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Sample records for leonov examine food

  1. Cosmonauts Kubasov and Leonov participate in English language training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Cosmonauts Valeriy N. Kubasov (left) and Aleksey A. Leonov participate in English language training during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) pre-flight preparations at the Cosmonaut Training Center (Star City) near Moscow. Leonov was the commander of the Soviet ASTP first (prime) crew; and Kubasov was the flight engineer on the same crew. They are seated in the language laboratory at Star City.

  2. Cosmonaut Aleksey Leonov joins belly dancer on stage at Folklife Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, in one of the lighter moments of activity involving Soviet Cosmonauts and American Astronauts, joins a belly dancer on stage as several visitors to weekend activity at the site of San Antonio's HemisFair look on. Leonov is commander of the Soviet Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) crew. The Lebanese dancing was just one feature among many during the Texas Folklife Festival.

  3. Healthy food access for urban food desert residents: examination of the food environment, food purchasing practices, diet and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Zenk, Shannon N; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah A; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald; Steiner, Elizabeth D; Collins, Rebecca L

    2015-08-01

    To provide a richer understanding of food access and purchasing practices among US urban food desert residents and their association with diet and BMI. Data on food purchasing practices, dietary intake, height and weight from the primary food shopper in randomly selected households (n 1372) were collected. Audits of all neighbourhood food stores (n 24) and the most-frequented stores outside the neighbourhood (n 16) were conducted. Aspects of food access and purchasing practices and relationships among them were examined and tests of their associations with dietary quality and BMI were conducted. Two low-income, predominantly African-American neighbourhoods with limited access to healthy food in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Household food shoppers. Only one neighbourhood outlet sold fresh produce; nearly all respondents did major food shopping outside the neighbourhood. Although the nearest full-service supermarket was an average of 2·6 km from their home, respondents shopped an average of 6·0 km from home. The average trip was by car, took approximately 2 h for the round trip, and occurred two to four times per month. Respondents spent approximately $US 37 per person per week on food. Those who made longer trips had access to cars, shopped less often and spent less money per person. Those who travelled further when they shopped had higher BMI, but most residents already shopped where healthy foods were available, and physical distance from full-service supermarkets was unrelated to weight or dietary quality. Improved access to healthy foods is the target of current policies meant to improve health. However, distance to the closest supermarket might not be as important as previously thought, and thus policy and interventions that focus merely on improving access may not be effective.

  4. Microbiological examination of foods sold via vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J S; Wu, S M; Yih, P; Tsai, W C

    1985-05-01

    A total of 153 food specimens obtained from vending machines in Taipei city were subjects for the microbiological examination. Based on the standards for total microbial counts and total coliform counts established by the Department of Public Health, Republic of China, the unsatisfactory percentage of such counts for foods sold from vending machines were: 14% for carbonated beverages, 71% for non-carbonated beverages, 73% for ice cubes, and 100% for soft ice cream. Among the non-carbonic acid beverages examined, the unsatisfactory percentage for iced coffee, cocoa, chocolate milk, and fruit milk reached 90%. Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci each were found once. None of the pathogens causing food-poisoning were found during the study. As for the sanitation control of vending machines examined, 66 to 74% percent were unsatisfactory.

  5. Examining consumer behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Alexa; Townsend, Ellen

    2006-06-01

    This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the TPB was extended to include additional components to measure self-identity, moral norms, and emotional involvement. Results indicated that the monetary amounts participants accepted in preference to GM food were significantly lower than those accepted in preference to non-GM food. However, the vast majority of participants were indifferent between GM and non-GM food options. All TPB components significantly predicted behavioral intentions to try GM food, with attitudes toward GM being the strongest predictor. Self-identity and emotional involvement were also found to be significant predictors of behavioral intentions but moral norms were not. In addition, behavioral intentions significantly predicted behavior; however, PBC did not. An additional measure of participants' propensity to respond in a socially desirable manner indicated that our results were not influenced by self-presentation issues, giving confidence to our findings. Overall, it appears that the majority of participants (74.5%) would purchase GM food at some price.

  6. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information.

  7. Lifestyle segmentation of US food shoppers to examine organic and local food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Cong; Zepeda, Lydia

    2011-08-01

    The food related lifestyle (FRL) model, widely used on European data, is applied to US data using a modified survey instrument to examine organic and local food consumption. Since empirical studies indicate these shoppers are motivated by environmental and health concerns and limited by access, the conceptual framework employs an environmental behavior model, Attitude Behavior Context (ABC), which is consistent with means-end chain theory, the Health Belief (HB) model, and the FRL model. ABC theory incorporates contextual factors that may limit consumers' ability to act on their intentions. US food shopper data was collected in 2003 (n=956) utilizing an instrument with variables adapted from the FRL, ABC, and HB models. Cluster analysis segmented food shoppers into four FRL groups: rational, adventurous, careless, and a fourth segment that had some characteristics of both conservative and uninvolved consumers. The segments exhibited significant differences in organic and local food consumption. These were correlated with consumers' environmental concerns, knowledge and practices, health concerns and practices, as well as some demographic characteristics (race, gender, age, education), income, and variables that measured access to these foods. Implications for marketing and public policy strategies to promote organic and local foods include: emphasizing taste, nutrition, value, children, and enjoyment of cooking for rational consumers; and emphasizing health, fitness, and freshness, and providing ethnic foods for adventurous consumers. While both careless and conservative/uninvolved consumers valued convenience, the former tended to be in the highest income group, while the latter were in the lowest, were more likely to be either in the youngest or oldest age groups, and were very concerned about food safety and health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnosis of food allergy: History, examination and in vivoand in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In suspected immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy, skin-prick tests (SPTs) and/or measurement of serum specific IgE antibodies. (ImmunoCAP) to .... 4 mm. >8 mm. PPV = positive predictive value. Table 3. Food allergy ImmunoCAP decision points. Food allergen. Decision point (kUA/L). PPV, %. Cow's milk.  ...

  9. Food Security in Nigeria: An Examination of Food Availability and Accessibility in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chimaobi Valentine Okolo; Chizoba Obidigbo

    2015-01-01

    As a basic physiology need, threat to sufficient food production is threat to human survival. Food security has been an issue that has gained global concern. This paper looks at the food security in Nigeria by assessing the availability of food and accessibility of the available food. The paper employed multiple linear regression technique and graphic trends of growth rates of relevant variables to show the situation of food security in Nigeria. Results of the tests revea...

  10. Healthy food access for urban food desert residents: examination of the food environment, food purchasing practices, diet, and body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Zenk, Shannon N.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Cohen, Deborah; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Collins, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Provide a richer understanding of food access and purchasing practices among U.S. urban food desert residents and their association with diet and body mass. Design Data on food purchasing practices, dietary intake, height, and weight from the primary food shopper in randomly selected households (n=1372) was collected. Audits of all neighborhood food stores (n=24) and the most-frequented stores outside the neighborhood (n=16) were conducted. Aspects of food access and purchasing practices and relationships among them were examined and tests of their associations with dietary quality and body mass index (BMI) were conducted. Setting Two low-income predominantly African-American neighborhoods with limited access to healthy food in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Subjects Household food shoppers. Results Only one neighborhood outlet sold fresh produce; nearly all respondents did major food shopping outside the neighborhood. Although the nearest full-service supermarket was an average of 2.6 km from their home, respondents shopped an average of 6.0 km from home. The average trip was by car, took approximately two hours roundtrip, and occurred two to four times per month. Respondents spent approximately $37 per person per week on food. Those who made longer trips had access to cars, shopped less often, and spent less money per person. Those who traveled further when they shopped had higher BMIs, but most residents already shopped where healthy foods were available, and physical distance from full service groceries was unrelated to weight or dietary quality. Conclusions Improved access to healthy foods is the target of current policies meant to improve health. However, distance to the closest supermarket might not be as important as previously thought and thus policy and interventions that focus merely on improving access may not be effective. PMID:25475559

  11. Examining the Relationship between Food Thought Suppression and Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2013-01-01

    Food thought suppression, or purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in dieting and obese individuals. Little is known about the possible significance of food thought suppression in clinical samples, particularly obese patients who binge eat. This study examined food thought suppression in 150 obese patients seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Food thought suppression was not associ...

  12. Examining the links between livestock ownership, gender, and food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Livestock ownership plays a vital role in ensuring that households have a more diversified, higher-protein diet. But research has shown that the extent to which livestock contributes to food security depends on household dynamics — whether women own assets, and to what extent they participate in making ...

  13. Ecological Citizenship and Sustainable Consumption: Examining Local Organic Food Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfang, Gill

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable consumption is gaining in currency as a new environmental policy objective. This paper presents new research findings from a mixed-method empirical study of a local organic food network to interrogate the theories of both sustainable consumption and ecological citizenship. It describes a mainstream policy model of sustainable…

  14. Comparison of observed rheological properties of hard wheat flour dough with predictions of the Giesekus-Leonov, White-Metzner and Phan-Thien Tanner models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekharan, M.; Huang, H.; Kokini, J. L.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The measured rheological behavior of hard wheat flour dough was predicted using three nonlinear differential viscoelastic models. The Phan-Thien Tanner model gave good zero shear viscosity prediction, but overpredicted the shear viscosity at higher shear rates and the transient and extensional properties. The Giesekus-Leonov model gave similar predictions to the Phan-Thien Tanner model, but the extensional viscosity prediction showed extension thickening. Using high values of the mobility factor, extension thinning behavior was observed but the predictions were not satisfactory. The White-Metzner model gave good predictions of the steady shear viscosity and the first normal stress coefficient but it was unable to predict the uniaxial extensional viscosity as it exhibited asymptotic behavior in the tested extensional rates. It also predicted the transient shear properties with moderate accuracy in the transient phase, but very well at higher times, compared to the Phan-Thien Tanner model and the Giesekus-Leonov model. None of the models predicted all observed data consistently well. Overall the White-Metzner model appeared to make the best predictions of all the observed data.

  15. Examining the Relationship between Food Thought Suppression and Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2013-01-01

    Food thought suppression, or purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in dieting and obese individuals. Little is known about the possible significance of food thought suppression in clinical samples, particularly obese patients who binge eat. This study examined food thought suppression in 150 obese patients seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Food thought suppression was not associated with binge eating frequency or body mass index but was significantly associated with higher current levels of eating disorder psychopathology and variables pertaining to obesity, dieting, and binge eating. PMID:23751246

  16. Examining the relationship between food thought suppression and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2013-10-01

    Food thought suppression, or purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in dieting and obese individuals. Little is known about the possible significance of food thought suppression in clinical samples, particularly obese patients who binge eat. This study examined food thought suppression in 150 obese patients seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Food thought suppression was not associated with binge eating frequency or body mass index but was significantly associated with higher current levels of eating disorder psychopathology and variables pertaining to obesity, dieting, and binge eating. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Examining the effects of cigarette smoking on food cravings and intake, depressive symptoms, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among smoking status and total and specific types of food cravings (i.e., high-fats, sweets, fast-food fats, and complex carbohydrates/starches) and the influence of demographic, clinical, and psychological factors on this relationship. Seven-hundred and twelve adults completed measures of food cravings, dietary intake, and smoking history. Heights and weights were measured. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses while adjusting for demographic, clinical, and psychological covariates. Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported more frequent cravings for high-fat foods and fast-food fats, after controlling for depression, stress, BMI and demographic factors. Current smokers also reported consuming more high-fat foods and fast-food fats. The association between cigarette smoking and total food craving was no longer significant after accounting for depression and stress, suggesting that depression and stress may account for the relationship between smoking and total food craving. Smoking did not moderate the relationship between food cravings and food intake. Nicotine dependence was positively correlated with the frequency of general food cravings and cravings for high fats, sweets, and carbohydrates/starches. Cigarette smokers, and especially those with higher nicotine dependence, may have greater difficulties in addressing food craving and changing eating habits, particularly in the context of depression and stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Systematic Examination of Food Intake and Adaptation to the Food Environment by Refugees Settled in the United States1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Min, Jungwon; Harris, Kisa; Khuri, Jacob; Anderson, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    The United States is the largest refugee resettlement country in the world. Refugees may face health-related challenges after resettlement in the United States, including higher rates of chronic diseases due to problems such as language barriers and difficulty adapting to new food environments. However, reported refugee diet challenges varied, and no systematic examination has been reported. This study examined refugee food intake pre- and postresettlement in the United States and differences in intake across various refugee groups. We systematically reviewed relevant studies that reported on refugee food intake and adaptation to the US food environment. We searched PubMed for literature published between January 1985 and April 2015, including cross-sectional and prospective studies. Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria. Limited research has been conducted, and most studies were based on small convenience samples. In general, refugees increased meat and egg consumption after resettling in the United States. Changes in refugee intake of vegetables, fruits, and dairy products varied by socioeconomic status, food insecurity, past food deprivation experience, length of stay in the United States, region of origin, and age. South Asians were more likely to maintain traditional diets, and increased age was associated with more conservative and traditional diets. Despite the abundance of food in the United States, postresettlement refugees reported difficulty in finding familiar or healthy foods. More research with larger samples and follow-up data are needed to study how refugees adapt to the US food environment and what factors may influence their food- and health-related outcomes. The work could inform future interventions to promote healthy eating and living among refugees and help to reduce health disparities. PMID:28140324

  19. An Examination of College Students' Knowledge, Perceptions, and Behaviors Regarding Organic Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Katie; Gillan, Wynn; Naquin, Millie

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although organic foods have been available for decades, they are an emerging trend with increasing prevalence of organic food choices in mainstream markets. College-aged students' consumer behaviors are understudied in this industry. Purpose: This study examined college students' knowledge, perceptions, and current behaviors regarding…

  20. New strategies for the use of microbiological examinations in food control in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Kirk; Hald, Tine; Nielsen, Niels L.

    2007-01-01

    The development of the use of microbiological examinations in Danish food control is described. At the end of the millennium an increased number of cases of food-borne disease caused by zoonotic microorganisms necessitated a new strategy. The developments of international concepts and risk analyses...

  1. Food choices and peer relationships: Examining ‘a taste for necessity’ in a network context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachucki, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of how our taste preferences in food are shaped by our social lives has largely developed without attention to the roles played by relationships with other people. While the well-known sociological work of Pierre Bourdieu highlights the relationship of economic, cultural, and social capital with food consumption, very little scholarship concerned with food has given explicit empirical attention to social network connectivity as a form of social capital. To bridge this gap, this investigation utilizes data from a prospective cohort study of health in which both the food choices of several thousand individuals and their social ties with peers are examined. Comparing the relative social connectedness of individuals and their common food choices provides a new perspective on taste formation and maintenance and provides new evidence of how interpersonal mechanisms play a role in food choice and taste preferences. PMID:27226654

  2. Food choices and peer relationships: Examining 'a taste for necessity' in a network context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachucki, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of how our taste preferences in food are shaped by our social lives has largely developed without attention to the roles played by relationships with other people. While the well-known sociological work of Pierre Bourdieu highlights the relationship of economic, cultural, and social capital with food consumption, very little scholarship concerned with food has given explicit empirical attention to social network connectivity as a form of social capital. To bridge this gap, this investigation utilizes data from a prospective cohort study of health in which both the food choices of several thousand individuals and their social ties with peers are examined. Comparing the relative social connectedness of individuals and their common food choices provides a new perspective on taste formation and maintenance and provides new evidence of how interpersonal mechanisms play a role in food choice and taste preferences.

  3. Using food as a reward: An examination of parental reward practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey; Marx, Jenna M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2018-01-01

    Eating patterns and taste preferences are often established early in life. Many studies have examined how parental feeding practices may affect children's outcomes, including food intake and preference. The current study focused on a common food parenting practice, using food as a reward, and used Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) to examine whether mothers (n = 376) and fathers (n = 117) of children ages 2.8 to 7.5 (M = 4.7; SD = 1.1) grouped into profiles (i.e., subgroups) based on how they use of food as a reward. The 4-class model was the best-fitting LPA model, with resulting classes based on both the frequency and type of reward used. Classes were: infrequent reward (33%), tangible reward (21%), food reward (27%), and frequent reward (19%). The current study also explored whether children's eating styles (emotional overeating, rood fussiness, food responsiveness, and satiety responsiveness) and parenting style (Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive) varied by reward profile. Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that the four profiles differed significantly for all outcome variables except satiety responsiveness. It appears that the use of tangible and food-based rewards have important implications in food parenting. More research is needed to better understand how the different rewarding practices affect additional child outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determinants of household food access among small farmers in the Andes: examining the path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah, Jessica; Pradel, Willy; Cole, Donald C; Prain, Gordon; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Carrasco, Miluska V

    2013-01-01

    Household food access remains a concern among primarily agricultural households in lower- and middle-income countries. We examined the associations among domains representing livelihood assets (human capital, social capital, natural capital, physical capital and financial capital) and household food access. Cross-sectional survey (two questionnaires) on livelihood assets. Metropolitan Pillaro, Ecuador; Cochabamba, Bolivia; and Huancayo, Peru. Households (n = 570) involved in small-scale agricultural production in 2008. Food access, defined as the number of months of adequate food provisioning in the previous year, was relatively good; 41 % of the respondents indicated to have had no difficulty in obtaining food for their household in the past year. Using bivariate analysis, key livelihood assets indicators associated with better household food access were identified as: age of household survey respondent (P = 0.05), participation in agricultural associations (P = 0.09), church membership (P = 0.08), area of irrigated land (P = 0.08), housing material (P = 0.06), space within the household residence (P = 0.02) and satisfaction with health status (P = 0.02). In path models both direct and indirect effects were observed, underscoring the complexity of the relationships between livelihood assets and household food access. Paths significantly associated with better household food access included: better housing conditions (P = 0.01), more space within the household residence (P = 0.001) and greater satisfaction with health status (P = 0.001). Multiple factors were associated with household food access in these peri-urban agricultural households. Food security intervention programmes focusing on food access need to deal with both agricultural factors and determinants of health to bolster household food security in challenging lower- and middle-income country contexts.

  5. Examining the Proportion of Dietary Phosphorus From Plants, Animals, and Food Additives Excreted in Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jules, David E; Jagannathan, Ram; Gutekunst, Lisa; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2017-03-01

    Phosphorus bioavailability is an emerging topic of interest in the field of renal nutrition that has important research and clinical implications. Estimates of phosphorus bioavailability, based on digestibility, indicate that bioavailability of phosphorus increases from plants to animals to food additives. In this commentary, we examined the proportion of dietary phosphorus from plants, animals, and food additives excreted in urine from four controlled-feeding studies conducted in healthy adults and patients with chronic kidney disease. As expected, a smaller proportion of phosphorus from plant foods was excreted in urine compared to animal foods. However, contrary to expectations, phosphorus from food additives appeared to be incompletely absorbed. The apparent discrepancy between digestibility of phosphorus additives and the proportion excreted in urine suggests a need for human balance studies to determine the bioavailability of different sources of phosphorus. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 'Children and obesity: a pan-European project examining the role of food marketing'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Anne E

    2008-02-01

    Rising levels of obesity in school-age children across Europe are causing increasing concern. The 'Children, Obesity and associated avoidable Chronic Diseases' project sought to examine the effects of promotion within food marketing, given the influential role it plays in children's diets. A questionnaire and data-collection protocol was designed for the national co-ordinators, facilitating standardized responses. Co-ordinators collected data from within 20 European Union countries relating to food promotion to children. Results showed that unhealthy foods such as savoury snacks and confectionary were the most commonly marketed and consumed by children across all countries. Television was found to be the prime promotional medium, with in-school and internet marketing seen as growth areas. Media literacy programmes designed specifically to counterbalance the effects of food marketing to children were reported by only a few of the 20 countries. An ineffective and incoherent pattern of regulation was observed across the countries as few governments imposed tough restrictions with most preferring to persuade industry to voluntarily act with responsibly. Most health, consumer and public interest groups supported food marketing restrictions whilst industry and media groups advocated self-regulation. Recommendations include the amendment of the European Union's Television Without Frontiers Directive to ban all TV advertising of unhealthy food to children, the adoption of a commonly agreed European Union definition of an 'unhealthy' food, and the establishment of a mechanism for pan-European monitoring of the nature and extent of food marketing to children and its regulation.

  7. Provocative food study (Dreyfuss test): An adjunct to the upper gastrointestinal examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.R.; Hall, D.A.; Wittenberg, J.; Silverman, S.B.; Saini, S.; Cardenosa, G.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty-two patients with upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms and previously normal barium studies were examined with a provocative food and barium study to assess the functional component of their complaints. Food was given in such nature, quantity, and timing as the clinical history indicated would provoke the exact symptoms or pain that the patient perceived. A position study most often disclosed distension of a previously normal segment of bowel or a hold up of the food in an area of the esophagus or stomach that was associated with recrudescence of the patient's symptoms. Twenty-one of 52 patients (40%) had undergone previous surgery; most often in the esophagus [13 of 52(25%)] or stomach [eight of 52(15%)]. Twelve of 52 patients (23%) had positive studies. Of these, seven (13%) were treated with surgical reconstruction or resection of the abnormal area. The provocative food study, when yielding either positive or negative results, has proved useful

  8. An examination of the food addiction construct in obese patients with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M; Morgan, Peter T; Crosby, Ross D; Grilo, Carlos M

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Yale food addiction scale (YFAS) in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) and explored its association with measures of eating disorder and associated psychopathology. Eighty-one obese treatment-seeking BED patients were given the YFAS, structured interviews to assess psychiatric disorders and eating disorder psychopathology, and other pathology measures. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a one-factor solution with an excellent fit. Classification of "food addiction" was met by 57% of BED patients. Patients classified as meeting YFAS "food addiction" criteria had significantly higher levels of depression, negative affect, emotion dysregulation, eating disorder psychopathology, and lower self-esteem. YFAS scores were also significant predictors of binge eating frequency above and beyond other measures. The subset of BED patients classified as having YFAS "food addiction" appear to represent a more disturbed variant characterized by greater eating disorder psychopathology and associated pathology. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Talking about taste: using a discursive psychological approach to examine challenges to food evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Sally

    2004-08-01

    This study is concerned with developing the interdisciplinary nature of food research, and with examining eating practices as they occur in everyday situations. The aim is to demonstrate how discursive approaches may contribute to eating research using a specific analytical example. A discursive psychological approach is used to examine mealtime conversations from 10 families with the analysis focusing on how food evaluations are challenged in interaction-for example, asking someone to justify what they think is 'wrong' with the food. Data are presented with 7 examples of the 30 challenges that were found within the data corpus. The analysis demonstrates how people may be held accountable for their expressed taste preferences when being challenged, and how this contributes to our understanding of eating as primarily an individual and embodied experience. It is argued that a specific and detailed analysis of eating interactions provides an alternative way of conceptualising food evaluations as discursive rather than mentalistic concepts. A discursive approach also opens up practical ways in which the social and familial aspects of eating may be examined as they occur as part of food practices.

  10. Food parenting: a selective review of current measurement and an empirical examination to inform future measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R; Kiefner, Allison

    2013-08-01

    Interactions between parents and children in regard to food are an important part of the development of food preferences and intake patterns for children. The measurement of this complex and multidimensional construct is very challenging. This article examines the current status of measurement in this domain in a selective review, considers qualitative input from parents and adolescents in an empirical examination of the topic, and makes concrete recommendations for the future. Qualitatively, there were important differences between what the adolescents reported that their parents did to impact their eating habits, what parents of younger children report they currently do, and what researchers typically measure in research on parental feeding practices. On the basis of these empirical findings and our review of the literature, we recommend that food parenting be measured on three levels: Feeding styles (e.g., authoritative), food parenting practices (e.g., restriction), and specific feeding behaviors (e.g., putting food out of the child's reach). Specific recommendations for future study are given for each level of measurement.

  11. Examining the nutritional quality of food and beverage consumed at Melbourne aquatic and recreation centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelsen-Robinson, Tara; Chung, Alexandra; Khalil, Marianne; Wong, Evelyn; Kurzeme, Ariana; Peeters, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Examine the nutritional quality of food and beverages consumed across a sample of community aquatic and recreation centres in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Interviewer-administered surveys of randomly selected patrons attending four aquatic and recreation centres were conducted to ascertain food and beverage items consumed over two data collection periods (May-June 2014, January-February 2015). We selected centres in and around metropolitan Melbourne with a sit-down cafeteria and children's swimming classes. We classified items by government nutrient profiling guidelines; 'green' (best choice), 'amber' (choose carefully) or 'red' (limit). A total of 2,326 surveys were conducted (response rate 63%). Thirty-five per cent of surveyed patrons consumed food or beverages while at the centre; 54% of patrons purchased from the café and 61% brought items to the centre. More than half the food consumed from the café was 'red', increasing to 92% for children. One in five children visiting the centre consumed a 'red' item bought from the centre café. The nutritional quality of food and beverages consumed at recreation centres was generally poor, with the on-site cafés providing the majority of discretionary items consumed. Implications for public health: Community aquatic and recreation centres provide an opportunity to promote healthy eating by increasing the provision of healthy options and limiting discretionary food and drink items. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Lunch at the library: examination of a community-based approach to addressing summer food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Janine S; De La Cruz, Monica M; Moreno, Gala; Chamberlain, Lisa J

    2017-06-01

    To examine a library-based approach to addressing food insecurity through a child and adult summer meal programme. The study examines: (i) risk of household food insecurity among participants; (ii) perspectives on the library meal programme; and (iii) barriers to utilizing other community food resources. Quantitative surveys with adult participants and qualitative semi-structured interviews with a sub-sample of adult participants. Ten libraries using public and private funding to serve meals to children and adults for six to eight weeks in low-income Silicon Valley communities (California, USA) during summer 2015. Adult survey participants (≥18 years) were recruited to obtain maximum capture, while a sub-sample of interview participants was recruited through maximum variation purposeful sampling. Survey participants (n 161) were largely Latino (71 %) and Asian (23 %). Forty-one per cent of participants screened positive for risk of food insecurity in the past 12 months. A sub-sample of programme participants engaged in qualitative interviews (n 67). Interviewees reported appreciating the library's child enrichment programmes, resources, and open and welcoming atmosphere. Provision of adult meals was described as building community among library patrons, neighbours and staff. Participants emphasized lack of awareness, misinformation about programmes, structural barriers (i.e. transportation), immigration fears and stigma as barriers to utilizing community food resources. Food insecurity remains high in our study population. Public libraries are ideal locations for community-based meal programmes due to their welcoming and stigma-free environment. Libraries are well positioned to link individuals to other social services given their reputation as trusted community organizations.

  13. Organivore or organorexic? Examining the relationship between alternative food network engagement, disordered eating, and special diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michaela J; Dripps, Weston R; Blomquist, Kerstin K

    2016-10-01

    The alternative food network (AFN) refers to connections between consumers, producers, and sellers of organic, local/regional, "sustainably grown," and other artisanal and niche food not produced by the conventional system (Goodman & Goodman, 2007). Alternative foods are often viewed as the "right" consumption choice while conventional counterparts are positioned as ethically "wrong." A moral positioning of food, avoidance of certain food groups, and anxiety elicited by food consumption choices bears similarities to disordered eating behaviors (Hesse-Biber, Leavy, Quinn, & Zoino, 2006), including a newly proposed eating syndrome, orthorexia nervosa (ON; Vandereycken, 2011; Zamora, Bonaechea, Sánchez, & Rial, 2005). This study examines the relationship among engagement in the AFN, disordered eating behaviors, and special diets. We hypothesized that individuals with higher AFN engagement would be more likely report disordered eating behaviors as well as to follow a special diet. Adult men and women (N = 284) completed a series of measures assessing engagement in the AFN and eating behaviors. We found that individuals with higher AFN engagement were more likely to report ON tendencies but not significantly likely to engage in other disordered eating behaviors. Individuals following a special diet were significantly more engaged in the AFN, more likely to report ON tendencies, and more likely to self-report an eating disorder. Our findings suggest that the most engaged consumers participate in the AFN for the purported benefits reaped by society and the environment and not to moderate their consumption or mask disordered eating behaviors. Future research should prospectively explore associations between AFN engagement, ON and disordered eating behaviors, and special diets as well as consider the utility of incorporating AFN engagement into existing disordered eating prevention programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Examination of food industry progress in reducing the sodium content of packaged foods in Canada: 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, JoAnne; Jefferson, Katherine; Schermel, Alyssa; Shah, Ferdeela; Trang, Susan; Kutlesa, Daniela; Lou, Wendy; L'Abbe, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    In 2010, as part of a national sodium reduction strategy, Canada published sodium reduction benchmark targets for packaged foods; however, no evaluation of this policy has occurred. The objective was to evaluate changes in the sodium content of packaged foods, identify categories reduced in sodium, and determine the proportion meeting Health Canada's sodium reduction benchmarks. This was a cross-sectional analysis of Canadian packaged foods in 2010 and 2013 (n = 10 487 and n = 15 394, respectively). Sodium content was obtained from the Nutrition Facts table. Overall, 16.2% of food categories had significantly reduced sodium levels. The greatest shifts in the distribution of sodium within food categories occurred in imitation seafood (mean ± SD, mg/100 g; 602 ± 50 to 444 ± 81, 26.2%, p = 0.002), condiments (1309 ± 790 to 1048 ± 620, 19.9%, p = 0.005), breakfast cereals (375 ± 26 to 301 ± 242, 19.7%, p = 0.001), canned vegetables/legumes (269 ± 156 to 217 ± 180, 19.3%, p foods meeting at least 1 of the 3 phases of the sodium reduction benchmark targets slightly increased (51.4% to 58.2%) and the proportion exceeding maximum benchmark levels decreased (25.2% to 20.8%). These data provide a critical evaluation of changes in sodium levels in the Canadian food supply. Although progress in reducing sodium in packaged foods is evident, the food industry needs to continue efforts in reducing the sodium in the foods they produce.

  15. An Examination of a Virtual Private Network Implementation to Support a Teleworking Initiative: The Marcus Food Company Inc. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jason W.

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author examined the capabilities of virtual private networks (VPNs) in supporting teleworking environments for small businesses in the food marketing sector. The goal of this research was to develop an implementation model for small businesses in the food marketing sector that use a VPN solution to support teleworker…

  16. A study on examining interrelationships among customer satisfaction, loyalty, and switching intent in industrial food suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Saeedniya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brand loyalty is one of the most important concepts in brand literature. Customer’s loyalty toward brand can increase firm’s share price. In addition, firms’ market share maintains close relationship with net profit and capital used return. Company efforts to motivate customers to switch from competitive brands to their own or to induce them to repurchase their own brands are very important in their marketing activities. Therefore, investigating customer variety-seeking orientation and level of involvement in decision-making plays essential role in explaining customers’ product selection activities. This study intends to examine interrelationships among customer satisfaction, loyalty, and switching intent in industrial food suppliers and verifies the moderating effect of customer variety-seeking orientation and purchase decision involvement. The findings indicate that, the impact of purchase involvement was lower than variety seeking and the satisfaction had the highest negative impact on switching intent of customers.

  17. The Association between Food Insecurity and Obesity in Children-The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasbir; Lamb, Molly M; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2015-05-01

    Food insecurity can put children at greater risk of obesity because of altered food choices and nonuniform consumption patterns. We examined the association between obesity and both child-level food insecurity and personal food insecurity in US children. Data from 9,701 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2010, aged 2 to 11 years were analyzed. Child-level food insecurity was assessed with the US Department of Agriculture's Food Security Survey Module based on eight child-specific questions. Personal food insecurity was assessed with five additional questions. Obesity was defined, using physical measurements, as body mass index (calculated as kg/m²) greater than or equal to the age- and sex-specific 95th percentile of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Logistic regressions adjusted for sex, race/ethnic group, poverty level, and survey year were conducted to describe associations between obesity and food insecurity. Obesity was significantly associated with personal food insecurity for children aged 6 to 11 years (odds ratio=1.81; 95% CI 1.33 to 2.48), but not in children aged 2 to 5 years (odds ratio=0.88; 95% CI 0.51 to 1.51). Child-level food insecurity was not associated with obesity among 2- to 5-year-olds or 6- to 11-year-olds. Personal food insecurity is associated with an increased risk of obesity only in children aged 6 to 11 years. Personal food-insecurity measures may give different results than aggregate food-insecurity measures in children. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Changes in the food environment over time: examining 40 years of data in the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Seward, Michael W; James O'Malley, A; Subramanian, S V; Block, Jason P

    2017-06-24

    Research has explored associations between diet, body weight, and the food environment; however, few studies have examined historical trends in food environments. In the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (N = 3321) and Omni (N = 447) cohorts, we created food environment metrics in four Massachusetts towns utilizing geocoded residential, workplace, and food establishment addresses from 1971 to 2008. We created multilevel models adjusted for age, sex, education, and census tract poverty to examine trends in home, workplace, and commuting food environments. Proximity to and density of supermarkets, fast-food, full service restaurants, convenience stores, and bakeries increased over time for residential, workplace, and commuting environments; exposure to grocery stores decreased. The greatest increase in access was for supermarkets, with residential distance to the closest supermarket 1406 m closer (95% CI 1303 m, 1508 m) by 2005-2008 than in 1971-1975. Although poorer census tracts had higher access to fast-food restaurants consistently across follow-up, this disparity dissipated over time, due to larger increases in proximity to fast-food in wealthier neighborhoods. Access to most food establishment types increased over time, with similar trends across home, workplace, and commuter environments.

  19. Examining the Impact of Structural Racism on Food Insecurity: Implications for Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoms-Young, Angela; Bruce, Marino A

    Food insecurity is defined as "a household-level economic and social condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food." While, levels of food insecurity in the United States have fluctuated over the past 20 years; disparities in food insecurity rates between people of color and whites have continued to persist. There is growing recognition that discrimination and structural racism are key contributors to disparities in health behaviors and outcomes. Although several promising practices to reduce food insecurity have emerged, approaches that address structural racism and discrimination may have important implications for alleviating racial/ethnic disparities in food insecurity and promoting health equity overall.

  20. Going beyond exposure to local news media: an information-processing examination of public perceptions of food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kenneth; Thorson, Esther; Zhang, Yuyan

    2006-12-01

    The relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety was examined in a statewide telephone survey (n = 524). The theoretical framework of the study was based on a review of the social and psychological factors that affect public concerns about food safety, the relationship between mass communication and risk perception, and the thesis of information-processing strategies and its impact on learning from the news. The results show that information-processing strategies substantially mediated the relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety, with elaborative processing being more influential than active reflection in people's learning from the news media. Attention to local television had an independent effect, after demographics, awareness of food safety problems, and perceived safety of local food supply were statistically controlled. Other important predictors included gender, education, ethnicity, and perceived safety of local food supply.

  1. A mixed-method examination of food marketing directed towards children in Australian supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah; James, Erica L; Stacey, Fiona G; Bowman, Jennifer; Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of children's food requests, and parents' experiences of food marketing directed towards children, in the supermarket environment. A mixed-method design was used. Firstly, intercept interviews were conducted with parents accompanied by a child/children on exiting supermarkets (sampled from a large regional centre in Australia). Parents were asked about the prevalence and types of food requests by child/children during their supermarket visit and whether they purchased these foods. Secondly, focus groups (n = 13) and telephone interviews (n = 3) were conducted exploring parents' experiences of supermarket shopping with children and the impact of child-directed marketing. Of the 158 intercept survey participants (30% response rate), 73% reported a food request during the supermarket visit. Most requested food items (88%) were unhealthy foods, with chocolate/confectionery being the most common food category requested (40%). Most parents (70%) purchased at least one food item requested during the shopping trip. Qualitative interviews identified four themes associated with food requests and prompts in the supermarket: parents' experience of pester power in the supermarket; prompts for food requests in the supermarket; parental responses to pestering in the supermarket environment, and; strategies to manage pestering and minimize requests for food items. Food requests from children are common during supermarket shopping. Despite the majority of the requests being unhealthy, parents often purchase these foods. Parents reported difficulties dealing with constant requests and expressed desire for environmental changes including confectionery-free checkouts, minimization of child friendly product placement and reducing children's exposure to food marketing.

  2. The advertised diet: an examination of the extent and nature of food advertising on Australian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michele; Pettigrew, Simone; Chapman, Kathy; Quester, Pascale; Miller, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe food advertising and expenditure on Australian television, and to conduct an audit to assess what proportion of food and beverage television advertisements was consistent with dietary recommendations. Data were acquired from a national media monitoring company for advertisements broadcast in five major Australian cities from 1 September 2010 to 31 October 2010. Content analysis was undertaken on these advertisements and the advertised foods were assessed against the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. The data also included advertising expenditures. Most advertised foods were non-core foods (63%), with few advertisements for fruits and vegetables (6%). Advertisements for non-core foods were significantly more frequent during prime time viewing periods (71% vs 60%; Padvertising for fast food (28%) and non-core beverages (24%) were recorded. The present study found that the foods advertised during the data-collection period were inconsistent with the recommended diet. There are clear areas for policy concern given that the majority of recorded advertisements were for foods classified as 'occasional foods', there were low levels of advertising for fruit and vegetables, and there were no social marketing messages to support healthy eating. SO WHAT? The findings of the study suggest that there is an urgent need for more comprehensive regulation of food advertising in Australia.

  3. Living on the edge: examination of people attending food pantries and soup kitchens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Marilyn A; Morris, Patricia McGrath; Nichols-Casebolt, Ann

    2002-07-01

    This article presents information from a study of people receiving food assistance services from food pantries and soup kitchens in Virginia. The data indicate that significant numbers of individuals and families--many of whom are employed--are seeking food assistance. Many of these individuals also have been homeless, victims of domestic violence, unable to pay their utility bills, or have lost their public benefits. A critical issue raised by the findings is the low rate of participation in the food stamp program. Fewer than 40 percent of the respondents were receiving food stamps. Although the food stamp program is intended to help households buy a nutritionally adequate diet, there is growing concern that a large segment of low-income Americans are slipping through this safety net. The article concludes with suggestions for social work interventions to address issues of food security.

  4. "Socioeconomic inequalities in children's accessibility to food retailing: Examining the roles of mobility and time".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravensbergen, Léa; Buliung, Ron; Wilson, Kathi; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-03-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity rates in Canada are at concerning levels, more apparently so for individuals of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Accessibility to food establishments likely influences patterns of food consumption, a contributor to body weight. Previous work has found that households living in lower income neighbourhoods tend to have greater geographical accessibility to unhealthy food establishments and lower accessibility to healthy food stores. This study contributes to the literature on neighbourhood inequalities in accessibility to healthy foods by explicitly focusing on children, an understudied population, and by incorporating mobility and time into metrics of accessibility. Accessibility to both healthy and unhealthy food retailing is measured within children's activity spaces using Road Network and Activity Location Buffering methods. Weekday vs. weekend accessibility to food establishments is then compared. The results suggest that children attending lower SES schools had almost two times the density of fast food establishments and marginally higher supermarket densities in their activity spaces. Children attending higher SES schools also had much larger activity spaces. All children had higher supermarket densities during weekdays than on weekend days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A pilot study examining food insecurity and HIV risk behaviors among individuals recently released from prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Emily A; Zhu, Gefei A; Evans, Linda; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Desai, Rani; Fiellin, Lynn E

    2013-04-01

    Annually 700,000 individuals are released from U.S. prison, many at risk for food insecurity and HIV. The association between food insecurity and HIV risk behaviors has been established but not in this population. To investigate this association, we recruited 110 recently released prisoners to participate in a survey. Ninety-one percent of our sample was food insecure; 37% did not eat for an entire day in the past month. Those who did not eat for an entire day were more likely to report using alcohol, heroin, or cocaine before sex or exchanging sex for money compared to those who had at least a meal each day. From this pilot study, released prisoners appear to be at risk for food insecurity, and not eating for an entire day is associated with certain HIV risk behaviors. HIV prevention efforts should include longitudinal studies on the relationship between food insecurity and HIV risk behaviors among recently released prisoners.

  6. Examining binge-eating disorder and food addiction in adults with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezaj, Valentina; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-10-01

    To compare four subgroups of adults with overweight/obesity: those with binge-eating disorder (BED) only, food addiction (FA) only, both BED + FA, and neither. For this study, 502 individuals with overweight/obesity (body mass index >25 kg/m(2) ) completed a Web-based survey with established measures of eating and health-related behaviors. Most were female (n = 415; 83.2%) and White (n = 404; 80.8%); mean age and body mass index were 38.0 (SD = 13.1) years and 33.6 (SD = 6.9) kg/m(2) , respectively. Among 502 participants with overweight/obesity, 43 (8.5%) met BED criteria, 84 (16.6%) met FA criteria, 51 (10.1%) met both BED + FA criteria, and 328 (64.8%) met neither (control). The three groups with eating pathology (BED, FA, and BED + FA) had significantly greater disturbances on most measures (eating disorder psychopathology, impulsivity, and self-control) than the control group, while the FA and BED + FA groups reported significantly higher depression scores relative to the control group. The three eating groups did not differ significantly from each other. In this online survey, of those with overweight/obesity, nearly one third met criteria for BED, FA, or BED + FA, and these forms of disordered eating were associated with greater pathology relative to individuals with overweight/obesity without BED and FA. Future research should examine whether the presence of BED, FA, or co-occurring BED + FA requires tailored interventions in individuals with overweight or obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  7. Examining Binge Eating Disorder and Food Addiction in Adults with Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezaj, Valentina; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare four subgroups of adults with overweight/obesity: those with binge eating disorder (BED) only, food addiction (FA) only, both BED+FA, and neither. Methods 502 individuals with overweight/obesity (BMI>25) completed a web-based survey with established measures of eating and health-related behaviors. Most were female (n=415; 83.2%) and White (n=404; 80.8%); mean age and BMI were 38.0(SD=13.1) years and 33.6(SD=6.9) kg/m2, respectively. Results Among 502 participants with overweight/obesity, 43(8.5%) met BED criteria, 84(16.6%) met FA criteria, 51(10.1%) met both BED+FA criteria, and 328(64.8%) met neither (Control). The three groups with eating pathology (BED, FA, and BED+FA) had significantly greater disturbances on most measures (eating-disorder psychopathology, impulsivity, and self-control) than the Control group, while the FA and BED+FA groups reported significantly higher depression scores relative to the Control group. The three eating groups did not differ significantly from each other. Conclusion In this online survey, of those with overweight/obesity, nearly one-third met criteria for BED, FA, or BED+FA and these forms of disordered eating were associated with greater pathology relative to individuals with overweight/obesity without BED and FA. Future research should examine whether the presence of BED, FA, or co-occurring BED+FA require tailored interventions in individuals with overweight or obesity. PMID:27558207

  8. A Pilot Study Examining Food Insecurity and HIV Risk Behaviors among Individuals Recently Released from Prison

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Emily A.; Zhu, Gefei A.; Evans, Linda; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Desai, Rani; Fiellin, Lynn E.

    2013-01-01

    Annually 700,000 individuals are released from U.S. prison, many at risk for food insecurity and HIV. The association between food insecurity and HIV risk behaviors has been established but not in this population. To investigate this association, we recruited 110 recently released prisoners to participate in a survey. Ninety-one percent of our sample was food insecure; 37% did not eat for an entire day in the past month. Those who did not eat for an entire day were more likely to report using...

  9. A Comprehensive Examination of the Determinants for Food Risk Perception: Focusing on Psychometric Factors, Perceivers' Characteristics, and Media Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Myoungsoon; Ju, Youngkee

    2017-01-01

    Risk characteristics within a psychometric paradigm have been of major concern in studies of food risk perception. This study compared the influence of psychometric factors, perceivers' characteristics (i.e., risk attitude, trust, and favorability of the country of origin), and that of the news media on the levels of food risk perception. The interaction of news media with the other two factors was also examined. A nationwide survey (n = 1,500) was conducted. The foods under investigation were Chinese processed foods and Japanese seafood imported to South Korea. In both cases, hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that psychometric factors had the greatest influence on food risk perception, followed by perceivers' characteristics and media use. In addition, our results showed that the effect of perceived benefit and dread in Chinese food were salient only for those with little media use. The implication of the interaction effect on food risk perception is discussed in terms of accessibility and limited capacity of information processing.

  10. Examining the relationship between the food environment and adult diabetes prevalence by county economic and racial composition: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Haynes-Maslow

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequitable access to healthy food may contribute to health disparities. This study examines the relationship between the prevalence of adult diabetes and food access in the U.S. by county economic/racial composition. Methods An ecological study from 2012 was used to estimate the relationship between diabetes and retail food outlet access. County diabetes prevalence was measured based on individual responses to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey question, “Have you ever been told by a doctor that you have diabetes?” If the answer was “yes” individuals were classified as having diabetes. Retail food outlets included grocery stores, supercenters, farmer’s markets, full-service restaurants, fast food restaurants and convenience stores. Counties were categorized as “high-poverty” or “low-poverty”. Counties were categorized as low ( 31.0% percent minority residents. Multiple linear regression models estimated the association between retail food outlets and diabetes, controlling for confounders, and testing for interactions between retail food outlets and county racial composition. Regression models were conditioned on county economic composition. Data were analyzed in 2016. Results Density of retail foods outlets varied greatly by county economic and racial composition; counties with medium-minority populations had the least access to grocery stores and the highest access to fast food restaurants and convenience stores. Low poverty/low-minority population counties had the greatest access to farmer’s markets and grocery stores. For low poverty/low-minority counties, grocery stores were associated with decreased of diabetes prevalence. Supercenters were associated with an increase in diabetes prevalence for high-poverty/low-minority counties. Only low poverty/medium-minority counties had a statistically significant relationship between farmer’s markets and diabetes prevalence. Fast food restaurants

  11. Examining the relationship between the food environment and adult diabetes prevalence by county economic and racial composition: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Leone, Lucia A

    2017-08-09

    Inequitable access to healthy food may contribute to health disparities. This study examines the relationship between the prevalence of adult diabetes and food access in the U.S. by county economic/racial composition. An ecological study from 2012 was used to estimate the relationship between diabetes and retail food outlet access. County diabetes prevalence was measured based on individual responses to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey question, "Have you ever been told by a doctor that you have diabetes?" If the answer was "yes" individuals were classified as having diabetes. Retail food outlets included grocery stores, supercenters, farmer's markets, full-service restaurants, fast food restaurants and convenience stores. Counties were categorized as "high-poverty" or "low-poverty". Counties were categorized as low (medium (4.6%-31.0%), and high (> 31.0%) percent minority residents. Multiple linear regression models estimated the association between retail food outlets and diabetes, controlling for confounders, and testing for interactions between retail food outlets and county racial composition. Regression models were conditioned on county economic composition. Data were analyzed in 2016. Density of retail foods outlets varied greatly by county economic and racial composition; counties with medium-minority populations had the least access to grocery stores and the highest access to fast food restaurants and convenience stores. Low poverty/low-minority population counties had the greatest access to farmer's markets and grocery stores. For low poverty/low-minority counties, grocery stores were associated with decreased of diabetes prevalence. Supercenters were associated with an increase in diabetes prevalence for high-poverty/low-minority counties. Only low poverty/medium-minority counties had a statistically significant relationship between farmer's markets and diabetes prevalence. Fast food restaurants were found to be positively associated with

  12. Food Insecurity and Depression Among Adults With Diabetes: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joshua; Lu, Juan; Ratliff, Scott; Mezuk, Briana

    2017-06-01

    Purpose While both food insecurity and depression have been linked to risk of type 2 diabetes, little is known about the relationship between food insecurity and depression among adults with diabetes. Research Design and Methods Cross-sectional analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011-2014), a nationally representative, population-based survey. Analytic sample was limited to adults aged ≥20 with diabetes determined by either fasting plasma glucose (≥126 mg/dL) or self-report (n = 1724) and adults age ≥20 with prediabetes determined by fasting plasma glucose (100-125 mg/dL) or self-report (n = 2004). Food insecurity was measured using the US Food Security Survey Module. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between food insecurity and depression while accounting for sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors. Results Approximately 10% of individuals with diabetes and 8.5% of individuals with prediabetes had severe food insecurity in the past year; an additional 20.3% of individuals with diabetes and 14.3% of those with prediabetes had mild food insecurity. Among individuals with diabetes, both mild and severe food insecurity were associated with elevated odds of depression These relationships were similar in magnitude among individuals with prediabetes. Conclusions Food insecurity is significantly associated with depressive symptoms in people with diabetes and prediabetes. Results point to the need to address economic issues in conjunction with psychosocial issues for comprehensive diabetes care.

  13. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  14. Examining Food Risk in the Large using a Complex, Networked System-of-sytems Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosiano, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Newkirk, Ryan [U OF MINNESOTA; Mc Donald, Mark P [VANDERBILT U

    2010-12-03

    The food production infrastructure is a highly complex system of systems. Characterizing the risks of intentional contamination in multi-ingredient manufactured foods is extremely challenging because the risks depend on the vulnerabilities of food processing facilities and on the intricacies of the supply-distribution networks that link them. A pure engineering approach to modeling the system is impractical because of the overall system complexity and paucity of data. A methodology is needed to assess food contamination risk 'in the large', based on current, high-level information about manufacturing facilities, corrunodities and markets, that will indicate which food categories are most at risk of intentional contamination and warrant deeper analysis. The approach begins by decomposing the system for producing a multi-ingredient food into instances of two subsystem archetypes: (1) the relevant manufacturing and processing facilities, and (2) the networked corrunodity flows that link them to each other and consumers. Ingredient manufacturing subsystems are modeled as generic systems dynamics models with distributions of key parameters that span the configurations of real facilities. Networks representing the distribution systems are synthesized from general information about food corrunodities. This is done in a series of steps. First, probability networks representing the aggregated flows of food from manufacturers to wholesalers, retailers, other manufacturers, and direct consumers are inferred from high-level approximate information. This is followed by disaggregation of the general flows into flows connecting 'large' and 'small' categories of manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, and consumers. Optimization methods are then used to determine the most likely network flows consistent with given data. Vulnerability can be assessed for a potential contamination point using a modified CARVER + Shock model. Once the facility and

  15. Examining the Gap between Science and Public Opinion about Genetically Modified Food and Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brandon R

    2016-01-01

    There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods and human involvement in global warming (GW). Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual) or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community.

  16. Examining the Gap between Science and Public Opinion about Genetically Modified Food and Global Warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon R McFadden

    Full Text Available There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM foods and human involvement in global warming (GW. Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community.

  17. Examining the value of global seasonal reference evapotranspiration forecasts tosupport FEWS NET's food insecurity outlooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; McEvoy, D.; Hobbins, M.; Husak, G. J.; Huntington, J. L.; Funk, C.; Verdin, J.; Macharia, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) team provides food insecurity outlooks for several developing countries in Africa, Central Asia, and Central America. Thus far in terms of agroclimatic conditions that influence food insecurity, FEWS NET's primary focus has been on the seasonal precipitation forecasts while not adequately accounting for the atmospheric evaporative demand, which is also directly related to agricultural production and hence food insecurity, and is most often estimated by reference evapotranspiration (ETo). This presentation reports on the development of a new global ETo seasonal reforecast and skill evaluation with a particular emphasis on the potential use of this dataset by the FEWS NET to support food insecurity early warning. The ETo reforecasts span the 1982-2009 period and are calculated following ASCE's formulation of Penman-Monteith method driven by seasonal climate forecasts of monthly mean temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation from NCEP's CFSv2 and NASA's GEOS-5 models. The skill evaluation using deterministic and probabilistic scores focuses on the December-February (DJF), March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA) and September-November (SON) seasons. The results indicate that ETo forecasts are a promising tool for early warning of drought and food insecurity. The FEWS NET regions with promising level of skill (correlation >0.35 at lead times of 3 months) include Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (DJF, dry season), Central America (DJF, dry season), parts of East Africa (JJA, wet Season), Southern Africa (JJA, dry season), and Central Asia (MAM, wet season). A case study over parts of East Africa for the JJA season shows that, in combination with the precipitation forecasts, ETo forecasts could have provided early warning of recent severe drought events (e.g., 2002, 2004, 2009) that contributed to substantial food insecurity in the region.

  18. Induced dyadic stress and food intake: Examination of the moderating roles of body mass index and restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Marilou; Gagnon-Girouard, Marie-Pierre; Provencher, Véronique; Bégin, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Restrained eaters and overweight and obese people are prone to increase their food intake during stressful situations. This study examines the impact of a stressful couple discussion on food intake in both spouses, while simultaneously taking into account the effect of BMI and restraint on this association. For 15min, 80 heterosexual couples discussed an aspect that they wanted their partner to change followed by an individual bogus taste test for the purpose of measuring his or her stress-induced food intake. Prior to and after the discussion, subjective mood state was assessed, as well as appetite perceptions, and the mood change before and after the discussion was calculated. Multiple regression analyses with a three-way interaction between mood change, BMI, and restraint were used to predict food intake for both men and women, while controlling for appetite perceptions. Only restrained women with a high BMI ate more when their mood worsened. For men, only appetite perceptions significantly predicted food intake. These results suggest that an induced negative mood in the form of a stressful couple discussion impacts food intake differently for men and women, and that particular attention should be given to the concomitant effect of both restraint and BMI when studying stress-induced eating among women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Examining heterogeneity in elderly consumers’ acceptance of carriers for protein-enriched food: A segmentation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, van der L.D.T.; Kleef, van E.; Wijk, de R.A.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Elderly face an increased risk of nutritional deficiencies due to reduced appetites and increased nutritional needs. The development of appealing enriched functional foods holds a great potential for improving the nutritional status of this group of consumers. However, the elderly population is

  20. Energy and Food Commodity Prices Linkage: An Examination with Mixed-Frequency Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo Barrera, A.A.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Is the relationship between energy and agricultural commodities an important factor in the increasing price variability of food commodities? Findings from the literature appear to be mixed and highly influenced by the data frequency used in those analysis. A recurrent task in time series

  1. The examination and identification of bite marks in foods using 3D scanning and 3D comparison methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naether, Silvio; Buck, Ursula; Campana, Lorenzo; Breitbeck, Robert; Thali, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Bite mark analysis offers the opportunity to identify the biter based on the individual characteristics of the dentitions. Normally, the main focus is on analysing bite mark injuries on human bodies, but also, bite marks in food may play an important role in the forensic investigation of a crime. This study presents a comparison of simulated bite marks in different kinds of food with the dentitions of the presumed biter. Bite marks were produced by six adults in slices of buttered bread, apples, different kinds of Swiss chocolate and Swiss cheese. The time-lapse influence of the bite mark in food, under room temperature conditions, was also examined. For the documentation of the bite marks and the dentitions of the biters, 3D optical surface scanning technology was used. The comparison was performed using two different software packages: the ATOS modelling and analysing software and the 3D studio max animation software. The ATOS software enables an automatic computation of the deviation between the two meshes. In the present study, the bite marks and the dentitions were compared, as well as the meshes of each bite mark which were recorded in the different stages of time lapse. In the 3D studio max software, the act of biting was animated to compare the dentitions with the bite mark. The examined food recorded the individual characteristics of the dentitions very well. In all cases, the biter could be identified, and the dentitions of the other presumed biters could be excluded. The influence of the time lapse on the food depends on the kind of food and is shown on the diagrams. However, the identification of the biter could still be performed after a period of time, based on the recorded individual characteristics of the dentitions.

  2. Examining Best Practice for a Post-Graduate Module in Food Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    As a lecturer in entrepreneurship education, the challenge of embedding an entrepreneurship mindset in my students is of great interest. A traditional lecturing approach is inadequate and there is a call for more creative teaching and a more experiential learning approach. In the words of Plutarch “Minds are not vessels to be filled, but fires to be ignited” The author decided to evaluate an existing Masters module on food entrepreneurship in the light of best practice. The approach inv...

  3. Pediatric Food Allergies and Psychosocial Functioning: Examining the Potential Moderating Roles of Maternal Distress and Overprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Candice; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Identify factors associated with maternal perceptions of health-related quality of life (QoL) among youth with food allergies (FA), and identify maternal factors that may moderate relationships between FA-related challenges and child QoL. Methods In all, 533 mothers of children with FA completed measures assessing characteristics of their child’s FA, maternal perceptions of child QoL, maternal psychological distress, and maternal overprotection. Results FA severity, maternal psycho...

  4. Using cluster analysis to examine dietary patterns: nutrient intakes, gender, and weight status differ across food pattern clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirfält, A K; Jeffery, R W

    1997-03-01

    This study explored the usefulness of cluster analysis in identifying food choice patterns of three groups of adults in relation to their energy intake. Food frequency data were converted to percentage of total energy from 38 food groups and entered into a cluster analysis procedure. Subjects in the emerging food group patterns were compared in terms of weight status, demographics, and the nutrition composition of their usual diet. Data were collected as part of three studies in two US metropolitan areas using identical protocols. Participants were university employees (103 women and 99 men) who volunteered for a reliability study of health behavior questionnaires and moderately obese volunteers (223 women and 101 men) to two weight-loss studies who were recruited by newspaper advertisements. Subjects were clustered according to food energy sources using the FASTCLUS procedure in the Statistical Analysis System. One-way analysis of variance and chi 2 analysis were then performed to compared the weight status, nutrient intakes, and demographics of the food patterns. Six food pattern clusters were identified. Subjects in the two clusters associated with high consumption of pastry and meat had significantly higher fat intakes (P = .0001). Subjects in two other clusters, those associated with high intake of skim milk and a broad distribution of energy sources had significantly higher micronutrient levels (P = .0001). Body mass index and the distribution of gender were also significantly different across clusters. The success of cluster analysis in identifying dietary exposure categories with unique demographic and nutritional correlates suggests that the approach may be useful in epidemiologic studies that examine conditions such as obesity, and in the design of nutrition interventions.

  5. Examination of food waste co-digestion to manage the peak in energy demand at wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensch, D; Schaum, C; Cornel, P

    2016-01-01

    Many digesters in Germany are not operated at full capacity; this offers the opportunity for co-digestion. Within this research the potentials and limits of a flexible and adapted sludge treatment are examined with a focus on the digestion process with added food waste as co-substrate. In parallel, energy data from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) are analysed and lab-scale semi-continuous and batch digestion tests are conducted. Within the digestion tests, the ratio of sewage sludge to co-substrate was varied. The final methane yields show the high potential of food waste: the higher the amount of food waste the higher the final yield. However, the conversion rates directly after charging demonstrate better results by charging 10% food waste instead of 20%. Finally, these results are merged with the energy data from the WWTP. As an illustration, the load required to cover base loads as well as peak loads for typical daily variations of the plant's energy demand are calculated. It was found that 735 m³ raw sludge and 73 m³ of a mixture of raw sludge and food waste is required to cover 100% of the base load and 95% of the peak load.

  6. A trans-Atlantic examination of haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus food habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tam, J.C.; Link, J.S.; Large, S.I.

    2016-01-01

    The food habits of Melanogrammus aeglefinus were explored and contrasted across multiple north-eastern and north-western Atlantic Ocean ecosystems, using databases that span multiple decades. The results show that among all ecosystems, echinoderms are a consistent part of M. aeglefinus diet......, but patterns emerge regarding where and when M. aeglefinus primarily eat fishes v. echinoderms. Melanogrammus aeglefinus does not regularly exhibit the increase in piscivory with ontogeny that other gadoids often show, and in several ecosystems there is a lower occurrence of piscivory. There is an apparent...

  7. Diet and food insufficiency among Hispanic youths: acculturation and socioeconomic factors in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Robert E; Marquis, Grace S; Jensen, Helen H

    2003-12-01

    Low socioeconomic status is associated with poor diet, food insufficiency, and poor child health. Hispanic households have disproportionately low incomes. Acculturation-related changes may augment the effects of poverty on children's diet and health. The goal was to determine the associations that acculturation, measured by parents' language use, and income have with dietary intakes and food insufficiency among Hispanic youths. Data on 2985 Hispanic youths aged 4-16 y were from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Nutrient intake data were from one 24-h dietary recall. The analysis was controlled for demographic, socioeconomic, and program variables. Parents' exclusive use of Spanish was associated in bivariate analyses with differences in intakes of energy, protein, sodium, and folate and in percentages of energy from fat and saturated fat. When other factors were controlled for, less acculturation was associated with differences in intakes of energy and sodium and in percentages of energy from fat and saturated fat. Individuals in poorer households had higher intakes of energy, protein, sodium, and some micronutrients. Although not significant for all indicators of food insufficiency, consistent patterns showed that household food insufficiency decreased with less acculturation (odds ratio: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.7 for adult meal size reduced) and increased with low income [odds ratio: 5.9 (3.0, 11.7) for not enough food and 5.4 (2.2, 13.4) for child meal size reduced]. Both acculturation and poverty have roles in children's diets and in household food insufficiency. Culturally specific public health and nutrition education should complement efforts to improve the financial security of low-income households.

  8. Applying Systems Thinking to Examine and Reduce Dependency on Food Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwaeriah Abdussamad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems thinking is the art of understanding interconnections between various disciplines thereby unwinding the existing complexity. Most of the real world problems are complex, take for the example the increasing dependency rate on food banks. While various factors contribute towards it, not much has been done to bring the take off the number of dependents. By viewing this system from a holistic systems thinking lens, one explores the issue in depth. We realise the universally acceptable solution is not alleviating the problem in the long run. By applying systems thinking principles several hidden factors are brought to attention and subsequently can be dealt with more aptly. A movement that transcends disciplines results in delivering better solutions.

  9. Examining trust factors in online food risk information: The case of unpasteurized or 'raw' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillence, Elizabeth; Hardy, Claire; Medeiros, Lydia C; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2016-04-01

    The internet has become an increasingly important way of communicating with consumers about food risk information. However, relatively little is known about how consumers evaluate and come to trust the information they encounter online. Using the example of unpasteurized or raw milk this paper presents two studies exploring the trust factors associated with online information about the risks and benefits of raw milk consumption. In the first study, eye-tracking data was collected from 33 pasteurised milk consumers whilst they viewed six different milk related websites. A descriptive analysis of the eye-tracking data was conducted to explore viewing patterns. Reports revealed the importance of images as a way of capturing initial attention and foregrounding other features and highlighted the significance of introductory text within a homepage. In the second, qualitative study, 41 consumers, some of whom drank raw milk, viewed a selection of milk related websites before participating in either a group discussion or interview. Seventeen of the participants also took part in a follow up telephone interview 2 weeks later. The qualitative data supports the importance of good design whilst noting that balance, authorship agenda, the nature of evidence and personal relevance were also key factors affecting consumers trust judgements. The results of both studies provide support for a staged approach to online trust in which consumers engage in a more rapid, heuristic assessment of a site before moving on to a more in-depth evaluation of the information available. Findings are discussed in relation to the development of trustworthy online food safety resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pediatric Food Allergies and Psychosocial Functioning: Examining the Potential Moderating Roles of Maternal Distress and Overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Candice; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2015-01-01

    Identify factors associated with maternal perceptions of health-related quality of life (QoL) among youth with food allergies (FA), and identify maternal factors that may moderate relationships between FA-related challenges and child QoL. In all, 533 mothers of children with FA completed measures assessing characteristics of their child's FA, maternal perceptions of child QoL, maternal psychological distress, and maternal overprotection. FA severity, maternal psychological distress, and overprotection were significantly associated with maternal reports of poorer child functioning and/or poorer QoL among youth with FA. Hierarchical linear regression analyses showed an FA severity by maternal distress interaction in the prediction of child FA-related anxiety; children of higher stress mothers showed a stronger link between auto-injector use and anxiety than children of lower stress mothers. When identifying youth with FA who are at risk for low QoL, it is important to assess history of FA-related challenges, parental psychological distress, and overprotection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. An Examination of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire Performance in a Countrywide American Sample of Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DunnGalvin, Audrey; Koman, Elizabeth; Raver, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is important to ensure that tools are valid and reliable in the context in which they are used. The development of age and country norms is part of this process. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the present study was to examine the performance of the Food Allergy Quality of Life...... (single vs multiple allergens). Internal consistency was excellent (r = 0.96). US health-related quality of life was worse than European health-related quality of life, as indicated by higher FAQLQ-PF scores in US samples. Burden increased with age in all populations. CONCLUSIONS: The FAQLQ...

  12. Examination of the Food and Nutrient Content of School Lunch Menus of Two School Districts in Mississippi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavon Young

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the diet quality of the school meals in two Mississippi school districts and compared them to the national guidelines. We examined the lunch menus of the two school districts that participated in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program focusing on food quality and assessing both healthy and unhealthy foods and eating behaviors. This analysis was completed through a computerized review used to accurately determine the nutrient content. Both the standard and the alternative meals provided by the cafeterias in the two school districts exceeded the minimum requirement for calories for all grade levels. The meals from the urban schools cafeteria provide more calories than meals from the cafeteria in the rural school district. Although schools believe that they are making positive changes to children’s diets, the programs are falling short of the nutrient recommendations. Poor nutrition and improper dietary practices are now regarded as important risk factors in the emerging problems of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and other chronic diseases, with excessive energy intake listed as a possible reason. Dieticians, school professionals and other health care practitioners need to accurately assess energy intake and adequately promote a dietary responsible lifestyle among children.

  13. Examination of the food and nutrient content of school lunch menus of two school districts in Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Clifton C; Jenkins, Brenda W; White, Monique S; Young, Lavon

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the diet quality of the school meals in two Mississippi school districts and compared them to the national guidelines. We examined the lunch menus of the two school districts that participated in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program focusing on food quality and assessing both healthy and unhealthy foods and eating behaviors. This analysis was completed through a computerized review used to accurately determine the nutrient content. Both the standard and the alternative meals provided by the cafeterias in the two school districts exceeded the minimum requirement for calories for all grade levels. The meals from the urban schools cafeteria provide more calories than meals from the cafeteria in the rural school district. Although schools believe that they are making positive changes to children's diets, the programs are falling short of the nutrient recommendations. Poor nutrition and improper dietary practices are now regarded as important risk factors in the emerging problems of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and other chronic diseases, with excessive energy intake listed as a possible reason. Dieticians, school professionals and other health care practitioners need to accurately assess energy intake and adequately promote a dietary responsible lifestyle among children.

  14. Do We Need Plant Food Supplements? A Critical Examination of Quality, Safety, Efficacy, and Necessity for a New Regulatory Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2017-12-08

    Given the expanding market of plant food supplements (PFSs) not undergoing any pre-marketing authorization, the overall quality, safety and efficacy of PFSs were subjected to a critical examination. Although many high-quality PFSs exist on the legal market, quality concerns are in general justified. Besides economic adulteration, active ingredients dramatically differing from label claims and among products were reported in several studies. In addition, PFSs sold via the Internet may be intentionally adulterated with undeclared prescription drugs. Compared to PFSs with only one single herb, PFSs containing herbal mixtures were more involved in moderate and severe clinical courses. Although prohibited by regulation, misleading labels on PFSs are common. Above all, only vague evidence for the efficacy of PFSs exists. Notwithstanding the unproven efficacy and insufficient safety assessment, PFSs represent a relevant source for consumers to get access to herbal preparations in the United States and meanwhile also in Europe, as launching of licensed/registered European herbal medicinal products (HMPs) has steadily decreased. However, being non-vitamin, non-mineral products, PFSs are neither food nor drugs. In terms of protecting public health and providing the consumer with high-quality, effective, and safe PFSs, possibilities are shown how to deal with the many challenges of PFSs. Last but not least, suggestions are made for assigning PFSs a separate regulatory category being less regulated compared to HMPs but more strictly regulated compared to food laws including implementation of good manufacturing practices and a scientific pre-marketing review process by an expert commission. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Charles

    2012-11-21

    There is one commodity the world over that unites mankind-food. In 2011 the United Nations claimed that the world's population had reached the seven billion mark, a number which is set to increase dramatically in the decades to come. Food security, supply and sustainability are of paramount concern to the future economic and social progress of humanity. It is the responsibility of the food industry, together with food scientists and technologists, to shoulder the burden of ensuring an adequate supply of nutritious, safe and sensorially acceptable foods for a range of demanding consumers. In responding to this challenge, we need to understand the link between agriculture, engineering, food processing, molecular biosciences, human nutrition, commercialisation and innovation. Access to information concerning the composition and quality of foods has never been so easy for consumers and technologists alike. A plethora of research publications are made available each month to scientists and associated interested parties. The outcomes of these research manuscripts are often distilled and disseminated into messages available to everyone through bulletin boards, forums and the popular press. Newspapers and new agencies constantly report on the latest pharma-medical finding, or news regarding food safety and security concerns. We live in an age where information is so readily available to everyone that the task of finding credible and reputable data can be difficult at times. Providing sound evidenced based research is where a peer-reviewed journal can provide clarity. [...].

  16. [Sanitary and epidemiological examination of foods under carrying sanitary and epidemiological surveillance on the customer border and at in the territory of the Customers Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, B P; Kerimova, M G; Elizarova, E V; Chigireva, É I

    2011-01-01

    The article concerns peculiarities of sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic examination of foods under carrying of sanitary-epidemiologic surveillance on the customer border and of the custom territory of the Customers Union of the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan and Byelorussia.

  17. Associations between Food Security Status and Dietary Inflammatory Potential within Lower-Income Adults from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Cycles 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Rachel S; Palta, Mari; Robert, Stephanie A; Berger, Lawrence M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Malecki, Kristen M

    2018-02-13

    Evidence suggests both that chronic inflammation mediates the association of food insecurity with adverse health outcomes and that diet may be a significant source of inflammation among food insecure individuals. To examine whether food security status is associated with dietary inflammatory potential. Cross-sectional data came from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), cycles 2007 to 2014 (n=10,630). The analysis sample is representative of noninstitutionalized US adults with an income-to-poverty ratio ≤3.00. Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) score, calculated using the average of two 24-hour dietary recalls, was the main outcome measure. Type III F tests or χ 2 tests compared population characteristics by food security status, defined using the US Food Security Survey Module. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between food security status and the DII score and moderation by demographic factors. Survey weighting procedures accounted for the effects of stratification and clustering used in the NHANES study design. When accounting for socioeconomic status, demographic factors, and health status, DII score was higher at greater levels of food insecurity (P=0.0033). Those with very low food security had a 0.31 (95% CI=0.12 to 0.49) higher DII score than those with high food security. Age moderated the association between food security status and DII score (interaction P=0.0103), where the magnitude of the association between DII score and severity of food insecurity was higher for those >65 years than for younger age groups. Food security status may be associated with dietary inflammatory potential, which is hypothesized to play a role in multiple chronic health conditions. Further research is needed to determine the causal nature of this relationship and evaluate how best to implement programs designed to address health disparities within food insecure populations. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and

  18. The possible antecedents and consequences of matching of food intake:Examining the role of trait self-esteem and interpersonal closeness

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth eHirata; Gerine M. A. Lodder; Ulrich eKühnen; Sonia eLippke; Roel C. J. Hermans

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence that people tend to match their intake to that of others, less is known about the motives underlying this effect. The current study, therefore, examined the relationship between self-esteem, a specific factor that has been related to the likelihood of social matching. Further, we examined the effects of food matching on interpersonal closeness among eating companions. The sample included 89 female dyads. All dyads had free access to palatable snack food during a 15 ...

  19. Employing spectroscopic and pattern recognition techniques to examine food quality both internally and externally as it cooks in an industrial oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, M.; Lewis, Elfed; Flanagan, Colin; Lyons, William B.; Jackman, N.

    2004-06-01

    An Optical fiber based sensor system has been developed for the purpose of examining the color of food products online as they cook in a large-scale industrial oven. By classifying the color of each cooking stage it is possible to automatically determine if the food is cooked to an optimum perceived color. Developments have been made on previous work by the authors by further examining the internal color of the food and testing the repeatability of the system. Spectroscopic techniques are employed to determine the color and this signal is interrogated using an Artificial Neural Network.

  20. A cross-sectional pilot study to examine food sufficiency and assess nutrition among low-income patients with injection-related venous ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Barbara; Templin, Thomas N

    2015-04-01

    Adequate nutrition has long been considered a critical component for wound healing, but literature regarding the relationship between nutrition and venous ulcer (VU) healing is limited. A person's nutrition is affected by the availability of food as well as his/her overall health. Food sufficiency and nutrition are important concerns in the care of persons of low income with injection-related VUs, which tend to be large and slow to heal. A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted to explore the relationship between food sufficiency/security and nutrition with regard to demographic, wound, quality-of-life, physical activity, falls, and fall risk variables. Nutrition was examined using 2 well-developed instruments that measure food sufficiency/security and assess nutrition--the United States Department of Agriculture's Adult Food Sufficiency Questionnaire (FSQ) and the Nestle Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). All participants (N = 31, 54% men, mean age 56.1 ± 3.6 years, all African American) were recruited from an outpatient clinic. All had injection-related VUs from a history of injecting illicit substances. In terms of food sufficiency/security, most participants (26, 84%) reported having enough food in the house, but 10 (32%) worried about running out of food. From 16% to 22.6% of participants expressed concern with food sufficiency/security in terms of cutting meal size, eating less, hunger, and weight loss. Food sufficiency/security was high for 19 (61.3%), but 12 (39%) had marginal or lower food sufficiency/security. MNA scores showed 16 participants (52%) were at risk of malnutrition or malnourished. Low food sufficiency/security was significantly (P nutrition assessment scores were significantly associated (P nutrition assessment are important to assess in low-income persons with injection-related VUs. A number of significant relationships of the FSQ and MNA to other variables was found but needs further investigation with a larger sample.

  1. Systemic Analysis of Food Supply and Distribution Systems in City-Region Systems—An Examination of FAO’s Policy Guidelines towards Sustainable Agri-Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Armendáriz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is continuously transforming to supply growing cities and urbanization processes are still driving important changes in our current food systems. Future sustainability constraints are emphasizing that Food Supply and Distribution Systems (FSDS are deeply embedded in city-region systems with specific technical and socio-ecological characteristics. This paper aims to provide a systemic understanding on FSDS focusing the integration of urban and rural structures considering the system biophysical boundaries and societal targets. A qualitative framework model, based on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO’s FSDS literature, has been developed by using Systems Thinking (ST and System Dynamics (SD approaches. The model analysis suggested that to increase sustainability and resilience of food systems large emphasis has to be maintained on: (i estimation of local territorial carrying capacities; (ii land use planning to enhance connections among rural supplies and city needs; (iii city policies, to regulate emergent market size and local scale of production; (iv technological efficiency at farm, distribution and market levels; (v urban, peri-urban and rural functional linkages that considers social metabolic balances; (vi rural development as a core point for building sustainable food systems and counteracting the urbanization growth. These key areas are relevant to test new paths of cities-regions reconfiguration towards the transition to resilient agri-food systems.

  2. An examination of food addiction in a racially diverse sample of obese patients with binge eating disorder in primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2013-07-01

    The concept of food addiction in obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) continues to be a hotly debated topic yet the empirical evidence on the relationship between addictive-like eating and clinically relevant eating disorders is limited. The current study examined the association of food addiction as assessed by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) with measures of disordered eating, dieting/weight history, and related psychopathology in a racially diverse sample of obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED). A consecutive series of 96 obese patients with BED who were seeking treatment for obesity and binge eating in primary care were given structured interviews to assess psychiatric disorders and eating disorder psychopathology and a battery of self-report measures including the YFAS to assess food addiction. Classification of food addiction was met by 41.5% (n=39) of BED patients. Patients classified as meeting YFAS food addiction criteria had significantly higher levels of negative affect, emotion dysregulation, and eating disorder psychopathology, and lower self-esteem. Higher scores on the YFAS were related to an earlier age of first being overweight and dieting onset. YFAS scores were also significant predictors of binge eating frequency above and beyond other measures. Compared to patients not classified as having food addiction, the subset of 41.5% of BED patients who met the YFAS food addiction cut-off appears to have a more severe presentation of BED and more associated pathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The key events dose-response framework: A foundation for examining variability in elicitation thresholds for food allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, S.L.; Gendel, S.M.; Houben, G.F.; Julien, E.

    2009-01-01

    Food allergies are caused by immunological reactions in individuals sensitized to normal protein components of foods. For any given sensitized individual, the severity of a reaction is generally assumed to be proportional to the dose of allergenic protein. There is substantial clinical evidence that

  4. Examining participation in relation to students’ development of health-related action competence in a school food setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, Dorte; Nielsen, Morten Kromann; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2016-01-01

    participation in LOMA contributed to students’ development of F&HRAC. The practical implication of this is that ‘setting’ is very important for the success of food- and health education initiatives. In this integrated approach the production kitchen and the dining hall are indispensable. Also the new...... skills that made students able to take action regarding food and health in everyday life. Methods: Research was undertaken as a single case study of the development of an integrated education and health program called LOMA-Local Food (LOMA) in a secondary school in Denmark. Qualitative methods were...... their own school food as integrated in curriculum. Research applied the Health Promoting Schools’ (HPS) conceptual framework and the IVACE approach. Findings: Findings suggest, that students who participated in LOMA educational activities became motivated for developing a food and health-related action...

  5. Application of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis to Investigate Corrosion Problems in Plain Tinplate Food Cans and Examine Glass and Glass-Like Particles Found in Canned Food

    OpenAIRE

    Charbonneau, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Microanalysis (EDS) have been used to investigate product container interaction problems in plain tinplate metal food containers and to examine glass and glass-like particles that were found in canned food. Through the use of SEM-EDS, it was determined that: sulfate containing particles from the cannery cooling water reacted with exposed iron or tin-iron alloy on the tinplate surface causing an external rusting problem; sulfur dioxide was respon...

  6. Determinants of Food Consumption During Pregnancy in Rural Bangladesh: Examination of Evaluative Data from the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaul Karim; Deepa Bhat; Lisa Troy; Sascha Lamstein; F. James Levinson

    2002-01-01

    The common practice of reducing food consumption during pregnancy is recognized as a primary cause of poor pregnancy outcomes and, in turn, malnutrition among young children in many developing countries including Bangladesh. This paper analyzes data from the 1998 Mid-Term Evaluation of the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project (BINP) to identify the determinants of pregnancy food consumption. The analysis found that information available to the mother (through project-based counseling) was ...

  7. Bone Mineral Density and Food-frequency in Korean Adults: The 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eui-Hyun; Noh, Hyoung; Lee, Hyang-Mee; Hwang, Hwan-Sik; Park, Hoon-Ki; Park, Yong-Soon

    2012-09-01

    Diet and Nutrition are important modulators of bone health in men and women. We investigated the associations between frequency of food intake among certain food groups and bone mineral density (BMD) in a large population of Korean adults. We used the data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008 to 2009. Participants were aged 20 years and over. BMDs were measured at lumbar spine and femoral neck with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary and supplement intakes were assessed by food-frequency questionnaire. We used multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the relationships between annual food-frequency of each food group and BMD. After adjustment of multiple covariates, femoral neck and lumbar BMD significantly increased as the frequency of fruit consumption increased in both men and women. Frequency of other carbohydrates consumption was significantly associated with greater femoral neck and lumbar BMD for women. Frequency of milk and dairy product consumption was significantly associated with greater femoral neck BMD in men. Other food groups, however, had no significant associations with BMDs. Frequent consumption of fruit has a positive association with BMDs in men and women. Milk and dairy products and other carbohydrates also had positive effects on BMD for men and women, respectively.

  8. Examination of community and consumer nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments at food and tobacco retail stores in three diverse North Carolina communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather D'Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To advance our understanding of multiple health-related dimensions of the built environment, this study examined associations among nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity community and consumer environments. Community environment measures included supermarket access, tobacco outlet density, and physical activity resource density in store neighborhoods. Cross-sectional observations of the nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments were conducted in 2011 at and around 303 food stores that sold tobacco products in three North Carolina counties. Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression were used to examine associations between community and consumer environments. Correlations between community nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity environments ranged from slight to fair (−0.35 to 0.20 and from poor to fair (−0.01 to −0.38 between consumer environments. Significant relationships between consumer tobacco and nutrition environments were found after controlling for store and neighborhood characteristics. For example, stores with higher amounts of interior tobacco marketing had higher healthy food availability (p = 0.001, while stores with higher amounts of exterior tobacco marketing had lower healthy food availability (p = 0.02. Community and consumer environments for nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity were interrelated. Measures that assess single aspects of community or consumer environments could miss characteristics that may influence customer purchasing. Even chain supermarkets, typically regarded as healthful food sources compared to smaller food stores, may expose customers to tobacco marketing inside. Future research could explore combining efforts to reduce obesity and tobacco use by addressing tobacco marketing, healthy food availability and physical activity opportunities at retail food outlets.

  9. Examination of community and consumer nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments at food and tobacco retail stores in three diverse North Carolina communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rose, Shyanika W.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    To advance our understanding of multiple health-related dimensions of the built environment, this study examined associations among nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity community and consumer environments. Community environment measures included supermarket access, tobacco outlet density, and physical activity resource density in store neighborhoods. Cross-sectional observations of the nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments were conducted in 2011 at and around 303 food stores that sold tobacco products in three North Carolina counties. Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression were used to examine associations between community and consumer environments. Correlations between community nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity environments ranged from slight to fair (− 0.35 to 0.20) and from poor to fair (− 0.01 to − 0.38) between consumer environments. Significant relationships between consumer tobacco and nutrition environments were found after controlling for store and neighborhood characteristics. For example, stores with higher amounts of interior tobacco marketing had higher healthy food availability (p = 0.001), while stores with higher amounts of exterior tobacco marketing had lower healthy food availability (p = 0.02). Community and consumer environments for nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity were interrelated. Measures that assess single aspects of community or consumer environments could miss characteristics that may influence customer purchasing. Even chain supermarkets, typically regarded as healthful food sources compared to smaller food stores, may expose customers to tobacco marketing inside. Future research could explore combining efforts to reduce obesity and tobacco use by addressing tobacco marketing, healthy food availability and physical activity opportunities at retail food outlets. PMID:26516620

  10. Energy intake from commercially-prepared meals by food source in Korean adults: Analysis of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Injoo; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The commercial foodservice industry in Korea has shown rapid growth recently. This study examined Korean adults' consumption of commercially-prepared meals based on where the food was prepared. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data from a 24-hour dietary recall of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. A total of 10,539 subjects (n = 6,152 in 2001; n = 4,387 in 2011) aged 19-64 years were included for analysis. Commercially-prepared meals were classified into four food source groups based on where the food was prepared: Korean restaurants, Chinese/Western/Japanese restaurants, fast-food restaurants, and retail stores. Subjects' energy intake, including the amount and proportion of calories, was examined for each food source. The analysis was also conducted by gender for age-stratified groups: 19-29, 30-49, and 50-64 years old. RESULTS Korean adults' energy intake from commercially-prepared meals increased in the amount of calories (551 kcal to 635 kcal, P food source of commercially-prepared meals was Korean restaurants in both years. The amount and proportion of calories from retail stores increased from 83 kcal to 143 kcal (P Korean adults consumed about one-fourth of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. In particular, males aged 30-49 years and females aged 19-29 years consumed more than one-third of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. Korean restaurants played a significant role in Korean adults' energy intake. Retail stores increased influence on Korean adults' energy intake. These results could be useful for developing health promotion policies and programs. PMID:28386389

  11. Examination of Food Choice Motives: The Influence of an Innovative, Interdisciplinary Learning Community Related to Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Kelly J.

    2014-01-01

    What and how much an individual eats largely defines his/her health. The most used dietary intervention models target individuals' concern for personal health, thereby undermining the interdisciplinary trajectory of the nutrition field. The purpose of this study was to compare the food choice motives of students enrolled in an interdisciplinary…

  12. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan P; Michaels, Helen J

    2017-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing. To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment. Nectar addition increased (p<0.0001) self-pollination and pollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (p<0.0001) numbers of non-self pollinia deposited and lower rates of pollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645) trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export. This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit set when compared with rewarding flowers.

  13. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Walsh

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing.To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment.Nectar addition increased (p<0.0001 self-pollination and pollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (p<0.0001 numbers of non-self pollinia deposited and lower rates of pollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645 trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export.This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit set when compared with

  14. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor L. Fulgoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332 in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy — milk (7% of energy and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%; protein — milk (13.2% and poultry (12.8%; total carbohydrate — soft drinks/soda (10.5% and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%; total sugars — soft drinks/soda (19.2% and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%; added sugars — soft drinks/soda (29.7% and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%; dietary fiber — fruit (10.4% and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%; total fat — cheese (9.3% and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%; saturated fatty acids — cheese (16.3% and milk (13.3%; cholesterol — eggs (24.2% and poultry (13.2%; vitamin D — milk (60.4% and milk drinks (8.3%; calcium — milk (33.2% and cheese (19.4%; potassium — milk (18.8% and fruit juice (8.0%; and sodium — salt (18.5% and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%. Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient

  15. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy—milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein—milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars—soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars—soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber—fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat—cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol—eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D—milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium—milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium—milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium—salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of

  16. Nutrients from dairy foods are difficult to replace in diets of Americans: food pattern modeling and an analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Auestad, Nancy; Quann, Erin E

    2011-10-01

    Because dairy products provide shortfall nutrients (eg, calcium, potassium, and vitamin D) and other important nutrients, this study hypothesized that it would be difficult for Americans to meet nutritional requirements for these nutrients in the absence of dairy product consumption or when recommended nondairy calcium sources are consumed. To test this hypothesis, MyPyramid dietary pattern modeling exercises and an analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were conducted in those aged at least 2 years (n = 16 822). Impact of adding or removing 1 serving of dairy, removing all dairy, and replacing dairy with nondairy calcium sources was evaluated. Dietary pattern modeling indicated that at least 3 servings of dairy foods are needed to help individuals meet recommendations for nutrients, such as calcium and magnesium, and 4 servings may be needed to help some groups meet potassium recommendations. A calcium-equivalent serving of dairy requires 1.1 servings of fortified soy beverage, 0.6 serving of fortified orange juice, 1.2 servings of bony fish, or 2.2 servings of leafy greens. The replacement of dairy with calcium-equivalent foods alters the overall nutritional profile of the diet and affects nutrients including protein, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, riboflavin, vitamins A, D and B(12). Similar modeling exercises using consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey also demonstrated that nondairy calcium replacement foods are not a nutritionally equivalent substitute for dairy products. In conclusion, although it is possible to meet calcium intake recommendations without consuming dairy foods, calcium replacement foods are not a nutritionally equivalent substitute for dairy foods and consumption of a calcium-equivalent amount of some nondairy foods is unrealistic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fermented food intake is associated with a reduced likelihood of atopic dermatitis in an adult population (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Bae, Ji-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has continuously increased throughout the world in every age group, and the recent increase in AD in Korean adults may be related to changes in nutrient intakes due to westernization of dietary patterns. We hypothesized that the prevalence of AD is associated with the different dietary patterns and fermented food intakes of the Korean adult population. We examined the hypothesis using 9763 adults 19 years or older using the 2012-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We identified 4 dietary patterns in addition to that including fermented foods using principal component analysis on data obtained from a 116-item validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire: meat and processed foods; vegetables, fruits, legumes, seafood, and seaweed; rice and grains; and coffee, chocolate, and ice cream. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for AD were calculated according to dietary patterns after adjusting for potential confounders. High levels of consumption (>92 times/month) of fermented foods such as doenjang, chungkookjang, kimchi, fermented seafood, makgeolli, and beer were associated with a lower prevalence of AD (OR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.84). In contrast, high levels of consumption of meat and processed foods were strongly associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.48-3.94). Interestingly, the consumption of coffee, chocolate, and ice cream was significantly negatively associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34-0.82). In conclusion, the hypothesis was accepted. The results can be applied to nutrition education programs for the general population to decrease risk factors for AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Examining the value of global seasonal reference evapotranspiration forecasts to support FEWS NET’s food insecurity outlooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McEvoy, Daniel; Hobbins, Michael; Husak, Gregory; Huntington, Justin; Funk, Chris; Macharia, Denis; Verdin, James P.

    2017-01-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) team provides food insecurity outlooks for several developing countries in Africa, Central Asia, and Central America. This study describes development of a new global reference evapotranspiration (ETo) seasonal reforecast and skill evaluation with a particular emphasis on the potential use of this dataset by the FEWS NET to support food insecurity early warning. The ETo reforecasts span the 1982-2009 period and are calculated following ASCE’s formulation of Penman-Monteith method driven by seasonal climate forecasts of monthly mean temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation from NCEP’s CFSv2 and NASA’s GEOS-5 models. The skill evaluation using deterministic and probabilistic scores, focuses on the December-February (DJF), March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA) and September-November (SON) seasons. The results indicate that ETo forecasts are a promising tool for early warning of drought and food insecurity. Globally, the regions where forecasts are most skillful (correlation >0.35 at lead-2) include Western U.S., northern parts of South America, parts of Sahel region and Southern Africa. The FEWS NET regions where forecasts are most skillful (correlation >0.35 at lead-3) include Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (DJF, dry season), Central America (DJF, dry season), parts of East Africa (JJA, wet Season), Southern Africa (JJA, dry season), and Central Asia (MAM, wet season). A case study over parts of East Africa for the JJA season shows that ETo forecasts in combination with the precipitation forecasts could have provided early warning of recent severe drought events (e.g., 2002, 2004, 2009) that contributed to substantial food insecurity in the region.

  19. Examination of food reward and energy intake under laboratory and free-living conditions in a trait binge eating subtype of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eDalton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Trait binge eating has been proposed as a ‘hedonic subtype’ of obesity characterised by enhanced food liking and wanting, and a preference for high-fat sweet foods in the laboratory. The current study examined the influence of trait binge eating in overweight or obese women on eating behaviour under laboratory and free-living conditions over a 48-hour period.Methods: In a matched pairs design, 24 overweight or obese females (BMI: 30.30 ± 2.60kg/m2; Age: 25.42 ± 3.65yrs with high or low scores on the Binge Eating Scale were divided into one of two groups; Obese Binge (O-B and Obese Non-binge (O-NB. Energy intake was assessed using combined laboratory energy intake measures and 24-hour dietary recall procedures. Liking and wanting were assessed using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire.Results: There was a significant association between overall energy consumed, and energy consumed from snack foods under laboratory and free-living conditions. O-B exhibited a greater preference for sweet snack foods in their laboratory and free-living eating behaviour. These findings were supported by greater laboratory-based measures of wanting and craving for this food type in O-B. In addition, O-B consumed significantly more energy than their estimated daily energy requirements in the laboratory suggesting that they over-consumed compared to O-NB.Conclusions: The measurement concordance between laboratory and free-living based energy intake supports the validity of laboratory-based test meal methodologies Variation in trait binge eating was associated with increased craving and wanting for high-fat sweet foods and overconsumption in the laboratory. These findings support the use of trait binge eating as a common hedonic subtype of obesity and extend the relevance of this subtype to habitual patterns of energy intake.

  20. Food Sources of Total Energy and Nutrients among U.S. Infants and Toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley A. Grimes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0–24 months. Data from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed in 2740 subjects using one 24-h dietary recall. The population proportion was used to determine the contribution of foods and beverages to nutrient intakes. Overall infant formulas and baby foods were the leading sources of total energy and nutrients in infants aged 0–11.9 months. In toddlers, the diversity of food groups contributing to nutrient intakes was much greater. Important sources of total energy included milk, 100% juice and grain based mixed dishes. A number of foods of low nutritional quality also contributed to energy intakes including sweet bakery products, sugar-sweetened beverages and savory snacks. Overall non-flavored milks and ready-to-eat cereals were the most important contributors to micronutrient intakes. In conclusion this information can be used to guide parents regarding appropriate food selection as well as inform targeted dietary strategies within public health initiatives to improve the diets of infants and toddlers.

  1. Examining the Association between Intervention-Related Changes in Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight as Moderated by the Food and Physical Activity Environments among Rural, Southern Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Johnston, Larry F; Evenson, Kelly R; McGuirt, Jared T; Gizlice, Ziya; Whitt, Olivia R; Ammerman, Alice S

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have been conducted in rural areas assessing the influence of community-level environmental factors on residents' success improving lifestyle behaviors. Our aim was to examine whether 6-month changes in diet, physical activity, and weight were moderated by the food and physical activity environment in a rural adult population receiving an intervention designed to improve diet and physical activity. We examined associations between self-reported and objectively measured changes in diet, physical activity, and weight, and perceived and objectively measured food and physical activity environments. Participants were followed for 6 months. Participants were enrolled in the Heart Healthy Lenoir Project, a lifestyle intervention study conducted in Lenoir County, located in rural southeastern North Carolina. Sample sizes ranged from 132 to 249, depending on the availability of the data. Participants received four counseling sessions that focused on healthy eating (adapted Mediterranean diet pattern) and increasing physical activity. Density of and distance to food and physical activity venues, modified food environment index, Walk Score, crime, and perceived nutrition and physical activity neighborhood barriers were the potential mediating factors. Diet quality, physical activity, and weight loss were the outcomes measured. Statistical analyses included correlation and linear regression and controlling for potential confounders (baseline values of the dependent variables, age, race, education, and sex). In adjusted analysis, there was an inverse association between weight change and the food environment, suggesting that participants who lived in a less-healthy food environment lost more weight during the 6-month intervention period (P=0.01). Also, there was a positive association between self-reported physical activity and distance to private gyms (P=0.04) and an inverse association between private gym density and pedometer-measured steps (P=0.03), indicating

  2. Examining within- and across-day relationships between transient and chronic stress and parent food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant population : Stress types and food-related parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Fertig, Angela; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Miner, Michael

    2018-01-16

    Although prior research suggests that stress may play a role in parent's use of food-related parenting practices, it is unclear whether certain types of stress (e.g., transient, chronic) result in different food-related parenting practices. Identifying whether and how transient (i.e., momentary; parent/child conflict) and chronic (i.e., long-term; unemployment >6 months) sources of stress are related to parent food-related parenting practices is important with regard to childhood obesity. This is particularly important within racially/ethnically diverse parents who may be more likely to experience both types of stress and who have higher levels of obesity and related health problems. The current study examined the association between transient and chronic stressors and food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant sample. The current study is a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Parents (mean age = 35; 95% mothers) of children ages 5-7 years old (n = 61) from six racial/ethnic groups (African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Hmong, Somali, White) participated in this ten-day in-home observation with families. Transient stressors, specifically interpersonal conflicts, had significant within-day effects on engaging in more unhealthful food-related parenting practices the same evening with across-day effects weakening by day three. In contrast, financial transient stressors had stronger across-day effects. Chronic stressors, including stressful life events were not consistently associated with more unhealthful food-related parenting practices. Transient sources of stress were significantly associated with food-related parenting practices in racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant households. Chronic stressors were not consistently associated with food-related parenting practices. Future research and interventions may want to assess for transient sources of stress in

  3. Examining Lead Exposures in California through State-Issued Health Alerts for Food Contamination and an Exposure-Based Candy Testing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Nelson, Kali; Sanford, Eric; Clarity, Cassidy; Emmons-Bell, Sophia; Gorukanti, Anuhandra; Kennelly, Patrick

    2017-10-26

    In California, the annual number of children under age 6 y of age with blood lead levels (BLL) ≥10μg/dL is estimated at over 1,000 cases, and up to 10,000 cases when BLL between 4.5 and 9.5 μg/dL are included. State-issued health alerts for food contamination provide one strategy for tracking sources of food-related lead exposures. As well, California passed legislation in 2006 for the Food and Drug Branch (FDB) of the state health department to test and identify lead in candy. This report presents health alert data from California over a 14-y period, compares data before and after the candy testing program began, and examines country of origin, ZIP code data, and time from candy testing to release of health alerts for lead-contaminated candies for 2011-2012. After 2007, health alerts issued for lead in candy and food increased significantly. Analysis of candy-testing data indicated that multiple counties and ZIP codes were affected. Seventeen candies with high lead concentrations were identified, resulting in rapid dissemination (candy testing programs provides an opportunity to identify and immediately act to remove nonpaint sources of lead affecting children. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2582.

  4. The Possible Antecedents and Consequences of Matching of Food Intake: Examining the Role of Trait Self-Esteem and Interpersonal Closeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Elizabeth; Lodder, Gerine M A; Kühnen, Ulrich; Lippke, Sonia; Hermans, Roel C J

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence that people tend to match their intake to that of others, less is known about the motives underlying this effect. The current study, therefore, examined the relationship between self-esteem, a specific factor that has been related to the likelihood of social matching. Further, we examined the effects of food matching on interpersonal closeness among eating companions. The sample included 89 female dyads. All dyads had free access to palatable snack food during a 15 min interaction. For each dyad the matching score was calculated, as well as both individual's trait self-esteem scores and interpersonal closeness with their eating partner. The overall degree of matching within dyads was high, replicating the findings of previous research. No relationship, however, was found between trait self-esteem and the degree of matching. Furthermore, there was no effect of matching on perceived interpersonal closeness with or liking of the other person. These results suggest that self-esteem might not be a robust predictor of matching and that matching of food intake may not result in increased perceived interpersonal closeness or liking among eating partners.

  5. The possible antecedents and consequences of matching of food intake:Examining the role of trait self-esteem and interpersonal closeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eHirata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there is evidence that people tend to match their intake to that of others, less is known about the motives underlying this effect. The current study, therefore, examined the relationship between self-esteem, a specific factor that has been related to the likelihood of social matching. Further, we examined the effects of food matching on interpersonal closeness among eating companions. The sample included 89 female dyads. All dyads had free access to palatable snack food during a 15 minutes interaction. For each dyad the matching score was calculated, as well as both individual’s trait self-esteem scores and interpersonal closeness with their eating partner. The overall degree of matching within dyads was high, replicating the findings of previous research. No relationship, however, was found between trait self-esteem and the degree of matching. Furthermore, there was no effect of matching on perceived interpersonal closeness with or liking of the other person. These results suggest that self-esteem might not be a robust predictor of matching and that matching of food intake may not result in increased perceived interpersonal closeness or liking among eating partners.

  6. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Hernandez, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. Preliminary results indicate a higher

  7. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Hernandez, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. Preliminary results indicate a higher

  8. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, M.A.; Gardebroek, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. The estimation results indicate a higher

  9. The Application of Waiting Lines System in Improving Customer Service Management: The Examination of Malaysia Fast Food Restaurants Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zurina; Shokor, Shahrul Suhaimi AB

    2016-03-01

    Rapid life time change of the Malaysian lifestyle had served the overwhelming growth in the service operation industry. On that occasion, this paper will provide the idea to improve the waiting line system (WLS) practices in Malaysia fast food chains. The study will compare the results in between the single server single phase (SSSP) and the single server multi-phase (SSMP) which providing Markovian Queuing (MQ) to be used for analysis. The new system will improve the current WLS, plus intensifying the organization performance. This new WLS were designed and tested in a real case scenario and in order to develop and implemented the new styles, it need to be focusing on the average number of customers (ANC), average number of customer spending time waiting in line (ACS), and the average time customers spend in waiting and being served (ABS). We introduced new WLS design and there will be prompt discussion upon theories of benefits and potential issues that will benefit other researchers.

  10. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  11. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Oh Yoen; Kwak, So Young; Cho, Yoonsu; Lee, Kyong Won; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2016-12-16

    Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation) and quality of life (QOL) among Koreans ( n = 5862, 20-64 years) using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012-2013). Household food security status was categorized as "food-secure household", "food-insecure household without hunger", and "food-insecure household with hunger". Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs) for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both "food-insecure household" groups. Both "food-insecure household" groups, particularly the "food-insecure household with hunger" group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52-3.83) and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49-3.92) than did the "food-secure household" group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans.

  12. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Oh Yoen; Kwak, So Young; Cho, Yoonsu; Lee, Kyong Won; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation) and quality of life (QOL) among Koreans (n = 5862, 20–64 years) using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012–2013). Household food security status was categorized as “food-secure household”, “food-insecure household without hunger”, and “food-insecure household with hunger”. Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs) for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both “food-insecure household” groups. Both “food-insecure household” groups, particularly the “food-insecure household with hunger” group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52–3.83) and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49–3.92) than did the “food-secure household” group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans. PMID:27999277

  13. Does breast-feeding reduce offspring junk food consumption during childhood? Examinations by socio-economic status and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Johnson, Kecia R

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether breast-feeding duration and socio-economic status (SES) interact to predict junk food consumption among offspring and whether the interaction differs across racial/ethnic groups. Survey research using a longitudinal panel design. Hierarchical linear regression was used to analyse the data. In-home interviews with the child's parents over a 5-year period across the USA. Approximately 10 000 American children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). The findings revealed that longer breast-feeding durations correspond to lower levels of junk food consumption, but that this relationship emerges consistently only among low-SES blacks. Efforts to promote breast-feeding among low-SES black women may have the added benefit of reducing their children's junk food intake, and may thereby promote their general health and well-being. Future research should seek to explore the mechanisms by which breast-feeding might benefit the dietary habits of low-SES black children.

  14. Ten-year trends in fiber and whole grain intakes and food sources for the United States population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Carla R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Devareddy, Latha

    2015-02-09

    Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n=14,973) and adults (n=24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19-50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001-2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19-50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001-2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population.

  15. Ten-Year Trends in Fiber and Whole Grain Intakes and Food Sources for the United States Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. McGill

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG. This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973 and adults (n = 24,809. Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1 g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19–50 years (y was 16.1 (±0.2 g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2 g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001–2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01 oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19–50 y was 0.61 (±0.02 oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02 oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001–2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%, grain mixtures (16.3%, other foods (15.8% and fruits (11.3%. For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%, other foods (14.3%, grain mixtures (12.0% and fruits (11.1%. Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC (31%, yeast breads/rolls (21% and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%. The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%, RTEC (23% and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%. Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S. population.

  16. Family Meal Frequency and Association with Household Food Availability in United States Multi-Person Households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Newman

    Full Text Available Family meals are associated with a healthier diet among children and adolescents, but how family meal frequency varies in the U.S. population overall by household food availability and sociodemographic characteristics is not well characterized.The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 assessed the frequency of family meals eaten at home in the past week and the household availability of fruits, dark green vegetables, salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages.Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with a selected adult (≥18 years who owned or rented the home (i.e., the household reference person.We analyzed information on family meal frequency for 18,031 participants living in multi-person households in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and food availability.Among the U.S. population living in households of two or more individuals, the prevalence (95% confidence interval of having 0-2, 3-6 and ≥7 family meals/week was 18.0% (16.6-19.3, 32.4% (31.0-33.9, and 49.6% (47.8-51.4, respectively. Greater household availability of fruits and dark green vegetables and less availability of salty snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with more frequent family meals. Family meals were more prevalent in low-income households and those in which the reference person was ≥65 years, married, or had less than high school education.About half of the US population living in households of 2 or more people shares meals frequently with their family at home. Family meal frequency was positively associated with a healthier pattern of household food availability.

  17. Family Meal Frequency and Association with Household Food Availability in United States Multi-Person Households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sarah L.; Tumin, Rachel; Andridge, Rebecca; Anderson, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Family meals are associated with a healthier diet among children and adolescents, but how family meal frequency varies in the U.S. population overall by household food availability and sociodemographic characteristics is not well characterized. Design The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 assessed the frequency of family meals eaten at home in the past week and the household availability of fruits, dark green vegetables, salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Setting Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with a selected adult (≥18 years) who owned or rented the home (i.e., the household reference person). Subjects We analyzed information on family meal frequency for 18,031 participants living in multi-person households in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and food availability. Results Among the U.S. population living in households of two or more individuals, the prevalence (95% confidence interval) of having 0–2, 3–6 and ≥7 family meals/week was 18.0% (16.6–19.3), 32.4% (31.0–33.9), and 49.6% (47.8–51.4), respectively. Greater household availability of fruits and dark green vegetables and less availability of salty snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with more frequent family meals. Family meals were more prevalent in low-income households and those in which the reference person was ≥65 years, married, or had less than high school education. Conclusions About half of the US population living in households of 2 or more people shares meals frequently with their family at home. Family meal frequency was positively associated with a healthier pattern of household food availability. PMID:26636976

  18. An examination of the effects of subthalamic nucleus inhibition or μ-opioid receptor stimulation on food-directed motivation in the non-deprived rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Wayne E; Choi, Eugene; Guy, Elizabeth G

    2012-05-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) serves important functions in regulating movement, cognition, and motivation and is connected with cortical and basal ganglia circuits that process reward and reinforcement. In order to further examine the role of the STN on motivation toward food in non-deprived rats, these experiments studied the effects of pharmacological inhibition or μ-opioid receptor stimulation of the STN on the 2-h intake of a sweetened fat diet, the amount of work exerted to earn sucrose on a progressive ratio 2 (PR-2) schedule of reinforcement, and performance on a differential reinforcement of low-rate responding (DRL) schedule for sucrose reward. Separate behavioral groups (N=6-9) were tested following bilateral inhibition of the STN with the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (at 0-5 ng/0.5 μl/side) or following μ-opioid receptor stimulation with the agonist D-Ala², N-MePhe⁴, Gly-ol-enkephalin (DAMGO; at 0, 0.025 or 0.25 μg/0.5 μl/side). Although STN inhibition increased ambulatory behavior during 2-h feeding sessions, it did not significantly alter intake of the sweetened fat diet. STN inhibition also did not affect the breakpoint for sucrose pellets during a 1-h PR-2 reinforcement schedule or impact the number of reinforcers earned on a 1-h DRL-20s reinforcement schedule in non-deprived rats. In contrast, STN μ-opioid receptor stimulation significantly increased feeding on the palatable diet and reduced the reinforcers earned on a DRL-20 schedule, although DAMGO microinfusions had no effect on PR-2 performance. These data suggest that STN inhibition does not enhance incentive motivation for food in the absence of food restriction and that STN μ-opioid receptors play an important and unique role in motivational processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  20. Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  1. Grain Foods Are Contributors of Nutrient Density for American Adults and Help Close Nutrient Recommendation Gaps: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Yanni; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2017-08-14

    The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2015-2020 DGA) maintains recommendations for increased consumption of whole grains while limiting intake of enriched/refined grains. A variety of enriched grains are sources of several shortfall nutrients identified by 2015-2020 DGA, including dietary fiber, folate, iron, and magnesium. The purpose of this study was to determine food sources of energy and nutrients for free-living U.S. adults using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012. Analyses of grain food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected in adults ≥19 years of age ( n = 10,697). Sources of nutrients contained in all grain foods were determined using United States Department of Agriculture nutrient composition databases and the food grouping scheme for grains (excluding mixed dishes). Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from various grain food groups were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. All grains provided 285 ± 5 kcal/day or 14 ± 0.2% kcal/day in the total diet in adult ≥19 years of age. In the total daily diet, the grain category provided 7.2 ± 0.2% (4.9 ± 0.1 g/day) total fat, 5.4 ± 0.2% (1.1 ± 0.03 g/day) saturated fat, 14.6 ± 0.3% (486 ± 9 mg/day) sodium, 7.9 ± 0.2% (7.6 ± 0.2 g/day) total sugar, 22.8 ± 0.4% (3.9 ± 0.1 g/day) dietary fiber, 13.2 ± 0.3% (122 ± 3 mg/day) calcium, 33.6 ± 0.5% (219 ± 4 mcg dietary folate equivalents (DFE)/day) folate, 29.7 ± 0.4% (5.3 ± 0.1 mg/day) iron, and 13.9 ± 0.3% (43.7 ± 1.1 mg/day) magnesium. Individual grain category analyses showed that breads, rolls and tortillas and ready-to-eat cereals provided minimal kcal/day in the total diet in men and women ≥19 years of age. Similarly, breads, rolls and tortillas, and ready-to-eat cereals supplied meaningful contributions of shortfall nutrients, including dietary fiber, folate and iron, while concurrently providing minimal amounts of nutrients to

  2. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Kyung Chung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation and quality of life (QOL among Koreans (n = 5862, 20–64 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012–2013. Household food security status was categorized as “food-secure household”, “food-insecure household without hunger”, and “food-insecure household with hunger”. Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both “food-insecure household” groups. Both “food-insecure household” groups, particularly the “food-insecure household with hunger” group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52–3.83 and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49–3.92 than did the “food-secure household” group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans.

  3. Examination of the roles and capacities of duty bearers responsible for protecting the human rights to adequate food, nutritional health and wellbeing in Ugandan children's homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Monica; Rukooko, Archangel Byaruhanga; Iversen, Per Ole; Andreassen, Bård A

    2018-04-17

    The majority of Ugandan children face vulnerability and malnutrition. As a State Party to international human rights treaties, Uganda has legal obligations of guaranteeing the fundamental rights and the best interest of the nation's children. Despite being protected under international and national law, Uganda is not providing adequate child protection, including safeguarding children's food security. Numerous privately owned and unregulated children's homes face this problem. The overall aim of the study was to examine to what extent children's homes' operations are consistent with the right to adequate food, nutritional health and wellbeing of children. We performed a qualitative role- and capacity analysis of duty bearers with human rights duties towards children living in children's homes. We studied three groups of duty bearers: caretakers working in private children's homes, State actors working in government and its institutions, and non-State actors working in civil society organizations. A human rights based approach guided all aspects of the study. An analysis of the roles, performance and capacities of duty bearers was employed, with individual face-to-face structured qualitative in-depth interviews, self-administered structured questionnaires, and a structured observational study, as well as a desk review of relevant literature. The State of Uganda's efforts to respect and realize its obligations towards children living in children's homes is inadequate. There are numerous capacity gaps among the duty bearers, and the concepts of human rights and the best interest of the child are not well understood among the duty bearers. The efforts of the State of Uganda to realize its human rights obligations towards children in children's homes are lacking in important areas. Hence the State does not fulfill its minimum obligations under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to ensure all children freedom from hunger. There is a need

  4. The effects of acclimation to the United States and other demographic factors on responses to salt levels in foods: An examination utilizing face reader technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrihard, Adrian L; Khair, Mohamad B; Blumberg, Renata; Feldman, Charles H; Wunderlich, Shahla M

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of extended time in the United States (as defined as a continuous period greater than two years; referred to hereafter as "US Acclimated"), as well as other demographic factors, on the level of net positive response of consumers to different salt levels in food samples. One hundred panelists were recruited, including 50 meeting our US acclimation criterion. Panelists assessed samples of potatoes with five different levels of salt concentrations, and the levels of their net positive responses were evaluated with FaceReader technology (Noldus). The data of our study showed a significant positive association between US Acclimated participants and the level of net positive response to samples with higher salt contents. This interaction remained statistically significant even when modeling the effects with consideration of race/ethnicity and gender. Another notable outcome was the unexpected significant interaction between gender and US acclimation in regards to evaluated positive response across all salt concentrations (US Acclimated females demonstrating substantially and significant higher levels of positive response than US Acclimated males). The association between living in the United States and showing more positive response to higher salt contents is consistent with many persistent characterizations of the eating habits in the United States, but it is not in fact well explained by the most recent data regarding the observed levels of average sodium consumption across worldwide geographical regions. The results of this study may be demonstrating evidence of underlying as-yet-unknown factors contributing to the responses of consumers to salt levels in foods. Further examination of these possible factors may well be warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Systematic examination of publicly-available information reveals the diverse and extensive corporate political activity of the food industry in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background The political influence of the food industry, referred to as corporate political activity (CPA), represents a potential barrier to the development and implementation of effective public health policies for non-communicable diseases prevention. This paper reports on the feasibility and limitations of using publicly-available information to identify and monitor the CPA of the food industry in Australia. Methods A systematic search was conducted for information from food industry, gov...

  6. Systematic examination of publicly-available information reveals the diverse and extensive corporate political activity of the food industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary

    2016-03-22

    The political influence of the food industry, referred to as corporate political activity (CPA), represents a potential barrier to the development and implementation of effective public health policies for non-communicable diseases prevention. This paper reports on the feasibility and limitations of using publicly-available information to identify and monitor the CPA of the food industry in Australia. A systematic search was conducted for information from food industry, government and other publicly-available data sources in Australia. Data was collected in relation to five key food industry actors: the Australian Food and Grocery Council; Coca Cola; McDonald's; Nestle; and Woolworths, for the period January 2012 to February 2015. Data analysis was guided by an existing framework for classifying CPA strategies of the food industry. The selected food industry actors used multiple CPA strategies, with 'information and messaging' and 'constituency building' strategies most prominent. The systematic analysis of publicly-available information over a limited period was able to identify diverse and extensive CPA strategies of the food industry in Australia. This approach can contribute to accountability mechanisms for NCD prevention.

  7. Systematic examination of publicly-available information reveals the diverse and extensive corporate political activity of the food industry in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Mialon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The political influence of the food industry, referred to as corporate political activity (CPA, represents a potential barrier to the development and implementation of effective public health policies for non-communicable diseases prevention. This paper reports on the feasibility and limitations of using publicly-available information to identify and monitor the CPA of the food industry in Australia. Methods A systematic search was conducted for information from food industry, government and other publicly-available data sources in Australia. Data was collected in relation to five key food industry actors: the Australian Food and Grocery Council; Coca Cola; McDonald’s; Nestle; and Woolworths, for the period January 2012 to February 2015. Data analysis was guided by an existing framework for classifying CPA strategies of the food industry. Results The selected food industry actors used multiple CPA strategies, with ‘information and messaging’ and ‘constituency building’ strategies most prominent. Conclusions The systematic analysis of publicly-available information over a limited period was able to identify diverse and extensive CPA strategies of the food industry in Australia. This approach can contribute to accountability mechanisms for NCD prevention.

  8. An explorative cross-sectional study examining self-reported health and nutritional status of disadvantaged people using food banks in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depa, Julia; Hilzendegen, Carolin; Tinnemann, Peter; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2015-11-24

    Even in high-income countries some population groups depend on food banks to support their food intake. We aimed to explore and compare health and nutritional status of food bank clients (Tafel e.V.) in different cities in Germany. In a cross-sectional study, self-reported health and nutritional status of food bank clients living in three cities (Berlin - capital, Ludwigsburg- affluent city, Fulda - small town) which differ in size, available income and poverty rate, were assessed and compared to survey variables of the low socioeconomic status population of national surveys (DEGS and GEDA). Across cities, food bank clients (N = 276, response rate of 21.5 %) did not differ in main socio-demographic characteristics (age, nationality, education, professional qualification, household income). Smoking, having at least one chronic illness, estimating their own health status as moderate to poor and low consumption of fruits and vegetables were common characteristics. Comparing selected variables with the low socioeconomic status population of DEGS and GEDA, differences were found for a higher prevalence of diabetes among food bank clients and a worse self-reported health status. Considerably lower fruit consumption and lower hypertension prevalence among female and lower overweight rates among male food bank clients were found. Although people using food banks vary in socio-demographic background, no differences for main demographics across the cities were found. In addition, the study suggests that for some health- and nutrition-related variables, national surveys in Germany might underestimate socioeconomic differences.

  9. Food products qualifying for and carrying front-of-pack symbols: a cross-sectional study examining a manufacturer led and a non-profit organization led program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Teri E; Cohen, Joanna E; Lou, Wendy Y; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2013-09-13

    Concern has been raised that the coexistence of multiple front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition rating systems in a marketplace may mislead consumers into believing that a specific food with a FOP is 'healthier' than foods without the symbol. Eleven summary indicator FOP systems are in use in Canada, including one non-profit developed system, the Heart and Stroke Foundation's Health Check™, and ten manufacturer-developed systems, like Kraft's Sensible Solutions™. This study evaluated FOP's potential to mislead consumers by comparing the number of products qualifying to carry a given FOP symbol to the number of products that actually carry the symbol. The nutritional criteria for the Health Check™ and the Sensible Solutions™ systems were applied to a 2010-2011 Canadian national database of packaged food products. The proportion of foods qualifying for a given FOP system was compared to the proportion carrying the symbol using McNemar's test. Criteria were available to categorize 7503 and 3009 of the 10,487 foods in the database under Health Check™ and Sensible Solutions™, respectively. Overall 45% of the foods belonging to a Health Check™ category qualified for Health Check's™ symbol, while only 7.5% of the foods carried the symbol. Up to 79.1% of the foods belonging to a Sensible Solutions™, category qualified for Sensible Solutions's™ symbol while only 4.1% of the foods carried the symbol. The level of agreement between products qualifying for and carrying FOP systems was poor to moderate in the majority of food categories for both systems. More than 75% of the products in 24 of the 85 Health Check™ subcategories and 9 of 11 Sensible Solution™ categories/subcategories qualified for their respective symbols based on their nutritional composition. FOP systems as they are currently applied are not, in most instances, a useful guide to identifying healthier food products in the supermarket as many more products qualify for these systems than the number

  10. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  11. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Park, Keigan; Auestad, Nancy

    2013-08-08

    The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003-2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to "as consumed" food categorizations. Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient sources into account so as not to have the unintended

  12. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Objective Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Methods Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003–2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. Results No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to “as consumed” food categorizations. Conclusions Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient

  13. Food Anxieties: Issues for the Food Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Denise

    2009-01-01

    People have become obsessed with the harmful effects of eating (Rozin, 1999) and are experiencing ‘food anxiety’, a by-product of modern food. The aim of this research was to explore the nature of food anxiety in Ireland and the potential implications for the food sector. The research objectives were to determine the range of issues causing food anxiety in Irish consumers; to investigate the impact of food anxiety on food choice behaviour; to examine the potential of food anxiety as a segment...

  14. Grain Foods Are Contributors of Nutrient Density for American Adults and Help Close Nutrient Recommendation Gaps: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009?2012

    OpenAIRE

    Papanikolaou, Yanni; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2017-01-01

    The 2015?2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2015-2020 DGA) maintains recommendations for increased consumption of whole grains while limiting intake of enriched/refined grains. A variety of enriched grains are sources of several shortfall nutrients identified by 2015-2020 DGA, including dietary fiber, folate, iron, and magnesium. The purpose of this study was to determine food sources of energy and nutrients for free-living U.S. adults using data from the National Health and Nutrition Exa...

  15. Certain Grain Foods Can Be Meaningful Contributors to Nutrient Density in the Diets of U.S. Children and Adolescents: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Papanikolaou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Grain foods may play an important role in delivering nutrients to the diet of children and adolescents. The present study determined grain food sources of energy/nutrients in U.S. children and adolescents using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012. Analyses of grain food sources were conducted using a 24-h recall in participants 2–18 years old (N = 6109. Sources of nutrients contained in grain foods were determined using U.S. Department of Agriculture nutrient composition databases and excluded mixed dishes. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from various grain foods were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. All grains provided 14% ± 0.2% kcal/day (263 ± 5 kcal/day, 22.5% ± 0.3% (3 ± 0.1 g/day dietary fiber, 39.3% ± 0.5% (238 ± 7 dietary folate equivalents (DFE/day folate and 34.9% ± 0.5% (5.6 ± 0.1 mg/day iron in the total diet in children and adolescents. The current analyses showed that certain grain foods, in particular breads, rolls and tortillas, ready-to-eat cereals and quick breads and bread products, are meaningful contributors of folate, iron, thiamin, niacin and dietary fiber, a nutrient of public health concern as outlined by the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Thus, specific grain foods contribute to nutrient density and have the potential to increase the consumption of several under-consumed nutrients in children and adolescents.

  16. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  17. Examination of food chain-derived Listeria monocytogenes strains of different serotypes reveals considerable diversity in inlA genotypes, mutability, and adaptation to cold temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Jovana; Arguedas-Villa, Carolina; Wozniak, Anna; Tasara, Taurai; Allen, Kevin J

    2013-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes strains belonging to serotypes 1/2a and 4b are frequently linked to listeriosis. While inlA mutations leading to premature stop codons (PMSCs) and attenuated virulence are common in 1/2a, they are rare in serotype 4b. We observed PMSCs in 35% of L. monocytogenes isolates (n = 54) recovered from the British Columbia food supply, including serotypes 1/2a (30%), 1/2c (100%), and 3a (100%), and a 3-codon deletion (amino acid positions 738 to 740) seen in 57% of 4b isolates from fish-processing facilities. Caco-2 invasion assays showed that two isolates with the deletion were significantly more invasive than EGD-SmR (P cold temperature following a downshift from 37°C to 4°C. Overall, three distinct cold-adapting groups (CAG) were observed: 46% were fast (200 h) adaptors. Intermediate CAG strains (70%) more frequently possessed inlA PMSCs than did fast (20%) and slow (10%) CAGs; in contrast, 87% of fast adaptors lacked inlA PMSCs. In conclusion, we report food chain-derived 1/2a and 4b serotypes with a 3-codon deletion possessing invasive behavior and the novel association of inlA genotypes encoding a full-length InlA with fast cold-adaptation phenotypes.

  18. Why do consumers deviate from best microbiological food safety advice? An examination of 'high-risk' consumers on the island of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Mary; McCarthy, Mary; Ritson, Christopher

    2007-09-01

    The objectives of this paper are 2-fold, firstly to profile and identify 'high risk' demographic groups on the island of Ireland and secondly to investigate, with these groups, their knowledge of microbiological food safety and the microbiological food safety handling and preparation behaviours they engage in. A representative survey (n=1025) was undertaken with quotas for age and social class. There was a total of 73 sampling points. Four 'high-risk' groups were identified using univariate analysis of variance: (1) 18-34 single males, non-students, without home economics training; (2) 18-24-year-old female homemakers without home economics training; (3) 45+ female homemakers with home economics training; and (4) 65+ males who are either widowed/divorced/separated (W/D/S). Time and financial constraints limited the number of groups (1/3/4), which could be qualitatively investigated in a meaningful way to 3. The findings indicated that these 'high-risk' groups were willing to engage in a range of behaviours that deviate from best practise guidelines. Personal (overconfidence; lack of interest), environmental (technological) and lifestyle (time and energy investment) characteristics were identified as the source cause of such deviating behaviour.

  19. Food porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on.

  20. Preliminary examination of food web structure of Nicola Lake (Taim Hydrological System, south Brazil using dual C and N stable isotope analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre M. Garcia

    Full Text Available Taim Ecological Reserve is located within the Taim Hydrological System and was created to protect a heterogeneous and productive landscape harboring exceptional biological diversity in southern Brazil. Using stable isotope ratio analyses of carbon (delta13C and nitrogen (delta15N, we provide a preliminary description of the food web structure, including estimates of production sources supporting fish populations and vertical trophic structure, within a representative lake of this system. A total of 21 organisms (5 macrophytes, 3 mollusks and 13 adult fishes representing 16 species were collected for isotope analysis. Fishes had delta13C values ranging from -24.30º/oo to -28.31º/oo , showing concordance with the range of values observed for macrophytes (-25.49 to -27.10º/oo, and suggesting that these plants could be a major carbon source supporting these fishes. delta13C signatures of Corbicula (-30.81º/oo and Pomacea (-24.26º/oo indirectly suggest that phytoplankton and benthic algae could be alternative carbon sources for some consumers. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicated approximately three consumer trophic levels. The pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis was a primary consumer. Two catfishes (Trachelyopterus lucenai and Loricariichthys anus were secondary consumers. Two congeneric pike cichclids (Crenicichla lepidota and C. punctata, a catfish (Pimelodus maculatus and the characids Astyanax fasciatus and Oligosarcus robustus were tertiary consumers. Further studies including additional primary producers and consumers and greater sample numbers should be conducted to provide a more complete and detailed description of food web structure and dynamics within the reserve.

  1. The Possible Antecedents and Consequences of Matching of Food Intake: Examining the Role of Trait Self-Esteem and Interpersonal Closeness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirata, E.; Lodder, G.M.A.; Kühnen, U.; Lippke, S.; Hermans, R.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence that people tend to match their intake to that of others, less is known about the motives underlying this effect. The current study, therefore, examined the relationship between self-esteem, a specific factor that has been related to the likelihood of social matching.

  2. The Possible Antecedents and Consequences of Matching of Food Intake : Examining the Role of Trait Self-Esteem and Interpersonal Closeness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirata, Elizabeth; Lodder, Gerine M.A.; Kühnen, Ulrich; Lippke, Sonia; Hermans, Roel C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence that people tend to match their intake to that of others, less is known about the motives underlying this effect. The current study, therefore, examined the relationship between self-esteem, a specific factor that has been related to the likelihood of social matching.

  3. Are overeating and food addiction related to distress tolerance? An examination of residents with obesity from a U.S. metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Andrea T; Davis, Jessica; Brown, Ryan; Grabowski, Matthew

    Low distress tolerance (DT) is an inability to handle negative emotions. There is strong support for the connection between low DT and substance addiction, which suggests that the former might be related to food addiction (FA). Previous work found that low DT was related to overeating in a college sample. The current study had two primary aims: (1) to determine whether low DT is associated with overeating in a sample of participants with diverse races and incomes, and (2) to investigate the relationships among DT and body mass index (BMI) as well as DT and FA symptoms. DT as a moderator of the association between general overeating and FA was also explored. One hundred and ninety residents of Metropolitan Detroit communities (mean age: 41.71; 45.8% male; 34.7% non-White race; 47.4% with obesity) completed the DT Scale, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, and Yale FA Scale. BMI was based on measured weight and height. After adjusting for covariates, linear regression models found significant negative relationships between DT and emotional eating (Povereating, those with low DT reported more FA symptoms than those with high DT. These findings suggest interventions targeting low DT should be considered to reduce overeating, which is a precursor and maintenance factor of obesity and FA. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.; Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment [fr

  5. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  6. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  7. A randomized crossover, pilot study examining the effects of a normal protein vs. high protein breakfast on food cravings and reward signals in overweight/obese "breakfast skipping", late-adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoertel, Heather A; Will, Matthew J; Leidy, Heather J

    2014-08-06

    This pilot study examined whether the addition of a normal protein (NP) vs. high protein (HP) breakfast leads to alterations in food cravings and plasma homovanillic acid (HVA), which is an index of central dopamine production, in overweight/obese 'breakfast skipping' late-adolescent young women. A randomized crossover design was incorporated in which 20 girls (age 19 ± 1 y; BMI 28.6 ± 0.7 kg/m2) consumed 350 kcal NP (13 g protein) breakfast meals, 350 kcal HP (35 g protein) breakfast meals, or continued breakfast skipping (BS) for 6 consecutive days/pattern. On day 7 of each pattern, a 4 h testing day was completed including the consumption of breakfast (or no breakfast) followed by food craving questionnaires and blood sampling for HVA concentrations throughout the morning. Both breakfast meals reduced post-meal cravings for sweet and savory foods and increased HVA concentrations vs. BS (all, p vs. NP (p = 0.08) and tended to elicit sustained increases in HVA concentrations prior to lunch vs. NP (p = 0.09). Lastly, HVA concentrations were positively correlated with the protein content at breakfast (r: 0.340; p < 0.03). Collectively, these findings suggest that the addition of breakfast reduces post-meal food cravings and increases homovanillic acid concentrations in overweight/obese young people with higher protein versions eliciting greater responses.

  8. An Examination of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire Performance in a Countrywide American Sample of Children: Cross-Cultural Differences in Age and Impact in the United States and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DunnGalvin, Audrey; Koman, Elizabeth; Raver, Elizabeth; Frome, Hayley; Adams, Melissa; Keena, Aisleen; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Gallagher, Patricia Leahy; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine; Dubois, Anthony; Pyrz, Katarzyna; Bindslev-Jensen, Cartsen; Stensgaard, Anette; Boyle, Robert; Vickers, Bea; Smith, Jared; Thisanayagam, Umasunthar; Greenhawt, Matthew

    It is important to ensure that tools are valid and reliable in the context in which they are used. The development of age and country norms is part of this process. The primary aim of the present study was to examine the performance of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF) in a countrywide American sample of children with food allergy. The secondary aim was to compare age differences in impact across 9 European countries. In a cross-sectional quantitative design, questionnaires were completed by the parents of 1029 food-allergic children (0-12 years). Participants were recruited via support groups and allergists. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis of variance and tests for internal consistency and validity. The average score was calculated for each age group in 15 studies in Ireland, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Italy, Denmark, Israel, and the United Kingdom. The FAQLQ-PF has high convergent validity (child: r = 0.49, n = 695, P = .01; parent: r = 0.36, n = 696, P = .01) and discriminant validity, parent: t (719) = 4.67, P = .001 (anaphylaxis yes vs no); t (513), P = .009 (single vs multiple allergens). Internal consistency was excellent (r = 0.96). US health-related quality of life was worse than European health-related quality of life, as indicated by higher FAQLQ-PF scores in US samples. Burden increased with age in all populations. The FAQLQ-PF is appropriate for use in an American population. Findings will form the basis for further work in the development of an online manual with food allergy-normed age scores to allow for precise measurement, interpretation of scores, and comparison across countries and cultures, in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Materialism and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M W; Wilson, M

    2005-12-01

    The present studies examined if materialists have an elevated concern about food availability, presumably stemming from a general survival security motivation. Study 1 found that materialists set a greater life goal of food security, and reported more food insecurity during their childhood. Materialists reported less present-day food insecurity. Study 2 revealed that materialists stored/hoarded more food at home, and that obese persons endorsed materialism more than low/normal weight persons. Study 3 found that experimentally decreasing participants' feelings of survival security (via a mortality salience manipulation) led to greater endorsement of materialism, food security as goal, and using food for emotional comfort. The results imply that materialists overcame the food insecurity of their childhood by making food security a top life goal, but that materialists' current concerns about food security may not wholly stem from genuine threats to their food supply.

  10. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data ...

  11. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  12. Nondestructive examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mletzko, U.

    1980-01-01

    Visual examination is treated as a method for the control of size and shape of components, surface quality and weld performance. Dye penetrant, magnetic particle and eddy current examinations are treated as methods for the evaluation of surface defects and material properties. The limitations to certain materials, defect sizes and types are shown. (orig./RW)

  13. Food Allergies: Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a few common questions about food label requirements. What foods are labeled? Domestic or imported packaged food is ... allergens found in flavorings, colorings or other additives. What foods aren't labeled? Fresh produce, eggs, fresh meat ...

  14. Determinants of Food Heritage towards Food Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilah Md Ramli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies on traditional food and food products towards identity have been carried out, but there is insufficient study relating to heritage context. In exploring this issue, conceptual frameworks have developed and examined the relationship between the determinants of food heritage and food identity. A total of 898 self-administered questionnaires were collected from the public in Klang Valley area, Malaysia and using statistical analysis using partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM from PLS 3 software to established the validity and reliability of the model as well as the relationship between the two factors. Results revealed that there are eight construct determinants of food heritage and one construct of food identity that represent the conceptual model, and there is a moderate relationship between the two variables.

  15. Ear examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the side, or the child's head may rest against an adult's chest. Older children and adults may sit with the head tilted toward the shoulder opposite the ear being examined. The provider will ...

  16. Relationship Between Plant Food (Fruits, Vegetables, and Kimchi) Consumption and the Prevalence of Rhinitis Among Korean Adults: Based on the 2011 and 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Suk; Park, Yoo-Kyung; Chang, Hye-Ja; Ju, Se-Young

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationship between plant food (fruits, vegetables, and kimchi) and the prevalence of rhinitis among Korean adults using data from the 2011 and 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 7494 subjects aged from 19 to 64 years participated in a rhinitis morbidity survey, health behavior interview, and 24-h dietary recall test. Individuals with energy intakes less than 500 kcal or more than 5000 kcal were excluded. The results showed that kimchi intake was inversely associated with the prevalence of rhinitis. The prevalence of rhinitis decreased with increasing kimchi consumption. The quintile 4 (range of kimchi intake: 108.0-180.0 g) groups, compared with the reference of quintile 1 (0-23.7 g), showed a decrease of 18.9% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.811, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.672-0.979) in Model 4. In conclusion, consumption of kimchi lowers the risk of rhinitis, suggesting that its use should be encouraged among the Korean population.

  17. High proportions of foods recommended for consumption by United States Dietary Guidance contain solid fats and added sugar: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that individuals older than one year reduce intakes of solid fats (SoF) and added sugars (AS; together SoFAS). MyPlate, illustrates the proportions of five major food groups to promote healthy eating (Vegetables, Grains, Protein Foods, Fruit...

  18. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  20. Prison Food Law

    OpenAIRE

    Naim, Cyrus

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the history and current framework of prison food law. Whereas food law generally is the result of a complex maze of national, state, and local statutory and regulatory law, prison food is primarily regulated by the courts through adjudication of the Eighth Amendment prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment. This discrepancy is explained by the very different political realities faced by prison reform. At the same time, the result is both ineffective and counterproductiv...

  1. Preventing food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  2. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intolerant to it. Some of the symptoms of food intolerance and food allergy are similar, but the differences ... actually caused by other conditions such as a food intolerance. Skin tests and blood tests are often ordered. ...

  3. Food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, food additives, such as dyes, thickeners, and preservatives can cause a food allergy or intolerance reaction. ... food allergies. During this test, you and your health care provider will not know what you are ...

  4. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin (because of low blood pressure), or lose consciousness. The most common chronic illnesses associated with food ... Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight ...

  5. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002435.htm Food additives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food additives are substances that become part of a food ...

  6. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... for the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Protein Choices Plant-Based Proteins Plant-based protein foods ...

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  8. Examining the Frequency and Contribution of Foods Eaten Away From Home in the Diets of 18- to 30-Year-Old Australians Using Smartphone Dietary Assessment (MYMeals): Protocol for a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard-Cole, Lyndal; Jung, Jisu; Kay, Judy; Rangan, Anna; Chapman, Kathy; Watson, Wendy L; Hughes, Clare; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Bauman, Adrian; Gemming, Luke; Yacef, Kalina; Koprinska, Irena; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2018-01-26

    Young Australians aged between 18 and 30 years have experienced the largest increase in the body mass index and spend the largest proportion of their food budget on fast food and eating out. Frequent consumption of foods purchased and eaten away from home has been linked to poorer diet quality and weight gain. There has been no Australian research regarding quantities, type, or the frequency of consumption of food prepared outside the home by young adults and its impact on their energy and nutrient intakes. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contributions of different food outlets (eg, fast food chain, independent takeaway food store, coffee shop, etc) to the overall food and beverage intake of young adults; to assess the extent to which food and beverages consumed away from home contribute to young adults' total energy and deleterious nutrient intakes; and to study social and physical environmental interactions with consumption patterns of young adults. A cross-sectional study of 1008 young adults will be conducted. Individuals are eligible to participate if they: (1) are aged between 18 and 30 years; (2) reside in New South Wales, Australia; (3) own or have access to a smartphone; (4) are English-literate; and (5) consume at least one meal, snack, or drink purchased outside the home per week. An even spread of gender, age groups (18 to 24 years and 25 to 30 years), metropolitan or regional geographical areas, and high and low socioeconomic status areas will be included. Participants will record all food and drink consumed over 3 consecutive days, together with location purchased and consumed in our customized smartphone app named Eat and Track (EaT). Participants will then complete an extensive demographics questionnaire. Mean intakes of energy, nutrients, and food groups will be calculated along with the relative contribution of foods purchased and eaten away from home. A subsample of 19.84% (200/1008) of the participants will complete

  9. Food sources of total omega 3 fatty acids (18:3 + 20:5 + 22:6), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of total omega 3 fatty acids (18:3 + 20:5 + 22:6), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  10. Consumer food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stancu, Violeta; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. Dokumentet over linket er selve leveringen til ministeriet med følgebrev. Household food waste is one of the main contributors to the food waste amounts across the food supply chain. This report is based on a study conducted...... in September 2017 by MAPP Research Centre – Research on Value Creation in the Food Sector. The study aimed to examine consumer food waste, with a focus on consumer perceptions and practices related to food waste. A survey was completed by 508 respondents in Denmark to provide insights into self......-reported consumer food waste, consumer understanding and perceptions of food waste, household food-related practices as well as individual and household characteristics with a role in food waste....

  11. Chaotic examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildirici, Melike; Sonustun, Fulya Ozaksoy; Sonustun, Bahri

    2018-01-01

    In the regards of chaos theory, new concepts such as complexity, determinism, quantum mechanics, relativity, multiple equilibrium, complexity, (continuously) instability, nonlinearity, heterogeneous agents, irregularity were widely questioned in economics. It is noticed that linear models are insufficient for analyzing unpredictable, irregular and noncyclical oscillations of economies, and for predicting bubbles, financial crisis, business cycles in financial markets. Therefore, economists gave great consequence to use appropriate tools for modelling non-linear dynamical structures and chaotic behaviors of the economies especially in macro and the financial economy. In this paper, we aim to model the chaotic structure of exchange rates (USD-TL and EUR-TL). To determine non-linear patterns of the selected time series, daily returns of the exchange rates were tested by BDS during the period from January 01, 2002 to May 11, 2017 which covers after the era of the 2001 financial crisis. After specifying the non-linear structure of the selected time series, it was aimed to examine the chaotic characteristic for the selected time period by Lyapunov Exponents. The findings verify the existence of the chaotic structure of the exchange rate returns in the analyzed time period.

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  13. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munasiri, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Gives details of sources used for food irradiation, brief description of the process, safety of food irradiation process, practical applications and the amount of doses used for spices, condiments, mangoes etc., limitations of food irradiation, international status of clearance of irradiated foods, versatility of the process

  14. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serious. Let's find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... you're feeling, when you first felt sick, what you ate in the past few days, and ... might have caused food poisoning. The type of treatment you'll get ...

  15. Food Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, H.; Warnaar, M.; Methorst, B.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.; Onwezen, M.C.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Kortstee, H.J.M.; Genderen, van R.A.

    2017-01-01

    These days many innovations are taking place through and in the food system. There is quite a debate about our food and how it is produced. Although this process is a slow one, more and more consumers are willing to make a conscious choice for healthier and more sustainable food. A healthier food

  16. Food Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, C.E.; Schonfeldt, H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Reliable good-quality food composition data of foods for human consumption are critical resources for a variety of applications. The determination of the consumption of nutrients can be achieved either by analyzing the foods consumed directly or by using food composition tables

  17. Food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or use outdated food, packaged food with a broken seal, or cans that have a bulge or dent. DO NOT use foods that have an unusual odor or appearance, or a spoiled taste. Prepare home-canned foods in clean conditions. Be very careful ...

  18. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Food Allergies What's in this ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system makes ...

  19. Ethical Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn

    So-called ‘ethical’ food products have spread across the industrialised world. These are products that are produced under labelling schemes with extraordinary attentiveness to issues such as farm animal welfare and environmental protection. Political decision-makers and other stakeholders in food...... protection. In particular, it aims to examine the concrete improvements that may be pursued through markets for ethical food, and how these improvements are influenced by factors related to individual consumers’ choice of food. This thesis is structured around three research papers that illuminate different...... aspects of ethical food consumption and, based on this, provide concrete policy inputs. The scope of the research is highly interdisciplinary, and includes perspectives from ethics and the social sciences on food consumption. Paper I: Can increased organic consumption mitigate climate changes...

  20. Ethical Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn

    mitigation via decreased consumption of meat. Second, we investigate the extent to which the reduced consumption of meat by organic food consumers is motivated by climate change concerns. The questions are approached by analysing panel and survey data on organic food consumption. Paper II: The role......So-called ‘ethical’ food products have spread across the industrialised world. These are products that are produced under labelling schemes with extraordinary attentiveness to issues such as farm animal welfare and environmental protection. Political decision-makers and other stakeholders in food...... protection. In particular, it aims to examine the concrete improvements that may be pursued through markets for ethical food, and how these improvements are influenced by factors related to individual consumers’ choice of food. This thesis is structured around three research papers that illuminate different...

  1. [Food intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugasti Murillo, Ana

    2009-05-01

    Adverse food reactions are common in the general population. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the structure of food allergens and of the mechanisms involved is poor. In 1995 the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology suggested a classification based on the causative pathogenic mechanism. According to this classification, non-toxic reactions can be divided into food allergies when they recognize immunological mechanisms and food intolerance when there are no immunological implications. The treatment of food intolerance is avoidance of the particular food. There are specific treatments for some food intolerance (beta-galactosidases for the management of lactose intolerance).

  2. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...... and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  4. Safe food manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A; Mercier, C

    1994-03-31

    Food safety is a growing preoccupation of the health authorities and the major food companies in any European country. All the aspects of food manufacturing, from the raw materials until the product is consumed have to insure they are innoxious to human health, eliminate any harmful effects related either to food handling or consumption in domestic or common eating places, as well as protect, as much as possible, our environment. Thus, the food manufacturer has to examine step-by-step the security of the agro-cultures, their composition, but also the possible residues of pollutants and contaminants, or chemicals used to protect them against various pests and determine the possible loss or retention of these substances during technological processes. Animal raw materials should not contain veterinary drug residues or an abnormal amount of some components that result from inadequate feeding. Care should be taken to ensure the security of foods manufactured by biotechnology processes. The organisms and the whole processes used in food biotechnologies should eliminate any impurities. Any minor food ingredients, such as food additives, are under a permanent revision from the point of view of their safety. The industry reacts immediately if any justification requires that a particular food additive should not be used. In other words all the raw materials must conform to their specifications. Technological processes must create a food with an adequate microbiological quality, e.g. free of pathogens and their toxic metabolites. Any danger of microbiological contamination or accidental pollution, such as mechanical particles, chemical substances, etc. should be eliminated. The particular role of food packaging is crucial, since this is a barrier to protect the food against further parasites or microbial contamination and preserve the food from alterations due to enzymatic reactions that require particular oxygen and water activity conditions. The packaging should also

  5. Hispanics in Fast Food Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…

  6. Food insecurity and food deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Nadine L

    2015-08-15

    Food insecurity has been steadily increasing in the United States with prevalence at nearly 15% of all households. Nurse practitioners can assess for food insecurity and provide local resources for families living in neighborhoods without easy access to healthy foods, otherwise known as food deserts.

  7. Quinoa in Bolivia - Food Sovereignty and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Filipovska, Kalina; Yusuf, Ayaann; Viera da Silva, Yasmin; Fredskild Pedersen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    Within this project, the main objective is to investigate the effects of the quinoa boom in Bolivia. Most importantly - to examine the understanding, use and implementation of the concept of Food Sovereignty, and the related concept of Food Security, by means of two actors - The Government and the Quinoa Producers. By utilizing a theoretical framework consisting of Food Sovereignty, Food Security, Moral Economy and Globalization, an inductive approach has been taken to research the problem fo...

  8. Basic Thermal Parameters of Selected Foods and Food Raw Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Božiková; Ľubomír Híreš; Michal Valach; Martin Malínek; Jan Mareček

    2017-01-01

    In general, processing and manipulation with foods and food raw materials have significant influence on their physical properties. The article is focused on thermophysical parameters measurement of selected foods and food raw materials. There were examined thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of selected materials. For detection of thermal parameters was used instrument Isomet 2104, which principle of measurement is based on transient methods. In text are presented summary results of ...

  9. ANALYSIS OF FOOD STAMP PROGRAM PARTICIPATION AND FOOD EXPENDITURES

    OpenAIRE

    Smallwood, David M.; Blaylock, James R.

    1985-01-01

    A two equation model is developed to examine jointly the determinants of household food stamp program participation and program effects on food expenditures. The model is unique in that it postulates that the participation decision is based on a cost-benefit ratio, selected socioeconomic characteristics, and the potential for increasing both food and nonfood expenditures. Data from the 1977-78 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey Supplemental Low Income Sample is used to estimate the model...

  10. The association of dietary quality and food group intake patterns with bone health status among Korean postmenopausal women: a study using the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Gyeongah; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Lim, Youngsook; Jung, Soyeon; Min, Younghee

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related disease are drawing a lot of attention in Korea as one of the serious health problems. Bone health status may be influenced by the general dietary quality and dietary pattern. SUBJECTS/METHODS To determine the relationship between dietary quality and intake patterns and bone health status, the %RNI, NAR, DDS, and food group intake patterns were assessed according to their bone health status for 847 postmenopausal women using the 2010 KNHANES data after eliminating those of likely changing their diet under the advice of doctors or those taking estrogen. RESULTS Bone health became worse as dietary quality deteriorated. All NAR and %RNI values were highly associated with bone health levels and the consumption frequency of Ca sources, DDS and the food group intake patterns also confirmed the findings. CONCLUSIONS This study confirmed that dietary quality and dietary patterns were important for bone health. Nutritional education on eating foods from the five basic food groups has to be emphasized to prevent osteoporosis among older women. PMID:25489406

  11. Differentiating food allergies from food intolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, Stefano; Newland, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are extremely common, and generally they are attributed to allergy. However, clinical manifestations of various degrees of severity related to ingestion of foods can arise as a result of a number of disorders, only some of which can be defined as allergic, implying an immune mechanism. Recent epidemiological data in North America showed that the prevalence of food allergy in children has increased. The most common food allergens in the United States include egg, milk, peanut, tree nuts, wheat, crustacean shellfish, and soy. This review examines the various forms of food intolerances (immunoglobulin E [IgE] and non-IgE mediated), including celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Immune mediated reactions can be either IgE mediated or non-IgE mediated. Among the first group, Immediate GI hypersensitivity and oral allergy syndrome are the best described. Often, but not always, IgE-mediated food allergies are entities such as eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic gastroenteropathy. Non IgE-mediated immune mediated food reactions include celiac disease and gluten sensitivity, two increasingly recognized disorders. Finally, non-immune mediated reactions encompass different categories such as disorders of digestion and absorption, inborn errors of metabolism, as well as pharmacological and toxic reactions.

  12. The return of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerton, K.

    1992-01-01

    In discussing the need for food irradiation the author examines the problems that arise in processing foods of different kinds: spices, meat, fruits and vegetables. It is demonstrated that the relatively low dose of radiation required to eliminate the reproductive capacity of the pest can be tolerated by most fruits and vegetables without damage. Moreover the safety of irradiated food is acknowledged by major national and international food organizations and committees. The author agreed that when food irradiation has been approved by a country, consumers should be able to choose between irradiated and non-irradiated food. To enable the choice, clear and unambiguous labelling must be enforced. 13 refs., 1 tab., ills

  13. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  14. 21 CFR 880.6250 - Patient examination glove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient examination glove. 880.6250 Section 880.6250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.6250 Patient examination glove. (a) Identification. A patient examination glove is a...

  15. Avoiding food waste by Romanian consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Violeta; van Herpen, Erica; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    2013-01-01

    to investigate the role of food choices and other food-related activities in producing food waste. A survey of 244 Romanian consumers examined the influence of intentions not to waste food, planning and shopping routines, as well as moral attitudes and lack of concern towards wasting food, a subjective norm...... of disapproval towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control on consumers’ self-reported food waste. Results show that consumers’ planning and shopping routines are important predictors of food waste. Planning and shopping routines are determined by moral attitudes towards food waste and perceived...

  16. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  17. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on their food labels. When a food says "light" ("lite") or "low fat" on the label, it ... on this topic for: Teens Nutrition & Fitness Center Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories How ...

  18. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2003, NIAID has substantially increased its support for food allergy research, from basic research in allergy and immunology to ... yet available. Read more about NIAID’s commitment to food allergy research. How Is NIAID Addressing This Critical Topic? NIAID ...

  19. Restaurant Food Cooling Practices†

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROWN, LAURA GREEN; RIPLEY, DANNY; BLADE, HENRY; REIMANN, DAVE; EVERSTINE, KAREN; NICHOLAS, DAVE; EGAN, JESSICA; KOKTAVY, NICOLE; QUILLIAM, DANIELA N.

    2017-01-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study. PMID:23212014

  20. [Food allergy or food intolerance?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management.

  1. Food Scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodburn, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    The use of food preservation by irradiation over 30 years is reviewed in outline. Sprout inhibition, soft fruit preservation, suppression of salmonella in poultry, radiolytic products in foods, the detection of irradiated foods and safety studies so far are considered. (U.K.)

  3. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  4. modified foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All we care about is that our food should be wholesome, nutri- tious and tasty; Critics of crop biotechnology are of the opinion that potential ecological and food safety disasters are looming on the horizon because genetically modified (GM) crops have entered the food chain. Alarmists have introduced emotionally charged ...

  5. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  6. Convergence in Global Food Demand and Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Regmi, Anita; Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Unnevehr, Laurian J.

    2008-01-01

    Using food expenditures and food sales data over 1990-2004, this report examines whether food consumption and delivery trends are converging across 47 high- and middle-income countries. Middle-income countries, such as China and Mexico, appear to be following trends in high-income countries, measured across several dimensions of food system growth and change. Convergence is apparent in most important food expenditure categories and in indicators of food system modernization such as supermarke...

  7. Issues in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.

    1987-04-01

    This discussion paper has two goals: first, to raise public awareness of food irradiation, an emerging technology in which Canada has the potential to build a new industry, mainly oriented to promising overseas markets; and second, to help build consensus among government and private sector decision makers about what has to be done to realize the domestic and export potential. The following pages discuss the potential of food irradiation; indicate how food is irradiated; outline the uses of food irradiation; examine questions of the safety of the equipment and both the safety and nutritional value of irradiated food; look at international commercial developments; assess the current and emerging domestic scene; and finally, draw some conclusions and offer suggestions for action

  8. Cutting Food Waste through Cooperation along the Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Göbel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food produced but not used for human consumption is a waste of natural resources. In order to prevent and reduce food waste, the main causes have to be identified systematically along the food supply chain (FSC. The aim of this study is (1 to shed light on the causes and effects of food waste through the analysis of 44 qualitative expert interviews examining the processes and intermediaries along the German food chain and (2 to find methods to reduce it. Results indicate that food waste occurs at all stages in the food chain. Thus, there is no single culprit to be blamed. Besides, the identified reasons for food waste differ between product groups; not a single solution can cause notable change. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrates that the causes and effects of food waste are to be found at different stages of the value chain. Hence, it is of high importance to improve communication and to raise a new appreciation for food among all stakeholders of the food supply chain in order to develop a more sustainable food system. Information on the topic of food waste needs to be shared among all actors of the supply chain. They need to share responsibility and work together to reduce food waste.

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  10. TRANSITION AND FOOD CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Liefert, William M.; Lohmar, Bryan; Serova, Eugenia

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines why transition from planned to market economies in the countries of the former Soviet bloc has changed their mix and volumes of food consumption. During transition, consumption of high value products, such as meat and dairy products, has plummeted, while consumption of staple foods such as bread and potatoes has remained steady, or even increased. The paper shows that in the pre-reform planned economy, planners "desired" the production and national consumption of high valu...

  11. Food synergies for improving bioavailability of micronutrients from plant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, K Madhavan; Augustine, Little Flower

    2018-01-01

    Plant foods are endowed with micronutrients but an understanding of bioavailability is essential in countries primarily dependent on plant based foods. Bioavailability depends majorly on food synergies. This review examines the nature of certain food synergies and methods to screen and establish it as a strategy to control micronutrient deficiency in the populations. Strong evidence on the synergistic effect of inclusion of vitamin C rich fruits and non-vegetarian foods in enhancing the bioavailability of iron has been demonstrated. Fat is found to be synergistic for vitamin A absorption. Red wine and protein have been explored for zinc absorption and effect of fat has been studied for vitamin D. Methods for screening of bioavailability, and biomarkers to demonstrate the synergistic effects of foods are required. Translation of food synergy as a strategy requires adaptation to the context and popularization of intelligent food synergies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Food, novel foods, and allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; LPI

    2002-01-01

    Certain foods lead may to allergic responses in certain individuals. Main allergenic foods are Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, crab), egg, fish, milk, peanuts, soybeans, tree nuts, and wheat, and allergens are always proteins. A wide array of symptoms can result from food allergy (gastrointestinal,

  13. Food irradiation: contaminating our food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

  14. Food irradiation nears commercial development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    One person out of eight in the world today suffers from chronic undernourishment. This problem is likely to get worse as the world's population doubles during the next thirty to forty years. Since about 25% or more of our harvested food is lost due to various kinds of wastage and spoilage, food preservation is no less important than food production. To supply the world's demand for food, it is more reasonable to conserve what is produced than to produce more to compensate for subsequent losses. Thus, it is obvious that all methods of preserving food and agricultural produce should be examined to see if their use might alleviate the world's food shortage, and that to develop better and safer techniques of food preservation will improve food supplies. Food preservation is an ever greater problem for the developing countries, not only because of their chronic problems of undernourishment, but also because most of them are in tropical or sub-tropical regions where food spoilage is rapid. The IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) held a symposium on food irradiation at Colombo in Sri Lanka. The symposium paid special attention to the use of food irradiation in preserving tropical fruits as well as fish and fish products. It also examined the cost of the food irradiation process and compared it with those of conventional processes. Food irradiation is one field in which advance is most likely to be achieved through international co-operation. This co-operation has been supported by the IAEA and FAO in a number of ways. During the last 15 years three previous symposia (Karlsruhe, 1966; Bombay, 1972; Wageningen, 1977), numerous panel meetings, and training courses, have been held on this subject and many nations' food irradiation projects have been supported by technical assistance and co-ordinated research programmes

  15. Mood Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Natalie; Koperski, Sabrina; Golomb, Beatrice A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Much lore but few studies describe a relation of chocolate to mood. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of chocolate consumption with depressed mood in adult men and women. Methods A sample of 1018 adults (694 men and 324 women) from San Diego, California, without diabetes or known coronary artery disease was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. The 931 subjects who were not using antidepressant medications and provided chocolate consumption information were the focus of the analysis. Mood was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Cut points signaling a positive depression screen result (CES-D score, ≥16) and probable major depression (CES-D score, ≥22) were used. Chocolate servings per week were provided by 1009 subjects. Chocolate consumption frequency and rate data from the Fred Hutchinson Food Frequency Questionnaire were also available for 839 subjects. Chocolate consumption was compared for those with lower vs higher CES-D scores. In addition, a test of trend was performed. Results Those screening positive for possible depression (CES-D score ≥16) had higher chocolate consumption (8.4 servings per month) than those not screening positive (5.4 servings per month) (P = .004); those with still higher CES-D scores (≥22) had still higher chocolate consumption (11.8 servings per month) (P value for trend, chocolate consumption. Whether there is a causal connection, and if so in which direction, is a matter for future prospective study. PMID:20421555

  16. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  18. Food additives and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  19. Food concerns and support for environmental food policies and purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Burton, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Consumer support for pro environmental food policies and food purchasing are important for the adoption of successful environmental policies. This paper examines consumers' views of food policy options as their predisposition to purchase pro environmental foods along with their likely demographic, educational and cognitive antecedents including food and environmental concerns and universalism values (relating to care for others and the environment). An online survey to assess these constructs was conducted among 2204 Australian adults in November 2011. The findings showed strong levels of support for both environmental food policies (50%-78% support) and pro environmental food purchasing (51%-69% intending to purchase pro environmental foods). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling showed that different cognitive mediators exist along pathways between demographics and the two outcome variables. Support for food policy was positively related to food and environment concerns (std. Beta = 0.25), universalism (0.41), perceived control (0.07), and regulatory issues (0.64 but negatively with food security issues (-0.37). Environment purchasing intentions were positively linked to food and nutrition concerns (0.13), food and environment concerns (0.24), food safety concerns (0.19), food and animal welfare concerns (0.16), universalism (0.25), female gender (0.05), education (0.04), and perceived influence over the food system (0.17). In addition, health study in years 11 and 12 was positively related to the beginning of both of these pathways (0.07 for each). The results are discussed in relation to the opportunities that communications based on the mediating variables offer for the promotion of environmental food policies and purchasing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Marešová, Adéla

    2014-01-01

    This thesis looks into issues related to food waste and consists of a theoretical and a practical part. Theoretical part aims to provide clear and complex definition of wood waste related problems, summarize current findings in Czech and foreign sources. Introduction chapter explains important terms and legal measures related to this topic. It is followed by description of causes, implications and possibilities in food waste reduction. Main goal of practical part is analyzing food waste in Cz...

  1. Food allergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maleki, Soheila J; Burks, A. Wesley; Helm, Ricki M

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii ix I. CLINICAL ASPECTS 1. Clinical Manifestations of Food Allergic Disease * Tamara T. Perry, Amy M. Scurlock, and Stacie M. Jones...

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormick, C.

    1987-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of food irradiation are discussed. Research into food irradiation has been going on for 40 years, yet studies have yet to demonstrate conclusively whether it is safe or harmful. The Australian House of Representatives has established an inquiry into food irradiation conducted by the Standing Committee on Environment and Conservation. It will inquire into the use of ionising radiation for commercial sterilisation, disinfestation, food preservation and other purposes with particular reference to human health and safety, environmental impacts and the adequacy of assessment and regulatory procedures

  3. Food allergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maleki, Soheila J; Burks, A. Wesley; Helm, Ricki M

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Exploring Current and Novel Methods for the Detection and Diagnosis of Food Allergy: the Clinical Approach * Adriano Mari and Enrico Scala...

  4. Food retailing and food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

  5. Food refusal in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, E P

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of mental disorder amongst prisoners refusing food was studied by examining the prison records of a remand prison and a dispersal prison. Food refusal occurred predominantly in the remand prison. Less than one per cent of the annual remand population engaged in this behaviour. The results indicate that prisoners refusing food do so as a form of protest and that the prevalence of mental disorder among such prisoners is high. The majority respond to observation and counselling. Important indicators of psychosis are: (i) the inability of the prisoner to divulge reasons for his behaviour; and (ii) the refusal by the prisoner of both food and fluids. In such cases transfer to hospital for treatment may be urgently required.

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany it is prohibited by law to treat food with ionizing radiation Food and (Commodities Act of August 15, 1974) with the proviso to grant permits (section 13), which never happened so far. The prohibition also applies to imports according to section 45 of the Federal Act. (HP) [de

  7. Food online

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van der Lomme C.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis the research focuses on the legal rules and regulations in the Netherlands that apply in the context of food purchases by consumers that are concluded online. Sale of food via the Internet takes place in the area of Civil Code requirements on distance selling and public law

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  9. Food Peptidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Minkiewicz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss the definition of food peptidomics and highlight the role of this approach in food and nutrition sciences. Similar to living organisms, food peptidome may be defined as the whole peptide pool present in a food product or raw material. This definition also covers peptides obtained during technological processes and/or storage. The area of interest of food peptidomics covers research concerning the origin of peptidome, its dynamic changes during processing and/or storage, the influence of its presence, the composition and changes in the pool of peptides on the properties of food products or raw materials as well as the methods applied in research into this group of compounds. The area of interests of food peptidomics would include biological activity, functional properties, allergenicity, sensory properties and information on the product or resource authenticity and origin as well as its history and relationships. Research methods applied in food peptidomics, with special emphasis on computational methods, are also summarized.

  10. Food Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de

  12. Food online

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van der Lomme C.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis the research focuses on the legal rules and regulations in the Netherlands that apply in the context of food purchases by consumers that are concluded online. Sale of food via the Internet takes place in the area of Civil Code requirements on distance selling and public law

  13. Food Intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Laurent

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Disordered eating behaviors are implicated in the development and persistence of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. The purpose of this study was to provide a qualitative perspective of obese youth’s eating behaviors through the lens of their parent as they attempt to create healthy changes. An in-depth secondary analysis was conducted for the construct of food intimacy that evolved as part of a larger study investigating how parents promote health for their obese child. Seventeen parents of 10- to 14-year-old obese youth were interviewed. Themes and concepts were developed using grounded theory. Parents described child behaviors such as losing control and sneaky eating to obtain food, as well as using food for comfort, pleasure, and simply loving food. The relationship between these children and food was identified as the over-arching theme, food intimacy. This study highlights the intimate relationship these children developed with food and the powerful influence of this relationship on their eating behaviors. This suggests that prescribed interventions such as exercising more and eating less may be ineffective in certain obese children, and that more focus should be placed on investigating the relationship an obese child has with food.

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  15. Food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Neerven, Van Joost; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus

  16. Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…

  17. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    as expressed by a group of Danish providers and consumers is empirically investigated through interviews, observation and surveys. From this, qualitative and quantitative data are generated, the analysis of which shows how varied perceptions of local food are. The elements of which the perceptions consist......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... frequently mentioned than properties of the production process. Providers emphasise social properties of the product more often than consumers, and consumers emphasise physical properties of the product more often than providers. Inversely, providers emphasise physical properties of production more than...

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei

    1976-01-01

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  19. Food purchasing and food insecurity among low-income families in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachner, Naomi; Ricciuto, Laurie; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Factors underlying food-purchasing decisions were examined among a sample of low-income Toronto families. A cross-sectional survey was completed among 485 families residing in high-poverty Toronto neighbourhoods. Food-security status was assessed using the Household Food Security Survey Module. Open-ended questions were included to examine respondents' food selection and management practices and their purchasing decisions for six indicator foods. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between factors influencing food-purchasing decisions, perceived food adequacy, and severity of food insecurity. Twenty-two percent of families had been severely food insecure in the past 30 days. Respondents engaged in thrifty food shopping practices, such as frequenting discount supermarkets and budgeting carefully. Price was the most salient factor influencing food-purchasing decisions; the likelihood that families would report this factor increased with deteriorating food security. Preference, quality, and health considerations also guided food-purchasing decisions, but generally to a lesser extent as food insecurity increased. Household food supplies reflected constraints on food purchasing, and they diminished with increasing food insecurity. Despite their resourcefulness, low-income families struggle to feed their families. Dietitians have an important role to play as advocates for adequate income supports to promote food security and nutritional health.

  20. Household income differences in food sources and food items purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A; Wall, Melanie; Mitchell, Nathan R

    2010-10-26

    The present study examined income-related household food purchases among a sample of 90 households from the community. Annotated food purchase receipts were collected for a four-week period by the primary household shopper. Receipt food source and foods items were classified into specific categories, and food quantities in ounces were recorded by research staff. For home sources, a limited number of food/beverage categories were recorded. For eating out sources, all food/beverage items were recorded. Median monthly per person dollars spent and per person ounces purchased were computed. Food sources and food categories were examined by household income tertile. A community-based sample of 90 households. Higher income households spent significantly more dollars per person per month from both home and eating out sources compared with lower income households ($163 versus $100, p income households, higher income households spent significantly more home source dollars on both fruits/vegetables (21.5 versus 10.2, p income households (45% versus 26%, p sources, lower income households spent a significantly greater percent of dollars per person at carry out places (54% versus 37%, p income differences were observed for dollars spent at discount grocery stores, small grocery stores or convenience stores. Higher income households spent more money on both healthy and less healthy foods from a wide range of sources. Lower income households spent a larger proportion of their eating out dollars at carry out places, and a larger proportion of their home beverage purchases were sugar sweetened beverages.

  1. Pricing of Staple Foods at Supermarkets versus Small Food Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa J; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-08-15

    Prices affect food purchase decisions, particularly in lower-income communities, where access to a range of food retailers (including supermarkets) is limited. The aim of this study was to examine differences in staple food pricing between small urban food stores and the closest supermarkets, as well as whether pricing differentials varied based on proximity between small stores and larger retailers. In 2014, prices were measured for 15 staple foods during store visits in 140 smaller stores (corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN and their closest supermarket. Mixed models controlling for store type were used to estimate the average price differential between: (a) smaller stores and supermarkets; (b) isolated smaller stores (>1 mile to closest supermarket) and non-isolated smaller stores; and (c) isolated smaller stores inside versus outside USDA-identified food deserts. On average, all items except white bread were 10-54% more expensive in smaller stores than in supermarkets ( p food deserts. We conclude that smaller food stores have higher prices for most staple foods compared to their closest supermarket, regardless of proximity. More research is needed to examine staple food prices in different retail spaces.

  2. Food for tomorrow's population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, G

    1983-06-01

    This discussion outlines and clarifies the dimensions of the world's current food-population balance and examines likely future changes in this balance over the next 20 years. The 1st section summarizes the contemporary world demographic situation in the early 1980s, focusing on regional differences in patterns of population growth and the significant food shortages in the developing countries. A subsequent section considers the outlook for population growth up to the year 2000 with particular reference to the most recent UN population projects. The discussion of food production and supply includes some specific comments on the situation in Indonesia. The world's population in 1983 has been estimated at 4677 million. It will reach 5 billion in the next 5 years. The countries which can least afford it are growing the fastest. These countries will account for 79% of the world's population in 2000 and 83% by 2020. Fertility in the less developed countries (LDCs) is twice that of more developed countries, with women in the former group having an average of around 4.5 children and in the latter, 1.9. The substantial declines in fertility in many countries are not fully reflected in declines in population growth and natural increase rates. This is because of major improvements which have occurred in mortality. During recent decades there has been a marked increase in world food production. In the developed countries increases in food production have continued at more than twice those for population, but this was not the case in the less developed countries where the margin narrowed during the 1950s and 1960s until in the early 1970s population was increasing at a slightly faster rate overall than was food production. Food crisis situations continue to occur with disturbing frequency in several regions. Seasonal, regional, and national variations in food shortages are not the only dimensions to food-population imbalances. Within nations there is inequality in access to

  3. Food Security Strategy Based on Computer Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Ruihui Mu

    2015-01-01

    Case analysis to identify innovative strategies for food security occurred in the Oriental Hotel, voluntarily implement food safety control. Food security strategy investigation and the reasons for their use of multiple data sources, including accommodation and catering industry to implement and document interviews with key decision makers in the hotel performed to observe the business environment were examined. This finding suggests that addressing food security, not only is the food control...

  4. Ingredients: where pet food starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Angele

    2008-08-01

    Every clinician is asked "What should I feed my pet?" Understanding the ingredients in pet food is an important part of making the best recommendation. Pet food can be as simple as one ingredient or as complicated as containing more than 60 ingredients. Pet food and its ingredients are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and state feed officials. Part of that regulation is the review and definition of ingredients. Existing ingredients change and new ingredients become available so the need for ingredient definitions grows. Ingredients for product formulations are chosen based on their nutrient content, digestibility, palatability, functionality, availability, and cost. As an example, a typical, nutritionally complete dry dog food with 42 ingredients is examined and the ingredients are discussed here. Safe, healthy pet food starts with safe ingredients sourced from well-monitored suppliers. The ultimate goal of both veterinarians and pet food manufacturers is the same--long healthy lives for dogs and cats.

  5. Food environment and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard; Foster, Gary D

    2014-12-01

    The food environment plays an important and often dominant role in food choice, eating patterns, and ultimately, energy intake. The Obesity Society and the American Society for Nutrition jointly sponsored a series of reviews on topics of interest to both memberships. The goal was to consider the state of understanding on selected issues related to the food environment and obesity and to identify key knowledge gaps. The first article (not necessarily of importance) targeted energy density (ED) and focuses on the role of ED in the regulation of energy intake and body weight. It offers recommendations for prioritizing research. The second article addresses economic factors and examines food and beverage purchases as a function of price changes. It concludes that targeted food taxes and subsidies alone are unlikely to substantially affect obesity. The third article concerns sweetened beverages and points out the difficulty in establishing the strength of the association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain and obesity. In the fourth article, the contributions of palatability and variety to eating behavior and weight are reviewed. Article five explores the influence of portion size on energy intake and weight management. It finds that consumers generally tend to eat proportionally more as portion size increases. The sixth article focuses on the efficacy and effectiveness of eating frequency manipulations for body weight management and finds that such manipulations have consistently yielded null results. Finally, article seven identifies several limitations of the existing literature regarding neighborhood access to healthy foods. This series of reviews addresses important questions regarding the contribution of the food environment to obesity. Independent of physiological/genetic determinants, factors such as ED, cost, food form, palatability, variety, portion size, eating frequency, and access to healthy food are each evaluated for their role in

  6. Social Status, Traditional Food Taboos and Food Security: A Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to examine adherence to traditional food taboos by women in Imo State, and relate that to social status and food security. Data was collected from 72 women across the three agricultural zones of the State. It was found that age, income and education are some factors affecting adherence to these ...

  7. Food for talk: discursive identities, food choice and eating practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneijder, P.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the construction and use of identities in food interaction. Insights from discursive psychology and conversation analysis are drawn upon to examine the interactional functions of identities in online food talk.Discursive psychology (DP) explores how psychological

  8. Food Access, Food Subsidy, and Residue-Based Bioenergy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research also aims to examine the effect of biofuels on the poor's incomes and food consumption. It will focus on the use of agricultural residues to produce energy and its trickle-down effect on agricultural productivity and food security at the local level. Diverting residues to commercial energy production could improve ...

  9. Can food choice be influenced by priming with food odours?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polet, I.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Perez-Cueto, F.J.A.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2018-01-01

    Recent research suggests that non-attentively perceived odours may significantly influence people's food choices. This study's aim was to examine the effects of different types of non-attentively perceived food odours, namely, bread odour and cucumber odour, on subsequent lunch choices in a

  10. Relationship between Food Habituation and Reinforcing Efficacy of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Katelyn A.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcing value and habituation are two processes that have been used to study eating behaviors, but no research has examined their relationship, how they relate to energy intake, and whether they respond in a similar manner to food deprivation. Twenty-two female subjects were randomized to food deprived or non-deprived conditions, and assessed…

  11. Food-System Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    This set of inquiry lessons is adaptable for middle school through high school life science or biology classrooms and will help meet the NSTA scientific inquiry position statement (2004) and the AAAS benchmarks (1993) and NRC standards (1996; 2000) related to health and food literacy. The standards require adolescents to examine their own diet and…

  12. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waserman Susan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children “outgrow” allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy.

  13. Evaluating Food Safety Knowledge and Practices of Food Processors and Sellers Working in Food Facilities in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; DO, Hoa Thi; Nguyen, Luong Thanh; Boggiano, Victoria; LE, Huong Thi; LE, Xuan Thanh Thi; Trinh, Ngoc Bao; DO, Khanh Nam; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Thanh Trung; Dang, Anh Kim; Mai, Hue Thi; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Than, Selena; Latkin, Carl A

    2018-04-01

    Consumption of fast food and street food is increasingly common among Vietnamese, particularly in large cities. The high daily demand for these convenient food services, together with a poor management system, has raised concerns about food hygiene and safety (FHS). This study aimed to examine the FHS knowledge and practices of food processors and sellers in food facilities in Hanoi, Vietnam, and to identify their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,760 food processors and sellers in restaurants, fast food stores, food stalls, and street vendors in Hanoi in 2015. We assessed each participant's FHS knowledge using a self-report questionnaire and their FHS practices using a checklist. Tobit regression was used to determine potential factors associated with FHS knowledge and practices, including demographics, training experience, and frequency of health examination. Overall, we observed a lack of FHS knowledge among respondents across three domains, including standard requirements for food facilities (18%), food processing procedures (29%), and food poisoning prevention (11%). Only 25.9 and 38.1% of participants used caps and masks, respectively, and 12.8% of food processors reported direct hand contact with food. After adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics, these factors significantly predicted increased FHS knowledge and practice scores: (i) working at restaurants and food stalls, (ii) having FHS training, (iii) having had a physical examination, and (iv) having taken a stool test within the last year. These findings highlight the need of continuous training to improve FHS knowledge and practices among food processors and food sellers. Moreover, regular monitoring of food facilities, combined with medical examination of their staff, should be performed to ensure food safety.

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsa, J.; Kunstadt, P.

    1998-01-01

    Serious outbreaks of food poisoning last year in the USA from contaminated ground meat and the listing of methyl bromide, the most widely used pest control fumigant, as an ozone depleting substance, has led to a resurgence of interest, especially in the USA, in the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of food. For a number of reasons, principally public uneasiness with radiation and the availability of other less expensive, methods for fumigating or preserving food, the use of radiation has remained limited until recently

  15. Food Supply and Food Safety Issues in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hon-Ming; Remais, Justin; Fung, Ming-Chiu; Xu, Liqing; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China’s connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain. PMID:23746904

  16. Complexity in quantitative food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banasek-Richter, C.; Bersier, L.F.; Cattin, M.F.; Baltensperger, R.; Gabriel, J.P.; Merz, Y.; Ulanowicz, R.E.; Tavares, A.F.; Williams, D.D.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Winemiller, K.O.; Naisbit, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Food webs depict who eats whom in communities. Ecologists have examined statistical metrics and other properties of food webs, but mainly due to the uneven quality of the data, the results have proved controversial. The qualitative data on which those efforts rested treat trophic interactions as

  17. Food technology in space habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.

    1979-01-01

    The research required to develop a system that will provide for acceptable, nutritious, and safe diets for man during extended space missions is discussed. The development of a food technology system for space habitats capable of converting raw materials produced in the space habitats into acceptable food is examined.

  18. Emerald Dragon Bites vs Veggie Beans: Fun Food Names Increase Children's Consumption of Novel Healthy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Young, Kathleen M.; Hauser, Jessica C.; Galliger, Courtney; Sommer, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers often struggle with food neophobia on the part of young children. This study examined whether labeling novel healthy foods with fun names would increase children's willingness to try those foods and encourage them to eat more of those foods in a child care setting. Thirty-nine toddler and preschool age children (mean age = 3.9 years)…

  19. Food Insecurity, Poor Diet Quality, and Obesity among Food Pantry Participants in Hartford, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaina, Kate A.; Martin, Katie S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Examine relationships between food security, diet quality, and body mass index (BMI) among food pantry users. Methods: Convenience sample of 212 food pantry clients in Hartford, CT from June, 2010 to May, 2011. Main outcomes included food security (United States Department of Agriculture module), fruit and vegetable consumption (Block…

  20. Socioeconomic Differences in the Association between Competitive Food Laws and the School Food Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Powell, Lisa M.; Perna, Frank M.; Robinson, Whitney R.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools of low socioeconomic status (SES) tend to sell fewer healthy competitive foods/beverages. This study examined whether state competitive food laws may reduce such disparities. Methods: School administrators for fifth- and eighth grade reported foods and beverages sold in school. Index measures of the food/beverage environments…

  1. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  2. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost Recipes Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics 5 Ways ...

  3. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is more common after eating at picnics, school cafeterias, large social functions, or restaurants. When germs get ... the food poisoning. These may include: Arthritis Bleeding problems Damage to the nervous system Kidney problems Swelling ...

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, T.; Lang, T.

    1990-01-01

    There is a growing tendency worldwide to apply ionizing radiation for food preservation, or for delaying growth or ripening processes. However, research into the effects of such irradiation with ionizing radiation is lagging behind, leaving the knowledge about effects and possible hazards incomplete. The authors very carefully have analysed the available research results and present a detailed account of the current scientific knowledge and assessments. Their conclusion is: irradiated food is to be considered noxious unless its wholesomeness has been unambiguously proven. Consumers so far had not much chance to raise their voice in the debate about the wholesomeness of food irradiation, or have not been heard, the authors say. They call for establishing a European and a worldwide information network to bring together opponents to and information speaking against food irradiation, in order to create a counterweight to the market strategies of the pro-irradiation industry, and to launch initiatives on the political level. (orig./HP) [de

  5. "Convenience Food."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Colette

    1980-01-01

    Defines the meaning of the American expression "convenience food," quoting definitions given by dictionaries and specialized publications. Discusses the problem of finding the exact equivalent of this expression in French, and recommends some acceptable translations. (MES)

  6. Future food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    Food systems have changed markedly with human settlement and agriculture, industrialisation, trade, migration and now the digital age. Throughout these transitions, there has been a progressive population explosion and net ecosystem loss and degradation. Climate change now gathers pace, exacerbated by ecological dysfunction. Our health status has been challenged by a developing people-environment mismatch. We have regarded ecological conquest and innovative technology as solutions, but have not understood how ecologically dependent and integrated we are. We are ecological creatures interfaced by our sensoriness, microbiomes, shared regulatory (endocrine) mechanisms, immune system, biorhythms and nutritional pathways. Many of us are 'nature-deprived'. We now suffer what might be termed ecological health disorders (EHD). If there were less of us, nature's resilience might cope, but more than 9 billion people by 2050 is probably an intolerable demand on the planet. Future food must increasingly take into account the pressures on ecosystem-dependent food systems, with foods probably less biodiverse, although eating in this way allows optimal health; energy dysequilibrium with less physical activity and foods inappropriately energy dense; and less socially-conducive food habits. 'Personalised Nutrition', with extensive and resource-demanding nutrigenomic, metabolomic and microbiomic data may provide partial health solutions in clinical settings, but not be justified for ethical, risk management or sustainability reasons in public health. The globally prevalent multidimensional malnutritional problems of food insecurity, quality and equity require local, regional and global action to prevent further ecosystem degradation as well as to educate, provide sustainable livelihoods and encourage respectful social discourse and practice about the role of food.

  7. Basic Thermal Parameters of Selected Foods and Food Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Božiková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, processing and manipulation with foods and food raw materials have significant influence on their physical properties. The article is focused on thermophysical parameters measurement of selected foods and food raw materials. There were examined thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of selected materials. For detection of thermal parameters was used instrument Isomet 2104, which principle of measurement is based on transient methods. In text are presented summary results of thermal parameters measurement for various foods and food raw materials as: granular materials – corn flour and wheat flour; fruits, vegetables and fruit products – grated apple, dried apple and apple juice; liquid materials – milk, beer etc. Measurements were performed in two temperature ranges according to the character of examined material. From graphical relations of thermophysical parameter is evident, that thermal conductivity and diffusivity increases with temperature and moisture content linearly, only for granular materials were obtained non‑linear dependencies. Results shows, that foods and food raw materials have different thermal properties, which are influenced by their type, structure, chemical and physical properties. From presented results is evident, that basic thermal parameters are important for material quality detection in food industry.

  8. Gender and food television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines the importance of gender in the history of food television in an American/European context, by discussing the scientific literature on the topic. The analysis covers a period from the very first shows in the 1930s and 1940s, until 2016. It will be argued that despite...... in relation to other social categories, notably ethnicity and class. With this in mind, I conclude that food television not only reproduces hierarchies between men and women, but also between various kinds of masculinity and femininity....

  9. Salmonellae in health foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, B M; Cherry, W B; Dodd, D J

    1977-11-01

    Various health food products of different brands were purchased from stores in the metropolitan Atlanta area. These foods were examined for the presence of salmonellae by fluorescent-antibody and cultural methods. Included in the study were tablets of alfalfa, parsley, kelp, wheat bran, enzyme, bone meal, and vitamins. Beef liver powder and tablets and granola cereal were also studied. Salmonella minnesota, Salmonella anatum, and Salmonella derby were isolated from two of three lots of beef liver powder from one manufacturer. All other products were negative.

  10. Perceptions of food risk management among key stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Frewer, Lynn J.; Chryssochoidis, George M.

    2006-01-01

    In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management.......In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management....

  11. Food additives: an ethical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepham, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Food additives are an integral part of the modern food system, but opinion polls showing most Europeans have worries about them imply an urgent need for ethical analysis of their use. The existing literature on food ethics, safety assessment and animal testing. Food additives provide certain advantages in terms of many people's lifestyles. There are disagreements about the appropriate application of the precautionary principle and of the value and ethical validity of animal tests in assessing human safety. Most consumers have a poor understanding of the relative benefits and risks of additives, but concerns over food safety and animal testing remain high. Examining the impacts of food additives on consumer sovereignty, consumer health and on animals used in safety testing should allow a more informed debate about their appropriate uses.

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  13. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoerr, M.; Ehlermann, D.A.E.; Delincee, H.

    1999-01-01

    The conference was a combined event and at the same time was a meeting of the FAIR programme of the EU, under the responsibility of the General Directorate XII, participating countries including Iceland, Norway, Hungary, and Switzerland in addition to the 15 EU member states. Under this roof, research work is sponsored in the fields of food technology, fishing industry, agriculture, forestry, and water resources management. Also, financial support is available for the mid-range food and agricultural industry, or for projects promoting rural development. There currently are over 120 transnational FAIR projects, involving more than 2000 researchers in 233 EU-sponsored research projects devoted to food aspects, some having been presented at the conference. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Halal Food : Thai Halal Food Products and International Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Noaman; Wanwang, Alisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to examine salient issues in the Halal food business with special focus on entering Thai Halal food products into international market. Market screening plays an important role in entering new market or setting up the business in the foreign country. In this paper we have analyzed the importance of Halal Food for the Muslims and explained the growth of Halal food in French markets. The study focuses attention on the identification of key areas in Halal food export and channel ...

  15. Genetically engineered foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioengineered foods; GMOs; Genetically modified foods ... helps speed up the process of creating new foods with desired traits. The possible benefits of genetic engineering include: More nutritious food Tastier food Disease- and ...

  16. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  17. Validity of Secondary Retail Food Outlet Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhacker, Sheila E.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Sharkey, Joseph; Pitts, Stephanie B.J.; Rodriguez, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Context Improving access to healthy foods is a promising strategy to prevent nutrition-related chronic diseases. To characterize retail food environments and identify areas with limited retail access, researchers, government programs, and community advocates have primarily used secondary retail food outlet data sources (e.g., InfoUSA or government food registries). To advance the state of the science on measuring retail food environments, this systematic review examined the evidence for validity reported for secondary retail food outlet data sources for characterizing retail food environments. Evidence acquisition A literature search was conducted through December 31, 2012 to identify peer-reviewed published literature that compared secondary retail food outlet data sources to primary data sources (i.e., field observations) for accuracy of identifying the type and location of retail food outlets. Data were analyzed in 2013. Evidence synthesis Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The evidence for validity reported varied by secondary data sources examined, primary data–gathering approaches, retail food outlets examined, and geographic and sociodemographic characteristics. More than half of the studies (53%) did not report evidence for validity by type of food outlet examined and by a particular secondary data source. Conclusions Researchers should strive to gather primary data but if relying on secondary data sources, InfoUSA and government food registries had higher levels of agreement than reported by other secondary data sources and may provide sufficient accuracy for exploring these associations in large study areas. PMID:24050423

  18. Childhood Food Addiction and the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Kristy L.; Buser, Juleen K.; Carlisle, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction among children is a concerning issue. Few empirical studies have examined the relevance of food addiction among pediatric samples, but emerging evidence suggests that some children experience their eating patterns as addictive. The present review will discuss the issue of food addiction among children, and will also attend to the…

  19. Food Literacy at Secondary Schools in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…

  20. Food Allergies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  1. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tips on handling leftovers: Put leftovers in the fridge as soon as possible, within 2 hours. If you leave leftovers out for too long at room temperature, bacteria can quickly multiply, turning your delightful dish into a food poisoning disaster. Store leftovers in containers with lids ...

  2. Scary food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Mykletun, Reidar Johan

    2009-01-01

    This article portrays the changing status and use of a traditional Norwegian meal, Smalahove, in designing tourist experiences. Against all odds, this peculiar relic of Nordic gastronomy (salted, smoked and cooked sheep's head) has become a part of the destination brand of Voss, a small West Norw...... destinations and regional food products....

  3. Food labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... per serving. Salt-free: Meets the requirements for sodium-free. HEALTH CLAIMS The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is ... Saturated fat and cholesterol and coronary heart disease Sodium and ... ) An example of a valid health claim you may see on a high-fiber ...

  4. Food Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkman, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

  5. Food Entrepreneur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum; Christensen, Marie Ernst; Matzen, Peter

    The project investigates the learning outcome and the identity work going on at the course in a setting that provides opportunities to develop new activities, products and knowledge within the food and health industry. The study is based on qualitative interviews with five participants from the c...

  6. Food loss rate in food supply chain using material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Munsol; Osako, Masahiro; Harashina, Sachihiko

    2017-03-01

    The food loss rate is a factor that represents food consumption efficiency. To improve food consumption efficiency, we need to fundamentally quantify food loss at national and global levels. This study examines food and food waste flow and calculates the food loss rate in the food supply chain by targeting Japan. We analyzed inedible food waste and avoidable food losses in wholesale, manufacturing, retail, food services, and households and considered different supply chain pathways, different food categories representing whole Japanese meals, and weight changes after cooking. The results are as follows: (1) Japan has an overall rate of avoidable food losses of approximately 15% for meals (excluding agricultural losses), (2) the supply sector with the highest food loss rate is food services, and (3) the food category with the highest food loss rate is vegetables. Finally, we proposed a model for calculating food loss rates that could be used for future analysis in Japan or other countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Food Environments and Obesity: Household Diet Expenditure Versus Food Deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danhong; Jaenicke, Edward C; Volpe, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    To examine the associations between obesity and multiple aspects of the food environments, at home and in the neighborhood. Our study included 38,650 individuals nested in 18,381 households located in 2104 US counties. Our novel home food environment measure, USDAScore, evaluated the adherence of a household's monthly expenditure shares of 24 aggregated food categories to the recommended values based on US Department of Agriculture food plans. The US Census Bureau's County Business Patterns (2008), the detailed food purchase information in the IRi Consumer Panel scanner data (2008-2012), and its associated MedProfiler data set (2012) constituted the main sources for neighborhood-, household-, and individual-level data, respectively. After we controlled for a number of confounders at the individual, household, and neighborhood levels, USDAScore was negatively linked with obesity status, and a census tract-level indicator of food desert status was positively associated with obesity status. Neighborhood food environment factors, such as food desert status, were associated with obesity status even after we controlled for home food environment factors.

  8. Household-food market relations and its implications for food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to examine the market relation of farm families by examining the degree of market orientation, the seasonal nature of market sales and purchases and their possible implications for food security. A total of 120 households were selected from the rural areas of Imo state using a multi-stage random ...

  9. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Irwin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810 at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS was used to assess students’ home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students’ food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students’ food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p < 0.05. High fast-food outlet density in both home and school neighborhoods was associated with increased fast-food purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05. In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth’s home and school.

  10. CHANGING FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS, THEIR EFFECT ON THE U.S. FOOD SYSTEM, 1972-1987: AN INPUT-OUTPUT PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Schluter, Gerald E.; Lee, Chinkook

    1996-01-01

    Output growth of the U.S. Food System is examined to apportion first the importance of domestic food demand and then the importance of components of domestic food demand. Growth of U.S. food processing output is heavily dependent upon domestic food demand and particularly its personal consumption expenditures components - food purchased for off-premise consumption and purchased meals and beverages.

  11. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hoffman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts, and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties.

  12. Do GIS-derived measures of fast food retailers convey perceived fast food opportunities? Implications for food environment assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Timothy L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Freedman, Darcy A; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2017-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GISs) have been used to define fast food availability, with higher availability perhaps promoting poorer quality diets. Alternative measures involve perceptions; however, few studies have examined associations between GIS-derived and perceived measures of the food environment. Telephone surveys of 705 participants within an eight-county region in South Carolina were analyzed using logistic regression to examine relationships between geographic presence of and distance to various types of food retailers and perceived fast food availability. The mean distance to the nearest fast food restaurant was 6.1 miles, with 16% of participants having a fast food restaurant within 1 mile of home. The geographic presence of and distance to all food retailer types were significantly associated with perceived availability of fast food in unadjusted models. After adjustment, only the presence of a fast food restaurant or pharmacy was significantly associated with greater odds of higher perceived availability of fast food. Greater odds of lower perceived availability of fast food were observed with the presence of a dollar store and increasing distance to the nearest supermarket or pharmacy. Measures of fast food availability, whether objective or perceived, may not be interchangeable. Researchers should carefully decide on the appropriate measurement tool-GIS-derived or perceived-in food environment studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial Food Packaging: Potential & Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHANU eMALHOTRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays food preservation, quality maintenance, and safety are major growing concerns of the food industry. It is evident that over time consumers’ demand for natural and safe food products with stringent regulations to prevent food-borne infectious diseases. Antimicrobial packaging which is thought to be a subset of active packaging and controlled release packaging is one such promising technology which effectively impregnates the antimicrobial into the food packaging film material and subsequently delivers it over the stipulated period of time to kill the pathogenic microorganisms affecting food products thereby increasing the shelf life to severe folds. This paper presents a picture of the recent research on antimicrobial agents that are aimed at enhancing and improving food quality and safety by reduction of pathogen growth and extension of shelf life, in a form of a comprehensive review. Examination of the available antimicrobial packaging technologies is also presented along with their significant impact on food safety. This article entails various antimicrobial agents for commercial applications, as well as the difference between the use of antimicrobials under laboratory scale and real time applications. Development of resistance amongst microorganisms is considered as a future implication of antimicrobials with an aim to come up with actual efficacies in extension of shelf life as well as reduction in bacterial growth through the upcoming and promising use of antimicrobials in food packaging for the forthcoming research down the line.

  14. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  15. Food fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumney, R.

    1988-01-01

    Radurisation can give a new lease of shelf life to food and cut down contamination, but it is bound to cause problems - even among comparatively tame South African consumers. In this article the facts about radurization are discussed: the labelling of irradiated products, the problem of making a bad product good by using irradiation, consumer pressure, attitudes, fears and resistance. The economics of radurised foodstuffs are also discussed

  16. Food Intimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer S. Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Disordered eating behaviors are implicated in the development and persistence of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. The purpose of this study was to provide a qualitative perspective of obese youth’s eating behaviors through the lens of their parent as they attempt to create healthy changes. An in-depth secondary analysis was conducted for the construct of food intimacy that evolved as part of a larger s...

  17. Food microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain); Moss, M. O; Adams, M. R

    2008-01-01

    ... is directed primarily at students of Microbiology, Food Science and related subjects up to Master's level and assumes some knowledge of basic microbiology. We have chosen not to burden the text with references to the primary literature in order to preserve what we hope is a reasonable narrative flow. Some suggestions for further reading for each chapter are included in Chapter 12. These are largely review articles and monographs which develop the overview provided and can also give access to...

  18. Toxicological studies on irradiated food and food constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.

    1978-01-01

    Selected aspects of the genotoxicology and chemistry of irradiated foods and food components are critically examined and compared with other food processing operations such as cooking, and intentional use of food additives. For example, it is estimated that if 10% of an average daily diet contained irradiated (<1.0Mrad) foods, the daily consumption of radiolytic products would be 2-20mg/d compared with a total of approximately 4000mg/d of intentional food additives and approximately 80mg/d of toxic inorganic and organic environmentally derived contaminants. Several recommendations for the genotoxicological testing of irradiated foods are given, including: (1) that feeding tests include a control diet consisting of food processed by one of the standard methods such as thermalization; (2) that more use be made of positive controls so as to have a 'built-in' measure of sensitivity and responsiveness; (3) that a battery of in vitro and in vivo short-term mutagenicity tests be performed prior to the carrying out of the long-term feeding tests; and (4) that an irradiated food be tested after it is cooked in the manner normally consumed, which may, of course, include the raw or uncooked state as well. An outline of current genetic-toxicological testing schemes is provided and examined. Emphasis is given to a modification in the protocols for the Ames mutagenicity tests leading to a reduction in the evidence of false positives and false negatives. Also described is a procedure for systematically studying combined or interactive effects, acute or chronic, which requires no more effort than that needed for testing a single agent and which yields complete dose-response curves. It is concluded that food irradiation, as a physical process, appears more advantageous from the genotoxicological, chemical, and pollution aspects than well-accepted, but actually rarely tested, physical processes such as canning. (author)

  19. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity. PMID:29135909

  20. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2017-11-14

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity ( p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality ( p food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  1. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Cooksey-Stowers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision. Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16. Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p < 0.05 and where residents are less mobile (p < 0.01. Based on these findings, local government policies such as zoning laws simultaneously restricting access to unhealthy food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  2. Examining the links between livestock ownership, gender, and food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    élevage. Dans les pays en développement, bien que les femmes représentent plus de 40 % de la main d'oeuvre agricole, elles contrôlent moins de terres que le. Voir davantagePrise en compte systématique des sexospécificités ...

  3. Food and Beverage Availability in Small Food Stores Located in Healthy Food Financing Initiative Eligible Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Duran, Ana Clara; Zenk, Shannon N.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Powell, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI). Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods) were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97%) stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time. PMID:29057794

  4. Food and Beverage Availability in Small Food Stores Located in Healthy Food Financing Initiative Eligible Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea R. Singleton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI. Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97% stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time.

  5. Food and Beverage Availability in Small Food Stores Located in Healthy Food Financing Initiative Eligible Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Chelsea R; Li, Yu; Duran, Ana Clara; Zenk, Shannon N; Odoms-Young, Angela; Powell, Lisa M

    2017-10-18

    Food deserts are a major public health concern. This study aimed to assess food and beverage availability in four underserved communities eligible to receive funding from the Healthy Food Financing Initiative (HFFI). Data analyzed are part of a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of the HFFI on the retail food environment in selected Illinois communities. In 2015, 127 small grocery and limited service stores located in the four selected communities were audited. All communities had a large percentage of low-income and African-American residents. Differences in food and beverage item availability (e.g., produce, milk, bread, snack foods) were examined by store type and community location. Food stores had, on average, 1.8 fresh fruit and 2.9 fresh vegetable options. About 12% of stores sold low-fat milk while 86% sold whole milk. Only 12% of stores offered 100% whole wheat bread compared to 84% of stores offering white bread. Almost all (97%) stores offered soda and/or fruit juice. In summary, we found limited availability of healthier food and beverage items in the communities identified for HFFI support. Follow up findings will address how the introduction of new HFFI-supported supermarkets will affect food and beverage availability in these communities over time.

  6. Food attitudes, eating behavior, and the information underlying food attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikman, Shelley N; Min, Kate E; Graham, Dan

    2006-07-01

    This research examined healthiness perceptions and how the information underlying food attitudes more generally relate to attitudes and behaviors. Participants completed attitudinal measures and various card-sorting tasks in which they rank ordered foods (pictures and/or nutrition labels) in terms of healthiness. Taste was found to be a stronger predictor of attitudes and past eating behavior than other information underlying attitudes (health, guilt, comfort). Furthermore, participants' healthiness rankings of pictures were not correlated to rankings of the corresponding nutrition labels, suggesting that when determining a food's healthiness, participants do not rely on (or are not aware of) the actual nutritional makeup.

  7. Radiation microbiology in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    The lethal effect of ionizing energy on micro-organisms and the influence of species, growth phase, gaseous atmosphere, temperature, water activity, chemical sensitizers and physical agents on microbial resistance are described briefly. Concern has often been expressed that the use of low doses of ionizing energy for processing food might result in mutants with increased resistance, virulence or toxin production capacity, that diagnostic characteristics of pathogens may alter, or that alterations in normal food spoilage patterns could cause storage problems. These fears are examined in a food preservation context and found to be unwarranted. The rationale for quantitative estimates of the dose of ionizing energy needed for specific food preservation applications is given and comparison made between the ionizing energy sensitivities of food pathogens and spoilage organisms

  8. Food prices, access to food outlets and child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Bao, Yanjun

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the importance of food prices and restaurant and food store outlet availability for child body mass index (BMI). We use the 1998, 2000 and 2002 waves of the child-mother merged files from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth combined with fruit and vegetable and fast food price data obtained from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association and outlet density data on fast food and full-service restaurants and supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores obtained from Dun & Bradstreet. Using a random effects estimation model, we found that a 10% increase in the price of fruits and vegetables was associated with a 0.7% increase in child BMI. Fast food prices were not found to be statistically significant in the full sample but were weakly negatively associated with BMI among adolescents with an estimated price elasticity of -0.12. The price estimates were robust to whether we controlled for outlet availability based on a per capita or per land area basis; however, the association between food outlets and child BMI differed depending on the definition. The associations of fruit and vegetable and fast food prices with BMI were significantly stronger both economically and statistically among low- versus high-socioeconomic status children. The estimated fruit and vegetable and fast food price elasticities were 0.14 and -0.26, respectively, among low-income children and 0.09 and -0.13, respectively, among children with less educated mothers.

  9. Migration of fluorochemical paper additives from food-contact paper into foods and food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, T H; Hsu, W; Noonan, G; Diachenko, G

    2008-03-01

    Fluorochemical-treated paper was tested to determine the amount of migration that occurs into foods and food-simulating liquids and the characteristics of the migration. Migration characteristics of fluorochemicals from paper were examined in Miglyol, butter, water, vinegar, water-ethanol solutions, emulsions and pure oil containing small amounts of emulsifiers. Additionally, microwave popcorn and chocolate spread were used to investigate migration. Results indicate that fluorochemicals paper additives do migrate to food during actual package use. For example, we found that microwave popcorn contained 3.2 fluorochemical mg kg(-1) popcorn after popping and butter contained 0.1 mg kg(-1) after 40 days at 4 degrees C. Tests also indicate that common food-simulating liquids for migration testing and package material evaluation might not provide an accurate indication of the amount of fluorochemical that actually migrates to food. Tests show that oil containing small amounts of an emulsifier can significantly enhance migration of a fluorochemical from paper.

  10. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes

  11. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Food, Globalization and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Sonnenfeld, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of

  13. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... answering these and other questions about product dating. What is Food Product Dating? Does Federal Law Require Dating? Are ... Impact on Food Waste Proper Handling of Food What is Food Product Dating? Two types of product dating may ...

  14. Norovirus: Food Handlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology For Food Workers Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... trabajadores del sector alimentario Norovirus and Working With Food CDC Vital Signs Report Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food ...

  15. Diet-busting foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity - diet-busting foods; Overweight - diet-busting foods; Weight loss - diet busting foods ... of calories but little nutrition. Many of these diet-busting foods are made with unhealthy saturated or ...

  16. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to develop functional foods? (4) What are the determinants and drivers of food manufacturers' decision...... to develop functional foods? Research question 1 The health benefit of a functional food product is in fact limited if it is not eaten regularly and thus is not part of the healthy diet. For that reason it is highly relevant to look at the dietary change research when studying functional food acceptance...

  17. Food for love: The role of food offering in empathic emotion regulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamburg, M.E.; Finkenauer, C.; Schuengel, C.

    2014-01-01

    The present article examines the interpersonal and intrapersonal antecedents and consequences of food offering. Food offering is one of the earliest biobehavioral regulatory interactions between parent and child. It ensures survival of the child who is fully dependent on food provision by others.

  18. Foods and dietary profiles associated with ‘food addiction’ in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly M. Pursey

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Statistically significant associations were identified between YFAS assessed food addiction and dietary intake, specifically intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. However, the effect sizes were small limiting clinical applications. Further examination of the relationship between addictive-like eating and intake of specific foods in a nationally representative sample is warranted.

  19. Sex differences in young adults’ snack food intake after food commercial exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; van der Zwaluw, C.S.; van Strien, T.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on

  20. Food product prices and its implications for food security in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the prices of food products and its implications for food security in Nigeria. Data was obtained from Federal Office of Statistics and was analyzed using histogram and and price index number (Laspyres index). The study show that food price inflation is caused by frequent hike in the prices of petroleum ...

  1. The Interconnected Challenges for Food Security from a Food Regimes Perspective: Energy, Climate and Malconsumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Recent experience of food price volatility in global markets encourages closer examination of the dynamics underlying the global food system and reveals a range of contingent factors. Meanwhile a common thread of many recent expert reports has emphasised the need to intensify agricultural production to double food output by 2050. Drawing upon a…

  2. Food Security Framings within the UK and the Integration of Local Food Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, James; Maye, Damian

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a critical interpretation of food security politics in the UK. It applies the notion of food security collective action frames to assess how specific action frames are maintained and contested. The interdependency between scale and framing in food security discourse is also scrutinised. It does this through an examination of…

  3. Food for Thought: Analysing the Internal and External School Food Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Mary; Molcho, Michal; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Kelly, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Availability and access to food is a determinant of obesity. The purpose of this paper is to examine food availability within and outside of post-primary schools in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: Data on the internal school food environment were collected from 63 post-primary schools using questionnaires. The external school food…

  4. The Techniques Of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olorunda, A.O. Department Of Food Technology, University Of Ibadan, Nigeria.

    1996-01-01

    Food irradiation is a technique which is increasingly being recognised as an effective method for reducing post-harvest food losses, ensuring hygienic quality of food and facilitating wider trade of certain food items. Irradiation of food may be used to achieve a variety of desirable objectives including the following which are classified according to the average radiation dose requirement: i. Low dose application (up to about 1 kg), for inhibition of sprouting in yams, potatoes, onions, etc. insect disinfestation and delay of ripening in fruits. ii. Medium dose applications (about 1-10kgy), for reduction of micro-organisms and improvement in technological properties of food. iii. High dose application (about 10-50kgy) which is used for sterilization for commercial purposes and elimination of viruses. From the point of view of food safety the energy level of the radiation applied to food is the most important characteristics that has to be regulated in order to prevent the possible formation of induced radio activity. Fortunately, the most commonly used isotopic sources 60Co and 137Cs; and machine sources such as the electron beam generators, induced radio activity is negligible, short lived and lower than that causing radio activity. This and other scientific and technical aspects of the commercial application irradiation technology with respect Nigeria have been examined in this paper along side with those of its politics and social policy

  5. Consumer attitude toward food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person

  6. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Food irradiation in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, T.

    1985-01-01

    This report explains the process and issues that concern consumers, workers in the food industry and people involved in food policy, public health and environmental protection. It argues that safety assurances by experts are not enough, and calls for a full public debate on all issues surrounding food irradiation, including a) wholesomeness of irradiated foods - food quality, nutrition losses, chemical and other changes in irradiated foods b) consumers rights to information about irradiated foods c) health and safety of food industry workers d) the economics of irradiation - food prices, changes in patters of employment, environmental impacts e) regulation and monitoring of food irradiation and imported irradiated foods. (U.K.)

  8. Food Safety Attitude of Culinary Arts Based Students in Public and Private Higher Learning Institutions (IPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patah, Mohd Onn Rashdi Abd; Issa, Zuraini Mat; Nor, Khamis Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Food safety issue is not new in Malaysia as problems such as unsafe food handling, doubtful food preparation, food poisoning outbreaks in schools and education institutions and spreading of infectious food borne illness has been discussed by the public more often than before. The purpose of this study is to examine the food safety knowledge and…

  9. Food insecurity among Cambodian refugee women two decades post resettlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Jerusha Nelson; Wilde, Parke E; Silka, Linda; Bermudez, Odilia I; Rogers, Beatrice Lorge

    2013-04-01

    Resettled refugees have high rates of chronic disease, which may be partially due to persistent food insecurity. This study describes food experiences on arrival in the U.S. and current food security status and examines characteristics related to food insecurity in a well-established refugee community. Focus groups and a survey assessed food security status and personal characteristics of Cambodian women in Lowell, MA, USA. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine relationships with food insecurity. Current rates of food insecurity are high. In multivariate models, food insecurity was positively associated with being depressed and being widowed, and negatively associated with higher income and acculturation. Early arrivers (1980s) had difficulty in the U.S. food system on arrival, while later arrivers (1990s-2000s) did not. Refugee agencies should consider strategically devoting resources to ensure successful early transition to the U.S. food environment and long-term food security of refugees.

  10. Functional foods: traditional use and European legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano

    2012-03-01

    The concept of functional foods was born in Japan in the 1980s. They are foods that were developed specifically to promote health or reduce the risk of disease. Functional foods have not already been defined by the legislation in Europe. Generally, they are considered as those foods which are intended to be consumed as part of the normal diet and which contain biologically active components which offer the potential of enhanced health or reduced risk of disease. Attention concerning this category of foods has grown, new products have appeared in the European market and interest has turned to define the standards and guidelines for the development and promotion of this kind of foods. In the European Union, there is harmonised legislation on health claims, while compounds, ingredients, plants are still regulated only at national level. The question of traditional use and the role of European Food Safety Authority as European Authority for Food Safety will be examined.

  11. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes

  12. Nutrition education program for food bank clients: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many low income families depend on foods from food banks. The objective of the study was to determine program content and examine feasibility of a pilot nutrition education program for food bank clients. Formative research was conducted with staff at a local food bank and its pantries and adult clie...

  13. Convention Theory in the Anglophone Agro-food Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades, convention theory has been applied in various branches of agro-food studies, providing analytical and theoretical insight for examining alternative food networks, coordination and governance in agro-food value chains, and the so-called 'quality turn' in food production an...... current limitations and suggest some directions for future research...

  14. Food, Obesity Discourses and the Subjugation of Environmental Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I critically analyse how meanings of health and food, tied to obesity reduction, "subjugate" environmental priorities and knowledges of food. To do this, I explore the meanings of health and food constructed in the NSW Health Munch & Move program. I examine the use of language to construct notions of food and health…

  15. The influence of local food environments on adolescents' food purchasing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students' home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students' food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students' food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km) to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05). In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth's home and school.

  16. The Influence of Local Food Environments on Adolescents’ Food Purchasing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the neighborhood food environment and the food purchasing behaviors among adolescents. Grade 7 and 8 students (n = 810) at 21 elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada completed a questionnaire assessing their food purchasing behaviors. Parents of participants also completed a brief questionnaire providing residential address and demographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess students’ home and school neighborhood food environment and land use characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the influence of the home neighborhood food environment on students’ food purchasing behaviors, while two-level Hierarchical Non-Linear Regression Models were used to examine the effects of school neighborhood food environment factors on students’ food purchasing behaviors. The study showed that approximately 65% of participants reported self-purchasing foods from fast-food outlets or convenience stores. Close proximity (i.e., less than 1 km) to the nearest fast-food outlet or convenience store in the home neighborhood increased the likelihood of food purchasing from these food establishments at least once per week by adolescents (p purchasing by adolescents (i.e., at least once per week; p < 0.05). In conclusion, macro-level regulations and policies are required to amend the health-detracting neighborhood food environment surrounding children and youth’s home and school. PMID:22690205

  17. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  18. Examining the Assessment Literacy of External Examiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medland, Emma

    2015-01-01

    External scrutiny of higher education courses is evident globally, but the use of an external examiner from another institution for the purposes of quality assurance has been a distinguishing feature of UK higher education since the 1830s. However, the changing higher education context has led to mounting criticism of the system and the…

  19. Food irradiation: its role in food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R. U.

    1985-01-01

    There are food safety criteria generally defined by international groups and specifically defined by individual countries. Food irradiation will be discussed in the light of food safety regulations. The merits and acceptability of food irradiation in promoting trade within and between countries will also be discussed. The need for public awareness and training of technical personnel will be highlighted

  20. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  1. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; Dean, Wesley R; Horel, Scott A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environmen...

  2. Proteomic applications in food allergy: food allergenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Muraca, Maurizio; Mazzina, Oscar; Lante, Isabella; Dahdah, Lamia

    2015-06-01

    To familiarize the reader with the recent developments in the identification of food protein allergens by proteomics mass spectrometry-based methods, named allergenomics. The proteomic analysis of food protein allergens has became a hot topic in the food safety field in recent years. Indeed, food allergies represent a current and relevant problem in clinical medicine. Several food allergenomics studies have recently been performed, aiming at better understanding the cause of sensitization to cow's milk in breastfed infants and at assessing both the safety of food (e.g. transgenic) and in particular the allergenic properties of processed fish and seafood. Food protein allergen characterization and quantification, together with the immunoglobulin E epitope mapping, will contribute to the diagnosis/prognosis of food allergy and will lead to a better safety assessment of foods (e.g. novel transgenic foods).

  3. CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY: WILLINGNESS TO BUY GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Ferdaus; Onyango, Benjamin M.; Adelaja, Adesoji O.; Schilling, Brian J.; Hallman, William K.

    2002-01-01

    Biotechnology is often viewed as the defining technology for the future of food and agriculture with the potential to deliver a wide range of economic and health benefits. Public acceptance of genetically modified food products is a critical factor for this emerging technology. Using data from a national survey, this study examines public acceptance of food biotechnology by modeling consumers' willingness to buy genetically modified foods. Empirical results suggest that younger, white, male a...

  4. Views of consumers and other food chain actors on organic food and its production

    OpenAIRE

    Aakkula, Jyrki; Forsman-Hugg, Sari; Jakosuo, Katri; Kottila, Marja-Riitta; Rönni, Päivi; Sarkkinen, Eliisa

    2006-01-01

    In this study we have examined what kind of views and attitudes consumers and other food chain actors have concerning organic food and its production and how these views and attitudes differ. The survey data from year 2003 consist of responses by 1 186 consumers and 333 other food chain actors. The main methods used in the analysis of survey responses were factor, cluster and discriminant analyses. With the help of these methods, consumers and other food chain actors were clustered into vario...

  5. Food for love: the role of food offering in empathic emotion regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hamburg, Myrte E.; Finkenauer, Catrin; Schuengel, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The present article examines the interpersonal and intrapersonal antecedents and consequences of food offering. Food offering is one of the earliest biobehavioral regulatory interactions between parent and child. It ensures survival of the child who is fully dependent on food provision by others. The quality of these early interactions influences how people respond to situations later in life, and food offering in particular may be closely related to emotion regulation throughout the lifespan...

  6. Characteristics of fast-food/takeaway-food and restaurant/café-food consumers among New Zealand adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire; Gray, Andrew Robert; Fleming, Elizabeth Ann; Parnell, Winsome Ruth

    2014-10-01

    To investigate: (i) the percentage of the New Zealand (NZ) population reporting fast food/takeaway food and restaurant/café food per day; (ii) examine demographic factors associated with their use; (iii) quantify their contribution to energy intake; and (iv) describe the specific types of foods reported from both sources. Twenty-four hour diet recalls from the cross-sectional 2008/09 NZ Adult Nutrition Survey were used to identify fast-food and restaurant-food consumers. NZ households. Adults aged 15 years and older (n 4721). Overall 28 % reported consuming at least one fast food and 14 % a restaurant food within the 24 h diet recall. Fast-food consumption was not associated with level of education or an area-based measure of socio-economic status, but a higher education was positively associated with restaurant-food consumption. Individual factors such as ethnicity, household size, age, sex and marital status were found to be important influences on the use of fast food and restaurant food. Fast-food consumption was more prevalent among participants living in urban areas, young adults (19-30 years) and Māori compared with NZ European and Others. The most frequently reported fast foods were bread-based dishes, potatoes (including fries) and non-alcoholic beverages. Given the high reported consumption of fast food by young adults, health promotion initiatives both to improve the nutritional quality of fast-food menus and to encourage healthier food choices would likely make a large impact on the overall diet quality of this group.

  7. Rod examination gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacvinskas, W.S.; Bayer, J.E.; Davis, W.W.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Matchett, R.L.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

    1991-12-31

    The present invention is directed to a semi-automatic rod examination gauge for performing a large number of exacting measurements on radioactive fuel rods. The rod examination gauge performs various measurements underwater with remote controlled machinery of high reliability. The rod examination gauge includes instruments and a closed circuit television camera for measuring fuel rod length, free hanging bow measurement, diameter measurement, oxide thickness measurement, cladding defect examination, rod ovality measurement, wear mark depth and volume measurement, as well as visual examination. A control system is provided including a programmable logic controller and a computer for providing a programmed sequence of operations for the rod examination and collection of data.

  8. Fairtrade, Food Security and Globalization: Building Alternative Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Calisto Friant

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the politics and practices of Fairtrade certification in order to assess whether this alternative trading system could contribute to innovative solutions for global food security. The analysis begins by assessing the main challenges and problems characterizing the contemporary global food system. It then explores the history, vision and certification standards of the Fairtrade label. In the third section, the results of the impact studies of Fairtrade certification on producer livelihoods are discussed, analyzing the various strengths and weaknesses. Finally the article analyzes whether, and how, the Fairtrade system could positively contribute to improving global food security. To conclude this paper argues that the greatest strength of Fairtrate is not the certification mechanism itself but rather the social and environmental principles it represents. Fairtrade standards could serve to inform broader international policies, which could lead to a sustainable transformation of the global food system.

  9. Where do food desert residents buy most of their junk food? Supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Christine A; Cohen, Deborah A; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Hunter, Gerald P; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-10-01

    To examine where residents in an area with limited access to healthy foods (an urban food desert) purchased healthier and less healthy foods. Food shopping receipts were collected over a one-week period in 2013. These were analysed to describe where residents shopped for food and what types of food they bought. Two low-income, predominantly African-American neighbourhoods with limited access to healthy foods in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Two hundred and ninety-three households in which the primary food shoppers were predominantly female (77·8 %) and non-Hispanic black (91·1 %) adults. Full-service supermarkets were by far the most common food retail outlet from which food receipts were returned and accounted for a much larger proportion (57·4 %) of food and beverage expenditures, both healthy and unhealthy, than other food retail outlets. Although patronized less frequently, convenience stores were notable purveyors of unhealthy foods. Findings highlight the need to implement policies that can help to decrease unhealthy food purchases in full-service supermarkets and convenience stores and increase healthy food purchases in convenience stores.

  10. Traditional foods vs. manufactured baby foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Elaine L; Darmon, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    The provision of nutrient-dense complementary foods is essential to ensure an infant's nutrient requirements are met. Yet often, relative to recommendations, traditional complementary foods have low levels of nutrients, suggesting a role, for fortified manufactured baby foods, in ensuring dietary adequacy. In this review, the potential benefits and safety of using fortified manufactured baby foods versus traditional foods alone are evaluated based on evidence from food composition data, diet modeling and intervention studies. Results from the food composition data and diet modeling suggest that ensuring a nutritionally adequate complementary feeding diet based on traditional foods alone is difficult. Conversely, except for biochemical iron status, intervention trials do not show consistent benefits, for growth or biochemical zinc or riboflavin status, with the use of fortified manufactured baby foods versus traditional foods alone. The safety of manufactured baby foods will depend on food preparation practices and the presence of effective governmental regulatory infrastructures. Hence, in environments where fortified manufactured baby foods are expensive, unavailable or where there is an absence of effective governmental regulatory infrastructures, the use of traditional foods is advised. Conversely, where affordable manufactured baby foods are available, marketed safely and fortified appropriately, their use is likely to result in improved nutrient intakes and infant biochemical iron status. In all environments, the promotion of breastfeeding, active feeding and high levels of hygiene is essential to ensure optimal nutritional status.

  11. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: February 7, 2018 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  12. Wood's lamp examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  13. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ...

  14. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  15. Changing memory of food enjoyment to increase food liking, choice and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne

    2012-10-28

    Novel ways to increase liking and intake of food are needed to encourage acceptance of healthier food. How enjoyable we remember food to have been is likely to be a significant predictor of food choice. Two studies examined whether remembered enjoyment of eating a food can be increased and whether this makes individuals more likely to eat that food in the future. In Study One, a simple manipulation of instructing participants to rehearse what they found enjoyable about a food immediately after eating it was used to increase remembered enjoyment (relative to controls). In a separate study; Study Two, the effect of increasing remembered enjoyment on food choice was tested by examining whether the manipulation to increase remembered enjoyment resulted in participants choosing to eat more of a food as part of a later buffet lunch. The experimental manipulation increased remembered enjoyment for the food (Study One). A change in remembered enjoyment was shown to have a significant effect on the amount of a food participants chose to eat the following day for lunch (Study Two). The present studies suggest that remembered enjoyment can be increased via a simple act of rehearsal, resulting in a later increase in the amount of food chosen and eaten. Interventions based on altering remembered enjoyment of healthy food choices warrant further investigation.

  16. Market Access for Local Food through the Conventional Food Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Abate-Kassa, Getachew; Peterson, H. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines relationships and linkages between the conventional supply chain actors (wholesalers and retailers) and local food producers based on a study conducted in Southeast Michigan. A case study approach was employed to examine chain actors’ operations and to explore their roles, experiences and perceptions about local foods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the owners and managers of eleven retailers and six wholesalers. The study found differences in local food p...

  17. Weather, Climate and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, T.

    2016-12-01

    To climatologists food security is dominated by the impacts of weather and climate on food systems. But the link between the atmosphere and food security is more complex. Extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones impact directly on agriculture, but they also impact on the logistical distribution of food and can thus disrupt the food supply chain, especially in urban areas. Drought affects human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. It represents a pending danger for vulnerable agricultural systems that depend on the rainfall, water supply and reservoirs. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Drought, especially when it results in famine, can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. A holistic approach is required to understand the phenomena, to forecast catastrophic events such as drought and famine and to predict their societal consequences. In the Food Security recommendations of the Rio+20 Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development it states that it is important "To understand fully how to measure, assess and reduce the impacts of production on the natural environment including climate change, recognizing that different measures of impact (e.g. water, land, biodiversity, carbon and other greenhouse gases, etc) may trade-off against each other..." This talk will review the historical link between weather, climate, drought and food supplies; examine the international situation; and summarise the response of the scientific community

  18. Food allergy and food sensitization in early childhood:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, E; Kjaer, H F; Høst, A

    2009-01-01

    . Children with AD were neither more IgE-sensitized nor had higher levels of IgE when compared with healthy children but they were more persistently sensitized. Conclusions: Sensitization to foods in young children without food allergy seems to be a normal phenomenon. The discrepancy between sensitization......Background: The prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and the relationship with atopic dermatitis (AD) is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the development of FHS and to correlate this with AD in relation to sensitization and symptoms. Methods: This study combines new data...... from birth to 18 months of age with previous published results from 3 and 6 years. The Danish Allergy Research Centre cohort, including 562 children, is a unique, population-based, prospective birth cohort, with clinical examinations at all follow-ups. All children were examined for the development...

  19. The effects of television advertisements for junk food versus nutritious food on children's food attitudes and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen G; Scully, Maree L; Wakefield, Melanie A; White, Victoria M; Crawford, David A

    2007-10-01

    Television (TV) food advertising has attracted criticism for its potential role in promoting unhealthy dietary practices among children. Content analyses indicate junk food advertising is prevalent on Australian children's TV; healthy eating is rarely promoted. This paper presents (a) a cross-sectional survey examining associations between children's regular TV viewing habits and their food-related attitudes and behaviour; and (b) an experiment assessing the impact of varying combinations of TV advertisements (ads) for unhealthy and healthy foods on children's dietary knowledge, attitudes and intentions. The experimental conditions simulated possible models for regulating food ads on children's TV. Participants were 919 grade five and six students from schools in Melbourne, Australia. The survey showed that heavier TV use and more frequent commercial TV viewing were independently associated with more positive attitudes toward junk food; heavier TV use was also independently associated with higher reported junk food consumption. The experiment found that ads for nutritious foods promote selected positive attitudes and beliefs concerning these foods. Findings are discussed in light of methodological issues in media effects research and their implications for policy and practice. It is concluded that changing the food advertising environment on children's TV to one where nutritious foods are promoted and junk foods are relatively unrepresented would help to normalize and reinforce healthy eating.

  20. Radionuclides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclides in the Food Chain reviews past experience in meeting the challenge of radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs and water sources and, in the wake of the reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, presents current concepts and programs relating to measurement, surveillance, effects, risk management, evaluation guidelines, and control and regulatory activities. This volume, based on a symposium sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which brought together both radiation experts and food industry policymakers, examines such vital topics as structural problems in large-scale crisis-managment systems; dose assessment from man-made sources; international recommendations on radiation protection; airborne contamination, as well as aquatic and soilborne radionuclides; food-chain contamination from testing nuclear devices; long-term health effects of radionuclides in food and water supplies; and use of mathematical models in risk assessment and management. (orig.)

  1. [Food allergy, food intolerance or functional disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, B

    2009-04-01

    The term "food allergy" is widely misused for all sorts of symptoms and diseases caused by food. Food allergy (FA) is an adverse reaction to food (food hypersensitivity) occurring in susceptible individuals, which is mediated by a classical immune mechanism specific for the food itself. The best established mechanism in FA is due to the presence of IgE antibodies against the offending food. Food intolerance (FI) are all non-immune-mediated adverse reactions to food. The subgroups of FI are enzymatic (e.g. lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency), pharmacological (reactions against biogenic amines, histamine intolerance), and undefined food intolerance (e.g. against some food additives). The diagnosis of an IgE-mediated FA is made by a carefully taken case history, supported by the demonstration of an IgE sensitization either by skin prick tests or by in vitro tests, and confirmed by positive oral provocation. For scientific purposes the only accepted test for the confirmation of FA/FI is a properly performed double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). A panel of recombinant allergens, produced as single allergenic molecules, may in future improve the diagnosis of IgE-mediated FA. Due to a lack of causal treatment possibilities, the elimination of the culprit "food allergen" from the diet is the only therapeutic option for patients with real food allergy.

  2. TMI-2 core examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbins, R.R.; MacDonald, P.E.; Owen, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The examination of the damaged core at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor is structured to address the following safety issues: fission product release, transport, and deposition; core coolability; containment integrity; and recriticality during severe accidents; as well as zircaloy cladding ballooning and oxidation during so-called design basis accidents. The numbers of TMI-2 components or samples to be examined, the priority of each examination, the safety issue addressed by each examination, the principal examination techniques to be employed, and the data to be obtained and the principal uses of the data are discussed in this paper

  3. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes. Revision 7 was published in January 1993 and became effective in August 1993. Supplement 1 is being issued primarily to implement administrative changes to the requalification examination program resulting from the amendment to 10 CFR 55 that eliminated the requirement for every licensed operator to pass an NRC-conducted requalification examination as a condition for license renewal. The supplement does not substantially alter either the initial or requalification examination processes and will become effective 30 days after its publication is noticed in the Federal Register. The corporate notification letters issued after the effective date will provide facility licensees with at least 90 days notice that the examinations will be administered in accordance with the revised procedures

  4. 21 CFR 111.320 - What requirements apply to laboratory methods for testing and examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to laboratory methods for testing and examination? 111.320 Section 111.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING...

  5. The influence of food abundance, food dispersion and habitat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most tropical insectivorous birds, unlike their temperate counterparts, hold and defend a feeding and breeding territory year-around. However, our understanding of ecological factors influencing territory selection and size in tropical insectivores is limited. Here we examine three prominent hypotheses relating food ...

  6. Urban environment and health: food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Osman; Corroon, Meghan; Tirado, Cristina

    2010-07-01

    The authors examine the impact of urbanization on food security and human health in the Middle East. Within-urban-population disparities in food security represent one of the most dramatic indicators of economic and health disparities. These disparities are reflected in a double burden of health outcomes: increasing levels of chronic disease as well as growing numbers of undernourished among the urban poor. These require further comprehensive solutions. Some of the factors leading to food insecurity are an overdependence on purchased food commodities, lack of sufficient livelihoods, rapid reductions in peripheral agricultural land, and adverse impacts of climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Food Security Framework is used to examine and compare 2 cities in the Middle East: Amman, Jordan, and Manama, Bahrain.

  7. The power law and dynamic rheology in food analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein networks impart functional and structural characteristics to food, and should be examined to gain an understanding of properties of the product. Food matrices are investigated nondestructively by small amplitude oscillatory shear analysis, which provides information on viscoelasticity, incl...

  8. Usual Dietary Intakes: NHANES Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI developed a new instrument called the NHANES Food Frequency Questionnaire (formerly called Food Propensity Questionnaire) and supported its application in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

  9. Missing Food, Missing Data? A Critical Review of Global Food Losses and Food Waste Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Li; Liu, Gang; Parfitt, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Food losses and food waste (FLW) have become a global concern in recent years and emerge as a priority in the global and national political agenda (e.g., with Target 12.3 in the new United Nations Sustainable Development Goals). A good understanding of the availability and quality of global FLW...... and a narrow temporal, geographical, and food supply chain coverage. In this paper, we examined 202 publications which reported FLW data for 84 countries and 52 individual years from 1933 to 2014. We found that most existing publications are conducted for a few industrialized countries (e.g., the United...... Kingdom and the United States), and over half of them are based only on secondary data, which signals high uncertainties in the existing global FLW database. Despite these uncertainties, existing data indicate that per-capita food waste in the household increases with an increase of per-capita GDP. We...

  10. New food policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill

    a need for restablishing public confidence in its food supply, its food science, its laws and its food control. In addition, the White Paper on Food Safety points towards a farm to fork policy in that 'as the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex, the health of consumers can ony...

  11. European food law handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Velde, van der M.; Szajkowska, A.; Verbruggen, R.

    2008-01-01

    This handbook analyses and explains the institutional, substantive and procedural elements of EU food law, taking the General Food Law as a focus point. Principles are discussed as well as specific rules addressing food as a product, the processes related to food and communication about food through

  12. Reasons for household food waste with special attention to packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Helén; Wikström, Fredrik; Otterbring, Tobias; Löfgren, Martin; Gustafsson, Anders

    2012-01-01

    This is the authors’ final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article. The amount of food waste needs to be reduced in order to sustain the world’s limited resources and secure enough food to all humans. Packaging plays an important role in reducing food waste. The knowledge about how packaging affects food waste in households, however, is scarce. This exploratory study examines reasons for food waste in household and especially how and to what extent packaging influences the amount ...

  13. Historic Food Production Shocks: Quantifying the Extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aled W. Jones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding global food production trends is vital for ensuring food security and to allow the world to develop appropriate policies to manage the food system. Over the past few years, there has been an increasing attention on the global food system, particularly after the extreme shocks seen in food prices after 2007. Several papers and working groups have explored the links between food production and various societal impacts however they often categorise production shocks in different ways even to the extent of identifying different levels, countries and timings for shocks. In this paper we present a simple method to quantify and categorise cereal production shocks at a country level. This method can be used as a baseline for other studies that examine the impact of these production shocks on the global food system.

  14. Peak Oil, Food Systems, and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Kirschenmann, Frederick L.; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all. PMID:21778492

  15. Determinants of consumer food waste behaviour: Two routes to food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancu, Violeta; Haugaard, Pernille; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one quarter of the food supplied for human consumption is wasted across the food supply chain. In the high income countries, the food waste generated at the household level represents about half of the total food waste, making this level one of the biggest contributors to food waste. Yet, there is still little evidence regarding the determinants of consumers' food waste behaviour. The present study examines the effect of psycho-social factors, food-related routines, household perceived capabilities and socio-demographic characteristics on self-reported food waste. Survey data gathered among 1062 Danish respondents measured consumers' intentions not to waste food, planning, shopping and reuse of leftovers routines, perceived capability to deal with household food-related activities, injunctive and moral norms, attitudes towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control. Results show that perceived behavioural control and routines related to shopping and reuse of leftovers are the main drivers of food waste, while planning routines contribute indirectly. In turn, the routines are related to consumers' perceived capabilities to deal with household related activities. With regard to intentional processes, injunctive norms and attitudes towards food waste have an impact while moral norms and perceived behavioural control make no significant contribution. Implications of the study for initiatives aimed at changing consumers' food waste behaviour are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of food insecurity among food bank users in Germany and its association with population characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depa, Julia; Gyngell, Fiona; Müller, Annalena; Eleraky, Laila; Hilzendegen, Carolin; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of food insecurity (FI) among food bank users in many European countries is unknown. The study aims to examine FI prevalence and associated population characteristics among this particular group of disadvantaged people in Germany. Food insecurity status was assessed among 1033 adult food bank users with a mean age of 53 years (57% female, 43% male) in Germany in 2015 using the food insecurity experience scale (FIES). About half of the participants (55.8%) were single with no children and born in Germany. Over 37% had a self-reported BMI of 30 kg/m 2 or above and 37.4% indicated to smoke. Over 70% of the food bank users can be described as food insecure. Of those, about 35% were considered mildly food insecure. Almost 30% were categorized as moderately food insecure while over 7% were categorized as severely food insecure. Significant associations with food insecurity were found for gender, age, subjective health status, smoking, duration of food bank use, school education and family type. Among this socially disadvantaged population, food insecurity is highly prevalent and public health efforts should be focusing on this vulnerable population taken into account the identified population and behavioral characteristics associated with food insecurity.

  17. Danish consumers' attitudes towards functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    1. "Functional foods" is a relatively new term used to describe food products which have been enriched with natural substances/components with a specific physiological preventive and/or health-promoting effect. As yet, there are few actual functional foods in the Danish market, but in Japan and the USA, where these products are relatively common, sales are enjoying growth rates far above those for conventional products. 2. The aim of this study is to examine Danish consumers' attitudes to fun...

  18. Food Marketing to Children Online: A Content Analysis of Food Company Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Lisa B; Montague, Heather; Wartella, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    Since 2006, many U.S. food and beverage companies have pledged to market healthier foods to children to help combat the childhood obesity epidemic. Despite this, companies' expenditures on online advertising have increased of late. To explore this seemingly contradictory situation, the authors conducted a content analysis of approximately 100 food and beverage brand websites, examining a multitude of online marketing practices across a variety of different products, as well as the relationship between marketing techniques and the nutritional profile of promoted foods. This is the first study to examine if nutrition varied by marketing technique. Few brands maintained child-oriented websites, but the brands that did have child-oriented websites included a large number of games promoting particularly obesogenic food products. Somewhat surprisingly, games with many brand identifiers were paired with slightly less obesogenic foods. These findings present a mixed picture of the threat posed by online child-oriented food marketing.

  19. Social economy of quality food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to examine the implications of the efforts to promote a quality-oriented economy that incorporates a vision of environmental sustainability and equitable social development. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis builds on a case study of food procurement in Brazil,

  20. Assessing ultrasonic examination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, V.; Vogt, M.

    1977-01-01

    Amongst nondestructive examination methods, the ultrasonic examination plays an important role. The reason why its scope of application is so wide is because the sound conducting capacity is the only property the material of a test specimen has to have. As the fields are so manifold, only main aspects can be described briefly. The list of references, however, is very extensive and gives plenty of information of all the problems concerning the assessment of ultrasonic examination results. (orig./RW) [de

  1. Unnecessary x ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bransby-Zachary, M.A.P.; Sutherland, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The risks of radiographic examinations have been highlighted recently. Most patients referred by their general practitioners to hospital clinics have already had a radiographic examination, but the films may not be available when the patient presents at the clinic and repeating the examination is often the most expedient solution. We present the results of a survey which defines the magnitude of this problem at our hospital. (author)

  2. Oral Food Challenges: The Design must Reflect the Clinical Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary; Marrs, Tom; Lack, Gideon; Du Toit, George

    2015-08-01

    Oral food challenges are the gold-standard diagnostic investigation for diagnosing food allergy. They allow a subject to consume an age-appropriate portion of allergenic food under surveillance to assess whether a reproducible immune-mediated adverse response is demonstrated. The specific design of food challenge must closely reflect the anticipated management step being considered. In clinical practice, food challenges are most commonly used to investigate the subject's status of allergy or tolerance to a food. However, other characteristics of food allergy are increasingly being investigated through recent studies. In particular, studies investigating food allergy prevention strategies, the impact of oral immunotherapy on subjects' threshold for allergic reactions and also their potential acquisition of long-term tolerance each utilize differing designs of oral food challenges to investigate their specific hypothesis. We examine how oral food challenges may be designed to assess specific characteristics of the food allergic response.

  3. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  4. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C; Xu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supe...

  5. Field validation of food outlet databases: the Latino food environment in North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Albrecht, Sandra S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining valid, reliable measures of food environments that serve Latino communities is important for understanding barriers to healthy eating in this at-risk population. The primary aim of the study was to examine agreement between retail food outlet data from two commercial databases, Nielsen TDLinx (TDLinx) for food stores and Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) for food stores and restaurants, relative to field observations of food stores and restaurants in thirty-one census tracts in Durham County, NC, USA. We also examined differences by proportion of Hispanic population (outlets classified in the field as 'Latino' on the basis of signage and use of Spanish language. One hundred and seventy-four food stores and 337 restaurants in Durham County, NC, USA. We found that overall sensitivity of food store listings in TDLinx was higher (64 %) than listings in D&B (55 %). Twenty-five food stores were characterized by auditors as Latino food stores, with 20 % identified in TDLinx, 52 % in D&B and 56 % in both sources. Overall sensitivity of restaurants (68 %) was higher than sensitivity of Latino restaurants (38 %) listed in D&B. Sensitivity did not differ substantially by Hispanic composition of neighbourhoods. Our findings suggest that while TDLinx and D&B commercial data sources perform well for total food stores, they perform less well in identifying small and independent food outlets, including many Latino food stores and restaurants.

  6. Field validation of food outlet databases: The Latino food environment in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E.; Albrecht, Sandra S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obtaining valid, reliable measures of food environments that serve Latino communities is important for understanding barriers to healthy eating in this at-risk population. Design The primary aim of the study was to examine agreement between retail food outlet data from two commercial databases, Nielsen TDLinx (TDLinx) for food stores and Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) for food stores and restaurants, relative to field observations of food stores and restaurants in 31 census tracts in Durham County, NC. We also examined differences by proportion of Hispanic population (outlets classified in the field as ‘Latino’ on the basis of signage and use of Spanish language. Setting 174 food stores and 337 restaurants in Durham County, North Carolina Results We found that overall sensitivity of food store listings in TDLinx was higher (64%) than listings in D&B (55%). Twenty-five food stores were characterized by auditors as Latino food stores, with 20% identified in TDLinx, 52% in D&B, and 56% in both sources. Overall sensitivity of restaurants (68%) was higher than sensitivity of Latino restaurants (38%) listed in D&B. Sensitivity did not differ substantially by Hispanic composition of neighborhoods. Conclusion Our findings suggest that while TDLinx and D&B commercial data sources perform well for total food stores, they perform less well in identifying small and independent food outlets, including many Latino food stores and restaurants. PMID:24937758

  7. Food choice in the laboratory pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Traci; Garlick, Dennis; Blaisdell, Aaron P

    2012-09-01

    Although food reward plays a large role in learning and behavioral experiments, there have been few studies examining the most motivating food reward for pigeons. Brown (1969) found that pigeons had a tendency to prefer peas, while Killeen et al. (1993) found pigeons to prefer peas and popcorn in Experiment 1A. We looked to further explore these options as well as expand upon the types of foods examined beyond mainly grains and seeds. Pigeons were presented with six novel foods (granulated peanuts, popping corn, freeze-dried mealworms, bread crumbs, split peas, and sunflower hearts) allocated into two sets of three food items. Once the most consumed food from each food set was determined, they were pooled together with sorghum seeds (a familiar food) to form a third set. Sunflower hearts were the most consumed of all the food items, followed by corn and granulated peanuts. We discuss the potential factors mediating consumption choice, including nutritional profile and food particle size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dose from radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Keiko; Uji, Teruyuki; Sakuyama, Keiko; Fujikawa, Mitsuhiro; Fujii, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    Relatively high gonad doses, several hundred to one thousand mR, have been observed in case of pelvis, hip-joint, coccyx, lower abdomen and lumber examination. Dose to the ovary is especially high in barium enema and I.V.P. examinations. About 12 per cent of the 4-ray examination are high-dose. The gonad dose is relatively high in examination of abdomen and lower extremities, in infants. The dose to the eyes is especially high, 1.0 to 2.5R per exposure, in temporal bone and nasal sinuses tomography. X-ray doses have been compared with dose limits recommended by ICRP and with the gonad dose from natural radiations. The gonad dose in lumbar examination, barium enema, I.V.P. etc. is as high as the maximum permissible dose per year recommended by ICRP. Several devices have been made for dose reduction in the daily examinations: (1) separating the radiation field from the gonad by one centimeter decreases the gonad dose about one-half. (2) using sensitive screens and films. In pelvimetry and in infant hip-joint examination, the most sensitive screen and film are used. In the I.V.P. examination of adult, use of MS screen in place of FS screen decreases the dose to one-third, in combination with careful setting of radiation field, (3) use of grid increases the dose about 50 percent and the lead rubber protection (0.1mm lead equivalent) decreases the gonad dose to one-thirtieth in the spinal column examination of infant, (4) A lead protector, 1mm thickness and 2.5cm in diameter, on the eyes decreases the dose to about one-eighth in the face and nead examinations. These simple and effective methods for dose reduction. Should be carried out in as many examinations as possible in addition to observing dose limits recommended by ICRP. (Evans, J.)

  9. New food policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill

    safety have become an important driver of reform of food policy. In particular, the BSE crisis in 1996 had a significant impact on the formulation of a change in food safety policy in the EU. The White Paper on Food Safety was prepared by the EU commision as a response to the BSE scandal as the EU felt......The urbanisation, technical changes, and the industrialisation of the food systems on one hand and increased income and changes in lifestyles on the other hand transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed - those changes call for changes in the nature of food policy. Concerns over food...... a need for restablishing public confidence in its food supply, its food science, its laws and its food control. In addition, the White Paper on Food Safety points towards a farm to fork policy in that 'as the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex, the health of consumers can ony...

  10. The World Food Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lester R.

    1975-01-01

    Cites evidence to support the theory that the world food shortage will become a chronic condition. Describes the depletion of surplus food supplies and the increasing dependence on North America for food supplies. (MLH)

  11. Preventing food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007441.htm Preventing food poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. To prevent food poisoning , take the following steps when preparing food: Carefully ...

  12. Sodium and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Cholesterol High Blood Pressure Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Sodium and Food Sources Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: More ...

  13. Figuring Out Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beware of. Using Food Labels for a Well-Balanced Diet Here are some guidelines on using food labels ... food label smarts to create a healthy, well-balanced diet. It might seem complicated at first, but it ...

  14. Arsenic in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Foodborne Illness & Contaminants Metals Arsenic Share ... of the Method used to Measure Arsenic in Foods Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometric Determination of Arsenic, ...

  15. Two ways to examine differential constitutive equations: initiated on steady or initiated on unsteady (LAOS) shear characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelenková, Jana; Pivokonský, Radek; Filip, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 205. ISSN 2073-4360 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-26808S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : LAOS * Fourier -Transform rheology * exponential Phan–Tien and Tanner (PTT) model * Giesekus model * Leonov model * modified extended Pom–Pom (mXPP) model * poly(ethylene oxide) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.364, year: 2016 http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4360/9/6/205/pdf

  16. Two ways to examine differential constitutive equations: initiated on steady or initiated on unsteady (LAOS) shear characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelenková, Jana; Pivokonský, Radek; Filip, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 205. ISSN 2073-4360 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-26808S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : LAOS * Fourier-Transform rheology * exponential Phan–Tien and Tanner (PTT) model * Giesekus model * Leonov model * modified extended Pom–Pom (mXPP) model * poly(ethylene oxide) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.364, year: 2016 http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4360/9/6/205/pdf

  17. Bringing home the right to food in Canada: challenges and possibilities for achieving food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Karen; Riches, Graham; Ostry, Aleck; Buckingham, Don; MacRae, Rod

    2007-06-01

    We offer a critique of Canada's approach to domestic food security with respect to international agreements, justiciability and case law, the breakdown of the public safety net, the institutionalisation of charitable approaches to food insecurity, and the need for 'joined-up' food and nutrition policies. We examined Canada's commitments to the right to food, as well as Canadian policies, case law and social trends, in order to assess Canada's performance with respect to the human right to food. We found that while Canada has been a leader in signing international human rights agreements, including those relating to the right to food, domestic action has lagged and food insecurity increased. We provide recommendations for policy changes that could deal with complex issues of state accountability, social safety nets and vulnerable populations, and joined-up policy frameworks that could help realise the right to adequate food in Canada and other developed nations.

  18. Revitalization of food barns in supporting sustainable food security in Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riptanti, E. W.; Qonita, A.; Suprapti

    2018-02-01

    Rice barns have been developed in some areas in Central Java, but several problems seem to appear, leading to nonoptimal functions of nonactive food barns. The present article aims to examine revitalization of food barns through systematic, integrated, and sustainable empowerment. The research design is exploratory research to generate data that are in-depth qualitative and quantitative. Survey was applied in four regencies including Wonogiri, Purworejo, Temanggung, and Batang. Key informants comprise caretakers of food barns, village apparatus, public figures, and Food Security Office apparatus. The research results revealed that the food barns have not been managed in professional manners. Active roles of all members and caretakers, village government, and Food Security Agency are, therefore, required in revitalizing the food barns. In order to perform social functions well, the food barns should be profit-oriented to achieve sustainability.

  19. FOOD ENTREPRENEUR SUSTAINABLE ORIENTATION AND FIRM PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Mark A. Gagnon; Pamela A. Heinrichs

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory research examines the relationship between food entrepreneur sustainable orientation, mindset and firm sustainable practices in a mixed methods format. In particular we seek to address if entrepreneur behavior and firm practices are congruent with founding entrepreneur espoused support of sustainability. Our survey findings with thirty specialty food entrepreneurs suggest tenuous empirical support for the relationship of entrepreneur sustainable orientation, mindset and firm ...

  20. Consumers’ attitudes towards green food in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a Value-Attitude model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and technology...

  1. Fast Food and Body Weight among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody; Parks, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between consumption of fast food and sweets on overweight among U.S. adolescents; and (2) how consumption of different types of food and physical exercise is associated with parental education and other background variables. The data were based on cross-sectional, national survey study…

  2. Food irradiation: Its role in food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.U.

    1985-01-01

    This document provides a brief overview of the process of food irradiation and describes the potential for food irradiation in the Asia-Pacific region. The advantages in controlling food-borne diseases and in promoting trade are discussed. 4 tabs

  3. Rising food prices and household food security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eating indigenous, traditional foods that grew in the wild. In terms of the latter, foods growing in the wild should be seen as a source of nutrition, rather than being associated with poverty. Approximately. 50% of participants started planting vegetable gardens for food availability and subsistence. This reiterates the importance ...

  4. Food allergens: Hypersensitivity to food and food constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reactions to food which occur only in susceptible individuals may result from true physical hypersensitivity to components of foods or from psychological factors. Non-allergic food hypersensitivity may be due to a metabolic defect in the affected individual, while in food allergy immune mechanism is involved. Food allergy can be further subdivided into IgE-mediated food allergy and non-IgE-mediated food allergy, depending on the underlying allergic mechanism. Most cases of confirmed food allergy involve the production of IgE antibodies and a network of interactions between various cell types and chemical mediators. This type of allergic reaction is known as an IgE-mediated allergy (or a type I hypersensitivity reaction, and it produces immediate symptoms. The most severe form of IgE-mediated allergy is systematic answer known as anaphylaxis that can be fatal in the absence of adequate medical help. Other less severe allergy manifestations are symptoms like swelling, itching, redness and heat in the mouth, gut, skin or respiratory tract. Hypersensitivity to food requires special dietary treatment, but total exclusion of some foods from the diet can be very difficult, because of the wide distribution of some foodstuffs in the diet or their presence as impurities in other foods. It is very important that producers have good systems of control, traceability and labeling of possible presence of food allergens in order to help people with food allergies to conduct their restrictive diets that are in most cases their lifelong treatment.

  5. INTER-EXAMINER VARIABILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish whether inter-examiner variability is still a significant factor for the undergraduate orthopaedic clinical ... D. The scores for each student were tabulated and the range, mean, and pass rate determined for each of the examiners. ... has not the heart to reject the man”, consistently gave higher scores (1).

  6. Essentials of musculoskeletal examination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... curriculum at undergraduate and postgraduate levels of instruction.1-4. Most general physicians become competent in the cardiopulmonary examination and are happy to teach these examination techniques during ward rounds and tutorials around the bedside. The same confidence is acquired in relation ...

  7. Cities Feeding People: An Examination of Urban Agriculture in East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For the urban poor of the South, food is becoming a prohibitively expensive commodity. By the late 1980s, cities of the developing world had to import half their food supply. Urban agriculture, it is argued, can reduce this dependency. But most Southern governments do not support it. Cities Feeding People examines urban ...

  8. Evaluating North Carolina Food Pantry Food Safety-Related Operating Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaifetz, Ashley; Chapman, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Almost one in seven American households were food insecure in 2012, experiencing difficulty in providing enough food for all family members due to a lack of resources. Food pantries assist a food-insecure population through emergency food provision, but there is a paucity of information on the food safety-related operating procedures used in the pantries. Food pantries operate in a variable regulatory landscape; in some jurisdictions, they are treated equivalent to restaurants, while in others, they operate outside of inspection regimes. By using a mixed methods approach to catalog the standard operating procedures related to food in 105 food pantries from 12 North Carolina counties, we evaluated their potential impact on food safety. Data collected through interviews with pantry managers were supplemented with observed food safety practices scored against a modified version of the North Carolina Food Establishment Inspection Report. Pantries partnered with organized food bank networks were compared with those that operated independently. In this exploratory research, additional comparisons were examined for pantries in metropolitan areas versus nonmetropolitan areas and pantries with managers who had received food safety training versus managers who had not. The results provide a snapshot of how North Carolina food pantries operate and document risk mitigation strategies for foodborne illness for the vulnerable populations they serve. Data analysis reveals gaps in food safety knowledge and practice, indicating that pantries would benefit from more effective food safety training, especially focusing on formalizing risk management strategies. In addition, new tools, procedures, or policy interventions might improve information actualization by food pantry personnel.

  9. Climate change and food security

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, P.J; Ingram, J.S.I; Brklacich, M

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are...

  10. Food carbohydrate chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wrolstad, R. E

    2012-01-01

    .... Now in Food Carbohydrate Chemistry, author Wrolstad emphasizes the application of carbohydrate chemistry to understanding the chemistry, physical and functional properties of food carbohydrates...

  11. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief review summarizes current scientific information on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of foods. Attention is focused on: specifics of the irradiation process and its effectiveness in food preservation; the historical development of food irradiation technology in the US; the response of the Institute of Food Technologists to proposed FDA guidelines for food irradiation; the potential uses of irradiation in the US food industry; and the findings of the absence of toxins and of unaltered nutrient density (except possibly for fats) in irradiated foods. The misconceptions of consumers concerning perceived hazards associated with food irradiation, as related to consumer acceptance, also are addressed

  12. Analysis of food contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, John

    1984-01-01

    ... quantification methods used in the analysis of mycotoxins in foods - Confirmation and quantification of trace organic food contaminants by mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring - Chemiluminescence...

  13. Sustainable Management of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information to organizations to help them implement sustainable food management, including joining the Food Recovery Challenge. To provide education and information to communities and concerned citizens.

  14. Validating self-reported food expenditures against food store and eating-out receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W; Aggarwal, A; Liu, Z; Acheson, M; Rehm, C D; Moudon, A V; Drewnowski, A

    2016-03-01

    To compare objective food store and eating-out receipts with self-reported household food expenditures. The Seattle Obesity Study II was based on a representative sample of King County adults, Washington, USA. Self-reported household food expenditures were modeled on the Flexible Consumer Behavior Survey (FCBS) Module from 2007 to 2009 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Objective food expenditure data were collected using receipts. Self-reported food expenditures for 447 participants were compared with receipts using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots and κ-statistics. Bias by sociodemographics was also examined. Self-reported expenditures closely matched with objective receipt data. Paired t-tests showed no significant differences between receipts and self-reported data on total food expenditures, expenditures at food stores or eating out. However, the highest-income strata showed weaker agreement. Bland-Altman plots confirmed no significant bias across both methods-mean difference: 6.4; agreement limits: -123.5 to 143.4 for total food expenditures, mean difference 5.7 for food stores and mean difference 1.7 for eating out. The κ-statistics showed good agreement for each (κ 0.51, 0.41 and 0.49 respectively. Households with higher education and income had significantly more number of receipts and higher food expenditures. Self-reported food expenditures using NHANES questions, both for food stores and eating out, serve as a decent proxy for objective household food expenditures from receipts. This method should be used with caution among high-income populations, or with high food expenditures. This is the first validation of the FCBS food expenditures question using food store and eating-out receipts.

  15. Heritability of food preferences in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Fiona M; Plomin, Robert; Wardle, Jane

    2006-07-30

    There is persisting interest in the idea that taste preferences are heritable characteristics, but few twin studies have found evidence for a significant genetic component. Small sample sizes and idiosyncratic selection of foods may have contributed to the negative results. We hypothesized that using a larger twin sample and empirical groupings of food types, would give stronger evidence for the heritability of food preferences. We examined the heritability of preferences for four food groups in a sample of young twins. We administered a food preference questionnaire with 95 foods to 214 mothers of same-sex twin pairs (103 monozygotic and 111 dizygotic pairs) aged 4 to 5. 18 foods were excluded because they had been tried by fewer than 25% of the children. Foods were grouped into 'Vegetables', 'Fruits', 'Desserts' and 'Meat and Fish' on the basis of a factor analysis of the preference data. Genetic analyses were carried out on mean liking across these four groups, using model fitting techniques. Over all 77 foods, MZ correlations were higher than DZ correlations for 72 of them, with a higher mean MZ correlation (r = 0.76) than DZ correlation (r = 0.56). Using model fitting techniques with the factor scores, significant heritability estimates were obtained for all four food groups. Heritability was modest for dessert foods (0.20), moderate for vegetables (0.37) and fruits (0.51), and high for liking for protein foods (0.78). Shared environmental effects were strong for desserts, fruits and vegetables, while non-shared environmental influences were low for all four food groups. These results provide strong evidence for modest heritability of food preferences when using empirically-derived groupings of foods.

  16. Adolescent exposure to food advertising on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Szczypka, Glen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2007-10-01

    Television viewing is hypothesized to contribute to obesity among children and adolescents through several mechanisms that include the displacement of physical activity, snacking while watching TV, and the influence of food advertising. This study drew on television ratings to examine the distribution of food advertising exposure among adolescents aged 12 through 17 based on 170 top-rated shows across network, cable and syndicated TV stations over the 9-month period from September 2003 to May 2004. A total of 238,353 30-second equivalent advertisements on the top-rated shows were assessed. Each advertisement was weighted by its rating to measure actual exposure to advertisements. The results showed that among total nonprogram content time, food-related products accounted for roughly one fifth of advertising exposure. Excluding TV promotions and public service announcements, as a proportion of all product advertising, total food-related advertising made up 26% of advertised products viewed by adolescents. By race, the proportion of advertising exposure to food products was 14% greater for African-American versus white adolescents and total exposure to food advertising would be even larger for African-American teens given that, on average, they watched more TV. Fast food was the most frequently viewed food product category comprising 23% of all food-related advertisements among adolescents. Food ads made up just over one quarter of TV ads viewed by adolescents with the most commonly viewed products of fast food, sweets, and beverage products well within the reach of their own purchasing power.

  17. Convenience food products. Drivers for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Thomas A; van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Convenience is one of the big trends in the food business. The demand for convenience food products is steadily increasing; therefore, understanding convenience food consumption is an important issue. Despite being vital properties of convenience food, saving time and effort have not been very successful constructs for predicting convenience food consumption. To examine a wide range of possible drivers for convenience food consumption, the present study uses a convenience food frequency questionnaire that asks about consumption behavior. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was sent out to a representative sample of people in German-speaking Switzerland and yielded N = 918 complete datasets from persons mainly responsible for buying and preparing food in the household. The various convenience food products could be categorized into four groups, which we labeled as highly processed food items, moderately processed food items, single components, and salads. Fifteen drivers were found to have a significant impact either on total convenience consumption or on one of the identified categories. Strong predictors were age, concern about naturalness, nutrition knowledge, and cooking skills. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Food insecurity and health across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Sun; Gundersen, Craig; Cook, John; Laraia, Barbara; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2012-09-01

    Our symposium entitled, "Food Insecurity and Health across the Lifespan" explored the latest research from the economic, medical, pediatric, geriatric, and nutrition literature concerning the measurement, prevalence, predictors, and consequences of food insecurity across the lifespan, with a focus on chronic disease, chronic disease management, and healthcare costs. Consideration of the health impacts of food insecurity is a new and timely area of research, with a considerable potential for translation of the findings into public policy surrounding alleviation of food insecurity. Although it is widely acknowledged that food insecurity and hunger are morally unacceptable, strategies to develop national policies to alleviate hunger must also approach this problem by considering the economic impact of food insecurity on health and well-being. The goals of this symposium were to: 1) learn about the prevalence and severity of food insecurity in the US across the lifespan and how this is increasing with the continued economic downturn; 2) understand the growing body of research that documents the impact of varying degrees of food insecurity on physical and mental health across the lifespan; 3) examine how food insecurity is related to chronic disease; and 4) explore research methodology to determine the impact of food insecurity on healthcare costs and utilization. Our symposium provided new and novel understandings and research initiatives directed toward alleviating food insecurity in America.

  19. Distribution of Budget Shares for Food: An Application of Quantile Regression to Food Security 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B. Moss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines, using quantile regression, the linkage between food security and efforts to enhance smallholder coffee producer incomes in Rwanda. Even though in Rwanda smallholder coffee producer incomes have increased, inhabitants these areas still experience stunting and wasting. This study examines whether the distribution of the income elasticity for food is the same for coffee and noncoffee growing provinces. We find that that the share of expenditures on food is statistically different in coffee growing and noncoffee growing provinces. Thus, the increase in expenditure on food is smaller for coffee growing provinces than noncoffee growing provinces.

  20. Current Demands for Food-Approved Liposome Nanoparticles in Food and Safety Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Shukla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Safety of food is a noteworthy issue for consumers and the food industry. A number of complex challenges associated with food engineering and food industries, including quality food production and safety of the food through effective and feasible means can be explained by nanotechnology. However, nanoparticles have unique physicochemical properties compared to normal macroparticles of the same composition and thus could interact with living system in surprising ways to induce toxicity. Further, few toxicological/safety assessments have been performed on nanoparticles, thereby necessitating further research on oral exposure risk prior to their application to food. Liposome nanoparticles are viewed as attractive novel materials by the food and medical industries. For example, nanoencapsulation of bioactive food compounds is an emerging application of nanotechnology. In several food industrial practices, liposome nanoparticles have been utilized to improve flavoring and nutritional properties of food, and they have been examined for their capacity to encapsulate natural metabolites that may help to protect the food from spoilage and degradation. This review focuses on ongoing advancements in the application of liposomes for food and pharma sector.

  1. Current Demands for Food-Approved Liposome Nanoparticles in Food and Safety Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Haldorai, Yuvaraj; Hwang, Seung Kyu; Bajpai, Vivek K; Huh, Yun Suk; Han, Young-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    Safety of food is a noteworthy issue for consumers and the food industry. A number of complex challenges associated with food engineering and food industries, including quality food production and safety of the food through effective and feasible means can be explained by nanotechnology. However, nanoparticles have unique physicochemical properties compared to normal macroparticles of the same composition and thus could interact with living system in surprising ways to induce toxicity. Further, few toxicological/safety assessments have been performed on nanoparticles, thereby necessitating further research on oral exposure risk prior to their application to food. Liposome nanoparticles are viewed as attractive novel materials by the food and medical industries. For example, nanoencapsulation of bioactive food compounds is an emerging application of nanotechnology. In several food industrial practices, liposome nanoparticles have been utilized to improve flavoring and nutritional properties of food, and they have been examined for their capacity to encapsulate natural metabolites that may help to protect the food from spoilage and degradation. This review focuses on ongoing advancements in the application of liposomes for food and pharma sector.

  2. The convenience food market in Great Britain: convenience food lifestyle (CFL) segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Marie; Cowan, Cathal; McCarthy, Mary

    2007-11-01

    Convenience foods enable the consumer to save time and effort in food activities, related to shopping, meal preparation and cooking, consumption and post-meal activities. The objective of this paper is to report on the attitudes and reported behaviour of food consumers in Great Britain based on a review of their convenience food lifestyle (CFLs). The paper also reports the development and application of a segmentation technique that can supply information on consumer attitudes towards convenience foods. The convenience food market in Great Britain is examined and the key drivers of growth in this market are highlighted. A survey was applied to a nationally representative sample of 1000 consumers (defined as the persons primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking in the household) in Great Britain in 2002. Segmentation analysis, based on the identification of 20 convenience lifestyle factors, identified four CFL segments of consumers: the 'food connoisseurs' (26%), the 'home meal preparers' (25%), the 'kitchen evaders' (16%) and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' (33%). In particular, the 'kitchen evaders' and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' are identified as convenience-seeking segments. Implications for food producers, in particular, convenience food manufacturers are discussed. The study provides an understanding of the lifestyles of food consumers in Great Britain, and provides food manufacturers with an insight into what motivates individuals to purchase convenience foods.

  3. Do Food Stamps without Education Improve the Nutrient Intake and Food-Related Behaviors of Recipients? Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Katherine L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Burney, Janie L.

    This study examined the effect of food assistance on the dietary patterns of households in South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. Data was collected from 6,969 participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and 3,552 participants in the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program (FSNEP). EFNEP and FSNEP teach low-income…

  4. Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Smith, Teresa M; Shuval, Omree; Shuval, Kerem; Edshteyn, Ingrid; Kalantari, Vahid; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-09-01

    In today's society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in suppressing overconsumption, which can lead to overweight and obesity. Thus, eating snacks between meals has the potential to promote satiety and suppress overconsumption at the subsequent meal. Numerous studies have explored the relation between snack foods and satiety. These studies concluded that whole foods high in protein, fiber, and whole grains (e.g., nuts, yogurt, prunes, and popcorn) enhance satiety when consumed as snacks. Other foods that are processed to include protein, fiber, or complex carbohydrates might also facilitate satiety when consumed as snacks. However, studies that examined the effects of snack foods on obesity did not always account for satiety and the dietary quality and portion size of the snacks consumed. Thus, the evidence concerning the effects of snack foods on obesity has been mixed, with a number of interventional and observational studies not finding a link between snack foods and increased weight status. Although further prospective studies are warranted to conclusively determine the effects of snack foods on obesity risk, the consumption of healthful snacks likely affects satiety and promotes appetite control, which could reduce obesity. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Effect of a Manager Training and Certification Program on Food Safety and Hygiene in Food Service Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailu Kassa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is an important public health issue in the U.S. Eating at restaurants and other food service facilities increasingly has been associated with food borne disease outbreaks. Food safety training and certification of food mangers has been used as a method for reducing food safety violations at food service facilities. However, the literature is inconclusive about the effectiveness of such training programs for improving food safety and protecting consumer health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of food manger training on reducing food safety violations. We examined food inspection reports from the Toledo/Lucas County Health Department (Ohio from March 2005 through February 2006 and compared food hygiene violations between food service facilities with certified and without certified food managers. We also examined the impact on food safety of a food service facility being part of a larger group of facilities. Restaurants with trained and certified food managers had significantly fewer critical food safety violations but more non-critical violations than restaurants without certified personnel. Institutional food service facilities had significantly fewer violations than restaurants, and the number of violations did not differ as a function of certification. Similarly, restaurants with many outlets had significantly fewer violations than restaurants with fewer outlets, and training was not associated with lower numbers of violations from restaurants with many outlets. The value of having certified personnel was only observed in independent restaurants and those with few branches. This information may be useful in indicating where food safety problems are most likely to occur. Furthermore, we recommend that those characteristics of institutional and chain restaurants that result in fewer violations should be identified in future research, and efforts made to apply this knowledge at the level of individual restaurants.

  6. Effect of a Manager Training and Certification Program on Food Safety and Hygiene in Food Service Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailu Kassa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is an important public health issue in the U.S. Eating at restaurants and other food service facilities increasingly has been associated with food borne disease outbreaks. Food safety training and certification of food mangers has been used as a method for reducing food safety violations at food service facilities. However, the literature is inconclusive about the effectiveness of such training programs for improving food safety and protecting consumer health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of food manger training on reducing food safety violations. We examined food inspection reports from the Toledo/Lucas County Health Department (Ohio from March 2005 through February 2006 and compared food hygiene violations between food service facilities with certified and without certified food managers. We also examined the impact on food safety of a food service facility being part of a larger group of facilities. Restaurants with trained and certified food managers had significantly fewer critical food safety violations but more non-critical violations than restaurants without certified personnel. Institutional food service facilities had significantly fewer violations than restaurants, and the number of violations did not differ as a function of certification. Similarly, restaurants with many outlets had significantly fewer violations than restaurants with fewer outlets, and training was not associated with lower numbers of violations from restaurants with many outlets. The value of having certified personnel was only observed in independent restaurants and those with few branches. This information may be useful in indicating where food safety problems are most likely to occur. Furthermore, we recommend that those characteristics of institutional and chain restaurants that result in fewer violations should be identified in future research, and efforts made to apply this knowledge at the level of individual restaurants.

  7. Diversity of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food components. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity (type I reaction). There are several characteristic clinical types of food allergy, such as Anaphylaxis, Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), and Oral allergy syndrome (OAS). In addition, food allergy is also classified into two types (class 1 and class 2) based on the pathophysiological mechanism. In the class 2 food allergy, pollen allergy causes plant food allergy; therefore this type of allergy is sometimes called Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS). The risk of food allergy (allergenicity) may vary with the treatment of the food allergens. The formation or status of the causative food affects its allergenicity. Class 1 food allergens are generally heat-, enzyme-, and low pH-resistant glycoproteins ranging in size from 10 to 70 kD. Class 1 food allergens induce allergic sensitization via the gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are generally heat-labile, susceptible to digestion, and highly homologous with pollen allergens. Taken together, it may be important to consider the diversity of food allergy in order to fight against food allergy.

  8. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advisory Board Patrons & Sponsors MIF’s Seal of Approval What People Say About MIF Sun Protective & Awareness Items Awareness Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine ...

  9. Digital rectal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steggall, Martin J

    This article discusses the indications for digital rectal examination (DRE) in adults. The procedure for DRE is outlined and an overview of the potential findings from performing this test is provided.

  10. Motives for consumer choice of traditional food and European food in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ou; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The demand for European (-style) foods in mainland China has been increasing dramatically during the last decade. Nevertheless, European food producers often appear to be not capable to fully exploit this huge market potential, partially due to the competition with traditional (Chinese) foods. This study examines the determinants of mainland Chinese consumers' choice of traditional food and European food. A web-based survey was administered with 541 consumers from two cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Thereby, the Food Choice Motives model, predominantly used thus far in a European or developed context, is applied to mainland China in order to address the lack of knowledge on food motives of its consumer market and to detect associations between these motives, attitudes, and purchase intentions. Factor analysis resulted in a new Food Choice Motive construct that is considered more appropriate within the context of mainland Chinese consumers, encompassing six dimensions: Health concern, Time or money saving, Sensory appeal, Availability and familiarity, Mood and Food safety concern. Path analysis demonstrated that Time or money saving was negatively associated with attitude toward traditional food on the one hand and purchase intentions toward European food on the other hand. Availability and familiarity had a positive association with attitude toward traditional food. Mood was a positive factor driving attitude toward European food. For both food types, Sensory appeal and Attitude were positively linked to purchase intentions. Furthermore, Mood was negatively linked to the purchase intention toward traditional food in Shanghai. Food safety concern was positively associated with attitudes toward traditional food in Xi'an. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fasting for 24 Hours Heightens Reward from Food and Food-Related Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jameason D.; Goldfield, Gary S.; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E.; Doucet, Éric

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We examined the impact of a 24 hour complete fast (vs. fed state) on two measures of food reward: 1) ‘wanting’, as measured by response to food images and by the relative-reinforcing value of food (RRV), and 2) ‘liking’, as measured by response to food images and the hedonic evaluation of foods consumed. Methods Utilizing a randomized crossover design, 15 subjects (9 male; 6 female) aged 28.6±4.5 yrs with body mass index 25.3±1.4 kg/m2 were randomized and counterbalanced to normal feeding (FED) and 24-hour fast (FASTED) conditions. Trait characteristics were measured with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Two computer tasks measured food reward: 1) RRV progressive ratio task, 2) explicit ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire, LFPQ). Also measured were ad libitum energy intake (EI; buffet) and food ‘liking’ (visual analogue scale) of personalized stimuli. Results There were no significant anthropometric changes between conditions. Appetite scores, hedonic ratings of ‘liking’, and ad libitum EI all significantly increased under the FASTED condition (pFASTED condition there were significant increases in the RRV of snack foods; similarly, explicit ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ significantly increased for all food categories. ‘Liking’ of sweet foods remained high across-meals under FASTED, but savory foods decreased in hedonic saliency. Conclusion Relative to a fed state, we observed an increase in hedonic ratings of food, the rewarding value of food, and food intake after a 24 hr fast. Alliesthesia to food and food cues is suggested by heightened hedonic ratings under the FASTED condition relative to FED. PMID:24454949

  12. Fasting for 24 hours heightens reward from food and food-related cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jameason D; Goldfield, Gary S; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E; Doucet, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of a 24 hour complete fast (vs. fed state) on two measures of food reward: 1) 'wanting', as measured by response to food images and by the relative-reinforcing value of food (RRV), and 2) 'liking', as measured by response to food images and the hedonic evaluation of foods consumed. Utilizing a randomized crossover design, 15 subjects (9 male; 6 female) aged 28.6±4.5 yrs with body mass index 25.3±1.4 kg/m(2) were randomized and counterbalanced to normal feeding (FED) and 24-hour fast (FASTED) conditions. Trait characteristics were measured with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Two computer tasks measured food reward: 1) RRV progressive ratio task, 2) explicit 'liking' and 'wanting' (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire, LFPQ). Also measured were ad libitum energy intake (EI; buffet) and food 'liking' (visual analogue scale) of personalized stimuli. There were no significant anthropometric changes between conditions. Appetite scores, hedonic ratings of 'liking', and ad libitum EI all significantly increased under the FASTED condition (pFASTED condition there were significant increases in the RRV of snack foods; similarly, explicit 'wanting' and 'liking' significantly increased for all food categories. 'Liking' of sweet foods remained high across-meals under FASTED, but savory foods decreased in hedonic saliency. Relative to a fed state, we observed an increase in hedonic ratings of food, the rewarding value of food, and food intake after a 24 hr fast. Alliesthesia to food and food cues is suggested by heightened hedonic ratings under the FASTED condition relative to FED.

  13. Fast-Food Consumption, Diet Quality, and Neighborhood Exposure to Fast Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez Roux, Ana V.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Jacobs, David R.; Franco, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined associations among fast-food consumption, diet, and neighborhood fast-food exposure by using 2000–2002 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data. US participants (n = 5,633; aged 45–84 years) reported usual fast-food consumption (never, <1 time/week, or ≥1 times/week) and consumption near home (yes/no). Healthy diet was defined as scoring in the top quintile of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index or bottom quintile of a Western-type dietary pattern. Neighborhood fast-food exposure was measured by densities of fast-food outlets, participant report, and informant report. Separate logistic regression models were used to examine associations of fast-food consumption and diet; fast-food exposure and consumption near home; and fast-food exposure and diet adjusted for site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Those never eating fast food had a 2–3-times higher odds of having a healthy diet versus those eating fast food ≥1 times/week, depending on the dietary measure. For every standard deviation increase in fast-food exposure, the odds of consuming fast food near home increased 11%–61% and the odds of a healthy diet decreased 3%–17%, depending on the model. Results show that fast-food consumption and neighborhood fast-food exposure are associated with poorer diet. Interventions that reduce exposure to fast food and/or promote individual behavior change may be helpful. PMID:19429879

  14. Domestic food practices: A study of food management behaviors and the role of food preparation planning in reducing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia; Bagozzi, Richard P; Barone, Ada Maria

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has started to show the key role of daily food provision practices in affecting household food waste. Building on and extending these previous contributions, the objective of this paper is to investigate how individuals' everyday practices regarding food (e.g., shopping, cooking, eating, etc.) lead to food waste, and how policy makers and the food industry can implement effective strategies to influence such practices and ultimately help consumers reduce food waste. The research performs three Studies; a critical incident qualitative study (Study 1; N = 514) and a quantitative, survey-based study (Study 2; N = 456) to identify and examine relevant food management behaviors associated with domestic waste. Lastly, findings from a field experiment (Study 3; N = 210) suggest that a specific educational intervention, directed at increasing consumers' perceived skills related to food preparation planning behaviors, reduces domestic food waste. Implications of the research for policy makers and the food industry are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Food problems and food irradiation, recent trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is to contribute to the stable security of foodstuffs which is the fundamental condition of human survival by improving the preservation of foodstuffs and food sanitation utilizing the biological effect due to irradiation. The research and development have been carried out internationally since 1950s, but after the safety declaration of irradiated foods in 1980 by the international organ concerned, the permission and practical use for foods in various foreign countries, the technology transfer to developing countries and so on have been advanced. At present, food irradiation is permitted in 38 countries, and the practical irradiation is carried out in 24 countries. In Japan, the irradiation of potatoes to prevent germination was permitted in 1972, and the practical irradiation on potatoes of yearly 15,000 t is carried out. In the near future, irradiated foods will appear in international foodstuff market, and Japan which imports foodstuffs must cope with them. Foodstuffs and the safety, food irradiation, the soundness of irradiated foods, food irradiation in various foreign countries and Japan, the trend of international organs and the criticism of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  17. Food Allergy 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food. Sometimes the response can be life-threatening. What foods commonly cause an allergy? Foods that often cause ... eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. What are symptoms? The allergic reaction may be mild. In some cases, foods can cause a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms ...

  18. Food and Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chapter 1, Introduction: Food, Politics and. Power, sets out the basic issues around the global food crises of rising prices, hunger and malnutrition, obesity, and food security and sovereignty, pointing to a range of debates over such issues as GM crops, corporate control of food and the role of policy. This chapter establishes ...

  19. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  20. Radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The techniques involved in the treatment of food by ionising radiation are explained. Radiation plant design, nutrition, microbiology and standards for irradiated foods are discussed. The potential applications for food irradiation in Australia are in the fields of quarantine control to disinfest fruit from fruit fly or mangoes from seed weevil, and decontamination of dried foods such as spices

  1. Food irradiation: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Tony; Lang, Tim

    1987-01-01

    The London Food Commission summarizes its concerns about the use of food irradiation in the U.K. resulting from its working group surveys of general public opinion, trading standard officers and the food industry in the U.K., and from experience in countries already permitting irradiation to a variety of foods. (U.K.)

  2. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  3. Nigerian Food Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Food Journal. ... Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Mailing Address. Department of Food Science and Technology University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria ...

  4. Moralizing Food Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2015-01-01

    Food technologies are common on many levels in society and used by both food professionals and consumers. Food technologies are not neutral. They inform and shape the behaviour of people. This paper presents a theoretical framework for analysing the mediating role of food technology and its influ...

  5. Approach bias and cue reactivity towards food in people with high versus low levels of food craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Hahn, Carolyn; Reetz, Christina; Schmidt, Ulrike; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Even though people suffering from high levels of food craving are aware of the negative consequences of binge eating, they cannot resist. Automatic action tendencies (i.e. approach bias) towards food cues that operate outside conscious control may contribute to this dysfunctional behavior. The present study aimed to examine whether people with high levels of food craving show a stronger approach bias for food than those with low levels of food craving and whether this bias is associated with cue-elicited food craving. Forty-one individuals reporting either extremely high or extremely low levels of trait food craving were recruited via an online screening and compared regarding approach bias towards visual food cues by means of an implicit stimulus-response paradigm (i.e. the Food Approach-Avoidance Task). State levels of food craving were assessed before and after cue exposure to indicate food cue reactivity. As expected, high food cravers showed stronger automatic approach tendencies towards food than low food cravers. Also in line with the hypotheses, approach bias for food was positively correlated with the magnitude of change in state levels of food craving from pre-to post-cue exposure in the total sample. The findings suggest that an approach bias in early stages of information processing contributes to the inability to resist food intake and may be of relevance for understanding and treating dysfunctional eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations between the local food environment and the severity of food insecurity among new families using community food security interventions in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Elsury; Roncarolo, Federico; Potvin, Louise

    2017-04-20

    To examine the association between the local food environment and the severity of food insecurity among new families using community food security interventions in Montreal. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed baseline data from 785 adults aged 18-65 years enrolled in the evaluation of the effects of organizations delivering community food security interventions in Montreal. The dependent variable was household food insecurity, while the independent variable was the local food environment, assessed through: location of the most frequently used grocery store, distance between the participant's residence and the community organization used, mode of transportation, walking time to the most frequently used grocery store, satisfaction with the acceptability and affordability of food available at the most frequently used grocery store, and self-reported difficulties in accessing food. We used polytomous logistic regression to estimate the association between household food insecurity and the local food environment. In all the models, we coded food security status in three categories: food security, moderate food insecurity and severe food insecurity. The last group was used as a reference group. Our data suggest that compared to households with severe food insecurity, those with moderate food insecurity (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.28-0.62) and those with food security (OR = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.06-0.26) were less likely to report difficulties in accessing food due to food affordability. Food-secure households also had lower odds of reporting difficulties in accessing food due to transportation constraints (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06-0.55) compared with severe food-insecure households. Living a distance of between 1 and 2 km from the organization used was significantly correlated with moderate food insecurity (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.12-2.88). The local food environment is associated with severity of household food insecurity among new families using community food security

  7. Food prices and obesity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Strombotne, Kiersten L; Zhen, Chen; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-11-01

    In response to rising rates of obesity in the United States due in part to excess food consumption, researchers and policy makers have argued that levying food taxes on obesity-promoting foods, perhaps combined with subsidies on healthier options, would be an effective tool to stem the obesity epidemic. The extent to which overall energy intake or weight outcomes will improve as a result of these policies is ultimately an empirical question. This review examines the link between food or beverage price changes and energy intake or weight outcomes among U.S. consumers. Current evidence indicates that, by themselves, targeted food taxes and subsidies as considered to date are unlikely to have a major effect on individual weight or obesity prevalence. While research suggests that the effects are modest, food taxes and subsidies may play an important role in a multifaceted approach to reducing obesity incidence. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description......This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... of ethical principles and ideas of relevance to food policy....

  9. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description...... of ethical principles and ideas of relevance to food policy....

  10. Food Intolerance vs. Food Allergy: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the difference? What's the difference between a food intolerance and a food allergy? Answers from James T C Li, ... common, but most are caused by a food intolerance rather than a food allergy. A food intolerance ...

  11. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztasiran, I.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process for treating food and as such it is comparable to other processing techniques such as heating or freezing foods for preservation. The energy level used in food irradiation is always below that producing radioactivity in the treated food, hence this aspect can be totally excluded in wholesomeness evaluations. Water is readily ionized and may be the primary source of ionization in foods with secondary effects on other molecules, possibly more a result of water ionization than of direct hits. In the presence of oxygen, highly reactive compounds may be produced, such as H, H 3 0+ and H 2 O 2 . Radiation at the energy flux levels used for food (<2 MeV) does not induce radioactivity. Food irradiation applications are already technically and economically feasible and that food so treated is suitable for consumption. Food irradiation techniques can play an important role for an improved preservation, storage and distribution of food products. (author)

  12. Food for tourists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Corigliano, Magda Antolioli

    Eating is a physical necessity, but catering services and food image are also very important ingredients of cultural tourism. Food and tourism are increasingly being combined, e.g. in agri-tourism, wine tours and the sale of food products as souvenirs. However, as this paper illustrates......, the development and standards of food for tourists are determined not by tourism policies, but by national economic, agricultural and food policies. A comparison between Denmark and Italy illustrates core elements in food cultures. Particularly in Denmark, food production is a major economic activity......, and the power of the agricultural and food processing industries has in many cases severely compromised the quality image. In Italy, on the other hand, food policies and traditions, which give a high priority to freshness, allow consumers to stay in control of food quality to a much larger extent than...

  13. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Cees; Kok, Frans J

    2010-05-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake.

  14. Examination of witnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugarski Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern criminal procedure personal evidence is dominant with respect to material evidence and in not a few cases, the verdict is predominantly based on the fact that has been proven by personal evidence. Therefore, both in theory and in law give special attention to such evidence. Examination of witnesses is traditional evidence and also irreplaceable evidence in criminal proceedings to which is given a special attention in this paper work all in the context of entry adversarial elements in our criminal proceedings, primarily on the trial. The paper deals with the issue of burden of proof, as well as basic rules and cross-examination of witnesses at the trial, with special emphasis on cross-examination.

  15. Preservation of food and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Tomomichi

    1975-01-01

    In the application of radiation to preservation of food, there are some methods; sterilization, elimination of noxious insects, prevention of germination and control of maturation. The former two utilize the lethal effect of radiation to the living things and the latter two utilize the injurious effect on the metabolism of the living things. At present, irradiation to potato is most widely permitted for the purpose of prevention of germination, and the irradiation with 15 Krad (maximum) is allowed to preserve potato for 8 months in Japan. In the other hand, a large quantity of doses, such as 4.5 to 5.6 Mrad, is necessary to sterilize completely for industrial use, degeneration of food component and high cost come into question. In addition, food is directly taken into the mouth of human being, therefore, wholesomeness, legal permission and determination of dose must be examined. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  16. Food images engage subliminal motivation to seek food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, H; Subramaniam, N; Gaillard, R; Burke, L K; Farooqi, I S; Fletcher, P C

    2012-09-01

    Human eating behaviour is motivated and shaped by a complex interaction of internal drives such as hunger, external influences such as environmental cues and the sensory properties of food itself. Thus, as is demonstrated by the example of sensory-specific satiety (SSS), hunger may be reduced but particular foods (for example, desserts) retain their attraction and their ability to prompt consumption. In considering consumption, and overconsumption, it is therefore important to understand the interaction between internal and external drives to eat. Using grip force as a measure of motivation, we examined this interaction using an SSS manipulation. Critically, we sought to determine whether food stimuli would exert their influence even when they were subliminally presented (and thus not accessible to consciousness), and whether this unconscious influence would be flexibly updated in response to changes in food reward value with satiety. Demonstrating that the SSS effect remains when external stimuli are not consciously perceived, our data highlight the importance of even the most subtle, fleeting and even subliminal external events in shaping our motivation towards food.

  17. Food nanoscience and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology have had a great impact on the food industry. They have increased the nutritional and functional properties of a number of food products and have aided in food preservation through the addition of antimicrobials or the reduction of water activity. These and many other applications have emerged in recent years to transform food science and technology. This book proposes to look at some of these applications and their effect on food production and innovation.

  18. Mood, food, and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Th...

  19. Food spoilage - interactions between food spoilage bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Flodgaard, Lars; Rasch, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Food spoilage is a complex process and excessive amounts of foods are lost due to microbial spoilage even with modem day preservation techniques. Despite the heterogeneity in raw materials and processing conditions, the microflora that develops during storage and in spoiling foods can be predicted...... based on knowledge of the origin of the food, the substrate base and a few central preservation parameters such as temperature, atmosphere, a(w) and pH. Based on such knowledge, more detailed sensory, chemical and microbiological analysis can be carried out on the individual products to determine......-regulation of phenotypes potentially involved in spoilage through cell-to-cell communication. In particular, we report for the first time the widespread occurrence of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) in stored and spoiling fresh foods and we discuss the potential implications for spoilage and food preservation....

  20. Food safety information and food demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze how news about food-related health risks affects consumers’ demands for safe food products. Design/methodology/approach – By identifying structural breaks in an econometrically estimated demand model, news with permanent impact on demand...... induces a permanent increase in the demand for pasteurized eggs, while more moderate negative news influences demand temporarily and to a lesser extent. There is, however, considerable variation in the response to food safety news across socio-demographic groups of consumers. Research limitations....../implications – The study has focused on the demand for raw eggs. Responses to food safety news may differ across foods. Furthermore, the study abstracts from possible cross-effects of safety news concerning other foods. Practical implications – The findings may be utilized for optimization of the timing and targeting...

  1. Food and Coloniality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Albán Achinte

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The author tackles the alimentary dimension of life, as something that goes beyond the simple act of ingesting food to acquire nutrients, to concentrate on the cultural implications of eating. To eat is more than to feed oneself, for eating is never by itself a wholly innocent act; that is, eating is never completely stripped from the social relationships of those gathered around a table.From this perspective, the article examines coloniality in all its forms (of power, of knowledge and of being, and shows their function as mechanisms of both alimentary enunciation and classification, that are responsible of the gastronomic supplantation of produce and food from the New World with the goods and customs that were so dear to European settlers (not forgetting that the influx of products and seasonings went also in the other direction. The colonizing project included thus, besides its religious, political and administrative pretenses, a gastronomical element, to be found in the eagerness of the colonizers to reproduce the alimentary imprint of their homeland in the new found territories, at least as far as the circumstances and the climate allowed it. Among all the facets the production of knowledge can acquire, gastronomy has been poorly studied —not to say completely silenced— in its role as a token of cultural divides, in which a coloniality of flavors and palates has been carried out.

  2. Cassava as a food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okezie, B O; Kosikowski, F V

    1982-01-01

    This review has attempted to examine information pertaining to the role of cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a major food source for a large part of the world population, particularly the countries of South America, Africa, and Asia, where it is primarily a major source of energy for 300 to 500 million people. Its cultivation, usually on small farms with little technology, is estimated to cover on an annual basis about 11 million hectares providing about 105 million tons, more than half of which is consumed by humans. The importance of cassava as an energy source can be seen by its growing demand in the European economic community countries where it forms up to 60% of the balanced diets for swine. Cassava is one of the crops that converts the greatest amount of solar energy into soluble carbohydrates per unit of area, thus 1 kg of moisture-free cassava meal may yield up to about 3750 kcal which would mean that a yearly production of 15 tons of cassava meal per hectare would yield some 56 million kcal. The major limitations of cassava as food appear to be its poor protein content and quality and the rapid post harvest deterioration of its roots which usually prevents their storage in the fresh state for more than a few days. However, in addition to its use for culinary purposes, cassava finds application in industrial products such as an adhesive for laundry purposes, for manufacturing paper, alcohol, butanol, dextrin, adhesive tape, textile sizing, and glue.

  3. Seattle's minimum wage ordinance did not affect supermarket food prices by food processing category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoden, Amanda L; Buszkiewicz, James H; Drewnowski, Adam; Long, Mark C; Otten, Jennifer J

    2018-02-07

    To examine the impacts of Seattle's minimum wage ordinance on food prices by food processing category. Supermarket food prices were collected for 106 items using a University of Washington Center for Public Health Nutrition market basket at affected and unaffected supermarket chain stores at three times: March 2015 (1-month pre-policy enactment), May 2015 (1-month post-policy enactment) and May 2016 (1-year post-policy enactment). Food items were categorized into four food processing groups, from minimally to ultra-processed. Data were analysed across time using a multilevel, linear difference-in-differences model at the store and price level stratified by level of food processing. Six large supermarket chain stores located in Seattle ('intervention') affected by the policy and six same-chain but unaffected stores in King County ('control'), Washington, USA. One hundred and six food and beverage items. The largest change in average price by food item was +$US 0·53 for 'processed foods' in King County between 1-month post-policy and 1-year post-policy enactment (P minimum wage ordinance by level of the food's processing. These results suggest that the early implementation of a city-level minimum wage policy does not alter supermarket food prices by level of food processing.

  4. Hippocampal leptin signaling reduces food intake and modulates food-related memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R; Greenwald, Holly S; Fortin, Samantha M; Gianessi, Carol A; Gilbert, Jennifer R; Grill, Harvey J

    2011-08-01

    The increase in obesity prevalence highlights the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the neural systems controlling food intake; one that extends beyond food intake driven by metabolic need and considers that driven by higher-order cognitive factors. The hippocampus, a brain structure involved in learning and memory function, has recently been linked with food intake control. Here we examine whether administration of the adiposity hormone leptin to the dorsal and ventral sub-regions of the hippocampus influences food intake and memory for food. Leptin (0.1 μg) delivered bilaterally to the ventral hippocampus suppressed food intake and body weight measured 24 h after administration; a higher dose (0.4 μg) was needed to suppress intake following dorsal hippocampal delivery. Leptin administration to the ventral but not dorsal hippocampus blocked the expression of a conditioned place preference for food and increased the latency to run for food in an operant runway paradigm. Additionally, ventral but not dorsal hippocampal leptin delivery suppressed memory consolidation for the spatial location of food, whereas hippocampal leptin delivery had no effect on memory consolidation in a non-spatial appetitive response paradigm. Collectively these findings indicate that ventral hippocampal leptin signaling contributes to the inhibition of food-related memories elicited by contextual stimuli. To conclude, the results support a role for hippocampal leptin signaling in the control of food intake and food-related memory processing.

  5. Modern foraging: Presence of food and energy density influence motivational processing of food advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-12-01

    More energy dense foods are preferable from an optimal foraging perspective, which suggests these foods are more motivationally relevant due to their greater capability of fulfilling biological imperatives. This increase in motivational relevance may be exacerbated in circumstances where foraging will be necessary. This study examined how food energy density and presence of food in the immediate environment interacted to influence motivational processing of food advertisements. N = 58 adults viewed advertisements for foods varying in energy density in contexts where the advertised food was actually present in the viewing room or not. Advertisements for more energy dense foods elicited greater skin conductivity level compared to ads for less energy dense foods when food was not present. All ads elicited decreases in corrugator supercilii activation indicating positive emotional response resultant from appetitive motivational activation, though the greatest activation was exhibited toward higher energy density foods when food was present. This supports an optimal foraging perspective and has implications for healthy eating interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Safety and nutritional adequacy of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The exposure of food to controlled levels of ionizing radiation has a number of beneficial effects, including delaying of ripening, inhibition of sprouting, and inactivation of insects, parasites, helminths, bacteria, moulds and yeasts. However, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the routine use of this technique of food processing, often because of a lack of understanding of what it entails, and a fear of untoward effects on the treated food. This report presents an up-to-date review of the many scientific studies that have been carried out on the safety and nutritional quality of irradiated food. Starting from a brief outlineof the history of food preservation, it goes on to consider in detail the chemistry and potential applications of food irradiation, and to discuss possible ways of determining whether food has been irradiated. Toxicological studies are reviewed, and the effects of irradiation on microorganisms and on the nutritional quality of the food itself are examined. The report concludes that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested technique, that it has not been shown to have any deleterious effects when performed in accordance with good manufacturing practice, and that it can help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life, eradicating pests and inactivating pathogens

  7. Food security, food safety and climate changes

    OpenAIRE

    Vrabcheva, Teri

    2017-01-01

    Access to sufficient safe food is a basic requirement for human health. Ensuring food safety and security in a highly globalized world presents increasingly difficult, and often under-appreciated challenges, for governments, commercial organizations and individuals alike. Food security is undoubtedly amongst the most pressing of challenges confronting the world in the twenty-first century. The FAO definition (1996) highlights the importance of ensuring that all people have access to safe, ...

  8. Management of Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Maleknejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine.   Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.  

  9. A Public-Private Partnership to Mitigate Food Insecurity and Food Waste in Orange County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Silva, Bernadet; Handler, Eric; Wolfe, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Food insecurity is a global issue that arises owing to systemic socioeconomic inequities and environmental constraints. To highlight the existence and the extent of food insecurity and food waste, the Orange County Health Department in Orange County, California, created a coalition called "Waste Not Orange County." Orange County is the sixth most populous county in California and has the highest median income, yet 11.4% of those residing in Orange County are food insecure, and 24.0% live in poverty. The overall vision of the coalition is to mitigate hunger in Orange County by educating the community about food donations, identifying food-insecure individuals, and connecting those individuals to sources of food. We examine the coalition's impacts between 2014 and 2016.

  10. Consumer agency and food retailer choice in an American urban neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examines the issue of consumer agency within the food system as manifested by food secure and food insecure households in an urban neighborhood in the United States. Using a self-administered mail survey this study examines food retailer perception and shopping behaviour of food secure and insecure households in Lansing, Michigan. Food security represents a useful lens through which to examine the issue of agency since food, while a necessary part of life, is nonetheless something that is difficult to access for a large sector of the population. By examining both food secure and food insecure households, light is shed on some of the factors that lead to the relative ability of each group to successfully and reliably obtain food. In particular, this study focuses on the perception and behaviour of consumers in relation to the decision to shop, or not to shop, at various food retailers. Some theories of consumer behaviour tend to focus either on class related cultural elements which determine taste preferences while other theories focus on structural elements of the food system which force a limited selection onto various social groups. While certainly class culture influences taste preference to some extent, results from this study suggest that structural elements of the food system and economic differences between food secure and food insecure households have a larger influence on store choice than cultural preferences. In fact, both food secure and insecure households indicated similar sets of criteria used in determining store choices. However, in examination of actual shopping behaviours, this study found that food insecure households are more likely to shop at deep discounters and more likely to travel farther to obtain food. These results suggest that structural elements such as food retailer locations limit the range of shopping options of food insecure households when compared to food secure households. Keywords: food

  11. Food health branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    ) the social discourses of healthy eating; and (4) the role of health claims as communication tools that enhance brand loyalty. The above-mentioned aims are addressed in the four studies that this dissertation is comprised of. The first study examines the role of marketing mix elements and public discourse...... the role of health claims as communication tools that enhance brand loyalty. More specifically, low-fat claims are investigated as a means of improving the loyalty performance of brands. In order to comply with the dissertation's overall objective, the four papers use a wide range of research methods......, in comparison with other health-related attributes, the fat content attribute exhibits slightly higher loyalty, signifying the importance of the "low-fat" claim as a means of communication. The findings presented in this dissertation are pertinent to food business companies that aim at employing a health...

  12. Economics of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitch, J.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the cost competitiveness of the food irradiation process. An analysis of the principal factors--the product, physical plant, irradiation source, and financing--that impact on cost is made. Equations are developed and used to calculate the size of the source for planned product throughput, efficiency factors, power requirements, and operating costs of sources, radionuclides, and accelerators. Methods of financing and capital investment are discussed. A series of tables show cost breakdowns of sources, buildings, equipment, and essential support facilities for both a cobalt-60 and a 10-MeV electron accelerator facility. Additional tables present irradiation costs as functions of a number of parameters--power input, source size, dose, and hours of annual operation. The use of the numbers in the tables are explained by examples of calculations of the irradiation costs for disinfestation of grains and radicidation of feed

  13. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; Dean, Wesley R; Horel, Scott A

    2011-05-20

    The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were linked with individual participants (n = 1409) who completed the nutrition module in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Increased age, poverty, increased distance to the nearest fast food, and increased number of different traditional fast-food restaurants, non-traditional fast-food outlets, or fast-food opportunities were associated with less frequent weekly consumption of fast-food meals. The interaction of gender and proximity (distance) or coverage (number) indicated that the association of proximity to or coverage of fast-food locations on fast-food consumption was greater among women and opposite of independent effects. Results provide impetus for identifying and understanding the complex relationship between access to all fast-food opportunities, rather than to traditional fast-food restaurants alone, and fast-food consumption. The results indicate the importance of further examining the complex interaction of gender and distance in rural areas and particularly in fast-food consumption. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider all sources of fast-food as part of promoting healthful food choices.

  14. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horel Scott A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location and coverage (number of different locations, and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were linked with individual participants (n = 1409 who completed the nutrition module in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Results Increased age, poverty, increased distance to the nearest fast food, and increased number of different traditional fast-food restaurants, non-traditional fast-food outlets, or fast-food opportunities were associated with less frequent weekly consumption of fast-food meals. The interaction of gender and proximity (distance or coverage (number indicated that the association of proximity to or coverage of fast-food locations on fast-food consumption was greater among women and opposite of independent effects. Conclusions Results provide impetus for identifying and understanding the complex relationship between access to all fast-food opportunities, rather than to traditional fast-food restaurants alone, and fast-food consumption. The results indicate the importance of further examining the complex interaction of gender and distance in rural areas and particularly in fast-food consumption. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider all sources of fast-food as part of promoting healthful food choices.

  15. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were linked with individual participants (n = 1409) who completed the nutrition module in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Results Increased age, poverty, increased distance to the nearest fast food, and increased number of different traditional fast-food restaurants, non-traditional fast-food outlets, or fast-food opportunities were associated with less frequent weekly consumption of fast-food meals. The interaction of gender and proximity (distance) or coverage (number) indicated that the association of proximity to or coverage of fast-food locations on fast-food consumption was greater among women and opposite of independent effects. Conclusions Results provide impetus for identifying and understanding the complex relationship between access to all fast-food opportunities, rather than to traditional fast-food restaurants alone, and fast-food consumption. The results indicate the importance of further examining the complex interaction of gender and distance in rural areas and particularly in fast-food consumption. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider all sources of fast-food as part of promoting healthful food choices. PMID:21599955

  16. Food reputation impacts on consumer's food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonaiuto, Marino; Caddeo, Pierluigi; Carrus, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Reputation is conceptualised as the believed effects that any social agent (ranging from a person to a company to a country) can have. Food reputation is beliefs about the effects of food on its consumers. On the basis of a multidimensional construct for food reputation derived from...... on eight product choices, using four reputation dimensions as manipulated attributes (duration, identity-territoriality, social and environmental responsibility, psycho-physiological well-being); this is replicated on one drink and one food product. Findings: A pilot study (n=50) checked the manipulation...

  17. Mini mental state examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Ejnar Alex; Lauritzen, Lise; Wang, August

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...

  18. Present State Examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla; Bertelsen, Aksel

    Present State Examination (PSE) 5. udgave er en revideret version af speciallæge i psykiatri Aksel Bertelsens oprindelige materiale. Aksel Bertelsen er ophavsmand til PSE og til den danske udgave af ICD-10. Revisionen omfatter et forbedret layout, en modernisering af sproget, tilføjelse af...

  19. The paediatric ophthalmic examination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination of a child's eye can be challenging and traumatic but could save the child's sight or even his life. A du Bruyn,1 MB ChB, Dip (Ophth), FC (Ophth); D Parbhoo,2 MB ChB, FC (Ophth). 1Consultant Ophthalmologist, St Aidan's Hospital, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. 2Consultant Ophthalmologist ...

  20. Ability to Categorize Food Predicts Hypothetical Food Choices in Head Start Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Jody S; Barton, Jennifer M; Simons, Ali L

    2018-03-01

    To investigate whether preschoolers are able to identify and categorize foods, and whether their ability to classify food as healthy predicts their hypothetical food choice. Structured interviews and body measurements with preschoolers, and teacher reports of classroom performance. Six Head Start centers in a large southeastern region. A total of 235 preschoolers (mean age [SD], 4.73 [0.63] years; 45.4% girls). Teachers implemented a nutrition education intervention across the 2014-2015 school year in which children were taught to identify and categorize food as sometimes (ie, unhealthy) and anytime (ie, healthy). Preschooler responses to a hypothetical snack naming, classifying, and selection scenario. Hierarchical regression analyses to examine predictors of child hypothetical food selection. While controlling for child characteristics and cognitive functioning, preschoolers who were better at categorizing food as healthy or unhealthy were more likely to say they would choose the healthy food. Low-contrast food pairs in which food had to be classified based on multiple dimensions were outside the cognitive abilities of the preschoolers. Nutrition interventions may be more effective in helping children make healthy food choices if developmental limitations in preschoolers' abilities to categorize food is addressed in their curriculum. Classification of food into evaluative categories is challenging for this age group. Categorizing on multiple dimensions is difficult, and dichotomous labeling of food as good or bad is not always accurate in directing children toward making food choices. Future research could evaluate further preschoolers' developmental potential for food categorization and nutrition decision making and consider factors that influence healthy food choices at both snack and mealtime. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preliminary Studies for the Application of Irradiated-Food to Food Service Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Dong-Ho; Seo, Min-Won

    2008-04-01

    This study is to investigate ways to improve the marketability of irradiated food materials, through examining reports on toxicological safety and public acceptance of irradiated food materials. Many studies have reaffirmed the mutagenic, genotoxicological, microbiological, and nutritional safety of food irradiation, and consider it an important tool to reduce loss of food due to spoilage and pests. Although food irradiation could provide an opportunity to replace certain pesticides and food additives, there is ambivalence among consumers on whether or not the technology provides a real benefit. An easy and inexpensive tool to identify irradiation trace residue in foods, public trust building in industry through educating consumers with the benefit and uses of irradiation process are thought to be key elements for a successful market for irradiated food. Gamma irradiation at 50 kGy was applied to food materials for institutional food-service to evaluate their possible genotoxicity. The genotoxicity of 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service was evaluated by Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay, chromosomal aberration test and in vivo micronucleus assay. The results of bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 were negative in the 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay with and without metabolic activation. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells and in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, no significant difference in the incidences of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei was observed between non-irradiated and 50 kGy-irradiated food materials. These results indicate that food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions

  2. Preliminary Studies for the Application of Irradiated-Food to Food Service Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Dong-Ho; Seo, Min-Won

    2008-04-15

    This study is to investigate ways to improve the marketability of irradiated food materials, through examining reports on toxicological safety and public acceptance of irradiated food materials. Many studies have reaffirmed the mutagenic, genotoxicological, microbiological, and nutritional safety of food irradiation, and consider it an important tool to reduce loss of food due to spoilage and pests. Although food irradiation could provide an opportunity to replace certain pesticides and food additives, there is ambivalence among consumers on whether or not the technology provides a real benefit. An easy and inexpensive tool to identify irradiation trace residue in foods, public trust building in industry through educating consumers with the benefit and uses of irradiation process are thought to be key elements for a successful market for irradiated food. Gamma irradiation at 50 kGy was applied to food materials for institutional food-service to evaluate their possible genotoxicity. The genotoxicity of 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service was evaluated by Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay, chromosomal aberration test and in vivo micronucleus assay. The results of bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 were negative in the 12 kinds of food materials irradiated at 50 kGy. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay with and without metabolic activation. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells and in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, no significant difference in the incidences of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei was observed between non-irradiated and 50 kGy-irradiated food materials. These results indicate that food materials irradiated at 50 kGy for institutional food-service did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions.

  3. Food Safety for Warmer Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe July 2014 Print this issue Fight Off Food Poisoning Food Safety for Warmer Weather En español Send ... handle food properly to avoid the misery of food poisoning. It can be hard to keep foods safe ...

  4. Go, Slow, and Whoa Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tips for seasonal health, safety and fun Go, Slow, and Whoa Foods Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Inc. 2002 Food Group GO Almost anytime foods SLOW Sometimes foods WHOA Once in a while foods Vegetables Almost ...

  5. Food Safety for Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Safety for Your Family KidsHealth / For Parents / Food ... foods you prepare in it are safe. Buying Food Buying safe food is the first step. To ...

  6. Validity of secondary retail food outlet data: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhacker, Sheila E; Evenson, Kelly R; Sharkey, Joseph; Pitts, Stephanie B Jilcott; Rodriguez, Daniel A

    2013-10-01

    Improving access to healthy foods is a promising strategy to prevent nutrition-related chronic diseases. To characterize retail food environments and identify areas with limited retail access, researchers, government programs, and community advocates have primarily used secondary retail food outlet data sources (e.g., InfoUSA or government food registries). To advance the state of the science on measuring retail food environments, this systematic review examined the evidence for validity reported for secondary retail food outlet data sources for characterizing retail food environments. A literature search was conducted through December 31, 2012, to identify peer-reviewed published literature that compared secondary retail food outlet data sources to primary data sources (i.e., field observations) for accuracy of identifying the type and location of retail food outlets. Data were analyzed in 2013. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The evidence for validity reported varied by secondary data sources examined, primary data-gathering approaches, retail food outlets examined, and geographic and sociodemographic characteristics. More than half of the studies (53%) did not report evidence for validity by type of food outlet examined and by a particular secondary data source. Researchers should strive to gather primary data but if relying on secondary data sources, InfoUSA and government food registries had higher levels of agreement than reported by other secondary data sources and may provide sufficient accuracy for exploring these associations in large study areas. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  7. An Interview with Food Policy Researcher Caitlin Boon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Megan

    2010-01-01

    From safety to nutrition, food policy researchers work to improve what we eat. They examine evidence found by experts in food science, consumer behavior, taste perception, nutrition, and many other related fields. Using this information, these scientists help the food industry, government, and public improve the quality, safety, and sustainability…

  8. Study of food habits of Goby, Porogobius schlegelii (Gunther, 1861 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the food habits of goby, Porogobius schelgelii from the artisanal fisheries of the Bonny River in the Niger Delta. The results show that detritus, diatoms and blue-green algae are the primary food items followed by sand granules, macrophytes and nematodes as secondary food items. Protozoa. Fish eggs ...

  9. High School Food Courts: A New Evolution in Student Dining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, George

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how traditional high school cafeterias have changed in recent years into food courts and dining areas usually found in shopping malls. Areas examined include food court design, traffic patterns, safety and after-hours usage, and kitchens and serving areas. How one school district turned its food court system into a successful…

  10. Agricultural Production, Food and Nutrition Security in Rural Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although agriculture is the major economic activity in Nigerian rural areas, its inhabitants are among the most vulnerable to food and nutrition insecurity. Therefore, any effort aimed at minimizing food and nutrition insecurity must start from rural areas. This study examines agricultural production, food and nutrition security in ...

  11. Good, Clean, Fair: The Rhetoric of the Slow Food Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines the origins of the Slow Food movement before examining the ways in which Slow Food rhetoric seeks to redefine gastronomy and combat the more deleterious effects of globalization. In articulating a new gastronomy, Slow Food founder Carlo Petrini attempts to reconstruct the gastronomy of Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, at once…

  12. Food security status among cocoa growing households in Ondo and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa, being a cash crop is mostly cultivated among cocoa farmers without giving much consideration to the cultivation of food crops. There is, however, little evidence on the translation of the income from cocoa production into improved food security by cocoa farmers. This study therefore examined the food security status ...

  13. Are diets healthier when they contain branded foods?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterlander, W.E.; van Kouwen, M.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Market trend data show a growing popularity of discount food stores and of cheaper food products as opposed to more expensive leading brands (LB). Unexpectedly little is known about how these economic food choices affect diet quality and/or health. The purpose of this paper is to examine

  14. Adoption of Enriched Local Complementary Food in Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locally processed complementary foods, appropriately enriched can complement breast milk and traditional foods during the nutritionally vulnerable periods of a child life. The study therefore examines the adoption of enriched local complementary foods in Osun State Nigeria. Structured interview schedule was used to ...

  15. Food irradiation: a global scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, T.; Ross, A.; Leveziel, H.

    1994-01-01

    Many of the foods that will be consumed in the 21st century have not yet been invented. New methods of production need new methods of conservation. Food irradiation by gamma radiation or electron beam is a new technology. The intensive production methods of today lead to several potential dangers. For example - if just one chicken is diseased this bird can contaminate all of one days' production at the slaughter house - on average 300,000 birds per day. One has to have conservation methods that can decontaminate the poultry meat. Irradiation is a method that achieves this. The consumer is becoming more and more sophisticated and demanding with regard to the quality of food products, rejecting chemical additives for example, irradiation is a physical method of conservation, this means that there is no residue left in the product, and that there are no changes in the physical characteristics of the food. This paper examines the use of irradiation technology as a food conservation method in today's industry. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Food for love: The role of food offering in empathic emotion regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrte Esther Hamburg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article examines the interpersonal and intrapersonal antecedents and consequences of food offering. Food offering is one of the earliest biobehavioral regulatory interactions between parent and child. It ensures survival of the child who is fully dependent on food provision by others. The quality of these early interactions influences how people respond to situations later in life, and food offering in particular may be closely related to emotion regulation throughout the lifespan. While research has examined other forms of emotion regulation, and food consumption has been studied from an intrapersonal perspective, we know little about the interpersonal effects of food offering. After reviewing literature from a wide range of disciplines, we propose that one mechanism underlying these effects is empathic emotion regulation (EER. We conceptualize EER as an interpersonal regulation system in which an empathic response to another person’s emotional state aims to regulate both emotion within the provider and across interaction partners. We suggest that the offer of food by an empathic provider is motivated by the emotional state of one’s interaction partner (recipient. By offering food, the provider not only aims to attenuate the recipient’s negative affect but also her own. Food offering thereby becomes a means to increase positive affect for both recipient and – when the offer has the desired effect – provider. We further propose that the sharing of food resources as well as the use of food as a support behavior increases interpersonal closeness. Finally, we frame the process of food offering within a developmental perspective. If the regulatory success of food offering becomes a replacement for other support behaviors, children will learn from an early age to use food as a primary means to soothe self and others, possibly resulting in eating disorders and a restricted range of coping behavior.

  17. The Relationships between Selection and Processing Food with Escherichia coli Contaminant on Food Stall Serving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tris Eryando

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli in food stalls surrounding the X Campuss in Depok, year 2012. The research conducted to examine food safety, which were served in surrounding the campus X in Depok. Escherichia coli (E. coli existence was used to indicate the quality of hygiene and sanitation of the food that was served. Using the cross sectional method, the research examined the persons who served the food to be sold in the food stalls in the campus. There were 173 food servers chosen as the respondents from 10 different food stalls around the university. The existence of E. coli examined in the microbiology laboratory in the Faculty of Public Health. Using the most probable number (MPN method found that 59.54% of the food served in the campus were contaminated E. coli. Factors affecting the existence of E. coli were the raw materials (vegetables treated and the length of cooking of the materials (rice/beens. The improper treatment such as washing with no running water or even unwashed vegetables had 5 times risk of the E. coli contamination. Cooking less than 15 minutes was also more risky than cooking more than 15 minutes. As a result, this is very important to find a method to improve knowledge and to increase practical skills in food safety. Furthermore, in this research area may give contribution to avoid E. coli contamination which will prevent unnecessary illness among students in the campus.

  18. Food Habits and Future Time: An Exploratory Study of Age-Appropriate Food Habits Among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflett, Peggy A.; McIntosh, William A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined future time perspective and its association with change in food habits among elderly persons (N=805). Findings suggest that the elderly change food habits and that there is an association of positive or negative food habit changes with a positive or negative future time perspective. (Author/NB)

  19. Food irradiation, will it bring more preventive consumer protection or rather threaten compliance with hygiene standards in food production?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalch, B.; Stolle, A.; Eisgruber, H.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses consumer acceptance of irradiated food in Germany, where acceptance is particularly low compared to other countries, and examines the reasons for this attitude. One reason ascertained is the poor information of the consumers about the advantages and risks of food irradiation. Problems involved and available, proven irradiation techniques for enhanced safety of food are discussed. (orig./CB) [de

  20. Fast-Food Consumption, Diet Quality, and Neighborhood Exposure to Fast Food: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Latetia V.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Jacobs, David R.; Franco, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined associations among fast-food consumption, diet, and neighborhood fast-food exposure by using 2000–2002 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data. US participants (n = 5,633; aged 45–84 years) reported usual fast-food consumption (never,