copepods. Impacts on important life history traits could disturb the population dynamics of some important marine copepods, hence having unexpected ecological consequences in the marine ecosystem. Yet, the Hg harmful impacts rapidly fade away as the Hg is cleared from the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxicity of antifouling biocides to the intertidal harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus (Crustacea, Copepoda): Effects of temperature and salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, K.W.H.; Leung, K.M.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Intertidal harpacticoid copepods are commonly used in eco-toxicity tests worldwide. They predominately live in mid-high shore rock pools and often experience a wide range of temperature and salinity fluctuation. Most eco-toxicity tests are conducted at fixed temperature and salinity and thus the influence of these environmental factors on chemical toxicity is largely unknown. This study investigated the combined effect of temperature and salinity on the acute toxicity of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus against two common biocides, copper (Cu) and tributyltin (TBT) using a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial design (i.e. two temperatures: 25 and 35 o C; three salinities: 15.0 per mille , 34.5 per mille and 45.0 per mille ; three levels of the biocide plus a control). Copper sulphate and tributyltin chloride were used as the test chemicals while distilled water and acetone were utilised as solvents for Cu and TBT respectively. 96h-LC50s of Cu and TBT were 1024 and 0.149 μg l -1 respectively (at 25 o C; 34.5 per mille ) and, based on these results, nominal biocide concentrations of LC0 (i.e. control), LC30, LC50 and LC70 were employed. Analysis of Covariance using 'concentration' as the covariate and both 'temperature' and 'salinity' as fixed factors, showed a significant interaction between temperature and salinity effects for Cu, mortality increasing with temperature but decreasing with elevated salinity. A similar result was revealed for TBT. Both temperature and salinity are, therefore, important factors affecting the results of acute eco-toxicity tests using these marine copepods. We recommend that such eco-toxicity tests should be conducted at a range of environmentally realistic temperature/salinity regimes, as this will enhance the sensitivity of the test and improve the safety margin in line with the precautionary principle

  7. miR210 modulates respiratory burst in Apostichopus japonicus coelomocytes via targeting Toll-like receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenghua; Zhao, Mengru; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhao, Xuelin; Duan, Xuemei; Xu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Immune responses of species in Echinodermata remains mysterious due to the lack of efforts made in the study of host defense mechanism in these species. More researches start focusing on this ancient immune system with the recognition the economic values of several species in this phylum, especially sea cucumbers. Here, we reported a study in the innate immunity of a sea cucumber species (Apostichopus japonicus) in response to infection of Vibrio splendidus. A novel differential expressed miRNA (miR-210) from the diseased sea cucumber coelomocytes was identified in our study. This miRNA molecule modulates Toll-like receptor gene (AjToll) expression via binding 3'UTR region from 906 nt to 930 nt. Upon the challenge of V. splendidus, coelomocytes in A. japonicas demonstrated a upregulation of AjToll but a downregulation of miR-210. Transfection of miR-210 agomirs in coelomocytes significantly depressed the expression of AjToll in cells. As a result of AjToll expression inhibition by miR-210, the AjToll downstream molecules involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also altered in vivo. This ROS pathway alternation was consistent with that caused by knockdown of AjToll through small inference RNA (siRNA). Taken together, the results of this study demonstrated a novel immune regulatory pathway via miRN-210 in A. japonica, which provides basic knowledge in exploring innate immunity of Echinodermata, and also can be reference in disease control in sea cucumber culture industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gibberellins interfere with symbiosis signaling and gene expression and alter colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naoya; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a mutualistic plant-fungus interaction that confers great advantages for plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enter the host root and form symbiotic structures that facilitate nutrient supplies between the symbionts. The gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones known to inhibit AM fungal infection. However, our transcriptome analysis and phytohormone quantification revealed GA accumulation in the roots of Lotus japonicus infected with AM fungi, suggesting that de novo GA synthesis plays a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. We found pleiotropic effects of GAs on the AM fungal infection. In particular, the morphology of AM fungal colonization was drastically altered by the status of GA signaling in the host root. Exogenous GA treatment inhibited AM hyphal entry into the host root and suppressed the expression of Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhization1 (RAM1) and RAM2 homologs that function in hyphal entry and arbuscule formation. On the other hand, inhibition of GA biosynthesis or suppression of GA signaling also affected arbuscular mycorrhiza development in the host root. Low-GA conditions suppressed arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced subtilisin-like serine protease1 (SbtM1) expression that is required for AM fungal colonization and reduced hyphal branching in the host root. The reduced hyphal branching and SbtM1 expression caused by the inhibition of GA biosynthesis were recovered by GA treatment, supporting the theory that insufficient GA signaling causes the inhibitory effects on arbuscular mycorrhiza development. Most studies have focused on the negative role of GA signaling, whereas our study demonstrates that GA signaling also positively interacts with symbiotic responses and promotes AM colonization of the host root. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Non-Cholera Vibrios Isolated from Farmed and Wild Marine Fish (Argyrosomus japonicus), Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fri, Justine; Ndip, Roland Ndip; Njom, Henry Akum; Clarke, Anna Maria

    2018-03-22

    This study aimed to evaluate the antibiogram and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of Vibrio isolates recovered from a marine fish (Argyrosomus japonicus) and water samples from two commercial dusky kob aquaculture farms and the Kariega estuary, South Africa, and to evaluate these findings for their public health implications. A total of 277 molecularly confirmed Vibrio isolates consisting of 126 Vibrio fluvialis, 45 Vibrio vulnificus, 30 Vibrio Parahaemolyticus, and 76 vibrios belonging to species of the genus other than Vibrio cholerae were subjected to susceptibility testing to 15 antibiotics by the disc diffusion method. Multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) was used to determine the antibiotic resistance-associated health risk, while polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the presence of 14 ARGs for nonsusceptible strains. Highest resistances were recorded to amoxicillin (76.2%), ampicillin (67.5%), erythromycin (38.3%), and doxycycline (35.0%), while susceptibilities were highest to gentamicin (100%), followed by norfloxacin (97.8%), florfenicol (90.3%), tetracycline (87.7%), and chloramphenicol (87.4%). We recorded a 58.5% multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥2 antimicrobial classes). MARI did not vary significantly between sites (p > 0.05); however, values of >0.2 were recorded in 40% (108/277) of all strains tested. ARG markers, ampC, blaOXA, tetA, tetM, dfr1, sul1, sul2, ermB, nptII, strA, and SXT integrase, were detected in one or more strains with ermB (82.5%), sul2 (53.8%), strA (44%), dfr1 (42.3%), and tetM (38.3%) being the most abundant. Healthy marine finfish (dusky kob) and their environment can serve as reservoirs for antibiotic resistant vibrios and ARGs, which could be disseminated to humans and other susceptible bacteria and this therefore becomes a public health concern.

  10. A Mycorrhizal-Specific Ammonium Transporter from Lotus japonicus Acquires Nitrogen Released by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guether, Mike; Neuhäuser, Benjamin; Balestrini, Raffaella; Dynowski, Marek; Ludewig, Uwe; Bonfante, Paola

    2009-01-01

    In mycorrhizal associations, the fungal partner assists its plant host by providing nitrogen (N) in addition to phosphate. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have access to inorganic or organic forms of N and translocate them via arginine from the extra- to the intraradical mycelium, where the N is transferred to the plant without any carbon skeleton. However, the molecular form in which N is transferred, as well as the involved mechanisms, is still under debate. NH4+ seems to be the preferential transferred molecule, but no plant ammonium transporter (AMT) has been identified so far. Here, we offer evidence of a plant AMT that is involved in N uptake during mycorrhiza symbiosis. The gene LjAMT2;2, which has been shown to be the highest up-regulated gene in a transcriptomic analysis of Lotus japonicus roots upon colonization with Gigaspora margarita, has been characterized as a high-affinity AMT belonging to the AMT2 subfamily. It is exclusively expressed in the mycorrhizal roots, but not in the nodules, and transcripts have preferentially been located in the arbusculated cells. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant complementation has confirmed its functionality and revealed its dependency on acidic pH. The transport experiments using Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that, unlike other plant AMTs, LjAMT2;2 transports NH3 instead of NH4+. Our results suggest that the transporter binds charged ammonium in the apoplastic interfacial compartment and releases the uncharged NH3 into the plant cytoplasm. The implications of such a finding are discussed in the context of AM functioning and plant phosphorus uptake. PMID:19329566

  11. Root nodule symbiosis in Lotus japonicus drives the establishment of distinctive rhizosphere, root, and nodule bacterial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Jensen, Dorthe Bodker; Koprivova, Anna; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Radutoiu, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Lotus japonicus has been used for decades as a model legume to study the establishment of binary symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia that trigger root nodule organogenesis for bacterial accommodation. Using community profiling of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we reveal that in Lotus, distinctive nodule- and root-inhabiting communities are established by parallel, rather than consecutive, selection of bacteria from the rhizosphere and root compartments. Comparative analyses of wild-type (WT) and symbiotic mutants in Nod factor receptor5 (nfr5), Nodule inception (nin) and Lotus histidine kinase1 (lhk1) genes identified a previously unsuspected role of the nodulation pathway in the establishment of different bacterial assemblages in the root and rhizosphere. We found that the loss of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis dramatically alters community structure in the latter two compartments, affecting at least 14 bacterial orders. The differential plant growth phenotypes seen between WT and the symbiotic mutants in nonsupplemented soil were retained under nitrogen-supplemented conditions that blocked the formation of functional nodules in WT, whereas the symbiosis-impaired mutants maintain an altered community structure in the nitrogen-supplemented soil. This finding provides strong evidence that the root-associated community shift in the symbiotic mutants is a direct consequence of the disabled symbiosis pathway rather than an indirect effect resulting from abolished symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Our findings imply a role of the legume host in selecting a broad taxonomic range of root-associated bacteria that, in addition to rhizobia, likely contribute to plant growth and ecological performance. PMID:27864511

  12. Expression and Purification of Active Recombinant Cathepsin C (Dipeptidyl Aminopeptidase I of Kuruma Prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus in Insect Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Feng Qiu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cathepsin C (CTSC is a lysosomal cysteine protease belonging to the papain superfamily. Our previous study showed that CTSC precursor (zymogen is localized exclusively in cortical rods (CRs of mature oocyte in the kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, suggesting that CTSC might have roles on regulating release and/or formation of a jelly layer. In this study, enzymically active CTSC of the kuruma prawn was prepared by recombinant expression in the High Five insect cell line. The recombinant enzyme with a polyhistidine tag at its C-terminus was considered to be initially secreted into the culture medium as an inactive form of zymogen, because Western blot with anti-CTSC antibody detected a 51 kDa protein corresponding to CTSC precursor. After purification by affinity chromatography on nickel-iminodiacetic acid resin, the enzyme displayed three forms of 51, 31, and 30 kDa polypeptides. All of the forms can be recognized by antiserum raised against C-terminal polyhistidine tag, indicating that the 31 and 30 kDa forms were generated from 51 kDa polypeptide by removal of a portion of the N-terminus of propeptide. Following activation at pH 5.5 and 37∘C for 40 hours under native conditions, the recombinant CTSC (rCTSC exhibited increased activity against the synthetic substrate Gly-Phe-β-naphthylamide and optimal pH at around 5. The purified rCTSC will be useful for further characterization of its exact physiological role on CRs release and/or formation of a jelly layer in kuruma prawn.

  13. miR-137 modulates coelomocyte apoptosis by targeting 14-3-3ζ in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Miao; Chen, Huahui; Shao, Yina; Li, Chenghua; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhao, Xuelin; Duan, Xuemei

    2017-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators in the host immune response and play a pivotal role in host-pathogen interactions by suppressing the transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of target genes. miR-137, a well-documented tumor repressor, was previously found by high-throughput sequencing to be differentially expressed in diseased specimens of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. In this study, we identified 14-3-3ζ protein (Aj14-3-3ζ) as a novel target of miR-137 using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and transcriptome screening. Expression analysis indicated that consistently depressed expression profiles of miR-137 and Aj14-3-3ζ were detected in both LPS-exposed primary coelomocytes and Vibrio splendidus-challenged sea cucumbers, suggesting a positive regulatory interaction. Consistently, miR-137 overexpression or inhibition in vitro and in vivo showed no effect on Aj14-3-3ζ mRNA levels, but the concentration of Aj14-3-3ζ protein was induced or repressed, respectively. Moreover, siRNA-mediated Aj14-3-3ζ knockdown in vivo decreased both mRNA and protein expression levels of Aj14-3-3ζ and significantly promoted coelomocyte apoptosis as assessed by flow cytometry, consistent with miR-137 inhibition. Overall, these results enhance our understanding of miR-137 regulatory roles in sea cucumber pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Osmotic stress represses strigolactone biosynthesis in Lotus japonicus roots: exploring the interaction between strigolactones and ABA under abiotic stress

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Junwei

    2015-02-26

    Main conclusion: Strigolactone changes and cross talk with ABA unveil a picture of root-specific hormonal dynamics under stress.Abstract: Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived hormones influencing diverse aspects of development and communication with (micro)organisms, and proposed as mediators of environmental stimuli in resource allocation processes; to contribute to adaptive adjustments, therefore, their pathway must be responsive to environmental cues. To investigate the relationship between SLs and abiotic stress in Lotus japonicus, we compared wild-type and SL-depleted plants, and studied SL metabolism in roots stressed osmotically and/or phosphate starved. SL-depleted plants showed increased stomatal conductance, both under normal and stress conditions, and impaired resistance to drought associated with slower stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA). This confirms that SLs contribute to drought resistance in species other than Arabidopsis. However, we also observed that osmotic stress rapidly and strongly decreased SL concentration in tissues and exudates of wild-type Lotus roots, by acting on the transcription of biosynthetic and transporter-encoding genes and independently of phosphate abundance. Pre-treatment with exogenous SLs inhibited the osmotic stress-induced ABA increase in wild-type roots and down-regulated the transcription of the ABA biosynthetic gene LjNCED2. We propose that a transcriptionally regulated, early SL decrease under osmotic stress is needed (but not sufficient) to allow the physiological increase of ABA in roots. This work shows that SL metabolism and effects on ABA are seemingly opposite in roots and shoots under stress.

  15. Enhancement of non-heme iron absorption by anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) muscle protein hydrolysate involves a nanoparticle-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haohao; Zhu, Suqin; Zeng, Mingyong; Liu, Zunying; Dong, Shiyuan; Zhao, Yuanhui; Huang, Hai; Lo, Y Martin

    2014-08-27

    The mechanisms by which meat enhances human absorption of non-heme iron remain unknown. Recently, anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) muscle protein hydrolysate (AMPH) was found to mediate the formation of nanosized ferric hydrolysis products in vitro. The current paper evaluates the effects of AMPH on the bioavailability and the intestinal speciation of non-heme iron in rats, followed by an investigation of cellular uptake pathways of in vitro-formed AMPH-stabilized nanosized ferric hydrolysis products (ANPs) by polarized human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. The hemoglobin regeneration efficiencies in anemic rats followed the order ferric citrate (9.79 ± 2.02%) < commercial bare α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (16.37 ± 6.65%) < mixture of ferric citrate and AMPH (40.33 ± 6.36%) ≈ ferrous sulfate (40.88 ± 7.67%) < ANPs (56.25 ± 11.35%). Percentage contents of intestinal low-molecular-weight iron in the groups of FC+AMPH, FeSO4, and ANPs were significantly lower than the corresponding hemoglobin regeneration efficiencies (P < 0.05), providing strong evidence for the involvement of nanosized iron in intestinal iron absorption from FC+AMPH, FeSO4, and ANPs. Calcein-fluorescence measurements of the labile iron pool of polarized Caco-2 cells revealed the involvement of both divalent transporter 1 and endocytosis in apical uptake of ANPs, with endocytosis dominating at acidic extracellular pH. Overall, AMPH enhancement of non-heme iron absorption involves a nanoparticle-mediated mechanism.

  16. Differences in morphometrics and reproductive physiology between two populations of Trissolcus japonicus, a promising biological control agent candidate for brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys Stal) in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead), a solitary egg parasitoid of Pentatomidae native to Southeast Asia, has been undergoing host-range testing in U.S. quarantine facilities since 2009 as a candidate for the biological control of brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys Stål)(BMSB), an invasive agri...

  17. A C-type lectin isolated from the skin of Japanese bullhead shark (Heterodontus japonicus) binds a remarkably broad range of sugars and induces blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Shigeyuki; Dotsuta, Yuma; Ono, Ayaka; Suzuki, Masanari; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Nakamura, Osamu

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physiological role of skin lectins of the Japanese bullhead shark (Heterodontus japonicus). A skin extract was subjected to affinity chromatography using seven different sugars as ligands. Molecular mass and N-terminal amino acid sequence analyses indicated elution of the same protein by each of the seven respective cognate ligands from sugar affinity columns. The predicted amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA of this protein [designated as H. japonicus C-type-lectin (HjCL)] identified it as a novel fish subgroup VII C-type lectin evolutionarily related to snake venom lectins. HjCL was predicted to bind to mannose because of the presence of a Glu-Pro-Asn (EPN) motif; however, haemagglutination inhibition assays and glycoconjugate microarray analysis demonstrated its binding to numerous structurally diverse sugars. Competitive sugar-binding assays using affinity chromatography indicated that HjCL bound multiple sugars via a common carbohydrate-recognition domain. The mRNA encoding HjCL was specifically detected in the skin, and immunohistochemical analysis detected its expression in uncharacterized large cells in the epidermis. HjCL agglutinated the bacterial pathogen Edwardsiella tarda and promoted immediate clotting of shark blood, indicating that HjCL is involved in host defence on the skin surface especially when the shark is injured and bleeds. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of dietary supplementation of four strains of lactic acid bacteria on growth, immune-related response and genes expression of the juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Ren, Yichao; Jiang, Senhao; Zhou, Shun; Zhao, Jinshan; Wang, Renjie; Li, Yongmei

    2018-03-01

    A feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of four strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) [i.e. Lactobacillus plantarum LL11 (LP), Weissella confuse LS13 (WC), Lactococcus lactis LH8 (LL) and Enterococcus faecalis LC3 (ES)] isolated from marine fish on growth, immune response and expression levels of immune-related gens in body wall of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. As a result, sea cucumber had better growth performance fed supplementation of LP and ES than the control group (P  .05). For the gene expression levels, different expression patterns were observed among four groups, heat shock proteins (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) and caspase-2 showed dramatic up-regulation at 30 d while NF-kappa-B transcription factor p65 was down-regulated at 15 d and up-regulated at 30 d, and nitric oxide synthase was down-regulated at both timepoints in almost all the four groups. In conclusion, the four LAB strains screened from marine fish supplemented in diets indicated positive effects on immune response for A. japonicus, especially, the L. plantarum LL11 and E. faecalis LC3 indicated better growth performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cytochrome b gene reveals panmixia among Japanese Threadfin Bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) populations along the coasts of Peninsular Malaysia and provides evidence of a cryptic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hong-Chiun; Ahmad, Abu Talib; Nuruddin, Ahmad Adnan; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated genetic differentiation among ten presumed Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus populations along the coast of Peninsular Malaysia based on the partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (982 bp). Genetic divergences (Kimura-2 parameter) ranged from 0.5% to 0.8% among nine of the ten populations while these nine populations were 4.4% to 4.6% diverged from the Kuala Besar population located at the Northeast coast. The constructed Neighbour Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees based on haplotypes showed the Kuala Besar population forming an isolated cluster. The Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) of the ten populations a priori assigned into four regions, revealed that most of the variation occurred within population with a fairly low but significant level of regional differentiation (FST = 0.07, p 0.05 and FCT = 0.07, p population. p Value after Bonferroni correction revealed that only pairwise FST values involving the Kuala Besar population with the other nine populations were significant. Thus, this study revealed that the N. japonicus populations off Peninsular Malaysia were panmictic. However, the Kuala Besar population, although morphologically identical was composed of a genetically discrete taxon from the rest. These findings are important contributions in formulating sustainable fishery management policies for this important fishery in Peninsular Malaysia.

  20. Integrative mRNA-miRNA interaction analysis associate with immune response of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus based on transcriptome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoxu; Chang, Yaqing; Zhan, Yaoyao; Wang, Xiuli; Lin, Kai

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a family of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that have been demonstrated to be the key effectors in mediating host-pathogen interactions. Additionally, high-throughput sequencing provides unexampled opportunities to identify the pathogenic mechanism underlying miRNAs. In the present study, the target genes of immune-related miRNAs (miR-31, miR-2008, miR-92a, miR-210 and miR-7) and specific miRNAs (miR-2004) in Echinodermata were predicted in silico and validated. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of the target genes of these six miRNAs were conducted to further understand the regulatory function in the host immunity of Apostichopus japonicus (A. japonicus). Among the putative target genes of the six miRNAs, various immune-related targets were annotated, such as Nephl, SEC14Ll, p105, GL2, LYS, FNIAL, mTOR, LITAF, SLC44, TLR3, Apaf-1, and CNTN4. This work will provide valuable genetic resources to understand the interaction of multiple mRNA-miRNAs and the regulation mechanism in the anti-bacterial process in the sea cucumber. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Effects of high-salinity seawater acclimation on the levels of D-alanine in the muscle and hepatopancreas of kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Naoko; Yokoyama, Masahumi

    2015-12-10

    Changes in D- and L-alanine contents were determined in the muscle and hepatopancreas of kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, during acclimation from seawater containing 100% salinity to artificial seawater containing 150% salinity. In the hepatopancreas, contents of both amino acids increased by approximately threefold. The activity of alanine racemase, which catalyzes the interconversion of D- and L-alanine, also increased in the high-salinity seawater. In addition, the expression of the gene encoding alanine racemase increased in the hepatopancreas with an increase in the alanine racemase activity. These data indicate that the biosynthesis of D- and L-alanine is controlled by the gene expression level of alanine racemase, and D-alanine in the hepatopancreas functions as a major osmolyte for isosmotic regulation. In contrast, the content of D-alanine and alanine racemase activity did not change in the muscle during hyper-osmotic acclimation. Therefore, we suggest that D-alanine, which exists in the several tissues of M. japonicus, is considered to be utilized in some different physiological phenomena in different tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification and comparative analysis of complement C3-associated microRNAs in immune response of Apostichopus japonicus by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lei; Zhang, Feng; Zhai, Yu; Cao, Yanhui; Zhang, Si; Chang, Yaqing

    2015-12-04

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important effectors in mediating host-pathogen interaction. In this report, coelomocytes miRNA libraries of three Japanese sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus were built by Illumina(®) Hiseq2000 from different time points after lipopolysaccharide challenge (at time 0 h, 6 h and 12 h). The clean data received from high throughput sequencing were used to sequences analysis. Referenced to the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome, 38 conserved miRNAs were found, and three miRNA candidates were predicted by software. According to the evidence resulting from the expression of AjC3, expressing levels of spu-miR-133, spu-miR-137 and spu-miR-2004 altered along with the expression of AjC3 changing at different time points after LPS injection. Thus, we speculated that the three miRNAs may have influence on A. japonicus complement C3. The spu-miR-137 and miR-137 gene family in miRBase were analyzed by bioinformatics. There is an obvious discrepancy between invertebrates and vertebrates. The first and ninth nucleotides in invertebrate miR-137 are offset compared vertebrate miR-137. Importantly, this is the first attempt to map the stage of immune response regulome in echinoderms, which might be considered as information for elucidating the intrinsic mechanism underlying the immune system in this species.

  3. Amino acid specificity of fibers of the facial/trigeminal complex innervating the maxillary barbel in the Japanese sea catfish, Plotosus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, John; Shimohara, Mami; Marui, Takayuki; Kohbara, Jun; Harada, Shuitsu; Kiyohara, Sadao

    2015-12-01

    The Japanese sea catfish, Plotosus japonicus, possesses taste and solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) located on the external body surface that detect specific water-soluble substances. Here, we identify two major fiber types of the facial/trigeminal complex that transmit amino acid information to the medulla. Both single and few fiber preparations respond to amino acid stimulation in the 0.1 μM to mM range. One fiber type responds best to glycine and l-alanine (i.e. Gly/Ala fibers) whereas the other fiber type is best stimulated by l-proline and glycine betaine (hereafter referred to only as betaine) (i.e. Pro/Bet fibers). We demonstrate that betaine, which does not alter the pH of the seawater and therefore does not activate the animals' highly sensitive pH sensors (Caprio et al., Science 344:1154-1156, 2014), is sufficient to elicit appetitive food search behavior. We further show that the amino acid specificity of fibers of the facial/trigeminal complex in P. japonicus is different from that in Ariopsis felis (Michel and Caprio, J. Neurophysiol. 66:247-260, 1991; Michel et al., J. Comp. Physiol. A. 172:129-138, 1993), a representative member of the only other family (Ariidae) of extant marine catfishes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptional changes in epigenetic modifiers associated with gene silencing in the intestine of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka), during aestivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianming; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Chen, Muyan; Wang, Bing

    2011-11-01

    The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, undergoes aestivation to improve survival during periods of high-temperature. During aestivation, the metabolic rate is depressed to reduce the consumption of reserved energy. We evaluated the role of epigenetic modification on global gene silencing during metabolic rate depression in the sea cucumber. We compared the expression of epigenetic modifiers in active and aestivating sea cucumbers. The expression of three genes involved in DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling (DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1, Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2), and Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 5) was significantly higher during aestivation (Days 20 and 40). Similarly, we observed an increase in the expression of genes involved in histone acetylation (Histone deacetylase 3) and Histone-binding protein RBBP4) during the early (Days 5 and 10) and late phases (Days 20 and 40) of aestivation. There was no change in the expression of KAT2B, a histone acetyltransferase. However, the expression of histone methylation associated modifiers (Histone-arginine methyltransferase CARMER and Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase MLL5) was significantly higher after 5 d in the aestivating group. The results suggest that the expression of epigenetic modifiers involved in DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone acetylation, and histone methylation is upregulated during aestivation. We hypothesize that these changes regulate global gene silencing during aestivation in A. japonicus.

  5. Inhibition of the DNA polymerase and RNase H activities of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and HIV-1 replication by Brasenia schreberi (Junsai) and Petasites japonicus (Fuki) components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisayoshi, Tetsuro; Shinomura, Mayu; Yokokawa, Kanta; Kuze, Ikumi; Konishi, Atsushi; Kawaji, Kumi; Kodama, Eiichi N; Hata, Keishi; Takahashi, Saori; Nirasawa, Satoru; Sakuda, Shohei; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) possesses two distinct enzymatic activities: those of RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA polymerases and RNase H. In the current HIV-1 therapy, all HIV-1 RT inhibitors inhibit the activity of DNA polymerase, but not that of RNase H. We previously reported that ethanol and water extracts of Brasenia schreberi (Junsai) inhibited the DNA polymerase activity of HIV-1 RT [Hisayoshi et al. (2014) J Biol Macromol 14:59-65]. In this study, we screened 43 edible plants and found that ethanol and water extracts of Brasenia schreberi and water extract of Petasites japonicus strongly inhibit not only the activity of DNA polymerase to incorporate dTTP into poly(rA)-p(dT)15 but also the activity of RNase H to hydrolyze the RNA strand of an RNA/DNA hybrid. In addition, these three extracts inhibit HIV-1 replication in human cells, with EC50 values of 1-2 µg/ml. These results suggest that Brasenia schreberi and Petasites japonicus contain substances that block HIV-1 replication by inhibiting the DNA polymerase activity and/or RNase H activity of HIV-1 RT.

  6. Optimization of fibrolytic enzyme production by Aspergillus japonicus C03 with potential application in ruminant feed and their effects on tropical forages hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Fernanda D A; Vici, Ana C; Benassi, Vivian M; Freitas, Luiz A P; Reis, Ricardo A; Jorge, João A; Terenzi, Héctor F; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes T M

    2011-10-01

    Fibrolytic enzyme production by Aspergillus japonicus C03 was optimized in a medium containing agro-industrial wastes, supplemented with peptone and yeast extract. A 2(3) full factorial composite and response surface methodology were used to design the experiments and analysis of results. Tropical forages were hydrolyzed by A. japonicus C03 enzymatic extract in different levels, and they were also tested as enzymatic substrate. Optimal production to xylanase was obtained with soybean bran added to crushed corncob (1:3), 0.01% peptone, and 0.2% yeast extract, initial pH 5.0, at 30 °C under static conditions for 5 days of incubation. Optimal endoglucanase production was obtained with wheat bran added to sugarcane bagasse (3:1), 0.01% peptone, and 0.2% yeast extract, initial pH 4.0, at 30 °C, for 6 days, under static conditions. Addition of nitrogen sources as ammonium salts either inhibited or did not influence xylanase production. This enzymatic extract had a good result on tropical forage hydrolyzes and showed better performance in the Brachiaria genera, due to their low cell wall lignin quantity. These results represent a step forward toward the use of low-cost agricultural residues for the production of valuable enzymes with potential application in animal feed, using fermentation conditions.

  7. Eelgrass detritus as a food source for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka (Echinidermata: Holothuroidea in coastal waters of North China: an experimental study in flow-through systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujia Liu

    Full Text Available Eelgrass ecosystems have a wide variety of ecological functions in which living tissues and detritus may be a food source for many marine animals. In this study, we conducted a laboratory simulating experiment to understand the trophic relationship between the eelgrass Zostera marina L and the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. A mixture of decaying eelgrass debris and seafloor surface muddy sediments was used as food to feed A. japonicus, and then specific growth rates (SGR and fecal production rates (FPR were measured. According to the proportion of eelgrass debris, we designed five treatment diets, i.e., ES0, ES10, ES20, ES40, and ES100, with eelgrass debris accounting for 0%, 10%, 20%, 40%, and 100% in dry weight, respectively. Results showed that diet composition had a great influence on the growth of A. japonicus. Sea cucumbers could use decaying eelgrass debris as their food source; and when the organic content of a mixture of eelgrass debris and sediment was 19.6% (ES40, a relatively high SGR (1.54%·d(-1 and FPR (1.31 g·ind.(-1 d(-1 of A. japonicus were obtained. It is suggested that eelgrass beds can not only provide habitat for the sea cucumber A. japonicus but can also provide an indirect food source for the deposit feeder. This means that the restoration and reconstruction of eelgrass beds, especially in coastal waters of China, would be a potential and effective measure for sea-cucumber fisheries, in respect to both resource restoration and aquaculture of this valuable species.

  8. Eelgrass detritus as a food source for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka (Echinidermata: Holothuroidea) in coastal waters of North China: an experimental study in flow-through systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xujia; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Hongsheng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2013-01-01

    Eelgrass ecosystems have a wide variety of ecological functions in which living tissues and detritus may be a food source for many marine animals. In this study, we conducted a laboratory simulating experiment to understand the trophic relationship between the eelgrass Zostera marina L and the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. A mixture of decaying eelgrass debris and seafloor surface muddy sediments was used as food to feed A. japonicus, and then specific growth rates (SGR) and fecal production rates (FPR) were measured. According to the proportion of eelgrass debris, we designed five treatment diets, i.e., ES0, ES10, ES20, ES40, and ES100, with eelgrass debris accounting for 0%, 10%, 20%, 40%, and 100% in dry weight, respectively. Results showed that diet composition had a great influence on the growth of A. japonicus. Sea cucumbers could use decaying eelgrass debris as their food source; and when the organic content of a mixture of eelgrass debris and sediment was 19.6% (ES40), a relatively high SGR (1.54%·d(-1)) and FPR (1.31 g·ind.(-1) d(-1)) of A. japonicus were obtained. It is suggested that eelgrass beds can not only provide habitat for the sea cucumber A. japonicus but can also provide an indirect food source for the deposit feeder. This means that the restoration and reconstruction of eelgrass beds, especially in coastal waters of China, would be a potential and effective measure for sea-cucumber fisheries, in respect to both resource restoration and aquaculture of this valuable species.

  9. Effect of acetone extract of Rumex japonicas Houtt on hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to manufacturers' instructions. In addition, the total cell proteins of H9c2 cells were extracted with IP cell lysis buffer, and protein concentration was analyzed using a BCA protein assay kit. Subsequently, contents of SOD, CAT and MDA were also measured using commercial kits following manufacturers' instructions. Western ...

  10. Prospek Pengembangan Pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt di Hutan Rakyat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Fauziyah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The private forest is largely managed with agroforestry pattern. Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans is a plant that has been developed in the private forest. This study aimed to determine the prospect of nutmeg in the private forest. This research was conducted in the Kemawi village, Somagede Subdistrict of Banyumas District, Central Java Province in June to July 2012. Data were collected through secondary data study, open and in-depth interviews. Twenty farmers who planted nutmeg were selected with purposive sampling technique. The obtained data were processed and analyzed descriptively. The results showed that nutmeg had a good prospect as one of the plantation species for private forest development in Kemawi village because of these several factors: 1 Kemawi land was biophysically suitable for nutmeg plantation, 2 socially, many farmers had been planting nutmeg in their land, 3 economically, nutmeg had a good and stable price that can provide additional income, 4 marketing of both fruit and seed of nutmeg were very easy, and 5 there were good attentions from the government to the nutmeg development program from production to post-harvesting process.

  11. Phagocytic activities of hemocytes from the deep-sea symbiotic mussels Bathymodiolus japonicus, B. platifrons, and B. septemdierum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tame, Akihiro; Yoshida, Takao; Ohishi, Kazue; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2015-07-01

    Deep-sea mytilid mussels harbor symbiotic bacteria in their gill epithelial cells that are horizontally or environmentally transmitted to the next generation of hosts. To understand the immune defense system in deep-sea symbiotic mussels, we examined the hemocyte populations of the symbiotic Bathymodiolus mussel species Bathymodiolus japonicus, Bathymodiolus platifrons, and Bathymodiolus septemdierum, and characterized three types of hemocytes: agranulocytes (AGs), basophilic granulocytes (BGs), and eosinophilic granulocytes (EGs). Of these, the EG cells were the largest (diameter, 8.4-10.0 μm) and had eosinophilic cytoplasm with numerous eosinophilic granules (diameter, 0.8-1.2 μm). Meanwhile, the BGs were of medium size (diameter, 6.7-8.0 μm) and contained small basophilic granules (diameter, 0.3-0.4 μm) in basophilic cytoplasm, and the AGs, the smallest of the hemocytes (diameter, 4.8-6.0 μm), had basophilic cytoplasm lacking granules. A lectin binding assay revealed that concanavalin A bound to all three hemocyte types, while wheat germ agglutinin bound exclusively to EGs and BGs. The total hemocyte population densities within the hemolymph of all three Bathymodiolus mussel species were similar (8.4-13.3 × 10(5) cells/mL), and the percentages of circulating AGs, BGs, and EGs in the hemolymph of these organisms were 44.7-48.5%, 14.3-17.6%, and 34.3-41.0%, respectively. To analyze the functional differences between these hemocytes, the phagocytic activity and post-phagocytic phagosome-lysosome fusion events were analyzed in each cell type using a fluorescent Alexa Fluor(®) 488-conjugated Escherichia coli bioparticle and a LysoTracker(®) lysosomal marker, respectively. While the AGs exhibited no phagocytic activity, both types of granulocytes were phagocytic. Of the three hemocyte types, the EGs exhibited the highest level of phagocytic activity as well as rapid phagosome-lysosome fusion, which occurred within 2 h of incubation. Meanwhile, the BGs showed

  12. Acute and chronic toxicities of zinc pyrithione alone and in combination with copper to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Vivien W W; Lui, Gilbert C S; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-12-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is a widely used booster biocide in combination with copper (Cu) in antifouling paints as a substitute for tributyltin. The co-occurrence of ZnPT and Cu in coastal marine environments is therefore very common, and may pose a higher risk to marine organisms if they can result in synergistic toxicity. This study comprehensively investigated the combined toxicity of ZnPT and Cu, on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus, for the first time, based on both 96-h acute toxicity tests using adult copepods and chronic full-life cycle tests (21 d) using nauplii copper pyrithione (CuPT) in the presence of Cu, the acute toxicities of CuPT alone and in combination with Cu on adult copepods were also assessed. Our results showed that ZnPT and Cu exhibited a strong synergistic toxic effect on the copepod in both acute and chronic tests. During the acute test, the mortalities of adult copepods increased dramatically even with an addition of Cu at concentrations as low as 1-2 μg/L compared with those exposed to ZnPT alone. Severe chronic toxicities were further observed in the copepods exposed to ZnPT-Cu mixtures, including a significant increase of naupliar mortality, postponing of development from naupliar to copepodid and from copepodid to adult stage, and a significant decrease of intrinsic population growth when compared with those of copepods exposed to ZnPT or Cu alone. Such synergistic effects might be partly attributable to the formation of CuPT by the trans-chelation of ZnPT and Cu, because CuPT was found to be more toxic than ZnPT based on the acute toxicity results. Mixtures of CuPT and Cu also led to synergistic toxic effects to the copepod, in particular at high Cu concentrations. A novel non-parametric response surface model was applied and it proved to be a powerful method for analysing and predicting the acute binary mixture toxicities of the booster biocides (i.e., ZnPT and CuPT) and Cu on the copepod. To better protect precious marine

  13. Influence of cryoprotectant levels on storage stability of surimi from Nemipterus japonicus and quality of surimi-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U, Parvathy; George, Sajan

    2014-05-01

    A study was undertaken with the aim of reducing the concentration of cryoprotectants in surimi without adversely affecting frozen storage stability. Minced meat from a tropical fish, Nemipterus japonicus, was strained, water leached and mixed with different levels of sucrose-sorbitol (1:1) mixture (henceforth called sugar mixture), quick frozen at -35 °C and frozen stored at -20 °C. The surimi samples were subjected to storage stability studies for a period of 5 months. Water leaching resulted in slight absorption of water by meat and reduction in protein, fat and mineral contents. Surimi was found to have moderately white colour. Sensory evaluation studies were conducted on three products, viz., sausage, patty and cake, prepared using surimi containing different concentrations of sugar mixture. Sugar mixture content varying from 0% (control) to 4% in surimi resulted in products that were more acceptable to the taste panelists compared those with 6% and 8% sugar mixture. During frozen storage of surimi pH and total plate count remained nearly steady for all sugar mixture concentrations and throughout the storage period. Moisture content appeared to remain constant during storage, but decreased with increase in sugar concentration. The salt soluble nitrogen content of surimi and gel strength of sausage prepared from it decreased with storage period in all surimi samples, and increased with sugar mixture concentration. Expressible water content of surimi sausage showed an increasing trend with storage period of surimi and a decreasing trend with sugar mixture concentration. Sensory evaluation parameters-elasticity, sweetness and preference-remained more or less steady during storage. However elasticity and sweetness increased and preference decreased with sugar mixture concentration beyond 4%. Elasticity and gel strength of surimi sausage seemed to be much lower for control compared to even the lowest concentration of sugar (2%) used. A concentration of 2 to 4

  14. A convenient method for preparation of biologically active recombinant CHH of the kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, using the bacterial expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Chiaki; Asazuma, Hideaki; Nagata, Shinji; Ohira, Tsuyoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2009-03-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) not only plays an important role in the modulation of hemolymph glucose level but also functions in other biological events including molting, reproduction and stress response. Of the six CHHs characterized in Marsupenaeus japonicus, an expression system for recombinant Pej-SGP-VII (rPej-SGP-VII-amide) has not yet been established. Here, we established a procedure using a Nus-tag for solubilization, thereby soluble and biologically active rPej-SGP-VII-amide could successfully be obtained by a simpler procedure than previous ones used for producing other recombinant Pej-SGPs (Pej-SGP-I, III and IV). It was found that rPej-SGP-VII-amide thus obtained had the correct arrangement of intramolecular disulfide bonds and helix-rich secondary structure. The established expression system for rPej-SGP-VII-amide may be applicable for the preparation of other recombinant CHHs.

  15. PCR-DGGE analysis of intestinal bacteria and effect of Bacillus spp. on intestinal microbial diversity in kuruma shrimp ( Marsupenaeus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaide; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Jiang, Keyong; Jiang, Shan); Sun, Shujuan; Wang, Lei

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the intestinal microbiota of kuruma shrimp ( Marsupenaeus japonicus) was examined by molecular analysis of the 16S rDNA to identify the dominant intestinal bacteria and to investigate the effects of Bacillus spp. on intestinal microbial diversity. Samples of the intestines of kuruma shrimp fed normal feed and Bacillus spp. amended feed. PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses were then performed on DNA extracted directly from the guts. Population fingerprints of the predominant organisms were generated by DGGE analysis of the universal V3 16S rDNA amplicons, and distinct bands in the gels were sequenced. The results suggested that the gut of kuruma shrimp was dominated by Vibrio sp. and uncultured gamma proteobacterium. Overall, the results of this study suggest that PCR-DGGE is a possible method of studying the intestinal microbial diversity of shrimp.

  16. Glycolysis and the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Are Linked by Alanine Aminotransferase during Hypoxia Induced by Waterlogging of Lotus japonicus1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marcio; Licausi, Francesco; Araújo, Wagner L.; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Sodek, Ladaslav; Fernie, Alisdair R.; van Dongen, Joost T.

    2010-01-01

    The role of nitrogen metabolism in the survival of prolonged periods of waterlogging was investigated in highly flood-tolerant, nodulated Lotus japonicus plants. Alanine production revealed to be a critical hypoxic pathway. Alanine is the only amino acid whose biosynthesis is not inhibited by nitrogen deficiency resulting from RNA interference silencing of nodular leghemoglobin. The metabolic changes that were induced following waterlogging can be best explained by the activation of alanine metabolism in combination with the modular operation of a split tricarboxylic acid pathway. The sum result of this metabolic scenario is the accumulation of alanine and succinate and the production of extra ATP under hypoxia. The importance of alanine metabolism is discussed with respect to its ability to regulate the level of pyruvate, and this and all other changes are discussed in the context of current models concerning the regulation of plant metabolism. PMID:20089769

  17. Characterization of Key Factors of Anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) Meat in the Nanoparticle-Mediated Enhancement of Non-Heme Iron Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaqun; Zhao, Liang; Feng, Guangxin; Miao, Yu; Wu, Haohao; Zeng, Mingyong

    2017-12-27

    Anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) meat (AM) has been shown to promote nonheme iron absorption via a ferric oxyhydroxide nanoparticle (FeONP)-mediated mechanism. Here, formulation modifications of an egg-white-based AIN-93G diet with AM fractions resulted hemoglobin regeneration efficiencies in anemic rats following an order control (23.69 ± 3.99%) iron enriched in proximal-small-intestinal contents by these AM fractions. The calcein-fluorescence-quenching assay in polarized Caco-2 cells revealed good iron absorption from FeONPs coated with AM peptides, l-α-phosphatidylcholine, l-α-lysophosphatidylcholine, and chondroitin sulfate, with the latter two disfavoring endocytosis thereby inducing relatively weaker iron absorption. These results suggest peptides, phospholipids, and mucopolysaccharides released during AM digestion are key factors promoting nonheme iron absorption.

  18. Expanding the Lotus japonicus reverse genetics toolbox – Development of LORE1 retrotransposon mutagenesis and artificial miRNA-mediated silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian

    2011-01-01

    . Prior to this project, the only reverse genetics resource available in Lotus was the TILLING resource. In an attempt to advance Lotus genetic studies, present study is focused on the development of two additional resources. The first is based on insertional mutagenesis and the second on harnessing post-transcriptional......Currently, the most common approach to studying Lotus japonicus (Lotus) genes is forward genetics in which a gene responsible for the studied phenotype is identified through map-based cloning. In reverse genetics, the activity of a gene of interest is modified to discover its mutant phenotype....... The protocols developed in the current project are now the cornerstone of a new LORE1 reverse genetics resource characterized by efficient mutant line generation and accurate mutation annotation. In parallel, artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) were designed based on both Arabidopsis and Lotus backbones...

  19. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) from the copepod Tigriopus japonicus: molecular characterization and its expression in response to UV-B and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Seo, Jung Soo; Kim, Il-Chan; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2012-03-01

    8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (EC 3.2.2.23) is encoded by OGG1 gene and plays a key role in removing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) base in DNA lesion by reactive oxygen species (ROS). To identify and characterize OGG1 gene (TJ-OGG1) in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, the full-length cDNA sequence, genomic structure, and promoter region was analyzed. In addition, to investigate transcriptional change of TJ-OGG1 mRNA under oxidative stress conditions, T. japonicus were exposed to environmental oxidative inducers, H(2)O(2), UV-B, and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), respectively. The full-length cDNA of TJ-OGG1 gene was 1708 bp in length, encoding 343 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequences of TJ-OGG1 showed a 56% similarity with human. Two conserved motifs (HhH and PVD loop) and two conserved residues (lysine and aspartic acid) in active sites were also observed. TJ-OGG1 genome structure contained six exons and five introns and putative transcription factor binding sites such as Nrf-2, p53, ERE-half sites, and XRE were detected on the promoter region. TJ-OGG1 mRNA level was increased at approximately three-fold (Pheavy metals induce oxidative stress and generate oxidatively damaged DNA. Consequently, the enhanced TJ-OGG1 gene expression would be associated with active involvement of TJ-OGG1 gene in DNA repair process as a cellular protection mechanism. This is the first report on the cloning and characterization of OGG1 gene in aquatic animals. This study is helpful for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cellular protection against various environmental oxidative stress inducers such as UV-B and heavy metals in aquatic invertebrates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcription profiling using RNA-Seq demonstrates expression differences in the body walls of juvenile albino and normal sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina; Chen, Muyan

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus are one of the most important aquaculture species in China. Their normal body color is black to fit their surroundings. Wild albinos are rare and hard to breed. To understand the differences between albino and normal (control) sea cucumbers at the transcriptional level, we sequenced the transcriptomes in their body-wall tissues using RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing. Approximately 4.876 million (M) and 4.884 M 200-nucleotide-long cDNA reads were produced in the cDNA libraries derived from the body walls of albino and control samples, respectively. A total of 9 561 (46.89%) putative genes were identified from among the RNA-Seq reads in both libraries. After filtering, 837 significantly differentially regulated genes were identified in the albino library compared with in the control library, and 3.6% of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to have changed those more than five-fold. The expression levels of 10 DEGs were checked by real-time PCR and the results were in full accord with the RNA-Seq expression trends, although the amplitude of the differences in expression levels was lower in all cases. A series of pathways were significantly enriched for the DEGs. These pathways were closely related to phagocytosis, the complement and coagulation cascades, apoptosis-related diseases, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and cell adhesion. The differences in gene expression and enriched pathways between the albino and control sea cucumbers offer control targets for cultivating excellent albino A. japonicus strains in the future.

  1. Effects of triclosan (TCS) on fecundity, the antioxidant system, and oxidative stress-mediated gene expression in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Chul; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Min-Chul; Seo, Jung Soo; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-08-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent that has been widely dispersed and detected in the marine environment. However, the effects of TCS in marine invertebrates are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of TCS on life cycle history (e.g. mortality and fecundity) along with cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, GSH content, antioxidant enzymatic activities, and mRNA expression levels of oxidative stress-mediated genes were measured in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) and median lethal concentration (LC50) of TCS in the adult stage were determined to be 300μg/L and 437.476μg/L, respectively, while in the nauplius stages the corresponding values were 20μg/L, and 51.76μg/L, respectively. Fecundity was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in response to TCS at 100μg/L. Concentration- and time-dependent analysis of ROS, GSH content (%), and antioxidant enzymatic activities (e.g. GST, GPx, and SOD) were significantly increased (P<0.05) in response to TCS exposure. Additionally, mRNA expression of detoxification (e.g., CYPs) and antioxidant (e.g., glutathione S-transferase-sigma isoforms, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase) genes was modulated in response to TCS exposure at different concentrations over a 24h period. Our results revealed that TCS can induce reduced fecundity and oxidative stress with transcriptional regulation of oxidative stress-mediated genes with activation of the antioxidant system in the copepod T. japonicus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibitory effect of molt-inhibiting hormone on phantom expression in the Y-organ of the kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asazuma, Hideaki; Nagata, Shinji; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2009-12-01

    Molting in crustaceans is induced by ecdysteroids as in insects. The ecdysteroid titre in hemolymph is negatively regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) that inhibits the secretion of ecdysteroids from the Y-organ, an ecdysteroid-producing gland of crustaceans, whereas little is known about the molecular mechanism of inhibition by MIH. Recently, the Halloween genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases were characterized as the steroidogenic enzymes in insects. To elucidate whether the ecdysteroidogenesis in the Y-organ is regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), we analyzed the expression level of an orthologue of a member of the Halloween genes, phantom (Cyp306a1, phm), in the Y-organ of a decapod crustacean, Marsupenaeus japonicus. A cDNA encoding phm (Mj-phm) was cloned by degenerate PCR and 5'- and 3'-RACEs. The deduced amino acid sequence of Mj-phm showed about 40% identity to those of insect phm. The six motif sequences and the four substrate recognition sites were well conserved between Mj-PHM and other PHM. RT-PCR showed the specific expression of Mj-phm mRNA in the Y-organ. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR verified that the expression level of Mj-phm was significantly increased at the pre-molt stage and decreased after ecdysis. Furthermore, exposure of the Y-organ to MIH significantly decreased the Mj-phm expression level in vitro. These results indicate that the transcription of Mj-phm in the Y-organ may be regulated by the inhibitory mechanism of MIH of M. japonicus, which involves the consequent negative regulation of ecdysteroidogenesis at the transcriptional level. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Extracellular matrix remodeling and matrix metalloproteinases (ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like) characterization during intestine regeneration of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ting; Wan, Zixuan; Sun, Lina; Li, Xiaoni; Xing, Lili; Bai, Yucen; Wang, Fang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-10-01

    Remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is essential for tissue regeneration. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques against ECM components to reveal changes of ECM during intestine regeneration of Apostichopus japonicus. The expression of collagen I and laminin reduced apparently from the eviscerated intestine, while fibronectin exhibited continuous expression in all regeneration stages observed. Meanwhile, we cloned two MMP genes from A. japonicus by RACE PCR. The full-length cDNA of ajMMP-2 like is 2733bp and contains a predicted open reading frame (ORF) of 1716bp encoding 572 amino acids. The full-length cDNA of ajMMP-16 like is 2705bp and contains an ORF of 1452bp encoding 484 amino acids. The predicted protein sequences of each MMP contain two conserved domains, ZnMc_MMP and HX. Homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like share high sequence similarity with MMP-2 and MMP-16 from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, respectively. Then we investigated spatio-temporal expression of ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like during different regeneration stages by qRT-PCR and IHC. The expression pattern of them showed a roughly opposite trend from that of ECM components. According to our results, a fibronectin-dominate temporary matrix is created in intestine regeneration, and it might provide structural integrity for matrix and promote cell movement. We also hypothesize that ajMMP-2 like and ajMMP-16 like could accelerate cell migration and regulate interaction between ECM components and growth factors. This work provides new evidence of ECM and MMPs involvement in sea cucumber regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of the 1992-1993 el niño on the reproductive biology of Scomber japonicus peruanus (Jordán & Hubb, 1925

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    Hilda Caramantin-Soriano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the 1992-1993 El Niño events on the reproductive behavior of the Scomber japonicus peruanus (Chub mackerel was studied from samples collected monthly, along the Peruvian coast (3º23'S-14º00'S, from January 1990 to December 1993. The monthly variation of the gonadosomatic index and the frequency of the periods of gonad maturation evidenced that the spawning of the species occurred all year long, being more intense in summer. The values of the gonadosomatic index were higher during the occurrence of the 1992-1993 El Niño, while the body weight and gonad weight decreased. Regarding the condition factor, its values decreased in females over 35 cm in fork length.A influência do evento El Niño 1992-1993 no comportamento reprodutivo de Scomber japonicus peruanus (cavalinha foi estudada a partir de amostras coletadas mensalmente, ao longo do litoral peruano (3º23'S-14º00'S, de janeiro de 1990 a dezembro de 1993. A variação mensal do índice gonadossomático e a freqüência dos estágios de maturação gonadal evidenciaram que a desova da cavalinha ocorreu o ano inteiro, sendo mais intensa no verão. Os valores do índice gonadossomático foram mais elevados durante o evento El Niño, mas, em contraposição, as fêmeas apresentaram peso menor. Os dados mostraram que o fator de condição diminuiu em fêmeas com mais de 35 cm de comprimento furcal.

  5. Heavy metals induce oxidative stress and trigger oxidative stress-mediated heat shock protein (hsp) modulation in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Seo, Jung Soo; Park, Gyung Soo; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-11-01

    Heat shock proteins (hsps) are induced by a wide range of environmental stressors including heavy metals in aquatic organisms. However, the effect of heavy metals on zooplankton at the molecular level remains still unclear. In this study, we measured the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and the antioxidant enzyme activities for 96 h after exposure to five heavy metals: arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and zinc (Zn) in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes were highly elevated in metal-exposed copepods, indicating that heavy metals can induce oxidative stress by generating ROS, and stimulate the involvement of antioxidant enzymes as cellular defense mechanisms. Subsequently, transcriptional changes in hsp gene families were further investigated in the metal-exposed groups for 96 h. The ROS level and glutathione (GSH) content were significantly increased in Ag-, As-, and Cu-exposed copepods, while they were only slightly elevated in Cd- and Zn-exposed groups. Based on the numbers of significantly modulated hsp genes and their expression levels for 96 h, we measured the effect of heavy metals to stress genes of T. japonicus in the following order: Cu > Zn > Ag > As > Cd, implying that Cu acts as a stronger oxidative stress inducer than other heavy metals. Of them, the expression of hsp20 and hsp70 genes was substantially modulated by exposure to heavy metals, indicating that these genes would provide a sensitive molecular biomarker for aquatic monitoring of heavy metal pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Heat stress results in loss of chloroplast Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and increased damage to Photosystem II in combined drought-heat stressed Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Martha; Díaz, Pedro; Monza, Jorge; Borsani, Omar

    2010-09-01

    Drought and heat stress have been studied extensively in plants, but most reports involve analysis of response to only one of these stresses. Studies in which both stresses were studied in combination have less commonly been reported. We report the combined effect of drought and heat stress on Photosystem II (PSII) of Lotus japonicus cv. Gifu plants. Photochemistry of PSII was not affected by drought or heat stress alone, but the two stresses together decreased PSII activity as determined by fluorescence emission. Heat stress alone resulted in degradation of D1 and CP47 proteins, and D2 protein was also degraded by combined drought-heat stress. None of these proteins were degraded by drought stress alone. Drought alone induced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide but the drought-heat combination led to an increase in superoxide levels and a decrease in hydrogen peroxide levels. Furthermore, combined drought-heat stress was correlated with an increase in oxidative damage as determined by increased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Heat also induced degradation of chloroplast Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1) as shown by reduced protein levels and isozyme-specific SOD activity. Loss of Cu/Zn SOD and induction of catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) activity would explain the altered balance between hydrogen peroxide and superoxide in response to drought vs combined drought-heat stress. Degradation of PSII could thus be caused by the loss of components of chloroplast antioxidant defence systems and subsequent decreased function of PSII. A possible explanation for energy dissipation by L. japonicus under stress conditions is discussed.

  7. The taxonomic status of Japanese threadfin bream Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Perciformes: Nemipteridae) with a redescription of this species from the south china sea based on morphology and DNA barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ping; Sha, Zhongli; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Russell, Barry

    2015-02-01

    Because of its importance as a food source, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) (Nemipteridae) or Japanese threadfin bream is the best studied of these taxa, and numerous investigations have examined its fisheries, its biology and biochemistry. Despite such intensive work, the taxonomic status of N. japonicus has never been seriously questioned and it is regarded as a common species, widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific Ocean. In fact, Bloch's description of the type specimen of N. japonicus has ambiguous collection data and lacks a designation for the type locality, though it is probably Java. In this paper, DNA barcode results based on COI gene support the existence of two geographically separated lineages of the Japanese threadfin bream, both being an Indian Ocean and western Pacific lineage, with 2.7% sequence divergence, and the results indicate a possible existing of some cryptic species. The two lineages also possess a diagnostic difference in their belly color, with specimens in the South China Sea having a silver belly, while those from the Indian Ocean isolate specimen have a yellow coloration. Based upon new collections from the South China Sea, this species from the western Pacific is morphologically redescribed and its details of DNA barcode diversity are shown for the future investigations.

  8. The Lotus japonicus genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , carbon/nitrogen and secondary metabolism, as well as advances made in high-throughput genomic and genetic approaches. Research focusing on model plants has underpinned the recent growth in plant genomics and genetics and provided a basis for investigations of major crop species. In the legume family...

  9. De novo assembly and characterization of seabass Lateolabrax japonicus transcriptome and expression of hepatic genes following different dietary phosphorus/calcium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kang-Le; Ji, Zhong-Li; Rahimnejad, Samad; Zhang, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Ling; Song, Kai

    2017-12-01

    Fish farming seriously influences the aquatic environment because most dietary phosphorus (P) is excreted in the effluent. To increase the P utilization in fish, molecular techniques should be explored given the remarkable development of these techniques. Thus, to identify the candidate genes related to P utilization and molecular alterations following administration of a P-deficient diet in seabass Lateolabrax japonicus, we assessed the de novo pituitary, gill, intestine, liver, kidney, scales and vertebra transcriptomes, and we compared the expression of hepatic genes with three diets varying in P and Ca levels: diet I (0.4% P, 0.3% Ca), diet II (0.8% P, 0.3% Ca), and diet III (0.8% P, 3% Ca). In total, we identified 99,392 unigenes, and 37,086 (37.31%) unigenes were annotated. The results showed that 48 unigenes were significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated, while 55 genes were significantly down-regulated in the liver of group I compared with group II. Offering the P-sufficient and high Ca diet, diet III significantly up-regulated 24 unigenes and down-regulated 46 genes in the liver. There were significant differences in the regulation of 8 unigenes (3 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated) between groups II and III. Gene ontology (GO) functional enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis of differently expressed genes were performed for each pair of groups. The GO analysis showed that a large number of biological processes were significantly altered between P-deficient and P-sufficient treatments (I vs II and I vs III). Comparing group I and group II, seven KEGG terms were enriched significantly: glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, one carbon pool by folate, arginine and proline metabolism, the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid elongation, drug metabolism-cytochrome P450, and fatty acid metabolism. There was no significantly enriched KEGG pathway between groups II and III. In conclusion, our study revealed that a P-deficient diet could increase

  10. Growth parameters and mortality rate of the Scomber japonicus peruanus (Jordán & Hubb, 1925 along the Peruvian coast, South Pacific

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    Hilda Caramantin-Soriano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth parameters and the mortality rates of the Scomber japonicus peruanus (Chub mackerel were studied based on monthly data of frequency of fork length classes obtained from commercial landings off the Peruvian coast from 1996 to 1998. The asymptotic body length and growth rate values obtained by the ELEFAN I (Electronic Length Frequency Analysis ranged from 40.20 cm to 42.20 cm and from 0.38 to 0.39, respectively. The oscillation amplitude was 0.60; the Winter point values varied from 0.50 to 0.60 and the performance index from 2.79 to 2.84. The total mortality rate of the Chub mackerel obtained by the linearized catch curve oscillated between 1.68 and 3.35. The rate of fishing mortality varied from 1.16 to 2.78 and the exploitation rate from 0.68 to 0.84. The annual rate of natural mortality estimated by the Pauly's method ranged from 0.52 to 0.53. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the longevity of the Chub mackerel was slightly over seven years.Os parâmetros de crescimento e as taxas de mortalidade de Scomber japonicus peruanus (cavalinha foram estudados a partir de dados mensais de freqüência de classes de comprimento provenientes do desembarque comercial ao longo da costa peruana no período de 1996 a 1998. Os valores do comprimento furcal assintótico e da taxa de crescimento obtido pelo ELEFAN I(Electronic Length Frequency Analysis variaram de 40,20 cm a 42,20 cm e de 0,38 a 0,39, respectivamente. A amplitude de oscilação foi de 0,60; os valores de Winter point variaram de 0,5 a 0,6 e os do índice de performance entre 2,79 e 2,84. As taxas de mortalidade total da cavalinha obtidas pela análise da curva de captura linearizada oscilaram entre 1,68 e 3,35, sendo as variações das taxas de mortalidade por pesca e explotação de 1,16 a 2,78 e 0,68 a 0,84, respectivamente. A taxa anual de mortalidade natural estimada pelo método de Pauly variou de 0,52 a 0,53. Os resultados obtidos permitem inferir que a longevidade

  11. Profiling and comparison of color body wall transcriptome of normal juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) and those produced by crossing albino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) is one of the most important aquaculture animals in China. Usually its normal body color is black that fits its living environment. The juvenile individuals obtained by crossing albino sea cucumber segregated in body color. To document the transcriptome difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control, we sequenced their transcriptomes with RNA-seq. Approximately, 4.790 million (M) and 4.884 M reads, 200 nt in length, were generated from the body wall of albino associating sea cucumber and the control, respectively, from them, 9550 (46.81%) putative genes were identified. In total, 583 genes were found to express differentially between albino associating sea cucumber and the control. Of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 4.8% changed more than five-folds. The expression levels of eight DEGs were confirmed with real-time PCR. The changing trend of these DEGs detected with real-time PCR agreed well with that detected with RNA-seq, although the change degree of some DEGs was different. Four significantly enriched pathways were identified for DEGs, which included phagocytosis, Staphylococcus aureus infection, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. These pathways were helpful for understanding the physiological difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control.

  12. Changes in blood glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests and blood biochemical values in adult female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    The metabolic mechanisms to circannual changes in body mass of bears have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) has a metabolic mechanism that efficiently converts carbohydrates into body fat by altering insulin sensitivity during the hyperphagic stage before hibernation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the changes in blood biochemical values and glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) during the active season (August, early and late November). Four, adult, female bears (5-17 years old) were anesthetized with 6 mg/kg TZ (tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl) in combination with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine maleate. The bears were injected intravenously with glucose (0.5 g/kg of body mass), and blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection. The basal triglycerides concentration decreased significantly with increase in body mass from August to November. Basal levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were not significantly different among groups. The results of IVGTT demonstrated the increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in early November. In contrast, peripheral insulin resistance was indicated by the exaggerated insulin response in late November. Our findings suggest that bears shift their glucose and lipid metabolism from the stage of normal activity to the hyperphagic stage in which they show lipogenic-predominant metabolism and accelerate glucose uptake by increasing the peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  13. Changes in expression of hepatic genes involved in energy metabolism during hibernation in captive, adult, female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozuru, Michito; Kamine, Akari; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-10-01

    Hibernating bears survive up to 6 months without feeding by utilizing stored body fat as fuel. To investigate how bears maintain energy homeostasis during hibernation, we analyzed changes in mRNA expression of hepatic genes involved in energy metabolism throughout the hibernation period in captive, adult, female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus). Real-time PCR analysis revealed down-regulation of glycolysis- (e.g., glucokinase), amino acid catabolism- (e.g., alanine aminotransferase) and de novo lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1), and up-regulation of gluconeogensis- (e.g., pyruvate carboxylase), β-oxidation- (i.e., uncoupling protein 2) and ketogenesis-related genes (i.e., 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-CoA synthase 2), during hibernation, compared to the active period (June). In addition, we found that glycolysis-related genes (i.e., glucokinase and pyruvate kinase) were more suppressed in the early phase of hibernation (January) compared to the late phase (March). One week after the commencement of feeding in April, expression levels of most genes returned to levels comparable to those seen in June, but β-oxidation-related genes were still up-regulated during this period. These results suggest that the modulation of gene expression is not static, but changes throughout the hibernation period. The transcriptional modulation during hibernation represents a unique physiological adaptation to prolonged fasting in bears. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Change in body weight of mothers and neonates and in milk composition during denning period in captive Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iibuchi, Ruriko; Nakano, Noriko; Nakamura, Tadashi; Urashima, Tadasu; Shimozuru, Michito; Murase, Tetsuma; Tsubota, Toshio

    2009-05-01

    Japanese black bears, Ursus thibetanus japonicus, have been classified as a vulnerable species so that data on reproduction are needed to maintain and/or extend their population. They are known to have a peculiar style of reproduction, giving birth to their neonates and raising them during denning, a period of complete fasting. In this study, we investigated the metabolic rate and milk composition of mother bears raising neonates, and the changes in body weight of the neonates under captive conditions. Seven female bears kept in dens were weighed once a month, and the amount of energy they used was calculated. From birth, cubs were also weighed and their growth rate was determined. In addition, the milk composition was analyzed to investigate its characteristics. As a result, it was found that mother bears used 34% more energy than did solitary females. There was no significant difference in the energy used for nursing whether they had single or twin cubs. On the other hand, the body weight gain of single cubs was significantly higher than that of twin cubs, suggesting that the growth of the cubs was highly affected by the suppression of mother's energy consumption during the fasting period. The milk had high fat and low sugar concentrations. This indicates that mother bears used the fat accumulated prior to denning for their main energy source when raising cubs. Considering all results together, Japanese black bears showed remarkable efficiency in the use of energy for reproduction during the fasting period.

  15. Estimation and temporal variability of gonadal maturity size of Horse mackerel (Scomber japonicus peruanus, Jordán & Hubb, 1925 in the Peruvian littoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Josymar Torrejón Magallanes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The values of size-at-gonad maturity (L50 of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus peruanus were estimated for the years 1994 – 2017 in the Peruvian littoral. The analysis was performed for the period November - March where the highest reproductive activity occurs. The proportion of mature females was ftted using a logistic binary model, through generalized linear mixed models (MLGM, which assumes random effects associated with the periods. The GLMM, with fixed effects estimated a L50 of 24.8 cm of fork length (FL (24.69 cm - 24.9 cm, while with changes between periods, with random effects, L50 ranged between 20.4 cm and 27.0 cm FL. It was observed that an increase in temperature caused the decrease of the L50 in the years 1997 – 1999 and 2015 - 2016, which coincides with El Niño events. A positive correlation was found between the L50 and spawning biomass, so changes in L50 may be a density-dependent effect. There was no trend in the L50 series, so there would be no effect of the fishing mortality (F on the L50. However, we think that the decrease in the L50 in relation to a low population density and mainly an increase in F should be given as a long-term effect and not in isolated events as our results showed.

  16. Estimating the success rate of ovulation and early litter loss rate in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) by examining the ovaries and uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Oi, Toru; Sawada, Seigo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2011-02-01

    In order to develop a method for estimating the success/failure rates of reproductive processes, especially those of ovulation and neonate nurturing, in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), we examined offspring status, corpora lutea (CLs), placental scars (PSs) and corpora albicantia (CAs) in 159 females (0-23 years old) killed as nuisances on Honshu Island of Japan during 2001-2009. PSs were found to remain in the uterus at least until November of the year of parturition. CA detectability began to decline after September of the year of parturition. Monthly and age-specific proportions of CL-present females revealed that the post-mating season starts in August, and that the age of first ovulation is 4 years. These results indicate that the success rate of ovulation (SRO: the probability that solitary/non-lactating mature females actually succeed in ovulation) can be estimated by calculating the proportion of CL-present females among > or = 4-year-old females without PSs captured from August to November; the early litter loss rate (ELLR: the probability that parenting females lose all of their cubs [0-year-old offspring] before mating season) can be estimated by calculating the proportion of CL-present females among those with PSs and CAs captured in August or later. The estimated values of SRO and ELLR were 0.93 (62/67) and 0.27 (6/22), respectively.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis and Discovery of Genes Involved in Immune Pathways from Coelomocytes of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus after Vibrio splendidus Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio splendidus is identified as one of the major pathogenic factors for the skin ulceration syndrome in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus, which has vastly limited the development of the sea cucumber culture industry. In order to screen the immune genes involving Vibrio splendidus challenge in sea cucumber and explore the molecular mechanism of this process, the related transcriptome and gene expression profiling of resistant and susceptible biotypes of sea cucumber with Vibrio splendidus challenge were collected for analysis. A total of 319,455,942 trimmed reads were obtained, which were assembled into 186,658 contigs. After that, 89,891 representative contigs (without isoform were clustered. The analysis of the gene expression profiling identified 358 differentially expression genes (DEGs in the bacterial-resistant group, and 102 DEGs in the bacterial-susceptible group, compared with that in control group. According to the reported references and annotation information from BLAST, GO and KEGG, 30 putative bacterial-resistant genes and 19 putative bacterial-susceptible genes were identified from DEGs. The qRT-PCR results were consistent with the RNA-Seq results. Furthermore, many DGEs were involved in immune signaling related pathways, such as Endocytosis, Lysosome, MAPK, Chemokine and the ERBB signaling pathway.

  18. Liolope copulans (Trematoda: Digenea: Liolopidae) parasitic in Andrias japonicus (Amphibia: Caudata: Cryptobranchidae) in Japan: Life cycle and systematic position inferred from morphological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Takashi; Hosoi, Masatomi; Urabe, Misako; Shimazu, Takeshi; Tochimoto, Takeyoshi; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2011-06-01

    The life cycle of Liolope copulans Cohn, 1902 (Trematoda: Digenea: Liolopidae), an intestinal parasite of the Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus (Temminck) (Amphibia: Caudata: Cryptobranchidae), was studied in the field and laboratory in Japan. This is the first description of mother sporocyst, daughter sporocyst and cercariae of a liolopid species. Non-oculate longifurcate pharyngeate cercariae were formed in lanceolate-cylindrical daughter sporocysts in Semisulcospira libertina (Gould) (Gastropoda: Sorbeoconcha: Pleuroceridae). They successfully developed to encapsulated metacercariae in cyprinid fishes, Nipponocypris sieboldii (Temminck and Schlegel) and Rhynchocypris lagowskii (Dybowski), by experimental infection. Cercariae had a V-shaped excretory vesicle with two looped arms, as in metacercariae and adults. Developmental stages from mother sporocyst to adult are described and illustrated. DNA sequencing was conducted for 28S and 18S rDNA of mother and daughter sporocysts, cercariae, and an adult. The result of molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. copulans may be one of the basal taxa of the order Diplostomida Olson, Cribb, Tkach, Bray, and Littlewood, 2003, but its systematic position is still unclear because of the topological inconsistence between the 28S and 18S trees. Therefore, we tentatively place the family Liolopidae in the superfamily Diplostomoidea, mainly based on the morphology of sporocysts and cercariae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative study of multi-enzyme production from typical agro-industrial residues and ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude enzyme in fermentation with Aspergillus japonicus PJ01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-jun; Xia, Jin-lan; Shan, Yang; Nie, Zhen-yuan

    2015-10-01

    Submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus japonicus PJ01 for multi-enzyme complexes (MEC) production were comparatively studied. The results showed that orange peel and wheat bran were the best substrates for MEC production in SmF and SSF, respectively. After 72 h of cultivation under SmF, the maximal pectinase, CMCase, and xylanase activities reached 2610, 85, and 335 U/gds (units/gram dry substrate), respectively; while after 72 h of cultivation under SSF, these three enzymes' activities reached 966, 58, and 1004 U/gds, respectively. Effects of ultrasound on extraction of crude enzymes from SSF medium were determined, the maximal activities of pectinase, CMCase, and xylanase increased to 1.20, 1.48, and 1.30-fold, respectively. Apparent different mycelia growths of SSF and SmF were observed by scanning electron microscopy; and different isoforms of the crude enzyme extracts from SSF and SmF were presented by zymogram analysis.

  20. Characterization of a 2-Cys peroxiredoxin IV in Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp) and its role in the anti-viral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Kang, Li-Hua; Ding, Ding; Liu, Qian; Wang, Jin-Xing; Kang, Cui-Jie

    2013-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that peroxiredoxins (Prx) are key molecules in the pathogenesis of various infectious diseases and are potential therapeutic targets for major diseases such as cancers. In this study, we report a peroxiredoxin IV (Prx IV) in Marsupenaeus japonicus, designated as MjPrx IV, which exhibited peroxidase activity and participated in the anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) immune response. MjPrx IV is a 245-amino acid polypeptide with a predicted 19-amino acid signal peptide, an Ahpc-TSA domain, and a 1-Cys PrxC domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the protein belongs to the Prx IV subfamily. MjPrx IV transcripts were detected in the gills, hepatopancreas, heart, stomach, ovaries, spermary, and intestine tissues, and are upregulated in the gonads, gills and hemocytes of shrimp after WSSV challenge. The mature MjPrx IV peptide was recombinantly expressed in an Escherichia coli system. The protein exhibited peroxidase activity. Furthermore, dsRNA suppression of MjPrx IV increased WSSV replication in shrimp, whereas rMjPrx IV injection into shrimp decreased WSSV replication. These data suggest that MjPrx IV has an important role in shrimp antiviral immunity. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a shrimp Prx IV that has anti-WSSV activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Symbiotic competence in Lotus japonicus is affected by plant nitrogen status: transcriptomic identification of genes affected by a new signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrane, Selim; Ferrarini, Alberto; D'Apuzzo, Enrica; Rogato, Alessandra; Delledonne, Massimo; Chiurazzi, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    In leguminous plants, symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation performances and N environmental conditions are linked because nodule initiation, development and functioning are greatly influenced by the amount of available N sources. We demonstrate here that N supply also controls, beforehand, the competence of leguminous plants to perform the nodulation program. Lotus japonicus plants preincubated for 10 d in high-N conditions, and then transferred to low N before the Mesorhizobium loti inoculation, had reduced nodulation. This phenotype was maintained for at least 6 d and a complete reacquisition of the symbiotic competence was observed only after 9 d. The time-course analysis of the change of the symbiotic phenotype was analysed by transcriptomics. The differentially expressed genes identified are mostly involved in metabolic pathways. However, the transcriptional response also includes genes belonging to other functional categories such as signalling, stress response and transcriptional regulation. Some of these genes show a molecular identity and a regulation profile, that suggest a role as possible molecular links between the N-dependent plant response and the nodule organogenesis program.

  2. Lotus japonicus plants of the Gifu B-129 ecotype subjected to alkaline stress improve their Fe(2+) bio-availability through inoculation with Pantoea eucalypti M91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campestre, María Paula; Castagno, Luis Nazareno; Estrella, María Julia; Ruiz, Oscar Adolfo

    2016-03-15

    Inoculation assays with Pantoea eucalypti M91 were performed on Lotus japonicus ecotype Gifu. Under alkaline conditions, this ecotype is characterized by the development of interveinal chlorosis of the apical leaves due to low mobilization of Fe(2+). Inoculation with P. eucalypti M91, a plant growth-promoting bacterial strain capable of producing pyoverdine-like and pyochelin-like siderophores under alkaline growth conditions, alters the root, resulting in a herringbone pattern of root branching. Additional features include improvement in Fe(2+) transport to the shoots, acidification of the hydroponic solution of the plant cultures, and an accompanying increase in the efficiency of the PSII parameters. In addition, there was an increase in the expression of the FRO1 and IRT1 genes, accompanied by a significant increase in FRO activity. Results showed that P. eucalypti M91 has a beneficial effect on the Fe acquisition machinery of Strategy I, as described for non-graminaceous monocots and dicots, suggesting its potential as an inoculant for legume crops cultivated in alkaline soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of dietary probiotic Bacillus TC22 and Prebiotic fructooligosaccharide on growth, immune responses and disease resistance against Vibrio splendidus infection in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yancui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Yanjiao; Wang, Xiaojie; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2011-09-01

    The effects of probiotic Bacillus TC22 (isolated from intestine of infected sea cucumber) and prebiotic fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on growth, immunity and disease resistance in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were studied. Six experimental diets were formulated with combinations of three levels of TC22 (0, 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet) and two levels of FOS (0 and 0.5%) in a 3 × 2 factorial experiment. At the end of the 8-week feeding trial, animals were challenged by injecting Vibrio splendidus. The results revealed that the specific growth rates (SGR) of sea cucumbers were not affected by TC22 and FOS, or the interaction between TC22 and FOS ( P > 0.05). However, there were significant interactions between TC22 and FOS for immune response and disease resistance in sea cucumbers ( P 0.05). Therefore, further studies should examine the effects of combinations of other levels of FOS (> 0.5% or < 0.5%) and TC22 on the immunity and disease resistance of sea cucumbers.

  4. Enrichment, Distribution of Vanadium-Containing Protein in Vanadium-Enriched Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and the Ameliorative Effect on Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjun; Zhou, Qingxin; Zhao, Yanlei; Wang, Yiming; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Jingfeng; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers are a potential source of natural organic vanadium that may improve insulin resistance. In this work, vanadium was accumulated rapidly in blood, body wall, and intestine by sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Furthermore, water-soluble vanadium-containing proteins, the main form of the organic vanadium, were tentatively accumulated and isolated by a bioaccumulation experiment. It was also designed to evaluate the beneficial effect of vanadium-containing proteins (VCPs) from sea cucumber rich in vanadium on the development of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice fed with a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFSD). HFSD mice treated with VCPs significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR values as compared to HFSD mice, respectively. Serum adiponectin, resistin, TNF-α, and leptin levels in insulin-resistant mice were dramatically reduced by a VCP supplement. These results show an ameliorative effect on insulin resistance by treatment with VCPs. Such compound seems to be a valuable therapy to achieve and/or maintain glycemic control and therapeutic agents in the treatment arsenal for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  5. Variation in the distribution of wintering anchovy Engraulis japonicus and its relationship with water temperature in the central and southern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mingxiang; Wang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated a shift in the spatial distribution of wintering anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) and its relationship with water temperature, using data collected by bottom trawl surveys and remote sensing in the central and southern Yellow Sea, during 2000-2015. Our results indicate that the latitudinal distribution of wintering anchovy varied between years, but there was no consistent pattern in the direction of change (north or south). Wintering anchovy did not move northward with increasing water temperature. However, the latitudinal distribution of wintering anchovy correlated well with 10°C and 11°C isotherms. The results of both a one-step and a two-step generalized additive model indicated that water temperature was associated with both presence and biomass of wintering anchovy. This paper is the first to systematically examine the relationship between anchovy distribution and water temperature using a variety of techniques. All the findings confirm the impact of water temperature on wintering anchovy distribution, which has important implications for the continued management of the anchovy resource and the enhancement of marine fishery resources in the Yellow Sea, especially as the climate changes. However water temperature only partly explains the species distribution of anchovy, and stock characteristics also affect fishery distribution. Therefore, other factors should be considered in future research.

  6. Late Pleistocene divergence and subsequent population expansion of two closely related fish species, Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) and Australian anchovy (Engraulis australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Xian; Gao, Tian-Xiang; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Jin, Xian-Shi; Yokogawa, Koji; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2006-09-01

    Climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene ice ages produced great changes in species' geographical distribution and abundance, which could be expected to have genetic consequences. Living in the temperate upwelling zones of the northwestern Pacific, Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) might have been affected by these severe climatic oscillations. To investigate the effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on the evolution in Japanese anchovy, fragments of 522 bp at the 5' end of mitochondrial DNA control region were sequenced for 241 individuals from 13 localities and 37 individuals of Australian anchovy. Japanese anchovy and Australian anchovy are reciprocally monophyletic and a late Pleistocene transequatorial divergence between the two species was indicated. High levels of haplotype diversity (>0.99) were found for all samples, indicating a high level of genetic diversity. Analyses of molecular variance and the conventional population statistic F(ST) revealed no significant genetic structure throughout the range of Japanese anchovy. Both mismatch distribution analyses and neutrality tests suggested a late Pleistocene population expansion for both Japanese anchovy (79,000-317,000 years ago) and Australian anchovy (45,000-178,000 years ago).

  7. Effects of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) on the transcript expression of carbohydrate metabolism-related enzyme genes in the kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Chiaki; Nagata, Shinji; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2011-06-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), a member of a neuropeptide family present only in arthropods, plays a pivotal role in the modulation of hemolymph glucose levels, molting, reproduction, and the stress response. Although it has been determined that hepatopancreas and muscle are the major tissues in which CHH regulates hyperglycemic activity, the molecular mechanism by which CHH regulates carbohydrate metabolism remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the mRNA expression levels of enzymes involved in glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis in order to determine how CHH regulates hemolymph glucose levels. We first cloned cDNAs encoding four carbohydrate metabolism-related enzymes from the kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, glycogen phosphorylase (MjGP), glycogen synthase (MjGS), fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (MjFBPase), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (MjPEPCK). RT-PCR analysis showed that eyestalk ablation remarkably decreased MjGP and increased MjGS transcript levels in the hepatopancreas, but not in muscle. Considering the fact that various eyestalk factors, including MIH, are removed by eyestalk ablation, these results indicate that after eyestalk ablation the metabolic state proceeds towards glycogen accumulation in the specific tissues related to molting. In contrast, MjFBPase and MjPEPCK transcript levels were not significantly changed by eyestalk ablation, indicating that CHH and other eyestalk-derived factors might not induce gluconeogenesis. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that exposure of hepatopancreas to recombinant CHH significantly changed the expression levels of MjGP and MjGS, but not MjFBPase and MjPEPCK. Collectively, these results indicate that CHH is involved in glycogen metabolism in hepatopancreas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anion inhibition studies of two α-carbonic anhydrases from Lotus japonicus, LjCAA1 and LjCAA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullo, Daniela; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Scozzafava, Andrea; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-07-01

    The model organism for the investigation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes Lotus japonicus encodes two carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) belonging to the α-class, LjCAA1 and LjCAA2. Here we report the kinetic characterization and inhibition of these two CAs with inorganic and complex anions and other molecules interacting with zinc proteins, such as sulfamide, sulfamic acid, and phenylboronic/arsonic acids. LjCAA1 showed a high catalytic activity for the CO2 hydration reaction, with a k(cat) of 7.4∗10(5) s(-1) and a k(cat)/K(m) of 9.6∗10(7) M(-1) s(-1) and was inhibited in the low micromolar range by N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfamide, sulfamic acid, phenylboronic/arsonic acid (K(I)s of 4-62 μM). LjCAA2 showed a moderate catalytic activity for the physiologic reaction, with a k(cat) of 4.0∗10(5) s(-1) and a k(cat)/K(m) of 4.9∗10(7) M(-1) s(-1). The same anions mentioned above for the inhibition of LjCAA1 showed the best activity against LjCAA2 (K(I)s of 7-29 μM). Nitrate and nitrite, anions involved in nitrogen fixation, showed lower affinity for the two enzymes, with inhibition constants in the range of 3.7-7.0 mM. Halides and sulfate also behaved in a distinct manner towards the two enzymes investigated here. As LjCAA1/2 participate in the pH regulation processes and CO2 metabolism within the nitrogen-fixing nodules of the plant, our studies may shed some light regarding these complex biochemical processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Localization and dynamic expression of a 27.8 kDa receptor protein for lymphocystis disease virus infection in sea bass ( Lateolabrax japonicus) tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ronghua; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Tang, Xiaoqian; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2017-10-01

    Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) infects target cells by attaching to a 27.8 kDa receptor (27.8R) protein in flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, and anti-27.8R monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been developed. However, the 27.8R existence in tissues of sea bass ( Lateolabrax japonicus) and its role in LCDV infection have remained unclear. In this study, the results of western blotting demonstrated that the same 27.8R was shared by flounder and sea bass. LCDV-free sea bass individuals were intramuscularly injected with LCDV, and viral copies were detected in tissues from 3 h post infection and showed a time-dependent increase during 9 days infection. Distribution and synthesis of 27.8R in sea bass tissues were investigated by using anti-27.8R MAbs as probes. It was found that 27.8R was distributed in all the tested tissues. The levels of 27.8R protein were highest in gill and skin, then a bit lowly in stomach, head kidney and heart, followed by spleen, intestine, blood cells, gonad and liver, and least in kidney and brain in healthy sea bass. Upon LCDV infection, 27.8R synthesis was up-regulated in each tissue, and higher in the tissues with higher LCDV copies. The 27.8R and LCDV were detected in some peripheral blood leukocytes but not in red blood cells. These results suggested that 27.8R was widely distributed in sea bass tissues, and it served as a receptor and correlated with tissue tropism of LCDV infection. Furthermore, leukocytes had the potential of being a LCDV carrier and were responsible for a systemic infection of LCDV in sea bass.

  10. Effect of vacuum packaging and low-dose irradiation on the microbial, chemical and sensory characteristics of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarki, Raouf; Ben Miloud, Najla; Selmi, Salah; Dhib, Soukeina; Sadok, Saloua

    2009-12-01

    The effects of vacuum packaging followed by gamma irradiation treatment (1.5 kGy) on the shelf-life of fillets of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) were examined, during chill storage. The control and the treated packs were analyzed periodically for chemical (TMA, TBARS, biogenic amines) and microbial characteristics. Based on chemical and microbial data, vacuum packaging - by itself - was improper in extending the shelf-life of chub mackerel, estimated to 7 days. On the 7th day, TMA and Histamine contents reached the defect action levels, associated with the presence of mesophiles (3.7 log UFC/g); total coliforms (3.5 log UFC/g); staphylococci (1.9 log UFC/g) and the emergence of Pseudomonas (1.7 log UFC/g), in both the control and the vacuum packaged lots. Combination of vacuum packaging and gamma-irradiation was found to delay the spoilage during 14 days of refrigerated storage, based on chemical and microbial analyses. Similarly, consumer hedonic tests were performed to determine the effect of different treatments on the taste of fish fillets. For all treatments, consumers failed to discriminate treated samples from the control, on the 2nd day of storage (p > 0.05). The acceptability test showed that low-dose irradiation (1.5 kGy) optimised the sensory quality, on the 3rd day of storage (p < 0.05). The employment of vacuum packaging combined to a low-dose gamma-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on chub mackerel is recommended to enhance microbiological quality (4 log reduction), alleviate chemical changes and extend the shelf-life by 7 days, leading to consumer appreciation of these products.

  11. Vibrio japonicus sp. nov., a novel member of the Nereis clade in the genus Vibrio isolated from the coast of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hiroyasu; Osawa, Ikuko; Adachi, Hayamitsu; Kawada, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    A novel Vibrio strain, JCM 31412T, was isolated from seawater collected from the Inland Sea (Setonaikai), Japan, and characterized as a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile, ovoid-shaped bacterium with one polar flagellum. Based on 16S rDNA gene identity, strain JCM 31412T showed a close relationship with type strains of Vibrio brasiliensis (LMG 20546T, 98.2% identity), V. harveyi (NBRC 15634T, 98.2%), V. caribbeanicus (ATCC BAA-2122T, 97.8%) and V. proteolyticus (NBRC 13287T, 97.8%). The G+C content of strain JCM 31412T DNA was 46.8%. Multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of eight loci (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and topA; 5535bp) further clustered strain JCM 31412T in the Nereis clade, genus Vibrio. Phenotypically, strain JCM 31412T differed from the closest related Vibrio species in its utilization of melibiose and raffinose, and its lack of casein and gelatin hydrolysis. It was further differentiated based on its fatty acid composition, specifically properties of C12:03OH and summed features, which were significantly different from those of V. brasiliensis, V. nigripulchritudo and V. caribbeanicus type strains. Overall, the results of DNA-DNA hybridization, and physiological and biochemical analysis differentiated strain JCM 31412T from other described species of the genus Vibrio. Based on these polyphasic taxonomic findings, it was therefore concluded that JCM 31412T was a novel Vibrio species, for which the name Vibrio japonicus sp. nov. was proposed, with JCM 31412T (= LMG 29636T = ATCC TSD-62T) as the type strain.

  12. Ecological effects of co-culturing the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus with the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis in an earthen pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shun; Ren, Yichao; Pearce, Christopher M.; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Using net enclosures in an earthen pond, we established three culture treatments with the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis: monoculture of sea cucumbers (C), monoculture of shrimp (S), and co-culture of the two species (CS). We measured levels of suspended particulate matter in the water column; total organic matter, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and carbon/nitrogen ratios in both settling particles and the sediment; and chlorophyll a levels in the sediment. We then compared these variables between the three treatments. We also examined growth, survival, and yield of the two species in the different treatments. From June to September, the mean monthly suspended particulate matter sedimentation rates in the CS and S treatments were significantly ( P<0.05) greater than those in the C treatment. From August to November, the mean monthly total organic matter, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and chlorophyll a contents in the sediment in the CS and S treatments were significantly ( P <0.05) greater than those in the C treatment. Final wet weight, specific growth rate, survival rate, and total yield of sea cucumbers in co-culture were all significantly greater than those of sea cucumbers in monoculture. There were no significant differences among any of these variables for shrimp reared in the two systems. The bioturbation of the sediment and fecal production of the shrimp likely supplied natural food for the sea cucumbers. Co-culture of the two species is a viable option for increasing yield per unit area, maximizing use of the water body, and diversifying crop production.

  13. Vibrio japonicus sp. nov., a novel member of the Nereis clade in the genus Vibrio isolated from the coast of Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyasu Doi

    Full Text Available A novel Vibrio strain, JCM 31412T, was isolated from seawater collected from the Inland Sea (Setonaikai, Japan, and characterized as a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile, ovoid-shaped bacterium with one polar flagellum. Based on 16S rDNA gene identity, strain JCM 31412T showed a close relationship with type strains of Vibrio brasiliensis (LMG 20546T, 98.2% identity, V. harveyi (NBRC 15634T, 98.2%, V. caribbeanicus (ATCC BAA-2122T, 97.8% and V. proteolyticus (NBRC 13287T, 97.8%. The G+C content of strain JCM 31412T DNA was 46.8%. Multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA of eight loci (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and topA; 5535bp further clustered strain JCM 31412T in the Nereis clade, genus Vibrio. Phenotypically, strain JCM 31412T differed from the closest related Vibrio species in its utilization of melibiose and raffinose, and its lack of casein and gelatin hydrolysis. It was further differentiated based on its fatty acid composition, specifically properties of C12:03OH and summed features, which were significantly different from those of V. brasiliensis, V. nigripulchritudo and V. caribbeanicus type strains. Overall, the results of DNA-DNA hybridization, and physiological and biochemical analysis differentiated strain JCM 31412T from other described species of the genus Vibrio. Based on these polyphasic taxonomic findings, it was therefore concluded that JCM 31412T was a novel Vibrio species, for which the name Vibrio japonicus sp. nov. was proposed, with JCM 31412T (= LMG 29636T = ATCC TSD-62T as the type strain.

  14. Microarray Analysis of Immunity Against WSSV in Response to Injection of Non-specific Long dsRNA in Kuruma Shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maralit, Benedict Arias; Komatsu, Mami; Hipolito, Sheryll Grospe; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro

    2015-08-01

    Injection of shrimp with non-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of diverse lengths, sequences, and base compositions is known to induce non-specific immunity and protect against lethal disease, although the mechanisms are unclear. Previous shrimp studies examined the effects of non-specific RNA on particular pathways, while their global effects have not been examined. To understand the global effects of non-specific RNA in shrimp, we injected kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) with a dsRNA and a small interfering RNA (siRNA) that is not specific to any gene in the shrimp genome and then examined global gene expression at 24 and 48 h with a microarray. For the non-specific RNA, we chose double-stranded green fluorescent protein (dsGFP) and siGFP because they are commonly used as mock controls and their effects on shrimp have not yet been studied. Injection of PBS was used as a control. The microarray results showed that many genes were up-regulated and some were down-regulated by dsGFP. In addition, dsGFP injection increased survival following WSSV challenge. The changes in expression for several genes were confirmed by quantitative PCR. The up-regulated genes included genes for eight immune-related proteins: c-type lectin 2, hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein, viral responsive protein, fibrinogen-related protein 1, sid-1 like protein, argonaute 2, Dicer 2, and heat shock protein 90. These results show that injection of shrimp with non-specific dsRNA hinders viral accumulation and prevents significant mortalities.

  15. Dietary vegetable oil suppressed non-specific immunity and liver antioxidant capacity but induced inflammatory response in Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng; Dong, Xiaojing; Xu, Hanlin; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui

    2017-04-01

    High percentage of dietary vegetable oil (VO) induced negative effects on immunity in numerous fish species. The present study was conducted to investigate whether VO could exert anti-immunological effects by regulating non-specific immunity, liver antioxidant capacity and nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) signaling in Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Three iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipid diets were formulated by replacing 0% (FO, the control), 50% (FV) and 100% (VO) of fish oil with vegetable oil. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate groups of fish for 10 weeks. Results showed that the alternative complement pathway (ACP) activity and the disease resistance were significantly lower in fish fed VO diets compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathion peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities, as well as total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) significantly decreased in fish fed VO diets (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, significantly low level of liver SOD1 and CAT mRNA, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) of both mRNA and protein were observed in fish fed VO diets when compared with fish fed FO diets (P < 0.05). However, the transcription level of TNFα and IL1β was significantly higher in the liver of fish fed VO diets, which might be attributed to the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway since the protein expression of p65, one of the key members of NF-κB family, was significantly increased (P < 0.05). These results suggested that dietary VO could lower the ACP activity, disease resistance and liver antioxidant capacity, but it could also exacerbate inflammatory response by activating NF-κB signaling pathway in Japanese sea bass. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effect of graded levels of dietary seaweed (Ulva sp. on growth, hematological and serum biochemical parameters in dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, sciaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molatelo Junior Madibana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the effect of incorporating graded levels of green macroalgae seaweed (Ulva sp. into diets of juvenile dusky kob (Argyrosomus japonicus on growth performance, hematology and serum biochemistry. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain 0 (Ulva0, 50 (Ulva50, 100 (Ulva100, 150 (Ulva150 and 200 (Ulva200 g seaweed meal/kg commercial kob feed on a dry matter basis. Seventy-seven dusky kob fingerlings (mean body mass 9.14 ± 0.30 g were distributed into each of 20 experimental tanks and offered diets at 2.8% body mass. Weight and length of fish were measured weekly for 9 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, fish fed Ulva50 had higher body mass (38.20 ± 1.38 g compared to those fed the other three Ulva-based diets. Fish offered Ulva200 had significantly (P  .05 by dietary treatments. However, the levels of both blood cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase tended to decrease as dietary Ulva inclusion levels increased. These results indicate that Ulva could be incorporated at the rate of 50 g kg−1 in future commercial dusky kob diets without any negative effects on feed utilizationa and growth performance. Hematology and serum biochemistry results indicate that dietary inclusion of Ulva had no adverse effects on physiological status of the fish. Keywords: Ulva sp., Haematology, Dusky kob, Feed conversion efficiency, Specific growth rate

  17. Morphological characteristics of eyes and retinas of two sardines (Sardinops melanostictus and Etrumeus sadina, Clupeidae) and an anchovy (Engraulis japonicus, Engraulididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Taeko; Kobayashi, Masashi

    2015-04-01

    The morphology of the eyes and distribution of retinal ganglion cells in two sardine species (Sardinops melanostictus and Etrumeus sadina, Clupeidae) and the Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus, Engraulididae) were investigated anatomically and histologically. The eyes of the sardines faced a slightly dorsolateral direction with the visual field extended obliquely upward. In contrast, the eyes in the anchovy were almost laterally directed. It was hypothesized that the sardines may have an advantage in receiving more downward irradiance compared with the anchovy. The lens muscle was larger in these three species than in many other teleosts, and its surface was entirely melanin-pigmented. Also, the lens muscle directly and tightly adhered to the backside surface of the iris. The relative area of the lens muscle to the area of the lens, a referential value of the relative power of visual accommodation were notably larger in the species studied than in other teleost values that have been previously reported. A higher M/L% value of these clupeid fishes could facilitate fast and wide ranging visual accommodation and was considered to be associated with maintaining and/or re-establishing school formations quickly. Analysis of topographical distributions of cells in the ganglion cell layer showed that cell density was highest in the ventrotemporal quadrant of the retina (temporal of the optic cleft) in all three species. Another potentially important role for the black-pigmented lens muscle may be to block the specialized retinal area from intense sunlight that scatters and irradiates upward or laterally in the surface waters that they inhabit. Thus, the sardine and anchovy may take advantage of efficient detection of visual signals in the frontal-upward direction and further improve visibility of the target in this direction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Different hatching strategies in embryos of two species, pacific herring Clupea pallasii and Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus, that belong to the same order Clupeiformes, and their environmental adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Mari; Fujita, Hideaki; Yoshizaki, Norio; Hiroi, Junya; Okouchi, Hiroyuki; Nagakura, Yoshitomo; Noda, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Satoshi; Katayama, Satoshi; Iwamuro, Shawichi; Nishida, Mutsumi; Iuchi, Ichiro; Yasumasu, Shigeki

    2009-03-15

    Pacific herring Clupea pallasii and Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus, which belong to the same order Clupeiformes, spawn different types of eggs: demersal adherent eggs and pelagic eggs, respectively. We cloned three cDNAs for Pacific herring hatching enzyme and five for Japanese anchovy. Each of them was divided into two groups (group A and B) by phylogenetic analysis. They were expressed specifically in hatching gland cells (HGCs), which differentiated from the pillow and migrated to the edge of the head in both species. HGCs of Japanese anchovy stopped migration at that place, whereas those of Pacific herring continued to migrate dorsally and distributed widely all over the head region. During evolution, the program for the HGC migration would be varied to adapt to different hatching timing. Analysis of the gene expression revealed that Pacific herring embryos synthesized a large amount of hatching enzyme when compared with Japanese anchovy. Chorion of Pacific herring embryo was about 7.5 times thicker than that of Japanese anchovy embryo. Thus, the difference in their gene expression levels between two species is correlated with the difference in the thickness of chorion. These results suggest that the hatching system of each fish adapted to its respective hatching environment. Finally, hatching enzyme genes were cloned from each genomic DNA. The exon-intron structure of group B genes basically conserved that of the ancestral gene, whereas group A genes lost one intron. Several gene-specific changes of the exon-intron structure owing to nucleotide insertion and/or duplication were found in Japanese anchovy genes.

  19. Stichopus japonicus Polysaccharide, Fucoidan, or Heparin Enhanced the SDF-1α/CXCR4 Axis and Promoted NSC Migration via Activation of the PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chao; Wang, Peng; Cui, Ningshan; Song, Shuliang; Liang, Hao; Ji, Aiguo

    2016-11-01

    Stichopus japonicus Polysaccharide (SJP) is a sulfated polysaccharide from the body wall of the sea cucumber, Stichopus japonicus. Fucoidan is a heparinoid compound that belongs to a family of sulfated polyfucose polysaccharides. Heparin is a glycosaminoglycan. SJP, fucoidan, and heparin profoundly promoted stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α)-induced neural stem cell (NSC) migration in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the basal migration capacity of cells was significantly promoted after incubation with SJP, fucoidan, or heparin. Interaction of SJP, fucoidan, or heparin with SDF-1α efficiently showed additive effects on the promotion of cell migration from the neurosphere. SJP, fucoidan, or heparin interaction with SDF-1α treatment could increase Nestin expression. SDF-1α modulated by SJP, fucoidan, or heparin activated the CXCR4 receptor and directed cellular migration via the activation of the PI3K/Akt/FOXO3a signaling pathway. Moreover, interaction of SJP, fucoidan, or heparin with SDF-1α effectively promoted NSC migration and induced SDF-1α and CXCR4 expressions. Results suggested that SJP, fucoidan, and heparin might be good candidates for alleviating injury-initiated signals to which NSCs respond.

  20. Application of Species distribution models and River2D to assess riverine ecosystems: A case of Sicyopterus japonicus in Datuan stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Po-Ting

    2017-04-01

    time we can use the ensemble model when it is hard to determined which model to use. Keywords: SDMs, ensemble model, River2D, habitat suitability, uncertainty, suitability models, Datun Stream, Sicyopterus Japonicus

  1. Saponins from Panax japonicus attenuate D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment through its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Di, Guojie; Yang, Li; Dun, Yaoyan; Sun, Zhiwei; Wan, Jingzhi; Peng, Ben; Liu, Chaoqi; Xiong, Guangrun; Zhang, Changcheng; Yuan, Ding

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective effects of saponins from Panax japonicus (SPJ) on D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain ageing, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. SPJ were analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were randomly divided into four groups: control group (saline), D-gal-treated group (400 mg/kg, subcutaneously), D-gal + SPJ groups (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, orally) and vitamin E group (100 mg/kg). Rats were injected corresponding drugs once daily for 8 weeks. Neuroprotective effects of SPJ were evaluated by Morris water maze, histopathological observations, biochemical assays, western blot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in vivo as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and apoptosis assay in vitro. Our present study showed that D-gal had a neurotoxic effect in rats and in SH-SY5Y cells due to oxidative stress induction, including decreased total anti-oxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase activity, ultimately leading to spatial learning and memory impairment in rats and ROS accumulation in SH-SY5Y cells. SPJ improved spatial learning and memory deficits, attenuated hippocampus histopathological injury and restored impaired anti-oxidative as well as anti-apoptotic capacities in D-gal-induced ageing rats. In addition, SPJ remarkably decreased lipofuscin levels, increased hippocampus nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue (SIRT1) protein levels and anti-oxidant genes expression such as manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), heme oxygenase (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) in D-gal-induced brain ageing. Our data suggested that D-gal induced multiple molecular and functional changes in brain similar to natural ageing process. SPJ protected brain from D-gal-induced neuronal

  2. Protective effects of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against experimental Vibrio splendidus infection in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Jing, Kailin; Wang, Xitao; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Meixia; Li, Zhen; Xu, Le; Wang, Lili; Xu, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio splendidus is one of the most harmful pathogens associated with skin ulceration syndrome in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) due to its high virulence and frequency of appearance. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against V. splendidus infection in the sea cucumber. Whole V. splendidus cells were used as an immunogen to immunize 20 White Leghorn hens (25 weeks old). IgY was produced from egg yolks obtained from these immunized hens using water dilution, two-step salt precipitation and ultrafiltration. The purity of the IgY produced was approximately 83%. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay indicated a high specificity for IgY with a maximum antibody titer of 320,000. The growth of V. splendidus in liquid medium was significantly inhibited by IgY in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mg/mL. The protective effects of IgY were evaluated in sea cucumber by intraperitoneally injecting anti-V. splendidus IgY antibodies (10 mg/mL) or immersing the sea cucumber in aqueous IgY (1 g/L) after an intraperitoneal injection of V. splendidus. Intraperitoneal injection resulted in an 80% survival while immersion resulted in a 75% survival during the 11-day experimental period. The survival rates were significantly higher than the positive control and the non-specific IgY group (P < 0.05). As well, the bacterial burden in the respiratory tree, intestine and coelomic liquid was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in sea cucumber treated with specific IgY than those treated with non-specific IgY. The phagocytosis of coelomocytes for V. splendidus in the presence of specific IgY was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that obtained with non-specific IgY or without IgY, suggesting that specific IgY enhanced phagocytic activity. The current work suggests that specific IgY has potential for protecting sea cucumbers against V. splendidus infection. Copyright © 2015

  3. BDE-47 causes developmental retardation with down-regulated expression profiles of ecdysteroid signaling pathway-involved nuclear receptor (NR) genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Jeong, Chang-Bum [Department of Biological Science, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Un-Ki [Marine Ecological Risk Assessment Center, West Sea Fisheries Research Institute, National Fisheries Research & Development Institute, Incheon 46083 (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Bingsheng [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Choe, Joonho [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu [Department of Biological Science, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The developmental rate was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) in response to BDE-47. • Expression profiles of nearly all NR genes were the highest at naupliar stages 5–6. • USP, HR96, and FTZ-F1 genes showed significant sex differences (P < 0.05) over different developmental stages. • NR gene expression patterns showed significant decreases (P<0.05) in response to BDE-47. • BDE-47 leads to molting and metamorphosis retardation and suppresses transcription of NR genes. - Abstract: 2,2′,4,4′-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) in marine environments. Despite its adverse effects (e.g. developmental retardation) in ecdysozoa, the effects of BDE-47 on transcription of ecdysteroid signaling pathway-involved-nuclear receptor (NR) genes and metamorphosis-related genes have not been examined in copepods. To examine the deleterious effect of BDE-47 on copepod molting and metamorphosis, BDE-47 was exposed to the harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus, followed by monitoring developmental retardation and transcriptional alteration of NR genes. The developmental rate was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) in response to BDE-47 and the agricultural insecticide gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane. Conversely, the ecdysteroid agonist ponasterone A (PoA) led to decreased molting and metamorphosis time (P < 0.05) from the nauplius stage to the adult stage. In particular, expression profiles of all NR genes were the highest at naupliar stages 5–6 except for SVP, FTZ-F1, and HR96 genes. Nuclear receptor USP, HR96, and FTZ-F1 genes also showed significant sex differences (P < 0.05) in gene expression levels over different developmental stages, indicating that these genes may be involved in vitellogenesis. NR gene expression patterns showed significant decreases (P < 0.05) in response to BDE-47 exposure, implying that molting and metamorphosis retardation is likely associated with NR gene expression. In summary, BDE-47

  4. Capillary electrophoresis for simultaneous determination of emodin, chrysophanol, and their 8-beta-D-glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Junko; Morita, Izumi; Kawanishi, Kazuko; Tagahara, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Norihiro

    2003-04-01

    The simultaneous separation and determination of the major anthraquinones, emodin, chrysophanol, and their glucosides, of Rumex japonicus HOUTT., and emodin and emodin glucoside, of Cassia tora L., Rhamnus purshiana DC., Polygonum multiflorum THUNB., and P. cuspidatum SIEB. et ZUCC., were achieved by cyclodextrin modified capillary zone electrophoresis. The running electrolyte used in this method was 0.005 M alpha-cyclodextrin in 0.03 M borate buffer (pH 10.5) containing 10% acetonitrile, with an applied voltage of 20 kV.

  5. Characterization of the ribosomal RNA gene of Kudoa neothunni (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) in tunas (Thunnus spp.) and Kudoa scomberi n. sp. in a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Chun; Sato, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2013-05-01

    Kudoa neothunni is the first described Kudoa species having six shell valves and polar capsules, previously assigned to the genus Hexacapsula Arai and Matsumoto, 1953. Since its genetic analyses remain to be conducted, the present study characterizes the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) using two isolates from a yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) with post-harvest myoliquefaction and a northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) without tissue degradation. Spores of the two isolates localized in the myofiber of trunk muscles, forming pseudocysts, and showed typical morphology of K. neothunni with six equal-sized shell valves radially arranged in apical view: spores (n = 15) measuring 9.5-11.4 μm in width, 7.3-8.6 μm in suture width, 8.9-10.9 μm in thickness, and 7.3-7.7 μm in length; and polar capsules measuring 3.6-4.1 μm by 1.8-2.3 μm. In lateral view, the spores were pyramidal in shape without apical protrusions. Their 18S and 5.8S rDNA sequences were essentially identical, but variations in the ITS1 (62.4 % similarity across 757-bp length), ITS2 (66.9 % similarity across 599-bp length), and 28S (99.0 % similarity across 2,245-bp length) rDNA regions existed between the two isolates. On phylogenetic trees based on the 18S or 28S rDNA sequence, K. neothunni formed a clade with Kudoa spp. with more than four shell valves and polar capsules, particularly K. grammatorcyni and K. scomberomori. Semiquadrate spores of a kudoid species with four shell valves and polar capsules were detected from minute cysts (0.30-0.75 mm by 0.20-0.40 mm) embedded in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) fished in the Sea of Japan. Morphologically, it resembled K. caudata described from a chub mackerel fished in the southeastern Pacific Ocean off Peru; however, it lacked filamentous projections on the shell valves of spores. Additionally, it morphologically resembled K. thunni described from a yellowfin tuna also fished in the Pacific Ocean; spores (n

  6. 捕殺個体を利用したニホンツキノワグマ (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) の 栄養状態および繁殖評価方法に関する研究

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) is a subspecies of the Asiatic blackbear (Ursus thibetanus), which is classified as a vulnerable species in the IUCN red list. Inthe Japanese red list, six local populations of the Japanese black bear are designated asthreatened local populations, although the subspecies as a whole is not listed as threatened.The Japanese black bear is one of the largest mammals in forest ecosystems in Japan, andefforts in their conservation could contribut...

  7. Effects of dietary Bacillus cereus G19, B. cereus BC-01, and Paracoccus marcusii DB11 supplementation on the growth, immune response, and expression of immune-related genes in coelomocytes and intestine of the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Peng, Mo; Wang, Dongdong

    2015-08-01

    Probiotics have positive effects on the nutrient digestibility and absorption, immune responses, and growth of aquatic animals, including the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka). A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus cereus G19, B. cereus BC-01 and Paracoccus marcusii DB11 supplementation on the growth, immune response, and expression level of four immune-related genes (Aj-p105, Aj-p50, Aj-rel, and Aj-lys) in coelomocytes and the intestine of juvenile sea cucumbers. One group was fed the basal diet (control group), while three other groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with B. cereus G19 (G19 group), B. cereus BC-01 (BC group), or P. marcusii DB11 (PM group). The growth rate of sea cucumbers fed diets with probiotics supplementation was significantly higher than that of the control group (P marcusii DB11 supplementation could have a positive effect on the growth performance and immune response in coelomocytes and the intestine of sea cucumbers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical diversity and pharmacological significance of the secondary metabolites of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abourashed, Ehab A; El-Alfy, Abir T

    2016-12-01

    Nutmeg is a valued kitchen spice that has been used for centuries all over the world. In addition to its use in flavoring foods and beverages, nutmeg has been used in traditional remedies for stomach and kidney disorders. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and central nervous system effects of nutmeg have also been reported in literature. Nutmeg is a rich source of fixed and essential oil, triterpenes, and various types of phenolic compounds. Many of the secondary metabolites of nutmeg exhibit biological activities that may support its use in traditional medicine. This article provides an overview of the chemistry of secondary metabolites isolated from nutmeg kernel and mace including common methods for analysis of extracts and pure compounds as well as recent approaches towards total synthesis of some of the major constituents. A summary of the most significant pharmacological investigations of potential drug leads isolated from nutmeg and reported in the last decade is also included.

  9. Functional expression of L-lysine α-oxidase from Scomber japonicus in Escherichia coli for one-pot synthesis of L-pipecolic acid from DL-lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Yasushi; Miyake, Ryoma; Yukami, Ryoichi; Dekishima, Yasumasa; China, Hideyasu; Saito, Shigeki; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Mihara, Hisaaki

    2015-06-01

    L-Pipecolic acid is a key component of biologically active molecules and a pharmaceutically important chiral building block. It can be stereoselectively produced from L-lysine by a two-step bioconversion involving L-lysine α-oxidase and ∆(1)-piperideine-2-carboxylae (Pip2C) reductase. In this study, we focused on an L-lysine α-oxidase from Scomber japonicus that was originally identified as an apoptosis-inducing protein (AIP) and applied the enzyme to one-pot fermentation of L-pipecolic acid in Escherichia coli. A synthetic gene coding for an AIP was expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme was determined to be a homodimer with a molecular mass of 133.9 kDa. The enzyme essentially exhibited the same substrate specificity as the native enzyme. Optimal temperature and pH for the enzymatic reaction were 70 °C and 7.4, respectively. The enzyme was stable below 60 °C and at a pH range of 5.5-7.5 but was markedly inhibited by Co(2+). To establish a one-pot fermentation system for the synthesis of optically pure L-pipecolic acid from DL-lysine, an E. coli strain carrying a plasmid encoding AIP, Pip2C reductase from Pseudomonas putida, lysine racemase from P. putida, and glucose dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis was constructed. The one-pot process produced 45.1 g/L of L-pipecolic acid (87.4 % yield from DL-lysine) after a 46-h reaction with high optical purity (>99.9 % enantiomeric excess).

  10. Effects of intramuscular administration of tiletamine-zolazepam with and without sedative pretreatment on plasma and serum biochemical values and glucose tolerance test results in Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-08-01

    To establish a safe anesthetic protocol with little effect on blood biochemical values and IV glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) results in Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus). 16 captive female Japanese black bears (5 to 17 years of age). Bears were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (4 bears/group) in which various treatment combinations were administered via blow dart: tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl (9 mg/kg) alone (TZ), TZ (6 mg/kg) and acepromazine maleate (0.1 mg/kg), TZ (6 mg/kg) and butorphanol tartrate (0.3 mg/kg), or TZ (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine HCl (40 μg/kg). Glucose injection for the IVGTT was started 130 minutes after TZ administration. Blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection for measurement of biochemical variables as well as plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations during the IVGTT. Rectal temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were assessed every 15 minutes during the experiment. Induction and maintenance of anesthesia were safely achieved with little adverse effect on cardiopulmonary function when each of the 4 anesthetic regimens was used, although mild hypothermia was induced. No difference was evident between treatment groups in blood biochemical values. Blood glucose and insulin concentration profiles during the IVGTT were similar among the bears given TZ, with or without acepromazine or butorphanol, but hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia developed in bears given TZ with medetomidine. All 4 anesthetic regimens yielded chemical restraint without affecting clinical and biochemical values in bears, but medetomidine appeared to affect IVGTT results. For this reason, medetomidine should not be used when anesthetizing bears for IVGTTs.

  11. Concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, 108mAg, 239+240Pu and atom ratio of 240Pu/239Pu in tanner crabs, Chionoecetes japonicus and Chionoecetes opilio collected around Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Takami; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Fujimoto, Ken; Minamisako, Yoko; Iida, Rika; Nakamura, Masae; Kayama, Toshiharu

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → There was no increase in the concentrations of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 108m Ag, 239+240 Pu, and no large variation of the atom ratio of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu in the crab species collected around Japan during 1996-2007. → The variability of the concentration of radionuclides in the crabl species results from the variablilty of the composition and quantity in the diet. → The decrease in the concentration of radionuclides in the crab species with sampling depth depends on the concentration in the seawater and diet. → The source of the radionuclides found in the crab species was not the radioactive wastes dumped by the former USSR and Russia and originated from past nuclear weapon tests. - Abstract: The anthropogenic radionuclides, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 108m Ag, 239+240 Pu, were measured in two Chionoecetes species, red queen crab (Chionoecetes japonicus) and snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) collected around Japan during 1996-2007. There was no increase in the concentrations of these radionuclides and no large variation of the atom ratio of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu during this research period. These results indicated that the source of the radionuclides was not the radioactive wastes dumped by the former USSR and Russia and originated from past nuclear weapon tests. The higher atom ratio in the crab species than that from global fallout would be contributed by the Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout. The variability of the concentration of radionuclides in the crab species would result from the variability of the composition and quantity in the diet. However, the decrease in the concentration of radionuclides with sampling depth would depend on the concentration in the seawater and diet.

  12. Sinbase: an integrated database to study genomics, genetics and comparative genomics in Sesamum indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linhai; Yu, Jingyin; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Xiurong

    2015-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an ancient and important oilseed crop grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas. It belongs to the gigantic order Lamiales, which includes many well-known or economically important species, such as olive (Olea europaea), leonurus (Leonurus japonicus) and lavender (Lavandula spica), many of which have important pharmacological properties. Despite their importance, genetic and genomic analyses on these species have been insufficient due to a lack of reference genome information. The now available S. indicum genome will provide an unprecedented opportunity for studying both S. indicum genetic traits and comparative genomics. To deliver S. indicum genomic information to the worldwide research community, we designed Sinbase, a web-based database with comprehensive sesame genomic, genetic and comparative genomic information. Sinbase includes sequences of assembled sesame pseudomolecular chromosomes, protein-coding genes (27,148), transposable elements (372,167) and non-coding RNAs (1,748). In particular, Sinbase provides unique and valuable information on colinear regions with various plant genomes, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max, Vitis vinifera and Solanum lycopersicum. Sinbase also provides a useful search function and data mining tools, including a keyword search and local BLAST service. Sinbase will be updated regularly with new features, improvements to genome annotation and new genomic sequences, and is freely accessible at http://ocri-genomics.org/Sinbase/. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Study of bioactive compounds in spices (Syzygium aromaticum L, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and Myristica fragrans Houtt) processed by ionizing radiation; Estudo dos compostos bioativos em especiarias (Syzygium aromaticum L, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume e Myristica fragans Houtt) processadas por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Renato Cesar

    2014-07-01

    Spices and aromatic herbs are divided into leaves, flowers, bud, seeds bark or dry roots from different plants and it is possible to define them as products of highly flavored vegetal origin that volatize easily when incorporated in small quantities to food products and contribute to its aroma, flavor, color or even to its preservation. Nowadays, people look for its functional properties, bioactive compounds and sensory qualities. A big problem is the reduction of the quantity of these compounds throughout the production chain from the harvest process, storage and distribution. For a long time researchers and industries have concentrated on perfecting the processes of the production chain seeking to guarantee the sanitary and food safety, preserving foodstuffs for a long period and an increase in its lifespan without drastically altering its properties. Due to homemade products and the lack of compliance with good practices in its production chain, the spices can contain a high amount of microbiology causing serious complications to the health of the consumer and the radiation processing is often used for reduce these problems. With this finding, the objectives of this work were: Analyze the oil antifungal properties of spices irradiated with average doses (2.5; 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy); Study the average doses (5 and 10 kGy) and high dose (20 and 30 kGy) effects of gamma radiation {sup 60}Co in the bioactive compounds of the spices - cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg; Identify the oils compounds; Identify the volatile compounds in the headspace of the oils and the in natura spices. Identify the compounds of the nonvolatile part of the nutmeg; Identify the chiral compounds of the cinnamon. Comparing the control samples (not irradiated) with the processed at the described doses, regarding the oil antifungal properties it was possible to verify the efficiency and later that the irradiation did not interfered in its efficiency; Regarding to the others tests in this work, the compounds were identified and most of the tests the irradiation did not interfere significantly with the compounds amount. (author)

  14. Study of bioactive compounds in spices (Syzygium aromaticum L, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and Myristica fragrans Houtt) processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Renato Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Spices and aromatic herbs are divided into leaves, flowers, bud, seeds bark or dry roots from different plants and it is possible to define them as products of highly flavored vegetal origin that volatize easily when incorporated in small quantities to food products and contribute to its aroma, flavor, color or even to its preservation. Nowadays, people look for its functional properties, bioactive compounds and sensory qualities. A big problem is the reduction of the quantity of these compounds throughout the production chain from the harvest process, storage and distribution. For a long time researchers and industries have concentrated on perfecting the processes of the production chain seeking to guarantee the sanitary and food safety, preserving foodstuffs for a long period and an increase in its lifespan without drastically altering its properties. Due to homemade products and the lack of compliance with good practices in its production chain, the spices can contain a high amount of microbiology causing serious complications to the health of the consumer and the radiation processing is often used for reduce these problems. With this finding, the objectives of this work were: Analyze the oil antifungal properties of spices irradiated with average doses (2.5; 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy); Study the average doses (5 and 10 kGy) and high dose (20 and 30 kGy) effects of gamma radiation 60 Co in the bioactive compounds of the spices - cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg; Identify the oils compounds; Identify the volatile compounds in the headspace of the oils and the in natura spices. Identify the compounds of the nonvolatile part of the nutmeg; Identify the chiral compounds of the cinnamon. Comparing the control samples (not irradiated) with the processed at the described doses, regarding the oil antifungal properties it was possible to verify the efficiency and later that the irradiation did not interfered in its efficiency; Regarding to the others tests in this work, the compounds were identified and most of the tests the irradiation did not interfere significantly with the compounds amount. (author)

  15. Kampo medicine: Evaluation of the pharmacological activity of 121 herbal drugs on GABA(A and 5 HT3A receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin M Hoffmann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and its constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, we performed a broad screening of Kampo remedies to look for pharmacologically relevant 5 HT3A and GABA(A receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness or insomnia. Therefore, we analyzed the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5 HT3A and GABA(A receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix and Leonurus japonicus (herba were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5 HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5 HT3A receptor antagonist. We also identified several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex, Syzygium aromaticum (flos and Panax ginseng (radix for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects, for instance Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications.

  16. Identification of acetic acid bacteria through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and report of Gluconobacter nephelii Kommanee et al. 2011 and Gluconobacter uchimurae Tanasupawat et al. 2012 as later heterotypic synonyms of Gluconobacter japonicus Malimas et al. 2009 and Gluconobacter oxydans (Henneberg 1897) De Ley 1961 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Gosselé et al. 1983, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leilei; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The classification and identification of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) underwent much change during the last two decades. However, several closely related AAB species are difficult to differentiate and rapid and correct species level identification remains challenging. In the present study, 281 well-characterized AAB strains representing AAB species of the family Acetobacteraceae were used to construct a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification database. The database was evaluated using 270 poorly characterized AAB strains. 16S rRNA and/or multilocus gene sequence analysis and whole-genome sequencing for the calculation of average nucleotide identity values were performed on a selection of strains to verify the accuracy of the obtained results. Virtually all poorly characterized AAB strains were accurately identified to the species level. Most of the remaining strains were considered to represent novel AAB species or belonged to species represented by too few strains in the identification database. The data also revealed that Gluconobacter nephelii and Gluconobacter uchimurae are later heterotypic synonyms of Gluconobacter japonicus and Gluconobacter oxydans, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Highly invasive alien plant Reynoutria japonica Houtt. represents a novel source for pharmaceutical industry - evidence from phenolic profile and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božin Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reynoutria japonica is on the IUCN list of the Worlds’100 worst invasive species, but it is also, especially its rhizome, an integral part of traditional chinese medicine. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of selected phenolic compounds in rhizome, stems, leaves and inflorescence methanol extracts of this plant, their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity. The chemical profile of the examined extracts was obtained by a high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro assays on DPPH, OH and NO radicals were used to estimate antioxidant potential and Ellman’s method was applied for the determination of anticholinesterase activity. Leaves and rhizome extracts were found to be rich in rosmarinic and chlorogenic acid, and selected flavonoids. Resveratrol was exclusively present in rhizome and stems extracts. All the investigated extracts expressed certain antioxidant activity, where leaves extract was the most active. However, rhizome extract was the strongest inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. These findings indicate that there is a possibility of R. japonica exploitation for the isolation of biologically active phenolic compounds used in pharmaceutical and food industry.

  18. Pendugaan Kelas Mutu berdasarkan Analisa Warna dan Bentuk Biji Pala (Myristica fragrans houtt menggunakan Teknologi Pengolahan Citra dan Jaringan Saraf Tiruan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa Dinar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting the quality of a product is one of them is the color and shape. Color and shape factor was used as a parameter the most attention in the selection of a product. Farmer level, the separation between the seed heads intact and damaged seeds have not done this led to lower prices nutmeg. Separation based on a whole seed and grain merchants and level damage done is done by direct observation. This separation process requires large amounts of labor, the cost is relatively large and long enough. Development of separation methods based on the nutmeg seed quality classes can be done with image processing technology in combination with artificial neural networks. The use of color and shape parameter in the selection of quality seeds in non-destructive nutmeg is needed to address the separation of nutmeg manually. This study aims to identify the quality of nutmeg by color and shape by digital image processing technology in combination with artificial neural networks. Color parameters of the model used consists of a color Red Green Blue, Hue Saturation Value color model, color model Lαb shape parameter consists of area, perimeter, roundness, compactness. Discriminant analysis based on parameters derived mean color saturation and a significant area as the network input. The results showed the mean saturation parameter and the area identified quality class ABCD head, and BWP Rimpel with 100% accuracy.

  19. The dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus is a large sciaenid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    1996, Ter Morshuizen et al. 1996). It is generally accepted that estuaries are important nurseries for fish because they provide both protection from predators and large quantities of suitable food. Consequently, it is possible that prey availability could play an important role in the spatial distribution of dusky kob in estuaries.

  20. Dietary leucine requirement of juvenile Japanese seabass ( Lateolabrax japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Cheng, Zhenyan; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-02-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to examine the dietary leucine requirement of juvenile Japanese seabass in seawater floating net cages (1.5 m × 1.5 m × 2.0 m). Six isonitrogenous (crude protein 40%) and isoenergetic (gross energy 20 kJ g-1) diets were formulated to contain different concentrations of leucine (0.9%, 1.49%, 2.07%, 2.70%, 3.30% and 3.88% of dry matter). Crystalline L-amino acids were supplemented to simulate the whole body amino acid pattern of Japanese seabass except for leucine. Three groups (30 fish individuals each, 8.0 g ± 0.20 g in initial weight) were fed to apparent satiation at 5:00 and 17:30 every day. During the experimental period, the water temperature ranged from 26 to 32δC and salinity from 26 to 30, and the dissolved oxygen was maintained at 7 mg L-1. The results showed that weight gain ( WG), nitrogen retention ( NR), feed efficiency ( FE) and protein efficiency ratio ( PER) were significantly increased when dietary leucine was increased from 0.90% to 2.70% of dry matter, and then declined. WG was the highest when fish were fed D4 containing 2.70% of leucine. No significant differences were observed in body composition among dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). Considering the change of WG, the optimum dietary leucine requirement of juvenile Japanese seabass was either 2.39% of dry matter or 5.68% of dietary protein.

  1. Proteome reference maps of the Lotus japonicus nodule and root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend Secher; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Ussatjuk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    stress level at this developmental stage. In contrast, protein spots corresponding to nodulins such as leghemoglobin, asparagine synthetase, sucrose synthase, and glutamine synthetase were prevalent in red nodules. The distinct biochemical state of nodules was further highlighted by the conspicuous...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green, IR. Vol 59 (2006) - Articles Leonurun, a Novel Labdane Diterpenoid from Leonotis leonurus. Abstract PDF · Vol 61 (2008) - Articles Characterization and Cardiovascular Effects of (13S)-9α,13α-epoxylabda-6β(19),15(14)diol Dilactone, a Diterpenoid Isolated from Leonotis leonurus. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0379-4350.

  3. Establishing and screening of a Lotus japonicus LORE1 mutagenized population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malolepszy, Anna

    incomplete and we are therefore unable to fully understand the symbiotic process. This highlights the necessity for new mutagenesis and gene function tools for further investigation of the genetic mechanisms governing the symbiotic process. This work demonstrates that LORE1 can be successfully used for high......-throughput insertional mutagenesis of Lotus and that a large mutant population can be managed. Lack of insertional hotspots and a frequency of 2,4 new insertions per line, makes it an attractive tool to work with and gives the possibility to obtain cost-effective genome saturation (Urbanski et al., 2012). Additionally......, LORE1 can be successfully used for forward screening and discovery of genes involved in the nodulation process. Since LORE1 is mostly active in pollen, each plant is carrying independent insertions. Taking advantage of this feature and supporting the reliability of the large-scale set-up, well...

  4. Identification of symbiotically defective mutants of Lotus japonicus affected in infection thread growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Fabien; Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Miwa, Hiroki

    2006-01-01

    infection pockets in root hairs but form very few infection threads after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti. The few infection threads that did initiate in the mutants usually did not progress further than the root hair cell. These infection-thread deficient (itd) mutants were unaffected for early...... symbiotic responses such as calcium spiking, root hair deformation, and curling, as well as for the induction of cortical cell division and the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Complementation tests and genetic mapping indicate that itd2 is allelic to Ljsym7, whereas the itd1, itd3, and itd4 mutations...

  5. Vitellogenesis and vitelline system in the pseudophyllidean tapeworm Paraechinophallus japonicus: ultrastructural and cytochemical studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levron, Céline; Poddubnaya, L. G.; Kuchta, Roman; Freeman, M.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2007), s. 43-50 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1317; GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others:Russian Foundation of Fundamental Research(RU) RFFI 05-04-48250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cestoda * Pseudophyllidea * vitelline system * vitellogenesis * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2007

  6. Different Astrocytic Activation between Adult Gekko japonicus and Rats during Wound Healing In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Gu

    Full Text Available Glial scar formation is a major obstacle to regeneration after spinal cord injury. Moreover, it has been shown that the astrocytic response to injury differs between species. Gekko japonicas is a type of reptile and it shows differential glial activation compared to that of rats. The purpose of the present study was to compare the proliferation and migration of astrocytes in the spinal cords of geckos and rats after injury in vitro. Spinal cord homogenate stimulation and scratch wound models were used to induce astrocytic activation in adult and embryonic rats, as well as in adult geckos. Our results indicated that astrocytes from the adult rat were likely activated by mechanical stimulation, even though they showed lower proliferation abilities than the astrocytes from the gecko under normal conditions. Furthermore, a transcriptome analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes in astrocytes from adult rats and those from geckos were enriched in pathways involved in proliferation and the response to stimuli. This implies that intrinsic discrepancies in gene expression patterns might contribute to the differential activation of astrocytes between species.

  7. Functional domain analysis of the Remorin protein LjSYMREM1 in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tóth, Katalin; Stratil, Thomas F; Madsen, Esben B

    2012-01-01

    In legumes rhizobial infection during root nodule symbiosis (RNS) is controlled by a conserved set of receptor proteins and downstream components. MtSYMREM1, a protein of the Remorin family in Medicago truncatula, was shown to interact with at least three receptor-like kinases (RLKs) that are ess......In legumes rhizobial infection during root nodule symbiosis (RNS) is controlled by a conserved set of receptor proteins and downstream components. MtSYMREM1, a protein of the Remorin family in Medicago truncatula, was shown to interact with at least three receptor-like kinases (RLKs...... by the Remorin C-terminal region with its coiled-coil domain while the RLK kinase domains transiently interact in vivo and phosphorylate a residue in the N-terminal region of the LjSYMREM1 protein in vitro. These data provide novel insights into the mechanism of this putative molecular scaffold protein...

  8. CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE3 Maintains Cytokinin Homeostasis during Root and Nodule Development in Lotus japonicus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reid, D.E.; Heckmann, A.B.; Novák, Ondřej; Kelly, S.; Stougaard, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 2 (2016), s. 1060-1074 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : DEPENDENT PROTEIN-KINASE * NODULATION SIGNALING PATHWAY * SYMBIOTIC ORGAN DEVELOPMENT Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.456, year: 2016

  9. Optimization of the Extraction and Stability of Antioxidative Peptides from Mackerel (Pneumatophorus japonicus Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study optimizes the preparation conditions for mackerel protein hydrolysate (MPH by response surface methodology (RSM and investigates the stability of the antioxidant activity of MPHs (<2.5 kDa. The optimal conditions were as follows: enzyme concentration of 1726.85 U/g, pH of 7.00, temperature of 39.55°C, time of 5.5 h, and water/material ratio of 25 : 1, and the maximum DPPH scavenging activity was 79.14%. The MPHs indicated significant cellular antioxidant activity at low concentrations. Furthermore, the temperature and freeze-thaw cycles had little effect on the antioxidative stability while pH had significant effect on the antioxidative stability. In addition, the MPHs were sensitive to the metal ions, such as Fe2+, Fe3+, Zn2+, and Cu2+. Notably, when the concentrations of Fe2+ and Fe3+ were 5 mM, the DPPH scavenging activities were only 1.1% and 0.6%, respectively; furthermore, Cu2+ at a 5 mM concentration could completely inhibit the DPPH scavenging activity of MPHs. In contrast, K+ and Mg2+ had no notable effect on the antioxidant activity of MPHs. These results may provide a scientific basis for the processing and application of MPHs.

  10. Observations on the occurrence of the fish louse Argu/us japonicus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    possibly because the fish were smaller than 200 mm total length. ... Fish Wildt. Serv. U.S.. 72: 915 - 1031. LASIAK, T.A. 1982. Structural and functional aspects of the surf- zone fish community in the Eastern Cape. Ph.D. thesis. University .... Argulus, although common on freshwater fish in central Africa are very rare in ...

  11. Molecular expression of opsin gene in growing juvenile mackerel ( Scomber japonicus Houttuyn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eung-Oh; Yoon, Seong-Jong; Park, Kyoung-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Do, Jeung-Wan; Cho, Eun-Seob

    2009-12-01

    Fish have developed color vision that is closely adapted to their photic environments, where both spectral sensitivity and the number of visual opsins are influenced. The mackerel used in this study is one of the most important fishery stocks in Korea. The opsin gene of the mackerel juveniles after 20 days in hatching was isolated and characterized based on the molecular study of visual photoreceptor. The full-length mackerel opsin gene was obtained by PCR amplification of genomic DNA, as well as cDNA synthesis. Sequence analysis of the opsin gene showed that it contained a 1,080 bp open reading frame encoding 360 amino acids. Based on Schiff’s base formation (S114, K119), glycosylation (E3, F37) and palmitoylation (S281, 282), the deduced amino acid sequence had a typical rod opsin. The mackerel and Gempylus serpens showed 73.7% DNA homology on opsin gene, which was higher than any other of investigated species. In the analysis of phylogenetic relationship, the genetic placement of the mackerel is closer to that of Scombroidei than Labroidei, with supporting somewhat strong bootstrap value. In the analysis of Northern and RT-PCR, the probed products were observed only in rapidly growing juveniles. These findings indicate that in mackerel opsin mRNA expression can be detected in day-20 hatching larvae. It may play an important role in stimulating growth hormone.

  12. Compositional analysis of sulfated polysaccharides from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) released by autolysis reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Wu, Sufeng; Ai, Chunqing; Xu, Xin; Zhu, Zhenjun; Cao, Chunyang; Yang, Jingfeng; Wen, Chengrong

    2018-03-22

    Autolysis is not only a major reason for postharvest quality deterioration of sea cucumber, but also a promising alternative for exogenous protease to produce peptides or polysaccharides. However, little has been known about the effects of autolysis on bioactive polysaccharides of sea cucumber. Concerning the quality and safety of sea cucumber products involved autolysis reaction, the present study focused on the chemical composition of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) released by autolysis reaction. Chemical analysis indicated that after 3-day autolysis 63% of sulfated polysaccharides were liberated but with protein chains at their reducing ends. Then the composition of SP obtained by autolysis (A-SP) was compared with that of total SPs (T-SP) via a series of analysis techniques, including FTIR, 1 H NMR, HPLC and mass spectroscopy. As indicated by the results, fucan to fucosylated chondroitin sulfate ratio was found high in A-SP compared to T-SP, fucan with a lower molecular weight was the major fraction in A-SP, and the di-sulfated Fuc residue observed in T-SP was absent in A-SP. To conclude, A-SP differed greatly from T-SP in the chemical composition, suggesting possible changes on their bioactivities. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Use of phages to control Vibrio splendidus infection in the juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jiancheng; Wang, Xitao; Wang, Lili; Cao, Zhenhui; Xu, Yongping

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we isolated 3 bacteriophages with the ability to control Vibrio splendidus, a bacterium known to cause disease in the juvenile sea cucumber. These bacteriophages were designated as vB_VspS_VS-ABTNL-1 (PVS-1), vB_VspS_VS-ABTNL-2 (PVS-2) and vB_VspS_VS-ABTNL-3 (PVS-3). The ability of the 3 phages to inhibit the growth of V. splendidus VS-ABTNL was tested in vitro using each of the 3 phages individually or in the form of a cocktail of all 3 phages in the proportion of 1:1:1. All treated cultures produced a significant (P Vibrio species and 2 environmental isolates. Both PVS-1 and PVS-2 were lytic to all 4 isolates of V. splendidus while PVS-3 only inhibited the growth of 3 of them. V. splendidus VS-ABTNL was more susceptible to phage PVS-2 than the other 2 phages. In an in vivo performance trial, 360 sea cucumbers (23 ± 2 g) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments. Each treatment was housed in 3 PVC tanks (38 cm × 54 cm × 80 cm) with 20 sea cucumbers per tank. Six diets were prepared including an unsupplemented control diet, antibiotic treatment diet, 3 diets containing 1 of the 3 phages individually and a diet containing a cocktail of all 3 phages. After 60 days of feeding, all sea cucumber were challenged with V. splendidus VS-ABTNL by immersion in sea water containing a bacterial concentration of 6 × 10(6) CFU/mL for 2 days. The survival rate of sea cucumbers during the next 10 days was 18% for the unsupplemented diet, 82% for the antibiotic treatment, 82% for the phage cocktail, 65% for phage PVS-1, 58% for phage PVS-2 and 50% for phage PVS-3. There were no significant differences in weight gain, ingestion rate or feed conversion among sea cucumber fed the 4 phage treatments compared with those fed the unsupplemented diet (P > 0.05). The levels of nitric oxide synthase and acid phosphatase of sea cucumbers fed phage-containing diets were significantly (P  0.05) were detected among the 4 phage-fed treatments. An additional study was conducted in which 60 healthy sea cucumbers (23 ± 2 g) were randomly assigned to a control, an untreated group and a test group to investigate the effects of injecting phages by coelomic injection on the survival rate and enzyme activities in the coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers. The control was injected with 1 ml of sterilized seawater while the untreated group and the test group were injected with the same volume of V. splendidus-ABTNL culture (3 × 10(5) CFU/mL). Then, the test group was injected with 1 ml of the 3 phage cocktail (MOI = 10). After 48 h, the activities of lysozyme, acid phosphatase and superoxide dismutase were elevated in the untreated group while the levels of these enzymes in the test group were similar to the blank control. After 10-day observation, the survival rate of the sea cucumber was 100% for the blank control, 80% for the test group and 20% for the negative control. The overall results of this experiment indicate that phage therapy increased the survival of sea cucumber infected with V. splendidus VS-ABTNL. The above results demonstrate that using phages, especially a combination of different phages, may be a feasible way to control Vibrio infection in the sea cucumber industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PELOLOSAN IKAN KURISI (Nemipterus japonicus MELALUI JUVENILE AND TRASH EXLUDER DEVICES PADA JARING ARAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hufiadi Hufiadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan utama pada perikanan jaring arad adalah banyaknya jumlah hasil tangkap sampingan berukuran kecil yang belum layak tangkap. Dalam upaya untuk mengurangi tangkapan ikan muda yang belum layak tangkap telah dilakukan observasi dan ujicoba operasi penangkapan melalui penggunaan perangkat juvenile and trash exluder devices pada alat tangkap jaring arad yang dioperasikan nelayan di Pekalongan. Perangkat juvenile and trash exluder devices yang digunakan dibedakan pada ukuran jarak antar kisi, yaitu 10,0; 17,5; dan 25,4 mm. Analisis selektivitas kisi menggunakan model kurva logistik dengan bantuan solver pada Microsoft Excel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan juvenile and trash exluder devices pada jaring arad dapat meloloskan ikan kurisi (Nemipterus spp. berukuran kecil. Ukuran jarak antar kisi 25,4 mm mempunyai selektivitas yang paling baik terhadap ikan kurisi berdasarkan atas ukuran panjang baku dan jarak antar kisi 17,5 mm mempunyai selektivitas paling baik berdasarkan atas ukuran lingkar tubuh ikan kurisi.   The serius problem on bottom mini trawl has the large number caught of bycatch caught especially for juvenile and trash fish. Improvement to reduce catches of juvenile was conducted through observation and experimental fishing using juvenile and trash exluder devices of mini bottom trawl in Pekalongan. The juvenile and trash excluder devices (juvenile and trash exluder devices in the experimental fishing with different space bar of the juvenile and trash exluder devices i.e. 10.0; 17.5; and 25.4 mm. The selectivity analysis of logistic curve by using solver on Microsoft Excel was applied. The results showed that juvenile and trash excluder devices might reduce catches of threadfin breams juvenile. Where as 25.4 space bar had the best selectivity based on the size of threadfin breams fork length and 17.5 mm space bar had the best selectivity based on the size of threadfin breams body girth.

  15. Possible role of the leptin system in controlling puberty in the male chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohga, Hirofumi; Hirata, Daisuke; Matsumori, Kojiro; Kitano, Hajime; Nagano, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2017-01-01

    Leptin directly regulates kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamus and gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary, making it a central player in the onset of mammalian puberty. Recently, we identified two leptin genes (lepa and lepb) and a single leptin receptor (lepr) in the marine perciform fish chub mackerel; however, the expression of these genes did not correlate with the expression of important reproductive genes or ovarian stage during female puberty. Here, we expand upon these initial observations by evaluating the expression of lepa, lepb, and lepr during pubertal transition and under differential feeding conditions in the male chub mackerel. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that lepa was primarily expressed in the liver of pubertal and gonadal recrudescence adults, as well as in the brain of adult fish; lepb was primarily expressed in the brain of all fish tested; and lepr was widely expressed in a variety of tissues. qRT-PCR analyses revealed significant increases in the hepatic expression of lepa in accordance with testicular stage, whereas pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (fshβ) expression increased in unison with hepatic lepa. In contrast, expression of both brain lepa and lepb dramatically decreased during pubertal transition, with brain kisspeptin 1 (kiss1) expression strongly correlating with leptin expression patterns. In pre-pubertal males, lepa, lepb, and lper gene expression in the brain, pituitary gland, and liver decreased in fish given a high feed diet, relative to the controlled feeding group. Taken together, these results indicate high sexual specificity of leptin expression, suggesting a possible role for leptin signaling in endocrine and neuroendocrine functions during spermatogenesis in the pubertal male chub mackerel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Life cycle assessment of different sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Xu, Kefeng

    2015-12-01

    The life cycle assessment was employed to evaluate the environmental impacts of three farming systems (indoor intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems) of sea cucumber living near Qingdao, China, which can effectively overcome the interference of inaccurate background parameters caused by the diversity of economic level and environment in different regions. Six indicators entailing global warming potential (1.86E + 04, 3.45E + 03, 2.36E + 02), eutrophication potential (6.65E + 01, -1.24E + 02, -1.65E + 02), acidification potential (1.93E + 02, 4.33E + 01, 1.30E + 00), photochemical oxidant formation potential (2.35E-01, 5.46E -02, 2.53E-03), human toxicity potential (2.47E + 00, 6.08E-01, 4.91E + 00) and energy use (3.36E + 05, 1.27E + 04, 1.48E + 03) were introduced in the current study. It was found that all environmental indicators in the indoor intensive farming system were much higher than those in semi-intensive and extensive farming systems because of the dominant role of energy input, while energy input also contributed as the leading cause factor for most of the indicators in the semi-intensive farming system. Yet in the extensive farming system, infrastructure materials played a major role. Through a comprehensive comparison of the three farming systems, it was concluded that income per unit area of indoor intensive farming system was much higher than those of semi-intensive and extensive farming systems. However, the extensive farming system was the most sustainable one. Moreover, adequate measures were proposed, respectively, to improve the environmental sustainability of each farming system in the present study.

  17. Reproduction of a woodwasp, Urocerus japonicus (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) using no maternal symbiotic fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideshi Fukuda

    2003-01-01

    Most woodwasps (Siricidae) are symbiotically associated with the specific fungus, Amylostereum spp. Female adults inoculate the fungus during their oviposition in sapwood of the host trees (Morgan 1968). Woodwasp larvae can digest sapwood with low nutritional quality with the aid of symbiosis (Kukor and Martin 1983). In the earlier study, we...

  18. Two Novel Fungal Phenolic UDP Glycosyltransferases from Absidia coerulea and Rhizopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kebo; Dou, Xiaoxiang; Chen, Ridao; Chen, Dawei; Fang, Cheng; Xiao, Zhiyan; Dai, Jungui

    2017-04-15

    In the present study, two novel phenolic UDP glycosyltransferases (P-UGTs), UGT58A1 and UGT59A1, which can transfer sugar moieties from active donors to phenolic acceptors to generate corresponding glycosides, were identified in the fungal kingdom. UGT58A1 (from Absidia coerulea ) and UGT59A1 (from Rhizopus japonicas ) share a low degree of homology with known UGTs from animals, plants, bacteria, and viruses. These two P-UGTs are membrane-bound proteins with an N-terminal signal peptide and a transmembrane domain at the C terminus. Recombinant UGT58A1 and UGT59A1 are able to regioselectively and stereoselectively glycosylate a variety of phenolic aglycones to generate the corresponding glycosides. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the novelty of UGT58A1 and UGT59A1 in primary sequences in that they are distantly related to other UGTs and form a totally new evolutionary branch. Moreover, UGT58A1 and UGT59A1 represent the first members of the UGT58 and UGT59 families, respectively. Homology modeling and mutational analysis implied the sugar donor binding sites and key catalytic sites, which provided insights into the catalytic mechanism of UGT58A1. These results not only provide an efficient enzymatic tool for the synthesis of bioactive glycosides but also create a starting point for the identification of P-UGTs from fungi at the molecular level. IMPORTANCE Thus far, there have been many reports on the glycosylation of phenolics by fungal cells. However, no P-UGTs have ever been identified in fungi. Our study identified fungal P-UGTs at the molecular level and confirmed the existence of the UGT58 and UGT59 families. The novel sequence information on UGT58A1 and UGT59A1 shed light on the exciting and new P-UGTs hiding in the fungal kingdom, which would lead to the characterization of novel P-UGTs from fungi. Molecular identification of fungal P-UGTs not only is theoretically significant for a better understanding of the evolution of UGT families but also can be applied as a powerful tool in the glycodiversification of bioactive natural products for drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. An unconventional mechanism of lift production during the downstroke in a hovering bird ( Zosterops japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hung; Ting, Shang-Chieh; Liu, Chieh-Cheng; Yang, Jing-Tang; Soong, Chyi-Yeou

    2011-11-01

    An unconventional mechanism of ventral clap is exploited by hovering passerines to produce lift. Quantitative visualization of the wake flow, analysis of kinematics and evaluation of the transient lift force was conducted to dissect the biomechanical role of the ventral clap in the asymmetrical hovering flight of passerines. The ventral clap can first abate and then augment lift production during the downstroke; the net effect of the ventral clap on lift production is, however, positive because the extent of lift augmentation is greater than the extent of lift abatement. Moreover, the ventral clap is inferred to compensate for the zero lift production of the upstroke because the clapping wings induce a substantial elevation of the lift force at the end of the downstroke. Overall, our observations shed light on the aerodynamic function of the ventral clap and offer biomechanical insight into how a bird hovers without kinematically mimicking hovering hummingbirds.

  20. Sample (S): SE57_S08 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE57_S08 Lotus japonicus (accessions B129 gifu and MG20 miyakojima) Lotus japonicus... NCBI taxonomy:34305 Lotus japonicus accessions were a gift from Dr. Toshio Aoki (Nihon University, Japan). ...

  1. Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines using gas chromatography - negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a residue analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 107 pesticides in the traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), Angelica sinensis, Angelica dahurica, Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, Pogostemon cablin, and Lonicera japonica Thunb, was developed using gas chromatography couple...

  2. Inhibition of 2-hexenal autooxidation by essential oils from clove bud, laurel, cardamom, nutmeg and mace

    OpenAIRE

    Misharina, Tamara; Terenina, Margarita; Krikunova, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 5 individual essential oils from clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), and mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt) were studied by the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography. We assessed the antioxidant properties by the efficiency of autooxidation inhibition of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the corr...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese giant salamander [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Andrias_japonicus_L.png Andrias_jap...onicus_NL.png Andrias_japonicus_S.png Andrias_japonicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+jap...onicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=NS ...

  4. Intestinal microbiota and immune related genes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) response to dietary β-glucan supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Gang; Xu, Zhenjiang; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Peng, Mo

    2015-01-01

    β-glucan is a prebiotic well known for its beneficial outcomes on sea cucumber health through modifying the host intestinal microbiota. High-throughput sequencing techniques provide an opportunity for the identification and characterization of microbes. In this study, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition, interaction among species, and intestinal immune genes in sea cucumber fed with diet supplemented with or without β-glucan supplementation. The results show that the intestinal dominant classes in the control group are Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Verrucomicrobiae are enriched in the β-glucan group. Dietary β-glucan supplementation promoted the proliferation of the family Rhodobacteraceae of the Alphaproteobacteria class and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae of the Verrucomicrobiae class and reduced the relative abundance of the family Flavobacteriaceae of Flavobacteria class. The ecological network analysis suggests that dietary β-glucan supplementation can alter the network interactions among different microbial functional groups by changing the microbial community composition and topological roles of the OTUs in the ecological network. Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on immune responses of the intestine of sea cucumber by activating NF-κB signaling pathway, probably through modulating the balance of intestinal microbiota. - Highlights: • Dietary β-glucan supplementation increases the abundance of Rhodobacteraceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae in the intestine. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation changes the topological roles of OTUs in the ecological network. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on the immune response of intestine of sea cucumber

  5. Diversification and specialization of β-glucosidases in the catabolism of hydroxynitrile glucosides in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Daniela

    Plants are the living organisms best able to produce a wide variety of chemical compounds.The biosynthesis of these compounds is well regulated, and they are distributed within the plants to play distinct biological roles. Some of these chemicals have an important role in the protection of plant as......, unlike animals, plants can not escape from their predators. Cyanogenic glucosides (α-hydroxynitrile glucoside) are an example of such a class of chemical defense compounds, and they are found in a large number of plant species. They protect the plant against herbivores through a bioactivation me hanism...... that involves specific β-glucosidases. If plant tissue is disrupted, cyanogenic glucosides come into contact with these β-glucosidases and are hydrolyzed, which results in the release of hydrogen cyanide gas. The work reported in this thesis is focused on the β-glucosidases that activated hydroxynitrile...

  6. Intestinal microbiota and immune related genes in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) response to dietary β-glucan supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Gang [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Xu, Zhenjiang [Biofrontiers Institute, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Tian, Xiangli, E-mail: xianglitian@ouc.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Dong, Shuanglin [The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Fisheries College, Ocean University of China (China); Peng, Mo [School of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University (China)

    2015-02-27

    β-glucan is a prebiotic well known for its beneficial outcomes on sea cucumber health through modifying the host intestinal microbiota. High-throughput sequencing techniques provide an opportunity for the identification and characterization of microbes. In this study, we investigated the intestinal microbial community composition, interaction among species, and intestinal immune genes in sea cucumber fed with diet supplemented with or without β-glucan supplementation. The results show that the intestinal dominant classes in the control group are Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Verrucomicrobiae are enriched in the β-glucan group. Dietary β-glucan supplementation promoted the proliferation of the family Rhodobacteraceae of the Alphaproteobacteria class and the family Verrucomicrobiaceae of the Verrucomicrobiae class and reduced the relative abundance of the family Flavobacteriaceae of Flavobacteria class. The ecological network analysis suggests that dietary β-glucan supplementation can alter the network interactions among different microbial functional groups by changing the microbial community composition and topological roles of the OTUs in the ecological network. Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on immune responses of the intestine of sea cucumber by activating NF-κB signaling pathway, probably through modulating the balance of intestinal microbiota. - Highlights: • Dietary β-glucan supplementation increases the abundance of Rhodobacteraceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae in the intestine. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation changes the topological roles of OTUs in the ecological network. • Dietary β-glucan supplementation has a positive impact on the immune response of intestine of sea cucumber.

  7. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chang-Ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-Rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying habitat patches and potential ecological corridors for remnant Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) populations in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doko, T.; Fukui, H.; Kooiman, A.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Ichinose, T.; Chen, W.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese National Biodiversity Strategy 2010 calls for the creation of ecological networks as a biodiversity conservation policy. However, there is an obvious lack of information on the spatial distribution of many species and a lack of scientific methods for examining habitat requirements to

  9. Effects of Panax japonicus hypolipidemic compound on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice and its mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li DUAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of Panax japonicas hypolipidemic compound (ZDS on the lipid metabolism and its possible mechanism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD mice induced by high sugar and fat diet. Methods The extracts of Panaax japonica rhizoma, Salviae Miltiorrhiz radix Et rhizoma and Crataegi Fructus were prepared, and ZDS compound was formulated according to their antioxidant activities. Forty SPF male Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups (10 each: normal control group, model group, high-dose ZDS-treated group, and low-dose ZDS-treated group. In addition to the mice in normal control group were given conventional diet, the mice in other three groups were fed high-sugar high-fat diet. High-dose and low-dose ZDS-treated group were given 90mg/kg or 30mg/kg ZDS. After the treatment of five weeks, the histomorphology and lipid deposition of the liver were observed to confirm the establishment of mouse NAFLD model and the improvement of ZDS compound on lipid deposition. The relative expression of miR-34a, SIRT1, and lipid metabolism related genes (FASN, ACC1 was detected by RT-qPCR and RT-PCR. SIRT1 protein expression was detected by Western blotting. Results Compared with the normal group, the morphological results showed hepatic lipid accumulation in the model group was more serious, the levels of triglyceride (TG and miR- 34a in the liver tissue increased significantly (P<0.05, the expression levels of SIRT1 decreased, and the gene of lipid metabolism such as FASN, ACC1 significantly increased (P<0.05. However, compared with the model group, ZDS compound improve hepatic lipid accumulation, liver TG content significantly decreasd (P<0.05, liver tissue miR-34a, FASN and ACC1 expressions decreased, while SIRT1 expression increased (P<0.05. The protein expression of SIRT1 was consistent with its mRNA expression. Conclusion ZDS compound can effectively improve liver cell steatosis through the miR-34a/SIRT1 pathway involved in lipid metabolism regulation, thus providing a new idea for early intervention of NAFLD through traditional Chinese compound medicine. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.09.03

  10. Spermatozoon ultrastructure of the pseudophyllidean cestode Paraechinophallus japonicus, a parasite of deep-sea fish Psenopsis anomala (Perciformes, Centrolophidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levron, Céline; Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Kuchta, Roman; Freeman, M.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 1 (2006), s. 115-121 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1317; GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cestoda * spermatozoon * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2006

  11. Bioimaging and Forward Genetics: Exploring Nod Factor Perception and Nodule Infection in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalisch, Christina

    During her studies, Christina Kalisch researched the symbiotic interaction between leguminous plants and soil bacteria. Plants of this family are very special in their ability to interact with so-called rhizobia, which fix atmospheric nitrogen and make it available for the plant, thereby decreasing...... the plant’s need for artificial fertilizers. The plants discriminate carefully between harmful pathogens, which induce a defense reponse, and these beneficial rhizobia, which are allowed to colonize the root tissue. Christina Kalisch studied the perception of bacterial signal molecules by the plant...... and the process of how the rhizobia enter and colonize the plant roots. The new research findings contribute to the understanding of how plant receptors interact to recognize the rhizobia, and identified other plant genes required for successful engagement in root symbiosis. The PhD degree was completed...

  12. Structural and Functional Analysis of a Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase Important for Efficient Utilization of Chitin in Cellvibrio japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Zarah; Nelson, Cassandra E; Dalhus, Bjørn; Mekasha, Sophanit; Loose, Jennifer S M; Crouch, Lucy I; Røhr, Åsmund K; Gardner, Jeffrey G; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav

    2016-04-01

    Cellvibrio japonicusis a Gram-negative soil bacterium that is primarily known for its ability to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides through utilization of an extensive repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Several putative chitin-degrading enzymes are also found among these carbohydrate-active enzymes, such as chitinases, chitobiases, and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). In this study, we have characterized the chitin-active LPMO,CjLPMO10A, a tri-modular enzyme containing a catalytic family AA10 LPMO module, a family 5 chitin-binding module, and a C-terminal unclassified module of unknown function. Characterization of the latter module revealed tight and specific binding to chitin, thereby unraveling a new family of chitin-binding modules (classified as CBM73). X-ray crystallographic elucidation of theCjLPMO10A catalytic module revealed that the active site of the enzyme combines structural features previously only observed in either cellulose or chitin-active LPMO10s. Analysis of the copper-binding site by EPR showed a signal signature more similar to those observed for cellulose-cleaving LPMOs. The full-length LPMO shows no activity toward cellulose but is able to bind and cleave both α- and β-chitin. Removal of the chitin-binding modules reduced LPMO activity toward α-chitin compared with the full-length enzyme. Interestingly, the full-length enzyme and the individual catalytic LPMO module boosted the activity of an endochitinase equally well, also yielding similar amounts of oxidized products. Finally, gene deletion studies show thatCjLPMO10A is needed byC. japonicusto obtain efficient growth on both purified chitin and crab shell particles. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. IBT-based quantitative proteomics identifies potential regulatory proteins involved in pigmentation of purple sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lili; Sun, Lina; Liu, Shilin; Li, Xiaoni; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-09-01

    Sea cucumbers are an important economic species and exhibit high yield value among aquaculture animals. Purple sea cucumbers are very rare and beautiful and have stable hereditary patterns. In this study, isobaric tags (IBT) were first used to reveal the molecular mechanism of pigmentation in the body wall of the purple sea cucumber. We analyzed the proteomes of purple sea cucumber in early pigmentation stage (Pa), mid pigmentation stage (Pb) and late pigmentation stage (Pc), resulting in the identification of 5580 proteins, including 1099 differentially expressed proteins in Pb: Pa and 339 differentially expressed proteins in Pc: Pb. GO and KEGG analyses revealed possible differentially expressed proteins, including"melanogenesis", "melanosome", "melanoma", "pigment-biosynthetic process", "Epidermis development", "Ras-signaling pathway", "Wnt-signaling pathway", "response to UV light", and "tyrosine metabolism", involved in pigment synthesis and regulation in purple sea cucumbers. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying pigmentation in sea cucumbers. Furthermore, these results may also provide the base for further identification of proteins involved in resistance mechanisms against melanoma, albinism, UV damage, and other diseases in sea cucumbers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Two species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off Japan, including Philometroides branchiostegi sp. n. from Branchiostegus japonicus (Malacanthidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Nagasawa, K.; Nohara, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2012), s. 71-78 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Philometridae * marine fish * Japan Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.515, year: 2012 http://folia.paru.cas.cz/pdfs/showpdf.php?pdf=22038

  15. Ecological effects of co-culturing sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) with scallop Chlamys farreri in earthen ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yichao; Dong, Shuanglin; Qin, Chuanxin; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng

    2012-01-01

    Monthly changes in sedimentation and sediment properties were studied for three different culture treatments: sea cucumber monoculture (Mc), sea cucumber and scallop polyculture (Ps-c) and scallop monoculture (Ms). Results indicated that the survival rate of sea cucumber was significantly higher in Ps-c cultures than in Mc cultures. Sea cucumber yield was 69.6% higher in Ps-c culture than in Mc culture. No significant differences in body weight and scallop shell length were found between Ps-c and Ms cultures. The mean sedimentation rate of total particulate matter (TPM) was 72.2 g/(m2·d) in Ps-c cultures, with a maximum of 119.7 g/(m2·d), which was markedly higher than that of Mc (mean value). Sedimentation rates of organic matter (OM), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in Ps-c cultures were also significantly higher than those in Mc cultures. TOC and TN contents of sediment increased rapidly in the first 5 months in Ms cultures and remained at a high level. TOC and TN contents in Mc and Ps-c cultures decreased during sea cucumber feeding seasons and increased during sea cucumber dormancy periods (summer and winter). The study demonstrates that co-culture of sea cucumber and scallop in earthen ponds is an alternative way to alleviate nutrient loads and improve water quality in coastal aquaculture systems. Moreover, it provides the additional benefit of an increased sea cucumber yield.

  16. Effects of different algae in diet on growth and interleukin (IL-10 production of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Anisuzzaman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different algae in diet on growth, survival, and interleukin-10 productions of sea cucumber. At first, a 9-week feeding trail was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and survival of the sea cucumber fed one of the six experimental diets containing ST (Sargassum thunbergii, UL (Ulva lactuca, UP (Undaria pinnatifida, LJ (Laminaria japonica, SS (Schizochytrium sp., and NO (Nannochloropsis oculata in a recirculating aquaculture system. The result showed that survival was not significantly different among the dietary treatments, and the specific growth rate (SGR of sea cucumber fed the UL diet (1.58% d−1 was significantly higher than that of sea cucumber fed the other diets (P < 0.05, except for the LJ and NO diets. Secondly, interleukin (IL-10 gene expression was determined where mice splenocytes were stimulated with 10 μg ml−1 of sea cucumber extracts for 2 h. The result showed that IL-10 gene expression levels were significantly increased in UL, LJ, and NO diets fed sea cucumber extracts compared to other experimental diets. The results suggest that dietary inclusion with Ulva lactuca, Laminaria japonica, and Nannochloropsis oculata algae may improve the growth of juvenile sea cucumber and could upregulate IL-10 gene expression in mice splenocytes. Such detailed information could be helpful in further development of more appropriate diets for sea cucumber culture.

  17. Determination of ploidy level and isolation of genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase in Japanese Foxtail (Alopecurus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongle Xu

    Full Text Available Ploidy level is important in biodiversity studies and in developing strategies for isolating important plant genes. Many herbicide-resistant weed species are polyploids, but our understanding of these polyploid weeds is limited. Japanese foxtail, a noxious agricultural grass weed, has evolved herbicide resistance. However, most studies on this weed have ignored the fact that there are multiple copies of target genes. This may complicate the study of resistance mechanisms. Japanese foxtail was found to be a tetraploid by flow cytometer and chromosome counting, two commonly used methods in the determination of ploidy levels. We found that there are two copies of the gene encoding plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase in Japanese foxtail and all the homologous genes are expressed. Additionally, no difference in ploidy levels or ACCase gene copy numbers was observed between an ACCase-inhibiting herbicide-resistant and a herbicide-sensitive population in this study.

  18. Preparation of anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) protein hydrolysates with high free radical-scavenging activity using endogenous and commercial enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Silian; Wang, Fanghua; Ning, Zhengxiang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-12-01

    Anchovy protein hydrolysates with high free radical-scavenging activity were prepared by endogenous and commercial enzymes. Various hydrolytic factors (commercial protease composition, protease concentration, temperature, and reaction time) were optimized. Using a single-factor experiment, three commercial proteases (Protamex, Flavourzyme 500 MG, and Alcalase 2.4 L) were selected for further optimization using a simplex lattice design. The optimum composition of Protamex:Flavourzyme 500 MG:Alcalase 2.4 L was found to be 1.1:1.0:0.9. The hydrolytic conditions (commercial protease concentration, temperature, and reaction time) for the optimum protease composition were optimized using a Box-Behnken design. The optimum hydrolytic conditions were as follows: total commercial protease concentration of 3.27%, pH of 7.5, temperature of 55.4℃, and reaction time of 2.7 h. Under these conditions, hydrolysate with a 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl scavenging activity of 84.7% was obtained. Meanwhile, a degree of hydrolysis of 33.2% and high protein nitrogen recovery of 87.5% were achieved. The amino acid composition of the hydrolysates demonstrated that they have high nutritional value, thereby suggesting that the hydrolysates have potential to be used as raw material for functional food. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Reproductive seasonality and maturation of the sergestid shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acetes japonicus) were investigated between April 2006 and March 2007 in coastal waters of Klebang Besar, Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia. Klebang Besar waters are one of the main fishing grounds for A. japonicus in the Peninsular Malaysia.

  20. Reproductive seasonality and maturation of the sergestid shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Acetes japonicus) were investigated between April 2006 and March 2007 in coastal waters of Klebang Besar, Malacca,. Peninsular Malaysia. Klebang Besar waters are one of the main fishing grounds for A. japonicus in the.

  1. Anti-Proliferative, Antioxidant and Iron-Chelating Properties of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Properties of the Tropical Highland Fern, Phymatopteris triloba (Houtt) Pichi Serm (Family Polypodiaceae). Tsun-Thai ... therapeutic properties of related species P. hastata and P. quasidivaricata suggest that P. ... Phenomenex Gemini 5U C-18 110A column (150. 4.6 mm)(Phenomenex, Torrance, CA, USA). The binary ...

  2. (Nutmeg) on Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis in albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activities of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. seed (nutmeg) was studied to authenticate ... Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested the effect of the groups on the treatment days and revealed a significant difference between the treatments at p< 0.05.

  3. The correct name for Pyrrosia hastate Ching (Polypodiaceae, Pteridophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Frits Veldkamp

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available VELDKAMP, J.F. 2004. The correct name for Pyrrosia hastate Ching (Polypodiaceae, Pteridophyta. Reinwardtia 12 (2: 191 -193. Pyrrosia hastata Ching (Polypodiaceae, Pteridophyta is based on Acrostichum hastatum Thunb. (1784 non Houtt. (1783. Its correct name is P. tricuspis (Sw. Tagawa.

  4. Mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials of fruit juices of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of freeze dried fruit juices (FDFJ) of Morinda elliptica Ridl. (Rubiaceae), Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), Averrhoa bilimbi L. (Oxalidaceae), Phyllantus acidus (L.) Skeels (Phyllantaceae) and Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae) in Allium cepa L was evaluated. Testing the ...

  5. Isolation and characterization of an antibacterium against Vibrio harveyi 11593 from a mixed pond with penaeus japonicus bate, portunus trituberculatus and ruditapes philippinarum in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, X. H.; Xu, Y. J.; Li, F. H.; Ma, G. Z.; Li, L. T.

    2016-08-01

    Aquaculture diseases, particularly Vibriosis, are becoming a pressing concern due to incurred aquacultural loss in China. Commercial antibiotics may be used to control it, but its increased antibiotic resistance to prominent pathogenic bacteria has become a prevalent problem nationwide, and a global threat to public health. Probiotics are recommended instead because they are healthy, environment-friendly, and capable of maintaining productivity. An antibacterium against Vibrio harveyi 11593 was isolated from a mariculture pond with shrimp, crabs, and shellfish in China. The bacterium, E14, has an inhibitory zone diameter (DIZ) of 24.5 ± 0.5 mm. The strain was identified as Bacillus pumilus based on morphological observation, conventional biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The gram-positiveand motile bacterium is around 1.10-1.32 pm × 0.67-0.83 μm in size. Optimized conditions for antimicrobial substance production of B. pumilus E14 require that it be cultured for 26 h at 28 °C, with an initial pH of 7.0 in 100 mL/500 mL LB with 3% NaCl. The B. pumilus E14 cultures were confirmed to be safe and efficacious and actually worked to protect the host animal in shrimp larvae (Penaeus chinensis) culture. The B. pumilus E14 obtained in this study strengthened the strain's defense against aquaculture disease and made a good candidate for an alternative probiotics and benefit to sustainability of aquaculture.

  6. Specialized roles for the two UDP-glucosyltransferases UGT85K2 and UGT85K3 in hydroxynitrile glucoside metabolism in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Camilla Knudsen; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides are amino-acid derived plant chemical defense compounds against generalist herbivores. They are α-hydroxynitrile glucosides that are activated by specific β-glucosidases upon tissue disruption. The unstable α-hydroxynitrile will dissociate with the release of hydrogen cyanide...

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin C on growth, reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant enzyme activity of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) juveniles exposed to nitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zuoyong; Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Liu, Mingxing; Wang, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Different amounts of vitamin C were added to diets fed to juveniles (2.5 ± 0.15 g) of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonic u s (Selenka) in an attempt to reduce the stress response of specimens exposed to nitrite stress. A commercial feed was used as the control diet and three experimental diets were made by supplementing 1 000, 1 500, or 2 000 mg vitamin C/kg diet to control diet separately in a 45-day experiment. Sea cucumbers were exposed to three different levels (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/L) of nitrite stress for 4, 8, and 12 h at four time intervals (0, 15, 30, and 45 d). Growth of the animals was recorded during the experiment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) (i.e. hydroxyl free radical (-OH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)) and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) were measured. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the effect of multiple factors on ROS indices and enzyme activities. Weight gain (WG) and special growth rate (SGR) of vitamin C supplementation groups were significantly higher than those of control group ( P effectively the effects of nitrite exposure.

  8. Cyclin-like F-box protein plays a role in growth and development of the three model species Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boycheva I

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Irina Boycheva,1 Valya Vassileva,2 Miglena Revalska,1 Grigor Zehirov,2 Anelia Iantcheva1 1Department of Functional Genetics Legumes, 2AgroBioInstitute, Department of Plant Stress Molecular Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, Sofia, Bulgaria Abstract: In eukaryotes, F-box proteins are one of the main components of the SCF complex that belongs to the family of ubiquitin E3 ligases, which catalyze protein ubiquitination and maintain the balance between protein synthesis and degradation. In the present study, we clarified the role and function of the gene encoding cyclin-like F-box protein from Medicago truncatula using transgenic plants of the model species M. truncatula, Lotus japonicas, and Arabidopsis thaliana generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Morphological and transcriptional analyses combined with flow cytometry and histochemistry demonstrated the participation of this protein in many aspects of plant growth and development, including processes of indirect somatic embryogenesis and symbiotic nodulation. The cyclin-like F-box gene showed expression in all plant organs and tissues comprised of actively dividing cells. The observed variations in root and hypocotyl growth, leaf and silique development, ploidy levels, and leaf parameters in the obtained transgenic lines demonstrated the effects of this gene on organ development. Furthermore, knockdown of cyclin-like F-box led to accumulation of higher levels of the G2/M transition-specific gene cyclin B1:1 (CYCB1:1, suggesting its possible role in cell cycle control. Together, the collected data suggest a similar role of the cyclin-like F-box protein in the three model species, providing evidence for the functional conservation of the studied gene. Keywords: cyclin-like F-box, model legumes, Arabidopsis thaliana, plant growth, plant development, cell cycle

  9. Spatial distribution and dietary overlap between Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus and moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shoji

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological and physical surveys were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and the distribution of ichthyoplankton and jellyfish, and dietary overlap between the ichthyoplankton and jellyfish in the Seto Inland Sea (SIS, Japan. Ichthyoplankton, copepods, and jellyfish were collected during two cruises in July 2005 in the Sea of Hiuchi and in July 2006 in Hiroshima Bay within the SIS. Sea surface temperature (˚C, salinity, bottom-layer dissolved oxygen (mg l-1 and the abundance (no. m-2 of fish eggs and larvae were significantly higher in the Sea of Hiuchi. Japanese anchovy was most dominant (69.3% in number of eggs and 52.3% in number of larvae among the ichthyoplankton. Mean jellyfish biomass (g m-2 in Hiroshima Bay was significantly higher (50-folds than that in the Sea of Hiuchi. Moon jellyfish was the most dominant among the jellyfish collected, accounting for 85.6% in wet weight. Surface temperature had a significant effect on fish egg and larval distribution: abundance of fish eggs and larvae increased with increasing temperature. Jellyfish abundance was negatively correlated with the bottom-layer oxygen concentration. Stable isotope analysis indicated dietary overlap between the Japanese anchovy and the moon jellyfish in Hiroshima Bay.

  10. Combined N-glycome and N-glycoproteome analysis of the Lotus japonicus seed globulin fraction shows conservation of protein structure and glycosylation in legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend Secher; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Stenkjær, Eva

    2013-01-01

    (LCP2) carried exclusively high mannose N-glycans similar to its homologue, Ara h 1, which is the major allergen in peanut. In silico investigation confirmed that peanut Ara h 1 and Lotus LCP2 are highly similar at the primary and higher protein structure levels. Hence, we suggest that Lotus has...

  11. SNOWY COTYLEDON 2 promotes chloroplast development and has a role in leaf variegation in both Lotus japonicus and Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagari, Nicola; Sandoval Ibáñez, Omar Alejandro; Sandal, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Plants contain various factors that transiently interact with subunits or intermediates of the thylakoid multiprotein complexes, promoting their stable association and integration. Hence, assembly factors are essential for chloroplast development and the transition from heterotrophic to phototrop...

  12. Ecología trófica de la caballa (Scombridae, Scomber japonicus marplatensis del Atlántico sudoccidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Angelescu

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the scheme of the interspecific trophic relationships in the pelagic zone of the Argentine continental shelf in the coastal water region along the Province of Buenos Aires, in which the mackerel occupies the trophic levels corresponding to a plankton feeder of copepods of the zooplankton (third level, and to a small predator of the micronecton fish (fourth and fifth levels. The specific food spectrum is wide in the taxonomic composition and it consists of: Copepods, Amphipods, Euphausiids, Decapods (larval and postlarval stages, Chaetognats, small squids and fish, mainly anchovy in all development stages. The size of food species varies from 1 to 140 mm in length and the maximum diameter of the body from 0,8 to 20 mm; the diet is that of a small carnivorous fish tending to the euphagy characteristics of an opportunistic feeder. During the summer months some qualitative, Quantitative and chronological variations in the specific composition of the diet become erudent; these derive from the relative abundance of food species and the monthly sequence of the dominant modal classes in the shoals in this period, the anchovy is always frequent in the stomach contents of youngs and adults of the mackerel, such as larval and postlarval stages, young and adult fish. The capacity of food ingestion varies considerably between 5 and 22% with respect to the body weight of the consumer and the number of ingested specimens with the size of food species. The trophic equivalences calculated between the different food species also show qualitative and quantitative variations, mostly caloric and gravimetric in relation with the anchovy taken as basic food standard; therefore the adults of this species are considered as having the greatest utilitary value for the feeding of the mackerel during the period from October to April. The trophic habitat of the mackerel is included in the spawning and growing area of the anchovy, that at the same time is characterized by a high productivity of calanoid copepods, common food for both species. The food chain of the mackerel belongs to the intermediate type, between chains of simple disposition and food webs, and the main food is represented by two different successive links, one of the zooplankton crustaceans and other of anchovies. Generally, the intake of food is made by two different mechanisms: by filtration of elements of zooplankton (copepods and by pursuing and capturing small preys (sergestids, chaetognats, squids, anchovies. From this point of view, the mackerel shows a high trophic adaptation characterized by the alternation and transitory change of trophic level and ecological niche, and by the morphological structure of some parts of the digestive system with regard to feedint habits. This last characteristic is also verified by the determination and statistical analysis of certain morphometric relations, mainly the buccal, mandibular intestinal and coelomatic quotiens.

  13. Expression of c-type lysozyme gene in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) is highly regulated and time dependent after salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi; Liang, Xue-Wang; Chang, Ya-Qing; Song, Jian

    2015-02-01

    Lysozymes have been confirmed to possess varieties of functions in a range of organisms. In the present study, we cloned and sequenced c-type lysozyme cDNAs, constructed the recombinant protein over-expression of c-type lysozyme and analyzed the expression of transcription level in various tissues. The c-type lysozyme cDNA contained an open reading frame of 759 bp encoding a polypeptide of 252 amino acids. The molecular weight of the deduced amino acid of AjcLYZ is 26.7 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.66. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that AjcLYZ had two highly conserved active sites (Glu147 and Asp159) and eight typical Cys residues. The tertiary structure and modeled AjcLYZ showed structural similarity to Meretrix lusoria LYZ. The results of mRNA transcripts showed that the highest expression was found in the tube foot, followed by the muscle, body wall, and coelomic fluid. In contrast, the intestine, tentacle and respiratory tree exhibited very low expression levels. Under salinity stress, significant down-regulation of AjcLYZ was observed in response to salinity stress in the intestine and coelomic fluid. Significant up-regulation and down-regulation of AjcLYZ were observed in response to salinity stress in body wall and respiratory tree. The purified recombinant protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and a single band with a molecular mass of 45.09 kDa, which was in agreement with the theoretical size (26.7 kDa for AjcLYZ and 18.39 kDa Trx-His-S tags) of the recombinant protein. Radial diffusion assay was employed to determine the antimicrobial spectrum of recombinant AjcLYZ against three Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and three sea cucumber pathogenic Vibrio species. From the radius of the antimicrobial zone, it was found that recombinant AjcLYZ harbored remarkable in vitro inhibitive effect on tested Gram-positive bacteria, while lytic activity against Gram-negative bacteria was relatively weak. The results will provide new clues about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the salinity adaption system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Autophosphorylation is essential for the in vivo function of the Lotus japonicus Nod factor receptor 1 and receptor-mediated signalling in cooperation with Nod factor receptor 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Esben B; Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Grossmann, Christina

    2011-01-01

    of NFR1 and NFR5 in Nicotiana benthamiana and Allium ampeloprasum (leek) cells caused a rapid cell-death response. The signalling leading to cell death was abrogated using a kinase-inactive variant of NFR1. In these surviving cells, a clear interaction between NFR1 and NFR5 was detected in vivo through...

  15. EPR characterization of the mononuclear Cu-containing Aspergillus japonicus quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase reveals dramatic changes upon anaerobic binding of substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooter, Ingeborg M.; Steiner, Roberto A.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Noort, Paula I. van; Egmond, Maarten R.; Huber, Martina

    Quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (2,3QD) is a copper-containing dioxygenase that catalyses the oxidation of the flavonol quercetin to 2-protocatechuoylphloroglucinol carboxylic acid with concomitant production of carbon monoxide. In contrast to iron dioxygenases, very little is known about copper

  16. Pathogen recognition of a novel C-type lectin from Marsupenaeus japonicus reveals the divergent sugar-binding specificity of QAP motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenton, Rod Russel R; Koiwai, Keiichiro; Miyaguchi, Kohei; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo

    2017-04-04

    C-type lectins (CTLs) are calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins known to assist the innate immune system as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The binding specificity of CTLs lies in the motif of their carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), the tripeptide motifs EPN and QPD bind to mannose and galactose, respectively. However, variants of these motifs were discovered including a QAP sequence reported in shrimp believed to have the same carbohydrate specificity as QPD. Here, we characterized a novel C-type lectin (MjGCTL) possessing a CRD with a QAP motif. The recombinant MjGCTL has a calcium-dependent agglutinating capability against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and its sugar specificity did not involve either mannose or galactose. In an encapsulation assay, agarose beads coated with rMjGCTL were immediately encapsulated from 0 h followed by melanization at 4 h post-incubation with hemocytes. These results confirm that MjGCTL functions as a classical CTL. The structure of QAP motif and carbohydrate-specificity of rMjGCTL was found to be different to both EPN and QPD, suggesting that QAP is a new motif. Furthermore, MjGCTL acts as a PRR binding to hemocytes to activate their adherent state and initiate encapsulation.

  17. The K+ dependent asparaginase, NSE1, is crucial for plant growth and seed production in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Credali, Alfredo; Garcia-Calderón, Margarita; Dam, Svend Secher

    2013-01-01

    The physiological role of K+-dependent and K+-independent asparaginases in plants remains unclear, and the contribution from individual isoforms during development is poorly understood. We have used reverse genetics to assess the phenotypes produced by the deficiency of K+-dependent NSE1 asparagi...

  18. Biochemical properties of recombinant leucine aminopeptidase II from Bacillus stearothermophilus and potential applications in the hydrolysis of Chinese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fanghua; Ning, Zhengxiang; Lan, Dongming; Liu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2012-01-11

    The effects of various factors on the activity and conformation of recombinant leucine aminopeptidase II (rLAP II) from Bacillus stearothermophilus and its potential utilization in the hydrolysis of anchovy proteins were investigated. The optimal temperature and pH of rLAP II were 55 °C and 8.0 in phosphate buffer, and its activity was strongly stimulated by Co(2+). Conformational studies indicated that maintaining the α-helical structure had a critical effect on rLAP II activity. rLAP II was used to hydrolyze anchovy proteins, and it exhibited high specificity for peptides with molecular weight between 6000 and 1000 Da and positive coordination with endogenous enzymes and commercial Flavourzyme. Its use will enhance protein hydrolysis in species of aquatic animals. rLAP II could potentially be used to remove bitterness in the protein hydrolysis industry.

  19. Last 150-year variability in Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) abundance based on the anaerobic sediments of the Yellow Sea Basin in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiansheng; Sun, Yao; Jia, Haibo; Tang, Qisheng

    2016-02-01

    Relatively short historical catch records show that anchovy populations have exhibited large variability over multi-decadal timescales. In order to understand the driving factors (anthropogenic and/or natural) of such variability, it is essential to develop long-term time series of the population prior to the occurrence of notable anthropogenic impact. Well-preserved fish scales in the sediments are regarded as useful indicators reflecting the fluctuations of fish populations over the last centuries. This study aims to validate the anchovy scale deposition rate as a proxy of local anchovy biomass in the Yellow Sea adjoining the western North Pacific. Our reconstructed results indicated that over the last 150 years, the population size of anchovy in the Yellow Sea has exhibited great fluctuations with periodicity of around 50 years, and the pattern of current recovery and collapse is similar to that of historical records. The pattern of large-scale population synchrony with remote ocean basins provides further evidence proving that fish population dynamics are strongly affected by global and basin-scale oceanic/climatic variability.

  20. Effects of spatio-temporal and environmental factors on distribution and abundance of wintering anchovy Engraulis japonicus in central and southern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mingxiang; Jin, Xianshi; Li, Xiansen; Wang, Jun

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the spatio-temporal and environmental factors that affect the distribution and abundance of wintering anchovy and quantifies the influences of these factors. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were developed to examine the variation in species distribution and abundance with a set of spatiotemporal and oceanographic factors, using data collected by bottom trawl surveys and remote sensing in the central and southern Yellow Sea during 2000-2011. The final model accounted for 28.21% and 41.03% of the variance in anchovy distribution and abundance, respectively. The results of a two-step GAM showed that hour, longitude, latitude, temperature gradient (TGR), and chlorophyll a (Chl- a) concentration best explained the anchovy distribution (presence/absence) and that a model including year, longitude, latitude, depth, sea surface temperature (SST), and TGR best described anchovy abundance (given presence). Longitude and latitude were the most important factors affecting both distribution and abundance, but the area of high abundance tended to be east and south of the area where anchovy were most likely to be present. Hour had a significant effect on distribution, but year was more important for anchovy abundance, indicating that the anchovy catch ratio varied across the day but abundance had an apparent interannual variation. With respect to environmental factors, TGR and Chl- a concentration had effects on distribution, while depth, SST, and TGR affected abundance. Changes in SST between two successive years or between any year and the 2000-2011 mean were not associated with changes in anchovy distribution or abundance. This finding indicated that short- and long-term water temperature changes during 2000-2011 were not of sufficient magnitude to give rise to variation in wintering anchovy distribution or abundance in the study area. The results of this study have important implications for fisheries management.

  1. [Estimation of maximum acceptable concentration of lead and cadmium in plants and their medicinal preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitkevicius, Virgilijus; Savickiene, Nijole; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Masteiková, Rūta; Chalupova, Zuzana; Dagilyte, Audrone; Baranauskas, Algirdas

    2003-01-01

    Heavy metals (lead, cadmium) are possible dashes which quantity is defined by the limiting acceptable contents. Different drugs preparations: infusions, decoctions, tinctures, extracts, etc. are produced using medicinal plants. The objective of this research was to study the impurities of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in medicinal plants and some drug preparations. We investigated liquid extracts of fruits Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and herbs of Echinacea purpurea Moench., tinctures--of herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. The raw materials were imported from Poland. Investigations were carried out in cooperation with the Laboratory of Antropogenic Factors of the Institute for Biomedical Research. Amounts of lead and cadmium were established after "dry" mineralisation using "Perkin-Elmer Zeeman/3030" model electrothermic atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETG AAS/Zeeman). It was established that lead is absorbed most efficiently after estimation of absorption capacity of cellular fibers. About 10.73% of lead crosses tinctures and extracts, better cadmium--49.63%. Herbs of Leonurus cardiaca L. are the best in holding back lead and cadmium. About 14.5% of lead and cadmium crosses the tincture of herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. We estimated the factors of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in the liquid extracts of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Echinacea purpurea Moench., tincture of Leonurus cardiaca L. after investigations of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in drugs and preparations of it. The amounts of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) don't exceed the allowable norms in fruits of Crataegus monogyna Jacq., herbs of Leonurus cardiaca L. and Echinacea purpurea Moench. after estimation of lead and cadmium extraction factors, the maximum of acceptable daily intake and the quantity of drugs consumption in day.

  2. Aromatic Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family from Uzbekistan: Ethnopharmacology, Essential Oils Composition, and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Mamadalieva, Nilufar Z.; Akramov, Davlat Kh.; Ovidi, Elisa; Tiezzi, Antonio; Nahar, Lutfun; Azimova, Shahnoz S.; Sarker, Satyajit D.

    2017-01-01

    Plants of the Lamiaceae family are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils that are used in traditional and modern medicine, and in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Various species of the genera Hyssopus, Leonurus, Mentha, Nepeta, Origanum, Perovskia, Phlomis, Salvia, Scutellaria, and Ziziphora are widespread throughout the world, are the most popular plants in Uzbek traditional remedies, and are often used for the treatment ...

  3. The antimosquito properties of extracts from flowering plants in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalannavar, R K; Hurinanthan, V; Singh, A; Venugopala, K N; Gleiser, R M; Baijnath, H; Odhav, B

    2013-12-01

    Extracts of selected flowering plants, which are considered eco-friendly, are used for the treatment of numerous ailments and vector control worldwide. This has resulted in approximately 25 per cent of currently used drugs being derived from herbal sources. The aqueous and methanolic extracts of twelve plant species, Psidium guajava (pink fruit), Psidium guajava (white fruit), Psidium cattleianum var. cattleianum, Psidium guineense and Psidium X durbanensis, Achyranthes aspera, Alternanthera sessilis, Guilleminea densa, Capparis tomentosa, Leonotis leonurus, Dichrostachys cinerea and Carpobrotus dimidiatus, were tested for insecticidal activity, including larvicidal, adulticidal and repellent activities against the adult female mosquito, Anopheles arabiensis. The extracts of P. guajava (white fruit), C. tomentosa, L. leonurus,D. cinerea, and C. dimidiatus exerted a pronounced inhibitory effect on adult insects, while those of P. guajava (pink fruit), P. X durbanensis, P. cattleianum var. cattleianum, P. guineense, A. aspera, A. sessilis, and G. densa were ineffective and failed to satisfy the criteria set by the World Health Organization. In the tests for repellency against An. arabiensis, all the tested aqueous and methanolic plant extracts except those of A. sessilis repelled 80-100% of mosquitoes. The most effective mosquito repellents were the methanol and aqueous extracts of P. guajava (pink fruit), P. X durbanensis, P. cattleianum var. cattleianum, P. guineense, G. densa,L. leonurus and D. cinerea, which are potential sources of cost effective mosquito repellents to be utilized in malarial endemic areas.

  4. Characterization of fifteen SNP markers by mining EST in sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    salmon (Hayes et al. 2007). However, in A. japonicus, only. 13 SNP have thus far been developed and characterized (Sun et al. 2010). Here we report 15 polymorphic SNP to enrich the list of currently available genetic makers of A. japonicus. ∗For correspondence. E-mail: zunchunz@hotmail.com. Materials and methods.

  5. Lotus and rhizobia – match and mismatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrektsen, Anita Søndergaard; Radutoiu, Elena Simona; Jurkiewicz, Anna

    Two Lotus species, L. japonicus and L. pedunculatus (uliginosus), show opposite nodule phenotypes when inoculated with rhizobial strains Mesorhizobium loti NZP2235 and Bradyrhizobium NZP2309. NZP2235 is inducing pink, nitrogen fixing nodules, when applied to Lotus japonicus, while Lotus peduncula...

  6. Wild Accessions and Mutant Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Sandal, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    Lotus japonicus, Lotus burttii, and Lotus filicaulis are species of Lotus genus that are utilized for molecular genetic analysis such as the construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis. Among them, a number of mutants have been isolated from two wild accessions: L. japonicus Gifu B-129...

  7. Assessment of the recreational linefishery in selected Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spotted grunter Pomadasys commersonnii (43%) was most commonly caught, followed by Cape stumpnose Rhabdosargus holubi (16%), dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus (14%) and white seacatfish Galeichthys feliceps (12%). In terms of mass, the overall catch was dominated by A. japonicus (50%) and P. commersonnii ...

  8. Studies of the effect of radurization of dried mackerel (Pneumatophorus japonicus) for extension of shelf life - a semi pilot scale. Part of a coordinated programme in the Asian regional cooperative project of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, G.

    1982-10-01

    Large scale experiments on the effect of irradiation on the shelf life extension of semi-dried mackerel having a moisture content of 41-48% and a salt content of 14-15% were carried out. The samples were packaged either in retail or bulk packaging before irradiation with 325 Krad and stored either at ambient temperatures (30 +- 2 deg. C), or at 2 +- 1 deg. C. Results of objective and subjective tests showed that irradiation offers a potential for extending by twofold the shelf-life of semi-dried mackerel at ambient temperature. At chilling temperatures, no significant difference in quality was observed, as all samples were acceptable after 12 months of storage. Retail packaging appears to provide better quality products than bulk packaging. Irradiated samples packed in retail packaging became totally unacceptable in the 9th week of storage at ambient temperature, compared to the 5th week for samples packed in bulk packaging. Sensory evaluation of samples showed that irradiated samples received higher scores than unirradiated ones, especially after three weeks of storage at ambient temperatures

  9. Regulation of Tissue LC-PUFA Contents, Δ6 Fatty Acyl Desaturase (FADS2) Gene Expression and the Methylation of the Putative FADS2 Gene Promoter by Different Dietary Fatty Acid Profiles in Japanese Seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Houguo; Dong, Xiaojing; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zuo, Rantao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the influences of different dietary fatty acid profiles on the tissue content and biosynthesis of LC-PUFA in a euryhaline species Japanese seabass reared in seawater. Six diets were prepared, each with a characteristic fatty acid: Diet PA: Palmitic acid (C16:0); Diet SA: Stearic acid (C18:0); Diet OA: Oleic acid (C18:1n-9); Diet LNA: α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3); Diet N-3 LC-PUFA: n-3 LC-PUFA (DHA+EPA); Diet FO: the fish oil control. A 10-week feedin...

  10. Temperature-dependent performance of competitive native and alien invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram

    2017-10-01

    To assess the likely impacts of environmental change, the responses of two well-known invasive plant species, native Pueraria lobata and alien Humulus japonicus, to differences in growth temperature were studied in South Korea. Habitat preferences, physiological responses such as photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll contents, growth rates, and nutrient contents were quantified for each species. A competition experiment was conducted to evaluate the temperature preferences of the two species. All results indicated that the alien species H. japonicus can take advantage of elevated temperatures (35 °C) to enhance its competitive advantage against the native species P. lobata. While H. japonicus took advantage of elevated temperatures and preferred high-temperature areas, P. lobata showed reduced performance and dominance in high-temperature areas. Therefore, in future, due to global warming and urbanization, there are possibilities that H. japonicus takes advantage of elevated temperature against P. lobata that could lead to increased H. japonicus coverage over time. Therefore, consistent monitoring of both species especially where P. lobata is dominated are required because both species are found in every continents in the world. Controlling P. lobata requires thorough inspection of H. japonicus presence of the habitat in advance to prevent post P. lobata management invasion of H. japonicus.

  11. First record of Aedes koreicus (Diptera, Culicidae) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalan, Katja; Šušnjar, Jana; Ivović, Vladimir; Buzan, Elena

    2017-08-01

    The first record of Aedes koreicus was made in the village of Lovrenc na Dravskem Polju, north-eastern part of the country. The discovery of Ae. koreicus in various continental European countries motivated us to revise samples of the collected Aedes japonicus japonicus. We found Ae. koreicus in samples from 2013, where the larvae were misidentified as Ae. j. japonicus. The species was identified morphologically and molecularly. The first discovery of Ae. koreicus advocates an urgent need for a nationwide mosquito surveillance programme.

  12. Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, Shusei; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2014-01-01

    The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based...... on transcriptional evidence. Analysis of repetitive sequences suggests that they are underrepresented in the reference assembly, reflecting an enrichment of gene-rich regions in the current assembly. Characterization of Lotus natural variation by resequencing of L. japonicus accessions and diploid Lotus species...... is currently ongoing, facilitated by the MG20 reference sequence...

  13. A new record of two penaeid species from Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.

    Adults of Penaeus japonicus (Bate) and juveniles of P. canaliculatus (Olivier) were recorded for the first time from the coastal estuarine regions of Goa, (India) respectively. Their presence in Goa waters suggests that both the species have a wide...

  14. 244-IJBCS-Article-Dr Obodai E A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RHUMSIKI

    Chloroscombus chrysurus,. Pseudotolithus senegalensis, Sardinella aurita, Scombus japonicus and Syacium micurum) landed at the. Elmina landing quay were analyzed using standard analytical techniques. The results indicate significant differences ...

  15. Effects of mulching tolerant plant straw on soil surface on growth and cadmium accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lijin; Liao, Ming'an; Ren, Yajun; Luo, Li; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Daiyu; He, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the effects of mulching with straw of cadmium (Cd) tolerant plants (Ranunculus sieboldii, Mazus japonicus, Clinopodium confine and Plantago asiatica) on growth and Cd accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora in Cd-contaminated soil. In the pot experiment, mulching with M. japonicus straw increased the root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase) of G. parviflora compared with the control, whereas mulching with straws of R. sieboldii, C. confine and P. asiatica decreased these parameters. Straws of the four Cd-tolerant plants increased the Cd content in roots of G. parviflora compared with the control. However, only straws of M. japonicus and P. asiatica increased the Cd content in shoots of G. parviflora, reduced the soil pH, and increased the soil exchangeable Cd concentration. Straw of M. japonicus increased the amount of Cd extraction in stems, leaves and shoots of G. parviflora by 21.11%, 29.43% and 24.22%, respectively, compared with the control, whereas straws of the other three Cd-tolerant plants decreased these parameters. In the field experiment, the M. japonicus straw also increased shoot biomass, Cd content in shoots, and amount of Cd extraction in shoots of G. parviflora compared with the control. Therefore, straw of M. japonicus can be used to improve the Cd extraction ability of G. parviflora from Cd-contaminated soil.

  16. Effects of mulching tolerant plant straw on soil surface on growth and cadmium accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijin Lin

    Full Text Available Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the effects of mulching with straw of cadmium (Cd tolerant plants (Ranunculus sieboldii, Mazus japonicus, Clinopodium confine and Plantago asiatica on growth and Cd accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora in Cd-contaminated soil. In the pot experiment, mulching with M. japonicus straw increased the root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase of G. parviflora compared with the control, whereas mulching with straws of R. sieboldii, C. confine and P. asiatica decreased these parameters. Straws of the four Cd-tolerant plants increased the Cd content in roots of G. parviflora compared with the control. However, only straws of M. japonicus and P. asiatica increased the Cd content in shoots of G. parviflora, reduced the soil pH, and increased the soil exchangeable Cd concentration. Straw of M. japonicus increased the amount of Cd extraction in stems, leaves and shoots of G. parviflora by 21.11%, 29.43% and 24.22%, respectively, compared with the control, whereas straws of the other three Cd-tolerant plants decreased these parameters. In the field experiment, the M. japonicus straw also increased shoot biomass, Cd content in shoots, and amount of Cd extraction in shoots of G. parviflora compared with the control. Therefore, straw of M. japonicus can be used to improve the Cd extraction ability of G. parviflora from Cd-contaminated soil.

  17. Effects of Mulching Tolerant Plant Straw on Soil Surface on Growth and Cadmium Accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lijin; Liao, Ming’an; Ren, Yajun; Luo, Li; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Daiyu; He, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to study the effects of mulching with straw of cadmium (Cd) tolerant plants (Ranunculus sieboldii, Mazus japonicus, Clinopodium confine and Plantago asiatica) on growth and Cd accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora in Cd-contaminated soil. In the pot experiment, mulching with M. japonicus straw increased the root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase) of G. parviflora compared with the control, whereas mulching with straws of R. sieboldii, C. confine and P. asiatica decreased these parameters. Straws of the four Cd-tolerant plants increased the Cd content in roots of G. parviflora compared with the control. However, only straws of M. japonicus and P. asiatica increased the Cd content in shoots of G. parviflora, reduced the soil pH, and increased the soil exchangeable Cd concentration. Straw of M. japonicus increased the amount of Cd extraction in stems, leaves and shoots of G. parviflora by 21.11%, 29.43% and 24.22%, respectively, compared with the control, whereas straws of the other three Cd-tolerant plants decreased these parameters. In the field experiment, the M. japonicus straw also increased shoot biomass, Cd content in shoots, and amount of Cd extraction in shoots of G. parviflora compared with the control. Therefore, straw of M. japonicus can be used to improve the Cd extraction ability of G. parviflora from Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:25490210

  18. Tri-LORE-gy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mun, Terry

    Lotus japonicus is a model legume widely used in the study of plant development, physiology, and host-microbe interactions. The provision of genomic and transcriptomic data, the availability of a large mutant collection generated from saturation mutagenesis by an activated endogenous LTR retrotra......Lotus japonicus is a model legume widely used in the study of plant development, physiology, and host-microbe interactions. The provision of genomic and transcriptomic data, the availability of a large mutant collection generated from saturation mutagenesis by an activated endogenous LTR...... online portals for other model organisms. While a multitude of large scale retrotransposon-based insertion mutagenesis populations are available for model plants including L. japonicus, little effort has been invested in understanding the insertion characteristics of LTR retrotransposons. This work...

  19. A rapid method for differentiating four species of the Engraulidae (anchovy) family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairi, Hicham; Rebordinos, Laureana

    2014-04-02

    The four species of the Engraulidae family: European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), Californian anchovy (Engraulis mordax), Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens), and Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) studied in this work are very similar morphologically, and it is very difficult to distinguish between them, especially when frozen or processed. We have used the 5S rDNA as a molecular marker to discriminate these four species and used specific primers designed for each species in the nontranscribed spacers (NTS) of these genes. Multiplex PCR was performed with three pairs of primers, and three different sizes were obtained: 597 bp E. encrasicolus, 598 bp E. japonicus, 380 bp E. mordax, and 250 bp E. ringens. For the species E. encrasicolus and E. japonicus, PCR-RFLP was used as an additional technique to distinguish between them because their NTS sequences showed considerable similarity.

  20. Aromatic Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family from Uzbekistan: Ethnopharmacology, Essential Oils Composition, and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufar Z. Mamadalieva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Lamiaceae family are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils that are used in traditional and modern medicine, and in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Various species of the genera Hyssopus, Leonurus, Mentha, Nepeta, Origanum, Perovskia, Phlomis, Salvia, Scutellaria, and Ziziphora are widespread throughout the world, are the most popular plants in Uzbek traditional remedies, and are often used for the treatment of wounds, gastritis, infections, dermatitis, bronchitis, and inflammation. Extensive studies of the chemical components of these plants have led to the identification of many compounds, as well as essentials oils, with medicinal and other commercial values. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical overview of the literature surrounding the traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, biological activities, and essential oils composition of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, from the Uzbek flora.

  1. First report of fingerprinting dried herbal products using a subtractive diversity array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Linhai; Mantri, Nitin; Wohlmuth, Hans; Li, Chunguang; Xue, Charlie C; Pang, Edwin

    2013-07-03

    Introduction Sequence - independent microarrays have never been used to identify and authenticate dried herbal plants. We report successful fingerprinting of seven species: Leonurus sibiricus, Astragalus membranaceus, Coix lachryma-jobi, Magnolia biondii, Abutilon theophrasti, Physalis alkekengi, and Salvia miltiorrhiza from dried tissues using a sequence-independent microarray, "Subtracted Diversity Array". Herbal plants could be identified from tissues as they were sold at the clinic. Hierarchical cluster of these species generated using SPSS v.15.0 confirmed to their predicted taxonomical relationships as specified in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II classification system. A polymorphism rate of 40.7% was achieved from the 376 spots used for fingerprinting. Functional characterization of polymorphic features by sequencing revealed 27.1% of those were retroelements or genes. This technique provides a new way to produce markers for authenticating dried herbal samples.

  2. Aromatic Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family from Uzbekistan: Ethnopharmacology, Essential Oils Composition, and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamadalieva, Nilufar Z; Akramov, Davlat Kh; Ovidi, Elisa; Tiezzi, Antonio; Nahar, Lutfun; Azimova, Shahnoz S; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2017-02-10

    Plants of the Lamiaceae family are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils that are used in traditional and modern medicine, and in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Various species of the genera Hyssopus , Leonurus , Mentha , Nepeta , Origanum , Perovskia , Phlomis , Salvia , Scutellaria, and Ziziphora are widespread throughout the world, are the most popular plants in Uzbek traditional remedies, and are often used for the treatment of wounds, gastritis, infections, dermatitis, bronchitis, and inflammation. Extensive studies of the chemical components of these plants have led to the identification of many compounds, as well as essentials oils, with medicinal and other commercial values. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical overview of the literature surrounding the traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, biological activities, and essential oils composition of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, from the Uzbek flora.

  3. Lotus Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mun, Terry; Bachmann, Asger; Gupta, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Lotus japonicus is a well-characterized model legume widely used in the study of plant-microbe interactions. However, datasets from various Lotus studies are poorly integrated and lack interoperability. We recognize the need for a comprehensive repository that allows comprehensive and dynamic......,000 lines, and serves the end-user tightly integrated data from Lotus, such as the reference genome, annotated proteins, and expression profiling data. We report the integration of expression data from the L. japonicus gene expression atlas project, and the development of tools to cluster and export...

  4. Blue light does not inhibit nodulation in Sesbania rostrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Hayashi, Makoto; Maymon, Maskit; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2017-01-02

    Earlier, we reported that root nodulation was inhibited by blue light irradiation of Lotus japonicus. Because some legumes do not establish nodules exclusively on underground roots, we investigated whether nodule formation in Sesbania rostrata, which forms both root and "stem" nodules following inoculation with Azorhizobium caulinodans, is inhibited by blue light as are L. japonicus nodules. We found that neither S. rostrata nodulation nor nitrogen fixation was inhibited by blue light exposure. Moreover, although A. caulinodans proliferation was not affected by blue light irradiation, bacterial survival was decreased. Therefore, blue light appears to impose different responses depending on the legume-rhizobial symbiosis.

  5. Updated checklist of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukraa, Slimane; Dekoninck, Wouter; Versteirt, Veerle; Schaffner, Francis; Coosemans, Marc; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frederic

    2015-12-01

    Most information about the systematics and bioecology of Belgian mosquitoes dates back from before 1950, and only scattered information was produced during the last decades. In this paper we review and update the list of mosquito species recorded in Belgium, from first report (1908) to 2015. Six genera and 31 species were recorded so far, including 28 autochthonous species and three invasive alien species recently recorded in Belgium: Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894), Ae. japonicus japonicus (Theobald 1901), and Ae. koreicus (Edwards 1917). The six genera are Anopheles (five species), Aedes (sixteen species), Coquillettidia (one species), Culex (four species), Culiseta (four species), and Orthopodomyia (one species). © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  6. A taxonomic revision of the genus Apostichopus (Holothuroidea: Stichopodidae) from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sau Pinn; Ogawa, Akito; Tan, Shau Hwai; Yasin, Zulfigar; Kajihara, Hiroshi; Fujita, Toshihiko

    2017-11-16

    Complete redescriptions of sea cucumbers in the genus Apostichopus Liao, 1980 are provided using the type specimens and specimens deposited in the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, Japan. The genus consists of A. armatus (Selenka, 1867) and A. japonicus (Selenka, 1867), which can be distinguished by some spicules in the dorsal body wall; the rim of reduced table spicules in A. armatus is spinous, while that in A. japonicus is smooth. Spicules from the tentacles, papillae, tube feet, and cloaca are similar for both species.

  7. Taxonomy of the Genus Hydrochus (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Hydrochinae in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hyun Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic study of the Korean Hydrochus Leach is presented. They inhabit in the margins of shallow lentic water with plentiful vegetation. The genus Hydrochus Leach contains about 28 species in the Palaearctic region and only H. japonicus Sharp is recently listed in Korea. Here, two species are recognized, one of which is reported for the first time in Korea (H. chubu Balfour-Browne & Sato. This species are distinguished from H. aequalis Sharp by impressed pronotum and from H. japonicus by dark brown elytra. Habitus photographs, descriptions, and diagnostic characters with illustrations of the species are provided.

  8. 15 CFR 922.71 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... into which altered genetic matter, or genetic matter from another species, has been transferred in order that the host organism acquires the genetic traits of the transferred genes. Motorized personal... mackerel (Scomber japonicus), salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), blue shark...

  9. Comparative analysis of the essential oils from normal and hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oils were extracted with steam distillation from normal and hairy roots of Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer. The constituents of essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that 40 and 46 kinds of compounds were identified from the essential oils of normal ...

  10. Notes on Japanese Rhizocephala, with description of two new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, H.

    1935-01-01

    The following notes are based upon material of parasites on two Crustaceans from Japan, viz., Pachygrapsus crassipes Randall and Petrolisthes japonicus de Haan 1). Each of these two species may be infested by two different species of Rhizocephala: on Pachygrapsus crassipes occur the parasites

  11. Are Lotus species good models for studying iron accumulation in common beans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowska, Elzbieta; Laszcyca, Katarzyna Malgorzata; Urbanski, Dorian Fabian

    show that the iron distribution in L. filicaulis seeds is similar to that  in common beans, while the seeds of L. japonicus show a different pattern of iron accumulation. RILs from a cross between these two species are being studied in order to find genes that are important for seed iron distribution...

  12. Enhanced lipase production by mutation induced Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the HNO2 mutant (AHN3) and 217% higher than the UV mutant (AUV3) and 276% higher lipase activity than the parent strain. The results indicated that UV, HNO2 and NTG treatment were effective physical and chemical mutagenic agents for strain improvement of Aspergillus japonicus for enhanced lipase productivity.

  13. The effect of feeding regimen on growth, food conversion ratio and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temperature, feeding frequency and feeding intensity are important determinants of fish growth in aquaculture. As part of a research and development programme to optimise husbandry techniques for a new mariculture species, the dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, this study tested the effect of four feeding strategies on ...

  14. Journal of Aquatic Sciences - Vol 20, No 1 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of acute toxicity of cadmium and lead to amphibian tadpoles (Toad: Bufo maculatus and frog: Ptychadena bibroni) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Helminths parasites of Chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (Houttuyn, 1782) from the harbour of Mehdia-Kenitra (Atlantic Coast of Morocco) · EMAIL FULL ...

  15. Long-term catch and effort trends in Eastern Cape Angling Week ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most commonly caught species were Argyrosomus japonicus (20.3%), Mustelus mustelus/Triakis megalopterus (13.0%) and Carcharias taurus (11.8%). Mean CPUE for all fish caught, teleosts and elasmobranchs, as well as the top four teleost and elasmobranch species, increased over the course of the study period, ...

  16. Assessment of catches in shore angling competitions from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By mass, most of the catch was made up of R. annulatus (24 %), D. c. chrysonota (19 %), Carcharius taurus (16 %) and A. japonicus (13 %). These species constituted the most important species during each year of the study period. Mean annual catch per unit effort (CPUE) by number and mass has decreased slightly over ...

  17. Interaction between root growth allocation and mycorrhizal fungi in soil with patchy P distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Felderer, B.; Jansa, Jan; Schulin, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 373, 1-2 (2013), s. 569-582 ISSN 0032-079X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Preferential root growth * Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * Lotus japonicus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.235, year: 2013

  18. Effect of dietary protein to energy ratio on growth and nitrogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary protein to energy ratio (P:E) on the growth of dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus was investigated as a first step towards formulating a practical diet for this potential mariculture species in South Africa. The effects of dietary protein and lipid on growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and nitrogenous waste ...

  19. Identification of forty-five gene-derived polymorphic microsatellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) is a common ben- thic detritus feeder of coastal sea habitats of East Asia, including Japan, China, Korea and fareastern Russia (Chang et al. 2009). Because of its high nutritive value and use in traditional medicine, sea cucumber is considered as one of the most valuable species in ...

  20. CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 7 modulates plant growth, reproduction, senescence, and determinate nodulation in the model legume Lotus japonicas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Novero, M.; Charnikhova, T.; Ferrandino, A.; Schubert, A.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Biofante, P.; Lovisolo, C.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are newly identified hormones that regulate multiple aspects of plant development, infection by parasitic weeds, and mutualistic symbiosis in the roots. In this study, the role of SLs was studied for the first time in the model plant Lotus japonicus using transgenic lines

  1. AGE GROWTH AND ASPECTS OF REPRODUCTION OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    catches. The time of annulus formation was established from otolith edge examinations. Two lones. ... Research on the mackerel was initiated during 1971 by the Sea Fisheries Branch, Depart- ment of Industries, Sea ... Fitch (1951) investigated the growth of S.japonicus in the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of the United ...

  2. Penaeid prawns in the St Lucia Lake System: Post-larval recruitment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recruitment of post-larval penaeid prawns and the bait prawn fishery in the St Lucia Lake System were monitored for two years before and one year after Cyclone Domoina. Post-larval Penaeus indicus Milne-Edwards, P. monodon Fabricius, P. japonicus Bate, P. semisulcatus de Haan and Metapenaeus monoceros ...

  3. LysM domains mediate lipochitin-oligosaccharide recognition and Nfr genes extend the symbiotic host range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radutoiu, Simona; Madsen, Lene H; Madsen, Esben B

    2007-01-01

    Legume-Rhizobium symbiosis is an example of selective cell recognition controlled by host/non-host determinants. Individual bacterial strains have a distinct host range enabling nodulation of a limited set of legume species and vice versa. We show here that expression of Lotus japonicus Nfr1...

  4. Dissonus pastinum n. sp. (Siphonostomatoida: Dissonidae), a copepod parasitic on a horn shark from Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deets, Gregory B.; Dojiri, Masahiro

    1990-01-01

    A new species of siphonostomatoid copepod, Dissonus pastinum, is described from the horn shark, Heterodontus japonicus (Dumeril), from Awa, Japan. The new species differs from all congeners except D. ruvetti Nunes-Ruivo & Fourmanoir, 1956 and D. nudiventris Kabata, 1965 by the presence of the

  5. Effects of growth regulator herbicide on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research showed growth regulator herbicides, such as picloram and aminopyralid, have a sterilizing effect on Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Thunb.) that can reduce this invasive annual grass’s seed production nearly 100%. This suggests growth regulators might be used to control invasive ...

  6. Rhizobial Synthesized Cytokinins Contribute to But Are Not Essential for the Symbiotic Interaction Between Photosynthetic Bradyrhizobia and Aeschynomene Legumes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podlešáková, Kateřina; Fardoux, J.; Patrel, D.; Bonaldi, K.; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Giraud, E.; Spíchal, Lukáš; Nouwen, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 10 (2013), s. 1232-1238 ISSN 0894-0282 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : TANDEM MASS-SPECTROMETRY * LOTUS-JAPONICUS * NODULE ORGANOGENESIS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.455, year: 2013

  7. Characteristics of papillae in wild, cultivated and hybrid sea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the characteristics of papillae of living, boiled and dried specimens of three wild populations, cultivated and hybrid Apostichopus japonicus in the laboratory. Visual observation showed that the appearance of the papillae was obviously different among the populations. For the first time, we established a ...

  8. Characteristics of papillae in wild, cultivated and hybrid sea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... Aspidochirotida and Elasipodida and inconspicuous in the orders Molpadiida, Dendrochirotida, Apodida, and. Dactylochirotida (Liao, 1997). Apostichopus japonicus. (Selenka), which are distributed along the coasts of North. China, Japan, Korea, and far East Russia in northeast. Asia (Chang et al., 2009), ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity and historical demography of kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) species complex off China based on mitochondrial DNA analysis. Abstract PDF · Vol 10 ... 38 (2011) - Articles Physiological responses of Vallisneria spiraslis L. induced by different hydraulic conditions when exposed to copper and nitrogen

  10. Nod factor signaling genes and their function in the early stages of Rhizobium infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, R.; Fedorova, E.; Bisseling, T.

    2005-01-01

    A lipochitosaccharide-based signal molecule that is secreted by Rhizobium, named Nod factor (NF), induces root nodule formation in legumes. This molecule is also essential for the establishment of bacterial infection. Genetic analyses in the legume species Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula

  11. Stable isotope evidence of food web connectivity by a top predatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, food web connectivity within the Kowie Estuary on the south-east coast of South Africa was evidenced by the trophic behaviour of the predominantly piscivorous Argyrosomus japonicus. We examined stable isotopes of carbon (δ 13C) and nitrogen (δ 15N) in the dominant consumers (zooplankton, invertebrates ...

  12. Potential impacts of alternative regulatory interventions on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The options of a night ban on fishing and a closed season received little support. Ratings of alternative scenarios suggested that anglers were more sensitive to fish abundance than to regulations. Modelled results showed that regulations resulting in increased abundance of fish, and large A. japonicus in particular, would ...

  13. Primary carbon sources for juvenile penaeid shrimps in a mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in a variety of primary producers (mangroves, epiphytes, phytoplankton and seagrasses), sediments and in five penaeid shrimp species (Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) indicus, P. japonicus, P. semisulcatus, Metapenaeus monoceros and M. stebbingi), collected ...

  14. Hop crop wild relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    The versatile hop plant, Humulus L., is a climbing, vine with a perennial root. The genus includes three species, H. japonicus, H. lupulus, and H. yunnanensis. The European hops (H. lupulus) is the species of primary economic importance from which most hop cultivars have been selected. This species ...

  15. Functional groupings and food web of an artificial reef used for sea cucumber aquaculture in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Zhang, Libin; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Xuelei; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Artificial reef is considered as a useful tool to remodel habitats in coastal and estuarine area. Some artificial reefs (ARs) were conducted in Shandong Peninsula for sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA). Little is known about the main feeding type and food resources of living organisms in this IMTA ecosystem. Neither is the information about other animals competing food with A. japonicus. Functional group (FG) and their food resources of mobile organisms and epifauna in ARs area were investigated. There were three types of food resources and five FGs within two trophic levels in studied area. Particle organic matter (POM), seaweed detritus and sediment were considered to be the main food resources. The first three FGs were primary consumers and were mainly epifauna, while the other two FGs were secondary consumers. FG 1 species were filter feeders, and group 2 was all deposit feeders and A. japonicus was in this group. FG 2 contained few species and this indicated that A. japonicus had few food competitors. FG 3 contained most epifauna species which were detritus feeders and this result implied that the artificial oyster shell reed can retain detritus effectively. The food sources of group 4 were complex. Species of group 5, mostly fish, occupied the top trophic level and fed primarily on species of FG 1 and FG 2. This kind of ARs can retain detritus effectively and provide suitable habitat to epifauna and surrounding natural fauna community.

  16. Invertebrate lysozymes: Diversity and distribution, molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... Echinodermata. Asterias rubens whole body. X. X. AAR29291. Jollès and. Jollès. 1975. Apostichopus japonicus extracted from body wall, intestine and digestive tract. SjLys. X. X. ABK34500. Cong et al. 2009. Molluscs. Venerupis philippinarum. (Tapes japonica) hemocytes, gills and digestive gland. Vp-ilys.

  17. Depolymerization of chitosan by enzymes from the digestive tract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A complex of enzymes was isolated in a preparation derived from the digestive tract of sea cucumber, Stichopus japonicus. Hydrolysis of chitosan using this enzyme preparation decreased its molecular weight (Mw), increased its water solubility and produced water-soluble chitosan (WSC). The conditions for hydrolysis were ...

  18. Forward and reverse genetics: The LORE1 retrotransposon insertion mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukai, Eigo; Malolepszy, Anna; Sandal, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous Lotus retrotransposon 1 (LORE1) transposes in the germ line of Lotus japonicus plants that carry an active element. This feature of LORE1 has been exploited for generation of a large non-transgenic insertion mutant population, where insertions have been annotated using next-generat...

  19. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) and Heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and heavy metals in tilapia (Hemichromis spp.) and mackerel (Scomber japonicus) sourced randomly from some Lagos markets. Control samples were harvested from a fish farm in the outskirt of Lagos metropolis. TPH in the samples were ...

  20. Genetic diversity and historical demography of kuruma shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two varieties (I and II) of kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) were found in the north of South China Sea (SCS) and Taiwan Strait (TS). To estimate the demographic history and genetic diversity of this species complex off China, 141 individuals were collected from the East China Sea (ECS), TS and SCS and 27 variety 2 ...

  1. Immobilization of Rhizobial Exopolysaccharides and Nod Factors Provides a Novel Platform for Interaction with Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Christian Toftegaard

    if LysM-RLKs from the model legumes L. japonicus and M. truncatula were able to bind Nod factors from rhizobia that they do not naturally form symbiosis with. These data could be useful in exploring the exact nature of the symbiosis. For this experiment proof of concept was obtained, but further work...

  2. Experimental Conditions: SE57_S08_M01_D01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available for elucidating metabolite accumulation patterns in plants SE57_S08 Lotus japonicus (accessions B129 gifu an...S and ESI-MS/MS data, UPLC-TQMS analysis SE57_DS01 Analysis of metabolite accumulation patterns Default SE57_SS01 Metabolic profiling ...

  3. The trouble with estuarine fisheries in temperate South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effort and mean catch per unit effort exhibited seasonal trends and were highest during summer. Dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus and spotted grunter Pomadasys commersonnii were the most commonly targeted species and accounted for the bulk of the catch: 3.4 t (43% gravimetrically, 22% numerically) and 1.9 t (24% ...

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15786-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 ( CI997489 ) Marsupenaeus japonicus cDNA, clone:YAQ01A01NGRM00... 48 1.0 1 ( CF799486 ) Lr_PAHCF_20E09_M13R Earth...worm Fluorantene Exposur... 48 1.0 1 ( CF799089 ) Lr_PAHCF_14B09_M13R Earthworm Fluorantene Exposur.

  5. Experimental Conditions: SE51_S01_M01_D01 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE51_S01_M01_D01 SE51 RIKEN tandem mass spectral database (ReSpect) for phytochemic...als: A plant-specific MS/MS-based data resource and database SE51_S01 L. japonicus accessions SE51_S01_M01 N

  6. Thirty novel microsatellite markers for the coastal pelagic fish ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Scomber japonicus (Scombridae: Scomber) is a wide-spread pelagic fish in the warm and temperate transition coastal areas and adjacent seas of Atlantic, Pacific and northwest. Indian oceans (Collette and Nauen 1983). Although there are few studies on development of microsatellite markers that provide useful tool to ...

  7. Population structure and expansion of kuruma shrimp ( Penaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequence analyses on the specific intron from the elongation factor-1α gene were conducted to examine the population genetic structure and expansion of kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) off Taiwan. Five populations including 119 individuals were separately sampled from the north of East China Sea (ECS), west of ...

  8. Impact of an Alien Invasive Shrub on Ecology of Native and Alien Invasive Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Gardner, Allison M; Bara, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-01

    We examined how leaf litter of alien invasive honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii Rupr.) either alone or in combination with leaf litter of one of two native tree species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), affects the ecology of Culex restuans Theobald, Ochlerotatus triseriatus Say, and Ochlerotatus japonicus Theobald. Experimental mesocosms containing single species litter or a mixture of honeysuckle and one of two native tree species litter were established at South Farms and Trelease Woods study sites in Urbana, IL, and examined for their effect on 1) oviposition site selection by the three mosquito species, and 2) adult production and body size of Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus. There were no significant effects of study site and leaf treatment on Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus oviposition preference and adult production. In contrast, significantly more Cx. restuans eggs rafts were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Significantly larger adult females of Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Combining honeysuckle litter with native tree species litter had additive effects on Cx. restuans oviposition preference and Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus body size, with the exception of honeysuckle and northern red oak litter combination, which had antagonistic effects on Oc. triseriatus body size. We conclude that input of honeysuckle litter into container aquatic habitats may alter the life history traits of vector mosquito species. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. An exotic parasitoid provides an invasional lifeline for native parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Joanna K; Haye, Tim; Gariepy, Tara; Mason, Peter; Gillespie, David; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of an exotic species may alter food webs within the ecosystem and significantly affect the biodiversity of indigenous species at different trophic levels. It has been postulated that recent introduction of the brown marmorated stinkbug ( Halyomorpha halys (Stål)) represents an evolutionary trap for native parasitoids, as they accept H. halys egg masses as a host but produce no viable progeny. Interspecific interactions between European egg parasitoid, Trissolcus cultratus (Mayr), and an Asian parasitoid, Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead), were assessed by providing egg masses to T. cultratus at various time intervals following the initial parasitization by T. japonicus . The suitability of the host for the parasitoid development was re-assessed by providing T. cultratus with fresh and frozen egg masses of various ages. The likelihood of T. cultratus being able to attack previously parasitized egg masses was determined by assessing the duration of egg mass guarding behavior by T. japonicus following parasitization. The results of experiments examining the interspecific interactions between a native European egg parasitoid, T. cultratus , and an Asian parasitoid, T. japonicus (a candidate for the biological control of H. halys ), showed that the native species can act as facultative hyperparasitoid of the exotic one. Although this is only possible during certain stages of T. japonicus development, the presence of the introduced parasitoid may reduce the impact of the evolutionary trap for indigenous parasitoid species. There is a possibility that the occurrence of facultative hyperparasitism between scelionid parasitoids associated with stinkbugs is common. This resulting intraguild predation could promote conservation and stabilization of natural communities by impacting the diversity and population dynamics of native stinkbugs and their parasitoids (e.g., by allowing native parasitoids to avoid wasting reproductive effort on unsuitable

  10. Insights into Plant Cell Wall Degradation from the Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoy, Robert T.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Fouts, Derrick E.; Tailford, Louise E.; Khouri, Hoda; Emerson, Joanne B.; Mohamoud, Yasmin; Watkins, Kisha; Henrissat, Bernard; Gilbert, Harry J.; Nelson, Karen E.

    2008-01-01

    The plant cell wall, which consists of a highly complex array of interconnecting polysaccharides, is the most abundant source of organic carbon in the biosphere. Microorganisms that degrade the plant cell wall synthesize an extensive portfolio of hydrolytic enzymes that display highly complex molecular architectures. To unravel the intricate repertoire of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes synthesized by the saprophytic soil bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus, we sequenced and analyzed its genome, which predicts that the bacterium contains the complete repertoire of enzymes required to degrade plant cell wall and storage polysaccharides. Approximately one-third of these putative proteins (57) are predicted to contain carbohydrate binding modules derived from 13 of the 49 known families. Sequence analysis reveals approximately 130 predicted glycoside hydrolases that target the major structural and storage plant polysaccharides. In common with that of the colonic prokaryote Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, the genome of C. japonicus is predicted to encode a large number of GH43 enzymes, suggesting that the extensive arabinose decorations appended to pectins and xylans may represent a major nutrient source, not just for intestinal bacteria but also for microorganisms that occupy terrestrial ecosystems. The results presented here predict that C. japonicus possesses an extensive range of glycoside hydrolases, lyases, and esterases. Most importantly, the genome of C. japonicus is remarkably similar to that of the gram-negative marine bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans 2-40T. Approximately 50% of the predicted C. japonicus plant-degradative apparatus appears to be shared with S. degradans, consistent with the utilization of plant-derived complex carbohydrates as a major substrate by both organisms. PMID:18556790

  11. Primeros resultados de la caracterización botánica de mieles producidas por Tetragonisca angustula (Apidae, Meliponinae en Los Naranjos, Salta, Argentina First results of botanical characterization of honeys produced by Tetragonisca angustula (Apidae, Meliponinae in Los Naranjos, Salta, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F Flores

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el análisis melisopalinológico de diez muestras de miel de Tetragonisca angustula Latreille criadas en la localidad Los Naranjos (S 23° 07' 19,2"; O 64° 40' 32,6", Salta, Argentina. Se reconoció un total de 49 tipos polínicos. En las mieles monoflorales, los tipos dominantes correspondieron a: Anadenanthera colubrina, Baccharis, Citrus sp., Myrtaceae nativas y un tipo indeterminado (tipo 6. Las restantes muestras fueron multiflorales. El 62 % de los tipos polínicos corresponde a representantes de la Selva Montana de Yungas; tipos como Anadenanthera colubrina, Bocconia integrifolia, Parapiptadenia excelsa, Phyllostylon rhamnoides, Sapium haematospermum, tipo Myrsine y un conjunto de Myrtaceae nativas que constituyen la primera cita como plantas nectaríferas para T. angustula. También se identificó polen proveniente de plantas típicas de ambientes antropizados como Carica papaya, Citrus sp., Eucalyptus sp., Leonurus sibiricus, entre otros. Estos resultados constituyen una primera aproximación al conocimiento de la flora utilizada por T. angustula y al origen geográfico de sus mieles, estableciendo el primer registro para Selva Montana de Yungas.The melissopalynological analysis was performed on ten honeys samples of Tetragonisca angustula Latreille breeding in the locality Los Naranjos (S 23° 07' 19,2"; W 64° 40' 32,6", Salta, Argentina. We found a whole of 49 pollen types. In the honey monofloral, the dominant types corresponded to: Anadenanthera colubrina, Baccharis, Citrus sp., native Myrtaceae and a type undetermined (type 6. The remaining samples were multifloral. 62% of pollen types corresponding to representatives of the Yungas mountain forest; types like Anadenanthera colubrina, Bocconia integrifolia, Parapiptadenia excelsa, Phyllostylon rhamnoides, Sapium haematospermum, type Myrsine and a set of native Myrtaceae, which constitute the first appointment as nectar sources for T. angustula. Also identified pollen

  12. Cytotoxicity of South-African medicinal plants towards sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Mohamed E M; Meyer, Marion; Hussein, Ahmed; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-06-20

    Traditional medicine plays a major role for primary health care worldwide. Cancer belongs to the leading disease burden in industrialized and developing countries. Successful cancer therapy is hampered by the development of resistance towards established anticancer drugs. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of 29 extracts from 26 medicinal plants of South-Africa against leukemia cell lines, most of which are used traditionally to treat cancer and related symptoms. We have investigated the plant extracts for their cytotoxic activity towards drug-sensitive parental CCRF-CEM leukemia cells and their multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein-overexpressing subline, CEM/ADR5000 by means of the resazurin assay. A panel of 60 NCI tumor cell lines have been investigated for correlations between selected phytochemicals from medicinal plants and the expression of resistance-conferring genes (ABC-transporters, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes). Seven extracts inhibited both cell lines (Acokanthera oppositifolia, Hypoestes aristata, Laurus nobilis, Leonotis leonurus, Plectranthus barbatus, Plectranthus ciliates, Salvia apiana). CEM/ADR5000 cells exhibited a low degree of cross-resistance (3.35-fold) towards the L. leonurus extract, while no cross-resistance was observed to other plant extracts, although CEM/ADR5000 cells were highly resistant to clinically established drugs. The log10IC50 values for two out of 14 selected phytochemicals from these plants (acovenoside A and ouabain) of 60 tumor cell lines were correlated to the expression of ABC-transporters (ABCB1, ABCB5, ABCC1, ABCG2), oncogenes (EGFR, RAS) and tumor suppressors (TP53). Sensitivity or resistance of the cell lines were not statistically associated with the expression of these genes, indicating that multidrug-resistant, refractory tumors expressing these genes may still respond to acovenoside A and ouabain. The bioactivity of South African medicinal plants may represent a basis for the development

  13. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers for the northern mauxia shrimp, Acetes chinensis, using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kang, Hyun-Sook; Noh, Eun-Soo; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min

    2014-12-01

    Among the 14 species in the Acetes genus, Acetes japonicus and Acetes chinensis, are the only and also abundant two species around the Korean Peninsula, and are used in traditional recipes. These species are of great economic importance, but little is known about their population genetics, despite the fact that information of this kind is important for stock assessment, fisheries management and identification of origin. A total of 9 microsatellite (MS) markers for A. chinensis were developed using pyrosequencing techniques. Polymorphisms of these markers were evaluated in 96 wild individuals collected from the Yellow Sea off the coast of Korea. A total of 133 alleles were detected at nine loci, with a cross-species transferability of 56% with A. japonicus. These markers will facilitate assessment of population genetic diversity in the genus Acetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Food habits of fishes on an exposed sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Yukinori; Suda, Yusuke; Sano, Mitsuhiko

    2011-06-01

    To clarify the feeding habits and major food sources of sandy beach fishes, the gut contents of 55 fish species collected on a sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan, were examined. Ontogenetic changes in food preference were recognized in nine species ( Hypoatherina valenciennei, Lateolabrax japonicus, Trachurus japonicus, Sillago japonica, Sphyraena japonica, Paralichthys olivaceus, Heteromycteris japonica, Paraplagusia japonica, and Takifugu niphobles). A cluster analysis based on dietary overlaps showed that the sandy beach fish assemblage comprised six trophic groups (mysid, amphipod, zooplankton, juvenile fish, terrestrial insect, and mollusk feeders). Of these, the first three groups were the most abundantly represented, whereas the last two were represented by only a single species. These results indicated that epibenthic macrofauna, such as mysids and gammaridean amphipods, and zooplankton, were important food resources for the fish assemblage at the study site, but infaunal macrobenthos, such as polychaetes and bivalves, being relatively unimportant.

  15. Activation of cell divisions in legume nodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadzieja, Marcin

    Leguminous plants engage into symbiotic relationships with soil bacteria, rhizobia, and develop root nodules. This process initiates with recognition of bacteria derived signalling molecules called nod factors. The subsequent events lead to symbiotic infection and, occurring in parallel, de novo...... was shown to require auxin signalling. Cytokinin, in contrast, exert a negative regulation of bacterial entry into the root. During organogenesis, auxin and cytokinin maxima are known to accompany nodule primordia development and together regulate progression through the cell cycle. Moreover, application...... the two hormones require further investigation. In order to improve understanding in these areas we aimed to develop and characterise hormone and cell division markers in Lotus japonicus. Using the extensive genetic resources available in L. japonicus, these markers may then be used to develop a more...

  16. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Impact of gluconic fermentation of strawberry using acetic acid bacteria on amino acids and biogenic amines profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, J L; Sainz, F; Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Torija, M J; García-Parrilla, M C

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies the amino acid profile of beverages obtained through the fermentation of strawberry purée by a surface culture using three strains belonging to different acetic acid bacteria species (one of Gluconobacter japonicus, one of Gluconobacter oxydans and one of Acetobacter malorum). An HPLC-UV method involving diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate (DEEMM) was adapted and validated. From the entire set of 21 amino acids, multiple linear regressions showed that glutamine, alanine, arginine, tryptophan, GABA and proline were significantly related to the fermentation process. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis classified 100% of the samples correctly in accordance with the microorganism involved. G. japonicus consumed glucose most quickly and achieved the greatest decrease in amino acid concentration. None of the 8 biogenic amines were detected in the final products, which could serve as a safety guarantee for these strawberry gluconic fermentation beverages, in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Larvae and adults of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in fishes and crustaceans in the south west Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navone, G T; Sardella, N H; Timi, J T

    1998-06-01

    Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) is reported from five fishes and one invertebrate species. Third-stage larvae were found in the crustacean Themisto gaudichaudii and in mesenteries of the fishes Engraulis anchoita and Merluccius hubbsi; fourth-stage larvae were recovered from the digestive tract of M. hubbsi and Scomber japonicus and adult specimens were obtained from the stomach and intestine of M. hubbsi, S. japonicus, Genypterus blacodes and Genypterus brasiliensis. Nematodes are described, measured and illustrated. Parasitic prevalence, mean intensity and range were calculated in relation to different geographic zones, from the Argentinean-Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone to Patagonic areas. An increase of parasitism from the northern areas southwards was observed. The life-cycle of H. aduncum, involving the host species considered, is also postulated.

  19. The off-host survival and viability of a native and non-native fish louse (Argulus, Crustacea: Branchiura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. WALKER, I.J. RUSSON, R. DUIJF, G. VAN DER VELDE,S.E. WENDELAAR BONGA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish ectoparasites are introduced to water bodies or aquaculture systems along with their hosts. Argulid fish lice can survive off-host for a given time, and in spite of quarantine measures might also be introduced via the transfer of water. However, they must cope with varying abiotic conditions without access to food. We investigated the effect of temperature (5 to 28oC on the off-host survival time of Argulus japonicus, an invasive species which is apparently increasing its distribution, and compared this with the European A. foliaceus. A clear effect of temperature on the off-host survival time of all stages of both species was demonstrated. Larval and juvenile A. japonicus survived up to 9 days at 22oC and in the case of adults up to 13 days at 15oC. By comparison, larval A. foliaceus survived up to 5 days at 15oC, adults up to 14 days at 9oC and juveniles up to 7 days at 9oC and 15oC. Thus, A. japonicus is more resistant to starvation at higher temperatures under controlled off-host conditions and A. foliaceus is more resistant to starvation at lower temperatures. Infectivity of A. japonicus decreased linearly with the time spent off-host after 2 days for larvae and 4 days for adults. Temperature only had a significant effect on the infectivity of both developmental stages after 24 hours off-host between 13–23oC for larvae and 13–18oC for adults. In conclusion both species can potentially survive off-host periods in water transports for up to 13–14 days as adults. Their survival is shorter as larvae. This study demonstrates that transportation of water has the potential to introduce Argulus species [Current Zoology 57 (6: 828–835, 2011].

  20. Chemistry of the Genus Plectranthus

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Batterjee; H. A. Albar; M. Abdel-Mogib

    2002-01-01

    This review presents the phytochemical constituents of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 1999. Only a tetrameric derivative of caffeic acid was isolated from P. japonicus, but a group of long-chain alkylphenols, of possible taxonomic significance in the genus, was also isolated. As a genus of the subfamily Nepetoideae, Plectranthus is free from iridoid glycosides and rich in essential oil (i.e. > 0.5% volatile oil on a dry weight basis). Diterpenoids are the more common secondary metaboli...