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Sample records for leontopithecus rosalia macaca

  1. Degradation characteristics of golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia two-phrase long calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabatini, Vera; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    of long calls of the Golden Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia and its implications for "reading" and ranging long calls of calling tamarins. The experiments were made in lowland, evergreen forest in Brazil. Synthesized copies of natural sounds were broadcast and re-recorded using different combinations...

  2. Degradation characteristics of golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia two-phrase long calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabatini, Vera; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    of long calls of the Golden Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia and its implications for "reading" and ranging long calls of calling tamarins. The experiments were made in lowland, evergreen forest in Brazil. Synthesized copies of natural sounds were broadcast and re-recorded using different combinations...... of microphone and speaker heights of 2.0 and 7.5 m and distances of 2.5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 m. Excess attenuation, blurring, signal-to-noise ratio and energy of tail of echoes were quantified. The highest frequency sounds attenuated most at all distances, showing the lowest signal-to-noise ratio. The more...

  3. Lineage-specific serology confirms Brazilian Atlantic forest lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas and Leontopithecus rosalia, as reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi II (TcII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Charlotte L; Bhattacharyya, Tapan; Xavier, Samanta C C; Barros, Juliana H; Lima, Valdirene S; Jansen, Ana M; Miles, Michael A

    2016-11-15

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease in humans, has a vast reservoir of mammalian hosts in the Americas, and is classified into six genetic lineages, TcI-TcVI, with a possible seventh, TcBat. Elucidating enzootic cycles of the different lineages is important for understanding the ecology of this parasite, the emergence of new outbreaks of Chagas disease and for guiding control strategies. Direct lineage identification by genotyping is hampered by limitations of parasite isolation and culture. An indirect method is to identify lineage-specific serological reactions in infected individuals; here we describe its application with sylvatic Brazilian primates. Synthetic peptides representing lineage-specific epitopes of the T. cruzi surface protein TSSA were used in ELISA with sera from Atlantic Forest Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin), L. rosalia (golden lion tamarin), Amazonian Sapajus libidinosus (black-striped capuchin) and Alouatta belzebul (red-handed howler monkey). The epitope common to lineages TcII, TcV and TcVI was recognised by sera from 15 of 26 L. chrysomelas and 8 of 13 L. rosalia. For 12 of these serologically identified TcII infections, the identity of the lineage infection was confirmed by genotyping T. cruzi isolates. Of the TcII/TcV/TcVI positive sera 12 of the 15 L. chrysomelas and 2 of the 8 L. rosalia also reacted with the specific epitope restricted to TcV and TcVI. Sera from one of six S. libidinous recognised the TcIV/TcIII epitopes. This lineage-specific serological surveillance has verified that Atlantic Forest primates are reservoir hosts of at least TcII, and probably TcV and TcVI, commonly associated with severe Chagas disease in the southern cone region of South America. With appropriate reagents, this novel methodology is readily applicable to a wide range of mammal species and reservoir host discovery.

  4. TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS IN A GOLDEN LION TAMARIN (LEONTOPITHECUS ROSALIA) WITH THE GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE-1 MIMETIC EXENATIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James G; Langan, Jennifer N; Gilor, Chen

    2016-09-01

    An 8-yr-old male golden lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus rosalia ) was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus based on hyperglycemia and persistent glycosuria. Initial treatment consisted of the oral antihyperglycemic medications glipizide and metformin that resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations; however, marked glycosuria persisted. Insufficient improvement on oral antihyperglycemic therapy and poor feasibility of daily subcutaneous insulin therapy led to an investigation into an alternative therapy with extended-release exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic, at a dosage of 0.13 mg/kg subcutaneously once per month. Following treatment with exenatide, the persistent glycosuria resolved, the animal maintained normal blood glucose concentrations, and had lower serum fructosamine concentrations compared to pretreatment levels. Based on these findings, extended-release exenatide could be considered as a therapeutic option in nonhuman primates with diabetes mellitus that do not respond to oral antihyperglycemics and in which daily subcutaneous insulin is not feasible.

  5. Lineage-specific serology confirms Brazilian Atlantic forest lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas and Leontopithecus rosalia, as reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi II (TcII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte L. Kerr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease in humans, has a vast reservoir of mammalian hosts in the Americas, and is classified into six genetic lineages, TcI-TcVI, with a possible seventh, TcBat. Elucidating enzootic cycles of the different lineages is important for understanding the ecology of this parasite, the emergence of new outbreaks of Chagas disease and for guiding control strategies. Direct lineage identification by genotyping is hampered by limitations of parasite isolation and culture. An indirect method is to identify lineage-specific serological reactions in infected individuals; here we describe its application with sylvatic Brazilian primates. Methods Synthetic peptides representing lineage-specific epitopes of the T. cruzi surface protein TSSA were used in ELISA with sera from Atlantic Forest Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin, L. rosalia (golden lion tamarin, Amazonian Sapajus libidinosus (black-striped capuchin and Alouatta belzebul (red-handed howler monkey. Results The epitope common to lineages TcII, TcV and TcVI was recognised by sera from 15 of 26 L. chrysomelas and 8 of 13 L. rosalia. For 12 of these serologically identified TcII infections, the identity of the lineage infection was confirmed by genotyping T. cruzi isolates. Of the TcII/TcV/TcVI positive sera 12 of the 15 L. chrysomelas and 2 of the 8 L. rosalia also reacted with the specific epitope restricted to TcV and TcVI. Sera from one of six S. libidinous recognised the TcIV/TcIII epitopes. Conclusions This lineage-specific serological surveillance has verified that Atlantic Forest primates are reservoir hosts of at least TcII, and probably TcV and TcVI, commonly associated with severe Chagas disease in the southern cone region of South America. With appropriate reagents, this novel methodology is readily applicable to a wide range of mammal species and reservoir host discovery.

  6. Does the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia (Primates: Callitrichidae, select a location whithin the forest strata for long distance communication?

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    Vera Sabatini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of auditory signals for long distance communication depends on environmental, biological and behavioral factors. Because the environment is not homogenous, it is expected that vocalizing animals would emit signals from locations (perches that would facilitate call propagation and perception. Perching behavior has been widely documented in birds, but not in primates. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether golden lion tamarins - Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766 - emit long calls from places (perch within the forest strata that are higher above the ground with respect to places used for baseline behaviors. We compared the forest stratum (upper, middle and lower strata and habitat type (hill, swamp and lowland forests used for long calls with those used for other behaviors. The focal animal technique (n = 4 of 10 minutes with instantaneous sampling at two minutes were used if the subjects were not emitting long calls, and the all-occurrences technique if a focal individual emitted a two-phrase long call. Golden lion tamarins used all strata in all habitat types, including the ground, when they were not emitting long calls, but vocalized long calls most often from the upper strata, just underneath the canopy, in the three habitats studied. From a total of 29 bouts of long calls, 21 were initiated by individuals that were in the lower stratum; however, these individuals subsequently migrated to the upper stratum, while still vocalizing. Calling from the upper strata of the forest, just underneath canopy could improve sound transmission, perception, visual contact or a combination of these types of communication. Based on these considerations, we hypothetize that by placing themselves in the upper strata of the forest when emitting calls, golden lion tamarins enhance their likelhood to locate other callers, not only be improving sound reception, but also by increasing their chances to make visual contact with them.

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Leontopithecus rosalia at the Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Lisboa Cristiane V

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia -- endangered primates that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic coastal forest -- were surveyed for the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi with the use of Giemsa-stained blood smears, hemocultures and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT. Positive IFAT with titers ranging from 1:20 to 1:1280 were observed in 52% of the 118 wild tamarins examined and the parasite was isolated from 38 tamarins. No patent parasitemia was observed among the tamarins from which T. cruzi was isolated. Serum conversion and positive hemoculture was observed for three animals that had yielded negative results some months earlier, which indicates that T. cruzi is actively transmitted among tamarins. In contrast to observations with other sylvatic isolates, those from the tamarins were significantly more virulent and most of them produced mortality in experimentally infected Swiss mice. Some variation in the kDNA restriction profiles among the isolates was observed. Electrophoresis with GPI, G6PDH, IDH, MDH and ME enzymes showed a Z2 profile.

  8. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp: an 11-year follow-up

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    Cristiane Varella Lisboa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42 Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI.

  9. Morfologia macroscópica do aparelho reprodutor feminino de Leontopithecus cativos (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae Gross morphology of the female genital tract of captive Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae

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    L. Pissinatti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se o sistema reprodutor feminino em três espécies de mico-leão Leontopithecus (Lesson 1840, cativos: L. rosalia, L. chrysopygus e L. chrysomelas. A vulva está delimitada pelos lábios vulvares menores e com clitóris conspícuo. A superfície do períneo urogenital apresenta elevações papilares mais concentradas nos lábios vulvares, conferindo-lhe aspecto rugoso. O vestíbulo vaginal constitui um tubo muscular de parede espessa que se estende da rima da vulva até o óstio da vagina. A vagina é um tubo muscular alongado e achatado dorsoventralmente, que comunica o vestíbulo vaginal ao colo uterino. O útero piriforme está localizado na porção caudal da cavidade abdominal. Craniolateralmente abrem-se tubas uterinas convolutas e ovários grosseiramente fusiformes de superfície lisa.It is described the female genital tract of three species of lion tamarin: Leontopithecus rosalia, L. chrysopygus, and L. chrysomelas. Fifteen animals were selected from the Museum of the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro - CPRJ/FEEMA. The vulva is delimited by the labia and has a conspicuous clitoris. The surface of the urogenital perineum has papillary elevations more concentrated in the labia, which results in a rough aspect. The vestibule is a thick-walled muscular tube, extending from the pudendal cleft to the vaginal orifice. The vagina is an elongated and flat muscular tube, which communicates dorsoventrally the vestibulum and the cervix of uterus. The pyriform uterus is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. Craniolaterally, the convolute uterine tubes open, enveloping the ovaries, which are roughly fusiform with a smooth surface.

  10. Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (LINNAEUS, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae as a host of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana LI, LI, HUANG

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    Bartnik Czesław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes, for the first time, the occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana (anamorph: Beauveria bassiana on the imago of the endangered beetle Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina from the Low Beskid Mountains (the Carpathians, SE Poland. Furthermore, an isolate of the saprotrophic fungus Hypoxylon fragiforme was obtained as a result of laboratory tests on R. alpina specimens. Relationships between the identified fungi and R. alpina are discussed.

  11. Population dynamics of Lemniscomys rosalia (Muridae: Rodentia) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of food supplementation on a population of Lemniscomys rosalia were studied experimentally in a grassland habitat in Swaziland. Food was added bi-weekly to two I-ha grids, while a single I-ha grid served as the control. Rodent traps were set monthly over a 12 month period. Food supplementation may have ...

  12. Population dynamics of Lemniscomys rosalia (Muridae: Rodentia) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ecology of L. rosalia over a twelve month period. Materials and methods. Study area. Three permanently marked grids (100 m x 100 m) were established in an .... of the study. The habitat characteristics of the three grids are shown in Table I. There were significant differences in per cent cover, per cent green grass and grass ...

  13. Demography and dispersal ability of a threatened saproxylic beetle: A mark-recapture study of the rosalia longicorn (Rosalia alpina)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drag, Lukáš; Hauck, David; Pokluda, Pavel; Zimmermann, Kamil; Čížek, Lukáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2011), e21345 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:Ministerstvo životního prostředí(CZ) VaV/SP/2d3/153/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Rosalia alpina Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  14. Multidetector CT investigation of the mummy of Rosalia Lombardo (1918-1920).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Gill-Frerking, Heather; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Zink, Albert R; Piombino-Mascali, Dario

    2013-10-01

    Whole-body multidetector computed tomography (CT) was performed on the mummified corpse of two-year-old Rosalia Lombardo, an anthropogenic mummy displayed in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily, Italy. Rosalia Lombardo reportedly died of bronchopneumonia in 1920 and was preserved by the embalmer and taxidermist Alfredo Salafia with a formaldehyde-based fluid. Rosalia Lombardo's body is still exhibited in the Capuchin Catacombs inside the original glass-topped coffin in which she was placed. Only her head is visible: the rest of her body is covered by a sheet. CT images of Rosalia's body within her coffin were of reduced quality because of distinct metal artifacts caused by the coffin itself. Nevertheless, a detailed radiological analysis was possible for most of the body. Analysis of the data from the CT examination revealed indicators for the historically-reported endovasal and intracavity treatment. Rosalia's entire body was preserved in a remarkable state. The exceptional preservation of her internal organs made it possible to consider a radiological diagnosis of pneumonia. For this study, CT was determined to be the ultimate method for investigation, since Rosalia's body had to be kept untouched in her sealed coffin for conservation purposes. The CT examination offered new insights into the current preservation status of the body, and the superior contrast of CT allowed detailed assessment of different tissues. Post-processing methods provided reconstructions on any desired plane, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction, for the best possible visualization and interpretation of the body. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Nasal, oral and rectal microbiota of Black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus)

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    Carvalho, Vania M.; Vanstreels, Ralph E.T.; Paula, Cátia D.; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K.M.; Ramos, Maria Christina C.; Coutinho, Selene D.; Martins, Cristiana S.; Pissinatti, Alcides; Catão-Dias, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) are endangered callithrichids. Their conservation may require future translocations or reintroductions; however these approaches involve risks of pathogen introduction in the environment and stress-related opportunistic infections in these animals. In order to screen for opportunistic and potential pathogenic bacterial and fungal microbiota, ten free-ranging and ten captive Black lion tamarins were studied and the results compared. Nasal, oral and rectal swabs were collected and cultured for aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria and fungi, and a total 203 bacterial and 84 fungal isolates were obtained. Overall, the most frequent organisms were Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. Microbiota of free-ranging and captive animals were similar in composition. A number of potentially pathogenic organisms were identified, emphasizing the importance of microbiological screening in future translocation or reintroduction conservation management programs. PMID:25763064

  16. Nasal, oral and rectal microbiota of Black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus

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    Vania M. Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus are endangered callithrichids. Their conservation may require future translocations or reintroductions; however these approaches involve risks of pathogen introduction in the environment and stress-related opportunistic infections in these animals. In order to screen for opportunistic and potential pathogenic bacterial and fungal microbiota, ten free-ranging and ten captive Black lion tamarins were studied and the results compared. Nasal, oral and rectal swabs were collected and cultured for aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria and fungi, and a total 203 bacterial and 84 fungal isolates were obtained. Overall, the most frequent organisms were Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. Microbiota of free-ranging and captive animals were similar in composition. A number of potentially pathogenic organisms were identified, emphasizing the importance of microbiological screening in future translocation or reintroduction conservation management programs.

  17. Range expansion of an endangered beetle: Alpine Longhorn Rosalia alpina (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) spreads to the lowlands of Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, Lukáš; Schlaghamerský, J.; Bořucký, J.; Hauck, D.; Helešic, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2009), s. 200-206 ISSN 0785-8760 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600960705; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Rosalia alpina Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.377, year: 2009

  18. Geologic and radiometric study of the Santa Rosalia area, Arizpe Department, Sonora Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez M, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of the radiometrical anomaly, discovered in the Santa Rosalia area, Arizpe Department, Sonota, is defined in this study through topographical and geological surveying of the area by the outline and systematical survey of rocks for sampling and registration of the radioactivity. Two radioactive anomalies were defined and called IIIA and IIIB, identifying the existence of secondary uranium minerals (Torbernite) in the IIIB anomaly. According to the results of the work which was carried out we can't deduce that both localities present signs of the existence of important uranium concentrations. We can conclude that the presence of uranium minerals obliges us to realize a more detailed exploration, suggesting the opening of little excavations and ditches and stretching out of the geochemical, geological and radiometrical exploration to adjacent areas. (author)

  19. Rosalia Guilleumas i Brosa, o la renovació de la biblioteconomia a Catalunya

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    Estivill Rius, Assumpció

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1969 i 1983 Rosalia Guilleumas i Brosa (1924-2007 va ocupar càrrecs directrius de primera línia dins del sistema bibliotecari català. Per a les biblioteques i les institucions que havien viscut en l'immobilisme més patètic durant els darrers trenta anys, aquella etapa final del franquisme era un moment ple de reptes i d'oportunitats per superar l'atròfia de les darreres dècades. Rosalia Guilleumas, com a directora de la Biblioteca Provincial i Universitària de Barcelona (1969-1980, de la Biblioteca de Catalunya (1973-1983, de la Xarxa de Biblioteques Populars de la Diputació de Barcelona (1973-1982 i de l'antiga Escola de Bibliotecàries (1973-1982, va realitzar una molt bona labor de gestió per modernitzar aquestes institucions. En el cas de l'Escola, no sols va posar al dia la institució acabant amb el seu caràcter exclusivament femení i renovant-ne el pla d'estudis, sinó que a més va aconseguir vèncer tots els esculls que dificultaven el reconeixement dels ensenyaments com a estudis universitaris. Va ser gràcies a la seva labor que es va aprovar la diplomatura en Biblioteconomia i Documentació i que l'Escola passés a tenir el rang d'Escola Universitària adscrita a la Universitat de Barcelona. Si bé Guilleumas va destacar també en els estudis filològics, aquest treball se centra en la seva activitat de gestió bibliotecària.

  20. Evolutionary modifications of human milk composition: evidence from long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of anthropoid milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Lauren A; Bazinet, Richard P

    2008-12-01

    Brain growth in mammals is associated with increased accretion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in brain phospholipids. The period of maximum accumulation is during the brain growth spurt. Humans have a perinatal brain growth spurt, selectively accumulating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other LCPUFA from the third trimester through the second year of life. The emphasis on rapid postnatal brain growth and LCPUFA transfer during lactation has led to the suggestion that human milk LCPUFA composition may be unique. Our study tests this hypothesis by determining fatty acid composition for 11 species of captive anthropoids (n=53; Callithrix jacchus, Cebus apella, Gorilla gorilla, Hylobates lar, Leontopithecus rosalia, Macaca mulatta, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Pongo pygmaeus, Saimiri boliviensis, and Symphalangus syndactylus). Results are compared to previously published data on five species of wild anthropoids (n=28; Alouatta paliatta, Callithrix jacchus, Gorilla beringei, Leontopithecus rosalia, and Macaca sinica) and human milk fatty acid profiles. Milk LCPUFA profiles of captive anthropoids (consuming diets with a preformed source of DHA) are similar to milk from women on a Western diet, and those of wild anthropoids are similar to milk from vegan women. Collectively, the range of DHA percent composition values from nonhuman anthropoid milks (0.03-1.1) is nearly identical to that from a cross-cultural analysis of human milk (0.06-1.4). Humans do not appear to be unique in their ability to secrete LCPUFA in milk but may be unique in their access to dietary LCPUFA.

  1. Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Callithrichidae: Primates

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    Carlos Henrique de F. Burity

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Leontopithecus is the largest genus of Callithrichidae, occupying isolated remnants of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. The objective of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the dorsum of the tongue of golden-headed lion tamarins. Tongues of ten adult lion tamarins kept in captivity at the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ-FEEMA were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The three vallate papillae were distributed in a V shape, and each papilla was surrounded by a deep sulcus and an external pad; the medial papilla showed a round shape and the lateral one was elliptical. The filiform papillae were shaped as a crown or as finger-like papillae, and were distributed throughout the tongue, including the margins, except for the posterior region. The fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae, in a disperse manner, from the apex to the lateral vallate papillae. The foliate papillae had a typical ultrastructure, with folds that ranged in number from 1 to 3. With respect to vallate papillae, we identified the microridge and pore pattern on its surface. Further studies are required to confirm the hypotheses on the ultrastructural aspects described for golden-headed lion tamarins.

  2. Negative serosurvey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Golden-headed Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas from Niterói/RJ, Brazil

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    Camila Vieira Molina

    Full Text Available Abstract New World Nonhuman Primates are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. Serum samples from 126 recently captured Leontopithecus chrysomelas, from an exotic and invasive population, were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25; all were seronegative. The MAT is highly specific and is not species-specific. This is the first report of T. gondii survey in this tamarin in the wild. This result is consistent with prior reports that showed the high susceptibility of the species to infection by T. gondii usually with high mortality rates.

  3. Novel, male-produced aggregation pheromone of the cerambycid beetle Rosalia alpina, a priority species of European conservation concern.

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    Alenka Žunič Kosi

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have demonstrated the great potential for exploiting semiochemicals in ecology and conservation studies. The cerambycid beetle Rosalia alpina represents one of the flagship species of saproxylic insect biodiversity in Europe. In recent years its populations appear to have declined substantially, and its range has shrunk considerably as a result of forest management and urbanization. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by males and females of R. alpina. Analyses of the resulting extracts revealed the presence of a single male-specific compound, identified as a novel alkylated pyrone structure. In field bioassays in Slovenia, traps baited with the synthesized pyrone captured both sexes of R. alpina, indicating that the pyrone functions as an aggregation pheromone. Our results represent the first example of a new structural class of pheromones within the Cerambycidae, and demonstrate that pheromone-baited traps can provide a useful tool for sampling R. alpina. This tool could be particularly useful in the ongoing development of conservation strategies for the iconic but endangered Alpine longicorn.

  4. Survey of Malassezia sp and dermatophytes in the cutaneous microbiome of free-ranging golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas - Kuhl, 1820).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Juan Ja; Francelino, Marcelo; Silva, Flavia Gl; Baptista, Luana Cl; Bueno, Marina G; Catão-Dias, José L; Molina, Camila; Kierulff, Maria Cm; Pissinatti, Alcides; Coutinho, Selene DA

    2017-06-01

    Data about the presence of fungi on the cutaneous surface of wild animals are scarce. The aim of this study was to survey dermatophytes and Malassezia sp in the external ear canal and haircoat of Leontopithecus chrysomelas. A total of 928 clinical samples were collected from 232 animals: For Malassezia screening 696 samples were studied, 464 of cerumen and 232 of haircoat; another 232 haircoat samples were studied for dermatophyte analysis. A geophilic dermatophyte, Microsporum cookie, was isolated from one young female. Lipodependent Malassezia was isolated from 76 animals and 87 clinical samples, 26 from the cerumen and 61 from the haircoat (statistically significant); there were no differences related to gender and age. Results suggested that lipodependent Malassezia is part of the skin microbiome of these animals. The prevalence of dermatophytes was too low and probably not relevant for the health of the studied population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Bacteria dialog with Santa Rosalia: Are aggregations of cosmopolitan bacteria mainly explained by habitat filtering or by ecological interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-García, Alberto; Tamames, Javier; Bastolla, Ugo

    2014-12-04

    Since the landmark Santa Rosalia paper by Hutchinson, niche theory addresses the determinants of biodiversity in terms of both environmental and biological aspects. Disentangling the role of habitat filtering and interactions with other species is critical for understanding microbial ecology. Macroscopic biogeography explores hypothetical ecological interactions through the analysis of species associations. These methods have started to be incorporated into microbial ecology relatively recently, due to the inherent experimental difficulties and the coarse grained nature of the data. Here we investigate the influence of environmental preferences and ecological interactions in the tendency of bacterial taxa to either aggregate or segregate, using a comprehensive dataset of bacterial taxa observed in a wide variety of environments. We assess significance of taxa associations through a null model that takes into account habitat preferences and the global distribution of taxa across samples. The analysis of these associations reveals a surprisingly large number of significant aggregations between taxa, with a marked community structure and a strong propensity to aggregate for cosmopolitan taxa. Due to the coarse grained nature of our data we cannot conclusively reject the hypothesis that many of these aggregations are due to environmental preferences that the null model fails to reproduce. Nevertheless, some observations are better explained by ecological interactions than by habitat filtering. In particular, most pairs of aggregating taxa co-occur in very different environments, which makes it unlikely that these associations are due to habitat preferences, and many are formed by cosmopolitan taxa without well defined habitat preferences. Moreover, known cooperative interactions are retrieved as aggregating pairs of taxa. As observed in similar studies, we also found that phylogenetically related taxa are much more prone to aggregate than to segregate, an observation

  6. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  7. Osseointegration of dental implants in Macaca fascicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, R. S.; Odang, R. W.; Odelia, L.

    2017-08-01

    Osseointegration is an important factor in determining the success of a dental implant. It can be assessed from the osseointegration that occurs between the implant and the bone. The implant stability is determined by the osseous support at the implant-bone interface, which is commonly evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. This study aimed to evaluate whether the osseointegration level measured by a Low Resonance Frequency Analyzer (LRFA) gave results as good as those obtained by histomorphometric examination. Six male Macaca fascicularis were used in this study. In each animal, two types of loading were performed: immediate and delayed loading. Clinical examination and LRFA measurement were performed to determine osseointegration at the first and second weeks and at the first, second, third, and fourth months. After four months, histomorphometric examination was performed. The relationship between the histomorphometric examination and LRFA measurement was compared using the Pearson correlation coefficient. There was no significant difference in the osseointegration between immediate loading and delayed loading (p > 0.05) The bone-implant contact percentage in the first group did not differ significantly from that in the second group. Statistical analysis showed that there was a strong correlation between LRFA measurement and histomorphometric examination. Osseointegration could be evaluated through LRFA measurement as well as through histomorphometric examination.

  8. Socialization in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worlein, Julie M; Kroeker, Rose; Lee, Grace H; Thom, Jinhee P; Bellanca, Rita U; Crockett, Carolyn M

    2017-01-01

    In response to new emphasis by regulatory agencies regarding socialization, behavioral management programs are allocating greater resources to maximize socialization opportunities for laboratory primates. Information regarding predictors of compatibility and risk of injury for all laboratory-housed species of macaques are needed to make social introductions and pairings as efficient and safe as possible. This study presents data on 674 pairs of pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) at the Washington National Primate Research Center over a 7-year period. During pair introduction, behavior was monitored while the degree of tactile contact was gradually increased. Based on observed behavior, pairs were assigned a behavioral introduction score (BIS), rating the quality of their interactions for each day of introduction. Animals deemed compatible, based on the BIS and technologist judgment, were allowed to progress to continuous contact with no staff present. A small proportion of animals deemed compatible at introduction was later separated for subsequent incompatibility or aggression; these proportions were higher in full contact compared to protected contact pairings. Of 674 pairs, 75% were deemed compatible at introduction in protected contact; 86 of these pairs were later transitioned to full contact with 98% compatibility. Predictors of decreased compatibility assessed during protected contact introductions included age (adult pairs were less compatible), the BIS on the last day of introduction, and aggression or injury during the introductory period. Predictors of injuries during the protected contact introduction process included: aggression on the first day of introduction, a negative BIS on the first or last day of introduction, and, surprisingly, the presence of grooming on the first day of introduction. Injuries during both introduction and subsequent pairing in protected contact were rare; however, injury rates increased significantly during full

  9. Reconciliation and relationship quality in Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, M.A.; Bernstein, I.S.; Hemelrijk, C.K.

    A consistent conclusion in reconciliation research is that animals that reconcile are likely to have strong social bonds. This has led to the hypothesis that reconciliation occurs most often between valuable social partners. We tested this hypothesis in a group of Assamese macaques (Macaca

  10. Habitat Characteristics and Population of Booted Macaque (Macaca ochreata in Tanjung Peropa Wildlife Reserve, Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsa Zsa Fairuztania

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Macaca ochreata is one of Sulawesi endemic primates, which are distributed only in Southeast Sulawesi. This study aimed to identify habitat characteristics and estimated Macaca ochreata population was conducted in February until March of 2017 at Kalobo Block Forest, Tanjung Peropa Wildlife Reserve (TPWR. Habitat characteristics were identified using vegetation analysis and population was estimated by concentration count method. The highest Important Value Index of trees were Pangium edule, Artocarpus elastica, and Meliostoma nitida which were Macaca ochreata’s food plants. There were 33 species of 17 families of Macaca’s food plants on the study site. Macaca ochreata were found in trees with stratum B and stratum C. A total of 4 groups of Macaca ochreata encountered consisting 56 individuals. Population density of Macaca ochreata was 22,4 individu/km2.

  11. Abundance of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Affects Group Characteristics and Use of Space by Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca Agroforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leonardo C.; Neves, Leonardo G.; Raboy, Becky E.; Dietz, James M.

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

  12. Ventricular Parasystole in a Neonatal Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Dalis E; Dozier, Brandy L; Stanton, Jeffrey J; Colgin, Lois MA; MacAllister, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    A 6-d-old Indian-origin female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented with bradycardia shortly after sedation with ketamine. No other cardiac abnormalities were apparent. Approximately 2 wk after the initial presentation, the macaque was again bradycardic and exhibited a regularly irregular arrhythmia on a prestudy examination. ECG, echocardiography, blood pressure measurement, SpO2 assessment, and a CBC analysis were performed. The echocardiogram and bloodwork were normal, but the infant ...

  13. Yawning and social styles: Different functions in tolerant and despotic macaques (Macaca tonkeana and Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannella, Alessandra; Stanyon, Roscoe; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2017-08-01

    Yawning is a multifunctional behavior with a role in social communication. In Old World monkeys, the "tension yawn" is often used as a threat, allowing individuals to completely expose their canines. To explore the role of this phenomenon, we selected 2 closely related species-Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and Tonkean macaques (M. tonkeana)-which differ primarily in terms of their tolerance levels. Japanese macaques are classified as despotic; Tonkean macaques are classified as tolerant. Both species live in multimale-multifemale societies, show a high level of sexual dimorphism, and have comparable yawning repertoires that include displaying a covered teeth yawn and an uncovered gums yawn. We found comparable baseline frequencies of the 2 yawning types and a similar distribution of these behaviors according to sex (males yawned more frequently than females). This morphological homogeneity permitted us to evaluate potential differences in the meaning of yawning as a function of social tension, aggressive contexts, and dominance hierarchy. Divergent social styles determine a functional dichotomy in the use of the covered teeth yawn and the uncovered gums yawn. The covered teeth yawn is not susceptible to social and environmental stimuli and seems to be a form of yawning mostly linked to the physiology of the sleep-wake cycle. However, the uncovered gums yawn is modulated according to different social contexts, and its use could be favored by natural selection, especially in tolerant species, which apparently require more elaborate forms of social communication. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Using Drone Imagery and Photogrammetry to Map Basin Stratigraphy and Structures Exposed in Mine, Road, and Arroyo Outcrops, Santa Rosalia, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banes, A.; Alvarez Ortega, K. G.; Henry, M.; Niemi, T.

    2017-12-01

    During the 2017 Baja Basins Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU), a DJI Phantom 3 Advanced Quadcopter drone equipped with a GPS-enabled, 12 Megapixel camera was manually flown to collect aerial photographs of several geologic outcrops on the Minera Boléo and Lucifer mines in central Baja California Sur. The strip mine faces, roadcuts, and arroyos exposed Neogene to Quaternary sediments of the Santa Rosalía basin including the basal Cu-Zn-Mn-Co-bearing Miocene Boléo Formation that is actively being mined. It is overlain by Plio-Quaternary marine and non-marine deposits. Photographs were collected with a 70% overlap and processed into geographically-referenced, orthophotomosaics using Agisoft Photoscan. The output models have an adequate resolution for viewing bedding and fault characteristics. Measurements can be made inside the 3D models, making drones a useful tool for studying the geometry of stratigraphic, structural, and geomorphologic features. The studied sites included: 1) roadcuts on Mesa Soledad that exposed oblique-slip faults and syntectonically deposited non-marine and marine conglomerates and sandy, fossil-rich Pliocene beach sediment; 2) outcrops of the Boléo Fm in the Texcoco mine area that showed the detailed stratigraphic relationship between ore seams (mantos) and faults; 3) outcrops where sandstone samples were collected for detrital zircon geochronology; 4) strip mine 3120 that exposed faults and folds in the Boléo Formation; and 5) faults in Miocene volcanic rocks in the Arroyo Infierno near the Lucifer mine. This study shows that photogrammetry and modeling of geologic structures exposed in mine and road outcrops can provide useful information for reconstructing basin architecture and clarifying structural evolution of the Santa Rosalia Basin.

  15. Nucleotide sequence of the triosephosphate isomerase gene from Macaca mulatta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Old, S.E.; Mohrenweiser, H.W. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1988-09-26

    The triosephosphate isomerase gene from a rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta, charon 34 library was sequenced. The human and chimpanzee enzymes differ from the rhesus enzyme at ASN 20 and GLU 198. The nucleotide sequence identity between rhesus and human is 97% in the coding region and >94% in the flanking regions. Comparison of the rhesus and chimp genes, including the intron and flanking sequences, does not suggest a mechanism for generating the two TPI peptides of proliferating cells from hominoids and a single peptide from the rhesus gene.

  16. Alzheimer's Abeta vaccination of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Sam; DeMattos, Ron B; Lemere, Cynthia A; Heppner, Frank L; Leverone, Jodi; Aguzzi, Adriano; Ershler, William B; Dai, Jinlu; Fraser, Paul; St George Hyslop, Peter; Holtzman, David M; Walker, Lary C; Keller, Evan T

    2004-02-01

    Recent preliminary data suggest that vaccination with Alzheimer's Abeta might reduce senile plaque load and stabilize cognitive decline in human Alzheimer's disease. To examine the mechanisms and consequences of anti-Abeta-antibody formation in a species more closely related to humans, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were vaccinated with aggregated Abeta(1-42). Immunized monkeys developed anti-Abeta titers exceeding 1:1000, and their plasma Abeta levels were 5-10-fold higher than the plasma Abeta levels observed in monkeys vaccinated with aggregated amylin. These data support the use of non-human primates to model certain phenomena associated with vaccination of humans with aggregated Alzheimer's Abeta.

  17. Assessment of obesity in pigtailed monkeys (Macaca nemestrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walike, B C; Goodner, C J; Koerker, D J; Chideckel, E W; Kalnasy, L W

    1977-01-01

    Obesity was studied in a colony of 873 Macaca nemestrina to establish tools for epidemiologic studies, to examine a genetic form of obesity, to document age/sex relationships to obesity, and to compare metabolic profiles of obese and normal monkeys. Age/weight growth curves were analyzed to select the most obese monkeys and age- and sex-matched normal controls. Degree of adiposity was determined using tritiated water for estimation of lean body mass. Body weight, anterior trunk height, and abdominal and triceps skinfolds were measured. Fasting insulin, fasting free fatty acids, and glucose disappearance rate were determined. The results give evidence of similarities between macaque and human obestiy.

  18. 77 FR 70457 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... uncia) Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) Golden headed tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) Pink pigeon... the Advancement of Marine Science, Alaska SeaLife Center, Seward, AK; PRT-73634A The applicant...

  19. Advances in understanding the tectonic evolution of the Santa Rosalia Basin and its stratiform ore deposits: Results of the Baja Basins Research Experience for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, T. M.; Busby, C.; Murowchick, J. B.; Martinez Gutierrez, G.; Antinao Rojas, J. L.; Graettinger, A.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Studies conducted during the three years of the Baja Basins REU program made progress toward solving a number of geologic questions in the Santa Rosalía Basin (SRB) of central Baja California. Geochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology on volcanic rocks within the SRB record the transition from subduction (13.32-9.95 Ma) to rifting (younger than 9.42 Ma) prior to deposition of the upper Miocene Boleo Formation. In contrast, magnesian andesite lavas and intrusions on the south margin of the SRB are dated at 6.1 +/- 0.3 Ma, and may have provided the heat engine for Boleo basin mineralization, which occurs in stratabound layers called "mantos". Mineralizing fluids in the Boleo Fm had near-neutral pH, evolved from a low Eh to more oxidizing conditions, were relatively low-temperature (near ambient T during manto ore deposition), and likely derived the Cu, Zn, Co, and Mn by leaching of mafic minerals in the volcanic rocks underlying the basin. Deposition of the ores was driven by oxidation as warm spring fluids vented to subaerial or near-shore marine environments, producing blankets of precipitated oxides interlayered with detrital fine to very coarse clastic beds. Integration of geologic map and fault data with detailed sedimentology and stratigraphic analysis provides evidence for syn-basinal tilting in two orthogonal directions during deposition of the Boleo Formation and Plio-Quaternary Tirabuzón, Infierno, and Santa Rosalia formations. Pronounced tilting toward the SE is revealed by southeastward thickening and coarsening of deposits in the Boleo Formation, and was synchronous with northeastward tilting and thickening due to slip on a network of NW-striking oblique normal faults. We hypothesize that the basin formed, subsided, and deformed as a pull-apart basin in a releasing step-over between two propagating transform faults that opened the late Miocene Gulf of California. The neotectonic evolution and uplift history of the SRB is documented through mapping of

  20. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  1. Alzheimer A beta vaccination of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Sam; DeMattos, Ron B; Lemere, Cynthia A; Heppner, Frank L; Leverone, Jodi; Aguzzi, Adriano; Ershler, William B; Dai, Jinlu; Fraser, Paul; Hyslop, Peter St George; Holtzman, David M; Walker, Lary C; Keller, Evan T

    2004-01-01

    Recent preliminary data suggest that vaccination with Alzheimer A beta might reduce senile plaque load and stabilize cognitive decline in human Alzheimer disease. To examine the mechanisms and consequences of anti-A beta-antibody formation in a species more closely related to humans, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were vaccinated with aggregated A beta 1-42. Immunized monkeys developed anti-A beta titers exceeding 1:1000, and their plasma A beta levels were 5- to 10-fold higher than the plasma A beta levels observed in monkeys vaccinated with aggregated amylin. These data support the use of nonhuman primates to model certain phenomena associated with vaccination of humans with aggregated Alzheimer A beta.

  2. Spontaneous meningioma in a pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Plesker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous meningioma in a female pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina more than 24 years old. Clinically, the monkey displayed slow, weak, and insecure movements and poor vision. A tumorous mass was present at the floor of the cranial vault extending from the optic chiasm towards the foramen magnum. It compressed adjacent parts of the brain, infiltrated the sphenoidal and occipital bone, and showed transcranial expansion into the pharyngeal area. Histologically, the tumor was consistent with a meningioma displaying mostly meningothelial and some microcystic components. Since only six cases of meningiomas in nonhuman primates have been reported so far and only two of these meningiomas have been described in detail, the findings of each case should be reported to expand the knowledge base of this type of tumor. In addition, this is the first description of a meningioma in pig-tailed macaques.

  3. Signals use by leaders in Macaca tonkeana and Macaca mulatta: group-mate recruitment and behaviour monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile

    2010-03-01

    Animals living in groups have to make consensus decisions and communicate with each other about the time, or the direction, in which to move. In some species, the process relies on the proposition of a single individual, i.e. a first individual suggests a movement and the other group members decide whether or not to join this individual. In Tonkean (Macaca tonkeana) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), it has been observed that this first individual displays specific signals at departure. In this paper, we aimed to explore the function of such behaviours, i.e. if these behaviours were recruitment signals or only cues about the motivation of the first departed individual. We carried out temporal analyses and studied the latencies of the first departed individual's behaviours and of the joining of other group members. We also assessed whether the social style of a species in terms of dominance and kinship relationships influenced the patterns of signal emissions. We then analyzed how the first departed individual decided to make a pause or to stop it according to the identities of group members that joined the collective movement. Results showed that Tonkean macaques and rhesus macaques seemed to use back-glances to monitor the joining of other group members and pauses to recruit such individuals. This was especially the case for highly socially affiliated individuals in Tonkean macaques and kin-related individuals in rhesus macaques. Moreover, back-glances and pauses disappeared when such individuals joined the first departed individual. From these results, we suggested that such behaviour could be considered intentional. Such findings could not be highlighted without temporal analyses and accurate observations on primate groups in semi-free ranging conditions.

  4. Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca fascicularis sebagai Model Diabetes Melitus: Pengaruh Hiperglikemia pada Lipid Darah, Serum Oksida Nitrik, dan Tingkah Laku Klinis (THE LONG TAILED MACAQUE (MACACA FASCICULARIS AS A MODEL OF DIABETES MELITUS : EFFECT OF HYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kayati Widyastuti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca fascicularis sebagai Model Diabetes Melitus: Pengaruh Hiperglikemia pada Lipid Darah, Serum Oksida Nitrik, dan Tingkah Laku Klinis   (THE LONG TAILED MACAQUE (MACACA FASCICULARIS AS A MODEL OF DIABETES MELITUS : EFFECT OF HYPERGLICEMIA ON BLOOD LIPID, SERUM NITRIC OXIDE, AND CLINICAL BEHAVIOUR

  5. Pneumonia and bacteremia in a golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae during a translocation program of free-ranging animals in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Marina G; Iovine, Renata O; Torres, Luciana N; Catão-Dias, José L; Pissinatti, Alcides; Kierulff, Maria C M; Carvalho, Vania M

    2015-05-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important emerging pathogen in humans, particularly the invasive hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotype. In addition, the organism is an important public health concern because of nosocomial infections and antimicrobial resistance. Nonhuman primates in captivity are susceptible to Klebsiella, particularly when a stress factor is involved. Infections vary depending on the species but can cause significant morbidity and mortality in these animals. The objective of this study was to describe a case of bronchopneumonia and bacteremia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a free-ranging golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) caught and maintained in quarantine during a translocation program for conservation purposes. An adult male, that had showed emaciation and apathy, was clinically examined and, despite being provided supportive therapy, died 2 days after onset of clinical signs. At postmortem examination, generalized bilateral pneumonia and pericarditis were observed. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin for histology, and pulmonary tissues and cardiac blood were collected for microbiologic diagnostic procedures. Bacteria that were shown to be HMV K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae strains were isolated from the pulmonary fluids and cardiac blood in pure cultures. Severe bronchopneumonia was the main pathological finding. The consequences of the confirmed presence of the HMV phenotype of K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae in this wildlife species for human, animal, and ecosystem health should be determined. These results demonstrate the importance of quarantine and potential pathogen screening during wildlife translocation procedures. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Alloscardovia macacae sp. nov., isolated from the milk of a macaque (Macaca mulatta), emended description of the genus Alloscardovia and proposal of Alloscardovia criceti comb. nov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Ročková, Š.; Vlková, E.; Rada, V.; Havlík, J.; Kopečný, Jan; Bunešová, V.; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Pechar, R.; Profousová, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 12 (2013), s. 4439-4446 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/1091 Grant - others:GA MZe(CZ) QJ1210093 Program:QJ Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : alanine * asparagine * Alloscardovia macacae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.798, year: 2013

  7. γ-Ray-induced reciprocal translocations in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Tobari, I.; Yamagiwa, J.; Utsugi, T.; Kitazume, M.; Nakai, S.

    1984-01-01

    The yield of translocations induced by γ-rays in the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) spermatogonia were studied by cytological analysis in spermatocytes derived from them. The frequencies of translocations were 0.09 per cent at 0 Gy, 1.9 per cent at 1 Gy, 2.5 per cent at 2 Gy and 1.3 per cent at 3 Gy, showing a humped dose-response curve with a peak yield around 2 Gy. No remarkable inter-seasonal or inter-animal variations in the induction of translocation were observed. The frequencies in the crab-eating monkey were significantly higher than those in the same Macaca genus, the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). This inter-species difference in radiosensitivity might be affected by the condition of spermatogonial stem cells at the time of exposure to radiation, depending on the seasonal change in spermatogenetic activity. (orig.)

  8. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Macaca fascicularis by EST Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which repress gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. In this study, an expressed sequence tag (EST-based combined method was applied for the detection of miRNAs in Macaca fascicularis which is used as a model animal extensively in medical experiments, particularly those involved with neuroscience and disease. Initially, previously known miRNA sequences from metazoans were used to blast with the EST databases of Macaca fascicularis, and then a range of filtering criteria was conducted to remove some pseudo ones. At last a total of 8 novel conserved miRNAs were identified; their functions were further predicted and analyzed. Together, our study provides insight into miRNAs and their functions in Macaca fascicularis, indicating that the EST analysis is an efficient and affordable alternative approach for identifying novel miRNA candidates.

  9. High resolution karyotype of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chromosome banding analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH studies are established approaches to compare human and ape chromosomes. FISH banding is a relatively new and not routinely applied method very well suited to provide to a better understanding of the evolutionary history of primate and human phylogeny. Here multicolor banding (MCB-applying probes derived from Homo sapiens were used to analyze the chromosomes of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis. The results agree with those of previous studies in other macaques, e.g. Macaca sylvanus or Macaca nemestrina. This result highlights that morphological differences within the Cercopithecoidea must be found rather in subchromosomal changes or even in epigenetics than in gross structural alterations.

  10. Effects of synthetic glycosides on steroid balance in Macaca fascicularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinow, M.R.; Elliott, W.H.; McLaughlin, P.; Upson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The predominantly beta-anomer of diosgenin glucoside (DG) was synthesized and its effects on cholesterol homeostasis were tested in monkeys. Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were fed, during two 3-week periods, a semipurified diet with 0.1% cholesterol and a similar ration containing 1% DG, respectively. A Chow diet was given for 5 weeks between the experimental periods. Cholesterol and bile acid balance were analyzed during the last week of each semipurified diet. Diosgenin glucoside reduced cholesterolemia from 292 mg/dl to 172 mg/dl, decreased intestinal absorption of exogenous cholesterol from 62.4% to 26.0%, and increased secretion of endogenous cholesterol from -0.8 to 93.5 mg/day. The fecal excretion of neutral steroids rose from 40.7 to 157.3 mg/day; that of bile acids changed, nonsignificantly, from 23.1 to 16.0 mg/day. The cholesterol balance was -44 mg/day in the control period, and 88 mg/day in the DG-fed animals. No toxic signs were observed. Thus, when long-term studies demonstrate that the glucoside is well tolerated, DG and other synthetic glycosides with similar activities may be of use in the management of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis

  11. Grooming reciprocity in female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dongpo; Li, Jinhua; Garber, Paul A; Sun, Lixing; Zhu, Yong; Sun, Binghua

    2012-06-01

    Grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. In this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China, to determine the influence of rank and kinship on grooming relationships, and whether females act as reciprocal traders (exchange grooming received for grooming given) or interchange traders (interchange grooming for social tolerance or other commodities). The results showed that: (1) grooming given was positively correlated with grooming received; (2) kinship did not exert a significant influence on grooming reciprocity; and (3) grooming reciprocity occurred principally between individuals of adjacent rank; however, when females of different rank groomed, females tended to groom up the hierarchy (lower ranking individuals groomed higher ranking individuals more than vice versa). Our results support the contention that both grooming reciprocity and the interchange of grooming for tolerance represent important social tactics used by female Tibetan macaques. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Emotional states after grooming interactions in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    In animal societies, the effect of grooming interactions on anxiety reduction is unclear. This study examined the effects of giving and receiving grooming on anxiety reduction in free ranging female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by measuring rates of self-scratching as an index of anxiety. In this study, the authors used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama prefecture, Japan. They evaluated affiliative relationships, which were defined by standard proximity rates, and found that females' self-scratching rates were lower after grooming affiliated partners than during matched-control periods (occurring on another day, beginning at approximately the same time of day as the corresponding postgrooming period) and not after grooming unaffiliated partners. Moreover, regardless of affiliative relationships, self-scratching rates were lower after receiving grooming than during matched-control periods. These findings did not change after excluding data in which groomer and groomee were in proximity after the grooming interaction. In addition, multivariable analysis showed that affiliative relationships, but not kinship or rank distances, were related to differences in the rates of self-scratching between giving grooming and matched-control periods. In contrast, neither affiliative relationships nor kinship nor rank distances affected differences in self-scratching rates between receiving grooming and matched-control periods. Therefore, individuals' anxiety levels decreased both after giving grooming to affiliated partners and after receiving grooming, regardless of affiliative relationships. This is the first empirical study to support the notion that giving grooming to affiliated partners is self-rewarding in Japanese macaques. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Reproductive and Life History Parameters of Wild Female Macaca assamensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülke, Oliver; Heistermann, Michael; Ostner, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Information on basic reproductive parameters and life-history traits is crucial for the understanding of primate evolution, ecology, social behavior, and reproductive strategies. Here, we report 4 yr of data on reproductive and life-history traits for wild female Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) at Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, northeastern Thailand. During 2 consecutive reproductive seasons, we investigated reproductive behavior and sexual swelling size in 16 females and collected 1832 fecal samples. Using enzyme immunoassays, we measured fecal estrogen and progesterone metabolites to assess ovarian activity and timing of ovulation and to ascertain conceptions and pregnancies. Timing of reproduction was strictly seasonal (births: April–July, 86% in April–June, 4 yr, n = 29; conceptions: October–February, 65% in December–January, 2 yr, n = 17). Females showed no cyclic ovarian activity outside the mating season and conceived in their first or second cycle (mean: 1.2 cycles to conception, n = 13). Gestation length was on average 164.2 d (range: 158–170, n = 10), and females had their first infant at an age of 5 yr (n = 4). Interbirth intervals were bimodally distributed, with females giving birth on average every 13.9 or 23.2 mo. Shorter interbirth intervals were linked to early parturition within the birth season. Most females displayed subcaudal sexual swellings which, however, did not reliably indicate female reproductive status or fertility. Overall, our results fall within the range of findings reported for other macaque species. These results thus add to the growing body of information available for wild macaques, facilitating comparative studies for a better understanding of interspecific differences in social and reproductive patterns. PMID:20651906

  14. Macaca munzala: a new species from Western Arunachal Pradesh, Northeastern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, A.; Datta, A.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Mishra, C.

    2005-01-01

    Macaca, comprising 20 well-characterized species, represents the largest and one of the most ecologically and socially diverse of all the nonhuman primate genera. We report the discovery of a macaque that is new to science from the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, a biodiversity-rich

  15. Essentialism in the Absence of Language? Evidence from Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Webb; Shankar, Maya; Santos, Laurie R.

    2010-01-01

    We explored whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) share one important feature of human essentialist reasoning: the capacity to track category membership across radical featural transformations. Specifically, we examined whether monkeys--like children (Keil, 1989)--expect a transformed object to have the internal properties of its original…

  16. Probing around implants and teeth with healthy or inflamed peri-implant mucosa/gingival. A histologic comparison in cynomolgus monkeys. (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Søren; Holmstrup, Palle; Stoltze, K.

    2002-01-01

    Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis...

  17. Analyse comparée de bassins sédimentaires transtensionnels : le bassin de Santa Rosalia (Basse Californie du Sud, Mexique et de Mendibelza (Pyrénées, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourrouilh- Le Jan, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente un analyse comparée de bassins sédimentaires liés a l’ouverture en cours du Golfe de Californie, avec le bassin d’ouverture ancien, jurassico-crétacés de Mendibelza dans les Pyrénées occidentales par l’ouverture du Golfe de Gascogne. Ce travail est une contribution à la compréhension de la sédimentation et des contrôles de bassins transtensionnels situés sur des marges divergentes obliques actuelles, dans le but d’utiliser ces modèles et de les comparer, pour mieux comprendre et interpréter les bassins anciens créés dans des contextes géodynamiques analogues, mais qui sont tectonisés. Le fil directeur est l’analyse comparée de ces bassins : - dans leur évolution tectonique, leur modélisation géométrique et les contraintes auxquelles ils ont été soumis, - dans l’enregistrement sédimentaire (séquences des épisodes d’ouverture, des forçages tectoniques, climatiques et sédimentaires qui ont accompagné la naissance, l’évolution et la tectonisation de ces bassins (Mendibelza. Ainsi, le bassin de Santa Rosalia a enregistré les étapes d’évolution parallèles à la formation du rift oblique du Golfe de Californie depuis le Miocène supérieur suivant 3 séquences : T1 (Miocène supérieur-Pliocène inférieur représente la phase syn-rift constituée de faciès de fan-delta; T2 (Pliocène inférieur à moyen représente la transition du rifting-drifting, marquée par une rupture brusque de la sédimentation et constitué de faciès de fan-delta passant à plate forme; T3 (Pliocène supérieur-Pléistocène est un cortège de haut niveau marin, marquant une deuxième pulsation de la subsidence du bassin de Santa Rosalia pendant l’ouverture généralisée du Golfe de Californie. La formation de Mendibelza est constituée de 3 séquences : - la séquence inférieure K1 de l’Albien inférieur, formée de faciès de front-delta et pro-delta déposés pendant la phase Syn-rift. K2

  18. Cytotoxic and proliferative T cell responses in HIV-1-infected Macaca nemestrina.

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, S J; Corey, L; Agy, M B; Morton, W R; McElrath, M J; Greenberg, P D

    1995-01-01

    Macaca nemestrina has been described as an animal model for acute HIV-1 infection. This animal, unlike most infected humans, appears to contain HIV-1 replication. Therefore analysis of HIV-1-specific proliferative and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses following HIV-1 challenge of M. nemestrina may provide information into the role of such responses in both the control of acute HIV infection and protective immunity. Although CD4+ T cell responses to HIV-1 are generally difficult to detect...

  19. Aggressive behavior of macaques, Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821) on tourists at Kaliurang nature recreation forest, Yogyakarta

    OpenAIRE

    DJUWANTOKO; RETNO NUR UTAMI; WIYONO

    2008-01-01

    Research was conducted in Kaliurang nature recreation forest area, in Gunung Merapi National Park, Yogyakarta. The research aim to investigate the proportion of aggressive behavior of monkeys [Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821)] to tourists. Direct observation method was used to observe the monkeys behavior in the interaction to the tourists. And questioners were distributed to the tourists to know expectation of the tourists which related to the existence of the monkeys in that conservation...

  20. White-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys): A new macaque species from Medog, southeastern Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Zhao, Chao; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2015-07-01

    We describe a newly discovered Macaca species from the Medog, in southeastern Tibet, China, Macaca leucogenys sp. nov or the "white-cheeked macaque". Based on 738 photos taken during direct observations and captured by camera traps this new species appears to be distinct from the Macaca sinica species group. Moreover, the species is distinguished from all potential sympatric macaque species (M. mulatta, M. thibetana, M. assamensis, and M. munzala) in exhibiting a suite of pelage characteristics including relatively uniform dorsal hair pattern, hairy ventral pelage, relative hairless short tail, prominent pale to white side- and chin-whiskers creating a white cheek and round facial appearance, dark facial skin on the muzzle, long and thick hairs on its neck, and a round rather than arrow-shaped male genitalia. This new macaque species was found to exploit a diverse set of habitat types from tropical forest at 1395 m, to primary and secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest at 2000 m, as well as mixed broadleaf-conifer forest at 2700 m. Its range may extend to neighboring counties in Tibet and the part of southeastern Tibet controlled by India. The white-cheeked macaque is threatened by illegal hunting and the construction of hydropower stations. Discovery of this new primate species further highlights the high value for biodiversity conservation of southeastern Tibet and calls for more intensive surveys, studies, and environmental protection in this area. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Probing around implants and teeth with healthy or inflamed peri-implant mucosa/gingival. A histologic comparison in cynomolgus monkeys. (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Søren; Holmstrup, Palle; Stoltze, K.

    2002-01-01

    Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis......Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis...

  2. Single subcutaneous dosing of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, J.; Thuesen, Line Risager; Braskamp, G.

    2011-01-01

    was to determine whether cefovecin is a suitable antibiotic to prevent skin wound infection in rhesus monkeys. Therefore, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of cefovecin after a single subcutaneous injection at 8 mg/kg bodyweight in four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and sensitivity of bacterial isolates from fresh skin...... maximum plasma concentration (C(max) ) of cefovecin was 78 µg/mL and was achieved after 57 min. The mean apparent long elimination half-life (t½) was 6.6 h and excretion occurred mainly via urine. The MIC for the majority of the bacteria examined was >100 µg/mL. The PK of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys...

  3. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne Kirstine Havnsøe; Lundsgaard, Jo F. H.; Bakker, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Five acute-phase reactants—serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron—were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this species....... Reference intervals established were as follows: SAA, 29.5–87.7 mg/L; CRP, 0–17.5 mg/L; haptoglobin, 354.3–2,414.7 mg/L; albumin, 36.1–53.0 g/L; and iron, 13.3–40.2 lmol/L. Furthermore, changes in the acute-phase reactants were studied in two additional groups of animals: eight rhesus macaques suffering...... decreases in albumin and iron concentrations were observed. These results show that SAA, CRP, and haptoglobin are positive acute-phase proteins, whereas albumin and iron are negative acute-phase reactants in rhesus macaques....

  4. The Effect Of PHA And SEA On Mitotic Index Of Lymphocyte Cell Of Macaca Fasciulare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, Masnelli; Iwiq-Indrawati

    2003-01-01

    The observation of influences of PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and SEA (staphilucoccal enterotoxin A) on mitotic index of lymphocyte of Macaca Fascicularis had been done. Half milliliters of lymphocyte cells stimulated with PHA or SEA were cultured in 10 ml RPMI + 1.0 ml Fetal Bouvine Serum (FBS ) + 0.1 ml L-glutamine + 0.15 ml PHA or 0.1 ml SEA ( 0.5 μg/ml ) + 0.1 ml Colchisin on 37 degree C for 96 hours. The result demonstrated that the frequency of mitotic index stimulated with PHA was higher than that of SEA. The average of mitotic index with PHA was 18.56 %, and with SEA was 8.3 %. (author)

  5. Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Norazila; Hambali, Kamarul; Amir, Aainaa

    2017-01-01

    Proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques ( Macaca fascicularis ), i.e., Arenga pinnata , Areca catechu , Terminalia catappa , Elaeis guineensis , Lagerstroemia tomentosa , Mangifera indica , Cascabela thevetia , Muntingia calabura , Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus , Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and Ficus microcarpa , was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. The results showed the following order of nutrients: fibre, protein, fat and ash. Based on the results of the chemical analysis, the highest percentage of fibre content (52.7%), protein (9.9%), fat (77.2%) and ash (8.5%) were found in A. catechu , T. catappa , E. guineensis and C. thevetia , respectively. The nutrient composition of these twelve fruit species was found to differ (ANOVA test: crude protein, F (11,24) = 87.978, p catappa had the highest protein content, and the total mineral content was highest in C. thevetia .

  6. Delayed response task performance as a function of age in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, H S; Call, J; Sajuthi, D

    2014-01-01

    We compared delayed response task performance in young, middle-aged, and old cynomolgus monkeys using three memory tests that have been used with non-human primates. Eighteen cynomolgus monkeys-6 young (4-9 years), 6 middle-aged (10-19 years), and 6 old (above 20 years)-were tested. In general......, the old monkeys scored significantly worse than did the animals in the two other age groups. Longer delays between stimulus presentation and response increased the performance differences between the old and younger monkeys. The old monkeys in particular showed signs of impaired visuo-spatial memory...... and deteriorated memory consolidation and executive functioning. These results add to the body of evidence supporting the utility of Macaca fascicularis in studies of cognition and as a potential translational model for age-associated memory impairment/dementia-related disorders....

  7. [Comparisons of aggressive behavior for Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) to tourists from Mt. Huangshan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Huan; Li, Jin-Hua; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between monkey-human aggressive behaviors and age/sex classes of monkey (initiator) and human (recipient), by using all-occurrence sampling and continuous recording, we evaluated the monkey-human aggressive behaviors between macaques (Macaca thibetana) and tourists at Mt. Huangshan in two periods (Nov.-Dec.2008 and Apr.-May 2009). After we divide the aggression into three types according to the dangerous level to tourists, some significant patterns were observed.Our observations indicate that Tibetan macaques respond differently to human according to the age/sex classes involved. On one hand, We found that the adult male monkeys tend to be more aggressive than expected (Ptourist exploring places.

  8. Aggressive behavior of macaques, Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821 on tourists at Kaliurang nature recreation forest, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJUWANTOKO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted in Kaliurang nature recreation forest area, in Gunung Merapi National Park, Yogyakarta. The research aim to investigate the proportion of aggressive behavior of monkeys [Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, 1821] to tourists. Direct observation method was used to observe the monkeys behavior in the interaction to the tourists. And questioners were distributed to the tourists to know expectation of the tourists which related to the existence of the monkeys in that conservation area. Analyses of the interactions suggest that monkeys respond differentially to tourists according to the age/sex classes involved. Additionally, adult and subadult male monkeys participated in more aggressive behaviors than expected, while adult female monkeys and immature participated in such behaviors less than expected. These variations in interaction patterns between monkeys and tourists may have substantial implications for management issues and that the potential for gaining or reducing the tourists to visit in that forest recreation.

  9. Physiological and behavioural stress responses in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to noise associated with construction work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, K; Fernström, A-L; Wergård, E-M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioural and physiological responses to environmental disturbances (live and recorded dynamite explosions) in laboratory non-human primates in preparation for a future tunnel construction underneath our animal facility. In a pilot study (A) on 20...... female Macaca fascicularis, a day of test blasts resulted in an increase in faecal cortisol and immunoreactive cortisol metabolites (CICM), and the animals reacted behaviourally with vertical flight and vocalizations. In a follow-up study (B), we assessed the impact of 10 days of exposure to recorded...... was largely unaffected in the two groups. It was decided not to introduce a research moratorium on biomedical research planned to be conducted during the future tunnel construction, and that a conditional stimulus ('warning signal') will be used....

  10. Sex Determination According to the Lengths of Hand Bones in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huaxiang; Zhao, Xiaojin; Hu, Fengxia; Hu, Haiyang

    2017-10-01

    Measurement of hand bone length has been used for sex determination in humans and nonhuman primates (McFadden and Bracht: Early Hum Dev 85 (2009) 117-124; El-Morsi and Al-Hawary: J Forensic Leg Med 20 (2013) 6-13). The aim of this study was to determine the sex of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on the basis of the lengths of corresponding rows of metacarpals and phalanges in a macaque population by means of developing discriminant functions. Measurements on direct dry bones only included lengths for 19 bones of the left hand in 39 macaques (consisting of 13 adult males and 26 adult females). The results revealed that the mean values of males were significantly greater than those of females for all of the metacarpals and phalanges. The results were obtained in 84.4% of accuracy from distal phalanges, 93.8% from middle phalanges, and 96.9% from both metacarpals and proximal phalanges, respectively. There was a remarkable difference in the magnitude of sex dimorphism in lengths of each section of the hand bones between the population of macaques and humans. This difference may be attributable to the interaction between genetic factors and various environmental factors. As sex differences of hand bones are population-specific (Lazenby: Am J phys Anthropol 118 (2002) 378-384; Lu, Huo, Shi, Peng, Dang, Jiao, Zhu, Zhong, and Chen: Acta Aantomica Sinica 39 (2008) 267-271; Eshak, Ahmed, and Gawad: J Forensic Leg Med 18 (2011) 246-252), the discriminant equations for all of the metacarpals and phalanges are applicable to the population of Macaca mulatta from the Taihang Mountain. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:1741-1746, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparative anatomy of the arm muscles of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) with some comments on locomotor mechanics and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A G M F; Bretas, Rafael Vieira; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    The anatomical literature on the genus Macaca has focused mainly on the rhesus monkey. However, some aspects in the positional behaviors of the Japanese monkey may be different from those in rhesus monkey, suggesting that the anatomical details of these species are divergent. Four thoracic limbs of Macaca fuscata adults were dissected. The arm muscles in Japanese macaques are more similar to rhesus monkeys and Papio; these characteristics are closer to those of bearded capuchins than apes, indicating more proximity of this genus to New World primates. The anatomical features observed favor quadrupedal locomotor behaviors on the ground and in arboreal environments. Japanese monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and bearded capuchins, which share more primitive characteristics in their arm muscles, present features that favor both arboreal and quadrupedal locomotor behaviors, whereas apes, mainly Pan and Gorilla, which spend more time on the ground, present more quadrupedal specializations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Normal Hematological, Biochemical, and Serum Electrolyte Values for a Colony of Rhesus Monkeys ’Macaca mulatta’,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-28

    provided by NAMRL Biomedical Sciences Division and Veterinary Sciences Division personnel are appreciated. The authors are especially grateful to Don...insufficiency in the rhesus monkey. Endocrinology , 50: 664-676, 1952. 7. Hartmen, C.G., and Straus, W.L., Jr. (Ed.), The An y. of the Rhesus Mok (caca...D.P., Valerjo, M.G., and -f Rininger, B.F., Hematologic changes associated with pregnancy and parturition in Macaca mulatta. Lab. Anim. Care, 20

  13. Bilateral neurotoxic amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Consistent pattern of behavior across different social contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Christopher J.; Emery, Nathan J.; Capitanio, John P.; Mason, William A.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Amaral, David G.

    2008-01-01

    Although the amygdala has been repeatedly implicated in normal primate social behavior, great variability exists in the specific social and nonsocial behavioral changes observed after bilateral amygdala lesions in nonhuman primates. One plausible explanation pertains to differences in social context. To investigate this idea, we measured the social behavior of amygdala-lesioned and unoperated rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in two contexts. Animals interacted in four-member social groups over...

  14. Collection of Macaca fascicularis cDNAs derived from bone marrow, kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameoka Yosuke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consolidating transcriptome data of non-human primates is essential to annotate primate genome sequences, and will facilitate research using non-human primates in the genomic era. Macaca fascicularis is a macaque monkey that is commonly used for biomedical and ecological research. Findings We constructed cDNA libraries of Macaca fascicularis, derived from tissues obtained from bone marrow, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus of a young male, and kidney of a young female. In total, 5'-end sequences of 56,856 clones were determined. Including the previously established cDNA libraries from brain and testis, we have isolated 112,587 cDNAs of Macaca fascicularis, which correspond to 56% of the curated human reference genes. Conclusion These sequences were deposited in the public sequence database as well as in-house macaque genome database http://genebank.nibio.go.jp/qfbase/. These data will become valuable resources for identifying functional parts of the genome of macaque monkeys in future studies.

  15. Macaca silenus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    This article reports the structure of dominance and its relationship with social grooming in wild lion-tailed macaque females. The strength of dominance hierarchy was 0.79 on a scale of 0 to 1 indicating a moderate linearity in the ranking system. Dominance scores were converted into an ordinal as well as an interval scale.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Transdermal Fentanyl in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Amy M; Kelly, Richard; Fetterer, David P; Rico, Pedro J; Bailey, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is a μ-opioid agonist that often is used as the analgesic component for balanced anesthesia in both human and veterinary patients. Minimal information has been published regarding appropriate dosing, and the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl are unknown in NHP. The pharmacokinetic properties of 2 transdermal fentanyl delivery methods, a solution (2.6 and 1.95 mg/kg) and a patch (25 µg/h), were determined when applied topically to the dorsal scapular area of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Serum fentanyl concentrations were analyzed by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Compared with the patch, the transdermal fentanyl solution generated higher drug concentrations over longer time. Adverse reactions occurred in the macaques that received the transdermal fentanyl solution at 2.6 mg/kg. Both preparations showed significant interanimal variability in the maximal serum drug levels, time to achieve maximal fentanyl levels, elimination half-life, and AUC values. Both the maximal concentration and the time at which this concentration occurred were increased in macaques compared with most other species after application of the transdermal fentanyl patch and compared with dogs after application of the transdermal fentanyl solution. The pharmacokinetic properties of transdermal fentanyl in macaques are markedly different from those in other veterinary species and preclude its use as a long-acting analgesic drug in NHP. PMID:27423151

  17. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  18. Mammary Gland Cell Culture of Macaca fascicularis as a Reservoir for Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmi Mariya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mammary gland contains adult stem cells that are capable of self-renewal and are likely target for neoplastic transformation leading to breast cancer. In this study, we developed a cell culture derived from the mammary glands of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis (MfMC and furthermore identified the expression of markers for stemness and estrogen receptor-associated activities. We found that the primary culture can be successfully subcultured to at least 3 passages, primarily epithelial-like in morphology, the cultured cells remained heterogenous in phenotype as they expressed epithelial cell markers CD24, CK18, and marker for fibroblast S1004A. Importantly, the cell population also consistently expressed the markers of mammary stem cells (ITGB1 or CD29 and ITGA6 or CD49f, mesenchymal stem cells (CD73 and CD105 and pluripotency (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2. In addition to this, the cells were also positive for Estrogen Receptor (ER, and ER-activated marker Trefoil Factor 1, suggesting an estrogen responsiveness of the culture model. These results indicate that our cell culture model is a reliable model for acquiring a population of cells with mammary stem cell properties and that these cultures may also serve as a reservoir from which more purified populations of stem cell populations can be isolated in the future.

  19. Robust representations of individual faces in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) but not monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Jessica; Weldon, Kimberly B; Parr, Lisa A

    2017-03-01

    Being able to recognize the faces of our friends and family members no matter where we see them represents a substantial challenge for the visual system because the retinal image of a face can be degraded by both changes in the person (age, expression, pose, hairstyle, etc.) and changes in the viewing conditions (direction and degree of illumination). Yet most of us are able to recognize familiar people effortlessly. A popular theory for how face recognition is achieved has argued that the brain stabilizes facial appearance by building average representations that enhance diagnostic features that reliably vary between people while diluting features that vary between instances of the same person. This explains why people find it easier to recognize average images of people, created by averaging multiple images of the same person together, than single instances (i.e. photographs). Although this theory is gathering momentum in the psychological and computer sciences, there is no evidence of whether this mechanism represents a unique specialization for individual recognition in humans. Here we tested two species, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), to determine whether average images of different familiar individuals were easier to discriminate than photographs of familiar individuals. Using a two-alternative forced-choice, match-to-sample procedure, we report a behaviour response profile that suggests chimpanzees encode the faces of conspecifics differently than rhesus monkeys and in a manner similar to humans.

  20. The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Monika; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males. Here we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, by combining demographic, behavioral, and genetic data. Our data suggest that kinship influences spatial proximity between recent natal immigrants and males familiar to them. Immigrants were significantly nearer to more closely related familiar males than to more distantly related individuals. Within a familiar subgroup, natal migrants were significantly closer to maternal kin, followed by paternal kin, then non-kin, and finally to males related via both the maternal and paternal line. Spatial proximity between natal immigrants and familiar males did not decrease over time in the new group, suggesting that there is no decline in associations between these individuals within the first months of immigration. Overall, our results might indicate that kinship is important for the dispersing sex, at least during natal dispersal when kin are still available. PMID:24850977

  1. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, W.H.; Hackleman, S.M.; Braun, A.M.; Pennington, P.; Saphire, D.G.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J.C.; Cox, A.B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure of protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age. 48 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Anne K H; Lundsgaard, Jo F H; Bakker, Jaco; Langermans, Jan A M; Verreck, Frank A W; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Jacobsen, Stine; Bertelsen, Mads Frost

    2014-06-01

    Five acute-phase reactants-serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron-were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this species. Reference intervals established were as follows: SAA, 29.5-87.7 mg/L; CRP, 0-17.5 mg/L; haptoglobin, 354.3-2,414.7 mg/ L; albumin, 36.1-53.0 g/L; and iron, 13.3-40.2 micromol/L. Furthermore, changes in the acute-phase reactants were studied in two additional groups of animals: eight rhesus macaques suffering from acute traumatic injuries and nine rhesus macaques experimentally infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis reflecting a chronic active inflammation. In animals with inflammation, SAA and haptoglobin concentrations were moderately increased, while CRP increased more than 200-fold. In addition, marked decreases in albumin and iron concentrations were observed. These results show that SAA, CRP, and haptoglobin are positive acute-phase proteins, whereas albumin and iron are negative acute-phase reactants in rhesus macaques.

  3. Signaling context modulates social function of silent bared-teeth displays in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Brianne A; McCowan, Brenda

    2014-02-01

    The signaling context has been found to change the meaning of the silent bared-teeth display (SBT) in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) such that the SBT in apparently peaceful contexts communicates subordination, a long-term pattern of behavior, whereas in conflict contexts it communicates immediate submission (PNAS, 104: 1581-1586). However, the context dependent nature of the SBT has not yet been explored in other species. We investigated SBT usage with respect to grooming, severe aggression, and signaler-receiver sex, rank difference, and body size in seven captive groups of rhesus macaques. Peaceful SBTs were given most often to male receivers by male and female signalers whereas conflict SBTs were given to both male and female receivers primarily by female signalers. Male signalers rarely gave SBTs (peaceful or conflict) to female receivers. Unlike pigtail macaques, peaceful SBTs in rhesus were often accompanied by withdrawal behavior (referred to as peaceful SBT-leave), which influenced grooming, but not aggression, at the dyadic level. Severe aggression was less frequent among dyads using peaceful SBTs (regardless of withdrawal behavior) than those using conflict SBTs. In contrast, grooming was more frequent among dyads using peaceful SBT-stay signals than those using peaceful SBT-leave signals or conflict SBTs. In total, our results indicate that peaceful SBTs are a functionally different signal from conflict SBTs in rhesus macaques. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Diagnoses and Treatment of Dental Disorders in a Research Colony of Macaca fascicularis: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Philippe; Brecheisen, Muriel; de Carvalho, Rafael; Bergadano, Alessandra

    2017-09-01

    During daily routine oral examinations in a research colony of nonhuman primates (NHPs, Macaca fascicularis), a variety of oral-dental lesions were identified. A dental care program was established based on these findings. Based on the presence of dental clinical signs and their severity, 31 animals were triaged to be examined and treated by a veterinarian. Clinical examination consisted of visual inspection using a periodontal probe/explorer and full or partial mouth dental radiographs. Treatment was performed during the same procedure. Some animals had a follow-up examination including radiographs months later. Four common dental diseases were diagnosed: periodontal disease, caries, tooth fracture, and tooth attrition. Less frequent were dental abscess, enamel hypomineralization, gingival hyperplasia, hypercementosis, tooth luxation, tooth dysplasia, root resorption, abrasion. Less severe periodontal disease was treated conservatively. If severely affected, teeth were extracted. Well-circumscribed caries without endodontic involvement were treated by composite restoration. Teeth with extensive caries and pulp involvement were extracted. Teeth with exposed pulp were treated via extraction or orthograde root canal treatment. In this case series, 27 (87%) of 31 NHPs exhibited at least 1 moderate to severe dental lesion that required treatment. The presumable improvement in welfare and weight of oral/dental lesions for the overall health status in research NHPs encourages us to continue this program prospectively.

  5. Thrombotic stroke in the anesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta): characterization by MRI - A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauberti, Maxime; Gakuba, Clement; Orset, Cyrille; Obiang, Pauline; Guedin, Pierre; Balossier, Anne; Diependaele, Anne-Sophie; Young, Alan R.; Agin, Veronique; Chazalviel, Laurent; Vivien, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The lack of a relevant stroke model in large nonhuman primates hinders the development of innovative diagnostic/therapeutic approaches concerned with this cerebrovascular disease. Our objective was to develop a novel and clinically relevant model of embolic stroke in the anesthetized monkey that incorporates readily available clinical imaging techniques and that would allow the possibility of drug delivery including strategies of reperfusion. Thrombin was injected into the lumen of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in 12 anesthetized (sevoflurane) male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Sequential MRI studies (including angiography, FLAIR, PWI, DWI, and gadolinium-enhanced T1W imaging) were performed in a 3 T clinical MRI. Physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the investigations. Once standardized, the surgical procedure induced transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in all operated animals. All animals studied showed spontaneous reperfusion, which occurred some time between 2 h and 7 days post-ictus. Eighty percent of the studied animals showed diffusion/perfusion mismatch. The ischemic lesions at 24 h spared both superficial and profound territories of the MCA. Some animals presented hemorrhagic transformation at 7 days post-ictus. In this study, we developed a pre-clinically relevant model of embolic stroke in the anesthetized nonhuman primate. (authors)

  6. Evaluation of cell sheet application on one wall bone defect in Macaca nemestrina through periostin expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamin, R. Y.; Soeroso, Y.; Amir, L.; Idrus, E.

    2017-08-01

    Chronic periodontitis is an oral disease in which the destruction of periodontal tissue leads to tooth loss. Regenerative therapy for attachment cannot be applied to one wall bone defects owing to the minimal existing healthy bone. Tissue engineering in the form of cell sheets has been developed to overcome this limitation. In a previous study, cell sheet application to a one wall bone defect in Macaca nemestrina showed good clinical results. To evaluate the effectiveness of cell sheet application histologically, the level of periostin expression in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of M. nemestrina was determined. Periostin is a 90-kDa protein that regulates coordination and interaction for regeneration and tissue repair. A laboratory observation study was performed to see the differences in periostin levels in samples collected from M. nemestrina’s GCF, where a cell sheet was applied to the bone defect. Gel electrophoresis with SDS-PAGE was performed to detect periostin expression based on its molecular weight and to compare the expression band between the cell sheet and the control at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after treatment. The gel electrophoresis result shows different thicknesses of the protein band around the molecular weight of periostin between the cell sheet groups.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following intravenous and intramuscular administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kristi R.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Christe, Kari L.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine in conscious rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration. Four healthy, opioid-naïve, socially-housed, adult male macaques were used. Buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg) was administered intravenously as a bolus or intramuscularly on separate occasions. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 24 h, post-administration. Serum buprenorphine concentrations were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with commercially available software. Mean residence time in the IV study as compared to the IM study was 177 (159–189) minutes vs. 185 (174–214) minutes, respectively [median (range)]. In the IV study, concentration back extrapolated to time zero was found to be 33.0 (16.8–57.0) ng/mL [median (range)]. On the other hand, the maximum serum concentration found in the IM study was 11.8 (6.30–14.8) ng/mL [median (range)]. Rhesus macaques maintained concentrations greater than 0.10 ng/mL for over 24 h in the IV study and over 12 h in the IM study. Bioavailability was found to be 68.1 (59.3–71.2)% [median (range)]. No significant adverse effects were observed in the monkeys at the 0.03 mg/kg dose of buprenorphine during either study. PMID:24666428

  8. Delayed imitation of lipsmacking gestures by infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Paukner

    Full Text Available Human infants are capable of accurately matching facial gestures of an experimenter within a few hours after birth, a phenomenon called neonatal imitation. Recent studies have suggested that rather than being a simple reflexive-like behavior, infants exert active control over imitative responses and 'provoke' previously imitated gestures even after a delay of up to 24 h. Delayed imitation is regarded as the hallmark of a sophisticated capacity to control and flexibly engage in affective communication and has been described as an indicator of innate protoconversational readiness. However, we are not the only primates to exhibit neonatal imitation, and delayed imitation abilities may not be uniquely human. Here we report that 1-week-old infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta who show immediate imitation of a lipsmacking gesture also show delayed imitation of lipsmacking, facilitated by a tendency to refrain from lipsmacking toward a still face during baseline measurements. Individual differences in delayed imitation suggest that differentially matured cortical mechanisms may be involved, allowing some newborns macaques to actively participate in communicative exchanges from birth. Macaque infants are endowed with basic social competencies of intersubjective communication that indicate cognitive and emotional commonality between humans and macaques, which may have evolved to nurture an affective mother-infant relationship in primates.

  9. Distribution of an 125I-labelled chloroquine analogue in a pregnant macaca monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dencker, L.; Lindquist, N.G.; Ullberg, S.

    1975-01-01

    Whole body autoradiography of a pregnant monkey (Macaca irus) of late gestation was performed 72 h after an intravenous injection of the 125 I-labelled chloroquine analogue 4-(3-dimethylaminopropylamino)-7-iodoquinoline (DAPQ). The overall distribution pattern in the monkey was similar to that which was earlier observed in rodents. A few species differences, however, were found in the monkey as compared to the rodents: a high accumulation in the inner part of the adrenal cortex, a high level in the central nervous system, and generally a higher retention in the tissues. The accumulation in the cortex may be of significance for the cortisone-like effects of the 4-aminoquinolines in rheumatoid arthritis and allied conditions. The fact that no accumulation was found in the adrenal cortex of mice and rats indicates that these species may not be appropriate in studies on the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of the 4-aminoquinolines. As was earlier observed in small rodents the melanin containing structures accumulated the drug. In both the mother and the fetus a high concentration was thus seen in the uveal tract of the eye, in the inner ear (in the stria vascularis of the cochlea and the planum semilunatum of the ampullae) and in the hair follicles. This accumulation can be related to reported disturbances-also transplacentally induced-in vision and hearing

  10. Establishment of reference values for complete blood count and blood gases in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKAYAMA, Shunya; KOIE, Hiroshi; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; KATAKAI, Yuko; ITO-FUJISHIRO, Yasuyo; SANKAI, Tadashi; YASUTOMI, Yasuhiro; AGEYAMA, Naohide

    2017-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are closely related to humans phylogenetically, and this has resulted in their widespread use as a preclinical model. Hematological data with regard to these monkeys are thus important. Although reference values for blood components and sex hormones have been established for cynomolgus monkeys, those for arterial blood gases have not. The arterial blood gases quickly reflect respiratory and circulatory dynamics, and are thus useful for animal management and safe general anesthesia and surgical operations. Furthermore, since O2 is transported by RBC, CBC and blood gases are closely related. The present study aimed to establish reference values for arterial blood gases and CBC in cynomolgus monkeys over a wide age range. Blood gases and CBC of arterial blood, collected from 41 female and 21 male anesthetized monkeys, were measured. Age correlated with RBC, HGB and HCT in the CBC. Values differed significantly between males and females in pCO2, CO2 concentration, MCV and MCH. The pH of blood was equivalent to that of humans and pCO2 was more stable, whereas MCV and MCH were lower than those in humans. Erythrocytes were smaller and less pigmented than in other Macaca species. Several relationships between gender and age, and blood gases and CBC were identified in cynomolgus monkeys. In conclusion, these reference values will be useful as markers for veterinary applications and in the care and maintenance of these animals. PMID:28381665

  11. Infeksi Cacing Saluran Pencernaan Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca fascicularis Yang Diperdagangkan Di Pasar Satria Denpasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Ari Dwipayanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis dan intensitas serta prevalensi infeksi cacing saluran pencernaan pada monyet ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis yang diperdagangkan di Pasar Satria Denpasar. Empat puluh lima sampel feses M. fascicularis (24 ekor monyet betina dan 21 ekor monyet jantan diambil secara aseptis, diberi label dan selanjutnya diperiksa di laboratorium Parasitologi FKH Universitas Udayana. Sampel diperiksa menggunakan metode konsentrasi sedimentasi untuk mengidentifikasi jenis cacing dan modifikasi McMaster untuk mengetahui intensitas infeksi. Jenis cacing saluran pencernaan yang berhasil diidentifikasi berturut-turut adalah Ancylostoma sp. (91,1%, Trichostrongylus sp./Oesophagostonum sp. (73,3%, Trichuris sp. (22,2%, Ascaris sp. dan Taenia sp. (4,4%. Rataan intensitas infeksi cacing      Ancylostoma sp. 4913 ± 4849 telur per gram tinja, Thrichostrongylus sp./ Oesophagostonum sp. 871 ± 816 telur per gram tinja, Trichuris sp. berkisar      171 ± 111 telur per gram tinja. Ascaris sp. dan Taenia sp. memiliki intensitas terendah yakni <100 telur per gram tinja. Secara umum prevalensi kecacingan adalah 93,3%. Prevalensi kecacingan pada monyet betina (52,2% sedangkan pada monyet jantan (48,8%. Berdasarkan umur, prevalensi kecacingan pada anakan, bayi, dan dewasa berturut-turut (72,1%, (25,6%, dan (2,3%. Pola infeksi umumnya tipe infeksi campuran (82,3% dibandingkan infeksi tunggal (17,7%.

  12. A non-invasive study of alopecia in Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng ZHANG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information on the phenomenon of alopecia in Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata, in various environments and proposes a 3-step scoring system for a quantitative assessment of hair loss. Results suggest that alopecia is commonly observed in Japanese macaques, with 20.5% of individuals showing head alopecia and 4.7% showing back alopecia across eight study groups. Alopecia was more commonly observed in adult females (30.8% individuals showing head alopecia and 15.3% showing back alopecia than in other age-sex classes. Seasonal variation of back alopecia was noted, in particular, individuals with patchy back hair were more frequently observed in winter than in summer. Seasonal variation was not observed in head hair. The distribution of alopecia was also different among study groups. The wild population generally had better hair condition than provisioned populations and captive populations. The present study used a non-invasive alopecia scoring system which can be a useful, rapid and non-invasive tool to monitor animal health and well-being at a population level [Current Zoology 57 (1: 26–35, 2011].

  13. Male mate choice in Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min ZHANG, Jinhua LI, Yong ZHU, Xi WANG, Su WANG

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Though females are generally more selective in mate choice, males may also benefit from mate choice if male reproductive success is limited by factors other than simply the number of female mates, and if females differ in short-term reproductive potential. We studied male mate choice in a free-ranging troop of Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China, from August 2007 to April 2008. We employed focal animal sampling and all occurrence sampling to record sexual related behaviors. Eight adult females were divided into three female quality categories according to the females’ age, rank and parity. Using male mating effort as a proxy for male mate choice, we found that males do distinguish female quality and show time-variant mating strategies. Specifically, females with dominant rank, high fecundity, and middle age attracted significantly more males. Our results suggest that female short-term reproductive potential appears to be an important variable in determining male mating effort. Male Tibetan macaques do exercise mate choice for higher quality females as well as reduce useless reproductive cost, which is consistent with the direct benefits theory of mate choice [Current Zoology 56 (2: 213–221, 2010].

  14. Transmission of Chagas disease via blood transfusions in 2 immunosuppressed pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Derek L; Torrence, Annie E; Vogel, Keith W; Stockinger, Diane E; Nelson, Veronica; Murnane, Robert D; Baldessari, Audrey; Kuller, LaRene; Agy, Michael; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E

    2014-02-01

    A 2.25-y-old male pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) was experimentally irradiated and received a bone marrow transplant. After transplantation and engraftment, the macaque had unexpected recurring pancytopenia and dependent edema of the prepuce, scrotum, and legs. The diagnostic work-up included a blood smear, which revealed a trypomastigote consistent with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease (CD). We initially hypothesized that the macaque had acquired the infection when it lived in Georgia. However, because the animal had received multiple blood transfusions, all blood donors were screened for CD. One male pigtailed macaque blood donor, which was previously housed in Louisiana, was positive for T. cruzi antibodies via serology. Due to the low prevalence of infection in Georgia, the blood transfusion was hypothesized to be the source of T. cruzi infection. The transfusion was confirmed as the mechanism of transmission when screening of archived serum revealed seroconversion after blood transfusion from the seropositive blood donor. The macaque made a full clinical recovery, and further follow-up including thoracic radiography, echocardiography, and gross necropsy did not show any abnormalities associated with CD. Other animals that received blood transfusions from the positive blood donor were tested, and one additional pigtailed macaque on the same research protocol was positive for T. cruzi. Although CD has been reported to occur in many nonhuman primate species, especially pigtailed macaques, the transmission of CD via blood transfusion in nonhuman primates has not been reported previously.

  15. Effects on executive function following damage to the prefrontal cortex in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tara L; Schettler, Stephen P; Killiany, Ronald J; Rosene, Douglas L; Moss, Mark B

    2009-04-01

    Executive function is a term used to describe the cognitive processes subserved by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). An extensive body of work has characterized the effects of damage to the PFC in nonhuman primates, but it has focused primarily on the capacity of recognition and working memory. One limitation in studies of the functional parcellation of the PFC has been the absence of tests that assess executive function or its functional components. The current study used an adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a classic test of frontal lobe and executive function in humans, to assess the effects of bilateral lesions in the dorsolateral PFC on executive function in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). The authors used the category set-shifting task, which requires the monkey to establish a pattern of responding to a specific category (color or shape) based on reward contingency, maintain that pattern of responding, and then shift to responding to a different category when the reward contingency changes. Rhesus monkeys with lesions of the dorsolateral PFC were impaired in abstraction, establishing a response pattern to a specific category and maintaining and shifting that response pattern on the category set-shifting task. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Free-ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): III. Dental eruption patterns and dental pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Turnquist, Jean E; Kessler, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the dental eruption patterns, dentition, and dental wear, including tooth loss and breakage, of the free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago (CS), Puerto Rico, ranging from 24 hr to 25 years old. Of the 694 monkeys on the island in the year 1985, 688 (99.1%; 366 males, 322 females) were captured and the dentition of 685 subjects (98.7% of the total population; 366 males, 319 females) was examined. Animals ranged in age from less than 24 hr to 331 months (27.58 years), encompassing the entire life span of the CS macaques. Results demonstrated that the first deciduous teeth appeared as early as the third day of life and that the sequence of dental eruption was comparable to the pattern observed in laboratory rhesus. However, there were slight differences in the age of eruption of individual teeth. For example, the canines and third molars erupted about a year later in the CS macaques compared to some laboratory rhesus. Overall, CS rhesus had good oral health and dental condition although tooth wear, loss, and breakage were common in aged animals, especially in males. This report, combined with earlier studies on morphological characteristics and skeletal remains of the CS macaques, provides the basis for further studies on the biology, genetics, life history, and effects of the environment on rhesus monkeys. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Facial width-to-height ratio relates to dominance style in the genus Macaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Borgi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical, visual, chemical, and auditory cues signalling fighting ability have independently evolved in many animal taxa as a means to resolve conflicts without escalating to physical aggression. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR, i.e., the relative width to height of the face has been associated with dominance-related phenotypes both in humans and in other primates. In humans, faces with a larger fWHR are perceived as more aggressive. Methods. We examined fWHR variation among 11 species of the genus Macaca. Macaques have been grouped into four distinct categories, from despotic to tolerant, based on their female dominance style. Female dominance style is related to intra- and inter-sexual competition in both males and females and is the result of different evolutionary pressure across species. We used female dominance style as a proxy of intra-/inter-sexual competition to test the occurrence of correlated evolution between competitive regimes and dominance-related phenotypes. fWHR was calculated from 145 2D photographs of male and female adult macaques. Results. We found no phylogenetic signal on the differences in fWHR across species in the two sexes. However, fWHR was greater, in females and males, in species characterised by despotic female dominance style than in tolerant species. Discussion. Our results suggest that dominance-related phenotypes are related to differences in competitive regimes and intensity of inter- and intra-sexual selection across species.

  18. Effects of Human Management Events on Conspecific Aggression in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Jacob H; Beisner, Brianne A; Hill, Ashley E; McCowan, Brenda

    2017-03-01

    Conspecific aggression in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at primate research facilities is a leading source of trauma and can potentially influence animal wellbeing and research quality. Although aggression between macaques is a normal part of daily social interactions, human presence might affect the frequency of various behaviors and instigate increases in conspecific aggression. We sought to determine how and which human management events affect conspecific aggression both immediately after an event and throughout the course of a day. From June 2008 through December 2009, we recorded agonistic encounters among macaques living in 7 social groups in large outdoor field cages. Behavioral data were then synchronized with specific management events (for example, feeding, enclosure cleaning, animal catching) that occurred within or near the enclosure. By using an Information Theoretical approach, 2 generalized linear mixed models were developed to estimate the effects of human management events on 1) aggression after individual management events and 2) daily levels of aggression. Univariate analysis revealed an increase in the rate of aggression after a management event occurred. The best predictor of aggression in a cage was the type of management event that occurred. Various factors including the number of daily management events, the total time of management events, the technicians involved, reproductive season, and their interactions also showed significant associations with daily aggression levels. Our findings demonstrate that human management events are associated with an increase in conspecific aggression between rhesus macaques and thus have implications regarding how humans manage primates in research facilities.

  19. Circulation of Campylobacter spp. in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta held in captivity: a longitudinal study

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    Márcia Cristina Ribeiro Andrade

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is an extremely important zoonosis, circulating freely in the environment. In nonhuman primates kept in open facilities and bred for experimental purposes, the presence of Campylobacter spp. could cause severe damage to the production and interfere with the results of scientific research. In this paper, we assessed the circulation of Campylobacter spp. in a colony of clinically healthy rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta destined to research. The analysis was carried out during seven non-consecutive years. Data showed that despite several changes made in animal management along the studied years in order to control this zoonosis, reduction of bacterial charge did not occur. Significant differences among the age groups and sex were observed. Infants showed higher susceptibility than adult animals. In general males were more infected than females. Modifications adopted in the handling techniques need to be reviewed with the intent of improving the production, reducing bacterial infection of the stock and avoiding undesirable cross reactions in the research carried out with these animals. Therefore, this paper alerts professionals that work directly with captive rhesus monkeys about the risks of Campylobacter spp. infection and possible interference on the experimental procedures.

  20. Proteome profiling of the sperm maturation milieu in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Jin, Shao-Hua; Liu, Xue-Xia; Wang, Wen-Juan; Liu, Fu-Jun

    2016-04-01

    The mammalian spermatozoon acquires its fertilising potential during transit through the epididymis, where it interacts with epididymal luminal fluid proteins (the sperm maturation milieu). In order to highlight the epididymal-specific function of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) in sperm maturation, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of epididymal luminal fluid proteins was followed by identification by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) or MALDI-TOF/TOF and revealed over five hundred spots, comprising 198 non-redundant proteins. Some mass spectrometric data were confirmed by western blotting identification. Some common epididymal fluid proteins were identified, such as clusterin, α-1-antitrypsin, malate dehydrogenase, L-lactate dehydrogenase B, α-1-acid glycoprotein 1 and α-mannosidase. More than 7% of all proteins were anti-oxidative, which might control oxidative stress within the male tract. When compared with bull and human epididymal luminal fluid proteins, those in the rhesus monkey had more overlap with the human, which provides evidence of a close evolutionary relationship between the rhesus monkey and man. This study provides new proteomic information on possible rhesus monkey epididymal functions and novel potential biomarkers for the noninvasive assessment of male fertility.

  1. Construction of an integrated welfare assessment system (MacWel) for Macaques (Macaca spp.) in human husbandry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene; Bakker, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    Welfare, whereas the 12 corresponding criteria were enriched with additional attributes: Comfortable Lighting, Absence of Noise, Ease of movement and natural habitat. The authors will further proceed with using more experts in a Delphi method for the translation procedure to aggre-gated levels to be able......The paper describes the construction procedure of an assessment protocol for Macaques (Macaca spp.). The authors have chosen an integrative approach, currently frequently used for the construction of such protocols with a clear preference for animal-based parameters to assess the welfare states...

  2. Impaired performance from brief social isolation of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - A multiple video-task assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    Social isolation has been demonstrated to produce profound and lasting psychological effects in young primates. In the present investigation, two adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were isolated from one another for up to 6 days and tested on 7 video tasks designed to assess psychomotor and cognitive functioning. Both the number and quality (i.e., speed and accuracy) of responses were significantly compromised in the social isolation condition relative to levels in which the animals were tested together. It is argued that adult rhesus are susceptible to performance disruption by even relatively brief social isolation, and that these effects can best be assessed by a battery of complex and sensitive measures.

  3. Anesthetic management in intrauterine surgery to evaluate an experimental model of myelomeningocele in non human primates (Macaca mulatta Anestesia em cirurgia intra-uterina para avaliar um modelo experimental de mielomeningocele em primatas não humanos (Macaca mulatta

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    Alfonso Galván-Montaño

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the anesthetic management in intrauterine surgery to induce myelomeningocele in non human primates Macaca mulatta. METHODS: A total of nine fetuses had intrauterine surgery; laminectomy was performed on them in L5 and L6. The studied variables were: maternal death, fetus death, cardiac frequency, respiratory frequency, arterial pressure, temperature, and oxygen saturation. RESULTS: No maternal or fetal deaths occurred; the only variable that was reported below the normal ranges was temperature. CONCLUSION: No maternal or fetal deaths occurred; the only variable that was reported below the normal ranges was temperature.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o manejo anestésico em cirurgia intra-uterina para induzir mielomeningocelo em primatas não humanos, Macaca mulatta. MÉTODOS: Operaram-se um total de nove fetos in útero que foram submetidos à laminectomia em L5 e L6. As variáveis a estudar foram mortes maternas ou fetais, freqüência cardíaca e respiratória, pressão arterial, temperatura e saturação de oxigênio. RESULTADOS: Não se apresentaram mortes maternas ou fetais, a temperatura se manteve abaixo dos 36°C, não tendo repercussões no bem-estar dos macacos. CONCLUSÃO: Não ocorreu nenhum óbito materno ou fetal, sendo que a única variável abaixo do normal foi a temperatura.

  4. Sex Differences in the Development of Social Relationships in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, Federica; Langos, Doreen; Widdig, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented the importance of social bonding for the enhancement of individual fitness. However, little is known about how social relationships develop through ontogeny, and whether their development follows the same trajectory in males and females. Here we analyzed affiliative interactions (proximity, social grooming, play) combined with demographic and genetic data in semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago over their first 4 yr of life (from birth to sexual maturation) to understand how these interactions change through development in both sexes. Generalized linear mixed models revealed that social behaviors mostly followed different developmental trajectories in males and females and were highly dependent on the social context. In particular, sex differences in social behavior varied through development depending on the partner’s sex and age. Females engaged in more social interactions than males, especially with other females, and were more involved in grooming around the time of maturation. In contrast, males interacted more with males and age peers, especially around maturation. Sex differences in social behavior varied through development, but also depended on rank, partner’s rank, and kin line, although not consistently. High-ranking individuals, especially older females, were generally preferred as social partners. Moreover, both male and female individuals interacted mostly with maternal kin, although males also preferred paternal kin over nonkin. Importantly, most developmental changes in sociality happened when individuals were ca. 2 yr old, suggesting that this might be a milestone in the development of sociality in rhesus macaques. The only notable exception to this pattern was play, which was more pronounced in males from the beginning of their lives. We propose that play might serve as a trigger of sex differences in social behavior, with sex differences emerging early in development and

  5. Choriodecidual infection downregulates angiogenesis and morphogenesis pathways in fetal lungs from Macaca nemestrina.

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    Ryan M McAdams

    Full Text Available Intrauterine exposure to amniotic fluid (AF cytokines is thought to predispose to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. We evaluated the effects of GBS exposure on RNA expression in fetal lung tissue to determine early molecular pathways associated with fetal lung injury that may progress to BPD.Ten chronically catheterized pregnant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina at 118-125 days gestation (term = 172 days received choriodecidual inoculation of either: 1 Group B Streptococcus (n = 5 or 2 saline (n = 5. Cesarean section and fetal necropsy was performed in the first week after GBS or saline inoculation regardless of labor. RNA was extracted from fetal lungs and profiled by microarray. Results were analyzed using single gene, Gene Set, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Validation was by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.Despite uterine quiescence in most cases, fetal lung injury occurred in four GBS cases (intra-alveolar neutrophils, interstitial thickening and one control (peri-mortem hemorrhage. Significant elevations of AF cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 were detected in GBS versus controls (p<0.05. Lung injury was not directly caused by GBS, because GBS was undetectable by culture and PCR in the AF and fetal lungs. A total of 335 genes were differentially expressed greater than 1.5 fold (p<0.05 with GBS exposure associated with a striking upregulation of genes in innate and adaptive immunity and downregulation of pathways for angiogenesis, morphogenesis, and cellular growth and development.A transient choriodecidual infection may induce fetal lung injury with profound alterations in the genetic program of the fetal lung before signs of preterm labor. Our results provide a window for the first time into early molecular pathways disrupting fetal lung angiogenesis and morphogenesis before preterm labor occurs, which may set the stage for BPD. A strategy to prevent BPD should target the fetus in utero to attenuate alterations in the fetal lung

  6. Concealed fertility and extended female sexuality in a non-human primate (Macaca assamensis.

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    Ines Fürtbauer

    Full Text Available In numerous primates living in mixed-sex groups, females display probabilistic cues of fertility to simultaneously concentrate paternity to dominant males while diluting it amongst others as a means to reduce the risk of infanticide and to increase male care for offspring. A few species, however, lack these cues and potentially conceal fertility from males; yet, to date, little is known about mating patterns and their underlying proximate mechanisms in such species. Here, we investigated mating activity and sexual consortships relative to female reproductive state in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis, a species where females lack prominent anogenital swellings and copulation calls. During two mating seasons (2837 contact hours we recorded sexual and social behaviors, sexual consortships, and collected 1178 fecal samples (n = 15 females which were analyzed for progestogen concentrations to assess female reproductive state and to determine the timing of ovulation and conception. Although mostly conceiving in their first ovarian cycle, females were sexually receptive throughout the entire 4-month mating season, and within-cycle mating frequencies were not increased during fertile phases. Dominant males did not monopolize fertile matings, and consortships by high-ranking males lasted for long periods, which were not exclusively linked to female fertile phases. Furthermore, females copulated promiscuously but not randomly, i.e. for almost every female, matings were concentrated to a certain male, irrespective of male rank. Collectively, we demonstrate that fertility is undisclosed to males. The extreme extended female sexuality facilitated by concealed fertility may allow females to create differentiated mating relationships within a promiscuous mating system. Our study provides important new insight into the plasticity of female sexuality in non-human primates.

  7. Flexibility in food extraction techniques in urban free-ranging bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata.

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    Madhur Mangalam

    Full Text Available Non-human primate populations, other than responding appropriately to naturally occurring challenges, also need to cope with anthropogenic factors such as environmental pollution, resource depletion, and habitat destruction. Populations and individuals are likely to show considerable variations in food extraction abilities, with some populations and individuals more efficient than others at exploiting a set of resources. In this study, we examined among urban free-ranging bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata (a local differences in food extraction abilities, (b between-individual variation and within-individual consistency in problem-solving success and the underlying problem-solving characteristics, and (c behavioral patterns associated with higher efficiency in food extraction. When presented with novel food extraction tasks, the urban macaques having more frequent exposure to novel physical objects in their surroundings, extracted food material from PET bottles and also solved another food extraction task (i.e., extracting an orange from a wire mesh box, more often than those living under more natural conditions. Adults solved the tasks more frequently than juveniles, and females more frequently than males. Both solution-technique and problem-solving characteristics varied across individuals but remained consistent within each individual across the successive presentations of PET bottles. The macaques that solved the tasks showed lesser within-individual variation in their food extraction behavior as compared to those that failed to solve the tasks. A few macaques appropriately modified their problem-solving behavior in accordance with the task requirements and solved the modified versions of the tasks without trial-and-error learning. These observations are ecologically relevant - they demonstrate considerable local differences in food extraction abilities, between-individual variation and within-individual consistency in food extraction

  8. Localization of glycine-containing neurons in the Macaca monkey retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, A.E.; Koontz, M.A.; Pourcho, R.G.; Sarthy, P.V.; Goebel, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Autoradiography following 3H-glycine (Gly) uptake and immunocytochemistry with a Gly-specific antiserum were used to identify neurons in Macaca monkey retina that contain a high level of this neurotransmitter. High-affinity uptake of Gly was shown to be sodium dependent whereas release of both endogenous and accumulated Gly was calcium dependent. Neurons labeling for Gly included 40-46% of the amacrine cells and nearly 40% of the bipolars. Synaptic labeling was seen throughout the inner plexiform layer (IPL) but with a preferential distribution in the inner half. Bands of labeled puncta occurred in S2, S4, and S5. Both light and postembedding electron microscopic (EM) immunocytochemistry identified different types of amacrine and bipolar cell bodies and their synaptic terminals. The most heavily labeled Gly+ cell bodies typically were amacrine cells having a single, thick, basal dendrite extending deep into the IPL and, at the EM level, electron-dense cytoplasm and prominent nuclear infoldings. This cell type may be homologous with the Gly2 cell in human retina and the AII/Gly2 of cat retina. Gly+ amacrines synapse most frequently onto Gly- amacrines and both Gly- and Gly+ bipolars. Gly+ bipolar cells appeared to be cone bipolars because their labeled dendrites could be traced only to cone pedicles. The pattern of these labeled dendritic trees indicated that both diffuse and midget types of biopolars were Gly+. The EM distribution of labeled synapses showed Gly+ amacrine synapses throughout the IPL, but these composed only 11-23% of the amacrine population. Most of the Gly+ bipolar terminals were in the inner IPL, where 70% of all bipolar terminals were labeled

  9. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Merchant, Hugo; Háden, Gábor P; Prado, Luis; Bartolo, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1). Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2) and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3). In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm), the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm) is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group), but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm).

  10. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henkjan Honing

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1. Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2 and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3. In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm, the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group, but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm.

  11. A Behavioral Taxonomy of Loneliness in Humans and Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, John P.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Cole, Steven W.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships endow health and fitness benefits, but considerable variation exists in the extent to which individuals form and maintain salutary social relationships. The mental and physical health effects of social bonds are more strongly related to perceived isolation (loneliness) than to objective social network characteristics. We sought to develop an animal model to facilitate the experimental analysis of the development of, and the behavioral and biological consequences of, loneliness. In Study 1, using a population-based sample of older adults, we examined how loneliness was influenced both by social network size and by the extent to which individuals believed that their daily social interactions reflected their own choice. Results revealed three distinct clusters of individuals: (i) individuals with large networks who believed they had high choice were lowest in loneliness, (ii) individuals with small social networks who believed they had low choice were highest in loneliness, and (iii) the remaining two groups were intermediate and equivalent in loneliness. In Study 2, a similar three-group structure was identified in two separate samples of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living in large social groups: (i) those high in sociability who had complex social interaction with a broad range of social partners (putatively low in loneliness), (ii) those low in sociability who showed tentative interactions with certain classes of social partners (putatively high in loneliness), and (iii) those low in sociability who interacted overall at low levels with a broad range of social partners (putatively low or intermediate in loneliness). This taxonomy in monkeys was validated in subsequent experimental social probe studies. These results suggest that, in highly social nonhuman primate species, some animals may show a mismatch between social interest and social attainment that could serve as a useful animal model for experimental and mechanistic

  12. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Flexibility in food extraction techniques in urban free-ranging bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, Madhur; Singh, Mewa

    2013-01-01

    Non-human primate populations, other than responding appropriately to naturally occurring challenges, also need to cope with anthropogenic factors such as environmental pollution, resource depletion, and habitat destruction. Populations and individuals are likely to show considerable variations in food extraction abilities, with some populations and individuals more efficient than others at exploiting a set of resources. In this study, we examined among urban free-ranging bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata (a) local differences in food extraction abilities, (b) between-individual variation and within-individual consistency in problem-solving success and the underlying problem-solving characteristics, and (c) behavioral patterns associated with higher efficiency in food extraction. When presented with novel food extraction tasks, the urban macaques having more frequent exposure to novel physical objects in their surroundings, extracted food material from PET bottles and also solved another food extraction task (i.e., extracting an orange from a wire mesh box), more often than those living under more natural conditions. Adults solved the tasks more frequently than juveniles, and females more frequently than males. Both solution-technique and problem-solving characteristics varied across individuals but remained consistent within each individual across the successive presentations of PET bottles. The macaques that solved the tasks showed lesser within-individual variation in their food extraction behavior as compared to those that failed to solve the tasks. A few macaques appropriately modified their problem-solving behavior in accordance with the task requirements and solved the modified versions of the tasks without trial-and-error learning. These observations are ecologically relevant - they demonstrate considerable local differences in food extraction abilities, between-individual variation and within-individual consistency in food extraction techniques among free

  14. Using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in Macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, K N; Berman, C M; Ogawa, H; Li, J

    2011-12-01

    Biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. They predict that when within-group contest competition (WGC) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. In contrast, when WGC is low and gradients shallow, market theory predicts that grooming reciprocity should prevail. We tested these predictions in a wild, provisioned Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) group across six time periods during which the group had been subjected to varying degrees of range restriction. Data on female-female aggression, grooming, and support were collected using all-occurrences and focal animal sampling techniques, and analyzed using ANCOVA methods and correlation analyses. We found that hierarchical steepness varied significantly across periods, but did not correlate with two indirect indicators of WGC (group size and range restriction) in predicted directions. Contrary to expectations, we found a negative correlation between steepness and group size, perhaps because the responses of group members to external risks (i.e. prolonged and unavoidable exposure to humans) may have overshadowed the effects of WGC. As predicted, grooming reciprocity was significant in each period and negatively correlated with steepness, even after we controlled group size, kinship, rank differences, and proximity. In contrast, there was no evidence for grooming interchange with agonistic support or for a positive relationship between interchange and steepness. We hypothesize that stressful conditions and/or the presence of stable hierarchies during each period may have led to a greater market demand for grooming than support. We suggest that future studies testing these predictions consider more direct measures of WGC and commodities in addition to support, such as feeding tolerance and access to infants. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals

  15. Population density-dependent hair cortisol concentrations in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, A M; Novak, M A; Meyer, J S; Suomi, S J

    2014-04-01

    Population density is known to influence acute measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in a variety of species, including fish, deer, birds, and humans. However, the effects of population density on levels of chronic stress are unknown. Given the fact that exposure to chronically elevated levels of circulating glucocorticoids results in a host of health disparities in animals and humans alike, it is important to understand how population density may impact chronic stress. We assessed hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), which are reliable indicators of chronic HPA axis activity, in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to determine the influence of population density on these values. In Experiment 1, we compared HCCs of monkeys living in high-density (HD; 1 monkey/0.87m(2)) and low-density (LD; 1 monkey/63.37m(2)) environments (N=236 hair samples) and found that HD monkeys exhibited higher hair cortisol across all age categories (infant, juvenile, young adult, adult, and aged) except infancy and aged (F(5)=4.240, p=0.001), for which differences were nearly significant. HD monkeys also received more severe fight wounds than LD monkeys (χ(2)=26.053, ppopulation levels across 5 years in the adult LD monkeys (N=155 hair samples) and found that increased population density was significantly positively correlated with HCCs in this semi-naturalistic population (r(s)=0.975, p=0.005). These are the first findings to demonstrate that increased population density is associated with increased chronic, endogenous glucocorticoid exposure in a nonhuman primate species. We discuss the implications of these findings with respect to laboratory research, population ecology, and human epidemiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Factors increasing snake detection and perceived threat in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etting, Stephanie F; Isbell, Lynne A; Grote, Mark N

    2014-02-01

    The primary predators of primates are all ambush hunters, and yet felids, raptors, and snakes differ in aspects of their ecology that affect the evasive strategies of their primate prey. Felids and raptors can traverse long distances quickly, thus the urgency of threat they present increases as they come closer in proximity to primates. In contrast, snakes do not move rapidly over long distances, and so primates may be reasonably safe even at close distances provided snakes can be detected and monitored. We investigated the ability of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to detect snakes at distances ranging from 15 to 1.5 m. We also examined variation in intensity of perceived threat by applying a Hidden Markov Model to infer changes in underlying state from observable behaviors, that is, increased attention and mobbing. We found that the macaques often failed to detect snake models but that closer proximity improved snake detection, which is necessary before threat can be perceived. We also found that having only one individual in fairly close proximity (≤ 7.5 m) was sufficient to alert the rest of the group and so the chances of detection did not increase with increasing group size. Finally, we found that when the snakes were perceived, they did not elicit greater intensity of response with closer proximity. These results provide evidence that the threat from snakes is greatest when they are in proximity to primates but are unseen. When snakes are seen, however, distance appears not to affect primates' perceived risk, in contrast to their perceived risk from raptors and felids. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Speech-like orofacial oscillations in stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) facial and vocal signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Aru; Maruhashi, Tamaki; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Koda, Hiroki

    2017-10-01

    Speech is unique to humans and characterized by facial actions of ∼5 Hz oscillations of lip, mouth or jaw movements. Lip-smacking, a facial display of primates characterized by oscillatory actions involving the vertical opening and closing of the jaw and lips, exhibits stable 5-Hz oscillation patterns, matching that of speech, suggesting that lip-smacking is a precursor of speech. We tested if facial or vocal actions exhibiting the same rate of oscillation are found in wide forms of facial or vocal displays in various social contexts, exhibiting diversity among species. We observed facial and vocal actions of wild stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides), and selected video clips including facial displays (teeth chattering; TC), panting calls, and feeding. Ten open-to-open mouth durations during TC and feeding and five amplitude peak-to-peak durations in panting were analyzed. Facial display (TC) and vocalization (panting) oscillated within 5.74 ± 1.19 and 6.71 ± 2.91 Hz, respectively, similar to the reported lip-smacking of long-tailed macaques and the speech of humans. These results indicated a common mechanism for the central pattern generator underlying orofacial movements, which would evolve to speech. Similar oscillations in panting, which evolved from different muscular control than the orofacial action, suggested the sensory foundations for perceptual saliency particular to 5-Hz rhythms in macaques. This supports the pre-adaptation hypothesis of speech evolution, which states a central pattern generator for 5-Hz facial oscillation and perceptual background tuned to 5-Hz actions existed in common ancestors of macaques and humans, before the emergence of speech. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Pyrosequencing as a method for SNP identification in the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthaswamy S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are the primate most used for biomedical research, but phenotypic differences between Indian-origin and Chinese rhesus macaques have encouraged genetic methods for identifying genetic differences between these two populations. The completion of the rhesus genome has led to the identification of many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in this species. These single nucleotide polymorphisms have many advantages over the short tandem repeat (STR loci currently used to assay genetic variation. However, the number of currently identified polymorphisms is too small for whole genome analysis or studies of quantitative trait loci. To that end, we tested a combination of methods to identify large numbers of high-confidence SNPs, and screen those with high minor allele frequencies (MAF. Results By testing our previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms, we identified a subset of high-confidence, high-MAF polymorphisms. Resequencing revealed a large number of regionally specific SNPs not identified through a single pyrosequencing run. By resequencing a pooled sample of four individuals, we reliably identified loci with a MAF of at least 12.5%. Finally, we found that when applied to a larger, geographically variable sample of rhesus, a large proportion of our loci were variable in both populations, and very few loci were ancestry informative. Despite this fact, the SNP loci were more effective at discriminating Indian and Chinese rhesus than STR loci. Conclusion Pyrosequencing and pooled resequencing are viable methods for the identification of high-MAF SNP loci in rhesus macaques. These SNP loci are appropriate for screening both the inter- and intra-population genetic variation.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and eradication regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Mizuno, Takashi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Ohno, Junki; Nakai, Tsunehiro; Nomiya, Takao; Fujii, Miki; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Kinoshita, Kazuya; Hamada, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter spp. are zoonotic pathogens, however, knowledge about their presence and antimicrobial resistance in nonhuman primates is limited. Our animal facility purchased cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from various Asian countries: China, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Colonization by Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 238 of the monkeys from 2009 to 2012 and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for these isolates. Furthermore, we eradicated these pathogens from these monkeys. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 47 monkeys from three specific countries: China, Cambodia, and Indonesia, with respective isolation rates of 15%, 36%, and 67%. Two monkeys, which were each infected with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, showed clinical symptoms of diarrhea and bloody feces. In total, 41 isolates of C. coli and 17 isolates of C. jejuni were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility varied: in the monkeys from China, erythromycin (ERY)-, tetracycline (TET)-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli, in the monkeys from Cambodia, amoxicillin-intermediate, TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and amoxicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, and in the monkeys from Indonesia, ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni were common (>75%). Multiresistant isolates of C. coli were found in monkeys from all countries and multiresistant isolates of C. jejuni were found in monkeys from Indonesia. The eradication rate with azithromycin was comparable to that with gentamicin (GEN) by oral administration, and was higher than those with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and chloramphenicol (CHL). From the perspective of zoonosis, we should acknowledge multiresistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from the monkeys as a serious warning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Do Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) perceive what conspecifics do and do not see?

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    Canteloup, Charlotte; Piraux, Emilie; Poulin, Nicolas; Meunier, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the visual perception of others, also named visual perspective taking, is a component of Theory of Mind. Although strong evidence of visual perspective taking has been reported in great apes, the issue is more open to discussion in monkeys. We investigated whether Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) know what conspecifics do and do not see, using a food competition paradigm originally developed in great apes. We tested individuals in pairs, after establishing the dominance relationship within each pair. Twenty-one pairs were tested in four different conditions. In one condition, the subordinate had the choice between two pieces of food, one that was visible only to it and another that was also visible to the dominant. It was predicted that if the subordinate understands that the dominant cannot see both pieces of food because one is hidden from its view, the subordinate should preferentially go for the food visible only to itself. In the three other conditions, we varied the temporal and visual access to food for both individuals, to control for alternative explanations based on dominance. We recorded the first movement direction chosen by subjects, i.e. towards a) visible food b) hidden food or c) elsewhere; and the outcome of the test, i.e. the quantity of food obtained. Results showed that subordinates moved preferentially for the hidden food when released simultaneously with the dominant and also with a head start on the dominant. By contrast, dominants' choices of the two pieces of food were random. We also describe and discuss some of the strategies used by subordinates in these tests. According to the whole of our results, Tonkean macaques seem capable of visual perspective taking despite the fact that a low-level explanation as behavior reading has not been totally excluded.

  1. Do Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana perceive what conspecifics do and do not see?

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    Charlotte Canteloup

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the visual perception of others, also named visual perspective taking, is a component of Theory of Mind. Although strong evidence of visual perspective taking has been reported in great apes, the issue is more open to discussion in monkeys. We investigated whether Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana know what conspecifics do and do not see, using a food competition paradigm originally developed in great apes. We tested individuals in pairs, after establishing the dominance relationship within each pair. Twenty-one pairs were tested in four different conditions. In one condition, the subordinate had the choice between two pieces of food, one that was visible only to it and another that was also visible to the dominant. It was predicted that if the subordinate understands that the dominant cannot see both pieces of food because one is hidden from its view, the subordinate should preferentially go for the food visible only to itself. In the three other conditions, we varied the temporal and visual access to food for both individuals, to control for alternative explanations based on dominance. We recorded the first movement direction chosen by subjects, i.e. towards a visible food b hidden food or c elsewhere; and the outcome of the test, i.e. the quantity of food obtained. Results showed that subordinates moved preferentially for the hidden food when released simultaneously with the dominant and also with a head start on the dominant. By contrast, dominants’ choices of the two pieces of food were random. We also describe and discuss some of the strategies used by subordinates in these tests. According to the whole of our results, Tonkean macaques seem capable of visual perspective taking despite the fact that a low-level explanation as behavior reading has not been totally excluded.

  2. Whom to groom and for what? Patterns of grooming in female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

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    Roubová, Veronika; Konečná, Martina; Šmilauer, Petr; Wallner, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Grooming is one of the most conspicuous social interactions among nonhuman primates. The selection of grooming partners can provide important clues about factors relevant for the distribution of grooming within a social group. We analyzed grooming behavior among 17 semi-free ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). We tested whether grooming is related to kinship, rank and friendship. Furthermore, we tested whether grooming is reciprocated or exchanged for rank related benefits (i.e. lower aggression and increased tolerance whilst feeding). We found that in general grooming was reciprocally exchanged, directed up the hierarchy and at the same time affected by friendship and kinship. Grooming was more frequent among individuals with higher friendship values as well as amongst related individuals. We also divided our data set on the basis of rank difference and tested if different power asymmetries between individuals affected the tendency to exchange grooming for rank related benefits and grooming reciprocation. In support of our initial hypothesis our results show that the reciprocation of grooming was a significant predictor of grooming interactions between individuals of similar rank, but not between those individuals more distantly separated in the social hierarchy. However, we did not find any evidence for grooming being exchanged for rank related benefits in either data set. Our results, together with previously published studies, illustrate the behavioral flexibility of macaques. It is clear that multiple studies of the same species are necessary to gather the data required for the solid comparative studies needed to shed light on patterns of grooming behavior in primates.

  3. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

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    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  4. Developmental Anatomy of Cerebellum of Long-Tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis at the First Trimester of Gestation

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    Tri Wahyu Pangestiningsih

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Long tailed macaque was one of animal models in biomedical research because it has  many similarities with humans, both anatomical and physiological properties. There were many research about cerebellum associated with its role in the coordination of muscle activity. Understanding of normal development of cerebellum long tailed macaque may help to understand about the development in human cerebellum and its abnormalities. Embryonic and fetal brain samples were obtained through caesarean section and were  then made for histological preparation stained with cresyl violet. Staining results were observed using a microscope with a digital camera. Images obtained are processed by graphics software Adobe Photoshop CS 8.0. Cerebellum Macaca fascicularis Ed40 showed the isthmus and rhombic lip that were composed of ventricular layer, mantle layer, and marginal layer. Cerebellum Macaca fascicularis Fd55 showed future lobes and future  fissures, but the cortex and medulla are not bounded clear. The cortex consisted of the external granular layer, neuroblast basket, and neuroblast stellate, while the  medulla consisted of neuroblast deep cerebellar nuclei. From this research, we concluded that neurons were on stage of proliferation and migration in the embryo aged 40 days, then differentiated and migrated to form cortex  cerebellum and deep cerebellar nuclei at the age of 55 days, but the development of the cerebellum was not fully completed yet.

  5. The effects of moderate ethanol consumption on the liver of the monkey, Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivester, Priscilla; Shively, Carol A; Register, Thomas C; Grant, Kathleen A; Reboussin, David M; Cunningham, Carol C

    2003-11-01

    Although evidence has accumulated for the cardioprotective effects of moderate ethanol consumption, little is known about the effects on the liver of consuming the equivalent of two drinks per day. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of moderate ethanol administration on the hepatic content of enzymes involved in ethanol oxidation, on hepatic lipid accumulation, and on serum markers of liver function/damage in the monkey, Macaca fascicularis. Ovariectomized, adult monkeys were maintained for 34 months on an atherogenic diet containing cholesterol 1.21 mg/kJ. They were trained to drink ethanol plus vehicle at a dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight, which was administered 5 days a week for 2 years. Blood was collected for ethanol concentrations (1 hr after ethanol administration) and was also assayed for gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. Liver obtained at necropsy was analyzed for triglyceride and cholesterol contents and for alcohol dehydrogenase, cytochrome P450 2E1, and cytochrome P450 3A4 by Western blots. The blood ethanol concentrations measured 1 hr after ethanol administration were relatively constant over the 2-year dosing period. Hepatic levels of alcohol dehydrogenase and the cytochrome P450s were not significantly different between ethanol-consuming animals and control animals. Ethanol-associated increases in liver triglyceride were not significant due to high variability in hepatic lipid content in both the controls and ethanol consumers. However, covariance analyses using pretreatment concentrations of plasma cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I suggested that the ethanol-related increase in hepatic free cholesterol was significant. Relative to controls, alcohol consumers had higher levels of serum ALT and a transient increase in ALP at 5 months. The observations made in this study on primates administered an atherogenic diet suggest that moderate ethanol ingestion has modest

  6. Experience-based human perception of facial expressions in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

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    Levy, Xandria; Meints, Kerstin; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2017-01-01

    Background Facial expressions convey key cues of human emotions, and may also be important for interspecies interactions. The universality hypothesis suggests that six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) should be expressed by similar facial expressions in close phylogenetic species such as humans and nonhuman primates. However, some facial expressions have been shown to differ in meaning between humans and nonhuman primates like macaques. This ambiguity in signalling emotion can lead to an increased risk of aggression and injuries for both humans and animals. This raises serious concerns for activities such as wildlife tourism where humans closely interact with wild animals. Understanding what factors (i.e., experience and type of emotion) affect ability to recognise emotional state of nonhuman primates, based on their facial expressions, can enable us to test the validity of the universality hypothesis, as well as reduce the risk of aggression and potential injuries in wildlife tourism. Methods The present study investigated whether different levels of experience of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, affect the ability to correctly assess different facial expressions related to aggressive, distressed, friendly or neutral states, using an online questionnaire. Participants’ level of experience was defined as either: (1) naïve: never worked with nonhuman primates and never or rarely encountered live Barbary macaques; (2) exposed: shown pictures of the different Barbary macaques’ facial expressions along with the description and the corresponding emotion prior to undertaking the questionnaire; (3) expert: worked with Barbary macaques for at least two months. Results Experience with Barbary macaques was associated with better performance in judging their emotional state. Simple exposure to pictures of macaques’ facial expressions improved the ability of inexperienced participants to better discriminate neutral and distressed

  7. Mitogenomic phylogeny of the common long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis).

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    Liedigk, Rasmus; Kolleck, Jakob; Böker, Kai O; Meijaard, Erik; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir; Abdul-Latiff, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Ampeng, Ahmad; Lakim, Maklarin; Abdul-Patah, Pazil; Tosi, Anthony J; Brameier, Markus; Zinner, Dietmar; Roos, Christian

    2015-03-21

    Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are an important model species in biomedical research and reliable knowledge about their evolutionary history is essential for biomedical inferences. Ten subspecies have been recognized, of which most are restricted to small islands of Southeast Asia. In contrast, the common long-tailed macaque (M. f. fascicularis) is distributed over large parts of the Southeast Asian mainland and the Sundaland region. To shed more light on the phylogeny of M. f. fascicularis, we sequenced complete mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes of 40 individuals from all over the taxon's range, either by classical PCR-amplification and Sanger sequencing or by DNA-capture and high-throughput sequencing. Both laboratory approaches yielded complete mtDNA genomes from M. f. fascicularis with high accuracy and/or coverage. According to our phylogenetic reconstructions, M. f. fascicularis initially diverged into two clades 1.70 million years ago (Ma), with one including haplotypes from mainland Southeast Asia, the Malay Peninsula and North Sumatra (Clade A) and the other, haplotypes from the islands of Bangka, Java, Borneo, Timor, and the Philippines (Clade B). The three geographical populations of Clade A appear as paraphyletic groups, while local populations of Clade B form monophyletic clades with the exception of a Philippine individual which is nested within the Borneo clade. Further, in Clade B the branching pattern among main clades/lineages remains largely unresolved, most likely due to their relatively rapid diversification 0.93-0.84 Ma. Both laboratory methods have proven to be powerful to generate complete mtDNA genome data with similarly high accuracy, with the DNA-capture and high-throughput sequencing approach as the most promising and only practical option to obtain such data from highly degraded DNA, in time and with relatively low costs. The application of complete mtDNA genomes yields new insights into the evolutionary history of M. f

  8. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of noncontact infrared thermometry and 3 commercial subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-07-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates.

  10. Primacy and recency effects in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a serial probe recognition task. III. A developmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, S M; Castro, C A

    1998-04-01

    In children, the recency effect emerges prior to the primacy effect. To determine whether this dissociation is also seen in nonhuman primates, we evaluated the development of the primacy and recency effect in 3 young adult (35 months) and 4 adolescent (21 months) male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a six-item serial probe recognition (SPR) task. As predicted, the young adult monkeys displayed both effects, while the adolescent monkeys only displayed the recency effect. Not until after 26 months of training on the SPR task did the adolescent monkeys exhibit both the primacy and recency effect. Interference and strategy differences are discussed in terms of the results along with an interpretation of Rudy's (1992) configural association theory of cognitive development. Additional possible explanations for this developmental dissociation include the delayed maturation of the neocortical, hippocampal, and/or cholinergic systems, the latter two having been shown to be important in the expression of the primacy but not the recency effect.

  11. Analogical reasoning and the differential outcome effect: transitory bridging of the conceptual gap for rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Timothy M; Thompson, Roger K R; Beran, Michael J; Washburn, David A

    2011-07-01

    Monkeys, unlike chimpanzees and humans, have a marked difficulty acquiring relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks that likely reflect the cognitive foundation upon which analogical reasoning rests. In the present study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed a categorical (identity and nonidentity) RMTS task with differential reward (pellet ratio) and/or punishment (timeout ratio) outcomes for correct and incorrect choices. Monkeys in either differential reward-only or punishment-only conditions performed at chance levels. However, the RMTS performance of monkeys experiencing both differential reward and punishment conditions was significantly better than chance. Subsequently when all animals experienced nondifferential outcomes tests, their RMTS performance levels were at chance. These results indicate that combining differential reward and punishment contingencies provide an effective, albeit transitory, scaffolding for monkeys to judge analogical relations-between-relations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya virus antibody prevalence among captive monkey (Macaca nemestrina) colonies of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakgoi, Khajornpong; Nitatpattana, Narong; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Kaewchot, Supakarn; Yoksan, Sutee; Siripolwat, Voravit; Souris, Marc; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The potential of macaque Macaca nemestrina leonina in Thailand to be infected by endemic arboviruses was assessed. The prevalence of antibodies of three arboviruses actively circulating in Thailand was determined by Plaque Reduction Neutralization assay procedures using samples from captive colonies in Northern Thailand. Out of 38 macaques, 9 (24%) presented reacting antibodies against dengue virus, 5 (13%) against Japanese encephalitis virus, and 4 (10%) against Chikungunya virus. Our results indicate that the northern pig-tailed macaque in Thailand can be infected by these arboviruses, inferring therefore that their virus specific vectors have bitten them. Given that, northern pig-tailed macaque represents an abundant population, living in close range to human or in peridomestic setting, they could play a role as potential reservoir host for arboviruses circulating in Thailand. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Social tolerance in wild female crested macaques (Macaca nigra) in Tangkoko-Batuangus Nature Reserve, Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboscq, Julie; Micheletta, Jérôme; Agil, Muhammad; Hodges, Keith; Thierry, Bernard; Engelhardt, Antje

    2013-04-01

    In primates, females typically drive the evolution of the social system and present a wide diversity of social structures. To understand this diversity, it is necessary to document the consistency and/or flexibility of female social structures across and within species, contexts, and environments. Macaques (Macaca sp.) are an ideal taxon for such comparative study, showing both consistency and variation in their social relations. Their social styles, constituting robust sets of social traits, can be classified in four grades, from despotic to tolerant. However, tolerant species are still understudied, especially in the wild. To foster our understanding of tolerant societies and to assess the validity of the concept of social style, we studied female crested macaques, Macaca nigra, under entirely natural conditions. We assessed their degree of social tolerance by analyzing the frequency, intensity, and distribution of agonistic and affiliative behaviors, their dominance gradient, their bared-teeth display, and their level of conciliatory tendency. We also analyzed previously undocumented behavioral patterns in grade 4 macaques: reaction upon approach and distribution of affiliative behavior across partners. We compared the observed patterns to data from other populations of grade 4 macaques and from species of other grades. Overall, female crested macaques expressed a tolerant social style, with low intensity, frequently bidirectional, and reconciled conflicts. Dominance asymmetry was moderate, associated with an affiliative bared-teeth display. Females greatly tolerated one another in close proximity. The observed patterns matched the profile of other tolerant macaques and were outside the range of patterns of more despotic species. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of females' social behavior in a tolerant macaque species under natural conditions and as such, contributes to a better understanding of macaque societies. It also highlights the relevance

  14. Pathogenic infection of Macaca nemestrina with a CCR5-tropic subtype-C simian-human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Ruijiang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina have been used in AIDS research for years, less is known about the early immunopathogenic events in this species, as compared to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. Similarly, the events in early infection are well-characterized for simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV, but less so for chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV, although the latter have been widely used in HIV vaccine studies. Here, we report the consequences of intrarectal infection with a CCR5-tropic clade C SHIV-1157ipd3N4 in pig-tailed macaques. Results Plasma and cell-associated virus was detectable in peripheral blood and intestinal tissues of all four pig-tailed macaques following intrarectal inoculation with SHIV-1157ipd3N4. We also observed a rapid and irreversible loss of CD4+ T cells at multiple mucosal sites, resulting in a marked decrease of CD4:CD8 T cell ratios 0.5–4 weeks after inoculation. This depletion targeted subsets of CD4+ T cells expressing the CCR5 coreceptor and having a CD28-CD95+ effector memory phenotype, consistent with the R5-tropism of SHIV-1157ipd3N4. All three animals that were studied beyond the acute phase seroconverted as early as week 4, with two developing cross-clade neutralizing antibody responses by week 24. These two animals also demonstrated persistent plasma viremia for >48 weeks. One of these animals developed AIDS, as shown by peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell depletion starting at 20 weeks post inoculation. Conclusion These findings indicate that SHIV-1157ipd3N4-induced pathogenesis in pig-tailed macaques followed a similar course as SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Thus, R5 SHIV-C-infection of pig-tailed macaques could provide a useful and relevant model for AIDS vaccine and pathogenesis research.

  15. Piracetam-induced changes on the brainstem auditory response in anesthetized juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Report of two clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Rivera, A; Gonzalez-Pina, R; Hernandez-Godinez, B; Ibanez-Contreras, A; Bueno-Nava, A; Alfaro-Rodriguez, A

    2012-10-01

    We describe two clinical cases and examine the effects of piracetam on the brainstem auditory response in infantile female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We found that the interwave intervals show a greater reduction in a 3-year-old rhesus monkey compared to a 1-year-old rhesus monkey. In this report, we discuss the significance of these observations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. The effect of site (deltoid or gluteus muscle) of intramuscular administration of anaesthetic drugs on the course of immobilisation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Hess; Jiří Málek; Alice Kurzová; Martin Votava

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of site of intramuscular administration of anaesthetic drugs on the course of immobilisation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Twenty macaque monkeys were given medetomidine (25 µg·kg-1) and ketamine (3 mg·kg-1) intramuscularly to the deltoid (n = 10 animals) or gluteus (n = 10 animals) muscles. Behavioural changes, loss of aggressiveness, immobilisation time and cardiorespiratory changes were recorded. The effect of drugs was reversed after 20 ...

  17. Cell envelope and cell wall immunization of Macaca fascicularis: effect on the progression of ligature-induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, S C; Brunsvold, M; Jones, A; Wood, R; Ebersole, J L

    1995-12-01

    The nonhuman primate, Macaca fascicularis, was used to study the role of immunization with selected members of the periodontopathic microbiota in the longitudinal progression of ligature-induced periodontitis. Animals were immunized with cell envelope antigens prepared from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, and a mixture prepared from Fusobacterium nucleatum, Campylobacter rectus, and Actinomyces viscosus. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM and IgA isotype antibodies increased significantly in all immunization groups and were specific for each of the immunogens. P. gingivalis and P. intermedia immunization resulted in a stabilization of the proportions of these species throughout most of the experiment. The high P. gingivalis antibody titer resulted in low P. gingivalis numbers being recovered. P. gingivalis immunization, while lowering recoverable viable P. gingivalis, resulted in significantly increased levels of Prevotella loescheii, Prevotella buccae, Bacteroides macacae and Prevotella melaninogenica compared with preligation and preimmunization levels. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Capnocytophaga spp. and Eikenella spp. remained at preligation levels postimmunization. Campylobacter spp. increased significantly during the course of the experiment in all groups, whereas the levels of Fusobacterium spp. decreased. Plaque indices and bleeding on probing showed significant increases in all groups following ligation, with the placebo group showing the greatest increase. Pocket depth measurements revealed that , whereas the placebo animals showed an approximate 5% increase, the P. gingivalis- and P. intermedia-immunized groups showed nearly a 20% increase in pocket depth. Attachment level measurements showed significantly greater attachment loss in the P. gingivalis- and P. intermedia-immunized groups, and the F. nucleatum + C. rectus + A. viscosus immunization appeared to prevent significant changes in pocket depth/attachment level loss

  18. Use of photogrammetry as a means to assess hybrids of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadejaroen, Janya; Hamada, Yuzuru; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed (M. fascicularis) macaques are the most commonly used non-human primate models for biomedical research, but it is difficult to identify these two species in the hybrid zone (15-20°N). In this work, we used morphological values obtained via photogrammetry to assess hybrids of rhesus and long-tailed macaques at Khao Khieow Open Zoo (KKZ; 13°21'N, 101°06'E), eastern Thailand. Long-tailed and rhesus macaques have species-specific tail lengths and contrasts of their yellowish pelages. The accuracy and precision of the relative tail length (%RTL) and the contrast of the yellow hue (Cb*) of the pelage, as obtained from photographs, were compared with the corresponding direct measurements (morphometrics). The photogrammetric and morphometric measurements of %RTL and Cb* were highly significantly correlated (r = 0.989 and 0.980, p photogrammetry can be utilized to identify macaque species or hybrids when species identification relies mainly on tail length and pelage color.

  19. Ancestry, Plasmodium cynomolgi prevalence and rhesus macaque admixture in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) bred for export in Chinese breeding farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjun; Meng, Yuhuan; Houghton, Paul; Liu, Mingyu; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Oldt, Robert; Ng, Jillian; Trask, Jessica Satkoski; Huang, Ren; Singh, Balbir; Du, Hongli; Smith, David Glenn

    2017-04-01

    Most cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) used in the United States as animal models are imported from Chinese breeding farms without documented ancestry. Cynomolgus macaques with varying rhesus macaque ancestry proportions may exhibit differences, such as susceptibility to malaria, that affect their suitability as a research model. DNA of 400 cynomolgus macaques from 10 Chinese breeding farms was genotyped to characterize their regional origin and rhesus ancestry proportion. A nested PCR assay was used to detect Plasmodium cynomolgi infection in sampled individuals. All populations exhibited high levels of genetic heterogeneity and low levels of inbreeding and genetic subdivision. Almost all individuals exhibited an Indochinese origin and a rhesus ancestry proportion of 5%-48%. The incidence of P. cynomolgi infection in cynomolgus macaques is strongly associated with proportion of rhesus ancestry. The varying amount of rhesus ancestry in cynomolgus macaques underscores the importance of monitoring their genetic similarity in malaria research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Long-Term Cognitive Functioning in Single-Dose Total-Body Gamma-Irradiated Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbury, David B.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Dugan, Greg; Andrews, Rachel N.; Cline, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a potentially lethal radiation exposure on the brain for long-term cognitive sequelae were investigated using Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) adopted from other facilities after analysis of acute radiation response via the Centers for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (CMCR) network. Fifty-nine animals were given the opportunity to participate in cognitive cage-side testing. The animals that received single-dose gamma irradiation were significantly less likely to engage in cognitive testing than the controls, suggesting that irradiated animals may have differences in cognitive ability. Five irradiated (6.75–8.05 Gy) and three naïve control animals self-selected, were extensively trained and administered a simple visual discrimination with reversal (SVD+R) task 2–3 times per week for 11–18 months. Each session consisted of 30 trials in which the animals were required to choose the correct visual stimulus for a food reward. After the initial presentation, the stimulus that signaled the presence of food was twice reversed once the animal reached criterion (90% accuracy across four consecutive sessions). While the limited sample size precluded definitive statistical analysis, irradiated animals took longer to reach the criterion subsequent to reversal than did control animals, suggesting a relative deficiency in cognitive flexibility. These results provide preliminary data supporting the potential use of a nonhuman primate model to study radiation-induced, late-delayed cognitive deficits. PMID:27740889

  1. Characterization of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xi-He; Dai, Zheng-Xi; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2017-12-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) has been identified as an independent species from the pig-tailed macaque group. The species is a promising animal model for HIV/AIDS pathogenesis and vaccine studies due to susceptibility to HIV-1. However, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genetics in northern pig-tailed macaques remains poorly understood. We have previously studied the MHC class I genes in northern pig-tailed macaques and identified 39 novel alleles. Here, we describe the MHC class II alleles in all six classical loci (DPA, DPB, DQA, DQB, DRA, and DRB) from northern pig-tailed macaques using a sequence-based typing method for the first time. A total of 60 MHC-II alleles were identified of which 27 were shared by other macaque species. Additionally, northern pig-tailed macaques expressed a single DRA and multiple DRB genes similar to the expression in humans and other macaque species. Polymorphism and positive selection were detected, and phylogenetic analysis suggested the presence of a common ancestor in human and northern pig-tailed macaque MHC class II allelic lineages at the DQA, DQB, and DRB loci. The characterization of full-length MHC class II alleles in this study significantly improves understanding of the immunogenetics of northern pig-tailed macaques and provides the groundwork for future animal model studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Species diversity and relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in the milk of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

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    Jin, L; Hinde, K; Tao, L

    2011-02-01

    Mother's milk is a source of bacteria that influences the development of the infant commensal gut microbiota. To date, the species diversity and relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in the milk of non-human primates have not been described. Milk samples were aseptically obtained from 54 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) at peak lactation. Following GM17 and MRS agar plating, single bacterial colonies were isolated based on difference in morphotypes, then grouped based on whole-cell protein profiles on SDS-PAGE. Bacterial DNA was isolated and the sequence the 16S rRNA gene was analyzed. A total of 106 strains of 19 distinct bacterial species, belonging to five genera, Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, and Streptococcus, were identified. Maternal gut and oral commensal bacteria may be translocated to the mammary gland during lactation and present in milk. This pathway can be an important source of commensal bacteria to the infant gut and oral cavity. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis Fed with High Soluble Carbohydrate Diet: A Preliminary Study

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    DEWI APRI ASTUTI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available High carbohydrate as obese diet is not yet available commercially for monkeys. Therefore, this preliminary study was to carry out nutrient intake and digestibility of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis fed with high soluble carbohydrate diet compared to monkey chow. Five adult female macaques (average body weight 2.67 kg were made to consume freshly diet. Commercial monkey chows (contains 3500 cal/g energy and 35% starch were fed to three adult females (average body weight 3.62 kg. Nutrient intakes and digestibility parameters were measured using modified metabolic cages. Result showed that average of protein, fat, starch, and energy intakes in treatment diet were higher than control diet (T-test. Fat intake in the treatment diet was three times higher, while starch and energy intakes were almost two times higher than monkey chow. Digestibility percentage of all nutrients were the same in both diets except for the protein. The study concludes that the freshly prepared high sugar diet was palatable and digestible for the cynomolgus monkeys. Further studies are in progress to develop obese diet high in energy content based on fat and source of starch treatments.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina based on D-loop region sequences

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    Abdul-Latiff M. A., B.; Ampeng, A.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain B., M.

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysian pig-tailed macaques have never been established even though the data are crucial in aiding conservation plan for the species. The aims of this study is to establish the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca nemestrina in Malaysia. A total of 21 genetic samples of M. nemestrina yielding 458 bp of D-loop sequences were used in phylogenetic analyses, in addition to one sample of M. fascicularis which was used as an outgroup. Sequence character analysis revealed that D-loop locus contains 23% parsimony informative character detected among the ingroups. Further analysis indicated a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula populations are separated from Borneo Insular population; and Perak population formed a distinctive clade within Peninsular Malaysia populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo population was distinguished from Peninsula population (100% bootstrap value in the NJ, MP, 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). Perak's population was separated from other Peninsula populations (100% in NJ, 99% in MP and 1.00 in Bayesian). D-loop region of mtDNA is proven to be a suitable locus in studying the separation of M. nemestrina at population level. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  5. Genetic variation between two Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) populations in the eastern China based on mitochondrial DNA control region sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongfang; Zhong, Lijing; Liu, Bofeng; Li, Jiayi; Ni, Qingyong; Xu, Huailiang

    2013-06-01

    Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) is a threatened primate species endemic to China. Population genetic and phylogenetic analyses were conducted in 66 Tibetan individuals from Sichuan (SC), Huangshan (HS), and Fujian (FJ) based on a 477-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA control region. Four new haplotypes were defined, and a relatively high level of genetic diversity was first observed in FJ populations (Hd = 0.7661). Notably, a continuous approximately 10 bp-fragment deletion was observed near the 5' end of the mtDNA control region of both HS and FJ populations when compared with that of SC population, and a sharing haplotype was found between the two populations, revealing a closer genetic relationship. However, significant genetic differentiation (FST = 0.8700) and more poor gene exchange (Nm < 1) had occurred among three populations. This study mainly provide a further insight into the genetic relationship between HS and FJ Tibetan macaque populations, but it may be necessary to carry out further study with extra samples from other locations in the geographic coverage of the two subspecies (M. thibetana pullus and M. thibetana huangshanensis).

  6. Bilateral neurotoxic amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Consistent pattern of behavior across different social contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Christopher J.; Emery, Nathan J.; Capitanio, John P.; Mason, William A.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Amaral, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Although the amygdala has been repeatedly implicated in normal primate social behavior, great variability exists in the specific social and nonsocial behavioral changes observed after bilateral amygdala lesions in nonhuman primates. One plausible explanation pertains to differences in social context. To investigate this idea, we measured the social behavior of amygdala-lesioned and unoperated rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in two contexts. Animals interacted in four-member social groups over 32 test days. These animals were previously assessed in pairs (Emery et al., 2001), and were, therefore, familiar with each other at the beginning of this study. Across the two contexts, amygdala lesions produced a highly consistent pattern of social behavior. Operated animals engaged in more affiliative social interactions with control group partners than did control animals. In the course of their interactions, amygdala-lesioned animals also displayed an earlier decrease in nervous and fearful personality qualities than controls. The increased exploration and sexual behavior recorded for amygdala-lesioned animals in pairs was not found in the four-member groups. We conclude that the amygdala contributes to social inhibition and this function transcends various social contexts. PMID:18410164

  7. MaqFACS (Macaque Facial Action Coding System can be used to document facial movements in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus

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    Églantine Julle-Danière

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human and non-human primates exhibit facial movements or displays to communicate with one another. The evolution of form and function of those displays could be better understood through multispecies comparisons. Anatomically based coding systems (Facial Action Coding Systems: FACS are developed to enable such comparisons because they are standardized and systematic and aid identification of homologous expressions underpinned by similar muscle contractions. To date, FACS has been developed for humans, and subsequently modified for chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, orangutans, hylobatids, dogs, and cats. Here, we wanted to test whether the MaqFACS system developed in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta could be used to code facial movements in Barbary macaques (M. sylvanus, a species phylogenetically close to the rhesus macaques. The findings show that the facial movement capacity of Barbary macaques can be reliably coded using the MaqFACS. We found differences in use and form of some movements, most likely due to specializations in the communicative repertoire of each species, rather than morphological differences.

  8. AKTIVITAS ASPARTAT AMINOTRANSFERASE (AST DAN ALANIN TRANSAMINASE (ALT PADA MONYET EKOR PANJANG (Macaca fascicularis OBESITAS DI PURA LUHUR ULUWATU, BALI

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    Ayu Paramita Lestari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian obsevasional-deskriptif dengan pendekatan cross-sectional telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui aktivitas aspartat aminotransferase (AST dan alanin transaminase (ALT pada monyet ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis obesitas yang hidup liar di kawasan Pura Luhur Uluwatu, Bali. Sebanyak 16 ekor monyet ekor panjang berhasil dibius menggunakan ketamine dosis 10 mg/kg berat badan dicampur dengan premedikasi xylasin dosis 1-2 mg/kg berat badan. Sampel yang digunakan adalah serum darah monyet obesitas yang diambil dari monyet dalam keadaan terbius. Dari 16 ekor monyet, 12 ekor tergolong obesitas berdasarkan Indeks Massa Tubuh dan Berat Badan. Aktivitas aspartat aminotransferase (AST dan alanin transaminase (ALT ditentukan menggunakan mesin automatic chemistry analyzer (Indiko-Thermo Scientific. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai AST bervariasi dari 43-88 U/L dan ALT 26-77 U/L dengan rataan 69,4 ± 14,9 U/L. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa nilai AST dan ALT monyet obesitas cenderung lebih tinggi dari nilai AST dan ALT normal.

  9. Molecular detection and prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. among long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sricharern, Wanat; Inpankaew, Tawin; Keawmongkol, Sarawan; Supanam, Juthamas; Stich, Roger W; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2016-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are divergent protozoal intestinal parasites that infect human beings and other animals, including non-human primates. Although long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) reside in human communities in Thailand, the prevalence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in these primates has not been previously investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-tailed macaques living near human communities as possible hosts of these intestinal parasites. In 2014, 200 fecal samples were randomly collected from long-tailed macaques living in different areas of Lopburi province, Thailand, and tested with a panel of PCR assays for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. G. duodenalis assemblage B was most frequently detected (6%), while assemblage A and an inconclusive assemblage were detected in single samples, for a total G. duodenalis infection rate of 7%. Two samples (1%) tested positive for Cryptosporidium spp., which were both classified as monkey genotypes. No significant associations were found between G. duodenalis infection and sex or location of macaques. This study indicates that long-tailed macaques can carry G. duodenalis and, to a lesser extent, Cryptosporidium spp. monkey genotype. These results warrant education of residents and tourists to limit contact with long-tailed macaques and to take hygienic precautions to mitigate risk of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission of these parasites between people and macaques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Do Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) tailor their gestural and visual signals to fit the attentional states of a human partner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canteloup, Charlotte; Bovet, Dalila; Meunier, Hélène

    2015-03-01

    We tested here whether Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana), trained to produce a pointing gesture, modify their behaviour in response to different human's attentional states. More specifically, we investigated the macaque's ability to communicate intentionally about the location of an unreachable hidden food reward in several contexts which differ by the human partner's attentional state. The experimenter displayed seven attentional states differing on the basis of body, head and gaze orientation. Our study validates several criteria of an intentional communication. We showed that macaques produce more pointing gestures when an audience, i.e. the human partner, is present than absent. We also revealed an adjustment of gaze alternation between the face of the experimenter and the hidden food reward according to several experimental conditions. However, in our study, macaques did not produce auditory attention-getting behaviours when the human partner was inattentive. Finally, only rough cues, i.e. presence, body and face orientation of the observer, seem to be taken into account by macaques. However, our results also supposed the importance of joint attention for macaques since they display more gaze alternation when the head and/or eyes of the human partner are mobile.

  11. Molecular cloning and anti-HIV-1 activities of APOBEC3s from northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Song, Jia-Hao; Pang, Wei; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2016-07-18

    Northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs, Macaca leonina) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection largely due to the loss of HIV-1-restricting factor TRIM5α. However, great impediments still exist in the persistent replication of HIV-1 in vivo, suggesting some viral restriction factors are reserved in this host. The APOBEC3 proteins have demonstrated a capacity to restrict HIV-1 replication, but their inhibitory effects in NPMs remain elusive. In this study, we cloned the NPM A3A-A3H genes, and determined by BLAST searching that their coding sequences (CDSs) showed 99% identity to the corresponding counterparts from rhesus and southern pig-tailed macaques. We further analyzed the anti-HIV-1 activities of the A3A-A3H genes, and found that A3G and A3F had the greatest anti-HIV-1 activity compared with that of other members. The results of this study indicate that A3G and A3F might play critical roles in limiting HIV-1 replication in NPMs in vivo. Furthermore, this research provides valuable information for the optimization of monkey models of HIV-1 infection.

  12. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Pkn1, a Novel Potential Immunogen, in Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Macaca nemestrina and Human Patients

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    Achchhe L. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is an important cause of sexually transmitted genital tract infections (STIs and trachoma. Despite major research into chlamydial pathogenesis and host immune responses, immunoprotection has been hampered by the incomplete understanding of protective immunity in the genital tract. Characterized vaccine candidates have shown variable efficacy ranging from no protection to partial protection in vivo. It is therefore a research priority to identify novel chlamydial antigens that may elicit protective immune responses against CT infection. In the present study we assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies against protein kinase1 (Pkn1, DNA ligaseA (LigA, and major outer membrane protein A (OmpA following natural CT infection in humans and in experimentally induced CT infection in Macaca nemestrina. Antigenic stretches of Pkn1, LigA, and OmpA were identified using bioinformatic tools. Pkn1, LigA, and OmpA genes were cloned in bacterial expression vector and purified by affinity chromatography. Our results demonstrate significantly high seroprevalence of antibodies against purified Pkn1 and OmpA in sera obtained from the macaque animal model and human patients infected with CT. In contrast no significant seroreactivity was observed for LigA. The seroprevalence of antibodies against Pkn1 suggest that nonsurface chlamydial proteins could also be important for developing vaccines for C. trachomatis.

  13. Evaluation of a therapy for Idiopathic Chronic Enterocolitis in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta and linked microbial community correlates

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    Joshua M. Taylor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic chronic enterocolitis (ICE is one of the most commonly encountered and difficult to manage diseases of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. The etiology is not well understood, but perturbations in gut microbial communities have been implicated. Here we evaluated the effects of a 14-day course of vancomycin, neomycin, and fluconazole on animals affected with ICE, comparing treated, untreated, and healthy animals. We performed microbiome analysis on duodenal and colonic mucosal samples and feces in order to probe bacterial and/or fungal taxa potentially associated with ICE. All treated animals showed a significant and long-lasting improvement in stool consistency over time when compared to untreated and healthy controls. Microbiome analysis revealed trends associating bacterial community composition with ICE, particularly lineages of the Lactobacillaceae family. Sequencing of DNA from macaque food biscuits revealed that fungal sequences recovered from stool were dominated by yeast-derived food additives; in contrast, bacteria in stool appeared to be authentic gut residents. In conclusion, while validation in larger cohorts is needed, the treatment described here was associated with significantly improved clinical signs; results suggested possible correlates of microbiome structure with disease, though no strong associations were detected between single microbes and ICE.

  14. Individual differences in scanpaths correspond with serotonin transporter genotype and behavioral phenotype in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta

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    Robert R Gibboni

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Scanpaths (the succession of fixations and saccades during spontaneous viewing contain information about the image but also about the viewer. To determine the viewer-dependent factors in the scanpaths of monkeys, we trained three adult males (Macaca mulatta to look for 3 s at images of conspecific facial expressions with either direct or averted gaze. The subjects showed significant differences on four basic scanpath parameters (number of fixations, fixation duration, saccade length, and total scanpath length when viewing the same facial expression/gaze direction combinations. Furthermore, we found differences between monkeys in feature preference and in the temporal order in which features were visited on different facial expressions. Overall, the between-subject variability was larger than the within- subject variability, suggesting that scanpaths reflect individual preferences in allocating visual attention to various features in aggressive, neutral, and appeasing facial expressions. Individual scanpath characteristics were brought into register with the genotype for the serotonin transporter regulatory gene (5-HTTLPR and with behavioral characteristics such as expression of anticipatory anxiety and impulsiveness/hesitation in approaching food in the presence of a potentially dangerous object.

  15. Intergroup variation in stable isotope ratios reflects anthropogenic impact on the Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Mark R; Fuentes, Agustín; Luecke, Ellen; Cortes, John; Shaw, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Interactions with humans impact many aspects of behavior and ecology in nonhuman primates. Because of the complexities of the human-nonhuman primate interface, methods are needed to quantify the effects of anthropogenic interactions, including their intensity and differential impacts between nonhuman primate groups. Stable isotopes can be used to quickly and economically assess intergroup dietary variation, and provide a framework for the development of specific hypotheses about anthropogenic impact. This study uses stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to examine intraspecific variation in diet between five groups of Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, in the Upper Rock Nature Reserve, Gibraltar. Analysis of hair from 135 macaques showed significant differences in δ(13)C and δ(15)N values between a group with minimal tourist contact and groups that were main tourist attractions. Because we observed no overt physiological or substantial behavioral differences between the groups, feeding ecology is the most likely cause of any differences in stable isotope ratios. Haphazard provisioning by tourists and Gibraltarians is a likely source of dietary variation between groups. Stable isotope analysis and observational data facilitate a deeper understanding of the feeding ecology of the Barbary macaques relevant to the role of an anthropogenic ecology for the species.

  16. Phylogenetic position of the white-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys), a newly described primate from southeastern Tibet.

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    Fan, Pengfei; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Zhechun; Zhao, Chao; Li, Cheng; Liu, Wulin; Liu, Zhijin; Li, Ming

    2017-02-01

    The white-cheeked macaque Macaca leucogenys is a recently described species that was only diagnosed based on photos, without any specimen measurements or molecular genetic diagnosis. Using DNA extracted from four newly collected skin specimens, we studied the genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of M. leucogenys using multilocus sequence data, including mitochondrial and Y chromosomal genes. Skin measurements of four individuals showed that the white-cheeked macaque is robust and larger than M. assamensis but is similar in body size to M. thibetana. Although the holotype male of M. leucogenys was observed to have a round glans penis in three photos and a 15-s video, the current phylogenetic analysis placed this species in the sinica group, which has a sagittate glans penis. Our results confirm full species status of M. leucogenys and indicate that this species might have diverged from its closest relatives c. 2.5million years ago. The mitochondrial gene tree showed that M. leucogenys is phylogenetically close to M. munzala and M. radiata within the sinica group; however, their relationships were unresolved by Y chromosomal phylogenies, which indicates possible historical episode of male introgression. Further studies using an integrative approach that combines morphological and ecological characterizations and population-based genome-wide analysis are needed to investigate divergence and reproductive isolation, which are very likely to elucidate mechanisms underlying these Asian macaque radiations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Grooming-related feeding motivates macaques to groom and affects grooming reciprocity and episode duration in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

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    Onishi, Kenji; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Allogrooming is considered as an altruistic behavior wherein primates exchange grooming as a tradable commodity for reciprocal grooming or other commodities such as support during aggression and tolerance during co-feeding. First, we report a case of the grooming relationships of the lowest-ranking adult female in a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The female (Lp) had lost a portion of the fur and was groomed by higher-ranking individuals without providing reciprocal grooming or other commodities. The groomers probably fed on lice eggs from the fur of Lp more frequently than from that of other adult groomees. This suggests that grooming-related feeding (GRF) motivated many individuals to groom Lp and influenced grooming reciprocity in dyads. Second, we investigated quantitative grooming data for adult females. A high GRF rate was found to lengthen the duration of grooming, suggesting that GRF motivates groomers to groom. From these results, we proposed 2 possible reasons for groomers' sensitivity to GRF rate: (1) the nutritional benefit from GRF compensates for part of the cost of giving grooming and facilitates giving grooming and (2) groomer's sensitivity to the GRF rate maintains the efficiency of removing lice eggs and ensures the groomee's hygienic benefit in receiving grooming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Redescription of Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) based on material collected from wild Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata (Primates: Cercopithecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Sato, Hiroshi; Torii, Harumi

    2012-02-01

    Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) was collected from a Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata, in Nara and Yamaguchi Prefectures, Honshu Island, Japan, for the first time. A redescription is presented along with DNA sequence data. This pinworm is a typical member of the subgenus Enterobius and is characteristic in the spicule morphology, being readily distinguished from other congeners. Phylogenetic analyses based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Cox1 gene assign its position in the pinworm lineage adapted to the Old World primates, showing divergence before the splitting of the chimpanzee and human pinworms.

  19. DINAMIKA PROFIL HEMATOLOGI DAN RASIO NETROFIL:LIMFOSIT MONYET EKOR PANJANG (MACACA FASCICULARIS PADA PENGATURAN MIKROKLIMAT RUANGAN

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    Ridzki M.F. Binol

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain the profile of physiological hematology (erythrocyte, PCV, Hb, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and leukocyte and the profile of ratio between neutrophil and lymphocyte of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis in different microclimate conditions due to the room’s temperature and humidity setting. The symptom of stress was also observed in this study. The research used 10 male macaques aged of 4 until 5 years old which placed in room temperature and humidity of 29,00±1,95°C and 79,52±1,57% respectively 7 days for adaptation period. Further more, the room temperature and humidity were set into 25,79±1,16°C and 80,19±9,05% during 14 days for treatment period. For the last treatment, macaques were reconditioned in room temperature and humidity of 29,00±1,95°C and 79,52±1,57% during 14 days for post-treatment period. Blood samplings were collected through femoralis vein on last day of adaptation period, continued with treatment and post-treatment periods as the day 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28. The results showed that there were not significant difference by room temperature and humidity setting to hematology and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. It could be proven by all parameters score obtained were still in normal ranges compared to literatures. There was also no stress symptom based on neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio measurement. Condition with room temperature and humidity of 25,79±1,16°C dan 80,19±9,05% regarded as the most suitable condition for long-tailed macaque’s life

  20. Fasting induced kisspeptin signaling suppression is regulated by glutamate mediated cues in adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamas, Shazia; Khan, Saeed-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Yousaf; Shabbir, Nadia; Zubair, Hira; Shafqat, Saira; Wahab, Fazal; Shahab, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Kisspeptin signaling is suppressed by short term fasting. It has been reported that hypothalamic Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA expression decreased after 48h of fasting in male rhesus monkey. But the mechanism involved in the reduction of kisspeptin signaling after 48h of fasting is unknown. Recent studies have suggested the role of afferent excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the regulation of kisspeptin neurons. Therefore, this study was designed to observe the changes in the glutamate and GABA signaling during fed and 48h fasting states by performing immunofluorescence to examine the interaction of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors and by performing SYBR green qRT-PCR to measure and quantify the levels of Kiss1, Kiss1r, NR1 and GAD67 mRNA in the POA and MBH of adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) during 48h of fasting (n=2) and fed ad libitum (n=2). Plasma testosterone (pfasting. Our results clearly showed that expression of hypothalamic Kiss1, Kiss1r and NR1 mRNA was significantly (pfasted for 48h as compared to those which were fed ad libitum. There was no clear difference in the GAD67 mRNA contents between the two groups. Number of kisspeptin neurons and the interactions of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 were significantly (pfasting. These observations suggest that decreased kisspeptin signaling during fasting may occur due to reduction in glutamatergic inputs to kisspeptin neurons. Our results also suggest that fasting induced suppression of kisspeptin signaling is not mediated through GABAergic neurons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential host response to LPS variants in amniochorion and the TLR4/MD-2 system in Macaca nemestrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Justine; Jain, Sumita; Carl, David J.; Paolella, Louis; Darveau, Richard P.; Gravett, Michael G.; Waldorf, Kristina M. Adams

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Microbial-specific factors are likely critical in determining whether bacteria trigger preterm labor. Structural variations in lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of gram-negative bacteria, can determine whether LPS has an inflammatory (agonist) or anti-inflammatory (antagonist) effect through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Our objective was to determine whether amniochorion can discriminate between LPS variants in a nonhuman primate model. We also cloned Macaca nemestrina TLR4 and MD-2 and compared this complex functionally to the human homologue to establish whether nonhuman primates could be used to study TLR4 signaling in preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN Amniochorion explants from M. nemestrina were stimulated with a panel of LPS variants for 24 hours. Supernatants were analyzed for IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and prostaglandins E2 and F2α. Tissue expression of TLR1, 2, 4, 6, MyD88 and NF-kB was studied by RT-PCR. M. nemestrina TLR4 and MD2 genes were cloned and compared with their human counterparts in a recombinant TLR4 signaling system to determine LPS sensitivity. RESULTS LPS variants differentially stimulated cytokines and prostaglandins, which was not related to transcriptional changes of TLR4 or other TLRs. Nearly all elements of LPS binding and TLR4 leucine-rich repeats were conserved between humans and M. nemestrina. TLR4/MD-2 signaling complexes from both species were equally sensitive to LPS variants. CONCLUSIONS LPS variants elicit a hierarchical inflammatory response within amniochorion that may contribute to preterm birth. LPS sensitivity is similar between M. nemestrina and humans, validating M. nemestrina as an appropriate model to study TLR4 signaling in preterm birth. PMID:20619890

  2. Choriodecidual group B streptococcal inoculation induces fetal lung injury without intra-amniotic infection and preterm labor in Macaca nemestrina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Adams Waldorf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early events leading to intrauterine infection and fetal lung injury remain poorly defined, but may hold the key to preventing neonatal and adult chronic lung disease. Our objective was to establish a nonhuman primate model of an early stage of chorioamnionitis in order to determine the time course and mechanisms of fetal lung injury in utero. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten chronically catheterized pregnant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina at 118-125 days gestation (term=172 days received one of two treatments: 1 choriodecidual and intra-amniotic saline (n=5, or 2 choriodecidual inoculation of Group B Streptococcus (GBS 1×10(6 colony forming units (n=5. Cesarean section was performed regardless of labor 4 days after GBS or 7 days after saline infusion to collect fetal and placental tissues. Only two GBS animals developed early labor with no cervical change in the remaining animals. Despite uterine quiescence in most cases, blinded review found histopathological evidence of fetal lung injury in four GBS animals characterized by intra-alveolar neutrophils and interstitial thickening, which was absent in controls. Significant elevations of cytokines in amniotic fluid (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and fetal plasma (IL-8 were detected in GBS animals and correlated with lung injury (p<0.05. Lung injury was not directly caused by GBS, because GBS was undetectable in amniotic fluid (~10 samples tested/animal, maternal and fetal blood by culture and polymerase chain reaction. In only two cases was GBS cultured from the inoculation site in low numbers. Chorioamnionitis occurred in two GBS animals with lung injury, but two others with lung injury had normal placental histology. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A transient choriodecidual infection can induce cytokine production, which is associated with fetal lung injury without overt infection of amniotic fluid, chorioamnionitis or preterm labor. Fetal lung injury may, thus, occur silently without

  3. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velankar, Avadhoot D; Kumara, Honnavalli N; Pal, Arijit; Mishra, Partha Sarathi; Singh, Mewa

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species.

  4. Analysis of sea almond (Terminalia catappa) cracking sites used by wild Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falótico, Tiago; Spagnoletti, Noemi; Haslam, Michael; Luncz, Lydia V; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Nut-cracking is shared by all non-human primate taxa that are known to habitually use percussive stone tools in the wild: robust capuchins (Sapajus spp.), western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), and Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea). Despite opportunistically processing nuts, Burmese long-tailed macaques predominantly use stone tools to process mollusks in coastal environments. Here, we present the first comprehensive survey of sea almond (Terminalia catappa) nut-cracking sites created by macaques. We mapped T. catappa trees and nut-cracking sites that we encountered along the intertidal zone and forest border on the coasts of Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand. For each nut-cracking site, we measured the physical properties (i.e., size, weight, use-wear) of hammer stones and anvils. We found that T. catappa trees and nut-cracking sites primarily occurred on the western coast facing the open sea, and cracking sites clusters around the trees. We confirmed previous results that nut cracking tools are among the heaviest tools used by long-tailed macaques; however, we found our sample of T. catappa stone tools lighter than a previously collected sea almond sample that, unlike our sample, was collected immediately after use within the intertidal zone. The difference was likely the result of tidal influences on tool-use sites. We also found that tool accumulations above the intertidal region do not resemble those within them, possibly leading to incomplete assessments of macaque stone tools through archaeological techniques that would use these durable sites. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velankar, Avadhoot D.; Kumara, Honnavalli N.

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal) of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004) after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species. PMID:26886197

  6. Jaw-muscle architecture and mandibular morphology influence relative maximum jaw gapes in the sexually dimorphic Macaca fascicularis.

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    Terhune, Claire E; Hylander, William L; Vinyard, Christopher J; Taylor, Andrea B

    2015-05-01

    Maximum jaw gape is a performance variable related to feeding and non-feeding oral behaviors, such as canine gape displays, and is influenced by several factors including jaw-muscle fiber architecture, muscle position on the skull, and jaw morphology. Maximum gape, jaw length, and canine height are strongly correlated across catarrhine primates, but relationships between gape and other aspects of masticatory apparatus morphology are less clear. We examine the effects of jaw-adductor fiber architecture, jaw-muscle leverage, and jaw form on gape in an intraspecific sample of sexually dimorphic crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis). As M. fascicularis males have relatively larger maximum gapes than females, we predict that males will have muscle and jaw morphologies that facilitate large gape, but these morphologies may come at some expense to bite force. Male crab-eating macaques have relatively longer jaw-muscle fibers, masseters with decreased leverage, and temporomandibular joint morphologies that facilitate the production of wide gapes. Because relative canine height is correlated with maximum gape in catarrhines, and males have relatively longer canines than females, these results support the hypothesis that male M. fascicularis have experienced selection to increase maximum gape. The sexes do not differ in relative masseter physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA), but males compensate for a potential trade-off between muscle excursion versus muscle force with increased temporalis weight and PCSA. This musculoskeletal configuration is likely functionally significant for behaviors involving aggressive canine biting and displays in male M. fascicularis and provides additional evidence supporting the multifactorial nature of the catarrhine masticatory apparatus. Our results have implications for the evolution of craniofacial morphology in catarrhine primates and reinforce the importance of evaluating additional factors other than feeding behavior and diet

  7. Age at reproductive debut: Developmental predictors and consequences for lactation, infant mass, and subsequent reproduction in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

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    Pittet, Florent; Johnson, Crystal; Hinde, Katie

    2017-11-01

    The age at which females initiate their reproductive career is a critical life-history parameter with potential consequences on their residual reproductive value and lifetime fitness. The age at reproductive debut may be intimately tied to the somatic capacity of the mother to rear her young, but relatively little is known about the influence of age of first birth on milk synthesis within a broader framework of reproductive scheduling, infant outcomes, and other life-history tradeoffs. Our study investigated the predictors of age at first reproduction among 108 captive rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females, and associations with their milk synthesis at peak lactation, infant mass, and ability to subsequently conceive and reproduce. The majority of females reproduced in their fourth year (typical breeders); far fewer initiated their reproductive career one year earlier or one year later (respectively early and late breeders). Early breeders (3-year-old) benefited from highly favorable early life development (better juvenile growth, high dominance rank) to accelerate reproduction, but were impaired in milk synthesis due to lower somatic resources and their own continued growth. Comparatively, late breeders suffered from poor developmental conditions, only partially compensated by their delayed reproduction, and evinced compromised milk synthesis. Typical breeders not only produced higher available milk energy but also had best reproductive performance during the breeding and birth seasons following primiparity. Here, we refine and extend our understanding of how life-history tradeoffs manifest in the magnitude, sources, and consequences of variation in age of reproductive debut. These findings provide insight into primate reproductive flexibility in the context of constraints and opportunities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The influence of kinship and dominance hierarchy on grooming partner choice in free-ranging Macaca mulatta brevicaudus.

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    Wu, Cheng-Feng; Liao, Zhi-Jie; Sueur, Cedric; Sha, John Chih Mun; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Peng

    2018-04-18

    In group-living animals, individuals do not interact uniformly with their conspecifics. Among primates, such heterogeneity in partner choice can be discerned from affiliative grooming patterns. While the preference for selecting close kin as grooming partners is ubiquitous across the primate order, the selection of higher-ranking non-kin individuals as grooming partners is less common. We studied a group of provisioned rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta brevicaudus) on Hainan Island, China, to examine rank-related benefits of grooming exchanges and the influence of kin relationships. We tested four hypotheses based on Seyfarth's model: (1) there will be kin preference in grooming relationships; (2) grooming between non-kin individuals will be directed up the dominance rank; (3) grooming between non-kin individuals will reduce aggression from higher-ranking ones; and (4) non-kin individuals will spend more time grooming with adjacent ranked ones. We found that grooming relationships between kin individuals were stronger than those between non-kin individuals. For non-kin relationships, lower-ranking individuals received less aggression from higher-ranking ones through grooming; a benefit they could not derive through grooming exchanges with individuals related by kinship. Individuals spent more time grooming adjacent higher-ranking non-kin individuals and higher-ranking individuals also received more grooming from non-kin individuals. Our results supported Seyfarth's model for predicting partner choice between non-kin individuals. For relationships between kin individuals, we found results that were not consistent with prediction for the exchanges of aggression and grooming, indicating the importance to control for the influence of kinship in future studies.

  9. The role of anthropic, ecological, and social factors in sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotcorne, Fany; Maslarov, Cindy; Wandia, I Nengah; Fuentes, Agustin; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2014-12-01

    When choosing their sleeping sites, primates make adaptive trade-offs between various biotic and abiotic constraints. In human-modified environments, anthropic factors may play a role. We assessed the influence of ecological (predation), social (intergroup competition), and anthropic (proximity to human settlements) factors in sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) occupying a habitat at the interface of natural forests and human-modified zones in Bali Barat National Park, Indonesia. Over the course of 56 nights, we collected data relating to physical features of sleeping trees, patterns of the use of sleeping sites within the home range, pre-sleep behavior, diurnal ranging patterns and availability of natural and human food. Overall, the macaques used 17 sleeping sites with 37 sleeping trees. When the monkeys slept in forest zones, they selected sleeping trees that had larger trunks but were not significantly taller than surrounding trees. Though the macaques rarely re-used sleeping sites on consecutive nights, they frequently re-used four sites over the study period. The group favored sleeping within the core area of its home range, despite the occurrence of frequent agonistic intergroup encounters there. Macaques preferentially selected sleeping trees located within or near human-modified zones, especially when human food was abundant and natural food was scarce. These results partially support the hypothesis that long-tailed macaques choose their sleeping sites to avoid predation; proximity to human settlements appears to be the primary factor influencing sleeping site choice in this primate species. Our results reflect the strong influence that anthropic factors have on primates, which subsist in increasingly human-dominated landscapes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Marine prey processed with stone tools by Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) in intertidal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumert, Michael D; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2012-11-01

    Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) feed opportunistically in many habitats. The Burmese subspecies (M. f. aurea) inhabits coastal areas in southwestern Thailand and Myanmar, and some of their populations have adapted lithic customs for processing encased foods in intertidal habitats. We investigated the diet of such macaques in Laemson National Park, Thailand, and identified the variety of foods they processed with stones. We conducted 36 shore surveys to study tool sites following feeding activity, during which we counted the minimum number of individual (MNI) food items found at each site. We identified 47 food species (43 animals and four plants), from 37 genera. We counted 1,991 food items during surveys. Nearly all were mollusks (n = 1,924), with the small remainder primarily consisting of crustaceans and nuts. The two most common foods, rock oysters (Saccostrea cucullata; n = 1,062) and nerite snails (Nerita spp.; n = 538), composed 80.2% of our sample. Four prey species comprised 83.2% of the sample (MNI = 1,656), S. cucullata (n = 1,062), Nerita chamaeleon (n = 419), Thais bitubercularis (n = 95), and Monodonta labio (n = 80). Macaques selected a wide variety of foods. However, they heavily concentrated on those that were abundant, easy to access, and sufficiently sized. The Burmese long-tailed macaque stone-processed diet, which focuses on intertidal marine prey, differs from Sapajus and Pan, who use stones primarily for encased nuts and fruits. In terms of diversity of foods exploited, coastal stone-based predation by macaques resembles the diet of coastal-foraging humans (Homo sapiens sapiens). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Differential Responding by Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta and Humans (Homo sapiens to Variable Outcomes in the Assurance Game

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    Audrey E. Parrish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral flexibility in how one responds to variable partner play can be examined using economic coordination games in which subjects play against a variety of partners and therefore may need to alter their behavior to produce the highest payoff. But how do we study this behavioral flexibility once players have settled on a response? Here, we investigated how responding by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and humans (Homo sapiens playing a computerized single-player version of a coordination game, the Assurance game, changed as a function of the variable responses (Stag/Hare generated by multiple simulations (SIMs. We were interested in whether individuals could track and differentially respond to changing frequencies of Stag and Hare play by the SIMs, especially with regard to the payoff dominant (Stag-Stag outcome, something that could not be done with real partners as they quickly settled on the Stag response. For both monkeys and humans, there was a linear relationship between proportion of Stag play by the subject and the likelihood of the Stag choice by the SIM such that both species increased their use of Stag as the SIM increased its use of the Stag response. However, humans more closely matched their proportion of Stag responses to that of the SIM, whereas monkeys adopted a different, but equally effective, strategy of exploiting the higher-paying Stag alternative. These results suggest that monkeys and humans demonstrate sensitivity to a dynamic game environment in which they encounter variable contingencies for the same response options, although they may employ different strategies to maximize reward.

  12. Cloning, sequencing, and polymorphism analysis of novel classical MHC class I alleles in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xi-He; Dai, Zheng-Xi; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2016-04-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) has been confirmed to be an independent species from the pig-tailed macaque group of Old World monkey. We have previously reported that the northern pig-tailed macaques were also susceptible to HIV-1. Here, to make this animal a potential HIV/AIDS model and to discover the mechanism of virus control, we attempted to assess the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted immune responses to HIV-1 infection, which was associated with viral replication and disease progression. As an initial step, we first cloned and characterized the classical MHC class I gene of northern pig-tailed macaques. In this study, we identified 39 MHC class I alleles including 17 MHC-A and 22 MHC-B alleles. Out of these identified alleles, 30 were novel and 9 were identical to alleles previously reported from other macaque species. The MHC-A and MHC-B loci were both duplicates as rhesus macaques and southern pig-tailed macaques. In addition, we also detected the patterns of positive selection in northern pig-tailed macaques and revealed the existence of balance selection with 20 positive selection sites in the peptide binding region. The analysis of B and F peptide binding pockets in northern and southern pig-tailed macaques and rhesus macaques suggested that they were likely to share a few common peptides to present. Thus, this study provides important MHC immunogenetics information and adds values to northern pig-tailed macaques as a promising HIV/AIDS model.

  13. Population Recovery of Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis umbrosus following a Tsunami in the Nicobar Islands, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avadhoot D Velankar

    Full Text Available Natural disasters pose a threat to isolated populations of species with restricted distributions, especially those inhabiting islands. The Nicobar long tailed macaque.Macaca fascicularis umbrosus, is one such species found in the three southernmost islands (viz. Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India. These islands were hit by a massive tsunami (Indian Ocean tsunami, 26 December 2004 after a 9.2 magnitude earthquake. Earlier studies [Umapathy et al. 2003; Sivakumar, 2004] reported a sharp decline in the population of M. f. umbrosus after thetsunami. We studied the distribution and population status of M. f. umbrosus on thethree Nicobar Islands and compared our results with those of the previous studies. We carried out trail surveys on existing paths and trails on three islands to get encounter rate as measure of abundance. We also checked the degree of inundation due to tsunami by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI on landsat imageries of the study area before and after tsunami. Theencounter rate of groups per kilometre of M. f. umbrosus in Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal was 0.30, 0.35 and 0.48 respectively with the mean group size of 39 in Great Nicobar and 43 in Katchal following the tsunami. This was higher than that reported in the two earlier studies conducted before and after the tsunami. Post tsunami, there was a significant change in the proportion of adult males, adult females and immatures, but mean group size did not differ as compared to pre tsunami. The results show that population has recovered from a drastic decline caused by tsunami, but it cannot be ascertained whether it has reached stability because of the altered group structure. This study demonstrates the effect of natural disasters on island occurring species.

  14. Detection and Quantification of Male-Specific Fetal DNA in the Serum of Pregnant Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Lubna; Takano, Jun-ichiro; Nagai, Yasushi; Otsuki, Junko; Sankai, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Because of their developmental similarities to humans, nonhuman primates are often used as a model to study fetal development for potential clinical applications in humans. The detection of fetal DNA in maternal plasma or serum offers a source of fetal genetic material for prenatal diagnosis. However, no such data have been reported for cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), an important model in biomedical research. We have developed a specific, highly sensitive PCR system for detecting and quantifying male-specific fetal DNA in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys. We used multiplex quantitative real-time PCR to analyze cell-free DNA in maternal blood serum obtained from 46 pregnant monkeys at gestational weeks 5, 12, and 22. The presence of SRY gene and DYS14 Y chromosomal sequences was determined in 28 monkeys with male-bearing pregnancies. According to confirmation of fetal sex at birth, the probe and primers for detecting the Y chromosomal regions at each time point revealed 100% specificity of the PCR test and no false-positive or false-negative results. Increased levels of the SRY-specific sequences (mean, 4706 copies/mL serum DNA; range, 1731 to 12,625) and DYS14-specific sequences (mean, 54,814 copies/mL serum DNA; range, 4175–131,250 copies) were detected at week 22. The SRY- and DYS14-specific probes appear to be an effective combination of markers in a multiplex PCR system. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the detection of cell-free DNA in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:25730760

  15. Mixed Fortunes: Ancient Expansion and Recent Decline in Population Size of a Subtropical Montane Primate, the Arunachal Macaque Macaca munzala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debapriyo; Sinha, Anindya; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary glacial oscillations are known to have caused population size fluctuations in many temperate species. Species from subtropical and tropical regions are, however, considerably less studied, despite representing most of the biodiversity hotspots in the world including many highly threatened by anthropogenic activities such as hunting. These regions, consequently, pose a significant knowledge gap in terms of how their fauna have typically responded to past climatic changes. We studied an endangered primate, the Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala, from the subtropical southern edge of the Tibetan plateau, a part of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, also known to be highly threatened due to rampant hunting. We employed a 534 bp-long mitochondrial DNA sequence and 22 autosomal microsatellite loci to investigate the factors that have potentially shaped the demographic history of the species. Analysing the genetic data with traditional statistical methods and advance Bayesian inferential approaches, we demonstrate a limited effect of past glacial fluctuations on the demographic history of the species before the last glacial maximum, approximately 20,000 years ago. This was, however, immediately followed by a significant population expansion possibly due to warmer climatic conditions, approximately 15,000 years ago. These changes may thus represent an apparent balance between that displayed by the relatively climatically stable tropics and those of the more severe, temperate environments of the past. This study also draws attention to the possibility that a cold-tolerant species like the Arunachal macaque, which could withstand historical climate fluctuations and grow once the climate became conducive, may actually be extremely vulnerable to anthropogenic exploitation, as is perhaps indicated by its Holocene ca. 30-fold population decline, approximately 3,500 years ago. Our study thus provides a quantitative appraisal of these demographically important

  16. Response of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to the Body of a Group Member That Died from a Fatal Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Jacqueline S.; Aure, Bonn; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Platt, Michael L.; Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Among animals that form social bonds, the death of a conspecific may be a significant social event, representing the loss of an ally and resulting in disruptions to the dominance hierarchy. Despite this potential biological importance, we have only limited knowledge of animals' reactions to the death of a group member. This is particularly true of responses to dead adults, as most reports describe the responses of mothers to dead infants. Here, we describe in detail and provide video evidence of the behavioral responses of a group of free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) immediately after the death of a mid-ranking adult male as a result of a fatal attack. High-ranking male members of the group, suspected to have carried out the attack, dragged and bit the dead body, exhibiting a rate of aggression 20 times greater than baseline levels. Lower-ranking individuals approached and inspected the body by looking closely, smelling, and grooming the fur. There was inconclusive evidence that these rhesus macaques found the death of a conspecific stressful: Levels of grooming between group members after the fatal attack were significantly higher than baseline levels, and higher than levels of grooming after nonfatal attacks. However, when grooming levels were adjusted based on the assumption that individuals positioned close to the body, i.e., those visible to researchers, were more likely to be engaged in grooming than those positioned farther away, this difference from baseline was no longer significant. The rate of self-directed behaviors after the fatal attack was also not different from baseline. Many of the behaviors we observed directed toward the body (aggression, inspection) have been previously reported in chimpanzees and geladas, and are similar to reactions sometimes displayed by humans. As such, this report represents a potentially valuable contribution the nascent field of nonhuman primate thanatology. PMID:23459587

  17. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Aliza Rachel Weinstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay. Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject, multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain, and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social context in

  18. Endozoochorous seed dispersal by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): Effects of temporal variation in ranging and seed characteristics on seed shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Morimoto, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Variation in seed shadows generated by frugivores is caused by daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in ranging, as well as inter-specific variability in gut passage times according to seed characteristics. We studied the extent to which seed weight, specific gravity, and daily (morning, afternoon, and evening) and inter-annual (2004 vs. 2005) variation in ranging affected seed shadows generated by wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. The macaques ingested fleshy fruits of 11 species during the two year study period; Viburnum dilatatum (Caprifoliaceae: heavier seeds with higher specific gravity) and Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae: lighter seeds with lower specific gravity) were eaten frequently in both years. The travel distances of macaques after feeding on V. dilatatum and R. multiflora fruits were estimated by combining feeding locations and ranging patterns measured in the field with gut passage times of model seeds in captive animals. Median travel distances after fruit feeding were 431 (quantile range: 277-654) and 478 m (265-646), respectively, with a maximum of 1,261 m. Neither year nor time of day affected travel distances. The gut passage time of model V. dilatatum seeds was longer than that of model R. multiflora seed, but this did not affect dispersal distances. Seed shadows for both species over 2 years showed unimodal distribution (peak: 101-500 m) and more than 90%, 20%, and 3% of ingested seeds were estimated to be dispersed >100, >500, and >1000 m, respectively, the longest known distances among macaque species. R. multiflora seeds tended to be dispersed further in 2004 than 2005, but V. dilatatum seeds were not, implying that inter-annual variations in ranging pattern due to the distribution and abundance of nut fruiting could affect dispersal distance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Population dynamics of Lemniscomys rosalia (Muridae: Rodentia) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerous studies have reported increases in rodent populations following good rainfall (Nel 1978; Perrin & Swanepoel 1987; Bronner, Rau- ten bach & Meester 1988). This relationship is thought to be an indirect one where increased rainfall acts to increase cover and food supply. thus enabling rodents to reproduce (Neal.

  20. Social network community structure and the contact-mediated sharing of commensal E. coli among captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Krishna; Beisner, Brianne; Guan, Jiahui; Vandeleest, Jessica; Fushing, Hsieh; Atwill, Edward; McCowan, Brenda

    2018-01-01

    In group-living animals, heterogeneity in individuals' social connections may mediate the sharing of microbial infectious agents. In this regard, the genetic relatedness of individuals' commensal gut bacterium Escherichia coli may be ideal to assess the potential for pathogen transmission through animal social networks. Here we use microbial phylogenetics and population genetics approaches, as well as host social network reconstruction, to assess evidence for the contact-mediated sharing of E. coli among three groups of captively housed rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ), at multiple organizational scales. For each group, behavioral data on grooming, huddling, and aggressive interactions collected for a six-week period were used to reconstruct social network communities via the Data Cloud Geometry (DCG) clustering algorithm. Further, an E. coli isolate was biochemically confirmed and genotypically fingerprinted from fecal swabs collected from each macaque. Population genetics approaches revealed that Group Membership, in comparison to intrinsic attributes like age, sex, and/or matriline membership of individuals, accounted for the highest proportion of variance in E. coli genotypic similarity. Social network approaches revealed that such sharing was evident at the community-level rather than the dyadic level. Specifically, although we found no links between dyadic E. coli similarity and social contact frequencies, similarity was significantly greater among macaques within the same social network communities compared to those across different communities. Moreover, tests for one of our study-groups confirmed that E. coli isolated from macaque rectal swabs were more genotypically similar to each other than they were to isolates from environmentally deposited feces. In summary, our results suggest that among frequently interacting, spatially constrained macaques with complex social relationships, microbial sharing via fecal-oral, social contact-mediated routes may

  1. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq of lymph node, spleen, and thymus transcriptome from wild Peninsular Malaysian cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis

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    Joey Ee Uli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis is an extensively utilised nonhuman primate model for biomedical research due to its biological, behavioural, and genetic similarities to humans. Genomic information of cynomolgus macaque is vital for research in various fields; however, there is presently a shortage of genomic information on the Malaysian cynomolgus macaque. This study aimed to sequence, assemble, annotate, and profile the Peninsular Malaysian cynomolgus macaque transcriptome derived from three tissues (lymph node, spleen, and thymus using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology. A total of 174,208,078 paired end 70 base pair sequencing reads were obtained from the Illumina Hi-Seq 2500 sequencer. The overall mapping percentage of the sequencing reads to the M. fascicularis reference genome ranged from 53–63%. Categorisation of expressed genes to Gene Ontology (GO and KEGG pathway categories revealed that GO terms with the highest number of associated expressed genes include Cellular process, Catalytic activity, and Cell part, while for pathway categorisation, the majority of expressed genes in lymph node, spleen, and thymus fall under the Global overview and maps pathway category, while 266, 221, and 138 genes from lymph node, spleen, and thymus were respectively enriched in the Immune system category. Enriched Immune system pathways include Platelet activation pathway, Antigen processing and presentation, B cell receptor signalling pathway, and Intestinal immune network for IgA production. Differential gene expression analysis among the three tissues revealed 574 differentially expressed genes (DEG between lymph and spleen, 5402 DEGs between lymph and thymus, and 7008 DEGs between spleen and thymus. Venn diagram analysis of expressed genes revealed a total of 2,630, 253, and 279 tissue-specific genes respectively for lymph node, spleen, and thymus tissues. This is the first time the lymph node, spleen, and thymus transcriptome of the

  2. Dose-response relationship of γ-ray-induced reciprocal translocations at low doses in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Tobari, Izuo; Yamagiwa, Junji; Utsugi, Toyoko; Okamoto, Masanori; Nakai, Sayaka

    1985-01-01

    The yield of translocations induced by acute γ-irradiation at low doses in the crab-eating monkey's (Macaca fascicularis) spermatogonia was examined. Over the low dose range from 0 to 1 Gy, the dose-response relationship for translocation yield was a linear one. To estimate the sensitivity to the induction of translocations in the crab-eating monkey's spermatogonia, the slope of the regression line was compared with those in other mammalian species. Consequently, over the low dose range below 1 Gy, the sensitivity of the crab-eating monkey's spermatogonia to translocation induction was similar to several mammalian species, the mouse, Chinese hamster, and the rabbit, but significantly higher than that of the rhesus monkey and lower than that of the marmoset. (Auth.)

  3. Dose-response relationship for translocation induction in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) by chronic γ-ray-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobari, Izuo; Matsuda, Yoichi; Xiaohung, Gu; Yamagiwa, Junju; Utsugi, Toyoko; Kitazume, Masayuki; Okamoto, Masanori

    1988-01-01

    The induction of reciprocal translocations in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) by chronic γ-irradiation was examined. The frequencies of translocation per cell were 0.15% at 0.3 Gy, 0.27% at 1.0 Gy and 0.33% at 1.5 Gy. The dose-response relationship for translocation yield was a linear one with a regression coefficient (b) of 0.16 · 10 -2 . When the slope (b) of the regression line was compared with that at a high dose rate (0.25 Gy/min, b = 1.79 · 10 -2 , it was clear that the induction rate of translocations after chronic γ-irradiation was only about one-tenth of that after high-dose-rate irradiation. Thus, there was evidence for a pronounced dose-rate effect in the crab-eating monkey. (author). 27 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. Disproportionate participation by age/sex classes in aggressive interactions between long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and human tourists at Padangtegal monkey forest, Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustín; Gamerl, Scott

    2005-06-01

    We observed 420 aggressive interactions between tourists and Macaca fascicularis at the Padangtegal Wanara Wana Temple forest site in Bali, Indonesia, during the months of June and July 2001. The data collected included patterns of aggression, presence or absence of food, and demographic information on resident macaques and human visitors. Analyses of the interactions suggest that macaques respond differentially to humans according to the age/sex classes involved. Additionally, adult and subadult male macaques participated in more aggressive behaviors than expected, while adult female macaques and immatures participated in such behaviors less than expected. These variations in interaction patterns between macaques and tourists may have substantial implications for management issues and the potential for pathogen transmission. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Genotyping of TRIM5 locus in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina, a primate species susceptible to Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 infection

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    Jiang Xue-Long

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pig-tailed macaques are the only Old World monkeys known to be susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. We have previously reported that the TRIM5-Cyclophilin A (TRIMCyp fusion in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina is dysfunctional in restricting HIV-1, which may explain why pig-tailed macaques are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Similar results have also been reported by other groups. However, according to the current primate taxonomy, the previously reported M. nemestrina are further classified into three species, which all belong to the Macaca spp. This calls for the need to look into the previous studies in more details. Results The local species Northern pig-tailed macaque (M. leonina was analyzed for the correlation of TRIM5 structure and HIV-1 infection. Eleven M. leonina animals were analyzed, and all of them were found to possess TRIM5-CypA fusion at the TRIM5 locus. The transcripts encoding the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA should result from the G-to-T mutation in the 3'-splicing site of intron 6. Polymorphism in the putative TRIMCyp recognition domain was observed. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of M. leonina were susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Consistent with the previous results, expression of the M. leonina TRIMCyp in HeLa-T4 cells rendered the cells resistant to HIV-2ROD but not to SIVmac239 infection. Conclusion The susceptibility of M. leonina to HIV-1 infection is due to the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA fusion in the TRIM5 locus. This finding should broaden our perspective in developing better HIV/AIDS non-human primate animal models.

  6. Symptoms and behavioral features induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in an old Java monkey [Macaca cynomolgus fascicularis (Raffles)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degryse, A D; Colpaert, F C

    1986-05-01

    The study concerns symptoms and behavioral characteristics induced by MPTP in a 20-year-old Macaca cynomolgus fascicularis, their evolution over 7 months, and the animal's response to 1-dopa treatment. The symptoms which the animal developed include those that have been described earlier in Macaca mulatta and Saimiri sciureus, i.e., rigidity, action tremor, postural tremor, postural flexion, hypokinesia, and bradykinesia. In addition, however, the animal developed a 3.8 Hz resting tremor which in humans is pathognomonic of Parkinson's disease, as well as cogwheeling, the glabellar tap sign, drooling, impaired ability to relax, and many other symptoms. Also unlike previously described MPTP monkeys, the animal's symptoms neither improved spontaneously, nor did they remain stable shortly after MPTP injection. Instead, symptoms steadily progressed to reach a severe status 2 months after MPTP, and further progression was apparent after another 5 months. Therapeutic responses to 1-dopa required accumulation of or kindling by the 100 mg unit doses that were spaced 4 hr apart, were often organized in time as ON episodes that alternated with OFF episodes, and were associated with dyskinesias and bizarre behavior. Of particular interest is that the animal showed kinesia paradoxa which, in humans, constitutes a feature that is unique to Parkinson's disease among the extrapyramidal disorders. In addition to available evidence, the present findings validate the syndrome induced by MPTP in monkey as an animal analogue of Parkinson's disease. Taxonomic category, age, and the occurrence of shock in response to MPTP are discussed as variables that may possibly co-determine the pathology which MPTP may induce in monkey.

  7. Measurement of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) apolipoprotein B in serum by radioimmunoassay: comparison of immunoreactivities of rhesus and human low density lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlin, J.B.; Juhn, D.J.; Fless, G.; Scanu, A.M.; Rubenstein, A.H.

    1978-02-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay for the major apolipoprotein (apoB) of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) is described. The antiserum was raised to LDL (d 1.030 to 1.040 g/ml) and the LDL/sub 2/ (d 1.020 to 1.050 g/ml) was labeled with /sup 125/I by the chloramine-T or iodine monochloride method. The assay, which was sensitive to 0.02 to 0.5 ..mu..g of LDL/sub 2/, had an interassay coefficient of variation of 4.5%. This assay was successfully used to measure apoB in the whole serum and low density lipoproteins of control monkeys maintained on a standard Purina monkey chow (PMC) diet and of three groups of monkeys fed atherogenic diets: an average American diet, a 25% peanut oil and 2% cholesterol-supplemented PMC diet, and a 25% coconut oil and 2% cholesterol-supplemented PMC diet.

  8. The Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus (Primates: Cercopithecidae: conservation history and status of a flagship species of the tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats, India

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    M. Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus is a threatened species inhabiting the rainforests of the Western Ghats mountain range in southern India. Once assessed to be less than a thousand individuals remaining in the wild habitats, the population is now estimated to be between 3000 and 3500 individuals. However, the rainforest habitats of the species are highly fragmented. During the past three decades or less, the population of this species has severely declined due to habitat degradation and illegal hunting in several areas of its occurrence. In situ conservation programs included notification of certain areas as Lion-tailed Macaque conservation regions. Several captive breeding programs have been initiated in order to have a viable captive population of the species. However, the analysis reveals that both in situ and ex situ conservation programs have not achieved the desired success and the species is even more endangered than it was a few decades ago. In this article, we discuss these conservation programs and suggest further measures for effective conservation of Lion-tailed Macaques.

  9. Aiding pest control management of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) in Malaysia by using molecular markers of mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff, M. A. B.; Abdul-Patah, P.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain, B. M.

    2017-10-01

    The long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) has been the center of human wildlife conflict in Malaysia since 1970s. This well-adapted and opportunistic primates have been dominating wide range of habitat in Malaysia such as primary and secondary forest, mangrove, as well as human settlements. The conventional practices of translocation by the authorities are threatening the uniqueness of gene pool for this species and ironically contradicting with the ultimate purpose of genetic conservation of this species. The objectives of this study is to determine the level of genetic separation between populations of long-tailed macaques, primarily focusing on populations distributed in northern Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 954 base pairs of control regions mtDNA was sequenced and analyzed from 27 samples of M. fascicularis. The results exhibited a highly homogenous state of populations for long-tailed macaques genetically and this ultimately indicate unsuitable management and planning in terms of pest control management of the species. Authorities are suggested to translocate the species at least within the state boundaries to avoid homogeneity of gene pools for the particular species.

  10. Structural architecture of the social network of a non-human primate (Macaca sylvanus): a study of its topology in La Forêt des Singes, Rocamadour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    For a decade, technological or natural networks have appeared to have a common mathematical architecture. This type of architecture has a node connectivity which follows a power law distribution. This architecture confers to these networks a resistance property to the loss of nodes. Such properties are advantageous for evolutional networks through time. Thus, this architecture can be expected in animal social networks. Another characteristic commonly met concerns the structuration of the network into communities by the mechanism of assortative mixing by vertex degree (i.e. by the number of ties individuals have). Such a structure is a reflection of evolutional mechanisms: the preferential attachment and the triadic closure processes. Using recent analytical techniques on an affiliative social network in a non-human primate species (Macaca sylvanus), we analysed the mathematical architecture and its properties. We demonstrate that in spite of the use of a recent protocol supposed to permit this type of analysis, the type of distribution cannot be clearly determined, encouraging us to carefully interpret the results obtained until then. Nevertheless, we observed interesting properties of the network at an ecological and evolutional level with network resilience that allows a cohesive society to be maintained even when faced with a catastrophe (high predation, epidemic).

  11. Measurement of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) apolipoprotein B in serum by radioimmunoassay: comparison of immunoreactivities of rhesus and human low density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, J.B.; Juhn, D.J.; Fless, G.; Scanu, A.M.; Rubenstein, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay for the major apolipoprotein (apoB) of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) is described. The antiserum was raised to LDL (d 1.030 to 1.040 g/ml) and the LDL 2 (d 1.020 to 1.050 g/ml) was labeled with 125 I by the chloramine-T or iodine monochloride method. The assay, which was sensitive to 0.02 to 0.5 μg of LDL 2 , had an interassay coefficient of variation of 4.5%. This assay was successfully used to measure apoB in the whole serum and low density lipoproteins of control monkeys maintained on a standard Purina monkey chow (PMC) diet and of three groups of monkeys fed atherogenic diets: an average American diet, a 25% peanut oil and 2% cholesterol-supplemented PMC diet, and a 25% coconut oil and 2% cholesterol-supplemented PMC diet

  12. Social networks dynamics revealed by temporal analysis: An example in a non-human primate (Macaca sylvanus) in "La Forêt des Singes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Sebastian; Zhang, Peng; Cabanes, Guénaël

    2017-06-01

    This study applied a temporal social network analysis model to describe three affiliative social networks (allogrooming, sleep in contact, and triadic interaction) in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus. Three main social mechanisms were examined to determine interactional patterns among group members, namely preferential attachment (i.e., highly connected individuals are more likely to form new connections), triadic closure (new connections occur via previous close connections), and homophily (individuals interact preferably with others with similar attributes). Preferential attachment was only observed for triadic interaction network. Triadic closure was significant in allogrooming and triadic interaction networks. Finally, gender homophily was seasonal for allogrooming and sleep in contact networks, and observed in each period for triadic interaction network. These individual-based behaviors are based on individual reactions, and their analysis can shed light on the formation of the affiliative networks determining ultimate coalition networks, and how these networks may evolve over time. A focus on individual behaviors is necessary for a global interactional approach to understanding social behavior rules and strategies. When combined, these social processes could make animal social networks more resilient, thus enabling them to face drastic environmental changes. This is the first study to pinpoint some of the processes underlying the formation of a social structure in a non-human primate species, and identify common mechanisms with humans. The approach used in this study provides an ideal tool for further research seeking to answer long-standing questions about social network dynamics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Ferumoxide labeled Flk1+ CD31- CD34- human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and its in vivo tracing in the brains of Macaca Fascicularis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ming; Wang, Ren-Zhi; Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Chang-Jun; Wei, Jun-Ji; Lu, Shan; Li, Qin; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Han, Qin; Ma, Wen-Bin; Qin, Chuang; Zhao, Chun-Hua; An, Yi-Hua; Kong, Yan-Guo

    2008-10-01

    To explore the method for labeling Flk1+ CD31- CD34- human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) with ferumoxide-PLL and evaluate the feasibility of its tracing after transplantation into the brains of Macaca Fascicularis. The hBMSCs were incubated with ferumoxide-PLL. Trypan blue staining, Prussian blue staining, and transmission electron microscope were performed to show intracellular iron, marking efficiency, and the vigor of the labeled cells. After the hBMSCs were transplanted into the brains of cynomolgus monkeys by stereotaxis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to trace the cells in vivo. Cell survival and differentiation were studied with immunohistochemistry, Prussian blue staining, and HE staining. The marking efficiency of the ferumoxide-PLL was 96%. Iron particles were found intracytoplasmic of the hBMSCs by Prussian blue staining and transmission electron microscopy. The relaxation rates of labeled cells in MRI were 4.4 and 4.2 times higher than those of the unlabeled cells. Hypointensity area was found by MRI three weeks after transplantation. Many hBMSCs and new vessels were found in the transplantation zone by pathological and immunofluorescence methods. Ferumoxide-PLL can effectively label hBMSCs and thus increase its contrast in MRI results. The cells can survive in the brains of cynomolgus monkeys. The labeled hBMSCs can be traced in vivo by MRI.

  14. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Segmental mandibular bone reconstruction with a carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite-coated modular endoprosthetic poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffold in Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchareonsook, Nattharee; Tideman, Henk; Feinberg, Stephen E; Jongpaiboonkit, Leenaporn; Lee, Shermin; Flanagan, Colleen; Krishnaswamy, Gita; Jansen, John

    2014-07-01

    A bio-degradable scaffold incorporating osteoinductive factors is one of the alternative methods for achieving the regeneration of a mandibular bone defect. The current pilot study addressed such a bone reconstruction in a non-human primate model, Macaca fascicularis monkeys, with an engineered poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold, provided with a carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite coating. The scaffolds were implanted into unilaterally created mandibular segmental defects in 24 monkeys. Three experimental groups were formed: (1) scaffolds with rhBMP-2 (n = 8), (2) scaffolds with autologous mixed bone marrow cells (n = 8), and (3) empty scaffolds as a control group (n = 8). Evaluation was based on clinical observation as well as micro-CT, mechanical, and histological analyses. Despite a high infection rate, the overall results showed that the currently designed PCL scaffolds had insufficient load-bearing capability, and complete bone union was not achieved after 6 months of implantation. Nevertheless, the group of PCL scaffolds loaded with rhBMP-2 showed evidence of bone-regenerative potential, in contrast to PCL with autologous mixed bone marrow cells and the control group. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. What meaning means for same and different: Analogical reasoning in humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Timothy M; Beran, Michael J; Thompson, Roger K R; Kleider, Heather M; Washburn, David A

    2008-05-01

    Thus far, language- and token-trained apes (e.g., D. Premack, 1976; R. K. R. Thompson, D. L. Oden, & S. T. Boysen, 1997) have provided the best evidence that nonhuman animals can solve, complete, and construct analogies, thus implicating symbolic representation as the mechanism enabling the phenomenon. In this study, the authors examined the role of stimulus meaning in the analogical reasoning abilities of three different primate species. Humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed the same relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks with both meaningful and nonmeaningful stimuli. This discrimination of relations-between-relations serves as the basis for analogical reasoning. Meaningfulness facilitated the acquisition of analogical matching for human participants, whereas individual differences among the chimpanzees suggest that meaning can either enable or hinder their ability to complete analogies. Rhesus monkeys did not succeed in the RMTS task regardless of stimulus meaning, suggesting that their ability to reason analogically, if present at all, may be dependent on a dimension other than the representational value of stimuli. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Echography of the Cervix and Uterus during the Proliferative and Secretory Phases of the Menstrual Cycle in Bonnet Monkeys (Macaca radiata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Uddhav K; Metkari, Siddnath M; Manjaramkar, Dhyananjay D; Sachdeva, Geetanjali; Katkam, Rajendra; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H; Mahajan, Abhishek; Thakur, Meenakshi H; Kholkute, Sanjiv D

    2014-01-01

    We undertook the present study to investigate the echographic characteristics of the uterus and cervix of female bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. The cervix was tortuous in shape and measured 2.74 ± 0.30 cm (mean ± SD) in width by 3.10 ± 0.32 cm in length. The cervical lumen contained 2 or 3 colliculi, which projected from the cervical canal. The echogenicity of cervix varied during proliferative and secretory phases. The uterus was pyriform in shape (2.46 ± 0.28 cm × 1.45 ± 0.19 cm) and consisted of serosa, myometrium, and endometrium. The endometrium generated a triple-line pattern; the outer and central lines were hyperechogenic, whereas the inner line was hypoechogenic. The endometrium was significantly thicker during the secretory phase (0.69 ± 0.12 cm) than during the proliferative phase (0.43 ± 0.15 cm). Knowledge of the echogenic changes in the female reproductive organs of bonnet monkeys during a regular menstrual cycle may facilitate understanding of other physiologic and pathophysiologic changes. PMID:24411775

  18. Testes biopsy analysis and hormonal reproduction levels of pig tail macaque (Macaca nemestrina injected with testosterone enanthate (TE and depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA

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    Dadang Kusmana

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyse the testes biopsy and to know the lnrmone level reproduction of pig tail macaque (Macaca nemestrina injected with testosterone enanthate (TE and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA. Six pig tail male macaques, age 6 - 8 years old were used as sanrple. Three months after adaptation period, each animal was injected intra muscularly with 32 mg TE each week starting at week zero up to the sixth week. The treatment was continued every 3 weeks after the sixth week up to the 24th week. 40 mg of DMPA was injected intramuscularly at week zero, and continued every week up to week 18. Volume of the testes was taken every three weeks and blood samples for examination of gonadotropin hormone and steroid hormone were taken at 6 week intervals. Testes biopsy was perfomed at week 30 and week 48. Preparation of testes histological slides were made using the paraffin method and stained with hematoxylin-Eosin (HE. The results of this study showed that both testes volume decreased i.e. 18.35 cm3 ± 9.35 and 19.02cm3 ± 10.88 (at week zero to 6.70 cm3 ± 3.80 and 7.02 cm3 ± 4.61 (lowest volume at week 21. In recovery period, the testes volume increased to 20.34 cmr ± 7.87 and 21.75 cm3 ± 7.09. The diameter of the seminiferous tubules and the score of spermatogenesis (right and left testes at week 30 were 0.13 mm ± 0.027 and 0.13 mm ± 0.026 and score were 5.08 ± 2.67 and 5.41 ± 2.51. At week 48, both diameter of seminiferous tubules and spermatogenesis score increased to become 0.18 mm ± 0.029 and 0.18 mm ± 0.026, and score were 7.51 ± 2.14 and 7.57 ± 1.59, During this period, hyalinization and fibrosis of seminiferous tubule occurred. By week 6, the total testosterone, free testosterone, and estrogen hormone levels increased quite sharply and then decreased but still higher than base levels of hormone. In the recovery period, estrogen hormone increased significantly until the

  19. Allelic variation of the COMT gene in a despotic primate society: A haplotype is related to cortisol excretion in Macaca fuscata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflüger, Lena S; Gutleb, Daria R; Hofer, Martin; Fieder, Martin; Wallner, Bernard; Steinborn, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Sequence variations in genes of the monoamine neurotransmitter system and their common function in human and non-human primate species are an ongoing issue of investigation. However, the COMT gene, coding for the catechol-O-methyltransferase, has not yet attracted much scientific attention regarding its functional role in non-human primates. Considering that a polymorphism of the human COMT gene affects the enzyme activity and cortisol level in response to a social stressor, this study investigated the impact of COMT on endocrine stress and behavioural parameters in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The species exemplifies a despotic hierarchy in which males' social rank positions require an adaptation of behaviour strategies. During the mating period steroid secretion and the frequency of aggressive encounters between males increase. We addressed i) whether this species exhibits potential functional COMT variants, ii) whether these variants are associated with faecal cortisol excretion of males, iii) how they are distributed among different social rank positions and iv) whether they are associated with behavioural strategies during times of mate competition. By genotyping 26 males we identified three COMT haplotypes (HT), including a putative splice mutant (HT3). This variant was associated with increased cortisol excretion. Given the observed inverse correlation between cortisol and physical aggression, we assume that different COMT haplotypes may predispose individuals to pursue more or less aggressive strategies. How these gene-stress effects might favour a specific social role is discussed. Our study of non-invasive genotyping in combination with behavioural and endocrine parameters represents an important step towards the understanding of gene-stress effects in a hierarchically organised primate society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maintaining social cohesion is a more important determinant of patch residence time than maximizing food intake rate in a group-living primate, Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazahari, Nobuko

    2014-04-01

    Animals have been assumed to employ an optimal foraging strategy (e.g., rate-maximizing strategy). In patchy food environments, intake rate within patches is positively correlated with patch quality, and declines as patches are depleted through consumption. This causes patch-leaving and determines patch residence time. In group-foraging situations, patch residence times are also affected by patch sharing. Optimal patch models for groups predict that patch residence times decrease as the number of co-feeding animals increases because of accelerated patch depletion. However, group members often depart patches without patch depletion, and their patch residence time deviates from patch models. It has been pointed out that patch residence time is also influenced by maintaining social proximity with others among group-living animals. In this study, the effects of maintaining social cohesion and that of rate-maximizing strategy on patch residence time were examined in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). I hypothesized that foragers give up patches to remain in the proximity of their troop members. On the other hand, foragers may stay for a relatively long period when they do not have to abandon patches to follow the troop. In this study, intake rate and foraging effort (i.e., movement) did not change during patch residency. Macaques maintained their intake rate with only a little foraging effort. Therefore, the patches were assumed to be undepleted during patch residency. Further, patch residence time was affected by patch-leaving to maintain social proximity, but not by the intake rate. Macaques tended to stay in patches for short periods when they needed to give up patches for social proximity, and remained for long periods when they did not need to leave to keep social proximity. Patch-leaving and patch residence time that prioritize the maintenance of social cohesion may be a behavioral pattern in group-living primates.

  1. Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba in wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta living in urban and semi-rural North-West India

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    John J. Debenham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. are intestinal protozoa capable of infecting a range of host species, and are important causes of human morbidity and mortality. Understanding their epidemiology is important, both for public health and for the health of the animals they infect. This study investigated the occurrence of these protozoans in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta in India, with the aim of providing preliminary information on the potential for transmission of these pathogens between macaques and humans. Faecal samples (n = 170 were collected from rhesus macaques from four districts of North-West India. Samples were analysed for Giardia/Cryptosporidium using a commercially available direct immunofluorescent antibody test after purification via immunomagnetic separation. Positive samples were characterised by sequencing of PCR products. Occurrence of Entamoeba was investigated first by using a genus-specific PCR, and positive samples further investigated via species-specific PCRs for Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Giardia cysts were found in 31% of macaque samples, with all isolates belonging to Assemblage B. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 1 sample, however this sample did not result in amplification by PCR. Entamoeba spp. were found in 79% of samples, 49% of which were positive for E. coli. Multiplex PCR for E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, did not result in amplification in any of the samples. Thus in 51% of the samples positive at the genus specific PCR, the Entamoeba species was not identified. This study provides baseline information on the potential for transmission of these zoonotic parasites at the wildlife-human interface.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA analyses and ecological niche modeling reveal post-LGM expansion of the Assam macaque (Macaca assamensis) in the foothills of Nepal Himalaya.

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    Khanal, Laxman; Chalise, Mukesh K; He, Kai; Acharya, Bipin K; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Jiang, Xuelong

    2018-03-01

    Genetic diversity of a species is influenced by multiple factors, including the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles and geophysical barriers. Such factors are not yet well documented for fauna from the southern border of the Himalayan region. This study used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and ecological niche modeling (ENM) to explore how the late Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex geography of the Himalayan region have shaped genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and demographic history of the Nepalese population of Assam macaques (Macaca assamensis) in the Himalayan foothills. A total of 277 fecal samples were collected from 39 wild troops over almost the entire distribution of the species in Nepal. The mtDNA fragment encompassing the complete control region (1121 bp) was recovered from 208 samples, thus defining 54 haplotypes. Results showed low nucleotide diversity (0.0075 ± SD 0.0001) but high haplotype diversity (0.965 ± SD 0.004). The mtDNA sequences revealed a shallow population genetic structure with a moderate but statistically significant effect of isolation by distance. Demographic history analyses using mtDNA sequences suggested a post-pleistocene population expansion. Paleodistribution reconstruction projected that the potential habitat of the Assam macaque was confined to the lower elevations of central Nepal during the Last Glacial Maximum. With the onset of the Holocene climatic optimum, the glacial refugia population experienced eastward range expansion to higher elevations. We conclude that the low genetic diversity and shallow population genetic structure of the Assam macaque population in the Nepal Himalaya region are the consequence of recent demographic and spatial expansion. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Immunoreactivity for Choline Acetyltransferase of Peripheral-Type (pChAT) in the Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons of the Non-Human Primate Macaca fascicularis

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    Koga, Tsuneyuki; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Transcripts of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene reveal a number of different splice variants including ChAT of a peripheral type (pChAT). Immunohistochemical staining of the brain using an antibody against pChAT clearly revealed peripheral cholinergic neurons, but failed to detect cholinergic neurons in the central nervous system. In rodents, pChAT-immunoreactivity has been detected in cholinergic parasympathetic postganglionic and enteric ganglion neurons. In addition, pChAT has been observed in non-cholinergic neurons such as peripheral sensory neurons in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. The common type of ChAT (cChAT) has been investigated in many parts of the brain and the spinal cord of non-human primates, but little information is available about the localization of pChAT in primate species. Here, we report the detection of pChAT immunoreactivity in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons and its co-localization with Substance P (SP) and/or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis. Neurons positive for pChAT were observed in a rather uniform pattern in approximately half of the trigeminal neurons throughout the TG. Most pChAT-positive neurons had small or medium-sized cell bodies. Double-immunofluorescence staining showed that 85.1% of SP-positive cells and 74.0% of CGRP-positive cells exhibited pChAT immunoreactivity. Most pChAT-positive cells were part of a larger population of neurons that co-expressed SP and/or CGRP

  4. Thyroid hormone fluctuations indicate a thermoregulatory function in both a tropical (Alouatta palliata) and seasonally cold-habitat (Macaca fuscata) primate.

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    Thompson, Cynthia L; Powell, Brianna L; Williams, Susan H; Hanya, Goro; Glander, Kenneth E; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2017-11-01

    Thyroid hormones boost animals' basal metabolic rate and represent an important thermoregulatory pathway for mammals that face cold temperatures. Whereas the cold thermal pressures experienced by primates in seasonal habitats at high latitudes and elevations are often apparent, tropical habitats also display distinct wet and dry seasons with modest changes in thermal environment. We assessed seasonal and temperature-related changes in thyroid hormone levels for two primate species in disparate thermal environments, tropical mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata), and seasonally cold-habitat Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). We collected urine and feces from animals and used ELISA to quantify levels of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (fT 3 ). For both species, fT 3 levels were significantly higher during the cooler season (wet/winter), consistent with a thermoregulatory role. Likewise, both species displayed greater temperature deficits (i.e., the degree to which animals warm their body temperature relative to ambient) during the cooler season, indicating greater thermoregulatory pressures during this time. Independently of season, Japanese macaques displayed increasing fT 3 levels with decreasing recently experienced maximum temperatures, but no relationship between fT 3 and recently experienced minimum temperatures. Howlers increased fT 3 levels as recently experienced minimum temperatures decreased, although demonstrated the opposite relationship with maximum temperatures. This may reflect natural thermal variation in howlers' habitat: wet seasons had cooler minimum and mean temperatures than the dry season, but similar maximum temperatures. Overall, our findings support the hypothesis that both tropical howlers and seasonally cold-habitat Japanese macaques utilize thyroid hormones as a mechanism to boost metabolism in response to thermoregulatory pressures. This implies that cool thermal pressures faced by tropical primates are sufficient to invoke an

  5. Behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta is related to the airways response, but not immune measures, commonly associated with asthma.

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    Katie Chun

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibition reflects a disposition to react warily to novel situations, and has been associated with atopic diseases such as asthma. Retrospective work established the relationship between behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and airway hyperresponsiveness, but not atopy, and the suggestion was made that behavioral inhibition might index components of asthma that are not immune-related. In the present study, we prospectively examined the relationship between behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and whether hormonal and immune measures often associated with asthma were associated with behavioral inhibition and/or airway hyperresponsiveness. In a sample of 49 yearling rhesus monkeys (mean=1.25 years, n=24 behaviorally inhibited animals, we measured in vitro cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ in response to stimulation, as well as peripheral blood cell percentages, cortisol levels, and percentage of regulatory T-cells (CD3+CD4+CD25+FOXP3+. Airway reactivity was assessed using an inhaled methacholine challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the proportion of immune cells was determined. Behaviorally inhibited monkeys had airway hyperresponsiveness as indicated by the methacholine challenge (p=0.031, confirming our earlier retrospective result. Airway hyperresponsiveness was also associated with lower lymphocyte percentages in lavage fluid and marginally lower plasma cortisol concentrations. However, none of the tested measures was significantly related to both behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and so could not mediate their relationship. Airway hyperresponsiveness is common to atopic and non-atopic asthma and behavioral inhibition has been related to altered autonomic activity in other studies. Our results suggest that behavioral inhibition might index an autonomically mediated reactive airway phenotype, and that a variety of stimuli (including inflammation within

  6. Probing around implants and teeth with healthy or inflamed peri-implant mucosa/gingiva. A histologic comparison in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

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    Schou, Søren; Holmstrup, Palle; Stoltze, Kaj; Hjørting-Hansen, Erik; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of probing measurements around osseointegrated oral implants. A comparison was made of probe tip position around Astra Tech implants and teeth of eight cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in conditions of i) healthy peri-implant mucosa/gingiva, ii) mild mucositis/gingivitis, iii) severe mucositis/gingivitis or iv) peri-implantitis/periodontitis. Histological sections of 128 probes that were attached to implants or teeth with surrounding tissues were prepared by the cutting-grinding technique. No systematic differences were identified in the clinical and histological estimates of the distance between the mucosal/gingival margin and the probe tip. The differences were mainly smaller than 0.5 mm, and in no case were they larger than 0.7 mm. For implants and teeth with healthy peri-implant mucosa/gingiva, the distance between the probe tip and the alveolar bone was similar and ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mm (P = 0.97). However, the probe tip was closer to bone around implants than around teeth in conditions of mild mucositis/gingivitis (P = 0.034), severe mucositis/gingivitis (P implantitis/periodontitis (P implants with severe mucositis and peri-implantitis, the distance was generally smaller than 0.5 mm, whereas teeth with severe gingivitis and periodontitis showed distances that mainly ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mm. In conclusion, the probing measurements around osseointegrated oral implants and teeth were different. Even mild marginal inflammation was associated with deeper probe penetration around implants in comparison to teeth.

  7. The effect of site (deltoid or gluteus muscle of intramuscular administration of anaesthetic drugs on the course of immobilisation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta

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    Ladislav Hess

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of site of intramuscular administration of anaesthetic drugs on the course of immobilisation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta. Twenty macaque monkeys were given medetomidine (25 µg·kg-1 and ketamine (3 mg·kg-1 intramuscularly to the deltoid (n = 10 animals or gluteus (n = 10 animals muscles. Behavioural changes, loss of aggressiveness, immobilisation time and cardiorespiratory changes were recorded. The effect of drugs was reversed after 20 min by i.m. administration of atipamezole at the dose of 250 µg·kg-1. Highly significant differences (P < 0.001 were found between groups with gluteal or deltoid administration of drugs on the onset of immobilisation effect (71.3 s and 108.3 s, respectively, and immobilisation time (152.7 s and 254.4 s, respectively. In the gluteus muscle group, the grasp reflex was still present at the beginning of immobilisation and slowly wore off in 15–45 s. The same was valid for muscle tone. There were no differences in cardiorespiratory parameters in any of the groups. Animals of both groups recovered in 3–6 min after atipamezole administration. Administration of drugs to the deltoid muscle resulted in a more rapid onset and increased effect of immobilisation than administration to the gluteus muscle. Both in veterinary and human medicine, injection to the deltoid muscle may be more convenient in all cases, when rapid and more prominent effect is desirable as in premedication before surgery or in emergency medicine. The study is the first to compare the effect of administering drugs to different muscles and the results may improve the practice of intramuscular injections in animals and in humans.

  8. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis

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    Antonio Giuliano Zippo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and 3 the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1 to 8V, 1 to 10 Hz, 500ms, biphasic waves, we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being < 1ms and interblock intervals of 1.5 to 4 s have been analyzed. We found 150 to 250ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses.

  9. Comparing the relative benefits of grooming-contact and full-contact pairing for laboratory-housed adult female Macaca fascicularis.

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    Lee, Grace H; Thom, Jinhee P; Chu, Katherine L; Crockett, Carolyn M

    2012-03-01

    Tactile social contact is the most effective form of environmental enrichment for promoting normal behavior in captive primates. For laboratory macaques housed indoors, pair housing is the most common method for socialization. Pairs can be housed either in full contact (FC), or in protected contact (PC). At Washington National Primate Research Center, PC is provided by grooming-contact (GC) cages whereby two partners are housed individually in adjacent cages with access to each other through widely spaced vertical bars. Grooming-contact has been used to accommodate research protocol restrictions and improve the likelihood of compatibility for various pairings, in part by enabling male-female pairs. This study compares the benefits between the two housing types by video recording 14 pairs of adult female Macaca fascicularis in four sequential housing phases following an ABBA design: baseline grooming-contact, full contact shortly after introduction, 1-month-later full contact, and after reversion to grooming-contact. Prior to this study, pairs had been housed compatibly in GC. Twelve of the 14 long-term pairs transitioned successfully to full contact and data presented exclude the two failed pairs. Allogrooming increased significantly when pairs first switched from GC to FC (P = 0.018), but the effect did not last through the on 1-month-later FC phase suggesting that the initial improvement in affiliative behavior was a transitory novelty response that did not persist. Self-grooming significantly decreased between the first GC and first FC phases (P = 0.016), likely due to redirected allogrooming. Non-contact affiliative behavior towards partner or other conspecifics in the room did not differ, nor did agonism towards partner or others in the room. Occurrence of abnormal, tension, manipulation, miscellaneous active, and inactive behaviors did not differ significantly across housing phases. Proximity measurements indicated that pairs were significantly out of arm

  10. Alterations in the endometrium of rats, rabbits, and Macaca mulatta that received an implantation of copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite

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    Hu LX

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Li-Xia Hu,1,* Hong Wang,1,* Meng Rao,1,* Xiao-Ling Zhao,1 Jing Yang,1 Shi-Fu Hu,1 Jing He,1,2 Wei Xia,1 Hefang Liu,1 Bo Zhen,1 Haihong Di,1 Changsheng Xie,3 Xianping Xia,3 Changhong Zhu,11Family Planning Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 2Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A copper/low-density polyethylene nanocomposite (nano-Cu/LDPE, a potential intrauterine device component material, has been developed from our research. A logical extension of our previous work, this study was conducted to investigate the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, substance P (SP, and substance P receptor (SP-R in the endometrium of Sprague Dawley rats, New Zealand White rabbits, and Macaca mulatta implanted with nano-Cu/LDPE composite. The influence of the nano-Cu/LDPE composite on the morphology of the endometrium was also investigated. Animals were randomly divided into five groups: the sham-operated control group (SO group, bulk copper group (Cu group, LDPE group, and nano-Cu/LDPE groups I and II. An expression of PAI-1, SP, and SP-R in the endometrial tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry at day 30, 60, 90, and 180 postimplantation. The significant difference for PAI-1, SP, and SP-R between the nano-Cu/LDPE groups and the SO group (P<0.05 was identified when the observation period was terminated, and the changes of nano-Cu/LDPE on these parameters were less remarkable than those of the Cu group (P<0.05. The damage to the endometrial morphology caused by the nano-Cu/LDPE composite was much less than that caused by bulk copper. The nano-Cu/LDPE composite might be a potential substitute for conventional materials for intrauterine

  11. Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death.

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    Alves, Derron A; Honko, Anna N; Kortepeter, Mark G; Sun, Mei; Johnson, Joshua C; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity. These findings may provide important insight for understanding sequelae seen in West African survivors of Ebola virus disease. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Genetic differentiation of populations of the threatened saproxylic beetle Rosalia longicorn, Rosalia alpina (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Central and South-east Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drag, Lukáš; Hauck, David; Bérces, S.; Michalcewicz, J.; Šerić Jelaska, L.; Aurenhammer, S.; Čížek, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 4 (2015), s. 911-925 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1952 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 04-168/2013/P; European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : beech * conservation * Natura 2000 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.984, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bij.12624/epdf

  13. Reference intervals for biochemical and haematological analytes of juvenile captive-bred long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Mauritius with examination of the effects of individual characteristics using principal component analysis.

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    Naiken, Sandiren; Griffiths, Mary-Ann; Hurdial, Jaymahalaxmi R; Narainapoulle, Sam; Honess, Paul

    2016-12-01

    The Mauritian cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is widely used in biomedical research. Determining reference intervals for biochemical and haematological analytes provides an important tool for clinical diagnosis and pre-clinical research. Blood samples from 736 Mauritian long-tailed macaques were analysed to determine reference intervals of 13 biochemical and 10 haematological analytes. The need for partitioning the reference interval between males and females was determined. To examine the variation associated with age, body weight and sex on the analytes, our correlating, multivariate data set was first reduced using principal component analysis, and then the effect of these characteristics on factor scores was examined using GLM analysis. Partitioning of reference intervals, based on sex, was recommended for albumin, alkaline phosphatase and mean corpuscular haemoglobin. Sex significantly influenced the concentration of lymphocytes, granulocytes and white blood cells. These findings provide useful reference data for research involving Mauritian long-tailed macaques. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Goldilocks Meets Santa Rosalia: An Ephemeral Speciation Model Explains Patterns of Diversification Across Time Scales.

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    Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Sarver, Brice A J; Brown, Joseph W; Des Roches, Simone; Hardwick, Kayla M; Hether, Tyler D; Eastman, Jonathan M; Pennell, Matthew W; Harmon, Luke J

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the rate at which new species form is a key question in studying the evolution of life on earth. Here we review our current understanding of speciation rates, focusing on studies based on the fossil record, phylogenies, and mathematical models. We find that speciation rates estimated from these different studies can be dramatically different: some studies find that new species form quickly and often, while others find that new species form much less frequently. We suggest that instead of being contradictory, differences in speciation rates across different scales can be reconciled by a common model. Under the "ephemeral speciation model", speciation is very common and very rapid but the new species produced almost never persist. Evolutionary studies should therefore focus on not only the formation but also the persistence of new species.

  15. Identification of microRNAs in Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus Monkey by Homology Search and Experimental Validation by Small RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR Using Kidney Cortex Tissues.

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    Yaligara Veeranagouda

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs present in tissues and biofluids are emerging as sensitive and specific safety biomarkers. MiRNAs have not been thoroughly described in M. fascicularis, an animal model used in pharmaceutical industry especially in drug safety evaluation. Here we investigated the miRNAs in M. fascicularis. For Macaca mulatta, a closely related species of M. fascicularis, 619 stem-loop precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs and 914 mature miRNAs are available in miRBase version 21. Using M. mulatta miRNAs as a reference list and homology search tools, we identified 604 pre-miRNAs and 913 mature miRNAs in the genome of M. fascicularis. In order to validate the miRNAs identified by homology search we attempted to sequence miRNAs expressed in kidney cortex from M. fascicularis. MiRNAs expressed in kidney cortex may indeed be released in urine upon kidney cortex damage and be potentially used to monitor drug induced kidney injury. Hence small RNA sequencing libraries were prepared using kidney cortex tissues obtained from three naive M. fascicularis and sequenced. Analysis of sequencing data indicated that 432 out of 913 mature miRNAs were expressed in kidney cortex tissues. Assigning these 432 miRNAs to pre-miRNAs revealed that 273 were expressed from both the -5p and -3p arms of 150 pre-miRNAs and 159 miRNAs expressed from either the -5p or -3p arm of 176 pre-miRNAs. Mapping sequencing reads to pre-miRNAs also facilitated the detection of twenty-two new miRNAs. To substantiate miRNAs identified by small RNA sequencing, 313 miRNAs were examined by RT-qPCR. Expression of 262 miRNAs in kidney cortex tissues ware confirmed by TaqMan microRNA RT-qPCR assays. Analysis of kidney cortex miRNA targeted genes suggested that they play important role in kidney development and function. Data presented in this study may serve as a valuable resource to assess the renal safety biomarker potential of miRNAs in Cynomolgus monkeys.

  16. Four hurdles for conservation on private land: the case of the golden lion tamarin, Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

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    Ralf Christopher Buckley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many threatened species worldwide rely on patches of remnant vegetation in private landholdings. To establish private reserves that contribute effectively to conservation involves a wide range of complex and interacting ecological, legal, social and financial factors. These can be seen as a series of successive hurdles, each with multiple bars, which must all be surmounted. The golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, is restricted to the Atlantic Forest biome in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This forest is largely cleared. There are many small remnant patches on private lands, able to support tamarins. Local NGO’s have successfully used limited funds to contribute to tamarin conservation in a highly cost effective way. We examined the mechanisms by analysing documents and interviewing landholders and other stakeholders. We found that the local NGOs successfully identified landholdings where ecological, legal, social and some financial hurdles had already been crossed, and helped landholders over the final financial hurdle by funding critical cost components. This cost <5% of the price of outright land purchase. This approach is scaleable for golden lion tamarin elsewhere within the Atlantic Forest biome, and applicable for other species and ecosystems worldwide.

  17. Radiation-induced endometriosis in Macaca mulatta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanton, J.W.; Golden, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Female rhesus monkeys received whole-body doses of ionizing radiation in the form of single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, X rays, and electrons. Endometriosis developed in 53% of the monkeys during a 17-year period after exposure. Incidence rates for endometriosis related to radiation type were: single-energy protons, 54%; mixed-energy protons, 73%; X rays, 71%; and electrons, 57%. The incidence of endometriosis in nonirradiated control monkeys was 26%. Monkeys exposed to single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, and X rays developed endometriosis at a significantly higher rate than control monkeys (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Severity of endometriosis was staged as massive, moderate, and minimal. The incidence of these stages were 65, 16, and 19%, respectively. Observations of clinical disease included weight loss in 43% of the monkeys, anorexia in 35%, space-occupying masses detected by abdominal palpation in 55%, abnormal ovarian/uterine anatomy on rectal examination in 89%, and radiographic evidence of abdominal masses in 38%. Pathological lesions were endometrial cyst formation in 69% of the monkeys, adhesions of the colon in 66%, urinary bladder in 50%, ovaries in 86%, and ureters in 44%, focal nodules of endometrial tissue throughout the omentum in 59%, and metastasis in 9%. Clinical management of endometriosis consisted of debulking surgery and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy combined in some cases with total abdominal hysterectomy. Postoperative survival rates at 1 and 5 years for monkeys recovering from surgery were 48 and 36%, respectively

  18. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta

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    Steve W. C. Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1 and/or rewards to another monkey (M2 with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in nonsocial control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  19. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  20. Syntectonic Deposition of Plio-Quaternary Sediments in the Santa Rosalia Basin of Baja California Sur, Mexico

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    Michels, A.; Johnson, L.; Niemi, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Plio-Quaternary sediments of the Tirabuzón, Infierno, and Santa Rosalía formations record syntectonic deposition in the Santa Rosalía basin—an oblique-rift-margin basin along the Gulf of California in Baja California Sur, Mexico. These deposits unconformably overlie the upper Miocene, Cu-Zn-Co-Mn-rich Boleo Formation. The Mesa Soledad outcrops, exposed on the Minera Boleo mine property, show interfingering of marine and terrestrial deposits of the three formations along the inland margin of the basin in an area that has not previously been studied. Faults that cut the Pliocene section of the mesa are mostly steeply-dipping, NW- and NE-striking faults with normal displacement determined from stratigraphic offset and steep plunge in striations. Two stratigraphic sections were measured on either side of one of these high-angle, NW-striking fault that has a normal throw of 26 m. Our analyses of sediment grain size, fossil assemblages, and sedimentary petrography indicate a mismatch of the stratigraphic units across the fault and suggest a component of strike slip. North of the fault, poorly-sorted, well-rounded, fluvial gravels from the Pliocene-aged, Tirabuzón Formation unconformably underlie fossiliferous marine deposits from the late-Pliocene to Pleistocene? -aged Infierno Formation. South of the fault, marine deposits of the Tirabuzón Formation grade upward into imbricated, clast-supported beach gravel, and finally into non-marine conglomerates. The absence of the Infierno Formation on the southern side of the fault suggests the deposits were either eroded unevenly due to uplift or laterally displaced by strike-slip movement. Fossiliferous sandstones and conglomerates of the Santa Rosalía Formation unconformably cap the entire outcrop and show no displacement from faulting. The Santa Rosalía Formation is overlain by the 1.4 Ma La Reforma ignimbrite (Schmidt 2006), indicating that the style of deformation of the basin changed at approximately this time.

  1. Novel, male-produced aggregation pheromone of the cerambycid beetle Rosalia alpina, a priority species of European conservation concern

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žunič Kosi, A.; Zou, Y.; Hoskovec, Michal; Vrezec, A.; Stritih, N.; Millar, J. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 8 (2017), č. článku e0183279. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 1758 Coleoptera Cerambycidae * host plant volatiles * sex pheromone Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0183279

  2. Aspectos ecoepidemiológicos en la transmisión de la enfermedad de chagas en Santa Rosalia, Vichada

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Salas , Mirley

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La existencia de la enfermedad de Chagas o tripanosomiasis americana en seres humanos es un hecho que se presenta sustancialmente de modo accidental, El contacto del hombre con los focos naturales puede provocar desequilibrios ecológicos a los triatominos infectados que se ven obligados a ocupar viviendas humanas y sus respectivos procesos de domiciliación, al encontrar en ellos refugio y fuente de alimentación en humanos y animales domésticos. Desde el punto de v...

  3. Backscattering and geophysical features of volcanic ridges offshore Santa Rosalia, Baja California Sur, Gulf of California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabriol, Hubert; Delgado-Argote, Luis A.; Dañobeitia, Juan José; Córdoba, Diego; González, Antonio; García-Abdeslem, Juan; Bartolomé, Rafael; Martín-Atienza, Beatriz; Frias-Camacho, Víctor

    1999-11-01

    Volcanic ridges formed by series of volcanic edifices are identified in the central part of the Gulf of California, between Isla Tortuga and La Reforma Caldera-Santa Rosalía region. Isla Tortuga is part of the 40-km-long Tortuga Volcanic Ridge (TVR) that trends almost perpendicular to the spreading center of the Guaymas Basin. The Rosalía Volcanic Ridge (RVR), older than TVR, is characterized by volcanic structures oriented towards 310°, following a fracture zone extension and the peninsular slope. It is interpreted that most of the aligned submarine volcanic edifices are developed on continental crust while Isla Tortuga lies on oceanic-like crust of the Guaymas Basin. From a complete Bouguer anomaly map, it is observed that the alignments of gravity highs trending 310° and 290° support the volcanic and subvolcanic origin of the bathymetric highs. Volcanic curvilinear structures, lava flows and mounds were identified from backscattering images around Isla Tortuga and over a 400-m high (Vírgenes High), where the TVR and the RVR intersect. A refraction/wide-angle seismic profile crossing perpendicular to the Vírgenes High, together with gravity and magnetic data indicate the presence of shallow intrusive bodies presumably of basaltic or andesitic composition. It is inferred that most volcanic edifices along the ridges have similar internal structures. We suggest that the growth of different segments of the ridges have a volcano-tectonic origin. The older RVR lies along the extension of a fracture zone and it probably is associated with Pliocene NE-SW extension.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Formulations of Buprenorphine in Macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Halliday, Lisa C; Moody, David E; Fang, Wenfang B; Lindeblad, Matthew; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Buprenorphine is the cornerstone of pain management in nonhuman primates, but the pharmacokinetics of this widely used drug are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of buprenorphine (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg IM) and sustained-release buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg SC) in 2 macaque species (M. mulatta and M. fascicularis) by using mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetics did not differ significantly between species, and buprenorphine was dose-proportional at the tested doses. The low and high doses of buprenorphine had elimination half-lives of 2.6 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ± 2.0 h, respectively, but the low-dose data were constrained by the sensitivity of the analytical method. Sustained-release buprenorphine had an elimination half-life of 42.6 ± 26.2 h. The AUC0-Tlast of buprenorphine were 9.1 ± 4.3 and 39.0 ± 25.1 ng×h/mL for the low and high doses, respectively, and sustained-release buprenorphine had an AUC0-Tlast of 177 ± 74 ng×h/mL. Assuming a hypothesized therapeutic buprenorphine plasma concentration threshold of 0.1 ng/mL in macaques, these results suggest that buprenorphine doses of 0.01 mg/kg IM should be administered every 6 to 8 h, whereas doses of 0.03 mg/kg IM can be administered every 12 h. These results further demonstrate that a single 0.2-mg/kg SC injection of sustained-release buprenorphine maintains plasma concentrations above 0.1 ng/mL for 5 d in macaques. These findings support a new dosing strategy using sustained-release buprenorphine to improve pain management, decrease animal stress, improve animal welfare, and simplify the postoperative management of nonhuman primates in laboratory animal and zoological settings. PMID:23562033

  5. A organização social dos sauís-pretos, (Leontopithecus chrysopygus Mikan, na reserva em Teodoro Sampaio, São Paulo (Primates Callithricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory T. de Carvalho

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A contribution to the knowledge of the social organization of a population of Golden-rumped or Black-lion tamarin (L. chrysopygus living in a stripe of natural vegetation in the State Park along the banks of the lower Paranapanema River, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Its composition and analysis based on captured groups, number of individuals and their distribuition in the area with concentrations; exchange of adults males, migration of individuals from groups and females home range establishment, indicate an organization which is likely to be matrilinear. The average number of individuals per group or expanded families, in the seven (7 captured groups was 3,57 specimens with a mean body weight in adults of 572,5 grams. In each group there is normally one reproducing couple with a double twin pregnancy in 2/3 (65 to 80% of the occasions, and the twins are dizygotic. This tends to repetition in multiparous females.

  6. Executive-Attentional Uncertainty Responses by Rhesus Macaques ("Macaca mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Church, Barbara A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty response has been influential in studies of human perception, and it is crucial in the growing research literature that explores animal metacognition. However, the uncertainty response's interpretation is still sharply debated. The authors sought to clarify this interpretation using the dissociative technique of cognitive loads…

  7. Circadian rhythms in Macaca mulatta monkeys during Bion 11 flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpatov, A. M.; Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Klimovitsky, V. Y.; Tumurova, E. G.; Fuller, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    Circadian rhythms of primate brain temperature, head and ankle skin temperature, motor activity, and heart rate were studied during spaceflight and on the ground. In space, the circadian rhythms of all the parameters were synchronized with diurnal Zeitgebers. However, in space the brain temperature rhythm showed a significantly more delayed phase angle, which may be ascribed to an increase of the endogenous circadian period.

  8. VASEKTOMI PADA MONYET EKOR PANJANG (MACACA FASCICULARISDI LOKASI WISATA SANGEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANDIA. I .N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Growth population control on the animal population dwelling a restricted habitat is very important to decrease, especially the negative impact on its surrounding environment. This Community Service was conducted as an application of vasectomy on an adult male of long tailed macaque occupying the tourist destination of Sangeh. This was the choosen method to overcome the overcrowded population. Vasectomy is surgical division of all or part of the vas deferens to induce sterility. One selected adult male monkey was anesthetized successfully using blowpipe. Surgical resection of part of vas deferens used a bilateral slicing method. Vasectomy was fully done nearly in one hour, and the monkey was released to habitat in the following three days of captivity.

  9. Geslachtshormonen en gedrag bij de Beermakaak (Macaca arctoides)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Nieuwenhuijsen (Kees)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractBij lagere zoogdieren :is het optreden van copulaties beperkt tot een kort deel van de ovariumcyclus: rondom het moment van de ovulatie of in die periode, die enkele uren of dagen duurt de soort) initieert een vrouwtje sexuele interacties met eisprong. Alleen (afhankelijk van mannelijke

  10. Familial circadian rhythm disorder in the diurnal primate, Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Zhdanova

    Full Text Available In view of the inverse temporal relationship of central clock activity to physiological or behavioral outputs in diurnal and nocturnal species, understanding the mechanisms and physiological consequences of circadian disorders in humans would benefit from studies in a diurnal animal model, phylogenetically close to humans. Here we report the discovery of the first intrinsic circadian disorder in a family of diurnal non-human primates, the rhesus monkey. The disorder is characterized by a combination of delayed sleep phase, relative to light-dark cycle, mutual desynchrony of intrinsic rhythms of activity, food intake and cognitive performance, enhanced nighttime feeding or, in the extreme case, intrinsic asynchrony. The phenotype is associated with normal length of intrinsic circadian period and requires an intact central clock, as demonstrated by an SCN lesion. Entrainment to different photoperiods or melatonin administration does not eliminate internal desynchrony, though melatonin can temporarily reinstate intrinsic activity rhythms in the animal with intrinsic asynchrony. Entrainment to restricted feeding is highly effective in animals with intrinsic or SCN lesion-induced asynchrony. The large isolated family of rhesus macaques harboring the disorder provides a powerful new tool for translational research of regulatory circuits underlying circadian disorders and their effective treatment.

  11. Picture recognition of food by macaques (Macaca silenus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Peter G; Kurdziel, Laura B; Wright, Risa M; Bohrman, Jennifer A

    2012-05-01

    Pictorial representations of three-dimensional objects are often used to investigate animal cognitive abilities; however, investigators rarely evaluate whether the animals conceptualize the two-dimensional image as the object it is intended to represent. We tested for picture recognition in lion-tailed macaques by presenting five monkeys with digitized images of familiar foods on a touch screen. Monkeys viewed images of two different foods and learned that they would receive a piece of the one they touched first. After demonstrating that they would reliably select images of their preferred foods on one set of foods, animals were transferred to images of a second set of familiar foods. We assumed that if the monkeys recognized the images, they would spontaneously select images of their preferred foods on the second set of foods. Three monkeys selected images of their preferred foods significantly more often than chance on their first transfer session. In an additional test of the monkeys' picture recognition abilities, animals were presented with pairs of food images containing a medium-preference food paired with either a high-preference food or a low-preference food. The same three monkeys selected the medium-preference foods significantly more often when they were paired with low-preference foods and significantly less often when those same foods were paired with high-preference foods. Our novel design provided convincing evidence that macaques recognized the content of two-dimensional images on a touch screen. Results also suggested that the animals understood the connection between the two-dimensional images and the three-dimensional objects they represented.

  12. Disseminated Hemangiosarcoma in a Juvenile Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Amanda P; Gray, Stanton B; Chaffee, Beth K

    2016-01-01

    Hemangiosarcoma is a malignant tumor of vascular endothelial origin that is sporadically reported in rhesus macaques. This report describes the clinicopathologic features of a 1-y-old rhesus macaque with spontaneous disseminated hemangiosarcoma that originally presented as a focal cutaneous mass. Histopathologic examination of multiple tumor foci revealed regions in which the neoplastic cells formed diffuse sheets, as well as the well-defined vascular channels typically associated with hemang...

  13. Spontaneous epithelioid hemangiosarcoma in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takayuki; Gray, Tasha L; Gatto, Nicholas T; Forest, Thomas; Machotka, Sam V; Troth, Sean P; Prahalada, Srinivasa

    2014-08-01

    Epithelioid hemangiosarcoma is a rare malignant endothelial neoplasia with a unique, predominantly epithelioid morphology. A 4-y-old rhesus monkey from our laboratory had multiple neoplastic nodules in a digit, limb skin, hindlimb muscle, and visceral organs including lung, heart, and brain. The nodules were composed of pleomorphic, polygonal, epithelioid, neoplastic cells that were arranged in sheets, nests, and cords and supported by variably dense fibrovascular connective tissue. The morphologic features of this tumor were predominantly epithelioid. However, some regions contained cystic spaces, clefts, and channel-like structures, all of which were lined with morphologically distinct neoplastic endothelial cells. These neoplastic cells, with or without epithelioid morphology, were positive immunohistochemically for CD31, factor VIII-related antigen, and vimentin. The presence of multiple metastatic nodules, high mitotic rate, and extensive Ki67-positive staining were consistent with malignancy. This report is the first description of epithelioid hemangiosarcoma in a rhesus monkey.

  14. Disseminated Hemangiosarcoma in a Juvenile Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Amanda P; Gray, Stanton B; Chaffee, Beth K

    2016-01-01

    Hemangiosarcoma is a malignant tumor of vascular endothelial origin that is sporadically reported in rhesus macaques. This report describes the clinicopathologic features of a 1-y-old rhesus macaque with spontaneous disseminated hemangiosarcoma that originally presented as a focal cutaneous mass. Histopathologic examination of multiple tumor foci revealed regions in which the neoplastic cells formed diffuse sheets, as well as the well-defined vascular channels typically associated with hemangiosarcoma. Multiple endothelial cell immunomarkers were used to confirm the diagnosis in this rhesus macaque. The tumor exhibited staining properties consistent with those seen in domestic animals and humans. In addition, to our knowledge, this animal represents the youngest case of any form of spontaneous hemangiosarcoma reported in the rhesus macaque to date.

  15. Pediatric hepatic hemangiosarcoma in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, A.F.; Gierbolini, L.; Jacob, B.; Westmoreland, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Pediatric hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare condition in children with poor prognosis. Microscopically this neoplasm has a particular ‘Kaposi-form’ arrangement. Hemangiosarcoma in non-human primates is a rare finding. Methods Gross and microscopic examination of a 3-year-old rhesus were performed. Immunohistochemistry was used to characterize the hepatic hemangiosarcoma. Results The gross necropsy revealed hemoabdomen and a 4 × 3 × 3 cm mass in the liver with multiple smaller masses throughout the hepatic parenchyma. Histopathology confirmed a poorly differentiated hemangiosarcoma. Other organs submitted were free of metastases. Conclusions Hemangiosarcoma in non-human primates has been rarely reported. Diagnosis was confirmed by expression of endothelial-specific markers CD31 and vWF by immunohistochemistry. Due to the young age of this monkey and the particular solid pattern throughout the mass this neoplasm resembles pediatric hepatic angiosarcoma in humans. PMID:18671765

  16. The rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) as a flight candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debourne, M. N. G.; Bourne, G. H.; Mcclure, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    The intelligence and ruggedness of rhesus monkeys, as well as the abundance of normative data on their anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry, and the availability of captive bred animals qualify them for selection as candidates for orbital flight and weightlessness studies. Baseline data discussed include: physical characteristics, auditory thresholds, visual accuity, blood, serological taxomony, immunogenetics, cytogenics, circadian rhythms, respiration, cardiovascular values, corticosteroid response to charr restraint, microscopy of tissues, pathology, nutrition, and learning skills. Results from various tests used to establish the baseline data are presented in tables.

  17. Dieta de um grupo de mico-leão-preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan (Mammalia, Callitrichidae, na Estação Ecológica dos Caetetus, São Paulo Diet of a black lion tamarin group, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan (Mammalia, Callitrichidae, in Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Camargo Passos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study carried out in the Caetetus Ecological Station, Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil, a wild group of black lion tamarins was accompanied during 1989 to 1991, to analyse the dietary habits of the species. The scan sampling method was used to gather data. A total of 961 behaviors were recorded, of which feeding occupied 23.3% of the time involved in the behaviors. The major dietary components observed in the black lion tamarins were fruits, tree exudates and animal preys (67.9%, 22.8% and 8.9% respectively. Fruits varied monthly from 47.4 to 97.1 %, being consumed more during the rainy season, while tree exudates varied from 0 to 54.7%, and were consumed mainly during the dry season. The animal prey accounted for 0 to 15.8% of the diet. The most important dietary resource for the black lion tamarins was the fruit of Syagrus romanzoffiana Glass., representing 29.9% of the foraging observations. The diet exhibited pronounced differences among dry and rainy seasons, presumably as a consequence of the food shortage of fruits during dry season.

  18. Evaluation of two monkey species (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis) as possible models for human Helicobacter pylori disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, A R; Zurenko, G E; Moe, J B; Ulrich, R G; Yagi, Y

    1990-10-01

    Endoscopic, histologic, and microbiologic evaluations of 21 cynomolgus and 34 rhesus monkeys for naturally occurring Helicobacter pylori infection were done. H. pylori was never isolated from any cynomolgus monkey, but was found in 12 rhesus monkeys. A general correlation existed between a positive culture and a gastric inflammatory response. Inoculation challenges were then undertaken. Four cynomolgus and five rhesus monkeys received two different H. pylori strains isolated from humans. Five rhesus monkeys received an isolate obtained from rhesus monkeys. Evaluation of the cynomolgus monkeys 7 and 14 days later revealed no H. pylori. Endoscopies of the rhesus monkeys were done 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days later. One rhesus monkey, which received the isolate from humans, became H. pylori positive at day 21 and remained positive through day 56. Restriction enzyme analysis of genomic DNA at day 56 revealed that the isolate was not identical to the challenge strain isolated from humans. All five rhesus monkeys that received the strain isolated from rhesus monkeys became H. pylori positive by day 14 and remained positive through day 56 Antral inflammation developed in all monkeys. Restriction enzyme analysis of genomic DNA on day 56 confirmed that four of five isolates were identical to the challenge strain isolated from rhesus monkeys. DNA hybridization documented homology between the challenge strains isolated from humans and rhesus monkeys plus those isolated at day 56. In this study, we showed that the rhesus monkey, if given a strain of H. pylori isolated from rhesus monkeys, develops a gastric infection with accompanying histological changes, making this model suitable for further development.

  19. Genetic characterization of the Mascaruna goat, a Sicilian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic characterization of the Mascaruna goat, a Sicilian autochthonous population, using molecular markers. Salvatore Mastrangelo, Marco Tolone, Maria Teresa Sardina, Rosalia Di Gerlando, Baldassare Portolano ...

  20. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. ROSALIA DI GERLANDO. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 96 Issue 4 September 2017 pp 591-597 RESEARCH ARTICLE. Full-length sequencing and identification of novel polymorphisms in the ACACA gene of Valle del Belice sheep breed · ROSALIA DI GERLANDO ...

  1. Comparison of feeding behavior between two different-sized groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Hanya, Goro

    2015-05-13

    Group-living animals face intragroup scramble and intergroup contest competitions. Many studies have shown that larger groups bear the costs of intragroup scramble competition, which negatively affects the reproductive success of females. Unlike most primate species, Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest show increased reproductive success with group size. However, it remains unclear how group size affects the behavior of macaques. The present study examined the effects of group size on the feeding behavior of Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest. We investigated 9-13 adult females from two different-sized groups via focal animal sampling during October 2012-August 2013. We compared the feeding behavior, including patch use, between the two groups. The larger group had a larger home range and spent more time feeding, especially on mature leaves. This suggests that intragroup feeding competition should be more intense in the larger group than in the smaller group. The feeding of mature leaves might enable the larger group to increase the number of co-feeding individuals. Contrary to the predictions that the larger group travels longer distances and spends more time moving, the smaller group traveled longer distances, and spent more time moving, although the number of visited patches did not differ between the two groups. The immediate consequences of the loss of inter-group encounters could accumulate as daily travel costs, considering that group size is associated with inter-group dominance and that intergroup aggressive encounters occur frequently in the Yakushima coastal forest. This suggests that the smaller group has increased travel costs as a result of intergroup contest competition, which leads to decline in reproductive success. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparison of energy balance between two different-sized groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Hanya, Goro

    2017-07-01

    Quantifying the energy balance is essential for testing socio-ecological models. To reveal costs and benefits of group living in Japanese macaques from the perspective of feeding competition, Kurihara and Hanya (Am J Primatol 77:986-1000, 2015) previously compared feeding behavior between two different-sized groups of macaques (larger group 30-35 individuals; smaller group 13-15 individuals) in the coastal forest of Yakushima, Japan. The results suggested that the larger group exhibited greater feeding effort because of intragroup scramble competition and that the smaller group suffered from higher travel costs, possibly owing to intergroup contest competition. However, it remained unclear whether the behavioral differences affected their energy budgets. The present study examined energetic consequences of the different feeding behaviors in the two groups. Using behavioral data from 10 to 13 adult females and nutritional composition of food items, we compared ingestion rates, energetic/nutritional content of diet, and energy budgets between the two groups. Ingestion rates and energetic/nutritional content of diet did not differ between the two groups. Despite the higher feeding effort of the larger group, energy intake did not differ between the two groups. Energy expenditure did not differ between the two groups because higher travel costs were negated by lower feeding effort in the smaller group. Consequently, the energy balance did not differ between the two groups. We demonstrated that the behavioral measures of feeding competition were not translated into their energetic condition; moreover, our findings re-emphasize the importance of quantifying behavioral and fitness measures for interpreting variation in feeding behavior properly.

  3. Feeding Behavior of Tonkean Macaques (Macaca tonkeana in Schmutzer Primates Center and Ragunan Zoo, Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fery Dwi Riptianingsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tonkean macaques are one of seven endemic macaque species on Sulawesi Island. Feeding management in captivity should pay attention to the quality, palatability, and feeding behavior patterns of animals. The goal of this study was to compare the feeding behavior of two social groups of Tonkean macaques at Schmutzer Primates Center (SPC and Ragunan Zoo (RZ with different captive management, which was expected to affect feeding behavior. Ad libitum sampling was used to observe daily behavior and hierarchy, while focal animal sampling was used to observe feeding behavior and feed preference. Data were collected from September 2013 until March 2014 with a total of 495 hours of observations. There were significant differences between the daily behavior of two groups of Tonkean macaques. Resting behavior was dominant in RZ group with non-enrichment feed cage, while feeding behavior was more common in the SPC group with an enrichment feed cage. The SPC group spent most of their feeding time in searching for feed, while choosing, carrying and refusing were greater in the RZ group. Both Tonkean macaque groups showed individual dominance in their feeding behavior. Provisioned feed in both locations had different diversity and preference values. The selection of feed required was based on preference values with attention to Tonkean macaques’ feed in nature. Cage construction, such as the SPC cage, was able to reduce abnormal behavior exhibited by individuals.

  4. Social segregation in male, but not female yearling rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Janice M; Rupp, Heather A; Wallen, Kim

    2010-02-01

    Males and females of many species sex-segregate, ranging from complete separation of habitats to social segregation within the same space, sometimes varying across seasons and lifespan development. Mechanisms for such segregation are not well understood, though some have suggested that sex differences in preferred juvenile behaviors lead to greater behavioral compatibility within than between sexes. This within-sex behavioral compatibility may be the source of sex-segregation. As juvenile behavioral sex differences are well-documented in rhesus monkeys, we examined sex-segregation patterns of yearling rhesus monkeys engaged in three different types of behavior: rough play, parallel play, and grooming. We observed male and female rhesus yearlings from five stable long-term age-graded social groups of 67-183 animals. Behavioral observations were designed to collect equal numbers of rough play, grooming, and parallel play bouts. In addition, sex composition and proximity to adults was recorded for each bout. Across all behaviors, more all-male groups and fewer mixed sex-groups were observed than expected by chance. All-female groups occurred at the level expected by chance. Thus, males sex-segregated regardless of type of behavior, while females did not sex-segregate. Female groups were observed in proximity to adults more often than expected by chance. These results suggest that behavioral compatibility may produce sex-segregation in male yearling rhesus monkeys, possibly preparing males and females for different social roles and segregation as adults. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Assessing significant (> 30%) alopecia as a possible biomarker for stress in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Melinda A.; Menard, Mark T.; El-Mallah, Saif N.; Rosenberg, Kendra; Lutz, Corrine K.; Worlein, Julie; Coleman, Kris; Meyer, Jerrold S.

    2016-01-01

    Hair loss is common in macaque colonies. Very little is known about the relationship between psychological stress and hair loss. We initially examined alopecia and hair cortisol concentrations in 198 (89 male) rhesus macaques from three primate centers and demonstrated replicability of our previous finding that extensive alopecia (> 30% hair loss) is associated with increased chronic cortisol concentrations and significantly affected by facility. A subset of these monkeys (142 of which 67 were males) were sampled twice approximately 8 months apart allowing us to examine the hypotheses that gaining hair should be associated with decreases in cortisol concentrations and vice versa. Hair loss was digitally scored using ImageJ software for the first sample. Then visual assessment was used to examine the second sample, resulting in 3 categories of coat condition: 1) monkeys that remained fully haired, 2) monkeys that remained alopecic (with more than 30% hair loss), or 3) monkeys that showed more than a 15% increase in hair. The sample size for the group that lost hair was too small to be analyzed. Consistent with our hypothesis, monkeys that gained hair showed a significant reduction in hair cortisol concentrations but this effect only held for females. Coat condition changed little across sampling periods with only 25 (11 male) monkeys showing a greater than 15% gain of hair. Twenty (7 male) monkeys remained alopecic, whereas 97 (49 males) remained fully haired. Hair cortisol was highly correlated across samples for the monkeys that retained their status (remained alopecic or retained their hair). PMID:27008590

  6. The influence of rearing conditions on maternal behavior in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, P.J.A.; Vossen, J.M.H.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the influence of rearing on the adequacy of maternal behavior by comparing 20 harem-reared and 15 peer-reared primiparous cynomolgus monkeys. We used them plus 11 wild-caught females to extend this comparison to multiparous subjects and also to compare primiparae with multiparae. We

  7. Effects of the macrolide drug tylosin on chronic diarrhea in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Rebecca S; Tarara, Ross P; Christe, Kari L; Spinner, Abigail; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2008-02-01

    Diarrhea is the gastrointestinal disease most frequently encountered in captive rhesus macaques. The precise pathogenic mechanisms underlying chronic diarrhea in nonhuman primates are not well understood, but a persistent inflammatory component has been implicated strongly. This study evaluated the inflammatory changes in the colon of macaques with diarrhea and assessed the efficacy of a 10-d course of tylosin in a cohort of 21 animals with chronic diarrhea. Stool quality was evaluated daily, and fecal consistency was scored. Colonoscopies were performed; biopsy samples were characterized histologically and assayed for expression of TNFalpha mRNA. Blood samples collected pre-, mid-, and post-treatment were assayed for C-reactive protein (CRP). The results indicated that 63% of the animals receiving tylosin showed improvement in stool quality, compared with 10% in the sham-treated group. Histologically, 82% of animals in the tylosin-treated group had a reduction in the severity of colonic lesions post-treatment, compared with 40% of animals in the sham group. The amount of TNFalpha mRNA before treatment did not differ from that afterward in either tylosin- or sham-treated animals. CRP levels serially decreased in tylosin-treated monkeys; the average post-treatment CRP value for tylosin-treated animals was 11.96 +/- 3.86 microg/ml compared with 26.48 +/- 4.86 microg/ml for sham-treated controls. In conclusion, tylosin significantly improved the fecal consistency score, significantly decreased colonic inflammation, and significantly decreased serum CRP levels post-treatment in rhesus macaques with chronic diarrhea.

  8. Physiological aspects of puberty in group-living stumptail monkeys (Macaca arctoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, K; Bonke-Jansen, M; de Neef, K J; Van der Werff ten Bosch, J J; Slob, A K

    1987-01-01

    Physiological changes around the time of puberty were studied in a longitudinal manner in male and female stumptail macaques. In the male, testicular descent (mean age 3.3 years) is an early sign of puberty, which coincides with onset of the pubertal spurt in body weight and testis growth and precedes the pubertal rise in plasma testosterone. In the female no clear external signs of puberty have been found. Measurements of plasma progesterone yielded proof of first ovulation (mean age 3.7 years), a late sign of puberty in primates. This event coincided with a fall in the rate of body weight growth at the end of the pubertal growth spurt. Reproductive capacity of both males (first ejaculation) and females (first conception) appears to be reached around the 4th birthday.

  9. Pedicled Instep Flap and Tibial Nerve Reconstruction in a Cynomolgus Monkey [Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Weiss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male cynomolgus monkey experienced extensive soft tissue trauma to the right caudal calf area. Some weeks after complete healing of the original wounds, the monkey developed a chronic pressure sore on plantar surface of the heel of its right foot. A loss of sensitivity in the sole of the foot was hypothesized. The skin defect was closed by a medial sensate pedicled instep flap followed by counter transplantation of a full thickness graft from the interdigital webspace. The integrity of the tibial nerve was revised and reconstructed by means of the turnover flap technique. Both procedures were successful. This is an uncommon case in an exotic veterinary patient as it demonstrates a reconstructive skin flap procedure for the treatment of a chronic, denervated wound in combination with the successful reconstruction of 2.5 cm gap in the tibial nerve.

  10. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…

  11. Transcription start site profiling of 15 anatomical regions of the Macaca mulatta central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescatto, Margherita; Lizio, Marina; Philippens, Ingrid; Bontrop, Ronald; Sakai, Mizuho; Watanabe, Shoko; Itoh, Masayoshi; Hasegawa, Akira; Lassmann, Timo; Severin, Jessica; Harshbarger, Jayson; Abugessaisa, Imad; Kasukawa, Takeya; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Forrest, Alistair R R; Kawaji, Hideya; Rizzu, Patrizia; Heutink, Peter

    2017-10-31

    Rhesus macaque was the second non-human primate whose genome has been fully sequenced and is one of the most used model organisms to study human biology and disease, thanks to the close evolutionary relationship between the two species. But compared to human, where several previously unknown RNAs have been uncovered, the macaque transcriptome is less studied. Publicly available RNA expression resources for macaque are limited, even for brain, which is highly relevant to study human cognitive abilities. In an effort to complement those resources, FANTOM5 profiled 15 distinct anatomical regions of the aged macaque central nervous system using Cap Analysis of Gene Expression, a high-resolution, annotation-independent technology that allows monitoring of transcription initiation events with high accuracy. We identified 25,869 CAGE peaks, representing bona fide promoters. For each peak we provide detailed annotation, expanding the landscape of 'known' macaque genes, and we show concrete examples on how to use the resulting data. We believe this data represents a useful resource to understand the central nervous system in macaque.

  12. Delayed effects of proton irradiation in Macaca Mulatta (22-year summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.H.; Hardy, K.A.; Cox, A.B.; Salmon, Y.L.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Cordts, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Lifetime observations on a group of rhesus monkeys indicate that life expectancy loss from exposure to protons in the energy range encountered in the Van Allen belts and solar proton events can be correlated with the dose and energy of radiation. The primary cause of life shortening is nonleukemic cancers. Radiation also increased the rise of endometriosis (an abnormal proliferation of the lining of the uterus in females). Other effects associated with radiation exposures are lowered glucose tolerance and increased incidence of cataracts. Calculations of the relative risk of fatal cancers in the irradiated subjects reveal that the total body surface dose required to double the risk of death from cancer over a 20-year post exposure period varies with the linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation. The ability to determine the integrated dose and LET spectrum in space radiation exposures of humans is, therefore, critical to the assessment of lifetime cancer risk

  13. Radical curative efficacy of tafenoquine combination regimens in Plasmodium cynomolgi-infected Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta

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    Kenworthy David

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline being developed for radical cure (blood and liver stage elimination of Plasmodium vivax. During monotherapy treatment, the compound exhibits slow parasite and fever clearance times, and toxicity in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a concern. Combination with other antimalarials may mitigate these concerns. Methods In 2005, the radical curative efficacy of tafenoquine combinations was investigated in Plasmodium cynomolgi-infected naïve Indian-origin Rhesus monkeys. In the first cohort, groups of two monkeys were treated with a three-day regimen of tafenoquine at different doses alone and in combination with a three-day chloroquine regimen to determine the minimum curative dose (MCD. In the second cohort, the radical curative efficacy of a single-day regimen of tafenoquine-mefloquine was compared to that of two three-day regimens comprising tafenoquine at its MCD with chloroquine or artemether-lumefantrine in groups of six monkeys. In a final cohort, the efficacy of the MCD of tafenoquine against hypnozoites alone and in combination with chloroquine was investigated in groups of six monkeys after quinine pre-treatment to eliminate asexual parasites. Plasma tafenoquine, chloroquine and desethylchloroquine concentrations were determined by LC-MS in order to compare doses of the drugs to those used clinically in humans. Results The total MCD of tafenoquine required in combination regimens for radical cure was ten-fold lower (1.8 mg/kg versus 18 mg/kg than for monotherapy. This regimen (1.8 mg/kg was equally efficacious as monotherapy or in combination with chloroquine after quinine pre-treatment to eliminate asexual stages. The same dose of (1.8 mg/kg was radically curative in combination with artemether-lumefantrine. Tafenoquine was also radically curative when combined with mefloquine. The MCD of tafenoquine monotherapy for radical cure (18 mg/kg appears to be biologically equivalent to a 600-1200 mg dose in humans. At its MCD in combination with blood schizonticidal drugs (1.8 mg/kg, the maximum observed plasma concentrations were substantially lower than (20-84 versus 550-1,100 ng/ml after administration of 1, 200 mg in clinical studies. Conclusions Ten-fold lower clinical doses of tafenoquine than used in prior studies may be effective against P. vivax hypnozoites if the drug is deployed in combination with effective blood-schizonticidal drugs.

  14. Immunoneutralization of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibits pregnancy establishment in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, J; Lalitkumar, P G L; Najwa, A R; Charnock-Jones, D S; Evans, A L; Sharkey, A M; Smith, S K; Ghosh, D

    2007-06-01

    Maternal endometrial vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered important in blastocyst implantation. However, there is no direct evidence to support this conjecture in the primate. In the present study, we have examined this hypothesis by testing whether immunoneutralization of VEGF during the peri-implantation stage of gestation affects embryo implantation in the rhesus monkey. Adult female animals (n = 36) during mated ovulatory cycles were randomly assigned to one of the experimental groups treated subcutaneously with either isotype-matched mouse immunoglobulin (group 1: control, n = 8) or monoclonal mouse antibody against VEGF-A (anti-VEGF Mab; group 2: 10 mg on day 5 after ovulation, n = 8; group 3: 20 mg on day 5 after ovulation, n = 8; group 4: 10 mg on day 10 after ovulation, n = 4; group 5: 10 mg on days 5 and 10 after ovulation, n = 8). Anti-VEGF Mab-treated animals in groups 2-4 did not show any marked inhibition in pregnancy establishment. On pooled analysis, however, anti-VEGF Mab administration in groups 2-5 (n = 28) resulted in a significant (P establishment significantly (P gestation when compared with samples from control group animals (n = 8). Thus, VEGF action is required for successful blastocyst implantation in the rhesus monkey.

  15. Noninvasive temporal artery thermometry as an alternative to rectal thermometry in research macaques ( Macaca spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephanie E; Marini, Robert P; Patterson, Mary M

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining an animal's body temperature is essential for the assessment of its clinical status. For many species, rectal thermometry is the technique used most often; however, this method in macaques typically requires sedation or considerable physical restraint. A noninvasive and inexpensive temporal artery (TA) thermometer was evaluated as an alternative method for collecting body temperature measurements from macaques used in neuroscience research. Rectal and arterial temperatures were obtained from 86 macaques (mean age, 10.2 y) that had received ketamine (10 mg/kg IM) or Telazol (5 mg/kg IM); the arterial measurements were taken from behind the right ear. In addition, arterial temperatures were measured behind both ears in a cohort of awake, chaired macaques with cephalic restraint pedestals only (n = 8) or with cephalic restraint pedestals and recording chambers (n = 14). Within-subject repeatability for TA thermometry and agreement between rectal and arterial temperature measurements were assessed by using the Bland-Altman method. Temperature measurements indicated that values from TA thermometry were lower than those from rectal thermometry by 1.57 °C with a 95% agreement limit of ± 1.27 °C. Results show satisfactory repeatability with TA thermometry and agreement between arterial and rectal temperatures, demonstrating that TA thermometry can be a valuable tool in conscious, chaired macaques with restrained heads.

  16. Captive propagation of threatened primates - the example of the Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kaumanns

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many conservation-oriented breeding programs are not likely to reach their goal of establishing self-sustaining populations. Some zoo biologists propagate to reconsider zoo-based conservation policies and strategies. The Lion-tailed Macaque is a flagship species for in situ conservation and a high priority species in captive propagation. This article reviews the captive management history of the Lion-tailed Macaque, identifies management patterns that might have negatively influenced the development of the programs, and proposes to use this analysis to initiate a new management perspective. In the North American captive Lion-tailed Macaque population under the Species Survival Plan (SSP, the strong reduction in population size and group sizes due to space problems might have contributed to a decrease in population viability. The population over two decades has declined from almost 300 to less than 100 individuals. In the European population under the European Endangered Species Program (EEP, population size was not limited and larger groups were advocated. The population grew slowly but steadily to a present size of more than 350 individuals over about 23 years. The effective population size has remained low in both SSP and EEP populations. A general conceptual framework that focuses on individuals and their phenotypes for in situ and ex situ conservation recently developed by field conservationists is briefly introduced. It is used to suggest improvements in the management of the Lion-tailed Macaque. It is concluded that the size and structure of a breeding population is to be decided so as to provide conditions and materials for successful reproduction rather than by the available zoo space only. For this, large groups and populations with representation of all age-sex classes are advocated. This would result in a further reduction in the number of species kept in zoos. It is indicated that zoo biology needs to develop new concepts that include a large spectrum of concepts of biology and knowledge about the adaptive potential of animal species under altered and fragmented conditions.

  17. Antibody Responses in the Nonhuman Primate, Macaca Fascicularis, to Protein Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    Desensitization t patients to bee venom or dust mite involves chronic exposure to the partiular antigen. Patients in which desensitization is ef ective...to manipulate various parameters of disease and therapy not possible in humans. Historically, the use of animal models dates at least to the...various therapies and normal physiologic changes such as during pregnancy (Rao 1980), neonatal status (Einhorn 1987), age related decline in antibody

  18. Interactions among motility, fertilizing ability, and testosterone binding on spermatozoa of bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warikoo, P K; Majumdar, S S; Allag, I S; Das, R P; Roy, S

    1986-01-01

    Fresh ejaculates of bonnet monkeys were separated into fractions rich with highly motile and sluggishly motile spermatozoa. The motility, ability to fertilize zona-free hamster eggs, and distribution of testosterone-binding sites on spermatozoa were assessed to determine the relation between these sperm functions. Two parameters of objective assessment of motility--velocity and degree of flagellar bending--were significantly correlated with the ability to form pronuclei in zona-free hamster eggs. Only spermatozoa with good motility could form pronuclei, which might be important for assessment of the fertilizing ability. The motility was directly related to the distribution of testosterone-binding sites; the fraction having mostly motile spermatozoa was distributed over the sperm surface. The technique is simple and may be used to evaluate semen of nonhuman primates.

  19. Multimodal Advertisement of Pregnancy in Free-Ranging Female Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Rigaill

    Full Text Available The role of multiple sexual signals in indicating the timing of female ovulation, and discrimination of this timing by males, has been particularly well studied among primates. However the exhibition of pregnancy signals, and how such signals might modulate male post-conception mating decisions, is still poorly understood. Here we aimed to determine if Japanese macaque males use changes in female sexual signals (behavioral, visual and auditory to discriminate pregnancy and adjust their socio-sexual behaviors. We combined behavioral observations, digital photography and endocrinological (progestogen and estrogen data, collected systematically during three one-month periods: the pre-conceptive period, the 1st month of pregnancy and the 2nd month of pregnancy. We analyzed variation in the probability of detecting male and female socio-sexual behaviors and estrus calls, as well as changes in female face color parameters, in relation to female reproductive state. Based on our focal observations, we found that males did not copulate during the pregnancy period, and that female socio-sexual behaviors generally decreased from the pre-conceptive to post-conceptive periods. Female face luminance decreased from the pre-conceptive month to the pregnancy period whereas face color only varied between the 1st and 2nd month of gestation. Our results suggest that Japanese macaque females display sexual cues of pregnancy that males might use to reduce energy wasted on non-reproductive copulations with pregnant females. We hypothesize that females advertize their pregnancy through changes in behavioral, visual and potential auditory signals that males can use to adjust their mating behaviors. We finish by discussing implications for male and female post-conception strategies.

  20. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; Merchant, H.; Háden, G.P.; Prado, L.; Bartolo, R.

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis

  1. Assessing significant (>30%) alopecia as a possible biomarker for stress in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Melinda A; Menard, Mark T; El-Mallah, Saif N; Rosenberg, Kendra; Lutz, Corrine K; Worlein, Julie; Coleman, Kris; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2017-01-01

    Hair loss is common in macaque colonies. Very little is known about the relationship between psychological stress and hair loss. We initially examined alopecia and hair cortisol concentrations in 198 (89 male) rhesus macaques from three primate centers and demonstrated replicability of our previous finding that extensive alopecia (>30% hair loss) is associated with increased chronic cortisol concentrations and significantly affected by facility. A subset of these monkeys (142 of which 67 were males) were sampled twice approximately 8 months apart allowing us to examine the hypotheses that gaining hair should be associated with decreases in cortisol concentrations and vice versa. Hair loss was digitally scored using ImageJ software for the first sample. Then visual assessment was used to examine the second sample, resulting in three categories of coat condition: (i) monkeys that remained fully haired; (ii) monkeys that remained alopecic (with more than 30% hair loss); or (iii) monkeys that showed more than a 15% increase in hair. The sample size for the group that lost hair was too small to be analyzed. Consistent with our hypothesis, monkeys that gained hair showed a significant reduction in hair cortisol concentrations but this effect only held for females. Coat condition changed little across sampling periods with only 25 (11 male) monkeys showing a greater than 15% gain of hair. Twenty (7 male) monkeys remained alopecic, whereas 97 (49 males) remained fully haired. Hair cortisol was highly correlated across samples for the monkeys that retained their status (remained alopecic or retained their hair). Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22547, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Acute traumatic spinal cord injury induces glial activation in the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A D; Westmoreland, S V; Evangelous, N R; Graham, A; Sledge, J; Nesathurai, S

    2012-06-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury leads to direct myelin and axonal damage and leads to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to site of injury. Although rodent models have provided the greatest insight into the genesis of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), recent studies have attempted to develop an appropriate non-human primate model. We explored TSCI in a cynomolgus macaque model using a balloon catheter to mimic external trauma to further evaluate the underlying mechanisms of acute TSCI. Following 1hour of spinal cord trauma, there were focal areas of hemorrhage and necrosis at the site of trauma. Additionally, there was a marked increased expression of macrophage-related protein 8, MMP9, IBA-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages and microglia at the site of injury. This data indicate that acute TSCI in the cynomolgus macaque is an appropriate model and that the earliest immunohistochemical changes noted are within macrophage and microglia populations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Inhaled oxytocin amplifies both vicarious reinforcement and self reinforcement in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Barter, Joseph W; Ebitz, R Becket; Watson, Karli K; Platt, Michael L

    2012-01-17

    People attend not only to their own experiences, but also to the experiences of those around them. Such social awareness profoundly influences human behavior by enabling observational learning, as well as by motivating cooperation, charity, empathy, and spite. Oxytocin (OT), a neurosecretory hormone synthesized by hypothalamic neurons in the mammalian brain, can enhance affiliation or boost exclusion in different species in distinct contexts, belying any simple mechanistic neural model. Here we show that inhaled OT penetrates the CNS and subsequently enhances the sensitivity of rhesus macaques to rewards occurring to others as well as themselves. Roughly 2 h after inhaling OT, monkeys increased the frequency of prosocial choices associated with reward to another monkey when the alternative was to reward no one. OT also increased attention to the recipient monkey as well as the time it took to render such a decision. In contrast, within the first 2 h following inhalation, OT increased selfish choices associated with delivery of reward to self over a reward to the other monkey, without affecting attention or decision latency. Despite the differences in species typical social behavior, exogenous, inhaled OT causally promotes social donation behavior in rhesus monkeys, as it does in more egalitarian and monogamous ones, like prairie voles and humans, when there is no perceived cost to self. These findings potentially implicate shared neural mechanisms.

  4. Reticulospinal neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, S T; Davidson, A G; Buford, J A

    2009-11-10

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate a role for reticulospinal neurons of the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) in motor preparation and goal-directed reaching in the monkey. Although the macaque monkey is an important model for such investigations, little is known regarding the organization of the PMRF in the monkey. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of reticulospinal neurons in the macaque. Bilateral injections of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) were made into the cervical spinal cord. A wide band of retrogradely labeled cells was found in the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) and labeled cells continued rostrally into the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) and into the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO). Additional retrograde tracing studies following unilateral cervical spinal cord injections of cholera toxin subunit B revealed that there were more ipsilateral (60%) than contralateral (40%) projecting cells in Gi, while an approximately 50:50 ratio contralateral to ipsilateral split was found in PnC and more contralateral projections arose from PnO. Reticulospinal neurons in PMRF ranged widely in size from over 50 microm to under 25 microm across the major somatic axis. Labeled giant cells (soma diameters greater than 50 microm) comprised a small percentage of the neurons and were found in Gi, PnC and PnO. The present results define the origins of the reticulospinal system in the monkey and provide an important foundation for future investigations of the anatomy and physiology of this system in primates.

  5. Localization of orofacial representation in the corona radiata, internal capsule and cerebral peduncle in Macaca mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecraft, R J; Binneboese, A; Stilwell-Morecraft, K S; Ge, J

    2017-11-01

    Subcortical white matter injury is often accompanied by orofacial motor dysfunction, but little is known about the structural substrates accounting for these common neurological deficits. We studied the trajectory of the corticobulbar projection from the orofacial region of the primary (M1), ventrolateral (LPMCv), supplementary (M2), rostral cingulate (M3) and caudal cingulate (M4) motor regions through the corona radiata (CR), internal capsule (IC) and crus cerebri of the cerebral peduncle (ccCP). In the CR each pathway was segregated. Medial motor area fibers (M2/M3/M4) arched over the caudate and lateral motor area fibers (M1/LPMCv) curved over the putamen. At superior IC levels, the pathways were widespread, involving the anterior limb, genu and posterior limb with the M3 projection located anteriorly, followed posteriorly by projections from M2, LPMCv, M4 and M1, respectively. Inferiorly, all pathways maintained this orientation but shifted posteriorly, with adjacent fiber bundles overlapping minimally. In the ccCP, M3 fibers were located medially and M1 fibers centromedially, with M2, LPMCv, and M4 pathways overlapping in between. Finally, at inferior ccCP levels, all pathways overlapped. Following CR and superior IC lesions, the dispersed pathway distribution may correlate with acute orofacial dysfunction with spared pathways contributing to orofacial motor recovery. In contrast, the gradually commixed nature of pathway representation inferiorly may enhance fiber vulnerability and correlate with severe, prolonged deficits following lower subcortical and midbrain injury. Additionally, in humans these findings may assist in interpreting orofacial movements evoked during deep brain stimulation, and neuroimaging tractography efforts to localize descending orofacial motor pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cortical innervation of the hypoglossal nucleus in the non-human primate (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecraft, Robert J; Stilwell-Morecraft, Kimberly S; Solon-Cline, Kathryn M; Ge, Jizhi; Darling, Warren G

    2014-10-15

    The corticobulbar projection to the hypoglossal nucleus was studied from the frontal, parietal, cingulate, and insular cortices in the rhesus monkey by using high-resolution anterograde tracers and stereology. The hypoglossal nucleus received bilateral input from the face/head region of the primary (M1), ventrolateral pre- (LPMCv), supplementary (M2), rostral cingulate (M3), and caudal cingulate (M4) motor cortices. Additional bilateral corticohypoglossal projections were found from the dorsolateral premotor cortex (LPMCd), ventrolateral proisocortical motor area (ProM), ventrolateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1), rostral insula, and pregenual region of the anterior cingulate gyrus (areas 24/32). Dense terminal projections arose from the ventral region of M1, and moderate projections from LPMCv and rostral part of M2, with considerably fewer hypoglossal projections arising from the other cortical regions. These findings demonstrate that extensive regions of the non-human primate cerebral cortex innervate the hypoglossal nucleus. The widespread and bilateral nature of this corticobulbar connection suggests recovery of tongue movement after cortical injury that compromises a subset of these areas, may occur from spared corticohypoglossal projection areas located on the lateral, as well as medial surfaces of both hemispheres. Since functional imaging studies have shown that homologous cortical areas are activated in humans during tongue movement tasks, these corticobulbar projections may exist in the human brain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Relationship between Social Rank and Cortisol and Testosterone concentrations in Male Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    OpenAIRE

    Czoty, Paul W.; Gould, Robert W.; Nader, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    In nonhuman primate social groups, biological differences related to social status have proven useful in investigating mechanisms of sensitivity to various disease states. Physiological and neurobiological differences between dominant and subordinate monkeys have been interpreted in the context of chronic social stress. The present experiments were designed to investigate the relationships between basal cortisol and testosterone concentrations and the establishment and maintenance of the soci...

  8. Mapping of FGF1 in the Medulla Oblongata of Macaca fascicularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisem, Naomi J.; Takeuchi, Shigeko; Imamura, Toru; Abdelalim, Essam M.; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    FGF1 is highly expressed in neurons and it has been proposed to play a role in the neuroprotection and in regeneration. Low FGF1 expression in neurons has been linked to increased vulnerability in cholinergic neurons. Previous reports have shown that the expression of FGF1 in rat brain is localized to the cholinergic nuclei of the medulla oblongata, with low ratio of neurons positive for FGF1 in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). The role of FGF1 in the primate brain has yet to be clarified. In this study, we mapped FGF1 immunoreactivity in the medulla oblongata of cynomolgus monkey brainstems. Our results demonstrated that FGF1 immunoreactivity follows the pattern of distribution of cholinergic nuclei in the medulla oblongata; with strong localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus, the facial nucleus and the nucleus ambiguus. In contrast, the DMNV shows markedly lower FGF1 immunoreactivity. Localization of FGF1 to cholinergic neurons was only observed in the lateral region of the DMNV, with higher immunoreactivity in the rostral ventral-lateral region of the DMNV. These findings are consistent with the distribution of FGF1 immunoreactivity in previous studies of the rat brain

  9. Mycobacterium kansasii Isolated from Tuberculinpositive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the Absence of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Steven T; Johnson, David K; Roodgar, Morteza; Smith, David Glenn; Montgomery, Charles A; Lloyd, Steven M; Higgins, James A; Kriel, Edwin H; Klein, Hilton J; Porter, William P; Nazareno, Jerome B; Houghton, Paul W; Panda, Aruna; DeTolla, Louis J

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterial infections are of primary health concern in NHP colonies in biomedical research. NHP are constantly monitored and screened for Mycobacterium spp. We report 6 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques infected with Mycobacterium kansasii that exhibited positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease. Two of these macaques were being used for research purposes; the remaining 4 macaques were residing at the contract quarantine company. Histopathology and acid-fast staining of fixed tissues from all macaques showed that all were free of disease. Thoracic radiographs were negative for any signs of disease or infection. Samples from bronchial lavage and tissues including lung, spleen, hilar and mesenteric lymph nodes tested negative by PCR assay for Mycobacterium spp. One of the research macaques tested culture-positive for M. kansasii and a poorly characterized M. avium complex organism. One macaque from the contract quarantine facility tested culture positive for M. kansasii. Genomic testing and target gene RNA expression analysis of the 2 M. kansasii isolates were performed to evaluate possible kinship and affected genes that might contribute to susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. Genotyping of the 2 isolates revealed 2 genetically distinct strains (strains 1 and 4). The presence of positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease raises serious concerns regarding diagnostic methods used for infected NHP.

  10. Absorption of cholesterol and β-sitosterol from cigarette smoke in Macaca mulatta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinow, M.R.; McLaughlin, Phyllis; Aigner-Held, Rosemarie; Upson, Barbara; Isabelle, L.M.; Connor, W.E.; Lin, Don

    1986-01-01

    When smoke from single cigarettes containing (4- 14 C) chloresterol or β-(4- 14 C) sitosterol was delivered to the lungs of Rhesus macaques, plasma contained radiolabeled sterols up to 50 days later. Since chloresterol, as well as plant sterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol), are normally present in cigarette smoke, our observations suggest that protracted absorption of sterols occurs after cigarette smoking. (author)

  11. A Unilateral Cervical Spinal Cord Contusion Injury Model in Non-Human Primates (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salegio, Ernesto A.; Sparrey, Carolyn J.; Camisa, William; Fischer, Jason; Leasure, Jeremi; Buckley, Jennifer; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S.; Rosenzweig, Ephron S.; Moseanko, Rod; Strand, Sarah; Hawbecker, Stephanie; Lemoy, Marie-Josee; Haefeli, Jenny; Ma, Xiaokui; Nielson, Jessica L.; Edgerton, V.R.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Tuszynski, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The development of a non-human primate (NHP) model of spinal cord injury (SCI) based on mechanical and computational modeling is described. We scaled up from a rodent model to a larger primate model using a highly controllable, friction-free, electronically-driven actuator to generate unilateral C6-C7 spinal cord injuries. Graded contusion lesions with varying degrees of functional recovery, depending upon pre-set impact parameters, were produced in nine NHPs. Protocols and pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to optimize the predictability of outcomes by matching impact protocols to the size of each animal's spinal canal, cord, and cerebrospinal fluid space. Post-operative MRI confirmed lesion placement and provided information on lesion volume and spread for comparison with histological measures. We evaluated the relationships between impact parameters, lesion measures, and behavioral outcomes, and confirmed that these relationships were consistent with our previous studies in the rat. In addition to providing multiple univariate outcome measures, we also developed an integrated outcome metric describing the multivariate cervical SCI syndrome. Impacts at the higher ranges of peak force produced highly lateralized and enduring deficits in multiple measures of forelimb and hand function, while lower energy impacts produced early weakness followed by substantial recovery but enduring deficits in fine digital control (e.g., pincer grasp). This model provides a clinically relevant system in which to evaluate the safety and, potentially, the efficacy of candidate translational therapies. PMID:26788611

  12. Left versus right nipple preference in free-ranging infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Benjamin D; Evans, Theodore A; Howell, Sue; Westergaard, Gregory C; Snoy, Philip J; Higley, J Dee

    2006-04-01

    The examination of nonhuman primate (NHP) lateralized behaviors may provide insight into the evolution of hemispheric specialization. This study examined nipple preference in 64 infant macaques in order to consider the ontogeny of lateralized behavior. We used a focal animal sampling method to record nipple contact during 15, 30-min observation sessions collected across each infant's first year of life. Using a lateralized behavior index (LBI) we calculated individual and population preferences (LBI=(R-L)/(R+L); "R"=mean right nipple contact, "L"=mean left nipple contact). Strength of preference was calculated as the absolute value of this score. Infants exhibited no population preference for a particular nipple, but showed a significant strength of preference that developed after 48 hr. Interestingly, successive siblings preferred the nipple not used by the previous infant. These findings suggest that nipple preference is guided by external stimuli, and that nipple preference during infancy may not be a behavioral representation of hemispheric specialization. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Experimental Infection of Pig-Tailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina) with Mycoplasma genitalium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Gwendolyn E.; Patton, Dorothy L.; Cummings, Peter K.; Iverson-Cabral, Stefanie L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycoplasma genitalium is an underappreciated cause of human reproductive tract disease, characterized by persistent, often asymptomatic, infection. Building on our previous experiments using a single female pig-tailed macaque as a model for M. genitalium infection (G. E. Wood, S. L. Iverson-Cabral, D. L. Patton, P. K. Cummings, Y. T. Cosgrove Sweeney, and P. A. Totten, Infect Immun 81:2938–2951, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.01322-12), we cervically inoculated eight additional animals, two of which were simultaneously inoculated in salpingeal tissue autotransplanted into abdominal pockets. Viable M. genitalium persisted in the lower genital tract for 8 weeks in three animals, 4 weeks in two, and 1 week in one; two primates resisted infection. In both animals inoculated in salpingeal pockets, viable M. genitalium was recovered for 2 weeks. Recovery of viable M. genitalium from lower genital tract specimens was improved by diluting the specimen in broth and by Vero cell coculture. Ascension to upper reproductive tract tissues was not detected, even among three persistently infected animals. M. genitalium-specific serum antibodies targeting the immunodominant MgpB and MgpC proteins appeared within 1 week in three animals inoculated both cervically and in salpingeal pockets and in one of three persistently infected animals inoculated only in the cervix. M. genitalium-specific IgG, but not IgA, was detected in cervical secretions of serum antibody-positive animals, predominantly against MgpB and MgpC, but was insufficient to clear M. genitalium lower tract infection. Our findings further support female pig-tailed macaques as a model of M. genitalium infection, persistence, and immune evasion. PMID:27872239

  14. [Construction of a cDNA library from liver tissue of rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sheng-fang; Tan, Wei-dong; Chen, You-nan; Ding, Yang; Li, Sheng-fu; Li, Hong-xia; Wang, Li; Yang, Rong; Lu, Yan-rong

    2007-06-01

    To screen the target rhesus genes and give some basic genetic evidences to its value as one of the most important animal model in biomedical study, we constructed a cDNA expression library from liver tissue of a healthy rhesus monkey. With Trizol reagent, the total RNA was extracted from healthy rhesus liver tissue. By mutant Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase (MMLV-RT), the first-strand cDNA was synthesized from purified mRNA, and subsequently the second-strand cDNA was generated via E. coli DNA polymerase I . Then, the EcoR I adapter was added to the synthesized double-strand cDNA, which was subsequently digested by Xho I restriction enzyme and fractionated with CHROMA APIN-400 column. The fractionated cDNA fragments to be longer than 0. 5 kb were ligated into lambda ZAP express vector to form the phagemid cDNA recombinants, which were further packaged into the lambda ZAP cDNA library according to the standard protocol with phage lambda Gold packaging extract. In order to get more stable clones with larger quantity, the primary library was amplified through infecting the host strain XL1-Blue MRF'. Then, the library titre, recombinant rate and length of inserted cDNA were measured, respectively. The capacity of the primary stand or unamplified library was 1. 2X 10(6) pfu. The titers of the unamplified library or the amplified library was 1.1 X 10(6) mixture, pfu/mL or 7. 7 X 10(9) pfu/mL respectively, the percentages of recombinants were 99. 3% and 98. 2%, and the average lengths of the inserts were 2.0 kb and 2. 3 kb, respectively. An excellent cDNA expression library has been constructed successfully, which would lay solid foundation for transplantation study and pre-clinic evaluation of related drugs.

  15. Increased rigidity with age in social behavior of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, H.C.; Hooff, van J.A.R.A.M.; Gispen, W.H.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of aging on the structure of behavior of socially housed Java-monkeys. Indices of the sequential structure of an animal's own ongoing behavior and of its responses to behavior of other animals were calculated using an information statistic approach. These

  16. The transfer of category knowledge by macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive psychologists distinguish implicit, procedural category learning (stimulus-response associations learned outside declarative cognition) from explicit-declarative category learning (conscious category rules). These systems are dissociated by category learning tasks with either a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. In the present experiments, humans and two monkeys learned II and RB category tasks fostering implicit and explicit learning, respectively. Then they received occasional transfer trials-never directly reinforced-drawn from untrained regions of the stimulus space. We hypothesized that implicit-procedural category learning-allied to associative learning-would transfer weakly because it is yoked to the training stimuli. This result was confirmed for humans and monkeys. We hypothesized that explicit category learning-allied to abstract category rules-would transfer robustly. This result was confirmed only for humans. That is, humans displayed explicit category knowledge that transferred flawlessly. Monkeys did not. This result illuminates the distinctive abstractness, stimulus independence, and representational portability of humans' explicit category rules. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The effect of prostaglandins on experimental tooth movement in monkeys (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, K; Shibata, Y; Fukuhara, T

    1982-12-01

    Local administrations of prostaglandins E1 or E2 combined with orthodontic tooth movement can approximately double the rate of tooth movement in monkeys compared to that of the control. Macroscopically, no side-effect was observed in the gingiva and associated structures.

  18. Increased rigidity with age in social behavior of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Veenema, H.C.; Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of aging on the structure of behavior of socially housed Java-monkeys. Indices of the sequential structure of an animal s own ongoing behavior and of its responses to behavior of other animals were calculated using an information statistic approach. These

  19. Metabolism of 14C-labeled doxylamine succinate (Bendectin) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slikker, W. Jr.; Holder, C.L.; Lipe, G.W.; Korfmacher, W.A.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Bailey, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The time-course of the metabolic fate of [ 14 C]doxylamine was determined after the p.o. administration of 13 mg/kg doxylamine succinate as Bendectin plus [ 14 C]doxylamine succinate to the rhesus monkey. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chemical derivatization, and mass spectrometry. The cumulative 48-hr urinary metabolic profile contained 81% of the administered radiolabeled dose and consisted of at least six radiolabeled peaks. They were peak 1: unknown polar metabolites (8% of dose); peak 2: 2-[1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy] acetic acid, 1-[1-phenyl-1(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy] methanol, and another minor metabolite(s) (31%); peak 3: doxylamine-N-oxide (1%); peak 4a: N,N-didesmethyldoxylamine (17%); peak 4b: doxylamine (4%); and peak 5: N-desmethyldoxylamine (20%). The plasma metabolic profile was the same as the urinary profile except for the absence of doxylamine-N-oxide. The maximum plasma concentrations and elapsed time to attain these concentrations were as follows. Peak 1: 540 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 2: 1700 ng/mL, 1 hr; peak 4a: 430 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 4b: 930 ng/mL, 2 hr; and peak 5: 790 ng/mL, 2 hr. These data suggest that in the monkey, doxylamine metabolism follows at least four pathways: a minor pathway to the N-oxide; a minor pathway to unknown polar metabolites; a major pathway to mono- and didesmethyldoxylamine via successive N-demethylation; and a major pathway to side-chain cleavage products (peak 2) via direct side-chain oxidation and/or deamination

  20. Fading Perceptual Resemblance: A Path for Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to Conceptual Matching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Flemming, Timothy M.; Boomer, Joseph; Beran, Michael J.; Church, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive, comparative, and developmental psychologists have long been intrigued by humans’ and animals’ capacity to respond to abstract relations like sameness and difference, because this capacity may underlie crucial aspects of cognition like analogical reasoning. Recently, this capacity has been explored in higher-order, relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks in which humans and animals try to complete analogies of sameness and difference between disparate groups of items. The authors introduced a new paradigm to this area, by yoking the relational-matching cue to a perceptual-matching cue. Then, using established algorithms for shape distortion, the perceptual cue was weakened and eliminated. Humans’ RMTS performance easily transcended the elimination of perceptual support. In contrast, RMTS performance by six macaques faltered as they were weaned from perceptual support. No macaque showed evidence of mature RMTS performance, even given more than 260,000 training trials during which we tried to coax a relational-matching performance from them. It is an important species difference that macaques show so hesitant a response to conceptual relations when humans respond to them so effortlessly. It raises theoretical questions about the emergence of this crucial capacity during humans’ cognitive evolution and during humans’ cognitive development. PMID:24076537

  1. Renal pigmentation due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A L; Blaine, E T; Lewis, A D

    2015-05-01

    Renal pigmentation due to the administration of exogenous compounds is an uncommon finding in most species. This report describes renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions of the proximal convoluted tubules due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque. An 11-year-old Indian-origin rhesus macaque with a medical history of chronic intermittent vomiting had been treated with bismuth subsalicylate, famotidine, and omeprazole singly or in combination over the course of 8 years. At necropsy, the renal cortices were diffusely dark green to black. Light and electron microscopy revealed intranuclear inclusions within the majority of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. These inclusions appeared magenta to brown when stained with hematoxylin and eosin and were negative by the Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain. Elemental analysis performed on frozen kidney measured bismuth levels to be markedly elevated at 110.6 ppm, approximately 500 to 1000 times acceptable limits. To our knowledge, this is the first report of renal bismuth deposition in a rhesus macaque resulting in renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.

  3. Prepulse Inhibition of Auditory Cortical Responses in the Caudolateral Superior Temporal Gyrus in Macaca mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuyue; Parkkonen, Lauri; Wei, Jingkuan; Dong, Jin-Run; Ma, Yuanye; Carlson, Synnöve

    2018-04-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) refers to a decreased response to a startling stimulus when another weaker stimulus precedes it. Most PPI studies have focused on the physiological startle reflex and fewer have reported the PPI of cortical responses. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in four monkeys and investigated whether the PPI of auditory cortical responses (alpha, beta, and gamma oscillations and evoked potentials) can be demonstrated in the caudolateral belt of the superior temporal gyrus (STGcb). We also investigated whether the presence of a conspecific, which draws attention away from the auditory stimuli, affects the PPI of auditory cortical responses. The PPI paradigm consisted of Pulse-only and Prepulse + Pulse trials that were presented randomly while the monkey was alone (ALONE) and while another monkey was present in the same room (ACCOMP). The LFPs to the Pulse were significantly suppressed by the Prepulse thus, demonstrating PPI of cortical responses in the STGcb. The PPI-related inhibition of the N1 amplitude of the evoked responses and cortical oscillations to the Pulse were not affected by the presence of a conspecific. In contrast, gamma oscillations and the amplitude of the N1 response to Pulse-only were suppressed in the ACCOMP condition compared to the ALONE condition. These findings demonstrate PPI in the monkey STGcb and suggest that the PPI of auditory cortical responses in the monkey STGcb is a pre-attentive inhibitory process that is independent of attentional modulation.

  4. Measuring infant attachment security in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): adaptation of the attachment Q-set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, James J; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Waters, Everett

    2011-02-01

    John Bowlby defined offspring-parent attachment as a relationship in which an infant or child uses one or a few preferred adults as a secure base from which to explore and as a haven of safety. He defined attachment security in terms of confidence in the adult's availability and responsiveness and the smooth organization of exploration and proximity seeking. Developmental psychologists have found this perspective productive in both observational and laboratory research. At the same time, they emphasize that such a construct cannot be operationalized in terms of one or a few behaviors. Instead, naturalistic observations of human infant attachment typically employ the Q-sort method to develop the Attachment q-set (AQS), 90 behaviorally descriptive items sorted in terms of how characteristic each item is of the infant's typical behavior. Meta-analyses of research using the AQS attest to its reliability and validity. This article reports an adaptation of the AQS to the task of assessing infant attachment security in nonhuman primates and illustrates its use. The availability of comparable measures of attachment security will contribute to an expanded understanding of patterns of attachment behavior in nonhuman primate societies and will facilitate interaction between comparative and developmental psychologists. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. The influence of social structure on social isolation in amphetamine-treated Java monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobbout, D.A.; Ellenbroek, B.A.; Cools, A.R.

    1996-10-01

    Amphetamine-induced social isolation in monkeys has often been considered a valid animal model for certain negative symptoms of schizophrenia. However, there appear to be many ambiguities in relation to the exact nature of the isolation. Therefore, the effect of orally administered amphetamine (AMP) on the occurrence of social isolation in Java monkeys was studied. In part I the rank dependency of the effects of AMP (0.5mg/kg) was investigated in four alpha-males and three beta-males. AMP increased 'proximity' and 'passive groom', and decreased 'active allogroom' in alpha-males. In contrast, AMP decreased all three behavioural elements to a certain extent in beta-males. It is concluded that AMP induces social isolation in beta-males, but not in alpha-males. In part II of this study the AMP-induced behaviour of the treated monkey and the simultaneously occurring changes in the non-treated monkeys were investigated in a detailed study of a single social group. AMP significantly reduced the frequency of 'exploration', 'locomotion', 'self-groom', 'swing', 'active groom', 'inspect', 'approach' and originally-present stereotypies. Thus AMP apparently reduces the ability to initiate behaviour which is characteristic for the adult animal. AMP did not affect the frequency of 'present' and 'play' and enhanced that of 'aggression' and 'fear' in the beta-male; it also elicited various juvenile-like behaviours in both alpha- and beta-males, suggesting that AMP induces a behavioural regression. Furthermore, the behaviour of the non-treated monkeys of the group was decisive for the occurrence of social isolation of the treated monkey. Thus, the effects of AMP on the social behaviour of Java monkeys depend on the individual sensitivity, the social position which the subject occupies in its group, and the behaviour of the partners of the treated subject.

  6. Experimental Infection of Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with Aerosolized Monkeypox Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    routes, vaccinia virus or rabbitpox virus in rabbits by intradermal (i.d.) or aerosol routes, monkeypox virus in dormice, prairie dogs or ground...occurring most commonly in the African Congo [35]. An outbreak of human monkeypox occurred in the Midwestern US in 2003 after contact with prairie dogs ...lactate from tissues. Lactate is the end product when anaerobic glycolysis occurs in low oxygen conditions. Increased LDH in MPX infection indicates

  7. Serologic host response to Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni in socially housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kienesberger Sabine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori are successful colonizers of the human gastric mucosa. Colonization increases the risk of peptic ulcer disease and adenocarcinoma. However, potential benefits of H. pylori colonization include protection against early-onset asthma and against gastrointestinal infections. Campylobacter jejuni are a leading cause of bacterial diarrhea and complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here, we describe the development of reliable serological assays to detect antibodies against those two bacteria in Rhesus macaques and investigated their distribution within a social group of monkeys. Methods Two cohorts of monkeys were analyzed. The first cohort consisted of 30 monkeys and was used to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for H. pylori antibodies detection. To evaluate colonization of those macaques, stomach biopsies were collected and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori by histology and culture. C. jejuni ELISAs were established using human serum with known C. jejuni antibody status. Next, plasma samples of the 89 macaques (Cohort 2 were assayed for antibodies and then statistically analyzed. Results An H. pylori IgG ELISA, which was 100% specific and 93% sensitive, was established. In contrast, the IgA ELISA was only 82% specific and 61% sensitive. The CagA IgG assay was 100% sensitive and 61% of the macaques were positive. In cohort 2, 62% macaques were H. pylori sero-positive and 52% were CagA positive. The prevalence of H. pylori IgG and CagA IgG increased with monkey age as described for humans. Of the 89 macaques 52% showed IgG against C. jejuni but in contrast to H. pylori, the sero-prevalence was not associated with increasing age. However, there was a drop in the IgG (but not in IgA mean values between infant and juvenile macaques, similar to trends described in humans. Conclusions Rhesus macaques have widespread exposure to H. pylori and C. jejuni, reflecting their social conditions and implying that Rhesus macaques might provide a model to study effects of these two important human mucosal bacteria on a population.

  8. Hypocholesterolemic effect of dietary soy protein versus casein in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, A H; West, C E; Fennis, J T; Schouten, J A; van der Veen, E A

    1984-01-01

    Ten mature female rhesus monkeys were alternately fed semipurified diets containing casein or soy protein for periods of 13 to 17 wk. Each diet was fed for two periods. When the animals were changed from the commercial diet to the semipurified diet containing soy protein, a significant elevation in serum cholesterol occurred. The serum cholesterol levels gradually increased further, when the soy protein in the diet was replaced by casein. However, when subsequently the casein in the diet was replaced by soy protein, a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels was observed. Finally, when the animals were changed back to the casein diet, a significant increase in serum cholesterol again occurred. Changes in serum cholesterol due to modulations in the type of protein in the diet were reflected mainly by changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Thus, the results of this study clearly show that the type of protein in the diet markedly affects serum cholesterol levels not only in experimental animals such as the rabbit, as is well known, but also in the rhesus monkey, which is more akin to man.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of 3 Formulations of Meloxicam in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Cassondra; Frost, Patrice; Kirschner, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Meloxicam is a commonly used COX2-preferential NSAID in both human and veterinary patients. Minimal information has been published regarding appropriate dosing in nonhuman primates. Here we investigated the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 formulations of meloxicam in cynomolgus macaques. A single dose of meloxicam SR, an extended-release formulation purported to provide therapeutic levels for as long as 72 h, was compared with the intramuscular and oral formulations dosed for 3 consecutive days and as a single dose. The oral formulation, both over 3 d and as a single dose, yielded lower plasma levels and a shorter duration than did intramuscular and sustained-release subcutaneous formulations. The intramuscular formulation, both over 3 d and as a single dose, provided lower plasma levels and a shorter duration than did a sustained-release subcutaneous formulation. The sustained-release formulations generated the highest plasma concentrations for the longest periods of time. None of the formulations caused significant effects on kidney or liver function. Our results indicate that the sustained-release formulation of meloxicam can achieve an adequate steady-state plasma concentration for 2 to 3 d in nonhuman primates. The standard intramuscular formulation provides adequate plasma concentrations for 12 to 24 h, with waxing and waning levels associated with daily dosing. The oral formulation has limited utility in nonhuman primates because of low circulating levels of drug. PMID:25255073

  10. Platelet Aggregation in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Response to Short-Term Meloxicam Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Keith E; Austin, Jamie; Escobar, Evelyn P; Carbone, Larry

    2013-01-01

    NSAID administration is often chosen as a method of minimizing pain and discomfort for nonhuman primates. Of concern when using NSAID is the potential for decreased platelet aggregation due to the inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. In both dogs and humans, the use of NSAID that are selective for cyclooxygenase 2, like meloxicam, minimizes the inhibition of platelet aggregation in comparison to nonselective NSAID, like aspirin, that inhibit both isoforms of cyclooxygenase. In this study, we measured platelet aggregation in rhesus macaques (n = 6) by using the impedance method on a multiple-electrode aggregometer at baseline, at 1 and 4 d after initiating treatment with aspirin or meloxicam, and after a washout period. There was no statistical difference between aggregation at baseline and after 1 or 4 d of meloxicam treatment, but platelet aggregation decreased after both 1 and 4 d of aspirin therapy. Our data suggest that clinically significant postoperative hemorrhage is unlikely in rhesus macaques briefly treated with meloxicam. PMID:24041216

  11. Reach–to-grasp movements in macaca fascicularis monkeys: the Isochrony Principle at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans show a spontaneous tendency to increase the velocity of their movements depending on the linear extent of their trajectory in order to keep execution time approximately constant. Termed the isochrony principle, this compensatory mechanism refers to the observation that the velocity of voluntary movements increases proportionally with their linear extension. Although there is a wealth of psychophysical data regarding isochrony in humans, there is none regarding non-human primates. The present study attempts to fill that gap by investigating reach-to-grasp movement kinematics in free-ranging macaques. Video footage of monkeys grasping objects located at different distances was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The amplitude of arm peak velocity was found to be correlated with the distance to be covered, and total movement duration remained invariant although target distances varied. Like in humans, the ‘isochrony principle’ seems to be operative as there is a gearing down/up of movement velocity that is proportional to the distance to be covered in order to allow for a relatively constant movement duration. Based on a centrally generated temporal template, this mode of motor programming could be functional in macaques given the high speed and great instability of posture and joint kinematics characterizing their actions. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative motor control a step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment.

  12. Prevalence of Balantidium coli Infection in Bred Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta in Guangxi, southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Long Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Balantidium coli infects humans, primates and pigs, causing serious diarrhea and dysentery. Little information on the prevalence of B. coli in primates is available in China. This investigation was conducted to determine the prevalence of B. coli infection in bred rhesus monkeys in Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region (GZNAR, southern China.A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from rhesus monkeys bred in cages in GZNAR and B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites were examined microscopically after sedimentation with water in May 2013.(64.2% samples were tested positive. The prevalence was 65% (39/60 and 63.3% (38/60 in female and male monkeys, respectively. 80% (48/60 cages in this nonhuman primate center were positive for B. coli.The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in bred rhesus monkeys in GZNAR, which poses potential threats to animal and human health.

  13. Behavioral responses to injury and death in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Liz A D; Tkaczynski, Patrick J; Mouna, Mohamed; Qarro, Mohamed; Waterman, James; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2016-07-01

    The wounding or death of a conspecific has been shown to elicit varied behavioral responses throughout thanatology. Recently, a number of reports have presented contentious evidence of epimeletic behavior towards the dying and dead among non-human animals, a behavioral trait previously considered uniquely human. Here, we report on the behavioral responses of Barbary macaques, a social, non-human primate, to the deaths of four group members (one high-ranking adult female, one high-ranking adult male, one juvenile male, and one female infant), all caused by road traffic accidents. Responses appeared to vary based on the nature of the death (protracted or instant) and the age class of the deceased. Responses included several behaviors with potential adaptive explanations or consequences. These included exploration, caretaking (guarding, carrying, and grooming), and proximity to wounded individuals or corpses, and immediate as well as longer-lasting distress behaviors from other group members following death, all of which have been reported in other non-human primate species. These observations add to a growing body of comparative evolutionary analysis of primate thanatology and help to highlight the multifaceted impacts of human-induced fatalities on an endangered and socially complex primate.

  14. Aging, dominance history, and social behavior in Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Veenema, H.C.; Spruijt, B.M.; Vanhooff, J.A.R.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the dominance history of socially housed Java-monkeys on the aging process. In monkeys, social subordinance is generally associated with elevated levels of cortisol, which, in turn, have been suggested to influence cognitive decline. As

  15. Parasites may exit immunocompromised northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) infected with SIVmac239.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Ming-Xu; Xia, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yu; Pang, Wei; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2018-01-18

    Parasites can increase infection rates and pathogenicity in immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. However, in vitro studies and epidemiological investigations also suggest that parasites might escape immunocompromised hosts during HIV infection. Due to the lack of direct evidence from animal experiments, the effects of parasitic infections on immunocompromised hosts remain unclear. Here, we detected 14 different parasites in six northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs) before or at the 50th week of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection by ELISA. The NPMs all carried parasites before viral injection. At the 50th week after viral injection, the individuals with negative results in parasitic detection (i.e., 08247 and 08287) were characterized as the Parasites Exit (PE) group, with the other individuals (i.e., 09203, 09211, 10205, and 10225) characterized as the Parasites Remain (PR) group. Compared with the PR group, the NPMs in the PE group showed higher viral loads, lower CD4 + T cells counts, and lower CD4/CD8 rates. Additionally, the PE group had higher immune activation and immune exhaustion of both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Pathological observation showed greater injury to the liver, cecum, colon, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes in the PE group. This study showed more seriously compromised immunity in the PE group, strongly indicating that parasites might exit an immunocompromised host.

  16. Parasites may exit immunocompromised northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina infected with SIVmac239

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Zhang Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can increase infection rates andpathogenicity in immunocompromised humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV patients. However, invitro studies and epidemiological investigationsalso suggest that parasites might escapeimmunocompromised hosts during HIV infection.Due to the lack of direct evidence from animalexperiments, the effects of parasitic infections onimmunocompromised hosts remain unclear. Here,we detected 14 different parasites in six northernpig-tailed macaques (NPMs before or during the50th week of post-simian immunodeficiency virus(SIV infection by ELISA. The NPMs all carriedparasites before viral injection. At the 50th week afterviral injection, the individuals with negative resultsin parasitic detection (i.e., 08247 and 08287 werecharacterized as the Parasites Exit (PE group, withthe other individuals (i.e., 09203, 09211, 10205, and10225 characterized as the Parasites Remain (PRgroup. Compared with the PR group, the NPMs in thePE group showed higher viral loads, lower CD4+ Tcells counts, and lower CD4/CD8 rates. Additionally,the PE group had higher immune activation andimmune exhaustion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.Pathological observation showed greater injury tothe liver, cecum, colon, spleen, and mesentericlymph nodes in the PE group. This study showedmore seriously compromised immunity in the PEgroup, strongly indicating that parasites might exit animmunocompromised host.

  17. Interactions between visitors and Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Shou-Shan Nature Park, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Minna J; Kao, Chien-Ching; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2009-03-01

    Ecotourism involving feeding wildlife has raised public attention and is a controversial issue, especially concerning nonhuman primates. Between July 2002 and April 2005, the behavior of monkeys and tourists was collected through scan samplings, focal samplings and behavior samplings at the Shou-Shan Nature Park located in Taiwan's second largest city--Kaohsiung. In addition, the number of tourists and monkeys was counted in different hours and places within the park. Four hundred visitors were interviewed using a questionnaire to gather data on sex, age, purpose and frequency of visit to the park. The number of tourists was significantly higher during weekends than in weekdays in all locations. Humans dominated in the initiation of interspecies interactions--the overall ratio of human-initiated and monkey-initiated interactions was 2.44:1. Human-monkey conflicts accounted for only 16.4% of the total interactions (n=2,166), and adult human males and adult male macaques participated in higher rates than other age/sex groups in these conflicts. Visitors showed more affiliative behavior (15.9%) than agonistic behavior (8%) toward the macaques. In response to visitors' threat or attack, the Formosan macaques mostly showed submissive behavior with bared teeth, squealed or ran away to avoid confrontation (69.1%)--only few responded with counteraggression (18.7%). This study for the first time provided evidence that food provisioning increased both the frequency and duration of aggression among Formosan macaques (Ptourists was 0.73 times/hr--more than twice the incident that monkeys grabbed the food from tourists (0.34 times/hr). If people refrain from feeding monkeys and destroying the city park's natural vegetation, monkeys can be used to educate public about nature conservation in an urban setting. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Testing the anxiety reduction function of grooming interactions in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

    OpenAIRE

    Molesti, Sandra; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2012-01-01

    Together with its hygienic and social function, grooming is thought to reduce anxiety. However, empirical evidence on the anxiety-reduction function of grooming is scarce. We collected 10-minute focal data on the donor and recipient of grooming using the post-grooming / matchedcontrol (PG-MC) method. In these PGs and MCs sessions, we recorded the occurrence of selfdirected behaviours (i.e. scratching and self-grooming), which are behavioural indicators of anxiety. We found mixed evidenc...

  20. Perceptual category learning of photographic and painterly stimuli in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, Drew; Jensen, Greg; Terrace, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Humans are highly adept at categorizing visual stimuli, but studies of human categorization are typically validated by verbal reports. This makes it difficult to perform comparative studies of categorization using non-human animals. Interpretation of comparative studies is further complicated by the possibility that animal performance may merely reflect reinforcement learning, whereby discrete features act as discriminative cues for categorization. To assess and compare how humans and monkeys classified visual stimuli, we trained 7 rhesus macaques and 41 human volunteers to respond, in a specific order, to four simultaneously presented stimuli at a time, each belonging to a different perceptual category. These exemplars were drawn at random from large banks of images, such that the stimuli presented changed on every trial. Subjects nevertheless identified and ordered these changing stimuli correctly. Three monkeys learned to order naturalistic photographs; four others, close-up sections of paintings with distinctive styles. Humans learned to order both types of stimuli. All subjects classified stimuli at levels substantially greater than that predicted by chance or by feature-driven learning alone, even when stimuli changed on every trial. However, humans more closely resembled monkeys when classifying the more abstract painting stimuli than the photographic stimuli. This points to a common classification strategy in both species, one that humans can rely on in the absence of linguistic labels for categories.

  1. Zinc bioavailability from legumes in non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sockalingam, S.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc bioavailability from legumes in non-human primates (M. Fascicularis) was studied by: (1) determining zinc requirements of adolescent monkeys, (2) validating the use of extrinsic zinc label in peas, (3) validating the blood appearance and disappearance technique, and (4) measuring zinc absorption and endogenous excretion from control and legume diets. Ten monkeys were assigned to the control (CG) and legume groups (LG) based on their initial body weights and plasma zinc concentrations. Zinc salt or legumes served as the source of zinc for CG and LG, respectively. The animals were adapted for three weeks to 2.23, 5.70, 11.67, 16.70 and 30.00 ppm dietary zinc for the requirement and bioavailability experiments and 5.70 ppm dietary zinc for the extrinsic labeling study and the blood appearance and disappearance study. Zinc requirement was determined using the following criteria: body weight, clinical signs and plasma, leukocyte and erythrocyte zinc concentrations. The use of the extrinsic label was validated by comparing percent absorption of 65 Zn (salt) and intrinsically labeled 65 Zn from peas. The blood appearance and disappearance of orally administered /sup 69m/Zn (CG) and 65 Zn(LG) and intravenously administered 65 Zn was determined serially in blood over an eight hour period. Zinc absorption and regulation in the CG and LG was determined by the fecal balance method and endogenous excretion of intravenously administered 65 Zn. The zinc requirement for adolescent M. Fascicularis was between 11.67 and 16.70 ppm dietary zinc per day

  2. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are natural hosts of specific Staphylococcus aureus lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no animal model known that mimics natural nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in humans. We investigated whether rhesus macaques are natural nasal carriers of S. aureus. Nasal swabs were taken from 731 macaques. S. aureus isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa repeat sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, and compared with human strains. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by several PCRs. Thirty-nine percent of 731 macaques were positive for S. aureus. In general, the macaque S. aureus isolates differed from human strains as they formed separate PFGE clusters, 50% of the isolates were untypeable by agr genotyping, 17 new spa types were identified, which all belonged to new sequence types (STs. Furthermore, 66% of macaque isolates were negative for all superantigen genes. To determine S. aureus nasal colonization, three nasal swabs from 48 duo-housed macaques were taken during a 5 month period. In addition, sera were analyzed for immunoglobulin G and A levels directed against 40 staphylococcal proteins using a bead-based flow cytometry technique. Nineteen percent of the animals were negative for S. aureus, and 17% were three times positive. S. aureus strains were easily exchanged between macaques. The antibody response was less pronounced in macaques compared to humans, and nasal carrier status was not associated with differences in serum anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. In conclusion, rhesus macaques are natural hosts of S. aureus, carrying host-specific lineages. Our data indicate that rhesus macaques are useful as an autologous model for studying S. aureus nasal colonization and infection prevention.

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: crab-eating macaque [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available crab-eating macaque Macaca fascicularis Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Macaca_fasci...cularis_L.png Macaca_fascicularis_NL.png Macaca_fascicularis_S.png Macaca_fascicularis..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: rhesus monkey [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Macaca_mulatta_L.png Maca...ca_mulatta_NL.png Macaca_mulatta_S.png Macaca_mulatta_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp.../taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese macaque [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese macaque Macaca fuscata Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Maca...ca_fuscata_L.png Macaca_fuscata_NL.png Macaca_fuscata_S.png Macaca_fuscata_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fusc...ata&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=NS ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1293 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1293 dbj|BAF48424.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca radiata] dbj|BAF4...8425.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca radiata] dbj|BAF48426.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca radiata] db...j|BAF48432.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca sinica] BAF48424.1 1e-175 98% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-0482 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-0482 gb|AAO66447.1| CXCR4 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAO66448.1| CXCR4 [Macaca fasci...cularis] gb|AAO66449.1| CXCR4 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAO66450.1| CXCR4 [Macaca fascicularis] AAO66447.1 8e-54 71% ...

  8. Park Rangers’ Behaviors and Their Effects on Tourists and Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Usui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported the negative impacts of tourism on nonhuman primates (NHPs and tourists and advocated the improvement of tourism management, yet what constitutes good quality management remains unclear. We explored whether rates of macaque aggression and self-directed behaviors (SDBs differed under the supervision of two park ranger teams at the Valley of the Wild Monkeys (VWM in Mt. Huangshan, Anhui Province, China. The two ranger teams provisioned and managed a group of macaques on an alternating monthly basis. Monkey, tourist and ranger behaviors were collected from August 16–September 30, 2012. Macaque aggression and SDB rates did not differ significantly under the management of the two teams. Overall, there was little intervention in tourist-macaque interactions by park rangers, and even when rangers discouraged tourists’ undesirable behaviors, tourist interactions with monkeys persisted. Furthermore, only one or sometimes two park rangers managed monkeys and tourists, and rangers established dominance over the monkeys to control them. In order to effectively manage tourists and monkeys by a single park ranger, we recommend that rangers: (1 prohibit tourists from feeding; (2 move around the viewing platform more frequently; and (3 limit the number of tourists each visiting session.

  9. Post-encoding control of working memory enhances processing of relevant information in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Ryan J; Hampton, Robert R

    2018-06-01

    Working memory is a system by which a limited amount of information can be kept available for processing after the cessation of sensory input. Because working memory resources are limited, it is adaptive to focus processing on the most relevant information. We used a retro-cue paradigm to determine the extent to which monkey working memory possesses control mechanisms that focus processing on the most relevant representations. Monkeys saw a sample array of images, and shortly after the array disappeared, they were visually cued to a location that had been occupied by one of the sample images. The cue indicated which image should be remembered for the upcoming recognition test. By determining whether the monkeys were more accurate and quicker to respond to cued images compared to un-cued images, we tested the hypothesis that monkey working memory focuses processing on relevant information. We found a memory benefit for the cued image in terms of accuracy and retrieval speed with a memory load of two images. With a memory load of three images, we found a benefit in retrieval speed but only after shortening the onset latency of the retro-cue. Our results demonstrate previously unknown flexibility in the cognitive control of memory in monkeys, suggesting that control mechanisms in working memory likely evolved in a common ancestor of humans and monkeys more than 32 million years ago. Future work should be aimed at understanding the interaction between memory load and the ability to control memory resources, and the role of working memory control in generating differences in cognitive capacity among primates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative study of the transfection efficiency of commonly used viral vectors in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Hao; Liao, Zhi-Xing; D Rizak, Joshua; Zheng, Na; Zhang, Lin-Heng; Tang, Hen; He, Xiao-Bin; Wu, Yang; He, Xia-Ping; Yang, Mei-Feng; Li, Zheng-Hui; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2017-03-18

    Viral vector transfection systems are among the simplest of biological agents with the ability to transfer genes into the central nervous system. In brain research, a series of powerful and novel gene editing technologies are based on these systems. Although many viral vectors are used in rodents, their full application has been limited in non-human primates. To identify viral vectors that can stably and effectively express exogenous genes within non-human primates, eleven commonly used recombinant adeno-associated viral and lentiviral vectors, each carrying a gene to express green or red fluorescence, were injected into the parietal cortex of four rhesus monkeys. The expression of fluorescent cells was used to quantify transfection efficiency. Histological results revealed that recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors, especially the serotype 2/9 coupled with the cytomegalovirus, human synapsin I, or Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II promoters, and lentiviral vector coupled with the human ubiquitin C promoter, induced higher expression of fluorescent cells, representing high transfection efficiency. This is the first comparison of transfection efficiencies of different viral vectors carrying different promoters and serotypes in non-human primates (NHPs). These results can be used as an aid to select optimal vectors to transfer exogenous genes into the central nervous system of non-human primates.

  11. Food resources, distribution and seasonal variations in ranging in lion-tailed macaques, Macaca silenus in the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinjery, Joseph J; Kavana, T S; Singh, Mewa

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and availability of food was examined to see how it influenced ranging patterns and sleeping site selection in a group of lion-tailed macaques. The home range and core area were 130.48 ha (95% kernel) and 26.68 ha (50% kernel) respectively. The lion-tailed macaques had a longer day range, had a greater number of sleeping sites and used more core areas in the summer as compared to the monsoon and the post-monsoon seasons. The ranging patterns and sleeping site use were influenced by the major food resources used in a particular season. The ranging was mainly influenced by Artocarpus heterophyllus in monsoon, Cullenia exarillata and Toona ciliata in post- monsoon, and Artocarpus heterophyllus and Ficus amplissima in summer. The distribution of these four plant species is, therefore, critical to ranging, and thus to conservation of the lion-tailed macaque.

  12. Application of the Diagnostic Evaluation for Alopecia in Traditional Veterinary Species to Laboratory Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchins, Kerith R; Baker, Kate C; Gilbert, Margaret H; Blanchard, James L; Liu, David Xianhong; Myers, Leann; Bohm, Rudolf P

    2011-01-01

    Alopecia in nonhuman primates in the biomedical research setting is often attributed to compromised psychologic wellbeing. Behavioral causes, mainly hair plucking, have become the unconfirmed and exclusive default diagnosis, and the possibility that alopecia may be secondary to a primary medical or dermatologic disease is often overlooked. Although nonbehavioral causes of alopecia in nonhuman primates are described in the literature, few prospective hypothesis-based studies have investigated medical and behavioral etiologies concurrently. We therefore undertook such a study with the aim of designing a clinical diagnostic guide for approaching cases of nonhuman primate alopecia. Because most cases of alopecia in nonhuman primates in the literature and at our facility are not associated with a definitive diagnosis, the hypothesis we tested was that the well-established diagnostic evaluation for alopecia used for traditional veterinary species is not applicable to nonhuman primates. Discounting differences in histopathology and behavioral assessment, the current study revealed few clinically relevant significant differences between nonhuman primates with and without alopecia. As a result, our hypothesis was confirmed, and we conclude that the standard dermatologic diagnostic plan typically described for alopecia diagnosis in traditional veterinary species and used as the basis for assessment of alopecia in nonhuman primates should be reassessed. PMID:22330789

  13. Pre-clinical toxicity & immunobiological evaluation of DNA rabies vaccine & combination rabies vaccine in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B Dinesh; Kumar, P Uday; Krishna, T Prasanna; Kalyanasundaram, S; Suresh, P; Jagadeesan, V; Hariharan, S; Naidu, A Nadamuni; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Rangarajan, P N; Srinivasan, V A; Reddy, G S; Sesikeran, B

    2013-06-01

    Pre-clinical toxicology evaluation of biotechnology products is a challenge to the toxicologist. The present investigation is an attempt to evaluate the safety profile of the first indigenously developed recombinant DNA anti-rabies vaccine [DRV (100 μg)] and combination rabies vaccine [CRV (100 μg DRV and 1.25 IU of cell culture-derived inactivated rabies virus vaccine)], which are intended for clinical use by intramuscular route in Rhesus monkeys. As per the regulatory requirements, the study was designed for acute (single dose - 14 days), sub-chronic (repeat dose - 28 days) and chronic (intended clinical dose - 120 days) toxicity tests using three dose levels, viz. therapeutic, average (2x therapeutic dose) and highest dose (10 x therapeutic dose) exposure in monkeys. The selection of the model i.e. monkey was based on affinity and rapid higher antibody response during the efficacy studies. An attempt was made to evaluate all parameters which included physical, physiological, clinical, haematological and histopathological profiles of all target organs, as well as Tiers I, II, III immunotoxicity parameters. In acute toxicity there was no mortality in spite of exposing the monkeys to 10XDRV. In sub chronic and chronic toxicity studies there were no abnormalities in physical, physiological, neurological, clinical parameters, after administration of test compound in intended and 10 times of clinical dosage schedule of DRV and CRV under the experimental conditions. Clinical chemistry, haematology, organ weights and histopathology studies were essentially unremarkable except the presence of residual DNA in femtogram level at site of injection in animal which received 10X DRV in chronic toxicity study. No Observational Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) of DRV is 1000 ug/dose (10 times of therapeutic dose) if administered on 0, 4, 7, 14, 28 th day. The information generated by this study not only draws attention to the need for national and international regulatory agencies in formulating guidelines for pre-clinical safety evaluation of biotech products but also facilitates the development of biopharmaceuticals as safe potential therapeutic agents.

  14. Variation in hair δ13C and δ15N values in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Castellini, J. Margaret; Stricker, Craig A.; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Lee, Benjamin P.Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the primatology literature on stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) has focused on African and New World species, with comparatively little research published on Asian primates. Here we present hair δ13C and δ15N isotope values for a sample of 33 long-tailed macaques from Singapore. We evaluate the suggestion by a previous researcher that forest degradation and biodiversity loss in Singapore have led to a decline in macaque trophic level. The results of our analysis indicated significant spatial variability in δ13C but not δ15N. The range of variation in δ13C was consistent with a diet based on C3 resources, with one group exhibiting low values consistent with a closed canopy environment. Relative to other macaque species from Europe and Asia, the macaques from Singapore exhibited a low mean δ13C value but mid-range mean δ15N value. Previous research suggesting a decline in macaque trophic level is not supported by the results of our study.

  15. Induced Neurocysticercosis in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta Produces Clinical Signs and Lesions Similar to Natural Disease in Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  16. Local and systemic changes associated with long-term, percutaneous, static implantation with titanium alloys in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frydman, Galit F.; Marini, Robert P.; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Biddle, Kathleen; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Vanderburg, Charles R.; Lai, Barry; Bendapudi, Pavan K.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Fox, James G.

    2017-04-01

    Metal alloys are frequently used as implant materials in veterinary medicine. Recent studies suggest that many types of metal alloys may induce both local and systemic inflammatory responses. In this study, 37 rhesus macaques with long-term skull-anchored percutaneous titanium alloy implants (0-14 years duration) were evaluated for changes in their hematology, coagulation and serum chemistry profiles. Negative controls (n=28) did not have implants. All of the implanted animals were on IACUC-approved protocols and were not implanted for the purpose of this study. Animals with implants had significantly higher plasma D-dimer and lower antithrombin III concentrations compared with nonimplanted animals (p-values < 0.05). Additionally, animals with implants had significantly higher globulin, and lower albumin and calcium concentrations compared with nonimplanted animals (p-values < 0.05). Many of these changes were positively correlated with duration of implantation as well as the number of implants. Chronic bacterial infection was observed on the skin around many of the implant sites, and within deeper tissues. Representative histopathology around the implant site of two implanted animals revealed chronic suppurative to pyogranulomatous inflammation extending from the skin to the dura mater. X-ray fluorescence microscopy of tissue biopsies from the implant site of the same two animals revealed significant increases in free metal ions within the tissue, including titanium and iron. Free metal ions persisted in the tissues up to 6 months postexplant. These results suggest that long-term skull-anchored percutaneous titanium alloy implants results in localized inflammation, chronic infection, and leaching of metal ions into local tissues.

  17. Histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of peri-implant bone subjected to immediate loading: an experimental study with Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, George E; Toh, Chooi Gait; Siar, Chong Huat; Swaminathan, Dasan

    2002-01-01

    Immediately loaded splinted implants can become osseointegrated when they are placed in the anterior part of the mandible. The concept of immediate loading has not been well examined in the posterior mandible. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hard tissue reactions around immediately loaded implants placed in the posterior mandible in the monkey model. Six adult M. fascicularis monkeys were used in this study. Thirty-six Ankylos implants (Degussa Dental, Hanau-Wolfgang, Germany) were placed after extraction of the second premolar, first, and second molar teeth and complete healing of the sockets. Control (C) group implants were placed and, after osseointegration, were loaded for 1 month using temporary acrylic resin prostheses and later for 2 months using splinted metal crowns. In the contralateral region of the mandible, test (T) group implants were placed and loaded immediately with the same sequence as carried out for the C implants. After sacrifice of the animals, specimens were examined histologically and evaluated histomorphometrically. All implants were osseointegrated. Compact, cortical bone in contact with the implant surface without any gaps or connective tissue formation was demonstrated. Histomorphometric findings of the bone-implant-contacts showed no significant differences between the T and C group implants. Peri-implant mineralized bone areas presented statistically significant differences and showed a higher density of bone between the threads of immediately loaded implants (P < .05). Immediately loaded splinted implants in the posterior mandible can become osseointegrated with a hard tissue peri-implant response similar to that of delayed loaded implants. Moreover, immediate loading seems to increase the ossification of the alveolar bone around endosseous implants.

  18. Amyloid beta 1-42 and phoshorylated tau threonin 231 in brains of aged cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Shalahudin Darusman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pathological hallmarks indicative of Alzheimer’s disease, which are the plaques of Amyloid Beta 1-42 and neurofibrillary tangles, were found in brain of aged cynomolgus monkey. The aim of the study was to investigate if aged monkeys exhibiting spatial memory impairment and levels of biomarkers indicative of Alzheimer’s disease, had brain lesions similar to human patients suffering from senile dementia. Generating immunohistochemistry technique to biomarkers of Amyloid beta 1-42 and the phosphorylated tau 231, our study assessed the amyloidopathy, such as indicative to the senile plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and the tauopathy, to possible neurofibrillary tangles. Six aged monkeys were selected based on their spatial memory performance and profile of biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease, divided equally to affected aged subject - with Memory-affected and low amyloid level, and aged with higher performance in memory and amyloid, as the age-matched subjects. Using immunohistochemistry, plaques of Amyloid Beta 1-42 were observed in two out of three brains of aged subjects with memory impairment and biomarkers indicative of Alzheimer’s disease. The cerebral amyloid angiopathy was observed in both aged monkey groups, and unlike in the human, the amyloids were found to deposit in the small veins and capillaries. In one of the affected individuals, phosphorylated tau was positively stained intracellularly of the neurons, indicating a possibility of an early stage of the formation of tangles. These findings add to the body of evidence of the utility of the aged cynomolgus monkeys as a spontaneous model for Alzheimer-related disease.

  19. A pair choice test to identify female mating patterns in relation to ovulation in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikitopoulos, E.; Heistermann, M.; Vries, Han de; Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. van; Sterck, E.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Female mammals may exert choice for mates directly by mating selectively. Alternatively, females can mate promiscuously, allowing sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice to operate. Primate sexual behaviour is probably a compromise between conflicting male and female interests, so it may be

  20. Mapping Putative Hubs in Human, Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Connectomes via Diffusion Tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longchuan; Hu, Xiaoping; Preuss, Todd M.; Glasser, Matthew F.; Damen, Frederick W.; Qiu, Yuxuan

    2013-01-01

    Mapping anatomical brain networks with graph-theoretic analysis of diffusion tractography has recently gained popularity, because of its presumed value in understanding brain function. However, this approach has seldom been used to compare brain connectomes across species, which may provide insights into brain evolution. Here, we employed a data-driven approach to compare interregional brain connections across three primate species: 1) the intensively studied rhesus macaque, 2) our closest living primate relative, the chimpanzee, and 3) humans. Specifically, we first used random parcellations and surface-based probabilistic diffusion tractography to derive the brain networks of the three species under various network densities and resolutions. We then compared the characteristics of the networks using graph-theoretic measures. In rhesus macaques, our tractography-defined hubs showed reasonable overlap with hubs previously identified using anterograde and retrograde tracer data. Across all three species, hubs were largely symmetric in the two hemispheres and were consistently identified in medial parietal, insular, retrosplenial cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices, suggesting a conserved structural architecture within these regions. However, species differences were observed in the inferior parietal cortex, polar and medial prefrontal cortices. The potential significance of these interspecies differences is discussed. PMID:23603286

  1. Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in Macaca sylvanus and Hystrix cristata from an Italian rescue centre for wild and exotic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeti, Giusy; Mariano, Valeria; Eleni, Claudia; Aloisi, Marco; Grifoni, Goffredo; Sittinieri, Stefania; Dante, Giampiero; Antognetti, Valeria; Foglia, Efrem Alessandro; Cersini, Antonella; Nardi, Alberigo

    2016-11-28

    The Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small, non enveloped, positive sense single-stranded RNA virus in the genus Cardiovirus, family Picornaviridae, with two known serotypes. It is spread worldwide and infects a huge range of vertebrate hosts with zoonotic potential for humans. The pig is the mammal most likely to be impacted on with the disease, but EMCV occurrence has also been reported in non-human primates and in a variety of domestic, captive and wild animals. Until now, human cases have been very rare and the risk appears to be almost negligible in spite of human susceptibility to the infection. Between September and November 2012 a fatal Encephalomyocarditis virus outbreak involving four Barbary macaques and 24 crested porcupines occurred at a rescue centre for wild and exotic animals in Central Italy. In this open-field zoo park located near Grosseto, Tuscany about 1000 animals belonging to different species, including various non-human primates were hosted at that time. Sudden deaths were generally observed without any evident symptoms or only with mild nonspecific clinical signs. The major gross change was characterised by grey-white necrotic foci in the myocardium and the same EMCV strain was isolated both in macaques and crested porcupines. Phylogenetic analysis has confirmed that only one EMCV strain is circulating in Italy, capable of infecting different animal species. This report confirms the susceptibility of non-human primates to the EMCV infection and describes the disease in porcupine, a common wild Italian and African species. No human cases were observed, but given the zoonotic potential of EMCV these findings are of importance in the context of animal-human interface.

  2. Costs of mate-guarding in wild male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): physiological stress and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard-Buttoz, Cédric; Heistermann, Michael; Rahmi, Erdiansyah; Agil, Muhammad; Fauzan, Panji Ahmad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2014-09-01

    Mate-guarding is an important determinant of male reproductive success in a number of species. However, it is known to potentially incur costs. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of mate-guarding on male physiological stress and aggression in long-tailed macaques, a species in which males mate-guard females to a lesser extent than predicted by the Priority of Access model (PoA). The study was carried out during two mating periods on three groups of wild long-tailed macaques in Indonesia by combining behavioral observations with non-invasive measurements of fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) levels. Mate-guarding was associated with a general rise in male stress hormone levels but, from a certain threshold of mate-guarding onwards, increased vigilance time was associated with a decrease in stress hormone output. Mate-guarding also increased male-male aggression rate and male vigilance time. Overall, alpha males were more physiologically stressed than other males independently of mating competition. Increased glucocorticoid levels during mate-guarding are most likely adaptive since it may help males to mobilize extra-energy required for mate-guarding and ultimately maintain a balanced energetic status. However, repeated exposure to high levels of stress over an extended period is potentially deleterious to the immune system and thus may carry costs. This potential physiological cost together with the cost of increased aggression mate-guarding male face may limit the male's ability to mate-guard females, explaining the deviance from the PoA model observed in long-tailed macaques. Comparing our results to previous findings we discuss how ecological factors, reproductive seasonality and rank achievement may modulate the extent to which costs of mate-guarding limit male monopolization abilities. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Variation in reproductive outcomes for captive male rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) differing in CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Melissa S; Higley, Sue; Lussier, I sabelle D; Westergaard, Greg C; Suomi, Stephen J; Higley, J Dee

    2002-01-01

    In rhesus macaque males, lower than average cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the principle metabolite of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), have been linked to impulsivity, involvement in escalated aggression, failure to elicit consort relationships, production of fewer sperm plugs, and a relatively early age of mortality. Given these potential fitness costs, we performed two studies aimed at elucidating the effects of CSF 5-HIAA on reproduction. Study 1 retrospectively evaluated over a four-year period, the relative reproductive outcome for pairs of adult male rhesus macaques (n = 15) who lived in social groups and who differed in concentrations of CSF 5-HIAA. Study 2 examined the relationship between CSF 5-HIAA and sperm motility and density (n = 12), as a potential mechanism for maintaining variability in CSF 5-HIAA. For Study 1, an average measure from two CSF 5-HIAA samples was calculated for the two males who were present during the time when conception most likely took place (offspring birth date -165 +/- 14 days). Within-pair comparisons of CSF 5-HIAA concentrations between the sire and the non-successful male were drawn for each of the 72 offspring in the study. We found that while sires were typically the male with relatively higher CSF 5-HIAA within the pair, there were no absolute differences in CSF 5-HIAA between males who sired at least one offspring (sires) and those who failed to reproduce (non-sires). Furthermore, while absolute age was not predictive of reproductive outcome, sires with relatively high CSF 5-HIAA also tended to be also relatively older than their competitors. By contrast, for the males with relatively low CSF 5-HIAA who reproduced, sires were relatively younger than the non-sires. These differences in reproductive outcome for males differing in CSF 5-HIAA could not be explained by variability in sperm quantity or quality as we did not find evidence of a relationship between CSF 5-HIAA and either sperm measure. The results of this study suggest that as serotonergic function affects many aspects of behavior and survivorship, it might also be associated with reproductive outcome and different life-history strategies for males differing in concentrations of CSF 5-HIAA. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Park Rangers' Behaviors and Their Effects on Tourists and Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Rie; Sheeran, Lori K; Li, Jin-Hua; Sun, Lixing; Wang, Xi; Pritchard, Alexander J; DuVall-Lash, Alexander S; Wagner, R Steve

    2014-09-15

    Previous studies have reported the negative impacts of tourism on nonhuman primates (NHPs) and tourists and advocated the improvement of tourism management, yet what constitutes good quality management remains unclear. We explored whether rates of macaque aggression and self-directed behaviors (SDBs) differed under the supervision of two park ranger teams at the Valley of the Wild Monkeys (VWM) in Mt. Huangshan, Anhui Province, China. The two ranger teams provisioned and managed a group of macaques on an alternating monthly basis. Monkey, tourist and ranger behaviors were collected from August 16-September 30, 2012. Macaque aggression and SDB rates did not differ significantly under the management of the two teams. Overall, there was little intervention in tourist-macaque interactions by park rangers, and even when rangers discouraged tourists' undesirable behaviors, tourist interactions with monkeys persisted. Furthermore, only one or sometimes two park rangers managed monkeys and tourists, and rangers established dominance over the monkeys to control them. In order to effectively manage tourists and monkeys by a single park ranger, we recommend that rangers: (1) prohibit tourists from feeding; (2) move around the viewing platform more frequently; and (3) limit the number of tourists each visiting session.

  5. Park Rangers’ Behaviors and Their Effects on Tourists and Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Rie; Sheeran, Lori K.; Li, Jin-hua; Sun, Lixing; Wang, Xi; Pritchard, Alexander J.; DuVall-Lash, Alexander S.; Wagner, R. Steve

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Conflict between macaques and humans is a commonly reported problem in Asian tourism. However, without understanding how macaques are managed, the establishment of an effective management design is impracticable. This study explored how monkeys were managed and tourists were regulated at the Valley of the Wild Monkeys in Mt. Huangshan, Anhui Province, China, through a field observation. Two teams of park rangers alternated monthly and managed a group of macaques. The results suggested that undesired tourists’ interactions with monkeys were not regularly intervened by park rangers, and park rangers established dominance over the monkeys by using physical threats to manage them. Abstract Previous studies have reported the negative impacts of tourism on nonhuman primates (NHPs) and tourists and advocated the improvement of tourism management, yet what constitutes good quality management remains unclear. We explored whether rates of macaque aggression and self-directed behaviors (SDBs) differed under the supervision of two park ranger teams at the Valley of the Wild Monkeys (VWM) in Mt. Huangshan, Anhui Province, China. The two ranger teams provisioned and managed a group of macaques on an alternating monthly basis. Monkey, tourist and ranger behaviors were collected from August 16–September 30, 2012. Macaque aggression and SDB rates did not differ significantly under the management of the two teams. Overall, there was little intervention in tourist-macaque interactions by park rangers, and even when rangers discouraged tourists’ undesirable behaviors, tourist interactions with monkeys persisted. Furthermore, only one or sometimes two park rangers managed monkeys and tourists, and rangers established dominance over the monkeys to control them. In order to effectively manage tourists and monkeys by a single park ranger, we recommend that rangers: (1) prohibit tourists from feeding; (2) move around the viewing platform more frequently; and (3) limit the number of tourists each visiting session. PMID:26480324

  6. The use of the external layer of the calvaria's frontal bone to repair craniofacial skeleton injuries in Macaca mulatta (Rhesus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelo-Nunes José Mário

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the integration of the external layer of the calvaria's frontal bone to repair craniofacial skeleton injuries in primates. METHODS: Ten Rhesus monkeys underwent surgery in two stages. In the first stage, four bone fragments were harvested from the external layer of the calvaria's frontal bone and were transplanted two on the calvaria's frontal bone and the other two onto the maxillary bone, by onlay and inlay. Seven weeks thereafter, four fragments were extracted from the transplantated area. The animals were not sacrificed. RESULTS: Macroscopic examination reveals bone regeneration, the areas onto which the bone fragments were transplantated having consequently increased in volume. The results of optical and electron microscopy is being carried out.

  7. Primacy and recency effects in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a serial probe recognition task: II. Effects of atropine sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, C A

    1997-08-01

    Nonhuman primates display both a primacy and a recency effect when trained on a 6-item serial probe recognition task. The author has previously shown that in the rhesus monkey, diazepam (3.2 mg/kg im) interferes with the memory processes that mediate the recency effect without affecting those memory processes involved in the primacy effect (C. A. Castro, 1995). This study assessed the effects of atropine sulfate (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mg/kg im) on the primacy and recency effects in these same monkeys. Opposite the effects of diazepam, atropine disrupted the primacy component of the serial position curve and had no measurable effect on the recency component. In addition, the 2 highest doses of atropine disrupted accuracy on the nonmatching probe trials, whereas all 3 doses of atropine resulted in increased response latencies. These reports indicate that the primacy and recency effects in the nonhuman primate can be pharmacologically dissociated.

  8. Use of Operant Performance to Guide and Evaluate Medical Treatment in an Adult Male Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    improve animal welfare in laboratory settings and to guide effective therapies and veterinary practices. The present study is a case report of...treatment. The affected monkey received ketoprofen, buprenorphine , or their combination but continued to perform poorly during daily operant behavioral...evening administration of buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg IM) was added to the treatment regimen of ketoprofen (2.0 mg/kg IM) ad- ministration in the

  9. On the nature of directed behavior to drug-associated light cues in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Mark P; Berndt, Sonja I; Woods, James H

    2016-11-01

    The present study investigated the role of drug-paired stimuli in controlling the behavior of rhesus monkeys. Systematic observations were made with nine monkeys who had a history of drug self-administration; they had been lever pressing to produce intravenous infusions of various drugs. These observations revealed that the stimulus light co-occurring with drug infusion produced robust and cue-directed behavior such as orienting, touching and biting. Experiment 1 showed that this light-directed behavior would occur in naïve monkeys exposed to a Pavlovian pairing procedure. Four monkeys were given response-independent injections of cocaine. In two monkeys, a red light preceded cocaine injections by 5 s, and a green light co-occurred with the 5-s cocaine injections. In the other two monkeys, the light presentations and cocaine injections occurred independently. Light-directed behavior occurred in all four monkeys within the first couple of trials and at high levels but decreased across sessions. The cocaine-paired stimulus maintained behavior longer and at higher levels than the uncorrelated stimuli. Furthermore, light-directed behavior was not maintained when cocaine was replaced with saline. Light-directed behavior did not occur in the absence of the lights. When these monkeys were subsequently trained to lever press for cocaine, light-directed behavior increased to levels higher than previously observed. Behavior directed towards drug-paired stimuli is robust, reliable and multiply determined; the mechanisms underlying this activity likely include Pavlovian conditioning, stimulus novelty, habituation and operant conditioning.

  10. Amyloid beta1–42 and the phoshorylated tau threonine 231 in brains of aged cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda Shalahudin; Gjedde, Albert; Sajuthi, Dondin

    2014-01-01

    Pathological hallmarks indicative of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which are the plaques of amyloid beta1-42 and neurofibrillary tangles, were found in brain of aged cynomolgus monkey. The aim of this study was to investigate if aged monkeys exhibiting spatial memory impairment and levels of biomarkers...... angiopathy, and the tauopathy, to possible neurofibrillary tangles. Six aged monkeys were selected based on their spatial memory performance and profile of biomarkers of AD, divided equally to affected aged subject - with Memory-affected and low amyloid level, and aged with higher performance in memory...... and amyloid, as the age-matched subjects. Using immunohistochemistry, plaques of amyloid beta1-42 were observed in two out of three brains of aged subjects with memory impairment and biomarkers indicative of AD. The cerebral amyloid angiopathy was observed in both aged monkey groups, and unlike in the human...

  11. Expression of the neuregulin receptor ErbB4 in the brain of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Neddens

    Full Text Available We demonstrated recently that frontal cortical expression of the Neuregulin (NRG receptor ErbB4 is restricted to interneurons in rodents, macaques, and humans. However, little is known about protein expression patterns in other areas of the brain. In situ hybridization studies have shown high ErbB4 mRNA levels in various subcortical areas, suggesting that ErbB4 is also expressed in cell types other than cortical interneurons. Here, using highly-specific monoclonal antibodies, we provide the first extensive report of ErbB4 protein expression throughout the cerebrum of primates. We show that ErbB4 immunoreactivity is high in association cortices, intermediate in sensory cortices, and relatively low in motor cortices. The overall immunoreactivity in the hippocampal formation is intermediate, but is high in a subset of interneurons. We detected the highest overall immunoreactivity in distinct locations of the ventral hypothalamus, medial habenula, intercalated nuclei of the amygdala and structures of the ventral forebrain, such as the islands of Calleja, olfactory tubercle and ventral pallidum, and medium expression in the reticular thalamic nucleus. While this pattern is generally consistent with ErbB4 mRNA expression data, further investigations are needed to identify the exact cellular and subcellular sources of mRNA and protein expression in these areas. In contrast to in situ hybridization in rodents, we detected only low levels of ErbB4-immunoreactivity in mesencephalic dopaminergic nuclei but a diffuse pattern of immunofluorescence that was medium in the dorsal striatum and high in the ventral forebrain, suggesting that most ErbB4 protein in dopaminergic neurons could be transported to axons. We conclude that the NRG-ErbB4 signaling pathway can potentially influence many functional systems throughout the brain of primates, and suggest that major sites of action are areas of the "corticolimbic" network. This interpretation is functionally consistent with the genetic association of NRG1 and ERBB4 with schizophrenia.

  12. Visual artificial grammar learning by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): exploring the role of grammar complexity and sequence length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Conway, Christopher M; Christiansen, Morten H; Beran, Michael J; Owren, Michael J

    2018-03-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates can learn about the organization of stimuli in the environment using implicit sequential pattern learning capabilities. However, most previous artificial grammar learning studies with nonhuman primates have involved relatively simple grammars and short input sequences. The goal in the current experiments was to assess the learning capabilities of monkeys on an artificial grammar-learning task that was more complex than most others previously used with nonhumans. Three experiments were conducted using a joystick-based, symmetrical-response serial reaction time task in which two monkeys were exposed to grammar-generated sequences at sequence lengths of four in Experiment 1, six in Experiment 2, and eight in Experiment 3. Over time, the monkeys came to respond faster to the sequences generated from the artificial grammar compared to random versions. In a subsequent generalization phase, subjects generalized their knowledge to novel sequences, responding significantly faster to novel instances of sequences produced using the familiar grammar compared to those constructed using an unfamiliar grammar. These results reveal that rhesus monkeys can learn and generalize the statistical structure inherent in an artificial grammar that is as complex as some used with humans, for sequences up to eight items long. These findings are discussed in relation to whether or not rhesus macaques and other primate species possess implicit sequence learning abilities that are similar to those that humans draw upon to learn natural language grammar.

  13. Transitive inference in humans (Homo sapiens) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) after massed training of the last two list items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Greg; Alkan, Yelda; Muñoz, Fabian; Ferrera, Vincent P; Terrace, Herbert S

    2017-08-01

    Transitive inference (TI) is a classic learning paradigm for which the relative contributions of experienced rewards and representation-based inference have been debated vigorously, particularly regarding the notion that animals are capable of logic and reasoning. Rhesus macaque subjects and human participants performed a TI task in which, prior to learning a 7-item list (ABCDEFG), a block of trials presented exclusively the pair FG. Contrary to the expectation of associative models, the high prior rate of reward for F did not disrupt subsequent learning of the entire list. Monkeys (who each completed many sessions with novel stimuli) learned to anticipate that novel stimuli should be preferred over F. We interpret this as evidence of a task representation of TI that generalizes beyond learning about specific stimuli. Humans (who were task-naïve) showed a transitory bias to F when it was paired with novel stimuli, but very rapidly unlearned that bias. Performance with respect to the remaining stimuli was consistent with past reports of TI in both species. These results are difficult to reconcile with any account that assigns the strength of association between individual stimuli and rewards. Instead, they support sophisticated cognitive processes in both species, albeit with some species differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta do recognize themselves in the mirror: implications for the evolution of self-recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Z Rajala

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-recognition in front of a mirror is used as an indicator of self-awareness. Along with humans, some chimpanzees and orangutans have been shown to be self-aware using the mark test. Monkeys are conspicuously absent from this list because they fail the mark test and show persistent signs of social responses to mirrors despite prolonged exposure, which has been interpreted as evidence of a cognitive divide between hominoids and other species. In stark contrast with those reports, the rhesus monkeys in this study, who had been prepared for electrophysiological recordings with a head implant, showed consistent self-directed behaviors in front of the mirror and showed social responses that subsided quickly during the first experimental session. The self-directed behaviors, which were performed in front of the mirror and did not take place in its absence, included extensive observation of the implant and genital areas that cannot be observed directly without a mirror. We hypothesize that the head implant, a most salient mark, prompted the monkeys to overcome gaze aversion inhibition or lack of interest in order to look and examine themselves in front of the mirror. The results of this study demonstrate that rhesus monkeys do recognize themselves in the mirror and, therefore, have some form of self-awareness. Accordingly, instead of a cognitive divide, they support the notion of an evolutionary continuity of mental functions.

  15. The Effect Of SEA On Long Tail Monkeys (Macaca Fascicularis) Lymphocyte Culture Gamma Ray-Irradiated In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wa'id, Abdul; Lusiyanti, Yanti

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococus enteroxine (SEA) is one of toxins produced by the bacterium Staphylococus aureus. In the culture, SEA has proven as a potent stimulator of lymphocytes in man event at fg/ml concentrations. This research studied the effect of SEA compared to Phytohaemagglutinine (PHA) on the peripheral blood lymphocytes culture of the long-tail monkeys. About 5 ml blood was collected from 5 monkeys and irradiated using Gamma Cell-220 P3TIR with doses of 0 (control); 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 Gy. The blood samples were cultured in the appropriate growth medium based on standard procedure and added with 1.0 ml (0.5 mug/ml) SEA or 0.15 ml PHA. The cultures were then incubated for 96 hours and prepared the slides. The results showed that on the unirradiated peripheral blood lymphocytes of long-tail monkeys the mitotic indices obtained using PHA and SEA are relatively similar. On the irradiated lymphocytes with doses of 1-3 Gy, the mitotic indices using SEA are relatively higher than that of PHA. Dose responses of dicentric, ring and acentric fragment of both PHA and SEA are relatively the same

  16. Use of ultrasound imaging for the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding in the bonnet macaque ( Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Uddhav K; Imran, M; Manjramkar, Dhananjay D; Metkari, Siddhanath M; Sable, Nilesh P; Gavhane, Dnyaneshwar S; Katkam, Rajendra R; Sachdeva, Geetanjali; Thakur, Meenakshi H; Kholkute, Sanjeeva D

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound is a powerful, low-cost, non-invasive medical tool used by laboratory animal veterinarians for diagnostic imaging. Sonohysterography and transvaginal ultrasound are frequently used to assess uterine anomalies in women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). In the present study, we have evaluated the abdominal ultrasound of bonnet monkeys ( n = 8) showing spontaneous ovulatory ( n = 5) and anovulatory ( n = 3) AUB. The ovulatory ( n = 5) macaques showed cyclic AUB for 7-8 days. The anovulatory ( n = 3) macaques had irregular AUB with menstrual cycles of 40-45 days. The B-mode abdominal, colour Doppler and 3D ultrasound scans were performed during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Ultrasound examination revealed endometrial polyps in five macaques and endometrial hyperplasia in three animals. The width and length of endometrial polyps was around 0.5-1 cm (average 0.51 ± 0.23 cm × 0.96 ± 0.16 cm) with significant increase in endometrial thickness ( P uterine cavity and colour Doppler ultrasound showed increased vascularity in the endometrial polyps. Endometrial hyperplasia characteristically appeared as a thickened echogenic endometrium ( P < 0.0002). This study demonstrates the use of non-invasive ultrasound techniques in the diagnosis of AUB in macaques.

  17. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesta, Sébastien; Reymond, Gilles; Pozzobon, Matthieu; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA) is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg) to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play). In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates' social behaviors.

  18. Characterization of Multi-Drug Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Cephalic Recording Chambers in Research Macaques (Macaca spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E Woods

    Full Text Available Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance. Multi-locus sequence typing showed that most belonged to two E. faecalis sequence types (ST: ST 4 and ST 55. The genomes of three representative isolates were sequenced to identify genes encoding antimicrobial resistances and other traits. Antimicrobial resistance genes identified included aac(6'-aph(2", aph(3'-III, str, ant(6-Ia, tetM, tetS, tetL, ermB, bcrABR, cat, and dfrG, and polymorphisms in parC (S80I and gyrA (S83I were observed. These isolates also harbored virulence factors including the cytolysin toxin genes in ST 4 isolates, as well as multiple biofilm-associated genes (esp, agg, ace, SrtA, gelE, ebpABC, hyaluronidases (hylA, hylB, and other survival genes (ElrA, tpx. Crystal violet biofilm assays confirmed that ST 4 isolates produced more biofilm than ST 55 isolates. The abundance of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor genes in the ST 4 isolates likely relates to the loss of CRISPR-cas. This macaque colony represents a unique model for studying E. faecalis infection associated with indwelling devices, and provides an opportunity to understand the basis of persistence of this pathogen in a healthcare setting.

  19. Mucinous gastric hyperplasia in a colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) induced by polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geistfeld, J.G.; Bond, M.G.; Bullock, B.C.; Varian, M.C.

    1982-02-01

    Since 1971, 45 of 259 male rhesus monkeys housed in a primate building have died of a chronic and progressive disease characterized by diarrhea, dehydration, weakness, gingivitis, emaciation, and alopecia. The principal necropsy finding in these monkeys, and in eight others killed for experimental purposes, was hypertrophic and hyperplastic mucinous gastropathy involving both the mucosa and submucosa. The toxic agent involved was identified as the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254. The suspected source of the toxic agent was a concrete sealer used during building construction.

  20. Effects of MDMA Injections on the Behavior of Socially-Housed Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ballesta

    Full Text Available 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methyl amphetamine (MDMA is one of the few known molecules to increase human and rodent prosocial behaviors. However, this effect has never been assessed on the social behavior of non-human primates. In our study, we subcutaneously injected three different doses of MDMA (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mg/kg to a group of three, socially housed, young male long-tailed macaques. More than 200 hours of behavioral data were recorded, during 68 behavioral sessions, by an automatic color-based video device that tracked the 3D positions of each animal and of a toy. This data was then categorized into 5 exclusive behaviors (resting, locomotion, foraging, social contact and object play. In addition, received and given social grooming was manually scored. Results show several significant dose-dependent behavioral effects. At 1.5mg/kg only, MDMA induces a significant increase in social grooming behavior, thus confirming the prosocial effect of MDMA in macaques. Additionally, at 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection substantially decreases foraging behavior, which is consistent with the known anorexigenic effect of this compound. Furthermore, at 2.0 mg/kg MDMA injection induces an increase in locomotor behavior, which is also in accordance with its known stimulant property. Interestingly, MDMA injected at 1.0mg/kg increases the rate of object play, which might be interpreted as a decrease of the inhibition to manipulate a unique object in presence of others, or, as an increase of the intrinsic motivation to manipulate this object. Together, our results support the effectiveness of MDMA to study the complex neurobiology of primates' social behaviors.

  1. Risk Factor Analysis May Provide Clues to Diarrhea Prevention in Outdoor-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRONGAY, KAMM; PARK, BYUNG; MURPHY, STEPHANIE J.

    2014-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of rhesus macaques at national primate research centers are housed outside. Annually, 15–39% of these animals experience diarrhea and require veterinary treatment for dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, or weight loss. An estimated 21–33% of these patients will die or be euthanized. Many studies have explored the various infectious etiologies of non-human primate diarrhea. However, there is little published information on diarrhea incidence rates and risk factors in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques. Without this information, it is challenging to determine endemic and epidemic diarrhea levels, or to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies. Using electronic medical records, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to calculate diarrhea incidence rates for rhesus macaques (N = 3,181) housed in three different outdoor housing types (corrals, shelters, and temporary housing) at the Oregon National Primate Research Center between November 1, 2009 and October 31, 2010. With multiple logistic regression analysis, we determined the relative risk of housing type, sex, and age on development of diarrhea. Diarrhea incidence and mortality in our population was lower than many published ranges. Type of outdoor housing, age, and previous diarrhea episode were positively correlated with diarrhea risk. Younger animals in smaller shelters and temporary housing had a greater risk of acquiring diarrhea, with juvenile animals (0.7–3.9 years) having the highest mortality rate. Sex was not a risk factor, but adult females with diarrhea were more likely to develop life-threatening complications than adult males. We also constructed a predictive model for diarrhea-associated mortality using Classification and Regression Tree. Findings from this study will be used to develop and evaluate mitigation strategies in our outdoor-housed population and to provide a foundation for genetic susceptibility and immune function testing. PMID:23568382

  2. Risk Factor Analysis May Provide Clues to Diarrhea Prevention in Outdoor-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    PRONGAY, KAMM; PARK, BYUNG; MURPHY, STEPHANIE J.

    2013-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of rhesus macaques at national primate research centers are housed outside. Annually, 15–39% of these animals experience diarrhea and require veterinary treatment for dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, or weight loss. An estimated 21–33% of these patients will die or be euthanized. Many studies have explored the various infectious etiologies of non-human primate diarrhea. However, there is little published information on diarrhea incidence rates and risk factors in outdo...

  3. Development of space perception in relation to the maturation of the motor system in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Valentina; Simpson, Elizabeth A; Suomi, Stephen J; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2015-04-01

    To act on the environment, organisms must perceive object locations in relation to their body. Several neuroscientific studies provide evidence of neural circuits that selectively represent space within reach (i.e., peripersonal) and space outside of reach (i.e., extrapersonal). However, the developmental emergence of these space representations remains largely unexplored. We investigated the development of space coding in infant macaques and found that they exhibit different motor strategies and hand configurations depending on the objects' size and location. Reaching-grasping improved from 2 to 4 weeks of age, suggesting a broadly defined perceptual body schema at birth, modified by the acquisition and refinement of motor skills through early sensorimotor experience, enabling the development of a mature capacity for coding space. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavioral ecology and commensal long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) populations in Bali, Indonesia: impact of anthropic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Brotcorne, Fany

    2014-01-01

    Coexistence between humans and wildlife is one of the major challenge to biodiversity conservation in the onset of this new millennium. In addition to the development of protected areas providing refuges for wildlife populations, another option relies on the sharing of space, i.e., tolerating wildlife living alongside human populations in non-protected interface zones. During the last century, massive human encroachment into wildlife natural habitat has led to an increasing number of worldwid...

  5. Morphological integration of anatomical, developmental, and functional postcranial modules in the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Mark A; Schroeder, Lauren; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

    2018-03-22

    Integration and modularity reflect the coordinated action of past evolutionary processes and, in turn, constrain or facilitate phenotypic evolvability. Here, we analyze magnitudes of integration in the macaque postcranium to test whether 20 a priori defined modules are (1) more tightly integrated than random sets of postcranial traits, and (2) are differentiated based on mode of definition, with developmental modules expected to be more integrated than functional or anatomical modules. The 3D morphometric data collected for eight limb and girdle bones for 60 macaques were collated into anatomical, developmental, and functional modules. A resampling technique was used to create random samples of integration values for each module for statistical comparison. Our results found that not all a priori defined modules were more strongly integrated than random samples of postcranial traits and that specific types of modules did not present consistent patterns of integration. Rather, girdle and joint modules were consistently less integrated than limb modules, and forelimb elements were less integrated than hindlimbs. The results suggest that morphometrically complex modules tend to be less integrated than simple limb bones, irrespective of the number of available traits. However, differences in integration of the fore- and hindlimb more likely reflects the multitude of locomotory, feeding, and social functions involved. It remains to be tested whether patterns of integration identified here are primate universals, and to what extent they vary depending on phylogenetic or functional factors. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hormones in infant rhesus monkeys' (Macaca mulatta) hair at birth provide a window into the fetal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Lubach, Gabriele; Hedman, Curtis; Ziegler, Toni E; Coe, Christopher L

    2014-04-01

    It is established that maternal parity can affect infant growth and risk for several disorders, but the prenatal endocrine milieu that contributes to these outcomes is still largely unknown. Recently, it has been shown that hormones deposited in hair can provide a retrospective reflection of hormone levels while the hair was growing. Taking advantage of this finding, our study utilized hair at birth to investigate if maternal parity affected fetal hormone exposure during late gestation. Hair was collected from primiparous and multiparous mother and infant monkeys at birth and used to determine steroid hormones embedded in hair while the infant was in utero. A high-pressure liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry technique was refined, which enabled the simultaneous measurement of eight hormones. Hormone concentrations were dramatically higher in neonatal compared to maternal hair, reflecting extended fetal exposure as the first hair was growing. Further, hair cortisone was higher in primiparous mothers and infants when compared to the multiparous dyads. This research demonstrates that infant hair can be used to track fetal hormone exposure and a panel of steroid hormones can be quantified from hair specimens. Given the utility in nonhuman primates, this approach can be translated to a clinical setting with human infants.

  7. Sex-specific heritability of spontaneous lipid levels in an extended pedigree of Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Vinson

    Full Text Available The rhesus macaque is an important model for human atherosclerosis but genetic determinants of relevant phenotypes have not yet been investigated in this species. Because lipid levels are well-established and heritable risk factors for human atherosclerosis, our goal was to assess the heritability of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in a single, extended pedigree of 1,289 Indian-origin rhesus macaques. Additionally, because increasing evidence supports sex differences in the genetic architecture of lipid levels and lipid metabolism in humans and macaques, we also explored sex-specific heritability for all lipid measures investigated in this study. Using standard methods, we measured lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels from fasted plasma in a sample of 193 pedigreed rhesus macaques selected for membership in large, paternal half-sib cohorts, and maintained on a low-fat, low cholesterol chow diet. Employing a variance components approach, we found moderate heritability for total cholesterol (h²=0.257, P=0.032, LDL cholesterol (h²=0.252, P=0.030, and triglyceride levels (h²=0.197, P=0.034 in the full sample. However, stratification by sex (N=68 males, N=125 females revealed substantial sex-specific heritability for total cholesterol (0.644, P=0.004, females only, HDL cholesterol (0.843, P=0.0008, females only, VLDL cholesterol (0.482, P=0.018, males only, and triglyceride levels (0.705, P=0.001, males only that was obscured or absent when sexes were combined in the full sample. We conclude that genes contribute to spontaneous variation in circulating lipid levels in the Indian-origin rhesus macaque in a sex-specific manner, and that the rhesus macaque is likely to be a valuable model for sex-specific genetic effects on lipid risk factors for human atherosclerosis. These findings are a first-ever report of heritability for cholesterol levels in this species, and support the need for expanded analysis of these traits in this population.

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-0807 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-0807 gb|AAO73490.1| CX3CR1 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAO73491.1| CX3CR1 [Maca...ca fascicularis] gb|AAO73498.1| CX3CR1 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAO73500.1| CX3CR1 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAO73501.1| CX3CR1 [Macaca mulatta] AAO73490.1 5e-67 81% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-0392 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-0392 gb|AAO73490.1| CX3CR1 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAO73491.1| CX3CR1 [Maca...ca fascicularis] gb|AAO73498.1| CX3CR1 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAO73500.1| CX3CR1 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAO73501.1| CX3CR1 [Macaca mulatta] AAO73490.1 1e-60 85% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-20-0039 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-20-0039 dbj|BAF48408.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca fuscata] dbj|BAF4...8409.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca fuscata] dbj|BAF48410.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca fuscata] db...j|BAF48411.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca fuscata] dbj|BAF48412.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca fusca...ta] dbj|BAF48413.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca fuscata] dbj|BAF48414.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Maca...ca fuscata] dbj|BAF48415.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca fuscata] dbj|BAF48423.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca fascicularis] BAF48408.1 1e-177 99% ...

  11. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1997-01-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The ma...... layer of the cages, on cockroach extermination, and on freezing of raw meat....

  12. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1997-01-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The ma...

  13. Gene : CBRC-PTRO-02-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ICTED: hypothetical protein [Macaca mulatta] 4e-63 33% MCMCVCVYMRIYTHCVCVYVYMRIYTHCVCMCICVYKHTVCVYVYIYTHCVCV...SIYNCVCICVSIYTLCVCICVSIYTLCVCICVSIYTLCVCMCVYIHTVCVYICVSIYTLCVYMCVYIHTVCVYVCLYTHCVCEYVCLYTHCVCICVSTYTLCVCICVCLHTHC...VCMCVCVSTYTLCVYVCMCVSTYTLCVYVCVCLHTHCACMCVCLHTHCACMCVSTYTLCVCVCVYIHTVRVCVCLHTHCACVCVYIHTVRVCVCLHTHC...ACVCVCLHTHCACVCVCLHTHCACVWGGLHTHCVCVGGSTYTLCVCVCVYICTLCVCVYMCI ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-12-0003 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-12-0003 ref|XP_001103423.1| PREDICTED: osteomodulin isoform 1 [Macaca mul...atta] ref|XP_001103506.1| PREDICTED: osteomodulin isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001103592.1| PREDICTED: ...osteomodulin isoform 3 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001103677.1| PREDICTED: osteomodulin isoform 4 [Macaca mulatta] XP_001103423.1 1e-109 62% ...

  15. Gene : CBRC-PTRO-07-0045 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TED: hypothetical protein [Macaca mulatta] 7e-96 66% MEVSEPMMKAVLVSEPALEGVEVSEPVVQAVLVSEPEVEAVVVSEPAVEAVVVSEPSIEAVVVSELSVEVVMVVSEP...AVEAGMVSEPAVETVVVSEAVVEATVVSEFSMKTVVILELAVETLVVSEPMVEAIVVSEPMVDAMVVSELVVEAEVVSEPVVEAEVVSEPVVEAEVVSEPSVESVVVSEP...VMEAVVISEPSVEVVVVSEPVVETLVVSEPVMETVVVPEPSVETVVVSEPVADTVVVSEPSVEVMVVSEP...VVETMVVSDSVVETVVVSEPSVEAVVVSELVVEAVVVSEPVVEAEVVSXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXSKPPVRGR ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-23-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-23-0002 gb|ABI73898.1| G-protein coupled receptor 15 [Macaca mulatta] gb|...ABI73899.1| G-protein coupled receptor 15 [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABI73922.1| G-protein coupled receptor 15 [Macaca mulatta] ABI73898.1 2e-57 40% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1232 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1232 dbj|BAF48427.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca assamensis] dbj|B...AF48428.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca assamensis] dbj|BAF48430.1| melanocortin 1 receptor [Macaca assamensis] BAF48427.1 2e-77 87% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0676 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0676 gb|ABI73898.1| G-protein coupled receptor 15 [Macaca mulatta] gb|...ABI73899.1| G-protein coupled receptor 15 [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABI73922.1| G-protein coupled receptor 15 [Macaca mulatta] ABI73898.1 1e-102 56% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-1223 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1223 gb|ABI73898.1| G-protein coupled receptor 15 [Macaca mulatta] gb|...ABI73899.1| G-protein coupled receptor 15 [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABI73922.1| G-protein coupled receptor 15 [Macaca mulatta] ABI73898.1 8e-34 77% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1015 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1015 ref|NP_001123902.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] dbj|BAG...55054.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca fascicularis] dbj|BAG55055.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] NP_001123902.1 0.0 85% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0286 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0286 ref|NP_001123902.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] dbj|BAG...55054.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca fascicularis] dbj|BAG55055.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] NP_001123902.1 0.0 72% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-1584 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-1584 gb|ABI73898.1| G-protein coupled receptor 15 [Macaca mulatta] gb|...ABI73899.1| G-protein coupled receptor 15 [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABI73922.1| G-protein coupled receptor 15 [Macaca mulatta] ABI73898.1 1e-109 77% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0060 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0060 ref|NP_001123902.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] dbj|BAG...55054.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca fascicularis] dbj|BAG55055.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] NP_001123902.1 0.0 62% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0960 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0960 ref|NP_001123902.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] dbj|BAG...55054.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca fascicularis] dbj|BAG55055.1| toll-like receptor 6 [Macaca mulatta] NP_001123902.1 0.0 82% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-05-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-05-0030 gb|ABI73898.1| G-protein coupled receptor 15 [Macaca mulatta] gb|...ABI73899.1| G-protein coupled receptor 15 [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABI73922.1| G-protein coupled receptor 15 [Macaca mulatta] ABI73898.1 8e-52 39% ...

  6. Short-temporal variation of soil organic carbon in different land use ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L C López-Teloxa

    Corresponding author. e-mail: rosalia.castelan@correo.buap.mx. MS received 18 August 2016; revised 31 March 2017; accepted 4 May 2017; published online 6 October 2017. The soil organic carbon (SOC) was determined in 40 sites at two ...

  7. short-temporal variation of soil organic carbon in different land use ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    *Corresponding author: rosalia.castelan@correo.buap.mx. 14. 15. Running title: Organic carbon ..... official data in the Mexican government (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e. 177. Informática ..... The authors thank the Vicerectorate for research and Graduate Studies (VIEP - BUAP) for. 382 the financial support ...

  8. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 24 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic characterization of the Mascaruna goat, a Sicilian autochthonous population, using molecular markers · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Salvatore Mastrangelo, Marco Tolone, Maria Teresa Sardina, Rosalia Di Gerlando, Baldassare Portolano ...

  9. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. MARCO TOLONE. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 96 Issue 4 September 2017 pp 591-597 RESEARCH ARTICLE. Full-length sequencing and identification of novel polymorphisms in the ACACA gene of Valle del Belice sheep breed · ROSALIA DI GERLANDO ...

  10. Full-length sequencing and identification of novel polymorphisms in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 4. Full-length sequencing and identification of novel polymorphisms in the ACACA gene of Valle del Belice sheep breed. ROSALIA DI GERLANDO SALVATORE MASTRANGELO LINA TORTORICI MARCO TOLONE ANNA MARIA SUTERA MARIA TERESA SARDINA ...

  11. Full-length sequencing and identification of novel polymorphisms in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rosalia Di Gerlando

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Full-length sequencing and identification of novel polymorphisms in the ACACA gene of Valle del Belice sheep breed. ROSALIA DI GERLANDO, SALVATORE MASTRANGELO, LINA TORTORICI, MARCO TOLONE,. ANNA MARIA SUTERA, MARIA TERESA SARDINA. ∗ and BALDASSARE PORTOLANO.

  12. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; Almeida, Adilson José de; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Castro, Tatiana Xavier de; Nascimento, Jussara Pereira do; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group.

  13. Testing visual short-term memory of pigeons (Columba livia) and a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) with a location change detection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Kenneth J; Elmore, L Caitlin; Rivera, Jacquelyne J; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A

    2013-09-01

    Change detection is commonly used to assess capacity (number of objects) of human visual short-term memory (VSTM). Comparisons with the performance of non-human animals completing similar tasks have shown similarities and differences in object-based VSTM, which is only one aspect ("what") of memory. Another important aspect of memory, which has received less attention, is spatial short-term memory for "where" an object is in space. In this article, we show for the first time that a monkey and pigeons can be accurately trained to identify location changes, much as humans do, in change detection tasks similar to those used to test object capacity of VSTM. The subject's task was to identify (touch/peck) an item that changed location across a brief delay. Both the monkey and pigeons showed transfer to delays longer than the training delay, to greater and smaller distance changes than in training, and to novel colors. These results are the first to demonstrate location-change detection in any non-human species and encourage comparative investigations into the nature of spatial and visual short-term memory.

  14. Human presence increases parasitic load in endangered lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus in its fragmented rainforest habitats in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Hussain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding changes in the host-parasite relationship due to habitat fragmentation is necessary for better management and conservation of endangered species in fragmented landscapes. Pathogens and parasites can pose severe threat to species in restricted environments such as forest fragments where there is increased contact of wildlife with human and livestock populations. Environmental stress and reduced nutritional level in forest fragments can influence parasite infection and intensity on the native species. In this study, we examine the impact of habitat fragmentation on the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in lion-tailed macaques in a fragmented rainforest in Western Ghats. METHODS: The prevalence of different gastrointestinal parasites was estimated from 91 fecal samples collected from 9 lion-tailed macaque groups in nine forest fragments. The parasites were identified up to genus level on the basis of the morphology and coloration of the egg, larva and cyst. The covariates included forest fragment area, group size and the presence/absence of human settlements and livestock in proximity. We used a linear regression model to identify the covariates that significantly influenced the prevalence of different parasite taxa. RESULTS: Nine gastrointestinal parasite taxa were detected in lion-tailed macaque groups. The groups near human settlements had greater prevalence and number of taxa, and these variables also had significant positive correlations with group size. We found that these parameters were also greater in groups near human settlements after controlling for group size. Livestock were present in all five fragments that had human settlements in proximity. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that high prevalence and species richness of gastrointestinal parasites in lion-tailed macaque groups are directly related to habitat fragmentation, high anthropogenic activities and high host density. The parasite load partially explains the reason for the decline in immature survival and birth rate in small and isolated rainforest fragments in Anamalai Hills.

  15. Irregular xenoantibodies against human red blood cells in Papio anubis, P ursinus, P hamadryas, P papio, Saimiri sciureus, and Macaca mulatta: possible effect on xenotransplantation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, G; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Majado, M; Ríos, A; Quereda, J J; Ramírez, P; Muñoz, A

    2010-01-01

    To assess the presence of irregular xenoantibodies against human red blood cells (RBCs) in 6 primate species used in xenotransplantation and other experimental procedures. Serum samples from 109 baboons of 4 different species (olive, chacma, sacred, and Guinea), 38 rhesus macaques, and 30 squirrel monkeys were tested for irregular xenoantibodies using an agglutination test using human RBCs of known phenotype for Rh, Kell, Kidd, Lewis, Lutheran, P1, and Duffy antigens, commercially available as RBC I, II, and III. We found hemagglutination for RBC I in 49%, 22%, 100%, 57%, 32%, and 33% of olive, chacma, sacred, and Guinea baboons, rhesus macaques, and squirrel monkey, respectively. The frequency for RBC II was 49%, 50%, 100%, 57%, 37%, and 33%, respectively, and for RBC III was 56%, 37%, 100%, 79%, 34%, and 33%, respectively. There were differences in frequency depending on the sex of the rhesus macaques; all 3 RBCs tested were higher in the females: 44% vs 0%, P = .008; 48% vs 1%, P = .02, and 44% vs 9.1%, P = .04 for RBC I, II, and III, respectively. There were differences due to age in only olive baboons, and a higher frequency in younger animals compared with juvenile, subadult, and adult animals for all 3 human RBCs. Assessment of irregular antibodies in the presence of primate serum should be taken into account during any experimental xenotransplantation protocol.

  16. Correlations between serum levels of beta amyloid, cerebrospinal levels of tau and phospho tau, and delayed response tasks in young and aged cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda Shalahudin; Sajuthi, D; Kalliokoski, O

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to explore cynomolgus monkeys as an animal model for Alzheimer's disease, the present study focused on the Alzheimer's biomarkers beta amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42 ) in serum, and total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels in cerebrospinal fluid....

  17. Visual Expertise Does Not Predict the Composite Effect across Species: A Comparison between Spider ("Ateles geoffroyi") and Rhesus ("Macaca mulatta") Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Jessica; Parr, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are subject to the composite illusion: two identical top halves of a face are perceived as "different" when they are presented with different bottom halves. This observation suggests that when building a mental representation of a face, the underlying system perceives the whole face, and has difficulty decomposing facial features. We…

  18. The use of Aotus Trivirgatus and Macaca Mulatta as Tools for Studies on Prevention and Therapy of Infections with Plasmodium Falciparum and Plasmodium Vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-13

    fractional dose regimen. At the 8.7 5 mg per kg level, uniformly curative in all regimens, the differences were in speed of control of parasitemia...H >, id tyo QS O CO •o I <u M 3 *J O 3 M 4J CO i ■ i r- CD + 4 o o H O r- in I I in m + + in o OH o H I...possible to pursue these preliminary toxicologic investigations locally with more than a little precision, maximal speed , minimal effort and cost

  19. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels reflect endogenous LH production and response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) challenge in the older female macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Francisco M.; Chen, Jiangang; Gee, Nancy A.; Lohstroh, Pete; Lasley, Bill L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypothesis We propose that the adrenal gland of an older higher primate female animal model will respond to a human chorionic gonadotropic (hCG) hormone challenge by secreting additional dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Such a response in surgically and chemically-castrated animals will provide proof-of-concept and a validated animal model for future studies to explore the rise of DHEAS during the menopausal transition of women. Methods Twenty four 18–26 y/o female cynomolgus monkeys were screened for ovarian function then either ovariectomized (n=4) or treated with a gonadotropic releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) (n=20) to block ovarian steroid production. Following a recovery period from surgery or down-regulation, a single dose challenge (1,000 IU; IM) of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was then administered in order to determine if LH/CG could accelerate circulating DHEAS production. Serum DHEAS, bioactive LH and urinary metabolites of ovarian sex steroids were monitored before, during and following these treatments. Results Circulating LH bioactivity and immunoreactive DHEAS concentrations were suppressed in all animals 14 days post administration of GnRHa. Urinary metabolites of estradiol and progesterone remained low following surgery or the flare reaction to GnRHa. Circulating DHEAS levels were increased following hCG administration and the increase in individual animals was proportional to the pre-treatment DHEAS baseline. Circulating DHEAS concentrations were positively correlated to endogenous LH bioactive concentrations prior to, and were increased by hCG challenge while no concomitant change was observed in ovarian steroid hormone excretion. Conclusion These data demonstrate a positive adrenal androgen response to LH/CG in older female higher primates and suggests a mechanism for the rise in adrenal androgen production during the menopausal transition in women. These results also illustrate that the nonhuman primate animal model can be effectively used to investigate this phenomenon. PMID:23435031

  20. The use of the bared-teeth display during play fighting in Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana): sometimes it is all about oneself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Sergio M; Pellis, Vivien C; Reinhart, Christine J; Thierry, Bernard

    2011-11-01

    Play signals are viewed as important means by which animals inform each other that bites, strikes, and throws that occur during play fighting are indeed playful rather than serious. One such signal is the open mouth play face that is common in primates and many other mammals. Unfortunately, as most play fighting involves biting, it can be ambiguous as to whether any instance of opening the mouth is performed to communicate playful intent or is simply a preparation for biting. In this study, open mouths co-occurring with the bared-teeth display (teeth-baring) in Tonkean macaques were used to assess the context in which facial gestures only relevant for signaling (i.e., teeth-baring is not necessary for biting) are used during play. Two predictions arising from the hypothesis that play signals are used to facilitate playful contact were tested: that the open mouth with teeth-baring should (1) be most frequent preceding contact, and (2) that it should be performed most often when bites are directed at orientations that is visible to the recipient. The data only partially support these predictions. The open mouth with teeth-baring is also frequently used when a monkey withdraws from playful contact. Moreover, it is associated with bites to body targets, such as the rump, that offer little prospect for detection by the recipient; this supports the possibility that play signals may sometimes be emitted not to communicate with the partner but with the performer itself. Thus, play signals serve multiple functions during play fighting.

  1. The foraging behavior of Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata in a forested enclosure: Effects of nutrient composition, energy and its seasonal variation on the consumption of natural plant foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Firoj JAMAN, Michael A. HUFFMAN, Hiroyuki TAKEMOTO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the wild, primate foraging behaviors are related to the diversity and nutritional properties of food, which are affected by seasonal variation. The goal of environmental enrichment is to stimulate captive animals to exhibit similar foraging behavior of their wild counterparts, e.g. to extend foraging time. We conducted a 12-month study on the foraging behavior of Japanese macaques in a semi-naturally forested enclosure to understand how they use both provisioned foods and naturally available plant foods and what are the nutritional criteria of their consumption of natural plants. We recorded time spent feeding on provisioned and natural plant foods and collected the plant parts ingested of their major plant food species monthly, when available. We conducted nutritional analysis (crude protein, crude lipid, neutral detergent fiber-‘NDF’, ash and calculated total non-structural carbohydrate – ‘TNC’ and total energy of those food items. Monkeys spent 47% of their feeding time foraging on natural plant species. The consumption of plant parts varied significantly across seasons. We found that leaf items were consumed in months when crude protein, crude protein-to-NDF ratio, TNC and total energy were significantly higher and NDF was significantly lower, fruit/nut items in months when crude protein and TNC were significantly higher and crude lipid content was significantly lower, and bark items in months when TNC and total energy were higher and crude lipid content was lower. This preliminary investigation showed that the forested enclosure allowed troop members to more fully express their species typical flexible behavior by challenging them to adjust their foraging behavior to seasonal changes of plant item diversity and nutritional content, also providing the possibility for individuals to nutritionally enhance their diet [Current Zoology 56 (2: 198–208, 2010].

  2. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus, Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina and Tiger (Panthera tigris Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schmidt-Burbach

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  3. Leydig cell number and function in the adult cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) is increased by daily hCG treatment but not by daily FSH treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerds, K. J.; Rommerts, F. F.; van de Kant, H. J.; de rooij, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Daily treatment of adult cynomolgus monkeys with 450 i.u. hCG for 16 days resulted in a significant 163% increase in the number of Leydig cells, and a 9-fold rise in plasma testosterone concentrations. The number of proliferating Leydig cells was very low, even after 16 days of treatment with hCG.

  4. Effects of transportation, relocation, and acclimation on phenotypes and functional characteristics of peripheral blood lymphocytes in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehete, Pramod N; Shelton, Kathryn A; Nehete, Bharti P

    2017-01-01

    . These findings have implications on the research participation of transported and relocated nonhuman primates in immunologic research studies, suggesting that 30 days is not sufficient to ensure return to baseline immune homeostasis. These data should be considered when planning research studies in order...... of transport, relocation, and acclimation on the phenotype and function of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a group of rhesus monkeys that were transported by road for approximately 21 hours from one facility to another. Using a panel of human antibodies and a set of standardized human immune...... assays, we evaluated the phenotype of lymphocyte subsets by flow, mitogen-specific immune responses of PBMCs in vitro, and levels of circulating cytokines and cortisol in plasma at various time points including immediately before transport, immediately upon arrival, and after approximately 30 days...

  5. Developmental Increase in Kisspeptin-54 Release in Vivo Is Independent of the Pubertal Increase in Estradiol in Female Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Kathryn A.; Keen, Kim L.

    2012-01-01

    Kisspeptin (KP) signaling has been proposed as an important regulator in the mechanism of puberty. In this study, to determine the role of KP in puberty, we assessed the in vivo release pattern of KP-54 from the basal hypothalamus/stalk-median eminence in prepubertal and pubertal ovarian-intact female rhesus monkeys. We found that there was a developmental increase in mean KP-54 release, pulse frequency, and pulse amplitude, which is parallel to the developmental changes in GnRH release that we previously reported. Moreover, a nocturnal increase in KP-54 release becomes prominent after the onset of puberty. Because the pubertal increase in GnRH release occurs independent of the pubertal increase in circulating gonadal steroids, we further examined whether ovariectomy (OVX) modifies the release pattern of KP-54. Results show that OVX in pubertal monkeys enhanced mean KP-54 release and pulse amplitude but not pulse frequency, whereas OVX did not alter the release pattern of KP-54 in prepubertal monkeys. Estradiol replacement in OVX pubertal monkeys suppressed mean KP-54 release and pulse amplitude but not pulse frequency. Estradiol replacement in OVX prepubertal monkeys did not alter the KP-54 release pattern. Collectively these results suggest that the pubertal increase in KP release occurs independent of the pubertal increase in circulating estradiol. Nevertheless, the pubertal increase in KP release is not likely responsible for the initiation of the pubertal increase in GnRH release. Rather, after puberty onset, the increase in KP release contributes to further increase GnRH release during the progression of puberty. PMID:22315444

  6. Milk composition of captive vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with observations on gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and white handed gibbon (Hylobates lar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; de Wit, M; Nguyen, T P M; Seier, J

    2009-04-01

    The nutrient content and fatty acid composition of vervet monkey milk has been determined and is compared with rhesus macaque, and two hominoid apes, the white handed gibbon and gorilla. With 15.7+/-4.1 g protein, 33.1+/-9.4 g fat, and 85.1+/-7.5 g lactose per kg milk, vervet monkey milk does not differ from that of rhesus macaque, and is within the range of other primates. Small amounts (>1 g kg(-1)) of oligosaccharides, glucose, galactose and fucose were noted. In comparison, gorilla milk has a low fat content of 13.8 g kg(-1), but contains high levels of oligosaccharides at 7.0 g kg(-1) milk. The hominoid partner, the white handed gibbon, contains no oligosaccharides and a milk fat content similar to other hominoid species. Differences between vervet monkey and rhesus macaque milks were observed in the electrophoretic pattern of the milk proteins, mainly amongst the kappa- and gamma-caseins, which also differ from that of the hominids. The fatty acid contents of these milks differ from studies where a natural diet of leafy material was available in that a low content of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) was noted. A phylogenetic effect is observed for the content of 8:0, 10:0 fatty acids between the Cercopithecidae and Hominoidea, and a further phylogenetic effect suggested between the Hylobatidae and Hominidae.

  7. 125I-luteinizing hormone (LH) binding to soluble receptors from the primate (Macaca mulatta) corpus luteum: effects of ethanol exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danforth, D.R.; Stouffer, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the current study, we compared the effects of ethanol on gonadotropin receptors solubilized from macaque luteal membranes to those on receptors associated with the lipid bilayer. Treatment with 1% Triton X-100 for 30 min at 4C, followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol, resulted in recovery of 50% more binding sites for 125 I-human luteinizing hormone (hLH) than were available in particulate preparations. However, the soluble receptors displayed a 3-fold lower affinity for 125 I-hLH. Conditions which enhanced LH binding to particulates, i.e., 1-8% ethanol at 25C, decreased specific 125 I-hLH binding to soluble receptors. Steady-state LH binding to soluble receptors during incubation at 4C was half of that observed at 25C. The presence of 8% ethanol at 4C restored LH binding to levels observed in the absence of ethanol at 25C. Thus, LH binding sites in the primate corpus luteum can be effectively solubilized with Triton X-100. The different binding characteristics of particulate and soluble receptors, including the response to ethanol exposure, suggest that the lipid environment in the luteal membrane modulates the availability and affinity of gonadotropin receptors

  8. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch-Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys (MACACA Fascicularis) With or Without a Positive Response Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    1972) found distinct lever-directed response topographies depending on whether lever extension was paired with food or electrical brain stimulation...correspondence between CS- and US-directed behavior engen - dered by response-independent reinforcement schedules (with and without SP). These findings have

  9. Early changes of cortical blood flow, brain temperature and electrical activity after whole-body irradiation of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis) (dose range: 3-20 Gy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, L.; Gourmelon, P.; Mestries, J.C.

    1987-02-01

    A polyparametric investigation was carried out on 31 monkeys chronically wearing bioinstrumentation allowing to get and process simultaneously local brain blood flow, cerebral temperature, and energies in various frequency bands of the brain electrical activity. This method, which supplied data during several consecutive days, made it possible to study both the biological rhythms at the level of the various parameters, and their fast variations. The effects of whole-body gamma or neutron-gamma irradiation were studied in the 3-20 Gy dose range. Immediate changes after exposure demonstrated different radiosensitivities at the level of the rhythms of the various parameters, and/or their recovery, as well as dose-effect relationships [fr

  10. Sustained increases in cerebrospinal fluid quinolinic acid concentrations in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) naturally infected with simian retrovirus type-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, M P; Gravell, M; London, W T; Eckhaus, M; Vickers, J H; Yergey, J A; April, M; Blackmore, D; Markey, S P

    1990-10-29

    Sustained increases in CSF concentrations of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) occur in patients with AIDS and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the AIDS dementia complex. Macaques in captivity may also develop immunodeficiency syndromes caused by retrovirus infection, including simian retrovirus type-D. In the present study, CSF QUIN concentrations were moderately increased in retrovirus type-D-positive/antibody-negative macaques (163.8 +/- 35.1 nmol/l; P less than 0.0001, n = 21) but not virus-negative/antibody-positive macaques (27.4 +/- 9.4 nmol/l, n = 8) compared to uninfected control macaques (23.0 +/- 1.6 nmol/l; n = 22). CSF QUIN concentrations in virus-positive/antibody-negative macaques tended to remain elevated over a 4-20 month period. Post-mortem studies of 9 virus-positive/antibody-negative macaques and 6 virus-negative/antibody-positive macaques revealed inflammatory responses in the brains of 6 of 9 virus-positive/antibody negative macaques, including lymphocytic infiltrates of the choroid plexus in 3 macaques, glial nodules in 3 macaques and perivascular infiltrates in 1 macaque. These lesions were not extensive and no evidence of brain atrophy was observed. No lesions were observed in the 6 antibody-positive/virus-negative macaques. Small increases in plasma L-kynurenine in virus-positive/antibody-negative macaques are consistent with activation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the kynurenine pathway. We conclude that sustained moderate increases in CSF QUIN occur in viremic simian retrovirus type-D macaques. The increases in CSF QUIN may reflect inflammatory responses within the brain or synthesis of QUIN precursors in systemic tissues, their entry into brain and subsequent conversion to QUIN. The neuropathologic significance of these increases in CSF QUIN remains to be determined.

  11. A Practical Approach for Designing Breeding Groups to Maximize Genetic Diversity in a Large Colony of Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Amanda; Raboin, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Limited guidance is available on practical approaches for maintaining genetic diversity in large NHP colonies that support biomedical research, despite the fact that reduced diversity in these colonies is likely to compromise the application of findings in NHP to human disease. In particular, constraints related to simultaneously housing, breeding, and providing ongoing veterinary care for thousands of animals with a highly complex social structure creates unique challenges for genetic management in these colonies. Because the composition of new breeding groups is a critical component of genetic management, here we outline a 3-stage protocol for forming new breeding groups of NHP that is aimed at maximizing genetic diversity in the face of frequent restrictions on age, sex, and numbers of animals per breeding group. As an example application of this protocol, we describe optimal combinations of rhesus macaques from an analysis of candidate animals available for breeding in July 2013, selected from among the approximately 4000 macaques maintained at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. In addition, a simulation study to explore the genetic diversity in breeding groups formed by using this protocol, indicated an approximate 10-fold higher genome uniqueness, 50% lower mean kinship, and an 84-fold lower mean inbreeding coefficient among potential offspring within groups, when compared with a suboptimal group design. We conclude that this protocol provides a practical and effective approach to breeding group design for colony managers who want to prevent the loss of genetic diversity in large, semiisolated NHP colonies.

  12. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  13. Innate-like gammadelta T cell responses to mycobacterium Bacille Calmette-Guerin using the public V gamma 2 repertoire in Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Cristiana; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Propp, Nadia; Bryant, Joseph L; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C David

    2007-07-01

    The V gamma 2 V delta 2 T cell subset responds to Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization in macaques and may be a component of protective immunity against tuberculosis. We characterized the effects of BCG on the V gamma 2 V delta 2 T cell receptor repertoire by comparing the starting population of V gamma 2 chains in cynomolgus macaques with the repertoire found after priming or booster immunization with BCG. The starting repertoire was dominated by public V gamma 2 chain sequences that were found repeatedly among unrelated animals. Primary exposure to BCG triggered expansion of cells expressing public V gamma 2 chains and booster immunization was often associated with contraction of these same subsets. Thus, BCG-reactive V gamma 2 chains were present at high frequency in the repertoire of mycobacteria-naïve macaques and they comprised the major response to primary or booster immunization. Normal selection processes that created the naïve V gamma 2 repertoire in macaques, also encoded the capacity for rapid responses to mycobacteria. The unusual composition of a normal V gamma 2 repertoire helps to explain the powerful gammadelta T cell responses to BCG immunization.

  14. Copy number variation of CCL3-like genes affects rate of progression to simian-AIDS in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah D Degenhardt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in genes underlying host immunity can lead to marked differences in susceptibility to HIV infection among humans. Despite heavy reliance on non-human primates as models for HIV/AIDS, little is known about which host factors are shared and which are unique to a given primate lineage. Here, we investigate whether copy number variation (CNV at CCL3-like genes (CCL3L, a key genetic host factor for HIV/AIDS susceptibility and cell-mediated immune response in humans, is also a determinant of time until onset of simian-AIDS in rhesus macaques. Using a retrospective study of 57 rhesus macaques experimentally infected with SIVmac, we find that CCL3L CNV explains approximately 18% of the variance in time to simian-AIDS (p<0.001 with lower CCL3L copy number associating with more rapid disease course. We also find that CCL3L copy number varies significantly (p<10(-6 among rhesus subpopulations, with Indian-origin macaques having, on average, half as many CCL3L gene copies as Chinese-origin macaques. Lastly, we confirm that CCL3L shows variable copy number in humans and chimpanzees and report on CCL3L CNV within and among three additional primate species. On the basis of our findings we suggest that (1 the difference in population level copy number may explain previously reported observations of longer post-infection survivorship of Chinese-origin rhesus macaques, (2 stratification by CCL3L copy number in rhesus SIV vaccine trials will increase power and reduce noise due to non-vaccine-related differences in survival, and (3 CCL3L CNV is an ancestral component of the primate immune response and, therefore, copy number variation has not been driven by HIV or SIV per se.

  15. Effect of nasal instillation of female urine or vaginal exudate on testosterone secretion in isolated and anesthetized male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, O A; García Castiñeiras, S; Guisado, S; Ezquerra, C

    1990-01-01

    Two male adult rhesus monkeys were individually placed in cages with a pulling device in order to immobilize the animals for anesthesia. The room was temperature-controlled having a light/dark period of 12/12 hours. The animals were rapidly immobilized and immediately anesthetized with ketamine i. m. (10 mg/kg of body weight). They were bled four times at 15, 30, 45, and 60 mins after the ketamine injection, twice a week during 6 weeks. When necessary, maintenance doses of ketamine were administered. The levels of serum testosterone in experimental conditions (nasal instillation of female urine or a suspension of vaginal exudate) showed significant lower values with respect to those in control conditions (saline instillation). The control levels of testosterone tend to increase up to 60 mins. The testosterone from samples obtained in experimental conditions did not show such an increase, remaining similar during the sampling and similar to the 15 min control levels that could be considered as basal. These results seem to point out some chemical information from females capable of modifying the pattern of secretion of testosterone of the males in the above mentioned experimental conditions.

  16. Effect of nasal instillation of female urine or vaginal exudate on serum cortisol and prolactin levels in isolated and anesthetized male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, O A; García Castiñeiras, S; Ezquerra, C; Guisado, S

    1991-01-01

    Two male adult rhesus monkeys were used and caged individually. The room was temperature-controlled having a light-dark period of 12/12 hours. The animals were rapidly immobilized and immediately anesthetized with ketamine i. m. (10 mg/kg of body weight). They were bled four times at 15, 30, 45 and 60 mins after the ketamine injection, twice a week for 6 weeks. When necessary, maintenance doses of ketamine were administered. The serum levels of cortisol and prolactin after nasal instillation of a suspension of vaginal exudate showed lower values than in control conditions (nasal instillation of saline). The control levels of cortisol tended to increase up to 60 mins, whilst in experimental conditions (nasal instillation of female urine or vaginal exudate) did not show such an increase. Cortisol remained similar during the sampling and similar to the 15 mins control levels, but the difference is statistically significant only after instillation of vaginal exudate as compared with control. The levels of prolactin did not show significant variations during sampling either in control or after female urine instillation. However, the instillation of vaginal exudate decreased the prolactin levels at 15 mins which tended to recover the control levels up to 60 mins. These results support the hypothesis, discussed in a previous paper, that some chemical information from females suppresses or mitigates the effect of acute stress resulting from handling the animals before anesthesia.

  17. The ontogeny of pulsatile growth hormone secretion and its temporal relationship to the onset of puberty in the agonadal male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, K J

    2004-05-01

    The pubertal amplification of GH secretion in primates has been thought to reflect an increase in gonadal steroid hormones due to gonadotropin stimulation induced by hypothalamic GnRH release. Previous studies in agonadal, peripubertal, male rhesus monkeys have estimated the age of GnRH activation (defined as d 0) using analyses of nocturnal, pulsatile LH patterns derived from sequential blood samples. Using samples from these earlier studies, secretory patterns of GH were analyzed using Cluster at approximately 30-d intervals in the youngest prepubertal ages and at approximately 10- to 20-d intervals in the period immediately preceding and following the onset of puberty. Pulse frequency, amplitude, and mean GH increased significantly between early prepubertal ages (up to 30 d before d 0) and the late prepubertal period (between -20 d and d 0). Pulsatile GH activity increased earlier than pulsatile LH secretion in four of five animals. These findings support the conclusion that pulsatile GH secretion increases developmentally in the absence of gonadal steroids. Furthermore, the present observation that the developmental increase in GH secretion occurs earlier than previously reported is consistent with the possibility that GH itself either directly or indirectly participates in the pubertal reinitiation of GnRH pulse generator activity.

  18. Evidence of direct reciprocity, but not of indirect and generalized reciprocity, in the grooming exchanges of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesti, Sandra; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2017-09-01

    Reciprocity is one of the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the exchange of social behaviors, such as grooming, in animals. Reciprocity assumes that individuals act as the donor and recipient of grooming and switch roles over time to balance the benefits and costs of this behavior. Three main patterns of reciprocity may follow a grooming given: (i) direct reciprocity, where the former recipient returns the grooming to the former donor; (ii) indirect reciprocity, where another individual returns the grooming to the former donor; and (iii) generalized reciprocity, where the former recipient returns the grooming to another individual. While there is evidence that direct reciprocity plays an important role in various species of animals, the role of indirect and generalized reciprocity is less clear and has been rarely analyzed. We tested the role of direct, indirect, and generalized reciprocity in explaining grooming exchanges of wild Barbary macaques, by analyzing the temporal contingency between giving and receiving grooming. We collected the occurrence and latency of the three types of grooming reciprocation during 1 hr long focal sessions run simultaneously on two partners who just stopped grooming (post-grooming session) or who were in proximity (i.e., within 1.5 m) without grooming each other (control session). We ran the analyses on 284 post-grooming and 63 control sessions. The results revealed a temporal contingency of grooming interactions exchanged according to direct reciprocity but not according to indirect or generalized reciprocity. Our results indicate that grooming distribution in Barbary macaques is partner-specific. We discuss the possible role of cognition and emotions in explaining direct reciprocity in animals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effect of hormone replacement and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) on the biomechanics and biochemistry of pelvic support ligaments in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahryarinejad, Azin; Gardner, Thomas R; Cline, J Mark; Levine, William N; Bunting, Haley A; Brodman, Michael D; Ascher-Walsh, Charles J; Scotti, Richard J; Vardy, Michael D

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of selective estrogen receptor modulators and ethinyl estradiol on the biomechanical and biochemical properties of the uterosacral and round ligaments in the monkey model of menopause. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on 11 female macaque monkeys. Ovariectomized monkeys received 12 weeks of placebo, raloxifene, tamoxifen, or ethinyl estradiol. Biomechanical step-strain testing and real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed on the uterosacral and round ligaments. Tamoxifen and raloxifene uterosacrals expressed differing collagen I/III receptor density ratios, but both selective estrogen receptor modulators showed decreased tensile stiffness compared to ethinyl estradiol and controls. These findings support a possible effect of selective estrogen receptor modulators on biomechanical and biochemical properties of uterosacrals. This may play a role in pelvic organ prolapse. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, D.W.; Elwell, M.R.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-04-01

    The toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF), a ubiquitous and acutely toxic environmental contaminant, was examined in three adult male Rhesus monkeys administered a single iv dose of 34 micrograms (0.1 mumol)/kg. Within 20 min, 4PeCDF was eliminated from the blood and was distributed to the liver, skin, adipose, and muscle tissues. Excretion occurred primarily via the feces with a minimum whole body half-life approximately 38 days. Within 7-14 days after administration, the packed cell volume and serum triglyceride and bile acid concentrations were significantly increased while serum cholesterol, protein, and albumin concentrations were decreased relative to pretreatment levels. Thyroid hormone levels were also altered with an increase in TSH and a decrease in T3 and T4 concentrations. After 28 days, two monkeys began exhibiting alopecia, hyperkeratinization of the toe and finger nails, facial chloracne-like lesions, and loss of body weight. They subsequently died 40 and 48 days after treatment. Similar symptoms of toxicity were observed in the third animal 58 days after 4PeCDF administration, but this animal appeared to fully recover and was administered 4PeCDF orally and (3H)1,2,3,7,8-pentachloro-dibenzofuran (1PeCDF) dermally 238 days after the initial iv dose. In this animal, approximately 2% of an oral dose of (14C)-4PeCDF was absorbed from the stomach and small intestine in 6 hr and was distributed mainly to the muscle and skin and less than 99% of a dermal dose of 1PeCDF remained at the site of application. Pathological findings in the monkeys that died indicated hyperplastic and metaplastic changes in the gastric mucosa, the Meibomian glands of the eyelid, and the ceruminous glands of the ear. Regression of these lesions was present in the surviving animal.

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-1046 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-1046 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...(CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|...AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macac...a tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|A...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-2151 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-2151 gb|ABI63733.1| C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 [Macaca mulatta] g...b|ABI63740.1| C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABI63741.1| C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 [Maca...ca mulatta] gb|ABI63750.1| C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABI63754.1| C-X-C chem...okine receptor type 6 [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABI63757.1| C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 [Maca...ca mulatta] gb|ABI63765.1| C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABI63766.1| C-X-C c

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CPOR-01-1648 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CPOR-01-1648 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...(CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|...AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macac...a tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|A...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-02-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-02-0028 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...(CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|...AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macac...a tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|A...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-20-0020 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-20-0020 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...(CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|...AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macac...a tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|A...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1676 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-1676 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...(CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|...AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macac...a tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|A...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-0875 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-0875 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...(CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|...AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macac...a tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|A...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-26-0305 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-26-0305 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...(CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|...AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macac...a tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|A...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-2360 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-2360 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...(CCR5) (CD195 antigen) gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|...AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macac...a tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|A...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta

  10. Gene : CBRC-RMAC-02-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 00% ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] sp|P61813|CCR5_MACMU C-C chemokine...291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca fascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Maca...ca sinica] gb|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca tonkeana] ...gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Maca...ca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAB62554.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Maca

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1280 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1280 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...hort=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca f...ascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb...|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Maca...ca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Maca

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0927 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0927 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...hort=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca f...ascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb...|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Maca...ca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Maca

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-1265 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-1265 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...hort=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca f...ascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb...|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Maca...ca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Maca

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0934 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0934 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...hort=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca f...ascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb...|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Maca...ca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Maca

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1118 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1118 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...hort=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 gb|AAK25740.1|AF291669_1 chemokine receptor CCR5 [Macaca f...ascicularis] gb|AAK43371.1|AF177888_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca sinica] gb...|AAK43372.1|AF177889_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca tonkeana] gb|AAK43373.1|AF177890_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Maca...ca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Maca

  16. Sheet1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Choong Yong

    Gorilla gorilla), Orangutan (Pongo abelii), Gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys), Macaque (Macaca mulatta), Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), Tarsier (Tarsius syrichta), Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus), Bushbaby (Otolemur Garnettii), Mouse (Mus ...

  17. Effect of age on electrical nerve conduction in the somatosensory pathway and its correlation with somatometry and plasma concentrations of musculoskeletal enzymes in male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) held in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Godínez, Braulio; Poblano, Adrián; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda; Artega-Silva, Marcela; Sánchez-Torres, Stephanie; Mondragón-Lozano, Rodrigo; Ibáñez-Contreras, Alejandra

    2018-03-13

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) make it possible to obtain functional data on the activity of somatosensory pathway. To evaluate the ontogeny of electrical nerve conduction in male rhesus monkeys using SEPs in correlation with the development of the musculoskeletal system based on somatometry and musculoskeletal enzymes. Somatosensory evoked potentials of the medial and tibial nerves were performed, and somatometric measurements were obtained: total length, arm and forearm length, and thigh and calf length. Analysis of the musculoskeletal enzymes, lactic dehydrogenase, and creatininase was conducted using blood samples in 20 rhesus monkeys divided into 5 groups. Statistical analysis manifested a delay in the appearance of latencies as age increased. Also evident was a strong, direct relation between the lengths and the value of the latencies of the SEP, together with an inverse relation between the musculoskeletal enzymes. These findings contribute to standardizing this animal model in the neurophysiological sciences. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Bases estructurales de la memoria declarativa. Estudio de la interacción entre la formación del hipocampo y la corteza cerebral en el primate Macaca fascicularis.

    OpenAIRE

    Legidos García, María Ester

    2014-01-01

    La memoria otorga al ser humano una biografía y un conjunto de hechos que le proporciona una identidad, le orienta en el mundo y en su entorno cultural (memoria declarativa). Evidencias clínicas y experimentales muestran que los centros nerviosos cuyo epicentro es el lóbulo temporal medial, son imprescindibles para la consolidación y evocación de los recuerdos. Entre estos centros nerviosos destaca la Formación del Hipocampo (FH) compuesta de giro dentado, campos amónicos CA3, CA2, CA1, subíc...

  19. Mechanical isolation of capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) preantral ovarian follicles Isolamento mecânico de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais de macaca-prego (Cebus apella)

    OpenAIRE

    S.F.S. Domingues; H.S. Ferreira; J.A.P.C. Muniz; A.K.F. Lima; O.M. Ohashi; J.R. Figueiredo; L.D.M. Silva

    2003-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou adaptar um procedimento mecânico para o isolamento de folículos pré-antrais a partir de ovários de Cebus apella. Para isso, foi testado o efeito do intervalo de cortes seriados do tissue chopper sobre o número de folículos pré-antrais isolados a partir de ovários (n=6) de três fêmeas de C. apella, duas pré-púberes e uma adulta. Os ovários foram divididos em quatro partes iguais e fragmentados com auxílio de um tissue chopper, ajustado para a realização de secções...

  20. DNA-based species identification for faecal samples: An application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... Table 2. Collection sites of 162 valid faecal samples in the study. Species. Number of sample. Number in Fuxi site. Number in. Jiaocun site. Number in. Luocun site. Macaca thibetana. 78. 33. 22. 23. Macaca mulatta. 49. 0. 3. 46. Rattus edwardsi. 1. 0. 0. 1. Rattus tanezumi. 1. 0. 0. 1. Rattus norvegicus. 5. 2. 0.

  1. Cross-species amplification of human microsatellite markers in pig ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Macaca arctoides) and pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) are biomedically important species but are becoming endangered fast. In the present study, 20 human tetranucleotide microsatellite markers were used to test their cross-species amplification in captive stump-tailed macaques and pig-tailed macaques.

  2. Image collection: 44 [Togo Picture Gallery[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44 Macaca_fascicularis_NL.png カニクイザル Cynomolgus Macaca fascicularis 9541 生物アイコン,脊索動物門,脊椎動物亜門,哺乳綱,獣亜綱,真獣下綱,霊長目

  3. Divergent evolution and purifying selection of the H (FUT1 gene in New World monkeys (Primates, Platyrrhini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara do Nascimento Borges

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the coding region of the H gene was sequenced and analyzed in fourteen genera of New World primates (Alouatta, Aotus, Ateles, Brachyteles, Cacajao, Callicebus, Callithrix, Cebus, Chiropotes, Lagothrix, Leontopithecus, Pithecia, Saguinus, and Saimiri, in order to investigate the evolution of the gene. The analyses revealed that this coding region contains 1,101 nucleotides, with the exception of Brachyteles, the callitrichines (Callithrix, Leontopithecus, and Saguinus and one species of Callicebus (moloch, in which one codon was deleted. In the primates studied, the high GC content (63%, the nonrandom distribution of codons and the low evolution rate of the gene (0.513 substitutions/site/MA in the order Primates suggest the action of a purifying type of selective pressure, confirmed by the Z-test. Our analyses did not identify mutations equivalent to those responsible for the H-deficient phenotypes found in humans, nor any other alteration that might explain the lack of expression of the gene in the erythrocytes of Neotropical monkeys. The phylogenetic trees obtained for the H gene and the distance matrix data suggest the occurrence of divergent evolution in the primates.

  4. Implicit and Explicit Categorization: A Tale of Four Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans ( Homo sapiens ). J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process., 36, 54-65. Smith, J.D., Chapman, W.P., Redford, J.S...2010 (b). Stages of category learning in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and humans ( Homo sapiens ). J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process., 36, 39-53...Smith, J.D., Coutinho, M.V.C., Couchman, J.J., 2011 (b). The learning of exclusive-or categories by monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and humans ( Homo sapiens ). J

  5. Two distinct gamma-2 herpesviruses in African green monkeys: a second gamma-2 herpesvirus lineage among old world primates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greensill, J.; Sheldon, J. A.; Renwick, N. M.; Beer, B. E.; Norley, S.; Goudsmit, J.; Schulz, T. F.

    2000-01-01

    Primate gamma-2 herpesviruses (rhadinoviruses) have so far been found in humans (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [KSHV], also called human herpesvirus 8), macaques (Macaca spp.) (rhesus rhadinovirus [RRV] and retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus [RFHV]), squirrel monkeys (Saimiri

  6. La festa barocca a Palermo : città, architetture, istituzioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sofia Di Fede

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La festa barocca a Palermo costituisce l’alter ego effimero e occasionale del processo di monumentalizzazione, graduale e complesso, della città: entrambi obbediscono alle stesse esigenze di ufficialità e magnificenza, da soddisfare obbligatoriamente nell’ottica di una città capitale. L’autorevole regista delle grandi manifestazioni ufficiali è il Senato palermitano, al quale come massima istituzione della città è affidata in genere la responsabilità sia dell’organizzazione materiale, sia dell’elaborazione culturale del programma celebrativo, in particolare della festa annuale in onore di S. Rosalia.In Palermo the baroque festival is the ephemeral and occasional alter ego of monumentalisation process, gradual and complex, the city: both obey the same requirements for official and magnificence, must be fulfilled in a capital city. The authoritative director of major official events is the Senato of Palermo, which as the highest institution of the city is generally entrusted the responsibility of both materials, both developing cultural celebrations, especially the annual festivity in honor of S. Rosalia.

  7. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Porphyromonas spp. and Fusobacterium spp. in dogs with and without periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senhorinho, Gerusa N A; Nakano, Viviane; Liu, Chengxu; Song, Yuli; Finegold, Sydney M; Avila-Campos, Mario J

    2012-08-01

    The occurrence of Porphyromonas gulae, Porphyromonas macacae, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium canifelinum in subgingival plaque from dogs with and without periodontitis as well as their antimicrobial susceptibility were evaluated. From 50 dogs with periodontitis were identified 38 P. gulae, 8 P. macacae, 26 F. nucleatum and 15 F. canifelinum, and from 50 dogs without periodontitis were identified 15 P. gulae, 12 F. nucleatum and 11 F. canifelinum. All strains were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, however, different resistance rates to clarithromycin, erythromycin and metronidazole among strains were observed. The role of P. gulae, P. macacae, F. nucleatum and F. canifelinum in periodontal disease of household pets needs to be defined to a better prevention and treatment of the canine periodontitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phosphates in pallasite meteorites as probes of mantle processes in small planetary bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew M.; Olsen, Edward J.

    1991-01-01

    Trace element analyses of the phosphates minerals in stony-iron pallasite meteorites are used here to investigate the magmatic history of the silicate portions of pallasites. In Eagle Station and seven other pallasites, the phosphates have relatively low concentrations of REEs and are strongly enriched in heavy relative to light REE. These patterns are consistent with formation of phosphate by subsolidus reactions between metal and silicate, in which phosphate inherits the REE pattern of olivine. In Springwater and Santa Rosalia, calcium-rich phosphates have higher concentrations of REE, are enriched in light relative to heavy REE, and have negative europium anomalies. These patterns are consistent with crystallization of phosphate from a europium-depleted chondritic liquid. This is unlikely to have happened near the base of the differentiating parent-body mantle; it suggests that some pallasites may come from regions of their parent bodies much nearer the surface than the core-mantle boundary.

  9. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of potentially toxic elements in the octopus Octopus hubbsorum from the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Wong, Nefertiti Taydé; Kidd, Karen A; Marmolejo-Rodríguez, Ana Judith; Ceballos-Vázquez, Bertha Patricia; Shumilin, Evgueni; Arellano-Martínez, Marcial

    2017-10-26

    The concentrations of 21 potentially toxic elements (PTEs) were determined in the tissues of Octopus hubbsorum from three locations along the Gulf of California coast: two near Santa Rosalia (SR), a site with historical metal contamination, and one in La Paz Bay, a reference site. Concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in octopus from the two SR sites were higher than those from the reference site, reflecting the higher sediment concentrations at the mining-impacted locations. The highest bioaccumulation and biomagnification of elements was found in digestive gland and branchial hearts, while the lowest was observed in the mantle, where the mean concentration of PTEs did not exceed international standards for human consumption of octopus. This study found elevated PTEs in octopus from sites with high metal contamination, and presents the first data on these elements in octopus from the Gulf of California. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The History of Printing in Slovenia – The Role of Women in the Black art and the first Slovenian Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Dular

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Granting permission for setting up a printing house was the prerogative of the state administration, which also granted licenses for the manufacture of the typesets. Although women were clearly unable to meet all of these requirements they worked as heads of bookshops and printing houses. This was due to the fact that after a printer died his legal heirs, generally his widow, inherited the company with all its concessions. In this paper we discuss women connected with Slovene books and books printed in Slovenia from the 16th to 19th centuries. After Ulrich Morhart's death in Tübingen in 1554 his widow, Magdalena Morhart, continued to run the printing house. It is possible to conclude that as many as seventeen Slovene publications from the 16th century were printed during the period when Magdalena was at the head of the printing house. In 1678 Johannes Baptist Mayr, a printer from Salzburg established in Ljubljana a branch of his printing house in Salzburg. In 1695 his son Joseph Taddeus Mayr was followed by Ana Barbara Mayr, who thus became the first female printer in Carniola. She remained at the head of the printing house for a full decade, until 1705. In the middle of 18th century Anna Elisabetha Reichard inherited the only printing house in Carniola. During the two years – 1757 to 1759 she printed publications in four languages: in Slovene, German, Latin, and Italian. Rosalia Eger played an important role in the development of printing activities in the 19th century. She became a widow in 1829 and took over the printing house which she formally led until her death in 1871. Rosalia Eger printed materials in three languages, namely in Slovene, German, and Latin.

  11. Monitoring of saproxylic beetles in Croatia: following the path of the stag beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Katušić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the European Union, Croatia is obliged to report on the conservation status of 220 animal non-bird species listed in the annexes of the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC, for which purpose a monitoring system is being established. Concerning saproxylic beetles, seven species present in its territory have to be monitored: Lucanus cervus, Cerambyx cerdo, Morimus funereus, Rhysodes sulcatus, Cucujus cinnaberinus, Rosalia alpina and Osmoderma eremita complex. Out of these species, a monitoring programme has only been established for Lucanus cervus, which partially includes participation of non-experts. In 2015 and 2016, a public campaign was organised in order to collect observations of Lucanus cervus and two other saproxylic beetles that are easily recognisable by the public: Morimus funereus and Rosalia alpina. Data gathered through this campaign serve as an addition to the mapping activities and monitoring of the species’ range. So far, more than 650 citizen observations have been collected, providing data on species presence in 216 10×10 km2 grid cells intended for reporting on the species’ range. Besides the public campaign, since 2014, public institutions for managing nature protected values have been involved in population monitoring for which they received education through several workshops. Altogether, 21 sites have been included in the monitoring of the stag beetle so far. Data collected for Lucanus cervus on standard transects, by tree and ground pitfall traps and tree trunk surveys at night will be discussed. To the present time, eight public institutions have been involved in stag beetle population monitoring and the number has been continuously increasing.

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-0952 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-0952 ref|NP_003851.1| barrier to autointegration factor 1 [Homo sapien...s] ref|NP_892033.1| barrier to autointegration factor 1 [Bos taurus] ref|XP_854776.1| PREDICTED: similar to barrier to autointegratio...n factor 1 [Canis familiaris] ref|XP_001111817.1| PREDICTED: similar to barrier to autointegration...: similar to barrier to autointegration factor 1 isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001111884.1| PREDICTED: s...imilar to barrier to autointegration factor 1 isoform 3 [Macaca mulatta] ref|XP_001111924.1| PREDICTED: similar to barrier to autoint

  13. AcEST: DK950059 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Large structural protein OS=Rabies virus (stra... 32 3.7 sp|Q153Z0|CASPC_MACMU Caspase-12 OS=Macaca mulatta...rge structural protein OS=Rabies virus (strain China/DRV) GN=L PE=3 SV=1 Length = 2127 Score = 32.0 bits (71

  14. Major Histocompatibility complex-DMB allelic diversity in old and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the important function for this molecule, directing DR molecules towards the endosomal/ lysosomal class II compartment and sending inhibitory signals to cells in order to stop synthesis of unnecessary MHC-DR molecules. Some Macaca individuals. DMB molecules (appear on Earth more than ten million years ago) dobear ...

  15. Specific passage of simian immunodeficiency virus from end-stage disease results in accelerated progression to AIDS in rhesus macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holterman, L.; Niphuis, H.; ten Haaft, P. J.; Goudsmit, J.; Baskin, G.; Heeney, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether passage of late-stage variants of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) would lead to a more virulent infection and rapid disease progression, a study was designed to examine the effects of selective transmission of SIV from late-stage cases of AIDS in Macaca mulatta. In a uniform

  16. Marked chromosomes associations in catarrhine monkeys, with a note on chromosome associations in other primate groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.E.M. de

    In metaphase figures, obtained from cultures of whole blood, associations of the marked chromosomes were found in species of the following genera: Macaca, Cercocebus, Cercopithecus and Symphalangus. The different types of these associations are discussed. A note is given on chromosome associations

  17. Mechanism of neuroadenolysis of the pituitary for cancer pain control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, A.; Yanagida, H.; Erdmann, W.; Kok, A.

    1984-01-01

    Studied whether neuronal activity of the pituitary gland, as related to the primary somatosensory cortex, may be involved in the pain perception pathway influenced by neuroadenolysis of the pituitary. EEG and tooth-pulp EPs (TPEPs) were examined in 3 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Findings

  18. Comparison of protection from homologous cell-free vs cell-associated SIV challenge afforded by inactivated whole SIV vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Heeney (Jonathan); P. de Vries (Petra); R. Dubbes (Rob); W. Koornstra (Willem); H. Niphuis; P. ten Haaft (Peter); J. Boes (Jolande); M.E.M. Dings (Marlinda); B. Morein (Bror); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis study attempted to determine if SIV vaccines could protect against challenge with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from an SIV infected rhesus monkey. Mature Macaca mulatta were vaccinated four times with formalin inactivated SIVmac32H administered in MDP adjuvant (n = 8)

  19. Plasticity of Ability to Form Cross-Modal Representations in Infant Japanese Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Ikuma; Kuwahata, Hiroko; Fujita, Kazuo; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study, Adachi, Kuwahata, Fujita, Tomonaga & Matsuzawa demonstrated that infant Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) form cross-modal representations of conspecifics but not of humans. However, because the subjects in the experiment were raised in a large social group and had considerably less exposure to humans than to…

  20. UniProt search blastx result: AK287578 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287578 J065038J02 Q28505|FMO2_MACMU Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 2 (EC 1.14.13.8) (Pulm...onary flavin-containing monooxygenase 2) (FMO 2) (Dimethylaniline oxidase 2) (FMO 1B1) - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque) 1.00E-14 ...

  1. UniProt search blastx result: AK287696 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287696 J065129N03 Q28505|FMO2_MACMU Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 2 (EC 1.14.13.8) (Pulm...onary flavin-containing monooxygenase 2) (FMO 2) (Dimethylaniline oxidase 2) (FMO 1B1) - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque) 1.00E-13 ...

  2. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-16-0039 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-16-0039 gnl|UG|Mmu#S33373589 PREDICTED: Macaca mulatta similar to Trans-Golgi network... integral membrane protein 2 precursor (Trans-Golgi network protein TGN51) (TGN46) (TGN48) (TGN3

  3. Evaluation of Mandibular Condylar Changes in Patients Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... remodeling changes occurring in the TMJ after mandibular advancement surgery in the adult Macaca mulatta monkey.[2]. Condylar resorption was first reported by Burke in 1961.[3] Condylar resorption is. Departments of Oral and. Maxillofacial Surgery and 1Periodontology and. Implantology, Maharaja.

  4. Purifying selection on leptin genes in teleosts may be due to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table 1. Organisms and accession numbers of the Leptin cDNA sequences used in this paper. Species. Gene. Accession. Leptin. NM_001095714.1. Amphibian. Xenopus tropicalis. Mammal. Felis catus. Rattus norvegicus. Homo sapiens. Mus musculus. Oryctolagus cuniculus. Sus scrofa. Macaca mulatta. Canis lupus ...

  5. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alignment analysis indicated that the nucleotide sequence of the coding sequence shows a high homology to those of Homo sapiens, Pongo abelii, Macaca fascicularis, Mus musculus, Bos taurus and Rattus norvegicus are 93.1, 92.5, 92.2, 91.1, 90.6 and 90.0% respectively. The amino acid sequence encoded by RPS20 ...

  6. 78 FR 65352 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... requests renewal of their permit to export and re- export live Mexican or lobo wolves (Canis lupus baileyi) for breeding and reintroduction, as well as the export and re-export of biological samples for genetic... (Eulemur fulvus) Cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) Lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) Lar gibbon...

  7. Gene : CBRC-RMAC-21-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ED: 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] 0.0 100% gnl|UG|Mmu#S24503975 5-HT2A receptor [rhesus monk...eys, mRNA Partial, 1438 nt] /cds=p(11,1426) /gb=S78209 /

  8. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  9. Evidence for Motor Planning in Monkeys: Rhesus Macaques Select Efficient Grips when Transporting Spoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eliza L.; Berthier, Neil E.; Metevier, Christina M.; Novak, Melinda A.

    2011-01-01

    McCarty and colleagues (1999) developed the elevated spoon task to measure motor planning in human infants. In this task, a spoon containing food was placed on an elevated apparatus that supported both ends of the spoon. The handle was oriented to the left or right on different trials. We presented naive adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with…

  10. Not in their genes: Phenotypic flexibility, behavioural traditions and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-03-11

    Mar 11, 2005 ... Behavioural transmission; bonnet macaque; cultural evolution; Macaca radiata; phenotypic flexibility; social traditions ... National Institute of Advanced Studies, Indian Institute of Science Campus, Bangalore 560 012, India; Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A-2B Raja S C Mullick Road, ...

  11. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-05-0024 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-05-0024 gnl|UG|Mmu#S33383720 PREDICTED: Macaca mulatta Golgi autoantigen, gol...gin subfamily a, 5, transcript variant 5 (GOLGA5), mRNA /cds=p(257,2452) /gb=XM_001094180 /gi=109084646 /ug=Mmu.16245 /len=2971 2.4 31% ...

  12. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-05-0005 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-05-0005 gnl|UG|Mmu#S33352215 PREDICTED: Macaca mulatta golgi autoantigen, gol...gin subfamily a, 4 (GOLGA4), mRNA /cds=p(1,6684) /gb=XM_001090210 /gi=109042239 /ug=Mmu.11481 /len=7543 1.6 34% ...

  13. 1104-IJBCS-Article-Inza Kone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    Troop size and structure in free-ranging Formosan. Macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at longevity, Taiwan. Zool. Stud., 40(1):49-. 60. Hunkeler C, Bourlière F, Bertrand M. 1972. Le comportement social de la mone de. Lowe (Cercopithecus campbelli lowei). Folia Primatol., 17: 218-236. Janmaat KRL, Byrne RW, Zuberbühler K.

  14. Mutation analysis of COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes in a Chinese ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liwei Guo

    2017-06-17

    Jun 17, 2017 ... servation status of this exonic variant, namely, Clustal. X software in 10 species including Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Cercocebus atys, Macaca nemestrina, Bubalus bubalis, Ovis aries musimon, Canis lupus familiaris, Ory- ctolagus cuniculus, Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus. Results showed that ...

  15. Genome sequencing and comparison of two nonhuman primate animal models, the cynomolgus and Chinese rhesus macaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Guangmei; Zhang, Guojie; Fang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    The nonhuman primates most commonly used in medical research are from the genus Macaca. To better understand the genetic differences between these animal models, we present high-quality draft genome sequences from two macaque species, the cynomolgus/crab-eating macaque and the Chinese rhesus...

  16. COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE VITREOUS BODY IN RHESUS-MONKEYS AND MAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WORST, JGF; LOS, LI

    1992-01-01

    In the isolated unfixed vitreous body a structural organization can be visualized by slitlamp microscopy or by an ink-injection technique. We discuss the observations on human and rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) vitreous bodies using the ink-injection technique. Advantages and disadvantages of this

  17. Dicty_cDB: SHB589 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of the type D botulinum neurotoxin gene cluster of phage d-1873. 34 0.084 4 CJ469805 |CJ469805.1 Macaca fasc...rom clone DKEY-158B13. 40 0.070 2 AB217841 |AB217841.1 Clostridium botulinum D phage DNA, downstream region

  18. Functional analysis of frequently expressed Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I molecules Mamu-A1*02601 and Mamu-B*08301 reveals HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 supertypic specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southwood, Scott; Solomon, Christopher; Hoof, Ilka

    2011-01-01

    The Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected Indian rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of HIV infection and AIDS-related research, despite the potential that macaques of Chinese origin is a more relevant model. Ongoing efforts to further characterize the Chinese rhe...

  19. Pregnancy diagnosis by laparoscopy in free range rhesus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study involved 50 adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) of age ranging between 4 to 15 years. Pregnancy diagnosis was done by using laparoscopic method. Anesthesia was achieved by using xylazine (2mg/kg) and ketamine (10mg/kg) intramuscularly. The gravid uterus was located close to the ...

  20. Protection of rhesus macaques from SIV infection by immunization with different experimental SIV vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. de Vries (Petra); J.L. Heeney (Jonathan); J. Boes (Jolande); M.E.M. Dings (Marlinda); E.G.J. Hulskotte (Ellen); R. Dubbes (Rob); W. Koornstra (Willem); P. ten Haaft (Peter); L. Akerblom; S. Eriksson (Sigrid); B. Morein (Bror); S. Norley (Steve); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe immunogenicity and efficacy of an inactivated whole SIVmac (32H) preparation adjuvanted with muramyl dipeptide (SIV-MDP) and a gp120-enriched SIVmac (32H) ISCOM preparation (SIV-ISCOM), were compared by immunizing four rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) four times with SIV-MDP and four

  1. A model for mapping of Ebola and Marburg RNA integration sites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model for mapping of Ebola and Marburg RNA integration sites in rhesus Macaca mulatta genome in silico: Ebola virus acceptors sites located on chromosomes 4, ... Alternatively, chromatic DNA might be a more effective target for future Ebola genomic vaccines sequestered at a nuclear location inaccessible to incoming ...

  2. GenBank blastx search result: AK105069 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105069 001-045-C01 AB169286.1 Macaca fascicularis testis cDNA, clone: QtsA-18648, similar to human mortali...ty factor 4 like 2 (MORF4L2), mRNA, RefSeq: NM_012286.1.|PRI PRI 3e-20 +3 ...

  3. AcEST: BP914636 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dense fiber protein 2 OS=Macaca fasc... 32 1.6 sp|P11532|DMD_HUMAN Dystrophin OS=...Homo sapiens GN=DMD PE=1 SV=2 32 1.6 sp|O97592|DMD_CANFA Dystrophin OS=Canis familiaris GN=DMD PE=2 SV=1 32

  4. Evolutionary history of the somatostatin and somatostatin receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Danio rerio, Carassius auratus, Xenopus tropicalis, Gallus gallus, Monodelphis domestica, Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Bos taurus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Canis lupus familiaris, Ovis aries, Equus caballus, Pan troglodytes and Macaca mulatto to identify somatostatin and somatostatin receptors in each species.

  5. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF ADEWUNMI

    (transmitted by Macaca fascicularis from Philippines, identified in 1989 in Reston USA, and in Sienna Italy in 1992, now renamed ..... drug as a basis for a rapid field diagnostic assay (Kondratowicz et al., 2011). .... thousands of refugees fleeing regional war and conflicts, adding to both the ecologic and economic burden.

  6. GenBank blastx search result: AK059494 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059494 001-028-H05 AB179082.1 Macaca fascicularis testis cDNA clone: QtsA-12630, similar to human oculocer...ebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL), transcriptvariant a, mRNA, RefSeq: NM_000276.3.|PRI PRI 7e-40 +2 ...

  7. GenBank blastx search result: AK106998 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106998 002-120-B12 AB179082.1 Macaca fascicularis testis cDNA clone: QtsA-12630, similar to human oculocer...ebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL), transcriptvariant a, mRNA, RefSeq: NM_000276.3.|PRI PRI 1e-29 +3 ...

  8. Viral replication and development of specific immunity in macaques after infection with different measles virus strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. van Binnendijk (Rob); R.W.J. van der Heijden (Roger); G. van Amerongen (Geert); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractCynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were experimentally infected with a wild type measles virus (MV) strain (MV-BIL). Following intratracheal inoculation with different infectious doses, the virus could be isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), lung lavage cells,

  9. Hemopoietic stem cells in rhesus monkeys : surface antigens, radiosensitivity, and responses to GM-CSF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Wielenga (Jenne)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractRhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were bred at the Primate Center TNO, Rijswijk, The Netherlands!. Both male and female animals were used for the experiments. The monkeys weighed 2.5-4 kg and were 2-4 years old at the time of the experiment. They were all typed for RhLA-A, -B and -DR

  10. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifalli-Iughetti, Cristiani; Koiffmann, Célia P

    2009-10-01

    In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus,Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62). The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates.

  11. The prion protein and New World primate phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Schneider

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The PrP C prion protein contains 250 amino acids with some variation among species and is expressed in several cell types. PrP C is converted to PrP Sc by a post-translational process in which it acquires amino acid sequences of three-dimensional conformation of beta-sheets. Variations in the prion protein gene were observed among 16 genera of New World primates (Platyrrhini, and resulted in amino acid substitutions when compared with the human sequence. Seven substitutions not yet described in the literature were found: W -> R at position 31 in Cebuella, T -> A at position 95 in Cacajao and Chiropotes, N-> S at position 100 in Brachyteles, L -> Q at position 130 in Leontopithecus (in the sequence responsible for generating the beta-sheet 1, D -> E at position 144 in Lagothrix (in the sequence responsible for the alpha-helix 1, D-> G at position 147 in Saguinus (also located in the alpha-helix 1 region, and M -> I at position 232 in Alouatta. The phylogenetic trees generated by parsimony, neighbor-joining and Bayesian analyses strongly support the monophyletic status of the platyrrhines, but did not resolve relationships among families. However, the results do corroborate previous findings, which indicate that the three platyrrhine families radiated rapidly from an ancient split.

  12. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus,Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62). The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates. PMID:21637455

  13. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiani Gifalli-Iughetti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus, Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62. The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates.

  14. Standardized Full-Field Electroretinography in the Green Monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Palmour, Roberta M

    2014-01-01

    Full-field electroretinography is an objective measure of retinal function, serving as an important diagnostic clinical tool in ophthalmology for evaluating the integrity of the retina. Given the similarity between the anatomy and physiology of the human and Green Monkey eyes, this species has...... increasingly become a favorable non-human primate model for assessing ocular defects in humans. To test this model, we obtained full-field electroretinographic recordings (ERG) and normal values for standard responses required by the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV...... in humans and other non-human primate species (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis). These results validate the Green Monkey as an excellent non-human primate model, with potential to serve for testing retinal function following various manipulations such as visual deprivation or drug evaluation....

  15. JENIS-JENIS MAMALIA YANG MENGUNJUNGI KUBANGAN BABI HUTAN DI KAWASAN HUTAN KONSERVASI PT TIDAR KERINCI AGUNG DAN PT KENCANA SAWIT INDONESIA, SOLOK SELATAN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Insani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai jenis-jenis mamalia yang mengunjungi kubangan babi hutan di hutan konservasi PT Tidar Kerinci Agung dan PT Kencana Sawit Indonesia, Solok Selatan, Sumatera Barat telah dilaksanakan dari 15 Juni sampai dengan 8 Desember 2015. Penelitian dilakukan dengan pemasangan tujuh buah perangkap kamera di sekitar kubangan babi hutan. Selama penelitian didapatkan 18 jenis hewan mamalia dari 12 famili dan 5 ordo. Hewan mamalia yang sering mengunjungi kubangan babi hutan yaitu Sus scrofa (481 foto, Macaca nemestrina (476 foto, Sus barbatus (269 foto, Macaca fascicularis (38 foto dan Muntiacus muntjak (33 foto. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kubangan babi hutan menarik bermacam-macam jenis mamalia dengan frekuensi kunjungan yang berbeda-beda.

  16. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Katze, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an Indian-origin Macaca mulatta female and compared the data with chimpanzees and humans to reveal the structure of ancestral primate genomes and to identify evidence for positive selection and lineage-specific expansions and contractions of gene......The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied...... families. A comparison of sequences from individual animals was used to investigate their underlying genetic diversity. The complete description of the macaque genome blueprint enhances the utility of this animal model for biomedical research and improves our understanding of the basic biology...

  17. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Katze, Michael G; Bumgarner, Roger; Weinstock, George M; Mardis, Elaine R; Remington, Karin A; Strausberg, Robert L; Venter, J Craig; Wilson, Richard K; Batzer, Mark A; Bustamante, Carlos D; Eichler, Evan E; Hahn, Matthew W; Hardison, Ross C; Makova, Kateryna D; Miller, Webb; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Palermo, Robert E; Siepel, Adam; Sikela, James M; Attaway, Tony; Bell, Stephanie; Bernard, Kelly E; Buhay, Christian J; Chandrabose, Mimi N; Dao, Marvin; Davis, Clay; Delehaunty, Kimberly D; Ding, Yan; Dinh, Huyen H; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Fulton, Lucinda A; Gabisi, Ramatu Ayiesha; Garner, Toni T; Godfrey, Jennifer; Hawes, Alicia C; Hernandez, Judith; Hines, Sandra; Holder, Michael; Hume, Jennifer; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad Mohid; Kirkness, Ewen F; Cree, Andrew; Fowler, R Gerald; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora R; Li, Zhangwan; Liu, Yih-Shin; Moore, Stephanie M; Muzny, Donna; Nazareth, Lynne V; Ngo, Dinh Ngoc; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O; Pai, Grace; Parker, David; Paul, Heidie A; Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Pohl, Craig S; Rogers, Yu-Hui; Ruiz, San Juana; Sabo, Aniko; Santibanez, Jireh; Schneider, Brian W; Smith, Scott M; Sodergren, Erica; Svatek, Amanda F; Utterback, Teresa R; Vattathil, Selina; Warren, Wesley; White, Courtney Sherell; Chinwalla, Asif T; Feng, Yucheng; Halpern, Aaron L; Hillier, Ladeana W; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Minx, Pat; Nelson, Joanne O; Pepin, Kymberlie H; Qin, Xiang; Sutton, Granger G; Venter, Eli; Walenz, Brian P; Wallis, John W; Worley, Kim C; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Jones, Steven M; Marra, Marco A; Rocchi, Mariano; Schein, Jacqueline E; Baertsch, Robert; Clarke, Laura; Csürös, Miklós; Glasscock, Jarret; Harris, R Alan; Havlak, Paul; Jackson, Andrew R; Jiang, Huaiyang; Liu, Yue; Messina, David N; Shen, Yufeng; Song, Henry Xing-Zhi; Wylie, Todd; Zhang, Lan; Birney, Ewan; Han, Kyudong; Konkel, Miriam K; Lee, Jungnam; Smit, Arian F A; Ullmer, Brygg; Wang, Hui; Xing, Jinchuan; Burhans, Richard; Cheng, Ze; Karro, John E; Ma, Jian; Raney, Brian; She, Xinwei; Cox, Michael J; Demuth, Jeffery P; Dumas, Laura J; Han, Sang-Gook; Hopkins, Janet; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Kim, Young H; Pollack, Jonathan R; Vinar, Tomas; Addo-Quaye, Charles; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Denby, Alexandra; Hubisz, Melissa J; Indap, Amit; Kosiol, Carolin; Lahn, Bruce T; Lawson, Heather A; Marklein, Alison; Nielsen, Rasmus; Vallender, Eric J; Clark, Andrew G; Ferguson, Betsy; Hernandez, Ryan D; Hirani, Kashif; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Kolb, Jessica; Patil, Shobha; Pu, Ling-Ling; Ren, Yanru; Smith, David Glenn; Wheeler, David A; Schenck, Ian; Ball, Edward V; Chen, Rui; Cooper, David N; Giardine, Belinda; Hsu, Fan; Kent, W James; Lesk, Arthur; Nelson, David L; O'brien, William E; Prüfer, Kay; Stenson, Peter D; Wallace, James C; Ke, Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Peng; Xiang, Andy Peng; Yang, Fan; Barber, Galt P; Haussler, David; Karolchik, Donna; Kern, Andy D; Kuhn, Robert M; Smith, Kayla E; Zwieg, Ann S

    2007-04-13

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an Indian-origin Macaca mulatta female and compared the data with chimpanzees and humans to reveal the structure of ancestral primate genomes and to identify evidence for positive selection and lineage-specific expansions and contractions of gene families. A comparison of sequences from individual animals was used to investigate their underlying genetic diversity. The complete description of the macaque genome blueprint enhances the utility of this animal model for biomedical research and improves our understanding of the basic biology of the species.

  18. Modelling hippocampal neurogenesis across the lifespan in seven species

    OpenAIRE

    Lazic, Stanley E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the number of new cells and neurons added to the dentate gyrus across the lifespan, and to compare the rate of age-associated decline in neurogenesis across species. Data from mice (Mus musculus), rats (Rattus norvegicus), lesser hedgehog tenrecs (Echinops telfairi), macaques (Macaca mulatta), marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), and humans (Homo sapiens) were extracted from twenty one data sets published in fourteen different p...

  19. Stickland reactions of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, M A; Kemp, C W; Robrish, S A; Bowen, W H

    1983-01-01

    Dental plaque samples from monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were shown to contain proline reduction activity in coupled Stickland reactions with other amino acids and also with certain end products of bacterial glucose metabolism. The unusually high concentration of bound and free proline in the oral environment may be of importance in both the production of base and in the removal of acid from the tooth surface after dietary carbohydrate ingestion. PMID:6618673

  20. BrainMaps.org - Interactive High-Resolution Digital Brain Atlases and Virtual Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Mikula, Shawn; Stone, James M.; Jones, Edward G.

    2008-01-01

    BrainMaps.org is an interactive high-resolution digital brain atlas and virtual microscope that is based on over 20 million megapixels of scanned images of serial sections of both primate and non-primate brains and that is integrated with a high-speed database for querying and retrieving data about brain structure and function over the internet. Complete brain datasets for various species, including Homo sapiens, Macaca mulatta, Chlorocebus aethiops, Felis catus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegic...

  1. Prophylactic Ribavirin Treatment of Dengue Type 1 Infection in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    with dengue virus. Both placebo- and ribavirin-treated monkeys developed viremia, as measured by direct plaque assay on Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells...studies done at this in- stitute with ribavirin to treat neurovirulent yellow fever viral infection in rhesus monkeys showed that ribavirin does not alter...Twenty healthy rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) free of neutralizing antibod- ies to yellow fever and dengue type 1, 2, 3 and 4 viruses were selected for

  2. A Long Term Assessment of the Clinical Efficacy of the Fiberotomy as it Relates to Rotational Relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    account for this space closure . Edwards (1968) rotated maxillary second incisors in six young dogs, using the first and third incisors as controls. Prior...were orthodontically spaced . In two Macaca mulatta monkeys, he tipped one mandibular central incisor 4,.. 13 and the contralateral lateral incisor...341 IL (Chairperson of Supervisory Committee) 07 CProgram Authorized to Offer Degree Orthodontics LUJ -- Date October 13, 1983 83 12 14 008 DISTR i!iy

  3. The monkey as a psychological subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Harry F

    2008-12-01

    Many species in long-term captivity have tried to kill time by playing friendly games with their warders. In the end, only rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) could tolerate the tedious hide-and-seek games that their human jailers prefer to play. In this article, written many years before the Stockholm syndrome was first described, the author relates how it was eventually discovered which species is most willing to contribute to the development of a genuinely scientific human psychology.

  4. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due...

  5. Neural Basis of Empathy and Its Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    trials by throwing them away. Observer monkeys subsequently direct their gaze to palatable foods and display tongue protrusion and licking. By...measuring visual orienting and tongue protrusion while presenting the good and bad pearls, we assess learning of food preferences without giving subjects...Maestripieri, D. (1994). Mother –infant relationships in three species of macaques (Macaca mulatta, M. nemes- trina, M. arctoides). II. The social

  6. A Species Difference in Visuospatial Memory: A Failure of Memory for What, Where, or What is Where?

    OpenAIRE

    Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.; Martin, Bridgette

    2003-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine why rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perform so poorly on a visuospatial memory test modeled after a popular children’s game (Concentration). In these studies, four different memory tasks were administered to ascertain whether monkeys show limitations in visual memory (memory for which images had been seen), limitations in spatial memory (limitations of what locations had been visited), or limitations in the coordination of these two modalities (mem...

  7. Influence of personality on primate health, welfare, and happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Lauren Marie

    2017-01-01

    Is personality important for understanding the variation we see in animal welfare? In this thesis, I address that question by studying the association between personality and health, welfare, and happiness in three species of nonhuman primate: rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), brown capuchins (Sapajus apella), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). As part of this research I test a newly designed animal welfare questionnaire. In Chapter 1 I review how animal welfare questionnaires can be designed...

  8. Molecular detection of Yaba monkey tumour virus from a vervet monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Brettschneider

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yaba monkey tumour virus (YMTV was first diagnosed in a colony of captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in Yaba, Nigeria. It has been implicated as the cause of cutaneous nodules in wild baboons (Papio species, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis. This article reports a case of cutaneous pox lesions caused by YMTV in a  free-ranging  adult  female  vervet  monkey  (Chlorocebus  pygerythrus  from  the  Umkomaas coastal area in South Africa. The virus was identified by molecular sequencing from fragments of the insulin metalloprotease-like protein and intracellular mature virion membrane protein as well as the DNA polymerase genes. Phylogenetic analyses of these gene regions revealed a 99% similarity of the sample to YMTV. Although human disease caused by YMTV is normally mild,  it  is  recommended  that  persons  in  contact  with  non-human  primates  in  the  area  of Umkomaas who develop cutaneous lesions should inform their doctors of the possibility of this infection. The extent and significance of the virus to human and non-human primates in South Africa are not known. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first diagnosis of YMTV in South Africa and in vervet monkeys.

  9. Thoracic epidural anesthesia attenuates hemorrhagic-induced splanchnic hypo-perfusion in post-resuscitation experimental hemorrhagic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir S Madjid

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to assess the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia on splanchnic perfusion, bacterial translocation and histopathologic changes in experimental hemorrhagic shock in short-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina. Sixteen Macaca nemestrinas were randomly assigned to one of two groups i.e. the lidocaine group (n = 8, receiving general anesthesia plus lidocaine thoracic epidural anesthesia; and the saline group (n = 8, receiving general anesthesia alone as control. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing blood gradually to a mean arterial pressure (MAP of 40 mm Hg, and maintained for 60 minutes. Animals were then resuscitated with their own blood and ringer lactate solution (RL. After resuscitation, epidural lidocaine 2% was given in the lidocaine group and saline in the control group. Resuscitation that was performed after one hour hemorrhagic shock, with hemodynamic variables and urine output returned to normal, revealed there was no improvement of splanchnic perfusion. PgCO2, P(g-aCO2, and pHi remained in critical value and tended to deteriorate in the saline group. Contrast to saline group, splanchnic perfusion in lidocaine group tended to improve. This condition was supported by the finding of less bacterial translocation and better histopathologic changes in lidocaine thoracic epidural anesthesia group than in saline group. This study concludes that lidocaine thoracic epidural anesthesia attenuates splachnic hypoperfusion in post-resuscitation hemorrhagic shock in Macaca nemestrina. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 73-81Keywords: thoracic epidural anesthesia, lidocaine, hemorrhagic shock, splanchnic hypoperfusion, bacterial translocation

  10. The phylogenetic roots of cognitive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Samantha; Jett, Stephanie E; Beckman, Tamra; Vonk, Jennifer

    2010-11-01

    We presented 7 Old World monkeys (Japanese macaques [Macaca fuscata], gray-cheeked mangabey [Lophocebus albigena], rhesus macaques [Macaca mulatta], bonnet macaque [Macaca radiate], and olive baboon [Papio anubis]), 3 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 6 members of the parrot (Psittacinae) family, and 4 American black bears (Ursus americanus) with a cognitive dissonance paradigm modeled after Egan, Santos, and Bloom (2007). In experimental trials, subjects were given choices between 2 equally preferred food items and then presented with the unchosen option and a novel, equally preferred food item. In control trials, subjects were presented with 1 accessible and 1 inaccessible option from another triad of equally preferred food items. They were then presented with the previously inaccessible item and a novel member of that triad. Subjects, as a whole, did not prefer the novel item in experimental or control trials. However, there was a tendency toward a subject by condition interaction. When analyzed by primate versus nonprimate categories, only primates preferred the novel item in experimental but not control trials, indicating that they resolved cognitive dissonance by devaluing the unchosen option only when an option was derogated by their own free choice. This finding suggests that this phenomenon might exist within but not outside of the primate order. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Charcot-Leyden crystals: do they exist in veterinary species? A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunju; Miller, Andrew D; Devenish, Elizabeth; Asakawa, Makoto; McConkey, Marina; Peters-Kennedy, Jeanine

    2017-11-01

    The Charcot-Leyden crystal (CLC) is a major human eosinophil protein that readily crystallizes; these crystals are common in eosinophilic diseases. Although anecdotal existence of these crystals is known in veterinary pathology, definitive reports do not exist, to our knowledge. We identified eosinophilic crystals in a laryngeal myxosarcoma from a 2-y-old, spayed female, Labrador Retriever dog that were tentatively interpreted as CLCs. However, Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain was negative, arguing against CLCs. The crystals stained red with Masson trichrome, precluding collagen. Periodic acid-Schiff and alcian blue were negative. The crystals stained positively with Okajima, and no myoglobin immunoreactivity was detected, supporting their identity as hemoglobin crystals. In the absence of a hematologic abnormality, these crystals were interpreted to be abnormal hemoglobin breakdown products. Protein sequence comparison was pursued to determine whether a protein similar to CLC exists in mammals. Only 3 nonhuman primate species, the Sumatran orangutan ( Pongo abelii), rhesus macaque ( Macaca mulatta), and cynomolgus monkey ( Macaca fascicularis), had a sequence similarity of >80%. Of the crystal-forming residues, 12 of 54 (22%) were different in the Sumatran orangutan and 15 of 54 (28%) were different in the Macaca spp., which may affect the crystallization process. The lack of reports of CLCs in nonhuman species and our results collectively suggest that CLCs are human-specific.

  12. THE PROTECTED SAPROXYLIC BEETLES (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA IN NORDUL GORJULUI DE EST, SITE OF COMMUNITY INTEREST FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bărbuceanu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations carried out in May-August 2015 in Nordul Gorjului de Est, a Natura 2000 site located in the South-Western part of Romania, highlight four species of protected saproxylic beetles: Lucanus cervus, Morimus asper funereus, Rosalia alpina and Cerambyx cerdo. The mountain relief and local climatic conditions influence the abundance and distribution of the species in the site. L. cervus and C. cerdo are present in small areas on the lower level of the site with oak forests, being situated at the limit of their distribution area. The beech forests, dominant in this site and abundant in veteran trees, ensure optimal living conditions for R. alpina and M. asper funereus. Even if the species seem to have important effectives in the area, without strong forest management policies, in the absence of adequate legislative measures, and due the fact that most part of the area is private property it is expected for the populations of these species to decrease in the near future.

  13. Spleen, tedio y ennui. El valor indiciario de las emociones en la literatura del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Cebreiro Rábade Villar, María

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the semantic implications of the concept of tedio through a comparative analysis of Rosalia de Castro´s novel, Flavio, and Edgar Allan Poe’s tale, «The Man of the Crowd». Like spleen and ennui, hispanic tedio is an emotional concept inseparable from the industrial dynamic of the modern city. In this sense, it can be read as a symptom of the profound modification of aesthetic and sociological aspects of narrative which took place in the second half of the XIX century.El artículo se propone explorar las implicaciones semánticas del concepto de tedio a través de un análisis comparado de la novela Flavio, de Rosalía de Castro, y del cuento «The Man of the Crowd», de Edgar Allan Poe. Al igual que el spleen y el ennui, el tedio hispánico es un concepto emocional indisociable de la dinámica industrial instaurada en la ciudad moderna. En este sentido, puede leerse como síntoma de una profunda modificación en el horizonte estético y sociológico de la narrativa en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX.

  14. Kevadelaul : [luuletused] / Federico Garcia Lorca ; tlk. Ain Kaalep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    García Lorca, Federico, 1898-1936

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: Kevadelaul ; Uued laulud ; Unenägu ; Uus süda ; Rõske siseõu ; Risttee : "Oh valu: mu värsid võtnud..." ; Ballaad mereveest ; Huile ; Vaikus ; Risttee : "Tuul puhub läänest..." ; Sevilla ; Kuus keelt ; Memento ; Kolm linna : Malaguena ; Cordoba agul ; Tants ; Kitarrimõistatus ; Poolkuu ; Neli kollast ballaadi ; Aadam ; Tasakaal ; Friis ; Maha raiuti kolm puud ; Teokarp ; Rumal laul ; Õhtu ; Ratsaniku laul ; Debussy ; Kuu tõuseb ; Kaks õhtust kuud ; Serenaad ; Laul lahkuvast päevast ; Kuuba neegrilaul ; Itk Ignacio Sanchez Mejiase surma puhul ; Madrigal Santiago linnale ; Hällilaul surnud Rosalia Castrole ; Kuu tants Santiagos ; Gaseel kohutavast lähedusest ; Gaseel tumedast surmast ; Gaseel põgenemisest ; Gaseel saja-aastasest armastusest ; Kassiida okstest ; Kassiida selili lebavast naisest ; Kassiida unenäost vabas õhus ; Kassiida tumedaist tuvidest ; Vee süit ; Herbaariumid ; Omega ; Ood Salvador Dalile ; "Ma kardan, kas su imet ma ei kaota..." . Eluloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 879

  15. Ragweed (Ambrosia) pollen source inventory for Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, G; Skjøth, C A; Šikoparija, B; Smith, M; Berger, U; Essl, F

    2015-08-01

    This study improves the spatial coverage of top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories for Europe by expanding the methodology to Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and the distribution of ragweed plants. The inventory combines annual ragweed pollen counts from 19 pollen-monitoring stations in Austria (2004-2013), 657 geographical observations of Ambrosia plants, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), local knowledge of ragweed ecology and CORINE land cover information from the source area. The highest mean annual ragweed pollen concentrations were generally recorded in the East of Austria where the highest densities of possible growth habitats for Ambrosia were situated. Approximately 99% of all observations of Ambrosia populations were below 745m. The European infection level varies from 0.1% at Freistadt in Northern Austria to 12.8% at Rosalia in Eastern Austria. More top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories are required for other parts of Europe. A method for constructing top-down pollen source inventories for invasive ragweed plants in Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and ragweed distribution. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A vegetação arbórea do Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo, município de Teodoro Sampaio, Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Baitello

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se o levantamento florístico da vegetação arbórea da floresta mesófila do Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo, Município de Teodoro Sampaio, Estado de São Paulo (22º30'S, 52º20'W pelos métodos de quadrantes e parcelas, incluindo as árvores com diâmetro à altura do peito igual ou superior a 10 cm. A utilização dos dois métodos deu-se em função das características fisionômicas, solo e drenagem dos locais amostrados. O método de quadrante envolveu 462 pontos com intervalos de 30 m., e o método de parcelas ca. 26.900 m² (ca. 2,7 ha.. Os parâmetros fitossociológicos serão abordados em futuros trabalhos. Os dados florísticos subsidiaram o reassentamento dos grupos faunísticos, em especial o Leontopithecus chrysopygus Mikan, 1823 (mico-leão-preto, dentro das áreas remanescentes. O "check list" inclui também algumas espécies coletadas aleatoriamente em outras áreas do Parque. Constatou-se nas áreas de amostragem e adjacentes 113 espécies, 95 gêneros e 42 famílias, das quais 6 contribuíram com 56% das espécies levantadas. As famílias mais representativas no Parque, envolvendo todos os locais de coleta são: Leguminosae (13 Faboideae, 6 Caesalpinioideae e 6 Mimosoideae, Rutaceae 11, Meliaceae 8, Lauraceae 7, Euphorbiaceae 7 e Myrtaceae 6. A listagem das espécies revela que o Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo apresenta uma vegetação de grande heterogeneidade florística.In a mesophyll forest at the State Park of "Morro do Diabo", in the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, State of São Paulo (22º30'S, 52º20'W the floristic composition was surveyed. The point centered quarter and quadrant methods were used to survey trees with a diameter equal or greater than 10 cm at breast height. These methods were used as a function of soil features, drainage and physionomical characteristics of the place where the samples were taken. The quarter method sampled 462 points with intervals of 30 m, and the other one had an area

  17. Complex cooperative breeders: Using infant care costs to explain variability in callitrichine social and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Muñoz, Samuel L

    2016-03-01

    The influence of ecology on social behavior and mating strategies is one of the central questions in behavioral ecology and primatology. Callitrichines are New World primates that exhibit high behavioral variability, which is widely acknowledged, but not always systematically researched. Here, I examine the hypothesis that differences in the cost of infant care among genera help explain variation in reproductive traits. I present an integrative approach to generate and evaluate predictions from this hypothesis. I first identify callitrichine traits that vary minimally and traits that are more flexible (e.g., have greater variance or norm of reaction), including the number of males that mate with a breeding female, mechanisms of male reproductive competition, number of natal young retained, and the extent of female reproductive suppression. I outline how these more labile traits should vary along a continuum of infant care costs according to individual reproductive strategies. At one end of the spectrum, I predict that groups with higher infant care costs will show multiple adult males mating and providing infant care, high subordinate female reproductive suppression, few natal individuals delaying dispersal, and increased reproductive output by the dominant female -with opposite predictions under low infant costs. I derive an estimate of the differences in ecological and physiological infant care costs that suggest an order of ascending costs in the wild: Cebuella, Callithrix, Mico, Callimico, Saguinus, and Leontopithecus. I examine the literature on each genus for the most variable traits and evaluate a) where they fall along the continuum of infant care costs according to their reproductive strategies, and b) whether these costs correspond to the ecophysiological estimates of infant care costs. I conclude that infant care costs can provide a unifying explanation for the most variable reproductive traits among callitrichine genera. The approach presented can be

  18. Wide distribution and ancient evolutionary history of simian foamy viruses in New World primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi, Bruno M; Jia, Hongwei; Aiewsakun, Pakorn; Katzourakis, Aris; Mendoza, Patricia; Bausch, Daniel G; Kasper, Matthew R; Montgomery, Joel M; Switzer, William M

    2015-10-29

    Although simian foamy viruses (SFV) are the only exogenous retroviruses to infect New World monkeys (NWMs), little is known about their evolutionary history and epidemiology. Previous reports show distinct SFVs among NWMs but were limited to small numbers of captive or wild monkeys from five (Cebus, Saimiri, Ateles, Alouatta, and Callithrix) of the 15 NWM genera. Other studies also used only PCR testing or serological assays with limited validation and may have missed infection in some species. We developed and validated new serological and PCR assays to determine the prevalence of SFV in blood specimens from a large number of captive NWMs in the US (n = 274) and in captive and wild-caught NWMs (n = 236) in Peruvian zoos, rescue centers, and illegal trade markets. Phylogenetic and co-speciation reconciliation analyses of new SFV polymerase (pol) and host mitochondrial cytochrome B sequences, were performed to infer SFV and host co-evolutionary histories. 124/274 (45.2 %) of NWMs captive in the US and 59/157 (37.5 %) of captive and wild-caught NWMs in Peru were SFV WB-positive representing 11 different genera (Alouatta, Aotus, Ateles, Cacajao, Callithrix, Cebus, Lagothrix, Leontopithecus, Pithecia, Saguinus and Saimiri). Seroprevalences were lower at rescue centers (10/53, 18.9 %) compared to zoos (46/97, 47.4 %) and illegal trade markets (3/7, 8/19, 42.9 %) in Peru. Analyses showed that the trees of NWM hosts and SFVs have remarkably similar topologies at the level of species and sub-populations suggestive of co-speciation. Phylogenetic reconciliation confirmed 12 co-speciation events (p history of SFV in NWMs at the species level. Additional studies are necessary to further explore the epidemiology and natural history of SFV infection of NWMs and to determine the zoonotic potential for persons exposed to infected monkeys in captivity and in the wild.

  19. Primatology in southern Brazil: a transdisciplinary approach to the conservation of the brown-howler-monkey Alouatta guariba clamitans (Primates, Atelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Jerusalinsky

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Human interventions in natural environments are the main cause of biodiversity loss worldwide. The situation is not different in southern Brazil, home of five primate species. Although some earlier studies exist, studies on the primates of this region began to be consistently carried out in the 1980s and have continued since then. In addition to important initiatives to study and protect the highly endangered Leontopithecus caissara Lorrini & Persson, 1990 and Brachyteles arachnoides E. Geoffroy, 1806, other species, including locally threatened ones, have been the focus of research, management, and protection initiatives. Since 1993, the urban monkeys program (PMU, Programa Macacos Urbanos has surveyed the distribution and assessed threats to populations of Alouatta guariba clamitans (Cabrera, 1940 in Porto Alegre and vicinity. PMU has developed conservation strategies on four fronts: (1 scientific research on biology and ecology, providing basic knowledge to support all other activities of the group; (2 conservation education, which emphasizes educational presentations and long-term projects in schools near howler populations, based on the flagship species approach; (3 management, analyzing conflicts involving howlers and human communities, focusing on mitigating these problems and on appropriate relocation of injured or at-risk individuals; and finally, (4 Public Policies aimed at reducing and/or preventing the impact of urban expansion, contributing to create protected areas and to strengthen environmental laws. These different approaches have contributed to protect howler monkey populations over the short term, indicating that working collectively and acting on diversified and interrelated fronts are essential to achieve conservation goals. The synergistic results of these approaches and their relationship to the prospects for primatology in southern Brazil are presented in this review.

  20. Sistemas de previsão de requeima em cultivos de batata em Santa Maria, RS Forecast systems of late blight in potato crops in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leosane Cristina Bosco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de previsão constituem alternativa para o controle eficiente da requeima em batata e consequente redução da quantidade de fungicidas utilizados, dos custos de produção e da poluição ambiental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os sistemas de previsão de ocorrência de requeima, Blitecast e Prophy, em cultivos de primavera e outono de batata, cultivar Macaca, suscetível a requeima, na região produtora de Santa Maria (RS. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na primavera de 2006 e outono de 2007 com a cultivar Macaca. Os dados meteorológicos foram coletados no centro da área experimental com uma estação automática e com psicrômetros instalados em diferentes níveis. Os tratamentos foram arranjados no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo diferenciados por meio dos valores de severidade acumulados, calculados pelos sistemas de previsão Blitecast e Prophy. Os valores de severidade acumulados foram utilizados como indicadores do momento de aplicação de fungicida para o controle da requeima. Verificou-se que a utilização do sistema de previsão de requeima Prophy, com acúmulo de 15, 20 ou 25 valores de severidade e do sistema Blitecast com 24 valores de severidade acumulados, para o genótipo de batata suscetível, Macaca, permite reduzir o número de aplicações de fungicidas sem afetar significativamente a produtividade de tubérculos comerciais.The forecast systems are an alternative to the efficient control of late blight potatoes and consequent reduction in the amount of fungicide and thereby reduce production costs and environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to evaluate forecast systems, Blitecast and Prophy, for late blight occurrence in Macaca potato cultivar in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experiments were carried out during Spring 2006 and Autumn 2007 with the Macaca cultivar characterized as susceptible to late blight. Meteorological