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Sample records for leonel falco frommel

  1. Hobbies (Falco cuvieri and F. subbuteo) versus bats over Kampala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Hobbies (Falco cuvieri and F. subbuteo) versus bats over. Kampala skies. The African Hobby Falco cuvieri is widely distributed in the sub-Saharan part of the continent (Ferguson-Lees & Christie 2001). However, it is unaccountably rare in much of the range (Brown et al. 1982), making specific observations ...

  2. Nesting biology and food habits of the Peregrine Falcon Falco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied nesting biology, behaviour, and diet of the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus radama in Madagascar during two breeding seasons at Tsimanampetsotsa Natural Reserve in the south-west (n = 2 nests) and at Tritriva Lake (n = 1 nest) on the central plateau from July to November 1999 and June to October 2000, ...

  3. Observation of Grey Kestrel Falco ardosiaceus raiding the nest of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-24

    Feb 24, 2016 ... On 31 January 2014, along the shoreline of Lake Manze in the Selous Game Reserve,. Tanzania, we heard loud and incessant screeching coming from the crown of a dead. Borassus palm Borassus aethiopum where we had been watching a pair of Dickinson's. Kestrels Falco dickinsoni nesting for the past ...

  4. Migration of a Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus calidus from Saudi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In boreal autumn 1995, we tracked a migrating adult Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus calidus from the border of Saudi Arabia and Yemen to near Cape Town, South Africa, a distance of 6 346 km. While on migration it covered 288 km d−1, on average. During its migration in Africa it migrated faster than any other ...

  5. Falcon adenovirus in an American kestrel (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Elizabeth K; Phalen, David N

    2007-06-01

    A fatal adenovirus infection is described in a wild-caught American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Predominate lesions were a moderate to severe hepatitis with diffuse single-cell necrosis of hepatocytes and a splenitis characterized by necrosis of cells surrounding the sheathed arteries. Pan-nuclear eosinophilic to magenta inclusion bodies were abundant within hepatocytes. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify a portion of the hexon gene from DNA extracted from the bird's liver and spleen. Sequence analysis showed that the adenovirus infecting this kestrel was the falcon adenovirus with a sequence homology of 99.5% to the isolate from the Northern aplomado falcon (Falco femoralis) variant and 98.6% homology to isolates from the taita (Falco fasciinucha) and orange-breasted falcons (Falco deiroleucus). This report expands the range of species of falcons that are susceptible to falcon adenovirus infection and disease. Given that this kestrel was recently wild caught and housed in isolation with other wild-caught kestrels, it is likely that the falcon adenovirus is present in wild populations of American kestrels.

  6. Analysis of pellets from a suburban Common Kestrel Falco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet of a Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus in a suburban area of Algiers at El Harrach was determined by pellet analysis over two years. In both years, the hybrid sparrow (Passer domesticus x P. hispaniolensis) was the main prey item, based on relative frequency (22.3% and 58.7% in 1999 and 2000, respectively).

  7. Short-term effects of oil ingestion on American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, O H; Franson, J C

    1982-04-01

    The Mexican Ixtoc oil well blowout resulted in extensive oil contamination along the Texas Gulf coast. This oil posed a potential hazard to migrating birds including the endangered peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Laboratory tests with the American kestrel (Falco sparverius) indicated that the oil: water mixture gathered at the surface of the blowout site posed little acute hazard to falcons.

  8. Short-term effects of oil ingestion on American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, O.H.; Franson, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Mexican Ixtoc oil well blowout resulted in extensive oil contamination along the Texas Gulf coast. This oil posed a potential hazard to migrating birds including the endangered peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Laboratory tests with the American kestrel (Falco sparverius) indicated that the oil: water mixture gathered at the surface of the blowout site posed little acute hazard to falcons.

  9. Falco sparverius (Aves: Falconiformes) preying upon Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar,Ludmilla Moura de Souza; Motta,Adarene; Esberárd,Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, there are two published references on the diet of American kestrel falcons, Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, and one is for the Cerrado biome. The only mammal prey so far found in the diet of F. sparverius was the rodent Calomys tener (Winge, 1887). Herein we report on daily hunting activities by American kestrel falcons at a factory in the city of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, during an attempt to remove a bat colony. Two American kestrel falcons were obs...

  10. Falco sparverius (Aves: Falconiformes preying upon Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Moura de Souza Aguiar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there are two published references on the diet of American kestrel falcons, Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, and one is for the Cerrado biome. The only mammal prey so far found in the diet of F. sparverius was the rodent Calomys tener (Winge, 1887. Herein we report on daily hunting activities by American kestrel falcons at a factory in the city of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, during an attempt to remove a bat colony. Two American kestrel falcons were observed on 14 occasions during two consecutive days: in two of these occasions, they were hunting in pairs, from 12:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. on 06/X/2003, and from 07:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. on 07/X/2003. During this period, American kestrel falcons made 27 hunting attempts and captured four bats of the same species, Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1805 (14.81% success. This report corroborates observations made in the Northern hemisphere, where bats are a dietary item of this falcon. Our findings are noteworthy because they reveal that the known natural predators of bats are few not only in Brazil but also worldwide.

  11. Generalized Tetanus in a Gyrfalcon ( Falco rusticolus ) with Pododermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Laniesse, Delphine; Stickings, Paul; Tierney, Robert; Sesardic, Thea; Slavic, Durda; Compo, Nicole; Smith, Dale A

    2016-12-01

    A 2-yr-old male gyrfalcon ( Falco rusticolus ) was presented for severe and generalized muscle spasticity and pododermatitis. The falcon had been treated for pododermatitis over the previous 4 mo. Muscle rigidity and spasms involved the entire bird but were more severe on the right leg. The bird was also tachypneic and hyperthermic at 45 C. While the plantar pododermatitis lesions had healed, there was still a small abscess on the lateral aspect of the right foot. Clinical signs were consistent with tetanus. Several bacteria were isolated from the abscess including Clostridium tetani . The isolate was confirmed to be toxigenic by PCR. Attempts to detect tetanus toxin in the bird's plasma were unsuccessful. The abscess was debrided. The gyrfalcon received equine tetanus antitoxin, intravenous metronidazole, methocarbamol, midazolam, a constant-rate infusion of Fentanyl, active cooling, and supportive care. Inhalant anesthesia with isoflurane was the only treatment that would lower the body temperature and reduce the clinical signs. The gyrfalcon died a few hours after admission. The characteristic clinical signs and isolation of toxigenic C. tetani from a wound were strong supportive evidence for a diagnosis of tetanus. This case constitutes the first reported natural occurrence of tetanus in an avian species. Further information is needed to determine whether gyrfalcons are more susceptible to tetanus than are other avian species and whether pododermatitis lesions may be risk factors.

  12. Diving-flight aerodynamics of a peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ponitz

    Full Text Available This study investigates the aerodynamics of the falcon Falco peregrinus while diving. During a dive peregrines can reach velocities of more than 320 km h⁻¹. Unfortunately, in freely roaming falcons, these high velocities prohibit a precise determination of flight parameters such as velocity and acceleration as well as body shape and wing contour. Therefore, individual F. peregrinus were trained to dive in front of a vertical dam with a height of 60 m. The presence of a well-defined background allowed us to reconstruct the flight path and the body shape of the falcon during certain flight phases. Flight trajectories were obtained with a stereo high-speed camera system. In addition, body images of the falcon were taken from two perspectives with a high-resolution digital camera. The dam allowed us to match the high-resolution images obtained from the digital camera with the corresponding images taken with the high-speed cameras. Using these data we built a life-size model of F. peregrinus and used it to measure the drag and lift forces in a wind-tunnel. We compared these forces acting on the model with the data obtained from the 3-D flight path trajectory of the diving F. peregrinus. Visualizations of the flow in the wind-tunnel uncovered details of the flow structure around the falcon's body, which suggests local regions with separation of flow. High-resolution pictures of the diving peregrine indicate that feathers pop-up in the equivalent regions, where flow separation in the model falcon occurred.

  13. Diving-flight aerodynamics of a peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponitz, Benjamin; Schmitz, Anke; Fischer, Dominik; Bleckmann, Horst; Brücker, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the aerodynamics of the falcon Falco peregrinus while diving. During a dive peregrines can reach velocities of more than 320 km h⁻¹. Unfortunately, in freely roaming falcons, these high velocities prohibit a precise determination of flight parameters such as velocity and acceleration as well as body shape and wing contour. Therefore, individual F. peregrinus were trained to dive in front of a vertical dam with a height of 60 m. The presence of a well-defined background allowed us to reconstruct the flight path and the body shape of the falcon during certain flight phases. Flight trajectories were obtained with a stereo high-speed camera system. In addition, body images of the falcon were taken from two perspectives with a high-resolution digital camera. The dam allowed us to match the high-resolution images obtained from the digital camera with the corresponding images taken with the high-speed cameras. Using these data we built a life-size model of F. peregrinus and used it to measure the drag and lift forces in a wind-tunnel. We compared these forces acting on the model with the data obtained from the 3-D flight path trajectory of the diving F. peregrinus. Visualizations of the flow in the wind-tunnel uncovered details of the flow structure around the falcon's body, which suggests local regions with separation of flow. High-resolution pictures of the diving peregrine indicate that feathers pop-up in the equivalent regions, where flow separation in the model falcon occurred.

  14. ENERGY-REQUIREMENTS FOR MOLT IN THE KESTREL FALCO-TINNUNCULUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIETZ, MW; DAAN, S; MASMAN, D

    1992-01-01

    We estimated energy requirements for plumage replacement in the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) by comparing O2 consumption Vo2 and metabolizable energy intake during molt and nonmolt. The energy expenditure for feather synthesis (S) as derived from the regression of basal metabolic rate (BMR) on molt

  15. Home range and habitat utilization of breeding male merlins, Falco columbarius, in southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale M. Becker; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1987-01-01

    Home range size and habitat utilization of three breeding male Richardson’s Merlins (Falco columbarius richardsonii) in southeastern Montana were studied using radio telemetry. Home ranges of these birds encompassed 13,23, and 28 km2. Each bird traveled up to 9 km from its nest. Each home range encompassed five habitats;...

  16. Morphology of the antebrachial musculature of the American kestrel, Falco sparverius (aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, R A

    1996-01-01

    The antebrachial musculature of the American kestrel (Falco sparverius) is described. This fills a gap in the avian morphology literature, and provides a reference for future comparative, functional and systematic studies. A table of synonyms-homologs is provided for each muscle as a reference frame for over 100 years of avian anatomical literature.

  17. A second Uganda record of Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-05

    Oct 5, 2014 ... cloud cover, I drove north from Fort Portal with my wife Jean to Lake Saka and we walked on from ... morning progressed, more birds began to arrive, with “kettles” of Steppe Buzzards and Lesser Spotted ... male Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus, a bird I am familiar with from Europe and from spring ...

  18. Energetic limitation of avian parental effort : Field experiments in the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Dirkjan; Dijkstra, Cornelis; Daan, Serge; Bult, Ab

    1989-01-01

    We studied the limiting factors for brood size in the kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, by measuring parental effort in natural broods of different size and parental response to manipulation of food satiation of the brood. Parental effort was quantified as total daily time spent in flight, and total daily

  19. The Role of Thyroxine on the Production of Plumage in the American Kestrel (Falco Sparterius)

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Michael J., Jr.; French, John B., Jr.; McNabb, F. M. Anne; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    In a prior study (Quinn et al. 2002), we examined the effects of Aroclor 1242 (a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls [PCB]) on feather production in the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius). The development of plumage is heavily influenced by the action and tinting of thyroid hormones (Owens and Short 1995, Kuenzel 2003). Although Aroclor 1242 was shown to cause decreases in plasma thyroxine (Quinn et al. 2002), no significant differences were observed in feather production or appearance betw...

  20. Compound Humerus Fracture and Angled Retrograde Pin Treatment in a Barbary Falcon (Falco Peregrinus)

    OpenAIRE

    YAPRAKCI, Mustafa Volkan; SARITAŞ, Zülfikar Kadir

    2014-01-01

    In this case report, the representation of the treatment of a fresh compound fracture were aimed in a barbary falcon (falco peregrinus). Especially in winter seasons, wild raptors go beyond their natural habitat due to the food exiguity and therefore may interfere with social areas. The vast amount of cases brought to clinics are found with fractures caused by traffic accidents or gun shot wounds of hunters. This case report was prepared for clinical practitioners in the treatment and the reh...

  1. Morphological properties of the last primaries, the tail feathers, and the alulae of Accipiter nisus, Columba livia, Falco peregrinus, and Falco tinnunculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anke; Ponitz, Benjamin; Brücker, Christoph; Schmitz, Helmut; Herweg, Jan; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the mechanical properties (Young's modulus, bending stiffness, barb separation forces) of the tenth primary of the wings, of the alulae and of the middle tail feathers of Falco peregrinus. For comparison, we also investigated the corresponding feathers in pigeons (Columba livia), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus). In all four species, the Young's moduli of the feathers ranged from 5.9 to 8.4 GPa. The feather shafts of F. peregrinus had the largest cross-sections and the highest specific bending stiffness. When normalized with respect to body mass, the specific bending stiffness of primary number 10 was highest in F. tinnunculus, while that of the alula was highest in A. nisus. In comparison, the specific bending stiffness, measured at the base of the tail feathers and in dorso-ventral bending direction, was much higher in F. peregrinus than in the other three species. This seems to correlate with the flight styles of the birds: F. tinnunculus hovers and its primaries might therefore withstand large mechanical forces. A. nisus has often to change its flight directions during hunting and perhaps needs its alulae for this maneuvers, and in F. peregrinus, the base of the tail feathers might need a high stiffness during breaking after diving. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The visual acuity and refractive state of the American kestrel (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Matthew F; Hodos, William

    2003-09-01

    The pattern electroretinogram (PERG) was used to measure the visual acuity and refractive state of nine American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Visual acuity was determined from psychometric functions of PERG amplitude vs. spatial frequency. Refractive state was measured by finding the trial lens that resulted in the highest acuity. All nine kestrels were found to be emmetropic. Their median visual acuity was 29 c/deg. The PERG, however, underestimates behaviorally determined visual acuity by approximately 37%. When adjusted for this underestimation, the median kestrel acuity was 46 c/deg. The visual acuity of American kestrels is compared to reports in the literature of 17 other species of birds.

  3. Converging migration routes of Eurasian hobbies Falco subbuteo crossing the African equatorial rain forest

    OpenAIRE

    Strandberg, Roine; Klaassen, Raymond H.G.; Hake, Mikael; Olofsson, Patrik; Alerstam, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Autumn migration of adult Eurasian hobbies Falco subbuteo from Europe to southern Africa was recorded by satellite telemetry and observed routes were compared with randomly simulated routes. Two non-random features of observed routes were revealed: (i) shifts to more westerly longitudes than straight paths to destinations and (ii) strong route convergence towards a restricted area close to the equator (1° S, 15° E). The birds migrated south or southwest to approximately 10° N, where they chan...

  4. A long-term increase in eggshell thickness of Greenlandic Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus tundrius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Knud; Møller, Søren; Matox, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Thickness of eggshell fragments and whole eggs from the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus collected in South and West Greenland between 1972 and 2003 was measured and compared to shell thickness of pre-DDT eggs, also collected in Greenland. Linear regression yields a significant increase in the a......Thickness of eggshell fragments and whole eggs from the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus collected in South and West Greenland between 1972 and 2003 was measured and compared to shell thickness of pre-DDT eggs, also collected in Greenland. Linear regression yields a significant increase...... in the average thickness of eggshells over the period of 0.19% per year, corresponding to a change in eggshell thinning from 13.9% in 1972 to 7.8% in 2003. Backwards extrapolation of the data, suggests that the Greenlandic Peregrine population probably was never critically affected by DDT-induced eggshell...... thinning. By sampling eggshell fragments in many nests the spatial and temporal sample distribution was enlarged, allowing the detection of a significant long-term decrease in pollutant-induced eggshell thinning—a trend that could not have been identified if only the rarer whole, addled eggs had been...

  5. Nest occupation and prey grabbing by saker falcon (Falco cherrug on power lines in the province of Vojvodina (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puzović S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on nest occupation and prey grabbing by saker falcon (Falco cherrug on power lines in Vojvodina (Serbia was done in the period from 1986 to 2004. During three specially analyzed periods, saker falcon took the nests of raven (Corvus corax in 91% of a total of 22 cases of nest occupation, and those of hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix in only 9%. Saker falcon regularly grabs prey from different birds that occasionally or constantly spend time around power lines [Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, hobby (Falco subbuteo, hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix, jack-daw (Corvus monedula, marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus, hen harrier (Circus cyaneus, buzzard (Buteo buteo, and raven (Corvus corax]. One year a studied pair of saker falcons on a power line in Donji Srem, Serbia grabbed prey from five different species of birds. Out of a total of 40 cases of prey grabbing in the period from January to December, as much 70% of the grabbed prey was taken from kestrel (Falco tinnunculus. During the winter and early spring, prey was grabbed predominantly by males; after May, prey was sometimes grabbed by females as well. Most of the grabbed prey was common vole (Microtus arvalis.

  6. The morphological basis of folded-wing posture in the American kestrel, Falco sparverius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, R A

    1992-04-01

    Gross dissection and histochemical analysis of the shoulder musculature of the American kestrel, Falco sparverius, revealed that four muscles are specialized for slow contraction and may function in the postural control of the folded wing. Mm. latissimus dorsi pars cranialis, scapulohumeralis cranialis, and brachialis were found to contain greater than 95% tonic fibers, whereas M. deltoideus minor was found to possess a relatively even mix of fast-twitch and tonic muscle fibers. M. latissimus dorsi pars cranialis, M. scapulohumeralis cranialis, and M. deltoideus minor all cross the shoulder joint caudally to the articulation, and M. brachialis crosses the elbow joint on the ventral surface of the forearm. This paper suggests postural muscles have largely been ignored in studies of avian musculature, and the need to consider a variety of possible muscle functions when analyzing locomotor muscle functions.

  7. Prevalence and effects of West Nile virus on wild American kestrel (Falco sparverius) populations in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Iko, William M.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Paul, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    To assess the potential impacts of West Nile virus (WNV) on a wild population of free-ranging raptors, we investigated the prevalence and effects of WNV on American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) breeding along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in northern Colorado. We monitored kestrel nesting activity at 131 nest boxes from March to August 2004. Of 81 nest attempts, we obtained samples from 111 adults and 250 young. We did not detect WNV in sera; however, 97.3% (108/111) of adults tested positive for WNV neutralizing antibodies, which possibly represented passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Clutch size, hatching, and fledging success in our study did not differ from that previously reported for this species, suggesting that previous WNV exposure in kestrels did not have an effect on reproductive parameters measured in the breeding populations we studied in 2004.

  8. Comparative toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to Japanese quail (Conturnix c. japonica) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.E.; Kennedy, S.W.; Lorenzen, A. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related halogenated hydrocarbons bioaccumulate to high concentrations in top predators, such as raptorial birds, yet little is known of PCB toxicity to such species. This study explored several aspects of both the acute and chronic response of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to three purified PCB congeners and a commercial mixture, Aroclor 1254, and compared the response to that of the Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), known to be PCB sensitive. In both studies, Aroclor 1254 residues accumulated in tissues of both species, but there was no significant relationship between residue levels and effects. In conclusion, adult American kestrels were relatively insensitive to the effects of PCBs, from both acute and chronic exposure, on hepatic and renal porphyrin levels. Although concentrations of a CYP1A-like protein were increased in some kestrels given PCBs, EROD activity was only marginally increased, suggesting that catalytic activity of this protein differed among the two species. 52 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. First description of malignant retrobulbar and intracranial teratoma in a lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rafael Molina; Múrcia, Daniel Borràs

    2008-08-01

    Teratomas are defined as germ cell origin neoplasms that can be rarely found in either humans or animals. Their most common localization is the gonads, although extragonadal localization has also been observed. In avian medicine, there is scarce literature about the occurrence of teratomas and their clinical implications, and this is mainly in wildlife birds . For this reason, we report the first description of a teratoma with both retrobulbar and intracranial locations in a 10-day-old chick of a lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) born in captivity. The raptor was treated in a centre of wildlife rehabilitation because of the presence of left periocular swelling and exopthalmos. The bird worsened rapidly with signs of vestibular syndrome, ataxia and depression, and euthanasia was practised for humanitarian reasons. Histological examination characterized both masses as malignant teratomas based on the presence of tissues of the three germ cell layers and the presence of both anaplastic foci and immature tissues.

  10. The food spectrum of sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus L. and kestrel (Falco tinnunculus L. in the Chřiby Upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tomešek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006–2008, mapping the sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus L. and kestrel (Falco tinnunculus L. occurred in the SE part of the Chřiby Upland. At the same time, the food spectrum of these birds of prey was determined during nesting periods. The area under monitoring represented about 25–30 km2.In each of the species, food was always monitored in a period from February to July at four nesting localities. The food spectrum was analysed by the direct observation of birds of prey, according to leftovers of food in the surroundings of nests and in nests of the predators. In Accipiter nisus, the food spectrum consisted of birds (85 %, mammals (3 % and other animals (12 %. Turdus merula was the most frequent prey. In Falco tinnunculus, the food spectrum consisted of birds (18 %, mammals (76 % and other animals (6 %. Microtus arvalis was unambiguously the most frequent prey.

  11. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Jorge; Lindberg, Peter; Waldenström, Jonas; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species entericaserovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.Keywords: Salmonella; epidemiology; ecology; peregrine falcon; no...

  12. Survival, growth, and histopathological effects of paraquat ingestion in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Franson, J.C.; Pattee, O.H.; Bunck, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of paraquat as a herbicide is becoming more extensive with the increasing popularity of no tillage agriculture, increasing the possibility of exposure for wildlife species. American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed daily with 5 ?l/g of distilled water (controls), 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 60 mg/kg of paraquat dichloride (1, 1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) in distilled water from day 1 through day 10. Forty-four percent of the nestlings given 60 mg/kg died after 4 days. Significant differences in growth rates occurred between controls and all paraquat-dosed groups. Reduced skeletal growth occurred in the humerus and femur in the 25 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg groups, and in the radius-ulna and tibiotarsus in the 60 mg/kg group. Skeletons were otherwise normal in appearance. Histopathological examination revealed localized focal necrosis in the liver of one nestling in the 60 mg/kg group and tubular cell degeneration and focal tubular dilation in the kidneys of another. The brain and lungs were unremarkable histologically. These findings suggest that altricial nestling kestrels are more sensitive to paraquat exposure than young or adult birds of precocial species.

  13. Immunological development in nestling American kestrels Falco sparverius: post-hatching ontogeny of the antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Judit E G; Bortolotti, Gary R

    2008-12-01

    Avian research involving examination of immune function or testing of immunocompetence in wild birds has been based upon information on Galliforms, (chicken and quail) even though they are precocial, whereas most wild species with which ecologists, biologists and toxicologists work are altricial; blind, naked and completely dependent at hatching. Here we begin to address this gap in knowledge, offering insight into the early, post-hatching, humoral immune response in an altricial bird, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Over two breeding seasons, nestling kestrels were immunized with a non-pathogenic antigen, dinitrophenol keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH), between 3 and 9 days post-hatching and boostered 6 days later. Background levels, primary and secondary immune responses were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The specificity of our laboratory produced rabbit, anti-kestrel antibody was determined using a double immunodiffusion assay. Results showed the rabbit antiserum to have specific anti-kestrel IgG activity. Birds as young as three days old could successfully mount an antibody response, the magnitude of which increased with age at first vaccination. Early immunization did not compromise growth rate, nor did it affect the maximum secondary response. Comparatively, adult kestrels immunized during the same season and following the same protocol, had antibody levels four times higher than those of the nestlings.

  14. The effects of temperature and artificial rain on the metabolism of American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Glenn R; Cooper, Sheldon J; Gessaman, James A

    2004-11-01

    The effect of rainfall on the metabolism of birds is poorly understood. We measured the metabolism as rate of oxygen consumption (VO2) of four male and four female American kestrels (Falco sparverius) using open-circuit respirometry. We measured VO2 during the spring at ambient temperatures (Ta) of 5, 10, 15, and 25 degrees C in air without rainfall and with simulated rainfall of 2.5 (low rainfall) and 6.1 cm h(-1) (high rainfall). Kestrel metabolism was significantly higher when exposed to the two rainfall levels compared to no rainfall. However, kestrel metabolism was not significantly different at the two rainfall levels. Body temperature (Tb) was significantly lower under high rainfall compared to low rainfall. In addition, under both rainfall levels Tb decreased with decreasing Ta. Calculated thermal conductance was significantly higher in kestrels exposed to rain compared to no rainfall. Kestrels may use sleeking behavior at high rainfall levels to decrease water penetration of the plumage. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) of kestrels exposed to rain may increase markedly, and kestrel energetics may be further exacerbated by wind that often accompanies natural rainstorms.

  15. Biochemical and hematological effects of lead ingestion in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Franson, J C; Pattee, O H; Bunck, C M; Murray, H C

    1985-01-01

    One-day old American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed daily with 5 microliters/g of corn oil (controls), 25, 125 or 625 mg/kg of metallic lead in corn oil for 10 days. Forty per cent of the nestlings receiving 625 mg/kg of lead died after 6 days and growth rates were significantly depressed in the two highest lead dosed groups. At 10 days hematocrit values were significantly lower in the two highest lead treated groups, and hemoglobin content and red blood cell delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was depressed in all lead treated groups. Plasma creatine phosphokinase decreased in the two highest treatment groups. Brain, liver and kidney ALAD activities, brain RNA to protein ratio and liver protein concentration decreased after lead exposure whereas liver DNA, DNA to RNA ratio and DNA to protein ratio increased. Brain monoamine oxidase and ATPase were not significantly altered. Measurements of the ontogeny of hematological variants and enzymes in normal development, using additional untreated nestlings, revealed decreases in red blood cell ALAD, plasma aspartate amino transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, brain DNA and RNA and liver DNA, whereas hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma alkaline phosphatase, brain monoamine oxidase, brain ALAD and liver ALAD increased during the first 10 days of posthatching development. Biochemical and hematological alterations were more severe than those reported in adult kestrels or precocial young birds exposed to lead. Alterations may be due in part to delayed development.

  16. Evaluation of High Dosages of Oral Meloxicam in American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Larrat, Sylvain; Troncy, Eric; Bird, David M; Lair, Stéphane; Fitzgerald, Guy

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of short-term high doses of meloxicam in American kestrels ( Falco sparverius ), 32 male captive-born, 1- to 4-year-old American kestrels were randomly assigned to 4 groups: 3 groups treated with meloxicam (n = 9 per group) and a control group (n = 5). Meloxicam was administered orally via feeding tube in the proventriculus at 2, 10, and 20 mg/kg every 12 hours for 7 days for the treatment groups, while the control group received saline solution. The birds were evaluated for the presence of clinical signs, abnormalities in the complete blood cell count and in the plasma biochemical panel for the 20-mg/kg group, and gross and histopathologic lesions. No clinical signs or mortality were observed in any group. No significant differences of clinical relevance were found in results of the packed cell volume, total solids, and biochemical panel, and no evidence of renal toxicity was found in the treatment or control groups. A significant correlation was found between hepatic lipidosis and meloxicam dose (P = .02). Two of 9 birds in the 20-mg/kg group developed gastric ulcers, although this result was not significant. None of the birds in the 2- and 10-mg/kg groups had similar lesions. Finally, meloxicam dosages up to 20 mg/kg did not result in nephrotoxicity in American kestrels. Further toxicologic studies to evaluate hepatotoxicity and gastrotoxicity of meloxicam in avian species are needed.

  17. Survival, growth, and accumulation of ingested lead in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Franson, J.C.; Pattee, O.H.; Bunck, C.M.; Anderson, A.

    1985-01-01

    One-day old American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were dosed orally daily with 5 ?l/g of corn oil (controls), 25 mg/kg, 125 mg/kg, or 625 mg/kg of metallic lead in corn oil through day 10. Forty percent of the nestlings given 625 mg/kg died after six days. Growth rates became significantly different from controls in the 625 mg/kg group by day 3 and in the 125 mg/kg group by day 4. Crown-rump lengths and brain weights were significantly lower in both treatment groups. Liver and kidney weights were lower in the 625 mg/kg groups. Skeletal examination and measurement of alizarin red-S stained nestlings revealed reduced growth for the humerus, radius-ulna, femur, and tibiotarsus in the 125 mg/kg and 625 mg/kg groups. Skeletons were otherwise normal in appearance. Greater than 2 ppm (wet weight) lead in the liver or 6 ppm in the kidney was associated with suppressed growth, while more than 5 ppm in the liver and 15 ppm in the kidney occurred in survivors in the 625 mg/kg group. The order of accumulation of lead in tissues at the end of 10 days was kidney> liver> brain. These findings suggest that altricial nestlings may be considerably more sensitive to lead exposure than adults and also more sensitive than hatchlings of many precocial species.

  18. Sex-related differences in habitat selection in wintering American kestrels, Falco sparverius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardia; Bildstein

    1997-06-01

    The American kestrel, Falco sparveriushas sex-related differences in habitat use during the non-breeding season, with females occupying more open habitats than males. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon: (1) males and females prefer different habitats, and (2) males and females prefer similar habitats, but larger females exclude smaller males from preferred areas. This study experimentally investigated habitat selection in wintering kestrels by temporarily removing kestrels from areas, and then observing the numbers and sex of the kestrels that occupied vacated areas. The home ranges of 20 birds (10 males and 10 females) were mapped and their occupants removed. Areas vacated in early winter (November 1994) were filled more quickly than those vacated in late winter (February 1995). Areas previously held by females were reoccupied more frequently than were those previously occupied by males. Female kestrels reoccupied vacated female areas more than vacated male areas. Male kestrels reoccupied vacated female and male areas equally. The results demonstrate that (1) high-quality kestrel habitat may be limited in the non-breeding season, (2) vacated areas are more likely to be reoccupied in the early winter than in late winter, (3) female kestrels appear at an advantage relative to males in occupying scarce and competed-for areas, and (4) male kestrels will use female areas when female occupants have been removed. It is hypothesized that open habitats are preferred over less open habitats because the former offer reduced risk of predation from bird-eating hawks.

  19. Evaluation of thermal antinociceptive effects after intramuscular administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceulemans, Susanne M; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Olsen, Glenn H; Beaufrère, Hugues; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and duration of action of buprenorphine hydrochloride after IM administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius). 12 healthy 3-year-old American kestrels. Buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg) and a control treatment (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) were administered IM in a randomized crossover experimental design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 1 hour before (baseline) and 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after treatment administration. Agitation-sedation scores were determined 3 to 5 minutes before each thermal stimulus. Adverse effects were monitored for 6 hours after treatment administration. Buprenorphine hydrochloride at 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg, IM, increased thermal threshold for 6 hours, compared with the response for the control treatment. There were no significant differences among buprenorphine treatments. A mild sedative effect was detected at a dose of 0.6 mg of buprenorphine/kg. At the doses tested, buprenorphine hydrochloride resulted in thermal antinociception in American kestrels for at least 6 hours, which suggested that buprenorphine has analgesic effects in this species. Further studies with longer evaluation periods and additional forms of noxious stimuli, formulations, dosages, and routes of administration are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of buprenorphine in American kestrels.

  20. Lack of genetic polymorphism among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus of Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra; Palmer, A.G.; Sage, G.K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Swem, Ted; Brimm, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    We compared levels of genetic diversity and isolation among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus from two South Pacific island complexes (Fiji and Vanuatu: F. p. nesiotes), relative to other island and mainland populations. Fragment data from 12 microsatellite loci and sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial DNA indicated levels of genetic variation in the South Pacific populations were lower than other island and mainland populations. Indeed, diversity varied from extremely low (Vanuatu) to completely absent (Fiji). We find little support for a hypothesis that populations on Fiji or Vanuatu were colonized via Australia. The complete lack of polymorphism in peregrine falcons of Fiji is remarkable, and to our knowledge has not been observed in a natural avian population. This lack of polymorphism, and the inability to test for decrease in polymorphism using museum samples, precludes testing whether the lack of genetic diversity in the population on Fiji is due to a recent bottleneck, or sustained isolation over evolutionary time. Increased fertility in eggs of Fiji peregrines upon outbreeding with males from other areas is consistent with inbreeding depression within a population typified by heterozygote deficiency.

  1. Acute toxicity, histopathology, and coagulopathy in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following administration of the rodenticie diphacinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Day, Daniel D.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Voler, Steven F.; Eisemann, John D.; Johnston, John J.

    2011-01-01

    The acute oral toxicity of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was found to be over 20 times greater in American kestrels (Falco sparverius; median lethal dose 96.8 mg/kg body weight) compared with Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Modest evidence of internal bleeding was observed at necropsy, although histological examination of heart, liver, kidney, lung, intestine, and skeletal muscle revealed hemorrhage over a wide range of doses (35.1-675 mg/kg). Residue analysis suggests that the half-life of diphacinone in the liver of kestrels that survived was relatively short, with the majority of the dose cleared within 7 d of exposure. Several precise and sensitive clotting assays (prothrombin time, Russell's viper venom time, thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in this species, and oral administration of diphacinone at 50 mg/kg increased prothrombin time and Russell?s viper venom time at 48 and 96 h postdose compared with controls. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and generally corresponded with the onset of overt signs of toxicity and lethality. In view of the toxicity and risk evaluation data derived from American kestrels, the involvement of diphacinone in some raptor mortality events, and the paucity of threshold effects data following short-term dietary exposure for birds of prey, additional feeding trials with captive raptors are warranted to characterize more fully the risk of secondary poisoning.

  2. Evidence of immunomodulation in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant PBDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernie, Kim J.; Mayne, Greg; Shutt, J. Laird; Pekarik, Cynthia; Grasman, Keith A.; Letcher, Robert J.; Drouillard, Ken

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether exposure to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) causes immunomodulation in captive nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Eggs within each clutch, divided by laying sequence, were injected with safflower oil or penta-BDE congeners-47, -99, -100, and -153 dissolved in safflower oil (18.7 μg ΣPBDEs/egg) approximating Great Lakes birds. For 29 days, nestlings consumed the same PBDE mixture (15.6±0.3 ng/g body weight per day), reaching ΣPBDE body burden concentrations that were 120x higher in the treatment birds (86.1±29.1 ng/g ww) than controls (0.73±0.5 ng/g ww). PBDE-exposed birds had a greater PHA response (T-cell-mediated immunity), which was negatively associated with increasing BDE-47 concentrations, but a reduced antibody-mediated response that was positively associated with increasing BDE-183 concentrations. There were also structural changes in the spleen (fewer germinal centers), bursa (reduced apoptosis) and thymus (increased macrophages), and negative associations between the spleen somatic index and ΣPBDEs, and the bursa somatic index and BDE-47. Immunomodulation from PBDE exposure may be exacerbated in wild birds experiencing greater environmental stresses. - Exposure to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (congeners and concentrations) resulted in the immunomodulation of nestling American kestrels

  3. Observations of the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni in Bulgaria during the period of post-breeding dispersal

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    Daskalova Girgina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni was considered extinct as a breeding species in Bulgaria, but recently a small breeding colony was found again in the south-eastern part of the country. Seven recent observations of flocks or solitary birds of the species in Bulgaria during the post-breeding period are presented and commented here. It is shown that the territory of the country is a regular area for post-breeding dispersal and pre-migratory feeding of lesser kestrels. The origin of these is not known, but most probably birds from the populations of the European part of Turkey, Greece, Republic of Macedonia and Albania are involved.

  4. First evidences of sexual divergences in flight behaviour and space use of lesser kestrel Falco naumanni

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    Marco Gustin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present here the first description of recorded sexual differences in flight behaviour and space use of lesser kestrel Falco naumanni. Lesser kestrel is a migratory, colonial, small falcon breeding mainly in holes and crevices in large historic buildings within towns and villages, or in abandoned farm houses across the countryside. Using accurate GPS data-loggers, we gathered data on the activities of lesser kestrels in the two of main colonies of lesser kestrels in Italy, i.e. Gravina in Puglia and Altamura (Apulia, Southern Italy and the surrounding rural areas in a 20-days monitoring during the reproductive period. We tested for sex differences in space use (home range's circularity ratio and flight attributes (5-minute flight length, instantaneous speed, distance from nest, flight altitude above ground level of 9 monitored individuals (4 males and 5 females. We found significant sexual differences for all the observed traits. Our results demonstrate that female lesser kestrels during the monitoring period employed a lower amount of energy in local movements as measured by four flight attributes that resulted significantly different (and lower than for males. Compact home ranges for females could represent a maximization of the benefit-cost ratio between prospected surface and distance from nest, i.e. the optimal trade-off between foraging requirements (explored surface and costs in terms of time and energy (distance from nest. On the contrary, males showed a significantly different space use with very elongated home ranges and mean distance from nest almost three times as elevated as females' one. We argue that the detected sexual divergence was the product of their respective ways to optimize the relationship between resource acquisition and reproductive activity.

  5. Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune function and hematology in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallacara, Dawn M.; Halbrook, Richard S.; French, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-nine adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were assigned to one of three diet formulations including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9 μg/g (dry wt) methylmercury (MeHg). Kestrels received their diets daily for 13 weeks to assess the effects of dietary MeHg on immunocompetence. Immunotoxic endpoints included assessment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and primary and secondary antibody-mediated immune responses (IR) via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. Select hematology and histology parameters were evaluated to corroborate the results of functional assays and to assess immunosuppression of T and B cell-dependent components in spleen tissue. Kestrels in the 0.6 and 3.9 μg/g MeHg groups exhibited suppression of CMI, including lower PHA stimulation indexes (p = 0.019) and a 42 to 45% depletion of T cell-dependent splenic lymphoid tissue (p = 0.006). Kestrels in the 0.6 μg/g group exhibited suppression of the primary IR to SRBCs (p = 0.014). MeHg did not have a noticeable effect on the secondary IR (p = 0.166). Elevation of absolute heterophil counts (p p p = 0.003) was apparent in the 3.9 μg/g group at week 12. Heterophilia, or the excess of heterophils in peripheral blood above normal ranges, was apparent in seven of 17 (41%) kestrels in the 3.9 μg/g group and was indicative of an acute inflammatory response or physiological stress. This study revealed that adult kestrels were more sensitive to immunotoxic effects of MeHg at environmentally relevant dietary concentrations than they were to reproductive effects as previously reported.

  6. Copper pellets simulating oral exposure to copper ammunition: Absence of toxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Lahner, Lesanna L.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the potential toxicity of copper (Cu) in raptors that may consume Cu bullets, shotgun pellets containing Cu, or Cu fragments as they feed on wildlife carcasses, we studied the effects of metallic Cu exposure in a surrogate, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Sixteen kestrels were orally administered 5 mg Cu/g body mass in the form of Cu pellets (1.18–2.00 mm in diameter) nine times during 38 days and 10 controls were sham gavaged on the same schedule. With one exception, all birds retained the pellets for at least 1 h, but most (69%) regurgitated pellets during a 12-h monitoring period. Hepatic Cu concentrations were greater in kestrels administered Cu than in controls, but there was no difference in Cu concentrations in the blood between treated and control birds. Concentration of the metal-binding protein metallothionein was greater in male birds that received Cu than in controls, whereas concentrations in female birds that received Cu were similar to control female birds. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations in kestrels were significantly correlated. Histopathologic alterations were noted in the pancreas of four treated kestrels and two controls, but these changes were not associated with hepatic or renal Cu concentrations, and no lesions were seen in other tissues. No clinical signs were observed, and there was no treatment effect on body mass; concentrations of Cu, hemoglobin, or methemoglobin in the blood; or Cu concentrations in kidney, plasma biochemistries, or hematocrit. Based on the parameters we measured, ingested Cu pellets pose little threat to American kestrels (and presumably phylogenetically related species), although the retention time of pellets in the stomach was of relatively short duration. Birds expected to regurgitate Cu fragments with a frequency similar to kestrels are not likely to be adversely affected by Cu ingestion, but the results of our study do not completely rule out the potential for toxicity in

  7. Thyroid hormone suppression and cell-mediated immunomodulation in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, J E; Fernie, K J; Bortolotti, G R; Marchant, T A

    2002-10-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants can induce physiological changes in animals through various mechanisms. One manifestation of subclinical toxicity from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure is the disruption of normal immune function described in numerous species, including American kestrels (Falco sparverius). In 1998, 152 mature male and female kestrels were fed either a mixture of Aroclor 1248:1254:1260 (approximately 7 mg/kg kestrel/day) through their food items, or control diets. Offspring produced by 50 breeding pairs (thus, half received in ovo PCB exposure only) were also studied. Total and differential white blood cell counts, the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response, as well as thyroid hormone levels were tested in vivo in nonbreeding adults (1998 only) and nestlings (1998 and 1999). In 1999, nestlings came from three parental groups; adults exposed in 1998, birds produced by PCB-exposed parents, and unexposed birds. In 1998, directly exposed males but not females had increased total white blood cell counts driven by lymphocytosis, plus a decreased heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio relative to controls. PCB-exposed birds had a significantly greater response to PHA than did controls, with sex as a significant factor and plasma triiodothyonine (T(3)) as a significant covariate. Levels of T(3) were significantly depressed in PCB-exposed birds of both sexes. The 1999 nestlings (F1 generation with respect to PCB exposure) did not show any effect of parental treatment group on the PHA skin response, yet T(3) remained as a significant covariate. Immunological effects are discussed in light of the antibody-mediated immunotoxicity found in the same birds and reported previously.

  8. Effects of developmental conditions on nestling American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) corticosterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Erin H; Heath, Julie A

    2011-08-01

    How nestling birds respond to stressful situations may constitute an important survival component that has lasting developmental effects on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. As birds are exposed to increasing amounts of potential anthropogenic stressors through land use change, understanding how these factors contribute to HPA development is important. We examined whether conditions experienced during the nestling stage affected free-living American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) HPA activity prior to fledging. Kestrels experienced varying levels of human disturbance around their nest and we classified this environmental exposure as high or low environmental human disturbance based on traffic patterns and land use. We then exposed some broods from high and low disturbance areas to a standardized disturbance protocol. Prior to fledging we collected blood samples from 25-day-old nestlings immediately after capture and 15 min post-capture. Corticosterone (CORT) did not vary with environmental human disturbance levels, disturbance protocol treatment, or with an interaction between environmental human disturbance and disturbance protocol treatment suggesting that nestling kestrels may not perceive external conditions related to human disturbance as stressful or kestrels may acclimate to disturbance. We also compared the relative effects of environmental human disturbance outside the nest cavity, conditions within the nest cavity (brood size), and individual condition (nestling fat scores) on baseline and stress-induced CORT. Baseline CORT did not vary with human disturbance level, brood size or fat score. Fat scores best explained stress-induced CORT with nestlings in better condition displaying elevated CORT. These results suggest that individual variation is more likely to explain HPA development compared to nest conditions or the external environment. This study demonstrates the importance of considering the effects of developmental conditions on the stress

  9. Corticosterone levels during post-natal development in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Oliver P; Bird, David M; Shutt, Laird J

    2003-02-01

    We investigated post-natal development of the adrenocortical stress-response system in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) by measurements of baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone at ages 10, 16, 22, and 28 days post-hatching. Baseline levels of corticosterone increased significantly during post-natal development and although chicks aged 10- and 16-days old exhibited comparable baseline corticosterone levels, those of 22-day-old chicks were significantly higher and those of 28-day-old chicks close to fledging were higher than all younger groups. Chicks in this study exhibited low levels of stress-induced corticosterone early in development and did not exhibit adult-type stress-induced levels of corticosterone until 22 days of age post-hatching. Finally, although baseline and stress-induced levels of 28-day-old birds were significantly higher than one-year-old adults, there was no relationship between baseline corticosterone concentrations and time to nest departure. The fact that baseline levels of corticosterone are low during early development and then increase during later development may be an adaptation to the negative effects of chronically elevated corticosterone levels and as previously noted in other studies may minimize these negative effects on rapid growth and development in young birds, potentially maximizing normal growth. The ability of even young kestrel chicks to elevate corticosterone levels in response to stress suggests that they may be able to physiologically cope with food shortages associated with unpredictable food resources which wild kestrels often face.

  10. Reproductive changes in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) in relation to exposure to technical hexabromocyclododecane flame retardant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C; Bird, David M; Ritchie, Ian J; Letcher, Robert J

    2011-11-01

    Recently, the ban of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), a high-production-volume flame retardant, was announced in Europe and North America. However, the effects of HCBD remain understudied in birds. The objectives of the present comparative effects study were to determine whether exposure to an HBCD technical mixture (HBCD-TM) altered avian reproductive measures at an environmentally relevant concentration. American kestrels were exposed daily by food to HBCD-TM, i.e., 0.51 µg HBCD/g kestrel/d; exposed kestrels laid eggs that had α-HBCD concentrations (163.5 ± 75.1 ng/g wet wt) tenfold greater than β- and γ-HBCD isomers, an isomer profile and concentrations similar to those of eggs of wild peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus). Concentrations of HBCD were not detected in the control kestrel eggs. In comparison with controls, the kestrels exposed to HBCD began to lay their eggs 6 d earlier and laid larger clutches of smaller eggs. The size of the eggs was inversely correlated with the in ovo α-HBCD concentrations. The smaller eggs of the HBCD exposed kestrels also lost more weight by midincubation, suggesting increased eggshell porosity since eggshell thickness was comparable. Generally birds that lay more eggs and lay earlier in the breeding season gain the advantage of better hatching and fledging success, yet the kestrels exposed to HBCD failed to have better reproductive success than the control birds. These reproductive changes were a function of HBCD exposure, likely through changes in food consumption, with possible impacts on, for example, reproductive behavior and/or alterations in thyroid hormones. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  11. Assessing the importance of High Nature Value farmlands for the conservation of Lesser Kestrels Falco naumanni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galanaki Antonia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural areas, such as cereal cultivations, that support species of European and/or national conservation concern are considered as ‘High Nature Value’ farmlands (HNVf and are very important for the preservation of biodiversity in Europe. The lesser kestrel Falco naumanni is a migratory falcon breeding largely in the HNVf of the Mediterranean basin. The main cause of its decline in Europe has been habitat loss and degradation as a result of agricultural intensification driven largely by the EU Common Agricultural Policies (CAP. In Greece, its population dropped by about 50% since the 1970s and its preferred habitats have shrunk. The aim of this study was to assess habitat preferences of breeding Lesser Kestrels in agro-ecosystems of Greece and relate these habitats to HNVf for conservation purposes. The study area is located in the plain of Thessaly, Central Greece, holding the main lesser kestrel breeding populations in the country, where dry cereal crops have been significantly depleted over the past decades. Species distribution models were developed with generalised additive models for the analyses. Predicted probability of lesser kestrel occurrence was found to be positively associated with farmed landscapes of dry cereal cultivations. Other important predictors were cultivated irrigated farmland and landscape heterogeneity. Main results of the statistical models agree with the findings of other habitatbased studies that highlight the importance of low-input farming systems, that is, HNVf, for safeguarding vital Lesser Kestrels habitats in their breeding grounds in the Mediterranean. A key conservation priority for conserving species dependant on HNVf is the maintenance of those low-input farming systems and the implementation of a greener CAP that would promote environmental-friendly farming practices to preserve and enhance biodiversity in the agro-ecosystems of Europe.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine hydrochloride following intramuscular and intravenous administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Kate A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Knych, Heather K; Petritz, Olivia A; Olsen, Glenn H; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2014-08-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine hydrochloride after IM and IV administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius). 13 healthy 3-year-old captive-bred American kestrels. Buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.6 mg/kg) was administered IM to all birds. Blood samples were collected at 9 times, ranging from 5 minutes to 9 hours after drug administration. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were measured by use of tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by use of least squares linear regression and noncompartmental analysis of naïve pooled data. After a washout period of 2 weeks, the same dose of buprenorphine was administered IV to all birds and blood samples were collected at the same times after drug administration. Maximum plasma buprenorphine concentration was achieved within 5 minutes after IM administration. For IM administration, bioavailability was 94.8% and elimination half-life was 92.1 minutes. For IV administration, steady-state volume of distribution was 4,023.8 mL/kg, plasma clearance was 49.2 mL/min/kg, and elimination half-life was 105.5 minutes. Buprenorphine was rapidly absorbed, and bioavailability was good after IM administration to American kestrels. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were > 1 ng/mL for 9 hours after both IM and IV administration. These results, in combination with those of a pharmacodynamic study, suggested that the analgesic effects of buprenorphine could last at least 6 to 9 hours in this species. Further investigations of the duration of analgesic effects, multiple-dose protocols, and potential adverse effects of buprenorphine are warranted in American kestrels and other raptors.

  13. Effects of experimental brood size manipulation and gender on carotenoid levels of Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus.

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    Toni Laaksonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. METHODOLOGY: To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. SIGNIFICANCE: These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood.

  14. Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune system development in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallacara, Dawn M.; Halbrook, Richard S.; French, John B.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary methylmercury (MeHg) on immune system development in captive-reared nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to determine whether T cell–mediated and antibody-mediated adaptive immunity are targets for MeHg toxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations. Nestlings received various diets, including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9 μg/g (dry wt) MeHg for up to 18 d posthatch. Immunotoxicity endpoints included cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and antibody-mediated immune response via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. T cell– and B cell–dependent histological parameters in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius were correlated with the functional assays. For nestlings in the 0.6 and 3.9 μg/g MeHg groups, CMI was suppressed by 73 and 62%, respectively, at 11 d of age. Results of this functional assay were correlated with T cell–dependent components of the spleen and thymus. Dose-dependent lymphoid depletion in spleen tissue directly affected the proliferation of T-lymphocyte populations, insofar as lower stimulation indexes from the PHA assay occurred in nestlings with lower proportions of splenic white pulp and higher THg concentrations. Nestlings in the 3.9 μg/g group also exhibited lymphoid depletion and a lack of macrophage activity in the thymus. Methylmercury did not have a noticeable effect on antibody-mediated immune function or B cell–dependent histological correlates. We conclude that T cell–mediated immunosuppression is the primary target of MeHg toward adaptive immunity in developing kestrels. This study provides evidence that environmentally relevant concentrations of MeHg may compromise immunocompetence in a developing terrestrial predator and raises concern regarding the long-term health effects of kestrels that were exposed to dietary MeHg during early avian development.

  15. Antibody-mediated immunotoxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, J E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-02-23

    Antibody-mediated immune function in adult and recently fledged (30 to 33 d old) American kestrels (Falco sparverius) was examined in birds exposed directly, or only in ovo, to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In 1998, 9 mature male and 9 female kestrels were fed PCBs, whereas 9 females and 10 males served as controls. A mixture of Aroclors 1248:1254:1260 suspended in safflower oil was injected into the kestrels' food items, while in control diets only the same volume of oil was added. The dosage of PCBs was approximately 7 mg/kg kestrel/d, beginning in March 1998 and continuing for 120 d. In 1998, the antibody-mediated immune response was stimulated by immunization and booster vaccinations of the kestrels using a nonpathogenic antigen, dinitrophenol-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH). In 1999, offspring from three treatment groups based upon maternal exposure to PCBs were similarly tested for their antibody response. None of these mothers was vaccinated with DNP-KLH the previous year. The maternal groups were: (1) exposed to PCBs in 1998 for 120 d, (2) exposed in ovo in 1998 (i.e., mothers were produced by PCB-exposed parents), or (3) unexposed to PCBs. Serum antibody levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In 1998, PCB-exposed adult females had a significantly higher antibody response than did controls, whereas adult males exposed to PCBs had significantly suppressed antibody production. For the nestlings produced in 1999, maternal treatment significantly affected antibody response. Generally, the antibody response in the nestlings was much lower than that seen in adult kestrels. Yet both male and female offspring from mothers that had been fed PCBs the previous year had significantly higher postbooster anti-DNP-KLH titers than control and in ovo-exposed maternal groups, thus mimicking the response seen in the adult females the previous year. These sex-specific responses in PCB-exposed birds provide further evidence of the

  16. Copper pellets simulating oral exposure to copper ammunition: absence of toxicity in American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J Christian; Lahner, Lesanna L; Meteyer, Carol U; Rattner, Barnett A

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the potential toxicity of copper (Cu) in raptors that may consume Cu bullets, shotgun pellets containing Cu, or Cu fragments as they feed on wildlife carcasses, we studied the effects of metallic Cu exposure in a surrogate, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Sixteen kestrels were orally administered 5 mg Cu/g body mass in the form of Cu pellets (1.18-2.00 mm in diameter) nine times during 38 days and 10 controls were sham gavaged on the same schedule. With one exception, all birds retained the pellets for at least 1 h, but most (69%) regurgitated pellets during a 12-h monitoring period. Hepatic Cu concentrations were greater in kestrels administered Cu than in controls, but there was no difference in Cu concentrations in the blood between treated and control birds. Concentration of the metal-binding protein metallothionein was greater in male birds that received Cu than in controls, whereas concentrations in female birds that received Cu were similar to control female birds. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations in kestrels were significantly correlated. Histopathologic alterations were noted in the pancreas of four treated kestrels and two controls, but these changes were not associated with hepatic or renal Cu concentrations, and no lesions were seen in other tissues. No clinical signs were observed, and there was no treatment effect on body mass; concentrations of Cu, hemoglobin, or methemoglobin in the blood; or Cu concentrations in kidney, plasma biochemistries, or hematocrit. Based on the parameters we measured, ingested Cu pellets pose little threat to American kestrels (and presumably phylogenetically related species), although the retention time of pellets in the stomach was of relatively short duration. Birds expected to regurgitate Cu fragments with a frequency similar to kestrels are not likely to be adversely affected by Cu ingestion, but the results of our study do not completely rule out the potential for toxicity in

  17. New insights into the phylogenetics and population structure of the prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Jacqueline M.; Bell, Douglas A.; Bloom, Peter H.; Emmons, Gavin; Fesnock, Amy; Katzner, Todd; LePre, Larry; Leonard, Kolbe; SanMiguel, Phillip; Westerman, Rick; DeWoody, J. Andrew

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundManagement requires a robust understanding of between- and within-species genetic variability, however such data are still lacking in many species. For example, although multiple population genetics studies of the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) have been conducted, no similar studies have been done of the closely-related prairie falcon (F. mexicanus) and it is unclear how much genetic variation and population structure exists across the species’ range. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationship of F. mexicanus relative to other falcon species is contested. We utilized a genomics approach (i.e., genome sequencing and assembly followed by single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping) to rapidly address these gaps in knowledge.ResultsWe sequenced the genome of a single female prairie falcon and generated a 1.17 Gb (gigabases) draft genome assembly. We generated maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees using complete mitochondrial genomes as well as nuclear protein-coding genes. This process provided evidence that F. mexicanus is an outgroup to the clade that includes the peregrine falcon and members of the subgenus Hierofalco. We annotated > 16,000 genes and almost 600,000 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nuclear genome, providing the raw material for a SNP assay design featuring > 140 gene-associated markers and a molecular-sexing marker. We subsequently genotyped ~ 100 individuals from California (including the San Francisco East Bay Area, Pinnacles National Park and the Mojave Desert) and Idaho (Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area). We tested for population structure and found evidence that individuals sampled in California and Idaho represent a single panmictic population.ConclusionsOur study illustrates how genomic resources can rapidly shed light on genetic variability in understudied species and resolve phylogenetic relationships. Furthermore, we found evidence of a single, randomly mating

  18. Carotenoid coloration and health status of urban Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumasgutner, Petra; Adrion, Marius; Gamauf, Anita

    2018-01-01

    As the world experiences rapid urban expansion, natural landscapes are being transformed into cities at an alarming rate. Consequently, urbanization is identified as one of the biggest environmental challenges of our time, yet we lack a clear understanding of how urbanization affects free-living organisms. Urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and increased impervious surfaces affecting for example availability and quality of food. Urbanization is also associated with increased pollution levels that can affect organisms directly, via ecophysiological constraints and indirectly by disrupting trophic interactions in multi-species networks. Birds are highly mobile, while an individual is not necessarily exposed to urban stressors around the clock, but nestlings of altricial birds are. Such a city-dwelling species with a long nestling phase is the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in Vienna, Austria, which forage on a diverse diet differing in composition from rural habitats. Furthermore, prey items vary in nutritional value and contents of micronutrients like carotenoids, which might impact the nestlings' health. Carotenoids are pigments that are incorporated into integument tissues but also have antioxidant and immunostimulatory capacity, resulting in a trade-off between these functions. In nestlings these pigments function in parent-offspring communication or sibling competition by advertising an individual's physical or physiological condition. Anthropogenic disturbance and pollutants could have disruptive effects on the coloration of these traits. In this study, we measured carotenoid based coloration and other indicators of individual health (body condition and susceptibility to the ectoparasite Carnus hemapterus) of 154 nestling kestrels (n = 91 nests) along an urban gradient from 2010 to 2015. We found skin yellowness of nestlings from nest-sites in the city-center to be least pronounced. This result might indicate that inner-city nestlings are

  19. Carotenoid coloration and health status of urban Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Sumasgutner

    Full Text Available As the world experiences rapid urban expansion, natural landscapes are being transformed into cities at an alarming rate. Consequently, urbanization is identified as one of the biggest environmental challenges of our time, yet we lack a clear understanding of how urbanization affects free-living organisms. Urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and increased impervious surfaces affecting for example availability and quality of food. Urbanization is also associated with increased pollution levels that can affect organisms directly, via ecophysiological constraints and indirectly by disrupting trophic interactions in multi-species networks. Birds are highly mobile, while an individual is not necessarily exposed to urban stressors around the clock, but nestlings of altricial birds are. Such a city-dwelling species with a long nestling phase is the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus in Vienna, Austria, which forage on a diverse diet differing in composition from rural habitats. Furthermore, prey items vary in nutritional value and contents of micronutrients like carotenoids, which might impact the nestlings' health. Carotenoids are pigments that are incorporated into integument tissues but also have antioxidant and immunostimulatory capacity, resulting in a trade-off between these functions. In nestlings these pigments function in parent-offspring communication or sibling competition by advertising an individual's physical or physiological condition. Anthropogenic disturbance and pollutants could have disruptive effects on the coloration of these traits. In this study, we measured carotenoid based coloration and other indicators of individual health (body condition and susceptibility to the ectoparasite Carnus hemapterus of 154 nestling kestrels (n = 91 nests along an urban gradient from 2010 to 2015. We found skin yellowness of nestlings from nest-sites in the city-center to be least pronounced. This result might indicate that inner

  20. Demographic consequences of nest box use for Red-footed Falcons Falco vespertinus in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragin, Evgeny A.; Bragin, Alexander E.; Katzner, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Nest box programs are frequently implemented for the conservation of cavity-nesting birds, but their effectiveness is rarely evaluated in comparison to birds not using nest boxes. In the European Palearctic, Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus populations are both of high conservation concern and are strongly associated with nest box programs in heavily managed landscapes. We used a 21-year monitoring dataset collected on 753 nesting attempts by Red-footed Falcons in unmanaged natural or semi-natural habitats to provide basic information on this poorly known species; to evaluate long-term demographic trends; and to evaluate response of demographic parameters of Red-footed Falcons to environmental factors including use of nest boxes. We observed significant differences among years in laying date, offspring loss, and numbers of fledglings produced, but not in egg production. Of these four parameters, offspring loss and, to a lesser extent, number of fledglings exhibited directional trends over time. Variation in laying date and in numbers of eggs were not well explained by any one model, but instead by combinations of models, each with informative terms for nest type. Nevertheless, laying in nest boxes occurred 2.10 ± 0.70 days earlier than in natural nests. In contrast, variation in both offspring loss and numbers of fledglings produced were fairly well explained by a single model including terms for nest type, nest location, and an interaction between the two parameters (65% and 81% model weights respectively), with highest offspring loss in nest boxes on forest edges. Because, for other species, earlier laying dates are associated with more fit individuals, this interaction highlighted a possible ecological trap, whereby birds using nest boxes on forest edges lay eggs earlier but suffer greater offspring loss and produce lower numbers of fledglings than do those in other nesting settings. If nest boxes increase offspring loss for Red-footed Falcons in heavily

  1. Comparación de la dieta estival del halconcito colorado (Falco sparverius ) y el halcón plomizo (Falco femoralis) en un área agrícola de la araucaría, Sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa Rojas, Ricardo A.; Corales Stappung, E. Soraya

    2004-01-01

    La dieta del Halconcito Colorado (Falco sparverius) y del Halcón Plomizo (Falco femoralis) fue cuantificada a partir de regurgitados durante el verano de 1997-1998 en un área agrícola de la región de la Araucanía, sur de Chile. Numéricamente, las presas más importantes del Halconcito Colorado fueron los insectos (61% del total de presas), seguidos de aves (23%), roedores (13.7%) y reptiles (2.6%). Las aves tuvieron el mayor aporte de biomasa (79.6%), seguidas por los roedores (18%). La contri...

  2. Home Range and Habitat Use of the New Zealand Falcon (Falco novaeseelandiae within a Plantation Forest: A Satellite Tracking Study

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    Bindi Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We tracked two adult and three juvenile New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae in Kaingaroa Forest pine plantation from 2002 to 2008 using Argos satellite technology. The home ranges for both adults and juveniles varied, ranging between 44 and 587 km2. The falcons occasionally utilised areas outside the forest and used stands of all ages within the forest, generally in proportion to their availability. For the most part, the juveniles remained within ca. 8 km of their nests and dispersed at 58, 69, and 68 days after fledging. Falcon movement information was obtained from an average of four location points per tracking day per falcon at a putative accuracy of 350 m. The transmitters, including their solar charge capability, performed well in the forest environment. The use of all stand ages highlights the importance of forestry practises that maintain a mosaic of different aged pine stands.

  3. Comparative toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J E; Kennedy, S W; Lorenzen, A

    1997-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related halogenated hydrocarbons bioaccumulate to high concentrations in top predators, such as raptorial birds, yet little is known of PCB toxicity to such species. This study explored several aspects of both the acute and chronic response of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to three purified PCB congeners and a commercial mixture, Aroclor 1254, and compared the response to that of the Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), a more studied species known to be PCB sensitive. In one experiment, adult female birds were given single oral doses of either Aroclor 1254, 3,3',4,4'-TCB (PCB 77, IUPAC nomenclature), 3,3',4,4',5-PCB (PCB 126) or 2,2',4,4',5,5'-HCB (PCB 153) and sacrificed after 5 d. In kestrels, neither the pure compounds nor the mixture affected hepatic or renal porphyrin levels. There was slight but significant hepatic and renal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction in birds dosed with PCBs 77 and 126. A cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was detected in liver and kidney of kestrels given PCBs 77 and 126, but not in Aroclor 1254-dosed birds. In quail, an acute dose of Aroclor 1254 caused significant liver weight increases, hepatic and renal EROD and aminopyrine n-demethylase (APND) induction, and dose-related hepatic and renal porphyria. Quail treated with PCB 126 developed hepatic and renal porphyria; EROD and APND were also induced. Administration of PCB 77 caused only slight induction of hepatic EROD activity. PCB 153 caused some hepatic and renal porphyria and induced EROD to the same degree as PCB 126. A hepatic CYP1A cross-reactive protein was induced about 200-fold in all individual quail that exhibited significant EROD induction and was also induced in kidney of 1 quail given Aroclor 1254. A second experiment examined chronic exposure to Aroclor 1254 by feeding adult females of both species a daily dose of 7 mg/kg/d for 4-, 8-, and 12-wk periods. There were no effects on hepatic

  4. A Global Model of Predicted Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) Distribution with Open Source GIS Code and 104 Open Access Layers for use by the global public

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, Sumithra; Huettmann, Falk

    2017-01-01

    Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) are among the fastest members of the animal kingdom, and they are probably the most widely distributed raptors in the world; their migrations and habitats range from the tundra, mountains and some deserts to the tropics, coastal zones and urban habitats. Habitat loss, conversion, contamination, pesticides and other anthropogenic pressures are all known factors that have an adverse effect on these species. However, while peregrine falcons were removed from ...

  5. The Migration of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni in Eastern Europe - A Ringing Recovery and Direct Observation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bounas Anastasios

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined ringing recovery data of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni in order to analyse its migration patterns and philopatry rates in Eastern Europe. In addition, we extracted counts of migrating birds from online databases and studied the use of the flyway as well as the phenology of both spring and autumn migrations through Greece. Birds appeared to migrate in the same mean direction in spring and autumn through the Italian and Balkan Peninsulas. During spring, movements took place on a broad front from March until mid- May with a peak in mid-April; in autumn, birds migrated through Greece on a narrower front from early August to early October, with most of individuals passing through Greece in mid-September. Finally, philopatry rates were higher for adults, while juvenile birds dispersed more often and at longer distances, up to 974 km away. Our results on migration patterns generally agree with those in other studies, but we found some evidence of long-distance premigratory movements towards mainland Greece that could also shape the narrower front migration in autumn. In addition, long distance dispersal movements of juveniles in southeastern Europe, where Lesser Kestrel populations show a fragmented distribution, could facilitate gene flow between populations, thus avoiding the negative effects of mating with genetically similar individuals.

  6. The effect of dietary sodium fluoride on internal organs, breast muscle, and bones in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D M; Carrière, D; Lacombe, D

    1992-02-01

    In 1982, 29 7-day-old American kestrel (Falco sparverius) chicks from captive stock were randomly assigned to one of three dietary regimens: (1) 10 birds were fed daily with cockerel mash (0 ppm of F-: control birds); (2) 10 birds were fed daily with cockerel mash containing 1,120 ppm of F-; (3) 9 birds were fed daily with cockerel mash containing 2,240 ppm of F-. Growth of the kestrels was not significantly affected by NaF in their diet. No significant differences were found among the 3 groups for length of duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Rectum was longer as more fluoride was added to the diet. Weights of adrenals, brain, gizzard, spleen, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, and pectoral muscle were not significantly affected by treatment, although kidneys, spleen and adrenals tended to become lighter. Percent bone ash was significantly (P less than 0.05) increased, while bone breaking strength was significantly (P less than 0.05) decreased by treatment.

  7. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of incubating American kestrels (Falco sparverius) show annual, seasonal, and individual variation and explain reproductive outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassani, Elizabeth C.; Sevy, Christeena; Strasser, Erin H.; Anderson, Alexandra M.; Heath, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    In wild birds, the proximate and ultimate factors that affect circulating carotenoid concentrations remain poorly understood. We studied variation in plasma carotenoid concentrations across several scales: annual, seasonal, pair, territory and individual, and evaluated whether carotenoid levels explained reproductive outcome of wild American kestrels (Falco sparverius). We sampled plasma carotenoid concentrations of 99 female and 80 male incubating kestrels from April-June in 2008–2012. Plasma carotenoid concentrations were explained by an interaction between year and sex, date, and random effects for pair and individual identity. In general, plasma carotenoid concentrations of males were significantly higher than females, but this depended on year. Within a breeding season, earlier nesting kestrels had higher carotenoid concentrations than later nesting kestrels, a pattern that is coincident with seasonal trends in local fitness. Pair and individual identity explained variation in carotenoid concentrations suggesting that carotenoid concentrations of mated birds were correlated, and some individuals consistently maintained higher carotenoid levels than others. Male carotenoid concentrations were positively associated with number of young fledged per pair. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that higher quality individuals have higher carotenoid levels compared to lower quality individuals, despite annual variations in carotenoid availability. PMID:27041770

  8. The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242) on thyroxine, estradiol, molt, and plumage characteristics in the American kestrel (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Michael J; French, John B; McNabb, F M Anne; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of Aroclor 1242, a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on plumage characteristics and molt in the American kestrel, Falco sparverius. Several characteristics of plumage, including color and molt schedule, are modulated by hormonal signals and hence may be modified by endocrine-active contaminants. If so, the functions of plumage (e.g., communication for mating or territorial defense) may be compromised by exposure to such compounds. Captive American kestrels were fed Aroclor 1242 at 0, 6.0, and 60.0 ppm (n = 6 males and 6 females per treatment) mixed in their normal diet. Concentrations of plasma estradiol and thyroxine were measured weekly from the beginning of treatment. Measured plumage characteristics included width of the black subterminal band on the tail, color (a composite index of hue and saturation), reflectance from 230 to 800 nm. pattern of feather loss and regrowth on the tail and wing, and timing of onset and duration of molt. Aroclor 1242 depressed plasma thyroxine. Plasma estradiol levels remained low due to the phase of the breeding cycle. Treatments did not disrupt the measured plumage characteristics. This may be due to timing or dose of exposure or to genetic factors.

  9. The effects of neonatal handling on adrenocortical responsiveness, morphological development and corticosterone binding globulin in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Buddy A; Breuner, Creagh W; Dufty, Alfred M

    2011-06-01

    Early developmental experiences play an important role in development of the adult phenotype. We investigated the effects of neonatal handling on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in a free-living avian species, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). In the handled group (H), kestrel chicks were handled for 15 min/day from hatching until 26 days of age, after which time blood samples were collected for analysis of adrenal responsiveness and corticosterone binding globulin (CBG) levels. The non-handled control group (NH) was left undisturbed until 26 days of age when blood samples were collected and analyzed as above. Handled and NH kestrels did not differ in body condition index. Both total corticosterone (CORT) and CBG capacity were dampened significantly in H kestrels. However, free CORT did not differ between the two groups. In addition, hormone challenges of corticotropin releasing factor and adrenocorticotropin hormone were compared to saline injections to determine if the pituitary or the adrenal glands, respectively, were rendered more or less sensitive by handling. There was no difference in the responsiveness of H and NH kestrels to either hormone challenge. It is clear from these data that handling had an affect on fledgling phenotypic development, although whether the effects are permanent or ephemeral is unknown. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE in eggs and their impacts on aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis) from Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, M A; Baxter, C; Sericano, J L; Montoya, A B; Gallardo, J C; Rodríguez-Salazar, J R

    2011-12-01

    Eggs from aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) nesting in Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs. p,p'-DDE was the only organochlorine found in all eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 7.85 μg/g wet weight. PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.80 μg/g wet weight and PBDEs from 62 to 798 ng/g lipid weight. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly different among regions; however, PCBs were significantly greater (P = 0.015) in Tinaja Verde, Chihuahua than in the other three regions. Also, PBDEs were significantly higher (P Chihuahua. DDE concentrations in eggs were much lower than those associated with eggshell thinning. PBDEs and PCBs were lower than those reported in raptors from industrialized countries. Overall, contaminant concentrations observed suggest no likely impact on hatching success. The PBDE concentrations are among the first to be reported in raptor species in Mexico. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. First description of autumn migration of Sooty Falcon Falco concolor from the United Arab Emirates to Madagascar using satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Sàlim; Douglas, David C.; Khan, Shahid Noor; Nazeer Shah, Junid; Ali Al Hammadi, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The movement and migration pattern of the 'Near Threatened' Sooty Falcon Falco concolor is poorly known. Sooty Falcons breed on the islands of the Arabian Gulf after arriving from their non-breeding areas that are mainly in Madagascar. In the first satellite tracking of the species we fitted a 9.5 g Argos solar powered transmitter on an adult breeding Sooty Falcon off the western coast of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The bird successfully undertook autumn migration to Madagascar, a known wintering area for the species. We document the Sooty Falcon's autumn migration route and stop-over sites. The adult Sooty Falcon initiated its migration at night and with tailwinds, and travelled mainly during daytime hours for 13 days over an inland route of more than 5,656 km. The three stop-over sites in East Africa were characterised by moderate to sparse shrub cover associated with potential sources of water. We discuss the migration pattern of the tracked bird in relation to importance of non-breeding areas for Sooty Falcons and recent declines in numbers in their breeding range.

  12. Genetic relationships among some subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus L.), inferred from mitochondrial DNA control-region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Clayton M.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sage, George K.; Anderson, Clifford; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to successfully colonize and persist in diverse environments likely requires broad morphological and behavioral plasticity and adaptability, and this may partly explain why the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) exhibits a large range of morphological characteristics across their global distribution. Regional and local differences within Peregrine Falcons were sufficiently variable that ∼75 subspecies have been described; many were subsumed, and currently 19 are generally recognized. We used sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial genome to test for concordance between genetic structure and representatives of 12 current subspecies and from two areas where subspecies distributions overlap. Haplotypes were broadly shared among subspecies, and all geographic locales shared a widely distributed common haplotype (FalconCR2). Haplotypes were distributed in a star-like phylogeny, consistent with rapid expansion of a recently derived species, with observed genetic patterns congruent with incomplete lineage sorting and/or differential rates of evolution on morphology and neutral genetic characters. Hierarchical analyses of molecular variance did not uncover genetic partitioning at the continental level, despite strong population-level structure (FST = 0.228). Similar analyses found weak partitioning, albeit significant, among subspecies (FCT = 0.138). All reconstructions placed the hierofalcons' (Gyrfalcon [F. rusticolus] and Saker Falcon [F. cherrug]) haplotypes in a well-supported clade either basal or unresolved with respect to the Peregrine Falcon. In addition, haplotypes representing Taita Falcon (F. fasciinucha) were placed within the Peregrine Falcon clade.

  13. Foraging opportunism and feeding frequency in the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus in Slovakia: case study from 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavko Jozef

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Foraging opportunism and feeding frequency are less studied parameters of behaviour in insectivorous falcons, many of which are endangered bird species. In this short study, prey composition and feeding frequency of red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus nestlings were studied using the method of camera recordings during seven days in July 2017 in southwestern Slovakia. Camera recording analyses of 2–3 chicks (14–26 days old in three nests revealed a significant preference for insects (97%, n = 305 prey items, of which the Italian locust (Calliptamus italicus was highly predominant (54%. We also found very high average chick feeding frequency (9.9 feedings per hour, n = 29 hours 22 min of regular observations, whereby the females fed their young ones more frequently (64.9%, n = 305 feedings than the males (35.1%. Analyses of food composition in adverse weather conditions showed that unfavourable weather had a negative effect on chick feeding frequency, and in rainy weather the males fed significantly less than the females.

  14. Heavy metal and other residues in feathers of laggar falcon Falco biarmicus jugger from six districts of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movalli, P A

    2000-08-01

    This paper presents the levels of metals and other trace elements measured in feathers of laggar falcons, Falco biarmicus jugger, in Pakistan. The laggar falcon is resident or locally migrant throughout the Indian Subcontinent where it is a rare and declining species. Breast feathers from 57 live, recently trapped, adult and juvenile laggar falcons and from five dead birds were collected from Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar, Mithi, Chachcro, Jacobabad and Karachi districts. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), cobalt (Co), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), scandium (Sc), chromium (Cr), cesium (Cs), lanthanum (La) and bromine (Br) by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Hg levels were below those found in other raptors with reduced reproductive success. No correlation was found between Hg and Se levels. For some metals and elements interpretation of results is difficult as no data exist in the literature. Concentrations did not differ significantly between males and females nor between juveniles and adults, but differed among districts for Pb, Hg, Co, Sc, Cr, La and Br. A significant correlation was found between Pb concentration and occurrence of louse eggs. As the laggar is resident or a partial local migrant, it is probable that the metal burden in adult and juvenile feathers reflects the level of contamination in these particular districts.

  15. Organochlorine and heavy metal contamination in non-viable eggs and its relation to breeding success in a Spanish population of Lesser Kestrels (Falco naumanni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, J J; Donázar, J A; Hiraldo, F; Hernández, L M; Fernández, M A

    1993-01-01

    Residues of organochlorines, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and heavy metals (mercury, cadmium, lead, copper and zinc) were measured in unhatched eggs of Lesser Kestrels (Falco naumanni) collected in southern Spain in 1988-1991. Although contaminants were detected in all eggs, the amounts were generally below levels known to have negative effects on reproduction. This is consistent with the relatively high hatching rate (about 80%) in the studied population. The nestling mortality was severe, however, apparently due to starvation. It cannot be discounted that pesticides had an indirect effect on the kestrel's breeding success by reducing the populations of prey.

  16. Changes in the growth, but not the survival, of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Laird Shutt, J; Ritchie, Ian J; Letcher, Robert J; Drouillard, Ken; Bird, David M

    2006-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) concentrations are increasing exponentially in biota. We studied the growth of American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings exposed in ovo and during development to environmentally relevant PBDE congeners and concentrations. Eggs within each clutch, divided between groups by laying sequence, were injected into the air cell at 19 days of incubation with safflower oil or penta-BDE congeners BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153 dissolved in safflower oil (18.7 microg total sigmaPBDEs/egg), approximating current levels in Great Lakes herring gulls. The measured proportions of BDE congeners found in the dosing oil were 56.4% of BDE-47; 27.2% of BDE-99; 24.8% of BDE-100; and 0.6% of BDE-153. For 29 days, nestlings were orally gavaged daily with the same sigmaPBDE mixture (15.6 +/- 0.3 ng/g body weight/day). Relative congener abundances in the dosing mixture compared to the carcasses suggest biotransformation of BDE-47; BDE-183 was also detected. PBDE exposure did not affect hatching or fledging success. PBDE-exposed nestlings were larger (weight, bones, feathers) as they gained weight more quickly and ate more food, the latter in association with their SigmaPBDE body burdens. BDE-100 was most influential on nestling growth, being positively associated with size, weight gain, and food consumption. Increasing concentrations of BDE-183 and -153 were related to longer bones, and BDE-99 to longer feathers. The larger size of the PBDE-exposed birds may be detrimental to their bone structure and have excessive energetic costs. The repeated relationships with BDE-100 and growth may be important for wild Falconidae, since this is the predominant penta-BDE congener in these raptors.

  17. Comparative embryotoxicity of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture to common terns (Sterna hirundo) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Heinz, Gary H; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Schultz, Sandra L; Hale, Robert C

    2013-09-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs from San Francisco Bay have been reported to range up to 63μgg(-1) lipid weight. This value exceeds the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (1.8μgg(-1) egg wet weight; ∼32μg(-1) lipid weight) reported in an embryotoxicity study with American kestrels (Falco sparverius). As a surrogate for Forster's terns, common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs were treated by air cell injection with corn oil vehicle (control) or a commercial penta-BDE formulation (DE-71) at nominal concentrations of 0.2, 2, and 20μgg(-1) egg. As a positive control, kestrel eggs received vehicle or 20μg DE-71g(-1) egg. In terns, there were no effects of DE-71 on embryonic survival, and pipping or hatching success; however, treated eggs hatched later (0.44d) than controls. Organ weights, organ-to-body weight ratios, and bone lengths did not differ, and histopathological observations were unremarkable. Several measures of hepatic oxidative stress in hatchling terns were not affected by DE-71, although there was some evidence of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine; 8-OH-dG). Although DE-71 did not impair pipping and hatching of kestrels, it did result in a delay in hatch, shorter humerus length, and reduced total thyroid weight. Concentrations of oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and 8-OH-dG in liver were greater in DE-71-treated kestrels compared to controls. Our findings suggest common tern embryos, and perhaps other tern species, are less sensitive to PBDEs than kestrel embryos. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Diet exposure to technical hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) affects testes and circulating testosterone and thyroxine levels in American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Kimmins, Sarah; Letcher, Robert J; Palace, Vince P; Bird, David M; Ritchie, Ian J; Fernie, Kim J

    2011-11-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a high-production-volume, brominated flame-retardant that is used in items such as polystyrene foams. HBCD has been detected in the environment, wildlife tissues and in humans globally with some of the highest recorded levels in predatory birds. This study examined the effects of exposure to environmentally relevant levels of HBCD on the reproductive physiology of captive male American kestrels (Falco sparverius), a predatory bird. Two sets of males were used: one group not housed with females (unpaired: nc=12, nHBCD=10) and the second group housed with females (breeding: nc=10, nHBCD=20). All treatment birds were exposed to 0.51 μg HBCD/g kestrel/day technical HBCD, and controls to safflower oil only, injected into their food during seasonal testicular development. Unpaired males were exposed for 3 weeks and euthanized for testicular analysis. Breeding males were exposed for 3 weeks prior to pairing and throughout the courtship period. The HBCD-exposed unpaired males had heavier testes (p≤0.017) and a trend towards more seminiferous tubules containing elongated spermatids (p=0.052). There was also a moderate increase in plasma testosterone concentrations (p=0.056) compared to controls. In breeding males, testosterone levels increased during courtship to culminate in higher levels than controls by the time the first egg was laid (p=0.010) and circulating free and total T4 was reduced throughout. The number of sperm cells reaching the perivitelline layer of the first egg for breeding males did not differ between the two groups. This study is the first report that HBCD exposure at environmentally relevant levels alters reproductive physiology in male birds and suggests that birds may be more sensitive to HBCD than mammals. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variation in migratory behavior influences regional genetic diversity and structure among American Kestrel populations (Falco sparverius) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P; Mullins, Thomas D; Parrish, John W; Walters, Jeffrey R; Haig, Susan M

    2012-07-01

    Birds employ numerous strategies to cope with seasonal fluctuations in high-quality habitat availability. Long distance migration is a common tactic; however, partial migration is especially common among broadly distributed species. Under partial migration systems, a portion of a species migrates, whereas the remainder inhabits breeding grounds year round. In this study, we identified effects of migratory behavior variation on genetic structure and diversity of American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), a widespread partial migrant in North America. American Kestrels generally migrate; however, a resident group inhabits the southeastern United States year round. The southeastern group is designated as a separate subspecies (F. s. paulus) from the migratory group (F. s. sparverius). Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites from 183 and 211 individuals, respectively, we illustrate that genetic structure is stronger among nonmigratory populations, with differentiation measures ranging from 0.060 to 0.189 depending on genetic marker and analysis approach. In contrast, measures from western North American populations ranged from 0 to 0.032. These findings suggest that seasonal migratory behavior is also associated with natal and breeding dispersal tendencies. We likewise detected significantly lower genetic diversity within nonmigratory populations, reflecting the greater influence of genetic drift in small populations. We identified the signal of population expansion among nonmigratory populations, consistent with the recent establishment of higher latitude breeding locations following Pleistocene glacial retreat. Differentiation of F. s. paulus and F. s. sparverius reflected subtle differences in allele frequencies. Because migratory behavior can evolve quickly, our analyses suggest recent origins of migratory American Kestrel populations in North America.

  20. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of 61 polychlorinated biphenyl and four polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in juvenile American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillard, Ken G; Fernie, Kimberly J; Letcher, Robert J; Shutt, Laird J; Whitehead, Megan; Gebink, Wouter; Bird, David M

    2007-02-01

    This study examined the bioaccumulation and dietary retention of 61 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and four polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in juvenile American kestrels (Falco sparverius). American kestrels were exposed to contaminants via egg injection and daily gavage dosing over the posthatch-to-fledgling period. Retention factors for PCBs were dependent on chemical hydrophobicity and chlorine substitution patterns and ranged from less than 1 to 16.4% for PCBs having vicinal hydrogen substitutions at meta-, para- carbons on at least one of the phenyl rings and between 13.2 and 81.5% for congeners containing chlorine substitutions at 4,4'-, 3',4,5'-, 3,4',5-, or 3,3',5,5'-positions. These results indicate that juveniles are capable of biotransforming PCBs according to the same structure-activity rules as adults. A toxicokinetic model, initially parameterized using adult toxicokinetic parameters, was used to describe concentration trends in juveniles over time. The adult model overestimated PCB concentrations but provided an adequate fit when elimination rate constants were increased by a factor of 12.7. Retention factors for the PBDE congeners 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47), 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 100), 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 99), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 153) were from 7.8 to 45.3% of the total dose. The retention of BDE 47 was similar that observed for readily cleared PCBs, whereas the remaining PBDEs exhibited retention factors consistent with those of persistent PCBs. Half-lives for PBDEs in juveniles were estimated to range from 5.6 to 44.7 d. Assuming differences in PBDE toxicokinetics between juveniles and adults similar to those measured for PCBs, adult American kestrel PBDE half-lives are expected to range from 72 to 572 d.

  1. Comparative embryotoxicity of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture to common terns (Sterna hirundo) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Heinz, Gary H.; Karouna-Reiner, Natalie K.; Schultz, Sandra L.; Hale, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs from San Francisco Bay have been reported to range up to 63 μg g−1 lipid weight. This value exceeds the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (1.8 μg g−1 egg wet weight; ∼32 μg−1 lipid weight) reported in an embryotoxicity study with American kestrels (Falco sparverius). As a surrogate for Forster’s terns, common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs were treated by air cell injection with corn oil vehicle (control) or a commercial penta-BDE formulation (DE-71) at nominal concentrations of 0.2, 2, and 20 μg g−1 egg. As a positive control, kestrel eggs received vehicle or 20 μg DE-71 g−1 egg. In terns, there were no effects of DE-71 on embryonic survival, and pipping or hatching success; however, treated eggs hatched later (0.44 d) than controls. Organ weights, organ-to-body weight ratios, and bone lengths did not differ, and histopathological observations were unremarkable. Several measures of hepatic oxidative stress in hatchling terns were not affected by DE-71, although there was some evidence of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine; 8-OH-dG). Although DE-71 did not impair pipping and hatching of kestrels, it did result in a delay in hatch, shorter humerus length, and reduced total thyroid weight. Concentrations of oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and 8-OH-dG in liver were greater in DE-71-treated kestrels compared to controls. Our findings suggest common tern embryos, and perhaps other tern species, are less sensitive to PBDEs than kestrel embryos.

  2. Spatio-temporal trends in the predation of large gulls by peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus in an insular breeding population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Luke J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual diet specialization occurs in many populations of generalist predators, with specific individuals developing specialist strategies in their feeding behaviour. Intraspecific resource partitioning is hypothesised to be common amongst species in higher trophic levels where competition for resources is intense, and a key driver in breeding success and community structure. Though well-studied in other predators, there is sparse data on ecological specialization in raptors, which are important drivers of community and trophic structure. In this study, the breeding season diet of an insular population of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus was determined from indirect analysis of prey remains collected over three years. An unexpected result was the high proportion of large gulls (Laridae, of the genus Larus, in the diet of two breeding pairs of peregrines. Large gulls made up 18.44% by frequency of total prey recorded and 30.81% by biomass. Herring gulls (Larus argentatus were the most common large gull prey, with immatures most frequent (67.95% compared to adults (19.23%. Overall, most gulls predated were immatures (80.77%. Frequency of predation varied between breeding pairs and months, but was consistent over the three years. Most gulls were taken in April (37.17%, followed by May (19.23%, with a smaller peak of immature herring gulls taken in August and September. The pattern of regular predation by peregrines on large gulls is a new observation with important implications for understanding individual diet specialization in raptors, and its effect on bird populations and community structure.

  3. Variation in migratory behavior influences regional genetic diversity and structure among American kestrel populations (Falco sparverius) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Parrish, John G.; Walters, Jeffrey R.; Haig, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Birds employ numerous strategies to cope with seasonal fluctuations in high-quality habitat availability. Long distance migration is a common tactic; however, partial migration is especially common among broadly distributed species. Under partial migration systems, a portion of a species migrates, whereas the remainder inhabits breeding grounds year round. In this study, we identified effects of migratory behavior variation on genetic structure and diversity of American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), a widespread partial migrant in North America. American Kestrels generally migrate; however, a resident group inhabits the southeastern United States year round. The southeastern group is designated as a separate subspecies (F. s. paulus) from the migratory group (F. s. sparverius). Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites from 183 and 211 individuals, respectively, we illustrate that genetic structure is stronger among nonmigratory populations, with differentiation measures ranging from 0.060 to 0.189 depending on genetic marker and analysis approach. In contrast, measures from western North American populations ranged from 0 to 0.032. These findings suggest that seasonal migratory behavior is also associated with natal and breeding dispersal tendencies. We likewise detected significantly lower genetic diversity within nonmigratory populations, reflecting the greater influence of genetic drift in small populations. We identified the signal of population expansion among nonmigratory populations, consistent with the recent establishment of higher latitude breeding locations following Pleistocene glacial retreat. Differentiation of F. s. paulus and F. s. sparverius reflected subtle differences in allele frequencies. Because migratory behavior can evolve quickly, our analyses suggest recent origins of migratory American Kestrel populations in North America.

  4. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE in eggs and their impacts on aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis) from Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, M.A., E-mail: mmora@tamu.edu [Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-2258 (United States); Baxter, C. [Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-2258 (United States); Sericano, J.L. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Montoya, A.B. [The Peregrine Fund, Inc, Boise, ID 83709 (United States); Gallardo, J.C. [Instituto de Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz 91190 (Mexico); Rodriguez-Salazar, J.R. [The Peregrine Fund, Inc, Boise, ID 83709 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Eggs from aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) nesting in Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs. p,p'-DDE was the only organochlorine found in all eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 7.85 {mu}g/g wet weight. PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.80 {mu}g/g wet weight and PBDEs from 62 to 798 ng/g lipid weight. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly different among regions; however, PCBs were significantly greater (P = 0.015) in Tinaja Verde, Chihuahua than in the other three regions. Also, PBDEs were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in eggs from Veracruz than in those from Chihuahua. DDE concentrations in eggs were much lower than those associated with eggshell thinning. PBDEs and PCBs were lower than those reported in raptors from industrialized countries. Overall, contaminant concentrations observed suggest no likely impact on hatching success. The PBDE concentrations are among the first to be reported in raptor species in Mexico. - Highlights: > We analyzed environmental contaminants in eggs of aplomado falcons from Mexico. > Of all the organochlorine pesticides, only p,p'-DDE was detected in all the eggs. > Eggshell thickness was 20% thicker than the reported in eggshells from the 1970s. > Total PCBs and PBDEs were lower than those reported in industrialized countries. > Aplomado falcons in Mexico are currently not affected by DDE, PCBs, or PBDEs. - PBDEs, PCBs, and p,p'-DDE were not elevated in eggs and not likely to impact aplomado falcons in eastern and northern Mexico.

  5. Food supply (Orthoptera, Mantodea, Rodentia and Eulipotyphla and food preferences of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krištín Anton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Food supply in the nesting territories of species has a key role to the species diet composition and their breeding success. Red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus preys predominantly on larger insect species with a supplementary portion of smaller vertebrates. In the breeding periods 2014 and 2016 their food supply, focusing on Orthoptera, Mantodea, Rodentia and Eulipotyphla, was analysed at five historical nesting sites of the species in Slovakia. Preference for these prey groups in the diet was also studied at the last active nesting site in this country. Overall we recorded 45 Orthoptera species (of which 23 species are known as the food of the red-footed falcon, one species of Mantodea, 10 species of Rodentia (of which 2 species are known as the food of the red-footed falcon and 5 species of the Eulipotyphla order in the food supply. With regard to the availability of the falcons' preferred food, in both years the most suitable was the Tvrdošovce site, which continuously showed the greatest range and abundance of particular species. In the interannual comparison the insects showed lower variability in abundance than the small mammals. In 2014 the growth of the common vole (Microtus arvalis population culminated and with the exception of a single site (Bodza a slump in abundance was recorded in 2016. In comparing the diet composition with the food supply at the last Slovak breeding site Rusovce (Special Protection Area Sysľovské polia, we recorded significant preference for grasshopper Caliptamus italicus (in 2014, common vole (in 2016 and cricket Tettigonia viridissima (in both years in the falcons' diet. They did not prey on the Apodemus sylvaticus species belonging among the abundant small mammal species in that locality. Conservation measures in the agricultural landscape are discussed in relation to homogeneous red-footed falcon breeding territories.

  6. Genetic favouring of pheomelanin-based pigmentation limits physiological benefits of coloniality in lesser kestrels Falco naumanni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Moraleda, Virginia; Otero, Ignacio; Álvarez, Ernesto; Inácio, Ângela

    2017-10-01

    Pheomelanin contributes to the pigmentation phenotype of animals by producing orange and light brown colours in the integument. However, pheomelanin synthesis in melanocytes requires consumption of glutathione (GSH), the most important intracellular antioxidant. Therefore, a genetic control favouring the production of large amounts of pheomelanin for pigmentation may lead to physiological costs under environmental conditions that promote oxidative stress. We investigated this possibility in the context of breeding coloniality, a reproductive strategy that may affect oxidative stress. We found in lesser kestrel Falco naumanni nestlings that the GSH:GSSG ratio, which decreases with systemic oxidative stress, increased with the size of the colony where they were reared, but the expression in feather melanocytes of five genes involved in pheomelanin synthesis (Slc7a11, Slc45a2, CTNS, MC1R and AGRP) did not vary with colony size. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of lesser kestrel nestlings also increased with colony size, but in a manner that depended on Slc7a11 expression and not on the expression of the other genes. Thus, antioxidant capacity increased with colony size only in nestlings least expressing Slc7a11, a gene with a known role in mediating cysteine (a constituent amino acid of GSH) consumption for pheomelanin production. The main predictor of the intensity of pheomelanin-based feather colour was Slc45a2 expression followed in importance by Slc7a11 expression, hence suggesting that the genetic regulation of the pigmentation phenotype mediated by Slc7a11 and a lack of epigenetic lability in this gene limits birds from benefiting from the physiological benefits of coloniality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Factors influencing liver PCB concentrations in sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) and herons (Ardea cinerea) in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wienburg, Claire L.; Shore, Richard F

    2004-11-01

    Large scale temporal and spatial changes in the exposure of terrestrial vertebrates to PCBs have been monitored in the UK by measuring liver residues in sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) and grey herons (Ardea cinerea) from throughout the country. Residues in the three species are typically characterised by large intra- and inter-specific variation. Data for 306 sparrowhawks, 186 kestrels and 47 herons collected between 1992 and 1997 as part of a national Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme were examined to determine how much of this variation was explained by body condition, age and sex, rather than other factors. In all three species, body condition was the single most important factor and accounted for up to 49% of the variation in PCB liver residues; starved birds had the highest liver concentrations. Age and sex were also significant but of lesser importance. Adult sparrowhawks and kestrels had liver PCB residues that were 2 to 10-fold higher than in first-year birds. Sex did not affect residue magnitude in a consistent manner. PCB concentrations in the liver were higher in males than females in both first-year and adult kestrels and in first-year sparrowhawks, but adult female sparrowhawks had similar PCB residues to adult males. Liver residues also varied seasonally. PCB concentrations in first-year sparrowhawks increased during the first year following fledging and a similar pattern was detected in adult female sparrowhawks following egg laying. When these physiological factors were taken into account, it was evident that while kestrels with high fat scores had significantly lower PCB concentrations than either sparrowhawks or herons, liver residues were similar in all three species when birds were in a starved condition. Overall during 1992-1997, the combined influence of body condition, age and sex explained more of the variation in liver PCB concentrations than species differences or other factors, such as geographical variation

  8. Pharmacokinetics of a Sustained Release Formulation of Buprenorphine After Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Administration to American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Knych, Heather K; Olsen, Glenn H; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have validated the clinical use of opioids with μ-receptor affinities for pain management in raptors. Buprenorphine appears to have a longer duration of action and minimal adverse effects when compared to other opioids in American kestrels ( Falco sparverius ). To determine the pharmacokinetics of a sustained release formulation of buprenorphine in kestrels, we administered a commercially available product (Buprenorphine SR-LAB; Wildlife Pharmaceuticals, Windsor, CO, USA) intramuscularly and subcutaneously to adult kestrels in a partial-crossover experimental design study. A total of 12 birds (6 males and 6 females) were assigned randomly to 3 groups of 4 birds each. A single dose of Buprenorphine SR-LAB (1.8 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly (IM), and blood samples were collected at 0.25, 3, and 24 hours (n = 4); 1, 6, and 48 hours (n = 4); and 2, 12, and 72 hours (n = 4) after drug administration. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were measured by tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by use of least squares linear regression and noncompartmental analysis of naïve pooled data. After 1 year, the same dose of buprenorphine was administered subcutaneously (SC) to 12 birds divided into 3 groups as previously, and blood samples were collected at the same times after drug administration. Maximum plasma buprenorphine concentration was measured at 15 minutes after IM and SC administration. Mean plasma buprenorphine concentrations were >1 ng/mL for 48 hours after IM and SC administration. The elimination half-life was 13.5 and 11.1 hours for IM and SC administration, respectively. Depending on the severity and type of pain, adjunctive therapy, and the individual response, Buprenorphine SR-LAB administered at 1.8 mg/kg IM or SC to American kestrels would require administration every 12 to 72 hours to manage pain. Further pharmacodynamic and clinical evaluations are warranted in kestrels and

  9. Morphological and molecular genetic analysis of Synhimantus (Synhimantus laticeps (Rudolphi, 1819 (Nematoda, Acuariidae from the barn owl (Tyto alba and the common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebmer D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the biodiversity initiative and barcoding project “Austrian Barcode of Life” (ABOL post mortem examinations of the gastro-intestinal tracts of different species of wild birds were carried out and several adult helminths were retrieved. In the gizzard of two barn owls (Tyto alba and one common kestrel (Falco tinnuculus acuariid nematodes belonging to the species Synhimantus (Synhimantus laticeps (Rudolphi, 1819 were discovered. This report illustrates the identification of this parasitic nematode by morphometric comparison and scanning electron microscopic photographs. Furthermore, genetic identification of individual parasites based on a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene and the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene was carried out. This report constitutes the first COI-based DNA barcoding of S. (S. laticeps and its first record in the barn owl (Tyto alba in Austria.

  10. American kestrel (Falco spaverius) fledgling with severe bilateral periorbital swelling and infection with Mycoplasma buteonis, Avibacterium (Pasteurella) gallinarum, and Staphylococcus pasteuri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezjian, Marisa; Bezjian, Marisa

    2014-06-01

    Abstract: A female American kestrel (Falco spaverius) fledgling was found on the ground with a suspected trauma to the right eye and open-mouth breathing. During the first 2 days of hospitalization, the bird developed severe bilateral periorbital cellulitis, blepharoedema, and sinusitis. The periocular tissues of the right globe were devitalized and communicated with a fistula at the commissure of the right side of the beak. The blepharoedema of the left eye was aspirated and yielded a dark colored malodorous fluid, which was submitted for aerobic bacterial and Mycoplasma cultures. Results showed a mixed infection with Mycoplasma buteonis, Avibacterium gallinarum, and Staphylococcus pasteuri, all of which are not commonly isolated from birds of prey. With antimicrobial therapy, supportive care, and surgical debridement of the right periocular necrotic tissues and adhesed phthisical globe, the kestrel recovered from this severe mixed upper respiratory infection.

  11. Histological analysis of the eyeball of Neotropical birds of prey Caracara plancus, Falco sparverius, Rupornis magnirostris, Megascops choliba and Athene cunicularia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Galdino Pinto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of ophthalmic examination as a screening tool in birds intended for reintroduction into natural environments over the last few years has given renewed significance to avian ophthalmology in the context of free-ranging and captive bird conservation. The eye plays a vital role in prey detection and capture by birds of prey. The remarkable eyesight of such birds makes them interesting subjects for avian visual system anatomical and histological investigation. This study set out to describe histological features of the eyeball of ubiquitous birds of prey in Brazil (Falconiformes, Accipitriformes and Strigiformes. Twenty enucleated cadaveric eyeballs obtained from birds with natural death, Caracara plancus, Falco sparverius, Rupornis magnirostris, Megascops choliba and Athene cunicularia were used. Routinely prepared histological slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin were analyzed under light microscopy. Similarities and variations in ocular structures between the different bird species studied were highlighted in this study, with major differences concerning the lens and retina. This study highlights the importance of determining the ocular histological pattern of the species so they can be better understood. These results may well assign baseline information of the species and assist in eye histopathological diagnostics.

  12. Occipital bi-transtentorial/falcine approach for falcotentorial meningioma: case report Acesso occipital bitranstentorial-falcino para abordagem de meningioma falco-tentorial: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Gusmão

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Lesions located in the bilateral posterior incisural space are difficult to treat due to limited exposure. The classical approaches to this area are limited for lesions located bilaterally and especially when the lesion extends also below the tentorium as it may occur with meningiomas. Kawashima et al. reported, in anatomic studies, a new occipital transtentorial approach: the occipital bi-transtentorial/falcine approach, to treat such lesions. We present a patient with a large falcotentorial meningioma, located bilaterally in the posterior incisural space. The occipital bi-transtentorial/falcine approach allowed an excellent surgical exposure and complete tumor removal with an excellent patient outcome.Grandes lesões que ocupam bilateralmente o espaço incisural posterior são de difícil abordagem cirúrgica pelos acessos clássicos. Recentemente, Kawashima et al. descreveram, em peças anatômicas, uma modificação do acesso occipital transtentorial, o acesso occipital bitranstentorial-falcino, para abordagem de grandes lesões que ocupam bilateralmente o espaço incisural posterior. Retata-se um caso de grande meningioma falco-tentorial que ocupava o espaço incisural posterior bilateralmente. O acesso occipital bitranstentorial-falcino permitiu exérese completa da lesão sem déficit no pós-operatório.

  13. Unusual clockwise loop migration lengthens travel distances and increases potential risks for a central Asian, long distance, trans-equatorial migrant, the Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E.; Bragin, Evgeny A.; Bragin, Alexander E.; McGrady, Michael J.; Miller, Tricia A.; Bildstein, Keith L.

    2016-01-01

    Capsule: Red-footed Falcons Falco vespertinus migrating from northern Kazakhstan proceed west before heading south to Africa; their northbound travel follows a different route with passage close to shooting hotspots in the Mediterranean.Aim: To use tracking and ringing data to document for the first time the migration of globally threatened Red-footed Falcons from northern Kazakhstan.Methods: Light-level geolocators were deployed on breeding adults in Kazakhstan and recovered one year later. Ringing and observational data from more than 100 years of Russian-language and other literature were summarized and mapped alongside the geolocator data.Results: Geolocator, ringing and observational data together demonstrate that Red-footed Falcons from northern Kazakhstan have a clockwise loop migration that begins with a long and unusual westward trek around eastern Europe’s large inland seas before continuing to extreme southern Africa. Return migration is farther west and requires crossing two major migratory barriers: the Sahara and the Mediterranean.Conclusion: The loop migration we describe requires an extensive longitudinal movement, exposes central Asian Red-footed Falcons to multiple desert, mountain and marine crossings, and, at outbound and return Mediterranean bottlenecks, crosses sites where raptor shooting is common.

  14. Description and molecular characterization of a new Leucocytozoon parasite (Haemosporida: Leucocytozoidae), Leucocytozoon californicus sp. nov., found in American kestrels (Falco sparverius sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Erika; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Wommack, Elizabeth A; Bowie, Rauri C K; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2016-05-01

    Diurnal raptors in the order Accipitriformes are commonly parasitized with Leucocytozoon spp., and the prevalence and intensity of parasitemia are often high. However, for raptors in Falconiformes, several studies have reported relatively low prevalences (1 % or less) of Leucocytozoon spp. Leucocytozoon parasite pathogenicity has been documented in falcons, but little is known about the diversity, prevalence, and phylogenetic relationships among Leucocytozoon species in these predatory birds. The research reported here combines molecular and microscopic techniques to identify and describe Leucocytozoon parasites in Falco sparverius sparverius, the American kestrel, and place those parasites into a phylogenetic context with leucocytozoids previously found in other diurnal raptors (Accipitriformes), owls (Strigiformes), passerines (Passeriformes), and other bird species. Of 35 American kestrels sampled, 13 birds (37.1 %) were found by PCR to harbor the DNA lineage of a novel species, Leucocytozoon californicus. No other Leucocytozoon parasite lineages were identified in our sample. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this parasite clusters more closely with leucocytozoids found in owls and passerines than it does with leucocytozoids found in birds of the genera Buteo and Accipiter of the order Accipitriformes. This is the first described species of Leucocytozoon that parasitizes diurnal raptors in which gametocytes develop exclusively in roundish host blood cells. It is also the first Leucocytozoon species that is described and named in birds of the Falconiformes, in which, for unclear reasons, leucocytozoids are significantly less prevalent and less diverse than in raptors with a similar behavioral ecology belonging to the Accipitriformes.

  15. The flame retardant β-1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane: fate, fertility, and reproductive success in American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Letcher, Robert J; Graham, Laura; Kimmins, Sarah; Tomy, Gregg; Palace, Vince P; Ritchie, Ian J; Gauthier, Lewis T; Bird, David M; Fernie, Kim J

    2012-08-07

    Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were exposed via diet during reproduction to an environmentally relevant concentration of β-1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (β-TBECH). The β-TBECH isomer was injected into the food source at a daily dosing concentration of 0.239 ng/g kestrel/day (22 pairs); control birds were exposed via diet to the safflower oil vehicle only (24 pairs). Eight pairs in each group were exposed for four weeks and sacrificed for tissue analysis; the remaining pairs completed their breeding cycle, with exposure ceasing at the end of incubation (82 days). α- and β-TBECH appeared to be rapidly metabolized and/or eliminated from fat, liver, and plasma; both isomers and potential hydroxylated metabolites of β-TBECH (plasma) were undetected. Notwithstanding, compared to controls, pairs exposed to β-TBECH laid fewer eggs (p = 0.019) and laid lighter eggs (successful eggs: p = 0.009). Exposed pairs also demonstrated poorer egg fertility (p = 0.035) although testis mass and histology were similar among males. Reductions in egg production and fertility resulted in decreased hatchling success (p = 0.023). The β-TBECH-exposed pairs also produced fewer males overall (p = 0.009), which occurred concurrently with increased estradiols maternally deposited in eggs (p = 0.039). These findings demonstrate that β-TBECH may be detrimental for breeding in wild birds receiving similar exposure levels.

  16. Observations of Red-headed Falcon Falco chicquera (Aves: Falconiformes: Falconidae nest at Keraniganj, Dhaka, Bangladesh, with a focus on post-fledging behavior

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    Mohammod Foysal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A nest of Red-headed Falcon Falco chicquera was observed in 2009, beginning with the onset of breeding and continuing on to the next breeding of the pair.  The nest was found on 02 March 2009 in an electricity pylon in a sub-urban area at Keraniganj, Dhaka, Bangladesh.  The incubation period was estimated at a minimum of four weeks and the nestling period was 37 days.  Fledglings remained in the nesting area up to four months after fledging.  The female almost exclusively fed the nestlings and fledglings.  The diet of adults, nestlings and fledglings consisted of 72% small birds (sparrow sized and 28% Pipistrellus bats (n = 112.  The diet of fledglings consisted of 61% birds and 39% bats (n= 72; before independence mainly birds and after independence mainly bats.  Parents delivered prey to fledglings up to 39 days after fledging (i.e., post-fledging dependence period was 39 days.  The fledgling’s flight pattern was distinguishable from the adults nearly two months after fledging.  The fledgling’s call reminiscent of a begging call was recorded up to 75 days after fledging. Food competition was observed among the fledglings; when one of the fledglings snatched prey from a parent, the other siblings tried to pilfer it.  The parents had resumed breeding eight months after the fledging stage of their offspring. 

  17. Uptake, distribution, depletion, and in ovo transfer of isomers of hexabromocyclododecane flame retardant in diet-exposed American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Robert J; Mattioli, Lisa C; Marteinson, Sarah C; Bird, David; Ritchie, Ian J; Fernie, Kim J

    2015-05-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a flame retardant and a global contaminant, yet the toxicokinetics of HBCDD diastereoisomers remains unknown in wildlife species. The present study examined in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) (diastereo) isomer-specific HBCDD uptake, depletion, tissue distribution, and transfer to eggs in a dietary dosing study with an HBCDD technical mixture (HBCDD-TM). Adult tissue and plasma collections were from separate cohorts of unpaired individual males (n = 10) and females (n = 10) exposed for 21 d to 800 ng/g wet weight of HBCDD-TM (in safflower oil and injected into their cockerel [brain] diet), followed by a 25-d depuration period. A separate cohort of 12 males only was used for control adult tissue and plasma collections. For egg collections, separate cohorts of 11 control pairs (n = 22 birds) and 20 HBCDD-exposed pairs (n = 40 birds) were allowed to breed, and their eggs were collected (n = 19 exposed eggs and n = 10 control eggs). The sum (Σ) HBCDD concentrations were near or below detection ( 0.05] between males and females). Arithmetic mean ΣHBCDD concentrations were highest in fat > eggs > liver > plasma. The mean ΣHBCDD depletion rate in plasma between the uptake and depuration periods was estimated to be 0.22 ng/g/d with a half-life of approximately 15 d. The γ-HBCDD diastereoisomer was >60% of the ΣHBCDD in plasma after the uptake period and similar to the HBCDD-TM (∼80%). After the depuration period, α-HBCDD was >70% of the HBCDD in plasma, fat, liver, and eggs; and this α-HBCDD domination indicated isomer-specific accumulation as a result of selective metabolism, uptake, protein binding, and/or in ovo transport. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (DE-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A; Rattner, Barnett A; Hale, Robert C; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2009-05-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 microg/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 microg/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 microg/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 microg/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 microg total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  19. Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): Changes in thyroid, vitamin A, glutathione homeostasis, and oxidative stress in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, K.J.; Shutt, J.L.; Mayne, G.; Hoffman, D.; Letcher, R.J.; Drouillard, K.G.; Ritchie, I.J.

    2005-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of additive flame retardants, are temporally increasing in wildlife tissues and capable of disrupting normal endocrine function. We determined whether in ovo and post-hatch exposure of captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to environmentally relevant PBDEs alter thyroid, retinol, and oxidative stress measures. Control eggs were injected with safflower oil and subsequent nestlings fed the same vehicle; dosed eggs received PBDE congeners (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153), which mainly comprise the Penta-BDE commercial mixture, dissolved in safflower oil at concentrations (1500 ng/g total [Sigma] PBDEs) approximating those in Great Lakes gull eggs. Nestlings hatching from dosed eggs were orally exposed for 29 days to variable Sigma PBDE concentrations that are similar to levels reported in tissues of Great Lakes trout (100 ng/g). Treatment kestrels had lower plasma thyroxine (T-4), plasma retinol, and hepatic retinol and retinyl palmitate concentrations, but unaltered triiodothyronine (T-3) concentrations and thyroid glandular structure. BDE-47, -100, and -99 were negatively associated with plasma T-4, plasma retinol (BDE-100, -99) and hepatic retinol (BDE-47). Despite an antioxidant-rich diet, PBDE exposure induced hepatic oxidative stress, particularly in females, with an increased hepatic GSSG:GSH ratio, a marginal increase in lipid peroxidation, and increased oxidized glutathione. Positive associations were found between concentrations of BDE-183 and thiols and, in males, between BDE-99 and reduced GSH, but a negative association occurred between BDE-99 and TBARS. Subsequently, concentrations of PBDE congeners in wild birds may alter thyroid hormone and vitamin A concentrations, glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress.

  20. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (de-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 mu g/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 mu g/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 mu g/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 mu g/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 mu g total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  1. Dietary exposure of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) flame retardant: uptake, distribution, debromination and cytochrome P450 enzyme induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Robert J; Marteinson, Sarah C; Fernie, Kim J

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation and evidence of debromination of the flame retardant 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) have been reported for biota, including raptorial birds, based on PBDE congener residues in tissues and eggs. However, in vivo studies with BDE-209-exposed birds are rare and unknown for a raptorial species. In the present study, males (n=22) of raptorial American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were exposed to 116,000ng of BDE-209 (high purity, >98%; in safflower oil) per day for 21days (~2,436,000ng total BDE-209 exposure over this uptake period), followed by a 25-day depuration period. Control males (n=11) received the safflower vehicle only. In the exposed birds, BDE-209 was quantifiable in all plasma (end of uptake and depuration period) as well as liver and fat (end of depuration only) samples. The mean (±SE) BDE-209 level in plasma was 1474±1145ng/g wet weight (ww) at the end of the uptake period, and was significantly (pkestrel tissues and plasma must be derived from BDE-209 debromination by the kestrels. Where quantifiable, lower brominated PBDE concentrations were significantly (0.023>p>0.001) higher in the exposed relative to the control bird samples (except for BDE-154 and -153 in fat). Additional PBDE congeners found in plasma included nona-BDEs (208, 207 and 206), followed by octa-BDEs (197, 196, 201 and 203), and in liver and/or fat, the hepta-BDEs 180 and 183 and BDE-153. Higher hepatic EROD activity (cytochrome P450 1A1 monooxygenase-mediation) in the exposed birds compared to control birds was strongly suggested to be PBDE-induced, and was consistent with BDE-209 and congener metabolism in the exposed kestrels. The mean EROD activity rate was 36.1pmol/min/mg protein relative to the (n=4) control birds whose activity was just above the detection limit (10.3pmol/min/mg protein). Overall, the results demonstrated that following diet exposure of kestrels to high purity BDE-209, uptake occurred as well as BDE-209 degradation via

  2. Sex-specific changes in thyroid gland function and circulating thyroid hormones in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following embryonic exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers by maternal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C

    2016-08-01

    High concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) accumulate in predatory birds. Several PBDE congeners are considered thyroid disruptors; however, avian studies are limited. The authors examined circulating thyroid hormones and thyroid gland function of nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) at 17 d to 20 d of age, following embryonic exposure by maternal transfer only to environmentally relevant levels of PBDEs (DE-71 technical mixture). Nestlings were exposed to in ovo sum (Σ) PBDE concentrations of 11 301 ± 95 ng/g wet weight (high exposure), 289 ± 33 ng/g wet weight (low exposure), or 3.0 ± 0.5 ng/g wet weight (controls, background exposure). Statistical comparisons are made to controls of the respective sexes and account for the relatedness of siblings within broods. Circulating concentrations of plasma total thyroxine (TT4 ) and total triiodothyronine (TT3 ) in female nestlings were significantly influenced overall by the exposure to DE-71. Following intramuscular administration of thyroid-stimulating hormone, the temporal response of the thyroid gland in producing and/or releasing TT4 was also significantly affected by the females' exposure to DE-71. The altered availability of T4 for conversion to T3 outside of the gland and/or changes in thyroid-related enzymatic activity may explain the lower TT3 concentrations (baseline, overall) and moderately altered temporal TT3 patterns (p = 0.06) of the treatment females. Controlling for the significant effect on TT3 levels of the delayed hatching of treatment females, baseline TT3 levels were significantly and positively correlated with body mass (10 d, 15 d, 20 d), with PBDE-exposed females generally being smaller and having lower TT3 concentrations. Given that exposure concentrations were environmentally relevant, similar thyroidal changes and associated thyroid-mediated processes relating to growth may also occur in wild female nestlings. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016

  3. Agricultural utilisation and potential suitability of the Sysľovské polia Special Protection Area (south-western Slovakia landscape in relation to the habitat requirements of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus

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    Zemko Martin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of land use in an agricultural landscape significantly affects biodiversity also in protected areas. This can be observed in the Sysľovské polia Special Protection Area in relation to the occurrence of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the landscape structure and suitability of agrotechnical procedures for the habitat demands of this species in the course of the period from 2004 until 2017. The utilisation was assessed on the basis of four landscape elements representation in 1949 and 2017. The next step was analysis of landscape patches. The aim was to quantify the diversity and the spatial structure of the landscape mosaic using Shannon’s Diversity Index and Evenness Index as well as Simpson’s Diversity Index and Evenness Index and spatial pattern analysis in the Fragstats software programme. Assessment of crop suitability was carried out according to the following criteria: representation of positive/negative agricultural crops, diversity of crops in crop rotation, and (non-observance of crop rotation. It was found that the agricultural landscape use did not change significantly. The study area has been used as an intensively-farmed agricultural landscape for a long time. The landscape elements have remained almost identical, with dominance of arable land. Differences emerged in the analysis of the micropatches, which are represented by natural hedgerows consisting of various species of trees, shrubs and grasses. The results show a decrease in the diversity of patches and changes in the structure of the landscape patches, which may be important in terms of the preservation of the habitat of fauna which form an important part of the F vespertinus diet. On the basis of the evaluation of the suitability of agricultural crop growing, we found that there were some areas showing negative values in all the criteria, and thus they require changes in the crop rotation focusing

  4. A retrospective survey into the presence of Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in archived tissue samples from New Zealand raptors: New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae), Australasian harriers (Circus approximans) and moreporks (Ninox novaeseelandiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, V; Burrows, E B; Gils, S; Hunter, S; Gartrell, B D; Howe, L

    2017-08-01

    Human colonisation of New Zealand has resulted in the introduction of emerging diseases, such as avian malaria and toxoplasmosis, which arrived with their exotic avian and mammalian hosts. Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii have a wide host range, and several species of endemic New Zealand birds have developed a fatal disease following infection with either pathogen. However, no reports of either toxoplasmosis or avian malaria in New Zealand raptors, namely, the New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae), Australasian harriers (Circus approximans) and moreporks (Ninox novaeseelandiae) exist in the literature. Therefore, this study was designed to determine if these two pathogens are present in these raptors through a retrospective analysis of archived tissue samples. Detection and isolate identification of these pathogens was determined using established histological and molecular techniques. All three species of New Zealand raptors tested positive for the presence of Plasmodium spp. (10/117; 8.5%) and an atypical genotype of T. gondii (9/117; 7.7%). Plasmodium lineages identified include P. elongatum GRW6, P. relictum SGS1, P. relictum PADOM02 and Plasmodium sp. LINN1. Two Australasian harriers and one morepork tested positive for the presence of both Plasmodium spp. and T. gondii. However, the pathogenicity of these organisms to the raptors is unclear as none of the tissues showed histological evidence of clinical disease associated with Plasmodium spp. and T. gondii infections. Thus, these results demonstrate for the first time that these two potential pathogens are present in New Zealand's raptors; however, further research is required to determine the prevalence and pathogenicity of these organisms among the living populations of these birds in the country.

  5. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  6. Observation of Grey Kestrel Falco ardosiaceus raiding the nest of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 37, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Effects of chronic dietary lead in American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Sileo, Louis; Pattee, Oliver H.; Moore, John F.

    1983-01-01

    American kestrels were fed a diet containing 0, 10, or 50 ppm lead (Pb) powder for at least 5 mo. Blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in birds receiving 50 ppm Pb was as low as 20% of controls but no significant effects were noted in packed cell volume (PCV) or hemoglobin concentration (Hb). Mean liver Pb residues in birds fed 50 ppm Pb were 1.3 and 2.4 ppm (dry wt) for males and females, respectively. Liver Pb residues in birds fed 10 ppm Pb were not significantly greater than controls. There was no significant correlation between blood ALAD activity and blood Pb concentration, no consistent histopathological lesions were noted, and body and organ weights were not affected.

  8. Hobbies ( Falco cuvieri and F. subbuteo ) versus bats over Kampala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 37, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Assessing the diet of Amur Falcon Falco amurensis and Lesser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxa less represented included Rodentia, Solifugae, Orthoptera, Hymenoptera and other unidentified prey items. Although both F. amurensis and F. naumanni sometimes feed on birds, we believe that all feathers found in stomachs were ingested during preening activities or were accidentally introduced during excision.

  10. Breeding biology and diet of Banded Kestrels Falco zoniventris on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All Banded Kestrel nests were placed inside clusters of epiphytic arboreal plants composed of Asplenium nidus, Phymatodes scolopendria and Medinilla sp. and averaged 18m above the ground. Banded Kestrel diet, derived from 188 prey items, comprised 47% chameleons, 18% other lizards, 31% insects, 3% birds, a frog ...

  11. Serratospiculosis in a New Zealand Falcon (Falco novaeseelandiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C H; Gartrell, B D; Charleston, W A G

    2006-08-01

    An adult New Zealand falcon was presented with metacarpal fractures in the left wing. In addition to the fractures, radiographs revealed an area of opacity in the air sacs. A few days after hospitalisation and initiation of treatment of the fractures, the bird developed signs of respiratory disease; the area of opacity was found to have increased in size and density. Treatment with antibiotics and nebulisation was commenced; the bird initially responded but respiratory signs subsequently worsened and the bird died. At necropsy, air sacculitis and bronchopneumonia were associated with numerous nematodes in the air sacs, which were morphologically consistent with Serratospiculum guttatum. Serratospiculosis The discovery of this parasite and the associated disease for the first time in New Zealand indicates that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in falcons and possibly other raptors in New Zealand.

  12. Seasonal and annual dietary changes in Lesser Kestrels Falco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proportion of pellets containing scarabaeid and carabid beetles, as well as those containing locusts and crickets, increased as the wintering season progressed, while the proportion of pellets containing solifugids decreased during the same period. Significant differences in diet composition were recorded between the ...

  13. Diet composition of syntopically breeding falcon species Falco vespertinus and Falco tinnunculus in south-western Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulis Filip

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The red-footed falcon and Eurasian falcon represent two syntopical falcon species. While the Eurasian falcon is considered a common and numerous species in Slovakia, the red-footed falcon population has undergone a considerable decline during the past few decades. Nowadays it nests in a single locality in Slovakia, the Sysľovské polia Special Protection Area, which forms the northern and fragmented border of the species distribution area in Europe. By analysing prey remains from 9 nests (from 1998, 2001, 2013, 2014 and 2016, we identified 433 prey items belonging to 35 taxa and 9 orders. Every year, invertebrates made up the major part of the diet spectrum, in which Calosoma auropunctatum, Tettigonia viridissima, Zabrus tenebrioides, Anisoplia aegetum and Rhizotrogus sp. were the most frequent species of prey. Of the vertebrates, Microtus arvalis was the most hunted prey species. By supplementary analysis of 21 photos, we extended our knowledge on the diet by other 6 taxa. The peak of the M. arvalis population growth in 2014 did not manifest itself in the red-footed falcon diet composition. In 1998, 2014 and 2016 we also studied the diet of a syntopical species, the Eurasian kestrel. By analysing prey remains in 22 nests, we identified 1,151 prey items belonging to 37 taxa and 7 orders. In 1998 and 2014 vertebrates predominated, especially the common vole, however in 2016 invertebrates prevailed. This fact could be a reaction to the M. arvalis population peak in 2014 and its decline in 2016. These results suggest that this variability in the foraging behaviour of the Eurasian kestrel, an opportunistic predator, during the hunting of invertebrates increases the diet similarity and overlapping of the food niche of both studied falcon species.

  14. Saker Falcon ( Falco cherrug milvipes Jerdon mortality in Central Mongolia and population threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundev Gombobaatar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is important because Mongolia is the main reserve country for breeding saker falcons in the world, where they play a key role in the steppe ecosystem as a predator of a rodent pest species. This is the first study to address factors influencing egg, chick and adult saker mortality in Central Mongolia. A total of 338 eggs, fresh remains and carcasses from 194 active nests in the study areas were collected and examined. Egg, chick and adult mortality in the study areas did not differ significantly between 1998 and 2004. Deserted clutches (35.1% and infertile eggs (30.4% were found to be the two main factors causing reduced hatching success. Factors causing chick mortality were not significantly different each year . In 1998 - 2004, natural causes accounted for 61.1% of total mortality of Central Mongolian sakers. Human or anthropogenic factors explained 26.4% of all saker deaths. The main predator of chicks was the Eagle Owl ( Bubo bubo . Chick mortality caused by cleaning raptor nests from poles and HPEL pylons was 21.3%. No significant dif ferences were found between factors influencing adult saker mortality . The highest percentage of total adult saker mortality was caused by electrocution (54%. Poisoning also reduced saker numbers. The number of exported sakers has dramatically increased over the last four years. saker numbers in Mongolia are relatively high and so trappers are increasingly concentrating on this reserve. A harsh winter in 2002 caused decreased Brandt’ s vole ( Microtus brandti numbers in two study areas. The number of saker breeding pairs decreased in these study areas in 2003. The results will provide an important data source for planning saker falcon conservation strategies and activities in Mongolia.

  15. PATHOLOIGCAL EFFECTS OF DIETARY METHYL MERCURY IN AMERICAN KESTRELS ( FALCO SPARVERIUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl mercury in aquatic food webs poses significant health risks to both wildlife and humans. One primary source of mercury contamination for both aquatic and terrestrial systems is atmospheric deposition of inorganic mercury from industrial emissions. Once in the environment, ...

  16. PATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DIETARY METHYL MERCURY IN AMERICAN KESTRELS (FALCO SPARVERIIUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl mercury in the aquatic food web poses significant health risks to both wildlife and humans. One primary source of mercury contamination for both the aquatic and terrestrial systems is atmospheric deposition of inorganic mercury from industrial emissions. Once in the enviro...

  17. AMERICAN KESTREL (FALCO SPARVERIUS) BREEDING PRODUCTIVITY AND DIET IN A VERNAL POOLS AND GRASSLAND HABITAT

    OpenAIRE

    McDermot, Joy Marie

    2016-01-01

    American Kestrel populations have declined since the 1960s, and the cause has yet to be identified. To further comprehend the decline of the American Kestrel, my study examined kestrel breeding productivity including occupancy, hatching success, and fledging success in nest boxes in conjunction with the identification of dietary resources. In this thesis, I monitored and documented the breeding success of the American Kestrel from nest boxes on the UC Merced’s Vernal Pools and Grassland Res...

  18. The refractive development of the eye of the American kestrel (Falco sparverius): a new avian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andison, M E; Sivak, J G; Bird, D M

    1992-06-01

    Most measures of avian visual performance are carried out on commonly available domestic species such as the chicken, and most of the data on avian induced refractive error deals with chickens. Raptors are predatory birds in which good visual resolving ability is particularly important. Behavioral studies indicate that the eyes of raptors have two to three times the resolving ability of the human eye. The domestic chicken is precocial at hatching whereas most raptors are semi-altricial. This study was an effort to determine if the effect of early visual deprivation on the refractive development of the chicken eye can be reproduced in the American kestrel, a species which is not domesticated and in which the need for acute vision is particularly important. Visual deprivation was achieved by unilaterally applying translucent plastic goggles over the eyes of kestrels two days after hatching. Refractive error was measured using a retinoscope and trial lenses. Ocular growth was monitored by A-scan ultrasonography, and frozen ocular sections of sacrificed birds. The effect of the experimental manipulation on the contralateral control eye and body weight was evaluated each day over a 42-day period. The goggles did not significantly affect the normal changes in body weight or the normal pattern of ocular growth and refractive development in the untreated eyes. An analysis of the refractive state changes as a result of form deprivation was made each week for 6 weeks after hatching on both the treated and untreated eyes in a separate group of experimental birds. Visual form deprivation caused a significant myopic shift in refractive error and a significant increase in the vitreous chamber depth in the treated eyes at 3 and 6 weeks of age. However, the amount of myopia produced is much less than that induced in chicks, and in certain cases hyperopia is produced. The kestrels recover from myopia and hyperopia within 10 days of goggle removal, after 3 to 4 weeks of deprivation. This study is the first indication that chickens may not be a representative bird model for studying form-deprivation myopia. First, myopia is not always produced in kestrels in response to form deprivation. Second, kestrels are severely myopic at hatching and therefore, the direction of emmetropization is opposite to that found in hatchling chicks.

  19. Tissue lead distribution and hematologic effects in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) fed biologically incorporated lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Franson, J.C.; Pattee, O.H.

    1984-01-01

    American kestrels were fed a diet containing 0.5, 120, 212, and 448 ppm (dry wt) biologically incorporated lead (Pb) for 60 days. The diet consisted of homogenized 4-wk-old cockerels raised on feed mixed with and without lead. No kestrels died and weights did not differ among treatment groups. The control group (0.5 ppm Pb) had the lowest mean concentration of lead and the high dietary group had the highest for the following tissues: Kidney, liver, femur, brain, and blood. Concentrations of lead were significantly correlated among tissues. There were no differences among treatment groups for packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, or erythrocyte count.

  20. Comparative toxicity of diphacinone to northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Day, Daniel D.; Johnston, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The acute oral toxicity of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was found to be about 20 times greater to American kestrels (LD50=97 mg/kg) than to northern bobwhite (LD50=2,014 mg/kg). Several precise and sensitive clotting assays (prothrombin time, Russell's Viper venom time, thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in these species, and this combination of assays is recommended to detect effects of diphacinone and other rodenticides on coagulation. Oral administration of diphacinone over a range of doses (sublethal to the extrapolated LD15) prolonged prothrombin time and Russell's Viper venom time within 24 to 48 hrs post-exposure. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity and was detected before or at the onset of overt signs of toxicity and lethality. These data will assist in the development of a pharmacodynamic model to assess and predict rodenticide toxicity to non-target avian species.

  1. Purkinje cell heterotopy with cerebellar hypoplasia in two free-living American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two wild fledgling kestrels exhibited lack of motor coordination, postural reaction deficits, and abnormal propioception. At necropsy, the cerebellum and brainstem were markedly underdeveloped. Microscopically, there was Purkinje cells heterotopy, abnormal circuitry, and hypoplasia with defective fo...

  2. Falco UAV Low Reynolds Airfoil Design and Testing at Galileo Avionica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cistriani, Luca

    2007-01-01

    ... stream turbulence and in-flight icing. Wind tunnel tests have been performed for the two dimensional wing section and for a complete UAV aircraft configuration in order to confirm theoretical previsions...

  3. Diet of Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug and Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca from Central Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedko Nedyalkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a study on the diet of Saker falcon (n = 15 nests and Eastern imperial eagle (n = 2 nests from south Kazakhstan, on the basis of food remains and pellets collected during the 2009 breeding season. The main prey for Saker falcon was predominantly rodents living in middle-size colonies – Spermophilus erytrogenys and Rhombomys opimus. We also present the results from the diet of two pairs of Eastern imperial eagles nesting close to Balkhash Lake.

  4. Falco UAV Low Reynolds Airfoil Design and Testing at Galileo Avionica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cistriani, Luca

    2007-01-01

    UAV operations are examined from a performance and logistic flexibility point of view in order to set up requirements to be input for the multiobjective optimization of a two component simple rotation...

  5. Time-Trends and Congener Profiles of PBDEs and PCBs in California Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Holden, Arthur; Chu, Vivian; Kim, Michele; Rhee, Alexandra; Patel, Puja; Shi, Yating; Linthicum, Janet; Walton, Brian J.; Mckeown, Karen; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Hooper, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High levels (µg/g lw) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in peregrine falcon eggs from California (n = 90 eggs from 52 birds, 38 nest sites, collected 1986–2007, ΣPBDEs median = 4.53, range = 0.08–53.1). Over the past 22 years, PBDE levels more than tripled each decade in the eggs, whereas PCB levels had no significant changes. PBDE levels were highest in eggs from major California cities (“Big Cities”), whereas PCBs showed no difference across the regions. For PBDEs, Big City eggs had markedly different patterns from Coastal eggs:BDE-209 and the higher brominated PBDEs (hexa–nona) were dominant congeners in Big City eggs, while BDE-47 and -99 were dominant in Coastal eggs. In many of the birds that gave multiple eggs over time (“time series”), PBDE patterns changed over time: the high proportions of BDE-209 and higher brominated PBDEs (short half-lives) in young birds contrasted with increasingly higher proportions of BDE-153 (long half-life) and other lower brominated PBDEs as the birds aged. These data are consistent with metabolic debromination of BDE-209 (t1/2 = 1–2 weeks) to the lower brominated PBDEs, with accumulation over time of BDE-153 (t1/2 = 3–4 years). In contrast, PCB patterns showed no differences by locations, and did not change over time. Diet (prey birds) may explain the urban PBDE pattern, as the patterns in urban pigeons and peregrines were similar, with high proportions of BDE-209 and the higher-brominated PBDEs. Also, our prey data (feathers from peregrine nests) showed urban peregrines having a higher proportion (>2 fold) of granivorous/opportunistic birds (e.g., “introduced feral” pigeons, mourning doves, starlings) in their diet than coastal peregrines. In summary, these data indicate that BDE-209 exits consumer products as an environmental contaminant to be taken up by wildlife (particularly in urban locations), and undergoes metabolic debromination to the banned lower-brominated PBDEs. High levels of the higher-brominated PBDE congeners, especially in urban locations, permitted accurate measures of relative proportions of homologues in each of the hexa–nona congener classes. Using the major hexa–nona homologues in each of these classes, we propose a pathway for the stepwise, metabolic debromination of BDE-209. PMID:19943641

  6. Louse (Insecta: Phthiraptera infestations of the Amur Falcon (Falco amurensis and the Red-footed Falcon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piross Imre Sándor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the louse species harboured by Red-footed and Amur Falcons despite the fact that various life-history traits of these hosts make them good model species to study host-parasite interactions. We collected lice samples from fully grown Amur (n=20 and Red-footed Falcons (n=59, and from nestlings of Red-footed Falcons (n=179 in four countries: Hungary, India, Italy and South Africa. We identified 3 louse species on both host species, namely Degeeriella rufa, Colpocephalum subzerafae and Laembothrion tinnunculi. The latter species has never been found on these hosts. Comparing population parameters of lice between hosts we found significantly higher prevalence levels of D. rufa and C. subzerafae on Amur Falcons. Adult Red-footed Falcons had higher D. rufa prevalence compared to C. subzerafae. For the first time we also show inter-annual shift in prevalence and intensity levels of these species on Red-footed Falcons; in 2012 on adult hosts C. subzerafae had higher intensity levels than D. rufa, however in 2014 D. rufa had significantly higher intensity compared to C. subzerafae. In case of nestlings both louse species had significantly higher preva lence levels than in 2014. The exact causes of such inter-annual shifts are yet to be understood.

  7. Individual recognition of territorial peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus: a key for long-term monitoring programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUBEROGOITIA, I., ENRIQUE MARTÍNEZ, J., ZABALA, J.

    2013-01-01

    including the shape, length and size of the moustache and the dark marks that extend from the nape to the cheek and neck; design, size, density and distribution of the spots on the breast, throat, neck and cheek; and the colour of the breast and neck. From 1997 to 2013 we identified 83 males and 96 females in 35 territories. We found phenotypic variation among individuals when the combination of the possible subgroups of identification characters was considered, which constitutes an opportunity to recognise individual hawks without marking them with artificial tags.

  8. FIELD-MEASUREMENTS OF HANGING FLIGHT AERODYNAMICS IN THE KESTREL FALCO-TINNUNCULUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VIDELER, J; GROENEWOLD, A

    Hunting kestrels were observed to hang, almost without wing-flapping, in fixed positions over a sea dike. The height and position with respect to the dike profile, the wind direction and velocity and the percentage of hunting time without wing beating were recorded in 429 cases. The vertical wind

  9. Body condition variation in kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) nestlings in relation to breeding conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costantini, David; Casagrande, Stefania; Carello, Livia; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    The body condition index (i.e., body mass corrected for age or size differences) is commonly used to investigate offspring condition in nestling birds. The body condition index reflects different parameters related to the general nutritional state of nestlings and may predict survival prospects.

  10. Las distintas y olvidadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro García

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available PLATAS BENITEZ, Viridiana; TOLEDO MARÍN, Leonel. Filósofas de la Modernidad temprana y la Ilustración. México: Universidad Veracruzana, Biblioteca Digital de Humanidades, 2014. p. 125.

  11. Intraspecific Allometry of Basal Metabolic Rate : Relations with Body Size, Temperature, Composition, and Circadian Phase in the Kestrel, Falco tinnunculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Masman, Dirkjan; Strijkstra, Arjen; Verhulst, Simon

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between body size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in homeotherms has been treated in the literature primarily by comparison between species of mammals or birds. This paper focuses on the intraindividual changes in BMR when body mass (W) varies with different maintenance regimens. BMR

  12. Orthopteran insects as potential and preferred preys of the Red-footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szövényi Gergely

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthopterans play an important role in Red-footed Falcon diet, however, most studies focus only on its qualitative food composition, and less on quantitative composition and preferences of the taxa identified as prey. During the present research, an extensive orthopterological investigation was carried out in the Red-footed Falcon study area, Vásárhelyi Plain (SE-Hungary between 2006 and 2008. Grasshoppers were sampled in their main habitats by sweep netting and pitfall trapping, and orthopterans were identified in the food remnants collected from the nests, both artificial and natural ones. 26 species were detected during the field works, 18 species from the food remnants. Altogether 32 species were identified. Prey preference values for all species for each year were calculated. More than two thirds of the identified preys were Decticus verrucivorus, and nearly 20% were Tettigonia viridissima. Other common prey species were Melanogryllus desertus, Platycleis affinis, Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa, Calliptamus italicus and Gryllus campestris. Based on the prey preference analysis, the most preferred species was Decticus verrucivorus with extreme high values, and the other preferred ones, overlapping with the previous list, were Platycleis affinis, Bicolorana bicolor, Tettigonia viridissima, Calliptamus italicus and Roeseliana roeselii. These results may help in the development of Red-footed Falcon-friendly habitats through the application of habitat management favourable for the preferred prey species.

  13. Ljungan/Sebokele-like picornavirus in birds of prey, common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and red-footed falcon (F. vespertinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankovics, Péter; Boros, Ákos; Mátics, Róbert; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2017-11-01

    Ljungan and Sebokele viruses are thought to be rodent-borne (picorna)viruses in the genus Parechovirus. Using random amplification and next generation sequencing method a novel Ljungan/Sebokele-like picornavirus was identified in birds of prey. Viral RNA was detected in total of 1 (9%) of the 11 and 2 (28.6%) of the 7 faecal samples from common kestrels and red-footed falcons in Hungary, respectively. High faecal viral RNA load (4.77×10 6 genomic copies/ml) measured by qPCR. The complete genome of picornavirus strain falcon/HA18_080/2014/HUN (KY645497) is 7964-nucleotide (nt) long including a 867-nt 5'end and a 101-nt 3'end (excluding the poly(A)-tail). Falcon/HA18_080/2014/HUN has type-II IRES related to hunnivirus IRES, encodes a polyprotein lacking a leader protein, a VP0 maturation cleavage site and it predicted to encode three 2A proteins (2A 1 NPG↓P , 2A 2 NPG↓P and 2A 3 H-Box/NC ), two of them end with 'ribosome-skipping' sites (DxExNPG ↓ P). Sequence analyses indicated that the ORF1 (6996nt) polyprotein (2331 amino acid - aa) of falcon/HA18_080/2014/HUN shares the highest aa identity, 59% and 57%, to the corresponding polyproteins of Ljungan and Sebokele viruses. This study reports the identification and complete genome characterization of a novel Ljungan/Sebokele-like picornavirus in faeces of birds of prey which suggests that the genetic diversity and the potential host species spectrum of Ljungan/Sebokele-like viruses in genus Parechovirus are wider than previously thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolation of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus from Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henju Marjuki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is accumulating evidence that birds of prey are susceptible to fatal infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus. We studied the antigenic, molecular, phylogenetic, and pathogenic properties of 2 HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated from dead falcons in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait in 2005 and 2007, respectively. Phylogenetic and antigenic analyses grouped both isolates in clade 2.2 (Qinghai-like viruses. However, the viruses appeared to have spread westward via different flyways. It remains unknown how these viruses spread so rapidly from Qinghai after the 2005 outbreak and how they were introduced into falcons in these two countries. The H5N1 outbreaks in the Middle East are believed by some to be mediated by wild migratory birds. However, sporting falcons may be at additional risk from the illegal import of live quail to feed them.

  15. Dietary exposure to technical hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) alters courtship, incubation and parental behaviors in American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Bird, David M; Letcher, Robert J; Sullivan, Katrina M; Ritchie, Ian J; Fernie, Kim J

    2012-11-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a high production volume brominated flame retardant that has been detected in the environment and wildlife at increasing concentrations. This study was designed to determine potential effects of dietary exposure to environmentally relevant levels of HBCD on behavior during reproduction in captive American kestrels. Twenty kestrel pairs were exposed to 0.51 μg technical HBCD g(-1) kestrel d(-1) from 4 weeks prior to pairing until chicks hatched (~75 d). Ten pairs of controls received the safflower oil vehicle only and were used for comparison. During the courtship period the chitter-calls were reduced in both sexes (p=0.038) and females performed fewer bonding displays (p=0.053). Both sexes showed a propensity to be less active than controls during courtship. The reduction in male courtship behavior was correlated with reduced courtship behaviors of females (p=0.008) as well as reduced egg mass (p=0.019). During incubation, nest temperatures of treatment pairs were lower at mid-incubation (p=0.038). HBCD-exposed males performed fewer key parental behaviors when rearing nestlings, including entering the nest-box, pair-bonding displays and food-retrievals. HBCD-exposed females appeared to compensate for the reduced parental behavior of their mates by performing these same behaviors more frequently than controls (p=0.004, p=0.027, p=0.025, respectively). This study demonstrates that HBCD affects breeding behavior in American kestrels throughout the reproductive season and behavioral alterations were linked to reproductive changes (egg size). This is the first study to report HBCD effects on reproductive behavior in any animal model. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Developmental toxicity of PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Melancon, M J; Klein, P N; Rice, C P; Eisemann, J D; Hines, R K; Spann, J W; Pendleton, G W

    1996-12-01

    Planar PCB congeners are embryotoxic and teratogenic to birds including American kestrels. The developmental toxicity of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) was studied in the posthatching kestrel as a model for the eagle. Nestlings were dosed orally for 10 days with 5 microl/g body weight of corn oil (controls) or the planar PCB 126 at concentrations of 50, 250, or 1000 ng/g body weight. Dosing with 50 ng/g of PCB 126 resulted in a hepatic concentration of 156 ng/g wet weight, liver enlargement and mild coagulative necrosis, over 10-fold increases in hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase and benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, and approximately a 5-fold increase in methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase. At this dose, mild to moderate lymphoid depletion of the spleen was apparent, as were decreased follicle size and content of the thyroid. At 250 ng/g, concentration of PCB 126 in the liver was 380 ng/g with increasing multifocal coagulative necrosis, decreased bone growth, decreased spleen weight with lymphocyte depletion of the spleen and bursa, and degenerative lesions of the thyroid. At 1000 ng/g, the liver concentration was 1098 ng/g, accompanied by decreased bursa weight, decreased hepatic thiol concentration, and increased plasma enzyme activities (ALT, AST, and LDH-L) in addition to the previous effects. Highly significant positive correlations were noted between liver concentrations of PCB 126 and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathone. These findings indicate that nestling kestrels are more susceptible to PCB 126 toxicity than adults, but less sensitive than embryos, and that planar PCBs are of potential hazard to nestling birds.

  17. Changes in the incubation by American kestrels (Falco sparverius) during exposure to the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixture DE-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Katrina M; Marteinson, Sarah C; Letcher, Robert J; Bird, David M; Ritchie, Ian J; Shutt, J Laird; Fernie, Kim J

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are persistent environmental pollutants that have been detected in wildlife globally. American kestrels exposed to the commercial PBDE mixture DE-71 have previously demonstrated reduced reproductive success and behaviors during courtship and brood rearing; however, it remains unknown whether DE-71 affects incubation. During breeding, captive kestrels were exposed to the DE-71 mixture dissolved in safflower oil at two environmentally relevant concentrations (low: 283.5 ± 48.2, high: 1104.8 ± 124.5 ng/g wet weight [ww]) via diet for an average of 75 d. Unexpected low in ovo concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were also detected (low: 3 ± 1 ng/g ww, high: 16 ± 3 ng/g ww). All comparisons are made to control pairs. Kestrel pairs in the low- and high-exposure groups experienced longer incubation periods with increasing exposure to ΣPBDE and some individual congeners. As incubation progressed, pairs exposed to DE-71 had significantly lower nest temperatures, which were on average 19% lower in low-exposure nests and 35% lower in high-exposure nests during late incubation. The DE-71 exposed pairs (low and high) also demonstrated significantly reduced incubation constancy (defined as percent of temperature readings above the maximum daily ambient temperature) during early incubation compared to controls. Nest temperatures (all pairs) and incubation constancy (high pairs) during early incubation (d 1-3) were significantly and positively associated with the proportion of eggs that hatched per pair. Higher incubation constancy and incubating nest temperatures in the low-exposure group were associated with markedly less egg weight loss by mid-incubation. These findings demonstrate that exposure to PBDE significantly affected kestrels during incubation, a critical period for embryonic development.

  18. Temporal development of brominated flame retardants in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from South Greenland (1986-2003)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne; Falk, Knud

    2005-01-01

    -TBBPA, and brominated biphenyl BB-153 were detected in a majority of eggs, with median concentrations of 2.4, 230, and 550 ng/g lw, respectively. Analyses of eggs of the same bird showed no significant intra-clutch variation for PBDEs, BB-153, and HBCD but larger variations for dimethyl-TBBPA. Inter-clutch variations...

  19. Divergent hepatitis E virus in birds of prey, common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and red-footed falcon (F. vespertinus), Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Gábor; Boros, Ákos; Mátics, Róbert; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Pankovics, Péter

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), family Hepeviridae, has raised considerable public health concerns because of its zoonotic potential; however, the animal to animal transmissions and the natural chain of hepevirus infections in wildlife are less known. Using random amplification and next generation sequencing technology a novel HEV in birds of prey was serendipitously identified in Hungary. HEV RNA was detected in total of 2 (18%) of the 11 and 1 (14%) of the 7 faecal samples from common kestrels and red-footed falcons, respectively. High faecal viral load (2.03×10(8) genomic copies/ml) measured by qPCR. The complete genome of strain kestrel/MR22/2014/HUN (KU670940) HEV is 7033-nt long including a 35-nt 5'end and a 63-nt 3'end (excluding the poly(A)-tail). Sequence analyses indicated that the ORF1 (4920nt/639 aa), ORF2 (1989nt/662 aa) and ORF3 (360nt/119aa) proteins of kestrel/MR22/2014/HUN shared the highest identity (58.1%, 66.8% and 28.5%) to the corresponding proteins of ferret, rat and human genotype 4 Orthohepeviruses, respectively. Interestingly, the ORF3 protein is potentially initiated with leucine (L) using an alternate, non-AUG (UUG) start codon. This study reports the identification and complete genome characterization of a novel Orthohepevirus species related to mammalian HEVs in birds of prey. It is important to recognize all potential hosts, reservoirs and spreaders in nature and to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of hepeviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MF magnitude does not affect body condition, pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants in Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) nestlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costantini, David; Casagrande, Stefania; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    Pylons of utility lines are commonly used by breeding birds as structures for supporting their nests. Nesting near power lines, however, exposes adult birds and their offspring to the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) produced by the current. Therefore, we searched for possible relationships

  1. Family Planning in the Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) : The Ultimate Control of Covariation of Laying Date and Clutch Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Dijkstra, Cor; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    The theory that individual birds maximize their fitness by the two major decisions in reproduction concerning date (when to start laying eggs) and clutch size (when to stop laying eggs) is empirically approached in the Kestrel by quantifying Fisher's Reproductive Value for both the clutch (Vc =

  2. Pre-Migration Roost Site use and Timing of Postnuptial Migration of Red-Footed Falcons (Falco Vespertinus Revealed by Satellite Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehérvári Péter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A transzekvatoriális vonuló kék vércsék a fészkelési időszak után, a vonulást megelőző időszakban csoportos éjszakázó, úgynevezett gyülekezőhelyet alakítanak ki. Ez a periódus feltehetően igen fontos a hosszú távú vonulók túlélése szempontjából. Ebben az időszakban a Kárpát-medence különböző területein 8, műholdas nyomkövetővel felszerelt madár őszi mozgásmintázatát vizsgáltuk. Eredményeink szerint a madarak akár több, egymástól nagy távolságra lévő gyülekezőhelyet is használhatnak. Az egyik egyed mozgáskörzete 88 km2 volt (80% Kernel home range becslés, és közel koncentrikusan helyezkedett el a gyülekezőhelyhez viszonyítva. Két egyed Dél-Ukrajnába repült nem sokkal a jeladó felhelyezése után. Eredményeink azt mutatják, hogy még a kisszámú, műholdas jeladóval felszerelt madár viselkedése is nagyban különbözött. Az éjszakai adatok alapján 2 magyarországi, valamint 6 dél-ukrajnai lehetséges új gyülekezőhelyet határoltunk be. A Kárpát-medencében 2006 és 2011 között hetenként végzett nemzetközi felmérés adatait felhasználva összevetettük a jelölt madarak indulási adatait a populáció 6 éves átlagaival. A jelölt madarak a felmért populáció első 25%-ával együtt kezdték a vonulást.

  3. Experimental infection of a North American raptor, American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1).

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey S Hall; Hon S Ip; J Christian Franson; Carol Meteyer; Sean Nashold; Joshua L TeSlaa; John French; Patrick Redig; Christopher Brand

    2009-01-01

    Several species of wild raptors have been found in Eurasia infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1. Should HPAIV (H5N1) reach North America in migratory birds, species of raptors are at risk not only from environmental exposure, but also from consuming infected birds and carcasses. In this study we used American kestrels as a representative species of a North American raptor to examine the effects of HPAIV (H5N1) infection in terms of dose response, viral sh...

  4. Changes in reproductive courtship behaviors of adult American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant levels of the polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Shutt, John L; Letcher, Robert J; Ritchie, James I; Sullivan, Katrina; Bird, David M

    2008-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are increasing in biota. Here, captive adult American kestrels were exposed daily by diet to safflower oil (controls), or one of two levels of a pentaBDE technical formulation, DE-71 (0.3 or 1.6 ppm), for approximately 75 days, commencing 21 days before breeding. This exposure resulted in eggs having PBDE concentrations similar (low exposure) or within the same order of magnitude (high exposure) reported for wild American kestrels and gulls in the Great Lakes. Compared to controls, kestrels in both exposure groups copulated less, spent less time in their nest boxes, and participated in fewer pair-bonding behaviors. Furthermore, the timing of these behaviors, which is important to creating and maintaining the pair-bond, also differed significantly from the controls. The females in the low-exposure group made fewer compatible trilling calls and ate less frequently. These behavioral changes were compounded by increasing exposure to DE-71 during the 9-day courtship period immediately preceding egg laying, a standard measure of the kestrel courtship period. The birds in the high-exposure group made more food transfers, excited "klee" calls, and copulations, the latter only when compared to the low-exposure birds, whereas the low-exposure males performed fewer pair-bonding behaviors. This study demonstrates that the exposure of kestrels to environmentally relevant levels of DE-71 modifies the quality of the pair-bond, affects the reproductive behavior of both sexes, and occurs when birds are exposed for a short period as adults. In addition, these behavioral effects are consistent with the observed reproductive changes in these birds.

  5. Changes in thyroid parameters of hatchling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following embryonic exposure to technical short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs; C10-13, 55.5% CL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kimberly J; Henry, Paula F.; Letcher, Robert J; Palace, Vince; Peters, Lisa; Rattner, Barnett A.; Sverko, Edward; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex mixtures of polychlorinated n-alkanes categorized according to their carbon chain length: short chain (SCCPs, C10 – C13), medium (C14 - C17), and long chain (C>17), chlorinated paraffins. SCCPs are primarily used in metalworking applications, as flame retardants, and in paints, adhesives, sealants, textiles, plastics and rubber (UNEP 2012). In 2012, the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP 2012) reported in the Revised Draft Risk Profile for SCCPs, that CPs were produced in the United States, the European Union (EU), Slovakia, Brazil, India, Japan and China. While annual global consumption of SCCPs is large (>25 tonnes/year), it has sharply declined over the past 20 years. SCCPs are released through wastewater, landfills, and air emissions (UNEP 2012). Concentrations of SCCPs have been reported in fish and marine mammals in North and South America, Europe, Japan, Greenland and the Arctic (UNEP 2012 and references therein). Characterization of SCCP concentrations and exposure in terrestrial wildlife is limited. In 2010, SCCP concentrations were reported in the eggs of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) (4536 ± 40 pg/g wet weight (ww)) and Audouin’s gulls (Larus audouinii) (6364 ± 20 pg/g ww) in Spain (Morales et al. 2012), and little auks (Alle alle) (5 - 88 ng/g ww) and kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) (5 - 44 ng/g ww) in the European Arctic (Reth et al. 2006). In Sweden, muscle of ospreys contained CPs of unspecified chain length (Jansson et al. 1993). Although the toxicity of SCCPs has been demonstrated in aquatic invertebrates, fish, frogs, and laboratory rats, there are limited avian studies and these reported no effects of SCCPs on egg parameters of domestic hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) (UNEP 2012). Despite reported accumulation of SCCPs in wild birds, to our knowledge, exposure-related toxicities and effects with respect to avian wildlife remain unknown.

  6. A comparative study on the histological structure of the spleen in the ostrich (Struthio camelus), the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlu, Tolunay; Karadag Sari, Ebru; Akaydin Bozkurt, Yesim; Altunay, H

    2011-06-01

    The spleen structurally and functionally belongs to the hematopoietic organs and is also an important component of the reticuloendothelial system, which is known to play a major role in host defense. The histological structure of the spleen was investigated in the ostrich, a non-flying bird, the kestrel, a raptor, and the osprey, a fish-eating bird of prey (fish eagle). For this purpose, Mallory's modified triple stain, methyl green-pyronin and silver stain were used. Germinal centers were not present in the spleen of the osprey. In the spleen of the kestrel, penicillar arterioles and the surrounding lymphoid tissue were markedly dense. Compared to the other two birds, the red and white pulps were clearly distinguishable in the spleen of the ostrich.

  7. Experimental infection of a North American raptor, American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Ip, Hon S; Franson, J Christian; Meteyer, Carol; Nashold, Sean; TeSlaa, Joshua L; French, John; Redig, Patrick; Brand, Christopher

    2009-10-22

    Several species of wild raptors have been found in Eurasia infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1. Should HPAIV (H5N1) reach North America in migratory birds, species of raptors are at risk not only from environmental exposure, but also from consuming infected birds and carcasses. In this study we used American kestrels as a representative species of a North American raptor to examine the effects of HPAIV (H5N1) infection in terms of dose response, viral shedding, pathology, and survival. Our data showed that kestrels are highly susceptible to HPAIV (H5N1). All birds typically died or were euthanized due to severe neurologic disease within 4-5 days of inoculation and shed significant amounts of virus both orally and cloacally, regardless of dose administered. The most consistent microscopic lesions were necrosis in the brain and pancreas. This is the first experimental study of HPAIV infection in a North American raptor and highlights the potential risks to birds of prey if HPAIV (H5N1) is introduced into North America.

  8. Experimental infection of a North American raptor, American kestrel (Falco sparverius), with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Ip, Hon S.; Franson, J.C.; Meteyer, C.; Nashold, Sean W.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; French, J.; Redig, P.; Brand, C.

    2009-01-01

    Several species of wild raptors have been found in Eurasia infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1. Should HPAIV (H5N1) reach North America in migratory birds, species of raptors are at risk not only from environmental exposure, but also from consuming infected birds and carcasses. In this study we used American kestrels as a representative species of a North American raptor to examine the effects of HPAIV (H5N1) infection in terms of dose response, viral shedding, pathology, and survival. Our data showed that kestrels are highly susceptible to HPAIV (H5N1). All birds typically died or were euthanized due to severe neurologic disease within 4-5 days of inoculation and shed significant amounts of virus both orally and cloacally, regardless of dose administered. The most consistent microscopic lesions were necrosis in the brain and pancreas. This is the first experimental study of HPAIV infection in a North American raptor and highlights the potential risks to birds of prey if HPAIV (H5N1) is introduced into North America.

  9. Persistent organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from South Greenland: Levels and temporal changes between 1986 and 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne; Møller, Søren

    2009-01-01

    levelsfor eggshell thinning. All compound groups showed a weak decreasing trend over the study period, whichwas statistically significant for HCB and close to being significant for ΣHCH. The weak decrease of ΣPCB andΣDDT is different from other time trend studies from Greenland, usually showing a more...

  10. New and updated time trends of persistent organic pollutants and their effects on eggs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Falk, Knud; Møller, Søren

    2017-01-01

    increases were found for BDE-209 and some of the longchain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). The “novel” flame retardants were detectable in the peregrine falcon eggs, but concentrations were comparably low (i.e. eggshell...

  11. Plant cover, soil temperature, freeze, water stress, and evapotranspiration conditions. [Lower Rio Grande Valley Test Site: Weslaco, Texas; Falco Reservoir and the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Nixon, P. R.; Gausman, H. W.; Namken, L. N.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. HCMM day/night coverage 12 hours apart cannot be obtained at 26 deg N latitude; nor have any pairs 36 hours apart been obtained. A day-IR scene and a night scene for two different dates were analyzed. A profile across the test site for the same latitude shows that the two profiles are near mirror images of each other over land surfaces and that the temperature of two large water bodies, Falcon Reservoir and the Gulf of Mexico, are nearly identical on two dates. During the time interval between overpasses, the vegetative cover remained static due to winter dormancy. The data suggest that day/night temperature differences measured weeks apart may yield meaningful information about the contrast between daytime maximum and nighttime minimum temperatures for a given site.

  12. Dieta del Cernícalo Americano (Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758 en dos hábitats interandinos del norte de Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda M. Pozo-Zamora

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El cernícalo americano es una especie de ave rapaz ampliamente distribuida desde Alaska hasta Tierra de Fuego en Argentina. Su dieta generalista está basada principalmente en invertebrados. En Ecuador existe escasa información biológica de ésta especie, desconociéndose aspectos de alimentación. En el presente trabajo se da a conocer la dieta del cernícalo americano, por medio del análisis de egagrópilas colectadas en dos hábitats ubicados en la región interandina en el norte de Ecuador. Los ítems más representativos para Sangolquí y Tababela fueron los coleópteros (48.4 y 39.5%, seguidos por orthópteros (31.3 y 30.7 % respectivamente. En términos de biomasa, los mamíferos son los más importantes dentro de la dieta del cernícalo americano con el 40.3% para Sangolquí y el 70.8% en Tababela. El índice de Shannon (H´= 1.894 indica una mediana diversidad de presas, y la amplitud de dieta (0.26 indica que ésta especie presenta una dieta especialista, difiriendo de otros hábitats donde presenta dieta generalista.

  13. Experimental infection of a North American raptor, American Kestrel (Falco sparverius, with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Hall

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Several species of wild raptors have been found in Eurasia infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV subtype H5N1. Should HPAIV (H5N1 reach North America in migratory birds, species of raptors are at risk not only from environmental exposure, but also from consuming infected birds and carcasses. In this study we used American kestrels as a representative species of a North American raptor to examine the effects of HPAIV (H5N1 infection in terms of dose response, viral shedding, pathology, and survival. Our data showed that kestrels are highly susceptible to HPAIV (H5N1. All birds typically died or were euthanized due to severe neurologic disease within 4-5 days of inoculation and shed significant amounts of virus both orally and cloacally, regardless of dose administered. The most consistent microscopic lesions were necrosis in the brain and pancreas. This is the first experimental study of HPAIV infection in a North American raptor and highlights the potential risks to birds of prey if HPAIV (H5N1 is introduced into North America.

  14. 77 FR 14593 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ...) (individual) 15. SANCHEZ DE VALENCIA, Dora Gladys, c/o INMOBILIARIA U.M.V. S.A., Cali, Colombia; DOB 7 AUG 1955; Cedula No. 31273248 (Colombia) (individual) 16. SALAZAR, Jose Leonel, c/o INMOBILIARIA U.M.V. S.A...

  15. Transforming Armed Forces to National Guard Units in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    Leonel Fernández, Populismo y Socialdemocracia, http://www.leonelfernandez.com/ noticias/ articulos /art-012b.htm. March 19, 2001. 10 Trade and...Populismo y Socialdemocracia, http://www.leonelfernandez.com/noticias/ articulos /art-012b.htm. March 19, 2001. 12 Dominican Republic Constitution

  16. .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Carrasco Muñoz

    2002-01-01

    With greater exactitude, then, the intention is to understand mapuche poetry as a present day intellectual phenomenon, stopping over its public dimension through the analysis of two of its semantic macrostructures which develop the identity discourse: the modern myth or utopia of the "Mapuche State", and the recollection, search and reactualization of the ancestral memory, in the work of five authors: Elicura Chihuailaf, Leonel Lienlaf, Jaime Huenún, Bernardo Colipán and Adriana Pineda.

  17. Changes in plasma retinol of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) in response to dietary or in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a penta-brominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Katrina M; Bird, David M; Ritchie, J Ian; Shutt, J Laird; Letcher, Robert J; Fernie, Kim J

    2010-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are ubiquitous, lipophilic, and bioaccumulative brominated flame retardants. Plasma retinol concentrations of captive adult American kestrels were assessed at the beginning of the breeding season following 3 wk of daily dietary exposure to vehicle (control), low (0.3 ng/g wet weight [ww]), or high (1.6 ng/g ww) concentrations of DE-71 and in their 25-d-old nestlings following embryonic exposure by maternal deposition to environmentally relevant low (291 ± 48 ng/g ww) or high (1111 ± 160 ng/g ww) sum (Σ) PBDE concentrations. Unexpectedly, low in ovo concentrations of total-α-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were detected. Plasma retinol concentrations of adult males exposed to higher DE-71 concentrations were negatively correlated with in ovo ΣPBDE, BDE-100, and HBCD levels. Maternal (13%) and nestling (11%) retinol levels were lower in the low-exposure group compared to respective controls, and biologically significant since their retinol levels were correlated with hatching success and growth, respectively. Maternal retinol levels were also correlated with BDE-153. The underlying mechanisms may involve (1) PBDE exposure, hydroxylated (OH-) metabolites, and subsequent changes in retinol mobilization; (2) decreased maternal food consumption; and (3) reduced maternal retinol yolk deposits. The apparent lack of retinol changes in the high-exposure kestrel may reflect compensation occurring, either by increased mobilization and transportation of retinol, and/or higher food consumption in these birds. When highly mobile as evidenced during reproduction or development, retinol concentrations of adult and nestling kestrels are sensitive to environmentally relevant PBDE and HBCD levels.

  18. Disruption of thyroxine and sex hormones by 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) and associations with reproductive and behavioral changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Palace, Vince; Letcher, Robert J; Fernie, Kim J

    2017-04-01

    1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH - formerly TBECH) is an emerging brominated flame retardant (BFR) pollutant with androgen potentiating ability and other endocrine disrupting effects in birds and fish. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of exposure to environmentally-relevant levels of DBE-DBCH on circulating levels of thyroid and sex steroid hormones in American kestrels, and if hormonal concentrations were related to previously reported changes in reproductive success and courtship behaviors. Sixteen kestrel pairs were exposed to 0.239ng β-DBE-DBCH/g kestrel/day by diet, based on concentrations in wild bird eggs, from 4 weeks before pairing until the chicks hatched (mean 82 d), and were compared with vehicle-only-exposed control pairs (n=15). As previously reported, DBE-DBCH concentrations were not detected in tissue or eggs of these birds, nor were any potential metabolites, despite the low method limits of detection (≤0.4ng/g wet weight), suggesting it may be rapidly metabolized and/or eliminated by the kestrels. Nevertheless, exposed kestrels demonstrated changes in reproduction and behavior, indicating an effect from exposure. During early breeding, males were sampled at multiple time points at pairing and during courtship and incubation; females were blood sampled at pairing only; both sexes were sampled at the end of the season. All comparisons are made to control males or control females, and the relative differences in hormone concentrations between treatment and control birds, calculated separately for each sex, are presented for each time point. Males exposed to β-DBE-DBCH demonstrated significantly (p=0.05) lower concentrations of total thyroxine (TT 4 ) overall, that were 11-28% lower than those of control males at the individual sampling points, yet significantly higher (p=0.03) concentrations of free thyroxine (FT 4 ), that were 5-13% higher than those of control males at the individual sampling points; females had similar concentrations of TT 4 and FT 4 at the time of pairing, and T 4 was similar in both sexes at the end of the breeding season. Testosterone (T) concentrations in the treatment males were significantly higher during early (85%) and mid-courtship (30%) (time*treatment p=0.001), whereas females demonstrated a reduction in T at the time of pairing (17%, p=0.05). In the treatment females, concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) showed a non-significant decrease (20%) and were positively correlated with T concentrations (p=0.03); E 2 concentrations were below quantification limits in males. For males, some variation in T was also significantly associated with their sexual behavior (p<0.001) and FT 4 concentrations (p=0.01). For females, there was no relationship between hormones measured at pairing and subsequent sexual behaviors or reproductive measures. This study demonstrates that exposure to β-DBE-DBCH at levels that are likely below those experienced by wild birds, affects the thyroid and sex steroid axes in birds and thus may be a contaminant of concern for wildlife warranting further research. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental Assessment for the Expansion of Permitted Land and Operations at the 9940 Complex and Thunder Range at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    American Goldfinch Carduelis tristis American Kestrel Falco sparverius American Pipit Anthus rubescens American Robin Turdus migratorius Ash-throated...Name Lesser Goldfinch Carduelis psaltria Lesser Nighthawk Chordeiles acutipennis Lincoln’s Sparrow Melospiza lincolnii Loggerhead Shrike Lanius... Carduelis pinus Pinyon Jay Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus Plumbeous Vireo Vireo plumbeus Prairie Falcon Falco mexicanus Red-tailed Hawk Buteo

  20. La ciudad ajena: subjetividades de origen mapuche en el espacio urbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses urban imaginaries in the poetry of Elicura Chihuailaf, Leonel Lienlaf and David Añiñir. The invisibility attributed to urban Mapuche people by a nation thatconceives itself as homogenously white is somatised through theseintercultural texts exhibiting ethnic subjectivities inserted inthe tension between belonging and feeling alienated. The inscription of a Mapuche worldview as a reaffirmation of identity is carried out in urban space (an emblem of Chilean nation-culture. Within thisconflictive polarisation they become colonial interstice (Chihuailaf , space that breaks the body-nature-divinity unity (Lienlaf and waste of the neoliberal nation (Añiñir.

  1. Persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) in the Greenland environment - Long-term temporal changes and effects on eggs of a bird of prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne

    The project studied the long-term time trend of brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs. Furthermore, possible effects of the contamination on the eggshell thickness were investigated using multivariat...

  2. Environmental Assessment of Beale AFB Grazing Lease Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    species, including burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), killdeer (Charadrius vociferus), American kestrel (Falco...special concern  American peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus anatum), a USFWS Bird of Conservation Concern and fully protected under the CA Fish...consultation with the SHPO or any Native American tribes on this lease renewal. The draft EA will, however, be provided to the SHPO and Native American

  3. Feasibility Report. Mississippi River at Saint Paul, Minnesota. Reevaluation of Saint Paul Flood Control Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Section 107 - Small Boat Harbors Grand Portage , Minnesota Cook County Bald Eagle (T) (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) Gray Wolf (T) (Canis lupus) American...River, Portage , Wisconsin Columbla County American Peregrine Falcon (E) (Falco peregrInus anatum) Arctic Peregrine Falcon (E) (Falco peregrinus...valuation of properties exceeds $100 milion. The total value of inventories for products and other capital goods and contents of buildings is in excess

  4. ALIADOS, TRÁNSFUGAS Y BARRILITOS: LAS ELECCIONES LEGISLATIVAS DE 2010 EN REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén BENITO SÁNCHEZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las claves explicativas de los resultados de las elecciones legislativas y municipales de 2010 en República Dominicana así como de la reciente transformación que ha experimentado el sistema de partidos dominicano, del tripartidismo al bipartidismo plural. El liderazgo del presidente Leonel Fernández, su imagen, popularidad y pragmatismo son la clave del éxito electoral del PLD, favorecido también por el faccionalismo endémico del PRD y la descomposición progresiva del PRSC. En esta contienda, el PLD consolida su dominio electoral gracias al apoyo de los partidos minoritarios y se asegura el control del Legislativo durante los próximos seis años.

  5. El arte como alegato contra la violencia y como cuestionamiento de la historia oficial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Torres

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available En el presente escrito se estudia la violencia dentro del contexto artístico de Nicaragua para establecer una relación entre las imágenes pictóricas que la reflejan y el marco social en que se produjeron. A fin de comprender esa relación entre la obra de arte y la violencia, se analizan las obras de tres pintores nicaragüenses -Alejandro Aróstegui, Orlando Sobalvarro y Leonel Vanegas, quienes formaron parte del Grupo Praxis (1963-1973. A través de un detallado análisis de las obras, se explica cómo estos artistas, al presentar en sus trabajos un contenido testimonial, recurren a formas no tradicionales de expresión para representar la realidad y el lado oculto de la historia.

  6. Aliados, tránsfugas y barrilitos: las elecciones legislativas de 2010 en República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén BENITO SÁNCHEZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las claves explicativas de los resultados de las elecciones legislativas y municipales de 2010 en República Dominicana así como de la reciente transformación que ha experimentado el sistema de partidos dominicano, del tripartidismo al bipartidismo plural. El liderazgo del presidente Leonel Fernández, su imagen, popularidad y pragmatismo son la clave del éxito electoral del PLD, favorecido también por el faccionalismo endémico del PRD y la descomposición progresiva del PRSC. En esta contienda, el PLD consolida su dominio electoral gracias al apoyo de los partidos minoritarios y se asegura el control del Legislativo durante los próximos seis años.

  7. A possible relationship between bumblefoot responsive to potassium arsenite and micrococci in the blood of three birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarello, W

    2002-01-01

    Pododermatitis (bumblefoot) is a major health problem of falcons world-wide because healing processes in the talons are difficult and lengthy. A peregrine (Falco peregrinus), a merlin (Falco columbarius) and a saker falcon (Falco cherrug) with bumblefoot at different stages ranging from III to V, were all found to be carriers of micrococcus-like organisms in the blood and two of them were successfully treated with 0.5% potassium arsenite in low dosage given intravenously. A number of considerations are made on the immune dysfunction aspects of bumblefoot in birds of prey and on the emerging role of arsenic-based medicaments in the treatment of animal and human immune dysfunction syndromes.

  8. New Records of Raptors in Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Barashkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe our data on observations of birds of prey in Eastern-Kazakhstan Upland and Northern Balkhash Lake area collected mostly in 2013, May–June and September, and also in 2012, March and May. In total we have recorded 15 species of birds of prey: Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis, Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca, Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus, Black-Eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus, Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus, Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus, Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug, Steppe Merlin (Falco columbarius pallidus, Lesser and Common Kestrels (Falco naumanni, F. tinnunculus, and also 4 owl species: Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo, Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus, Little Owl (Athene noctua, and Scops Owl (Otus scops. Nesting peculiarities (data on nests' locations and breeding are described for some species.

  9. Contraband of Falcons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira G. Nikolenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the criminal proceeding in smuggling of falcons, former employees of the Line Internal Affairs Department in MIA transport, working in Domodedovo airport, were sentenced to large fines  - A. Kurokhtin, D. Gorodenko and A. Kustov, as was reported in Rossiyskaya Gazeta on 19.06.2013. Inspectors of the State Committee for the wild life protection together with employees of the MIA of Khakassia on 15.09.2013 detained two individuals engaged in illegal catching of falcons. On 04.11.2013 in Buryatia perpetrator, which transported 16 falcons, was arrested. On the road Khabarovsk-Chita in the vicinity of the village Nikolayevka in Jewish Autonomous Region (Russia police seized 21 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus, which on 26.11.2013 was reported in STRBC “Dalnevostochnaya”. In the village Lesnoi of Yelizovo district in the Kamchatka Region on 29.11.2013, police arrested two men and seized eight Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus. One Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug seized on 12.12.2013 in the village Staroaleyskoe of Tretyakovo district of the Altai Kray (Russia. On 24.12.2013 in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Russia the police, together with colleagues from the regional FSSD seized 13 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus from two residents of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. On 15.01.2014 in Kamchatka, the 51-year-old resident of the village of Nagorny in Yelizovski District, which kept 8 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus in the garage at his house land plot, was arrested. Prosecution office of Tarbagatay district of East Kazakhstan region (Kazakhstan together with the police and the authorities for the wild life protection found 7 Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug on 06.08.2014. At security control point “Ak-tilek - roadway" (Kazakhstan on 29.08.2014 border guards together with employees of the State Customs Service apprehended a citizen of Kazakhstan, who tried to take from Kyrgyzstan to Kazakhstan 3 young Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug. Supervisors of safety department in

  10. "A Is A”: Spider-Man, Ayn Rand, and What Man Ought to Be

    OpenAIRE

    Brühwiler, Claudia Franziska

    2017-01-01

    In 1979, writer Tom DeFalco was paired with artist and cocreator of Spider-Man, Steve Ditko, to work on an issue of Machine Man, one of the many superheroes populating the universe of Marvel Comics. Instead of the usual introduction and business chatter, Ditko challenged DeFalco during a first conversation: "Are you Tom? What gives you the right to write about heroes?" (Tucker 2012). By the time of this exchange, Ditko had not only (co-) created and continued numerous superhero stories, rangi...

  11. Breeding chronology and reproductive success of Richardson's merlins in southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale M. Becker; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1985-01-01

    Breeding chronology and reproductive success of the Merlin (Falco columbarius richarsonii) were studied in southeastern Montana from 1978 - 1981. Breeding activity spanned 5 mo from the earliest observation of adults to the latest dispersal of adults and young from nesting areas. Clutch size, brood size and fledging success at active nests were...

  12. How to Have Fewer Endangered Species to Avoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    pickeringii (Pickering morning-glory) Eastern indigo snake (Drymarchon corais couperi) SE Kestrel (Falco sparverius paulus) Pine snake (Pituophis...can preserve an entire species  Does it “take a village to raise a child ?”  It takes a whole state to save a species  Better yet, a whole region

  13. Long-term monitoring of an insular population of Barbary Falcon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Territory spacing and breeding rates of an insular population (north-western Tenerife, Canary Islands) of Barbary Falcon Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides was studied from 1993 to 2008. The population increased constantly since the outset, from two pairs in 1993 to 12 in 2008. Mean density was 5.48 pairs per 100 km2 and ...

  14. Summer diet of the peregrine falcon in faunistically rich and poor zones of Arizona analyzed with capture-recapture modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David H. Ellis; Catherine H. Ellis; Beth Ann Sabo; Amadeo M. Rea; James Dawson; James K. Fackler; Charles T. Larue; John Schmitt; Dwight G. Smith; Marc Kery

    2004-01-01

    We collected prey remains from 25 Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) territories across Arizona from 1977 to 1988 yielding 58 eyrie-years of data. Along with 793 individual birds (107 species and six additional genera), we found seven mammals and nine insects. In addition, two nestling peregrines were consumed. We found a larger dependence upon White-throated Swifts...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skeen, RO. Vol 35, No 1 (2015) - Articles short communication: A second Uganda record of Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2313-1799. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  16. Root causes of the decreasing in numbers of the Saker Falcon and ways of its decision within the Saker Falcon Global Action Plan in Russia and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira G. Nikolenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes information on factors impacting on the decrease in numbers of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug in Russia and Kazakhstan and analyses conditions в of the Global Action Plan that are aimed at neutralization of these factors to increase in numbers and sustainable management of the Saker Falcon in the wild.

  17. Cross-continental patterns in the timing of southward Peregrine Falcon migration in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worcester, R.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the timing of southward migration of Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) across North America, based on passage data compiled by the Hawk Migration Association of North America, supplemented with two other similar datasets collected by individual observers at sites in western Canada.

  18. Food habits of nesting prairie falcons in Campbell County

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Stanley H. Anderson; Robert Oakleaf

    1989-01-01

    Fifteen species of prey were utilized by nesting Prairie Falcons (Falco mexicanus) as determined through pellet analysis. Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), the most common prey, were present in 91% of the pellets, followed by Western Meadowlarks (Sturnella neglecta) which were present in 56% of pellets. Horned Larks (Eremophila...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probst, Remo. Vol 37, No 1 (2017) - Articles Hobbies (Falco cuvieri and F. subbuteo) versus bats over Kampala skies. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2313-1799. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  20. City of Freeport, Florida, State Road 20 Water Main Installation, Final Environmental Assessment, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    canadensis Flatwoods Ecological Association Longleaf Pine Pinus palustris Wood Duck Aix sponsa Runner Oak Quercus pumila Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius...Elanoides forficatus Swallow-tailed Kite - - Eudocimus albus White Ibis LS - Falco sparverius paulus Southeastern American Kestrel LT - Haematopus

  1. Joint Maneuver Test Range on Eglin Air Force Base, Florida Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-14

    half of the taxiway (750 ft) would contain approximately 250 asphalt/ runner speed bumps. Each speed bump (22) would be approximately 6 ft long, 12 in...thula Snowy Egret LS - Elanoides forficatus Swallow-tailed Kite - - Eudocimus albus White Ibis LS - Falco sparverius paulus Southeastern American

  2. Haematozoan infections in the Eurasian kestrel : Effects of fluctuating food supply and experimental manipulation of parental effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiehn, J.; Korpimaki, E.; Pen, I.R.

    The influence of parental effort on susceptibility to parasitism was investigated experimentally in the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in Finland. Parental effort was manipulated by either enlarging or reducing broods by 1-2 young, while unmanipulated broods served as controls. This was done

  3. The effect of kleptoparasitic bald eagles and gyrfalcons on the kill rate of peregrine falcons hunting dunlins wintering in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, T.J.; Out, M.; Tabak, M.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism in birds has been the subject of much research, and the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a known kleptoparasite. It has been reported to pirate ducks captured by Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus), but ours is the first study to examine the effect of kleptoparasitic Bald

  4. Rare birds of prey observations in Kresna Gorge in Bulgaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Greater Spotted Eagle. Aquila clanga was observed over the feeding site in Kresna Gorge interacting with Griffon Vultures and. Ravens in flight on 30 Mar 2010. This is the first record of the species from the area. Lanner Falcon. Falco biarmicus feldegii. A territorial single adult bird (most probably female) was frequently.

  5. Eggshell pigmentation has no evident effects on offspring viability in common kestrels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fargallo, J. A.; López-Rull, I.; Mikšík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam; Peralta-Sánchez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2014), s. 627-637 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : biliverdin IX * egg colouration * eggshell proteins * falco tinnunculus * protoporphyrin IX Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.517, year: 2014

  6. Final Environmental Assessment for the Skid Strip Area Development Plan at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    E Nodding Pinweed Lechea cernua ---- T Satin Leaf Chrysophyllum olivaeforme ---- E Birds Arctic Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus tundrius...running along the ground beneath the scrub or by jumping from shrub to shrub. Insects , particularly orthopterans (e.g., locusts, crickets...the information. Taxonomy Peromyscus polionotus is a member of the order Rodentia and family Cricetidae. The southeastern beach mouse (SEBM) is

  7. Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology - Vol 76, No 1-2 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding biology and diet of Banded Kestrels Falco zoniventris on Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ... Short Note Nests and eggs of the Black-headed Bee-eater (Merops breweri) in Gabon, with notes on other bee-eaters · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  8. Primer registro de Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenidae para el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos por primera vez la presencia del nematodo, Serratospiculum tendo Nitzsch, 1819, parasitando los sacos aéreos de un halcón peregrino (Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771. Seis nematodos (2 machos y 4 hembras fueron colectados e identificados como S. tendo. El hallazgo de este nematodo constituye el primer registro en el Perú.

  9. "Jade Warrior" sai Hispaanias kolm preemiat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Eesti osalusega Soome-Hiina kung fu film "Igavese armastuse sõdalane - Jade Warrior" võitis 1. Ibiza ja Formentera filmifestivalil kolm Falco d'Ori auhinda (AJ Annila - parim debüüt-lavastaja, Jukka Uusitalo - filmikunstniku töö eest, Henri Blomberg - operaatritöö eest)

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Opitz G/BBB syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TYPE II MedGen (1 link) Opitz G/BBB syndrome Sources for This Page De Falco F, Cainarca S, Andolfi G, Ferrentino R, Berti C, Rodríguez Criado G, Rittinger O, Dennis N, Odent S, Rastogi A, Liebelt ... X-linked Opitz syndrome: novel mutations in the MID1 gene and redefinition ...

  11. Defending Critical Infrastructure as Cyber Key Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    implemented cannot be remotely updated by the security operations center, detection instrumentation and prevention capabilities are limited. This...Systems (ICS) Security: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA ) Systems, Distributed Control Systems (DCS), and Other Control System...Falco, and Karen A. Scarfone. "SP 800-82. Guide to Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Security: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA

  12. Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology - Vol 89, No 1 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration of a Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus calidus from Saudi Arabia to Cape Town as revealed by satellite telemetry · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Bernd-Ulrich Meyburg, Patrick Paillat, Christiane Meyburg, Michael McGrady, 93-96 ...

  13. Persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) in the Greenland environment - Long-term temporal changes and effects on eggs of a bird of prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P. B.; Vorkamp, K.; Thomsen, M.

    The project studied the long-term time trend of brominated flame retardants, poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs. Furthermore, possible effects of the contamination on the eggshell thickness were investigated using multivaria...

  14. Alceu Amoroso Lima’s Spiritual Itinerary Desert and Faith’s Ecstasy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Garcia Rodrigues

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show a little bit of Alceu Amoroso Lima’s (1893-1983 spiritual trajectory, the mainly catholic leadership in Brazil throughout XX century.  Amoroso Lima was a victim of the Agnosticism lived in the beginning of that century, exactly when he rediscovered religion as a source of life and turned into Catholicism.  All these changes happened during his strong friendship with two important intellectuals of that time: the writer Jackson de Figueiredo and the theologian Father Leonel Franca.  Amoroso Lima kept a non-stopping Correspondence with them, and then faced a kind of “spiritual battle” through six years, giving another significance to the Epistolography as a literary gender.  This research follows the “desertic paths” faced by Amoroso Lima up to his final meeting with God, the doubts and certainties, faults and lucky hits, specially in the peculiar difficulties of those who believe in God.Keywords: theology; literature; spirituality; conversion.

  15. Alliances, party-switching and pork-barrel politics: the Dominican Republic 2010 legislative elections Aliados, tránsfugas y barrilitos: las elecciones legislativas de 2010 en República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén BENITO SÁNCHEZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the explanatory factors of the outcome of the legislative and municipal elections of 2010 in Dominican Republic and the recent transformation experienced by the Dominican party system from a tripartism to a plural bipartism.. The leadership of President Fernández, its image, popularity, and pragmatism, are the key factors in the electoral success of the PLD, favored by endemic factionalism into the PRD and the progressive collapse of the PRSC as well. In this context, the PLD consolidated its electoral dominance thanks to the support of minority parties and will control the Legislative branch for the next six years.Este artículo analiza las claves explicativas de los resultados de las elecciones legislativas y municipales de 2010 en República Dominicana así como de la reciente transformación que ha experimentado el sistema de partidos dominicano, del tripartidismo al bipartidismo plural. El liderazgo del presidente Leonel Fernández, su imagen, popularidad y pragmatismo son la clave del éxito electoral del PLD, favorecido también por el faccionalismo endémico del PRD y la descomposición progresiva del PRSC. En esta contienda, el PLD consolida su dominio electoral gracias al apoyo de los partidos minoritarios y se asegura el control del Legislativo durante los próximos seis años.

  16. Kızılırmak Vadisinde Kuşları Etkileyen Olumsuz Faktörler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül İLİKER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Totally, 263 bird species were observed in the Kızılırmak valley between 2010-2012 years. Among them were 93 residents, 82 summer migrants, 51 winter migrants and 37 transit migrants. When evaluated in IUCN criteria, Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus, saker falcon (Falco cherrug and velvet scoter (Melanitta fusca are endengared (EN, marbled teal (Marmaronette angustirostris, great bustard (Otis tarda and aquatic warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola are vulnareble (VU and ferruginous duck (Aythya nyroca, red kite (Milvus milvus, pallid harrier (Circus macrourus, red footed falcon (Falco vespertinus, great snipe (Gallinago media, rock partridge (Alectoris graeca, black tailed godwit (Limosa limosa, European roller (Coracias garrulus and semi collared flycatcher (Ficedula semitorquata are near threatened (NT. Among negatively affecting factors the birds, in Kızılırmak Valley; reed cutting, water regime changing, recreational activities in riverside, stubble burning, agricultural land expansion, chemical and noise pollution can be considered

  17. Salmonellosis in relation to chlamydiosis and pox and Salmonella infections in captive falcons in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernery, U; Wernery, R; Zachariah, R; Kinne, J

    1998-12-01

    During the spring of 1995, 1996 and 1997 following tests on six peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and two gyr falcons (Falco rusticolus), Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from liver, spleen and small intestines. Four of the falcons (two peregrines and two gyrs) had also contracted Chlamydia infection, three peregrines a pox infection and one peregrine a Herpesvirus infection. It is believed that this dual infection was fatal for these birds. The disease was marked by anorexia, dehydration and green-coloured droppings. Necropsy of all falcons revealed discolouration of the liver and enlargement of liver and spleen. Miliary necrosis was detected in all livers. A total of 12 salmonella serovars, including S. typhimurium, were cultured from faeces of 48 falcons which showed no clinical signs.

  18. A preference-ordered discrete-gaming approach to air-combat analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, H. J.; Lefton, L.

    1978-01-01

    An approach to one-on-one air-combat analysis is described which employs discrete gaming of a parameterized model featuring choice between several closed-loop control policies. A preference-ordering formulation due to Falco is applied to rational choice between outcomes: win, loss, mutual capture, purposeful disengagement, draw. Approximate optimization is provided by an active-cell scheme similar to Falco's obtained by a 'backing up' process similar to that of Kopp. The approach is designed primarily for short-duration duels between craft with large-envelope weaponry. Some illustrative computations are presented for an example modeled using constant-speed vehicles and very rough estimation of energy shifts.

  19. Archaeological and Historical Reconnaissance and Literature Search of Cultural Resources within the Pembina River Project, Pembina and Cavalier Counties, North Dakota. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Pine Siskin Pica pica Black-billed Magpie -23- UV Lie 1 J 4*J. ~ .. * ~ . Bucephala clangula Common Goldeneye Podiceps auritus Horned Grebe Falco...Sioux Indians murdered three metis men. Good, et al. (1980:45) summarized a contemporary account of the event by early settler Ernestine Mager. She...34 1969:30). Company "F," with Capt. John S. McNaught in command, was sent out immediately in pursuit of those responsible for the murder . When they

  20. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera) on captive birds in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Salete Oliveira da; Oliveira, Heloiza Helena de; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Amorim, Marinete

    2009-01-01

    Foram identificadas 12 espécies de malófagos no Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba e Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. Ciconiphilus pectiniventris em Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae); Kurodaia sp. em Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae); Degeeriella sp. em Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae); Colpocephalum sp. e Goniocotes parviceps em Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae); Goniodes pavonis em Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae);...

  1. Malófagos (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera) em aves cativas no sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Salete Oliveira da; Oliveira,Heloiza Helena de; Teixeira,Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Amorim,Marinete

    2009-01-01

    Foram identificadas 12 espécies de malófagos no Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba e Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. Ciconiphilus pectiniventris em Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae); Kurodaia sp. em Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae); Degeeriella sp. em Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae); Colpocephalum sp. e Goniocotes parviceps em Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae); Goniodes pavonis em Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae);...

  2. Plasma protein patterns in captive American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, J; Bird, D M; Ng Kwai Hang, K F

    1983-01-01

    Plasma proteins of the American kestrel (Falco sparverius) were analyzed by polyacrylamide disc electrophoresis for 3 different groups of birds: laying and non-laying females, and males. The electrophoretic patterns were homogeneous for each group and showed differences in the mobility of some proteins among the 3 groups. There was no significant difference among the 3 groups in the amount of proteins and in the standard parameter of albumin to globulin ratio.

  3. Environmental Assessment to Construct a FAMCAMP, Sheppard Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-05

    Assessment and no public comments submitted, 1 conclude that implementation of the Proposed Action Alternative would not constitute as action that...anatum No DL E Peregrine falcon (American) Falco peregrinus tundrius No DL T (Arctic) Whooping crane Grus Americana No LE E Gray wolf Canis lupus... amended so as to "incorporate by reference it’s Environmental Analysis". UPDATE: As of28 May 2013, the telephone contacts have been initiated and

  4. Trash-caused mortality in Mongolian raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Lish, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    On four expeditions (1994, 1995, 1997, and 1998) through Mongolia, we found two kinds of mortality associated with trash gathered by parent raptors as part of the nest building process. Our observations of actual mortality were limited to three species: the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) (2 clutches of eggs), the saker falcon (Falco cherrug) (4 nestlings), and the upland buzzard (Buteo hemilasius) (1 nestling); all from the eastern half of Mongolia.

  5. Biological Assessment on Impacts to Peregrine Falcons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-15

    George W. Ploudre, P.E. Assistant Chief, Engineering Division NPSEN-PL-ER 15 March 1984 LUMMI BAY MARINA, WHATCOM COUNTY, WASHINGTON BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT...Randall K. Knapp, and James K. Fackler, .1984. "The Behavior and Ecology of Fall Peregrine Falcons at Lummi Bay and Vicinity, Whatcom County...impacts of the proposed Lummi Bay Marina project, Whatcom County, Washington on the Federally endangered peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus

  6. Contribution au suivi de la population nicheuse du faucon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le faucon crécerellette (Falco naumanni) est une espèce globalement menacée. Nous avons étudié la dynamique de la population de Zaghouan (Tunisie). Nos résultats suggèrent que le nombre des couples nicheuses à l'Aqueduc diminue significativement d'une année à une autre. Ce résultat serait du à la destruction ou ...

  7. Residues in common flicker and mountain bluebird eggs one year after a DDT application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Olson, R.A.; Meeker, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    Common flicker (Colaptes auratus) and mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides) eggs were examined 1 year after DDT application and showed a marked difference. Residue levels in mountain bluebird eggs were approximately 10 times higher than in common flicker eggs (5.29 to 0.58 ppm wet weight). These differences can be explained by disparate dietary habits. The mean level in American kestrel (Falco sparverius) eggs collected in the spray area at the same time was 6.42 ppm wet weight.

  8. Heavy rainfall increases nestling mortality of an arctic top predator: experimental evidence and long-term trend in peregrine falcons

    OpenAIRE

    Anctil, Alexandre; Franke, Alastair; Bêty, Joël

    2013-01-01

    Although animal population dynamics have often been correlated with fluctuations in precipitation, causal relationships have rarely been demonstrated in wild birds. We combined nest observations with a field experiment to investigate the direct effect of rainfall on survival of peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in the Canadian Arctic. We then used historical data to evaluate if recent changes in the precipitation regime could explain the long-term decline of falcon annual producti...

  9. Flash visual evoked potentials in diurnal birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Maurizio; Biaggi, Fabio; Di Ianni, Francesco; Dodi, Pier Luigi; Quintavalla, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of Flash Visual Evoked Potentials (FVEPs) testing in birds of prey in a clinical setting and to describe the protocol and the baseline data for normal vision in this species. FVEP recordings were obtained from 6 normal adult birds of prey: n. 2 Harris's Hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus), n. 1 Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus), n. 2 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and n. 1 Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug). Before carrying out VEP tests, all animals underwent neurologic and ophthalmic routine examination. Waveforms were analysed to identify reproducible peaks from random variation of baseline. At least three positive and negative peaks were highlighted in all tracks with elevated repeatability. Measurements consisted of the absolute and relative latencies of these peaks (P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, and N3) and their peak-to-peak amplitudes. Both the peak latency and wave morphology achieved from normal animals were similar to those obtained previously in other animal species. This test can be easily and safely performed in a clinical setting in birds of prey and could be useful for an objective assessment of visual function.

  10. Flash visual evoked potentials in diurnal birds of prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Dondi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of Flash Visual Evoked Potentials (FVEPs testing in birds of prey in a clinical setting and to describe the protocol and the baseline data for normal vision in this species. FVEP recordings were obtained from 6 normal adult birds of prey: n. 2 Harris’s Hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus, n. 1 Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus, n. 2 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus and n. 1 Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug. Before carrying out VEP tests, all animals underwent neurologic and ophthalmic routine examination. Waveforms were analysed to identify reproducible peaks from random variation of baseline. At least three positive and negative peaks were highlighted in all tracks with elevated repeatability. Measurements consisted of the absolute and relative latencies of these peaks (P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, and N3 and their peak-to-peak amplitudes. Both the peak latency and wave morphology achieved from normal animals were similar to those obtained previously in other animal species. This test can be easily and safely performed in a clinical setting in birds of prey and could be useful for an objective assessment of visual function.

  11. Molecular cloning and sequencing analysis of the interferon receptor (IFNAR-1) from Columba livia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Chang, Wei Shan

    2014-01-01

    Partial sequence cloning of interferon receptor (IFNAR-1) of Columba livia. In order to obtain a certain length (630 bp) of gene, a pair of primers was designed according to the conserved nucleotide sequence of Gallus (EU477527.1) and Taeniopygia guttata (XM_002189232.1) IFNAR-1 gene fragment that was published by GenBank. Special primers were designed by the Race method to amplify the 3'terminal cDNA. The Columba livia IFNAR-1 displayed 88.5%, 80.5% and 73.8% nucleotide identity to Falco peregrinus, Gallus and Taeniopygia guttata, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the IFNAR1 gene showed that the relationship of Columba livia, Falco peregrinus and chicken had high homology. We successfully obtained a Columba livia IFNAR-1 gene partial sequence. Analysis of the genetic tree showed that the relationship of Columba livia and Falco peregrinus IFNAR-1 had high homology. This result can be used as reference for further research and practical application.

  12. Informes clínicos breves

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    Juan Carlos Vega Higuera

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Trabeculectomía y endotelio. Autor: Dr. Juan Carlos Vega Higuera. Residente de Oftalmología.Tutores: Dr. Gabriel Ortiz, Instructor Asociado, Unidad de Oftalmología, Departamento de Cirugía, yJorge Barrero, Profesor de Oftalmología, U.N. Eficacia de heparina intravenosa vs. heparina subcutánea en la prevención de la formación de trombo ventricular izquierdo que sigue a un infarto agudo del miocardio de pared anterior. Autores: Drs. Benedicto Velasco, Carlos Sánchez y Antonio Oviedo Leonel. Tutor: Dr. Ariel Pérez Monroy, Instructor Asociado, Unidad de Medicina Interna Integral, Departamento de Medicina Interna. Facultad de Medicina, U.N. Comorbilidad psiquiátrica en los pacientes de la Unidad de Diálisis del Hospital San Juan de Dios de Santafé de Bogotá. Autor: Dra. Ana Isabel Gómez Martínez, Residente III, Departamento de Psiquiatría. Tutor: Dra. Elena Martín Cardinal, Profesora Asistente, Departamento de Psiquiatría. Facultad de Medicina, U.N. Meningiomas intracraneanos. Hospital San Juan de Dios, 1990-1994. Autor: Dr. Carlos Alberto Mora Ojeda. Residente de la Unidad de Neurocirugía. Tutor: Dr. Víctor Hugo Bastos, Instructor Asociado, Unidad de Neurocirugía, Departamento de Cirugía, Facultad de Medicina, U.N. Utilidad de la gamagrafía ósea y la biopsia sinovial en el diagnóstico precoz de la artritis reumatoidea. Autor: Dr. Abel R. González S., Residente JI, Unidad de Reumatología, Departamento de Medicina Interna. Facultad de Medicina, U.N. Tutor: Dr. Mario Peña Cortés, Profesor Titular, Unidad de Reumatología, Departamento de Medicina Interna. Facultad de Medicina, U.N.

  13. Raptors in the State Nature Reserve “Kerzhensky” After Forest Fires of 2010: Materials of Five-Year Monitoring of a Summer Bird Population

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    Olga S. Noskova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of five-year monitoring data on summer bird population in the Nature Reserve “Kerzhensky” after the catastrophic fires of 2010, a spatial distribution of raptors was analyzed (mainly birds of prey – Falconiformes. Main types of habitats were surveyed using line transect counts. In total 17 species of raptors were observed. Abundance of each species is presented here. Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo and Eurasian Hobby (Falco subbuteo were the most common species of raptors in the Nature Reserve.

  14. Gipuzkoan hegazti habigile batzuen lehen aipamenak eta beste aipamen interesgarri batzuk

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    OLANO, M., VAZQUEZ, J., AIERBE, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Como resultado del trabajo de campo realizado estos últimos años, se da cuenta por primera vez de la presencia como aves nidificantes en Gipuzkoa de Fulica atra, Policeps cristatus, Tachybaptus ruficollis, Riparia riparia, Falco subbuteo, Asio otus, Aquila chysaëtos, Circaetus Gallicus y Drycopus martius. Además, se recogen datos de unas cuantas especies muy poco conocidas en esta provincia : Accipiter gentilis, Hieraëtus pennatus, Milvus migrans, Bubo bubo, Motacilla flava, Monticola solitarius and Certthia familiaris.

  15. Peregrine falcon predation of endangered Laysan teal and Laysan Finches on remote Hawaiian atolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Nash, Sarah A.B.; Courtot, Karen

    2015-01-01

    We report the first records of Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) predation on endangered Laysan teal (or duck; Anas laysanensis) and predation on endangered Laysan finches (Telespiza cantans). At Midway Atoll, vagrant Peregrine falcons killed ≥4% of a newly translocated Laysan teal population in 2006 and ≥2% in 2008. On Laysan Island during 2008–2009, remains of >76 Laysan finches (increases at small atolls, this could pose a mortality risk to consider, especially during proposed translocations of endangered species. Vegetation restoration of abandoned runways near wetlands at Midway Atoll would provide cover and may help reduce mortality of endangered species due to vagrant raptors.

  16. Cryopreservation of American kestrel semen with dimethylsulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Morrell, C.A.; Franson, J. Christian; Pattee, Oliver H.

    1993-01-01

    Semen samples from 15 male American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) were frozen in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The semen was thawed 1-14 mo later and used to inseminate six females during three breeding seasons. Kestrels inseminated with thawed semen containing 4% DMSO produced only infertile eggs (N = 14). Kestrels inseminated with thawed semen containing 6%, 8%, or 10% DMSO produced fertile eggs (N = 14) and live chicks (N = 6). Progressive motility of spermatozoa in thawed semen containing 10% DMSO was less (44 ? 6%) than in thawed semen containing 6% (62 ? 10%) or 8% (61 ? 1%) DMSO.

  17. Predation of Lesser Nacked-backed bats by a pair of American kestrels on the Island of Marie-Galante, French West Indies.

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoble, Arnaud; Bochaton, Corentin; Bos, Teddy; Discamps, Emmanuel; Queffelec, Alain

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Here we report the predation on a colony of Lesser naked-backed bat (Pteronotus davyi) by a pair of American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) based on observations over a 16 day period. Kestrels preyed on bats in the evening as they were leaving their roost with two factors controlling hunting efficiency, namely: (1) meteorological conditions, and (2) the time of flock formation. The frequency of occurrence is 93.8% and the success rate is 16.4%. We estimate that bats provid...

  18. Inclusion body disease of falcons (Herpesvirus infection) in an American kestrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, A A; Potgieter, L N; Kocan, K M

    1977-04-01

    Postmortem examination of a captive-bred American kestrel (Falco sparverius) showed numerous white necrotic foci 1-2 mm in diameter throughout the liver and spleen. The results of light and spleen. The results of light and electron microscopic studies and experimental transmission to a captive American kestrel and a barred owl (Strix varia) suggests a herpesvirus similar to those dsecribed for owls and other falcons in the U.S. This is the first report of a naturally occurring case of inclusion body disease of falcons in the American kestrel.

  19. Distribución temporal de aves rapaces diurnas en la Reserva "Playón de Mismaloya", Jalisco, México

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    Salvador Hernández Vázquez

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal raptors were counted monthly in the "Playón de Mismaloya", reserve, Jalisco, Mexico, from November 1997 to October 1998. We identified 11 species; eight of them migrants, one resident and two resident with migrant populations. The highest increase in total number of individuals was from December to March, influenced mainly by the presence of Caracara plancus (Crested Caracara, Falco sparverius (American Kestrel and Pandion haliaetus (Osprey. The two former species were observed frequently in open areas, where they could detect prey more easily, while ospreys were found only in estuaries, lagoons and beach, where food was available.

  20. Taxiado de aves entre Villoria de Orbigo y Veguellina de Orbigo, en León, a 8 de mayo de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Taxiado de aves entre Villoria de Orbigo y Veguellina de Orbigo, en León, el 8 de mayo de 1953, que incluye a las siguientes especies: Aegithalos caudatus (Mito), Athene noctua (Mochuelo europeo), Carduelis chloris (Verderón común, llamado Chloris chloris por el autor), Certhia sp. (Agateador, también conocido como Chapin), Cettia cetti (Ruiseñor bastardo), Cyanistes caeruleus (Herrerillo común, llamado Parus coeruleus por el autor), Emberiza cirlus (Escribano soteño), Falco subbuteo (Alcotán...

  1. Salida de campo a Fuensaldaña (Valladolid) el 21 de mayo de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Fuensaldaña (Valladolid) el 21 de mayo de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Anthus campestris (Bisbita campestre), Athene noctua (Mochuelo europeo), Calandrella sp. (Terrera), Carduelis cannabina (Pardillo común, llamada Colorín y Acanthis cannabina por el autor), Ciconia ciconia (Cigüeña blanca), Corvus corax (Cuervo), Coturnix coturnix (Codorniz común), Falco tinnunculus (Cernícalo vulgar), Galerida cristata (Cogujada común), Gyps fulvus ...

  2. Salida de campo a Corcos (Valladolid) el 6 de junio de 1951

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Corcos (Valladolid) durante la mañana del 6 de junio de 1951, en la que anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Apus apus (Vencejo común), Carduelis carduelis (Jilguero), Columba palumbus (Paloma torcaz), Corvus corax (Cuervo), Corvus monedula (Grajilla, llamada Coloeus por el autor), Falco peregrinus (Halcón peregrino), Neophron percnopterus (Alimoche común), Petronia petronia (Gorrión chillón), Streptopelia turtur (Tórtola común), Sylvia communis (Curruca zarcera...

  3. Salida de campo por Valladolid el 27 de diciembre de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo por la ciudad de Valladolid el 27 de diciembre de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Alondra (probablemente, Alauda arvensis, la Alondra común), Andarríos (llamados "Andarius sp." por el autor, pudiendo ser Acitis sp. o Tringa sp.), Carduelis carduelis (Jilguero), Columba sp. (Paloma), Corvus corone (Corneja negra), Falco tinnunculus (Cernícalo vulgar), Milvus sp. (Milano) y Pterocles alchata (Ganga ibérica). Field trip through the city of ...

  4. Predicting the fate of biodiversity using species' distribution models: enhancing model comparability and repeatability.

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    Genoveva Rodríguez-Castañeda

    Full Text Available Species distribution modeling (SDM is an increasingly important tool to predict the geographic distribution of species. Even though many problems associated with this method have been highlighted and solutions have been proposed, little has been done to increase comparability among studies. We reviewed recent publications applying SDMs and found that seventy nine percent failed to report methods that ensure comparability among studies, such as disclosing the maximum probability range produced by the models and reporting on the number of species occurrences used. We modeled six species of Falco from northern Europe and demonstrate that model results are altered by (1 spatial bias in species' occurrence data, (2 differences in the geographic extent of the environmental data, and (3 the effects of transformation of model output to presence/absence data when applying thresholds. Depending on the modeling decisions, forecasts of the future geographic distribution of Falco ranged from range contraction in 80% of the species to no net loss in any species, with the best model predicting no net loss of habitat in Northern Europe. The fact that predictions of range changes in response to climate change in published studies may be influenced by decisions in the modeling process seriously hampers the possibility of making sound management recommendations. Thus, each of the decisions made in generating SDMs should be reported and evaluated to ensure conclusions and policies are based on the biology and ecology of the species being modeled.

  5. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

  6. Infoscience technology: the impact of internet accessible melanoid data on health issues

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    J W Grzymała-Busse

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the development of a new internet information system for analyzing and classifying melanocytic dat, is briefly described. This system also has some teaching functions, improves the analysis of datasets based on calculating the values of the TDS (Total Dermatoscopy Score (Braun-Falco, Stolz, Bilek, Merkle, & Landthaler, 1990; Hippe, Bajcar, Blajdo, Grzymala-Busse, Grzymala-Busse, & Knap, et al., 2003 parameter. Calculations are based on two methods: the classical ABCD formula (Braun-Falco et al., 1990 and the optimized ABCD formula (Alvarez, Bajcar, Brown, Grzymala-Busse, & Hippe, 2003. A third method of classification is devoted to quasi-optimal decision trees (Quinlan, 1993. The developed internet-based tool enables users to make an early, non-invasive diagnosis of melanocytic lesions. This is possible using a built-in set of instructions that animates the diagnosis of the four basic lesions types: benign nevus, blue nevus, suspicious nevus and melanoma malignant. This system is available on the Internet website: http://www.wsiz.rzeszow.pl/ksesi.

  7. Helminth community structure in birds of prey (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Kinsella, John M; Galiero, Giorgio; degli Uberti, Barbara; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2012-02-01

    We compared helminth communities in 6 species of birds of prey from the Calabria region of southern Italy. In total, 31 helminth taxa, including 17 nematodes, 9 digeneans, 3 acanthocephalans, and 2 cestodes, were found. All helminth species were observed in the gastrointestinal tract, except for 3 spirurid nematodes. Most of the parasite species were detected in at least 2 hosts, but 13 helminth species were found in only 1 host. At the infracommunity level, the overall species richness and Brillouin's index of diversity varied by host, with the highest values in a generalist feeder, the Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo), and the lowest in a specialist, the western honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). Species richness was gender dependent only in the sparrow hawk (Accipiter nisus). The helminth communities were characterized by different dominant species, namely, Centrorhynchus spp. (Acanthocephala) in the Eurasian buzzard and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), Parastrigea intermedia (Digenea) in the marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus), Physaloptera alata (Nematoda) in the sparrow hawk, Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda) in the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), and Strigea falconis (Digenea) in the western honey buzzard. Statistical analyses confirmed a highly significant difference of helminth infracommunity structure among host species. We conclude that in the Calabria region of southern Italy, each of the raptor species studied is distinct in terms of its helminth communities, and more diverse feeding habits of the host correspond with richer helminth communities.

  8. Monitoring of colonies and provisioning of rooks with nest material as a potential tool for stabilizing colonies and increasing nesting opportunities in the countryside. Project report

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    Slobodník Roman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rook is a species inhabiting open agricultural landscape whose non-active nests are also used by other bird species for nesting. It is the decline in rook colonies that has been posited as one of the reasons for decrease in the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus population in Slovakia since the 1970s. During the period from 2012 till 2016, four monitorings of rook colonies were carried out in south-western Slovakia (Diakovce, Nitrianska Osada, Sokolce and Tvrdošovce. In the colony at Tvrdošovce, supporting activity involving provisioning of rooks with nest material was under way from 2014 until 2016. While the colonies at Diakovce and Nitrianska Osada have been showing a slight decrease in the number of nesting rooks, despite larger interannual differences the colony at Sokolce has been showing an upward trend. The size of the colony at Tvrdošovce has been stable since the beginning of the supporting activity. This activity had a statistically significant positive effect on the width of rook nests. In 74 cases in the studied rook colonies we have recorded nesting by three other bird species – Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus 43.8%, western jackdaw (Corvus monedula 39.7% and long-eared owl (Asio otus 16.4%. In 2015 two female redfooted falcons were observed in the colony at Tvrdošovce.

  9. Network topology of stable isotope interactions in a sub-arctic raptor guild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalerum, F; Hellström, P; Miranda, M; Nyström, J; Ekenstedt, J; Angerbjörn, A

    2016-10-01

    Predation is an ecologically important process, and intra-guild interactions may substantially influence the ecological effects of predator species. Despite a rapid expansion in the use of mathematical graph theory to describe trophic relations, network approaches have rarely been used to study interactions within predator assemblages. Assemblages of diurnal raptors are subject to substantial intra- and interspecific competition. Here we used the novel approach of applying analyzes based on network topology to species-specific data on the stable isotopes (13)C and (15)N in feathers to evaluate patterns of relative resource utilization within a guild of diurnal raptors in northern Sweden. Our guild consisted of the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), the gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and the rough-legged buzzard (Buteo lagopus). We found a modular trophic interaction structure within the guild, but the interactions were less nested than expected by chance. These results suggest low redundancy and hence a strong ecological importance of individual species. Our data also suggested that species were less connected through intra-guild interactions than expected by chance. We interpret our results as a convergence on specific isotope niches, and that body size and different hunting behaviour may mediate competition within these niches. We finally highlight that generalist predators could be ecologically important by linking specialist predator species with disparate dietary niches.

  10. Assessment of anticoagulant rodenticide exposure in six raptor species from the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Valerón, Pilar F; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Almeida-González, Maira; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-07-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides are highly toxic compounds that are widely used for pest control of rodents, but that also may threaten the wildlife's health. This work aimed to assess the exposure to first- and second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) in six birds of prey species from the Canary Islands (Spain). The concentrations of seven widely used ARs were determined by LC-MS/MS in 104 liver samples of six species of birds of prey (Buteo buteo, Accipiter nisus, Falco pelegrinoides, Falco tinnunculus, Asio otus, and Tyto alba). We determined that 61% of the livers had detectable residues of at least one AR. The most frequently detected AR was bromadiolone, which was detected in 60.3% of the positive cases. The detection frequencies of these compounds varied widely, depending on the species. More than 75% of the A. nisus, T. alba, and A. otus individuals had detectable rodenticide residues in the liver. However, F. tinnunculus exhibited the highest concentrations of AR, with median values above 100 ng/g w.w. We did not detect first-generation ARs in any of the samples. When grouped, nocturnal species exhibited higher AR concentrations than diurnal species (Praptors on the Canary Islands. Our findings require authorities to ban or strictly control the use of these rodenticides in the natural environment for the conservation of raptors and other predatory species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Distribution of pelagic squids Abraliopsis Joubin, 1896 (Enoploteuthidae) and Pterygioteuthis P. Fischer, 1896 (Pyroteuthidae) (Cephalopoda, Decapodiformes, Oegopsida) in the Mexican Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Michel E.; Urbano, Brian; Zamorano, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The oegopsid squids Abraliopsis and Pterygioteuthis are abundant and diverse genera with taxonomic and distributional problems. Identification and distribution of species in the Mexican Pacific has been somewhat controversial. Here are provided a large series of new records for Abraliopsis affinis, Abraliopsis falco, Pterygioteuthis gemmata, Pterygioteuthis giardi and Pterygioteuthis hoylei from the Gulf of California and off the SW coast of Mexico. All five species were collected in the central or the southern Gulf of California, or in both. Abraliopsis affinis was found in seven samples with a total of 48 specimens, from 21°59' to 24°53'12"N. Abraliopsis falco was much less represented in the samples (14 specimens) but it was found in 10 localities, four of which correspond to the central-southern Gulf of California (north to 27°44'53"N) and six to SW Mexico (south to 16°49'18"N). In the case of Pterygioteuthis gemmata, only two records (three specimens) were obtained, both in the SW Gulf of California, while Pterygioteuthis giardi (nine specimens) records were all from the central Gulf of California (27°44'53” to 25°39'59"N). In the case of Pterygioteuthis hoylei (nine specimens), material was obtained in six localities, also in a restricted latitudinal range (24°23'48” to 25°56'56"N). PMID:26798236

  12. Causes of Admission for Raptors to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center, Gran Canaria Island, Spain: 2003-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesdeoca, Natalia; Calabuig, Pascual; Corbera, Juan A; Orós, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    We report the causes of morbidity of 2,458 free-living raptors admitted to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, during 2003-13. The seasonal cumulative incidences were investigated while considering estimates of the wild populations in the region. These methods were used as a more accurate approach to assess the potential ecologic impact of different causes of morbidity. The most frequently admitted species were the Eurasian Kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus ; 53.0%), the Eurasian Long-eared Owl ( Asio otus canariensis; 28.1%), the Canary Islands Common Buzzard ( Buteo buteo insularum; 8.0%), and the Eurasian Barn Owl ( Tyto alba ; 4.4%). The most frequent causes of admission were trauma (33.8%), orphaned-young birds (21.7%), unknown (18.4%), and metabolic/nutritional disease (11.1%). Local morbidity caused by glue trapping and entanglement in burr bristlegrass (Setaria adhaerens) had prevalences of 5.0% and 1.8%, respectively. The highest number of admissions during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons was observed for the Eurasian Barn Owl and the Barbary Falcon ( Falco pelegrinoides ), respectively, mainly due to trauma of unknown origin.

  13. Prólogo

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    Alta Hooker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Este volumen no. 17 de la Revista Ciencia e Interculturalidad, presenta una compilación estructurada en 4 secciones temáticas, las cuales comprenden 8 artículos. La primera sección denominada Educación, presenta 2 artículos: El manejo del idioma en Ciencias de la Educación en la especialidad de Español, autoría de Luisa Emilia Ruiz y Luisa Maribel Rodríguez y Metodologías en la enseñanza del cálculo de probabilidades en undécimo grado de educación secundaria, autoría de Fernando Manuel Amador Núñez, Melvin Leonel Reyes Gómez y con la tutoría de William Oswaldo Flores López.En la segunda sección, Educación Superior en la Costa Caribe Nicaragüense, los artículos intitulados: La autonomía universitaria que fortalece la gestión curricular intercultural de la autora Letisia Castillo Gómez y el artículo Propuesta metodológica en la aplicación de la derivada en IngenieríaAgroforestal, II semestre 2013, coautoría de Ernesto Vanegas Sevilla, Yahaira Bermúdez Vargas y con la tutoría de Luis Antonio López Mairena.En la tercera sección, Ciencias Sociales, se presenta el artículo: la relación entre algunos modelos de participación popular ruso, cubano y venezolano (Estudio histórico comparativo, autoría de María Fátima Pinho de Oliveira y el artículo: Afectacionespsicológicas que experimentan adolescentes afrodescendientes con padres embarcados, autoría de Marina Danila Mc coy, Lyssette Newball Crisanto, con la tutoria de Neidy Gutiérrez Soza.En la cuarta sección, Agropecuaria, los artículos intitulados: Prendimiento de dos tipos de injertos en cacao en distintas fases lunares, Siuna, 2014. Coautoría de Mario Reyes Martínez, Lesther Marín Mendieta y Oscar Montalván Castellón yEstrategias de mercadotecnia de la empresa familiar Café el Golfo, Guayabo Central, Siuna, 2013, coautoría de Isabel del Socorro Masis Suazo, Thelma Arelis Centeno Lagos y FranciscoGutiérrez Garmendia.

  14. New records of three hippoboscid species on newly captured birds from nature in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Fontanelli Vaz

    Full Text Available Abstract The aims of this study was to provide new records of hippoboscid flies collected over an one-year period on newly captured birds from nature in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The birds were received by a wildlife center in Tijucas do Sul and the hippoboscid flies were collect by hand or by tweezers, generating a prevalence of 0.7% (16/2232 of parasitized birds. New information about distribution of hippoboscid flies on Asio clamator, Rupornis magnirostris and Athene cunicularia was reported in the state of Paraná. The Caracara plancus, Falco peregrinus and Penelope obscura are new host species for Ornithoctona erythrocephala in the state of Paraná, and the Asio stygius for Icosta rufiventris and Ornithoica vicina in Brazil. This study provided new information about hosts and distribution of hippoboscid flies in Brazilian birds.

  15. New data on avifauna of the Ustyurt plateau in the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasov, A E; Kosintsev, P A; Samashev, Z; Ongar, A; Loshakova, T N; Bolshakov, V N

    2016-07-01

    Bone remains of birds from a location of the middle Subboreal period and from three locations of the early Subatlantic period were studied on the Ustyurt plateau (Kazakhstan). Three out of 17 avian species that have been identified (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus, Falco peregrinus, and Nyctea scandiaca) proved to be absent in the modern fauna of the region. Our data on the bird fauna of the Ustyurt Plateau in the second half of the Middle Holocene and at the beginning of the Late Holocene indicate that, in that time, the migration routes of the little cormorant, peregrine, and snowy owl passed across the Ustyurt territory and the wintering sites of peregrine and snowy owl were more extensive and were also situated in Ustyurt. In the second half of the Late Holocene, the number of wintering sites of these species diminished and their migration routes have been altered.

  16. The austral peregrine falcon: Color variation, productivity, and pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    The austral peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus cassini) was studied in the Andean foot- hills and across the Patagonian steppe from November to December 1981. The birds under study (18 pairs) were reproducing at or near normal (pre-DDT) levels for other races. Pesticide residues, while elevated, were well below the values associated with reproductive failure in other populations. With one exception, eggshells were not abnormally thin. The peregrine falcon in Patagonia exhibits extreme color variation. Pallid birds are nearly pure white below (light cream as juveniles), whereas normally pigmented birds are black-crowned and conspicuously barred with black ventrally. Rare individuals of the Normal Phase display black heads, broad black ventral barring, and warm reddish-brown ventral background coloration.

  17. An updated checklist of birds of Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sultana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveys were carried out at 10 sites in the buffer and core zones of Sariska Tiger Reserve during 2007-2011. MacKinnon species listing method was used to compile a checklist of birds. A total of 224 bird species was recorded including 36 new records. Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus, Marshall Iora Aegithina nigrolutea, Eurasian Eagle Owl Bubo bubo, Brown-headed Barbet Megalaima zeylanica, Indian Nightjar Caprimulgus asiaticus, Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus, Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis, Red-necked Falcon Falco chicquera, Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus, Red-whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus, White-capped Water Redstart Chaimarrornis leucocephalus were some new records. Some important observations are given in detail.

  18. Helminth infestation in birds of prey (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes) in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Tripepi, Mauro; Kinsella, John M; Panebianco, Antonio; Mattiucci, Simonetta

    2010-10-01

    Helminth infestation was identified at post mortem examination in 110/116 (95%) raptors belonging to six species in Southern Italy. Pathological changes associated with helminths were observed in 81/110 (74%) of birds. Lesions in the respiratory system were associated with the nematode Serratospiculum tendo only in Falco peregrinus. Lesions in the digestive tract in a range of species of raptors were associated with nematodes (Cheilospirura falconis, Dispharynx falconis, Dispharynx mathewossianae, Physaloptera spp., Procyrnea spp., Procyrnea leptoptera, Synhimantus spp., Synhimantus laticeps, Eucoleus dispar, Porrocaecum spp. and Porrocaecum angusticolle), acanthocephalans (Centrorhynchus buteonis and Centrorhynchus globocaudatus), digeneans (Neodiplostomum spp., Neodiplostomum perlatum, Parastrigea intermedia and Strigea falconis) and a single cestode (Cladotaenia spp.). Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence of mycoplasmas in free-ranging birds of prey in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lierz, M; Hagen, N; Hernadez-Divers, S J; Hafez, H M

    2008-10-01

    Mycoplasmas are well-known avian pathogens of poultry and some passerines. Although reported in birds of prey, their role as pathogens is still unclear. Healthy, free-ranging raptor nestlings sampled during a routine ringing (banding) program, and birds of prey from rehabilitation centers, tested positive for Mycoplasma spp. by culture and a genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Given the lack of clinical signs and disease, we suggest that mycoplasmas in raptors may be commensal rather than pathogenic. Using immunobinding assay and species-specific PCR tests, Mycoplasma buteonis, M. falconis, and M. gypis were identified; M. falconis was only detected in falcons. Additionally, some isolates could not be identified. This is the first report of Mycoplasma spp. isolations from Western Marsh Harriers (Circus aeroginosus), a Eurasian Hobby (Falco subbuteo), and a Barn Owl (Tyto alba).

  20. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in eggs from birds of prey from Southern Germany, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Walter; Gallistl, Christoph; Schlienz, Annika; Preston, Theresa; Müller, Jens; von der Trenck, K Theo

    2017-12-01

    In Southern Germany, peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), which almost exclusively prey on other birds, are top predators of the terrestrial food chain. These animals accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) with mothers transferring these lipophilic contaminants to their eggs. Here we analyzed unhatched eggs of eleven peregrine falcons and six of other species, and report concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) and its metabolites, pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), pentabromotoluene (PBT), and tribromophenol (TBP). The extract of one purified peregrine falcon egg sample was comprehensively analyzed in a non-target (NT) approach by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the electron capture negative ion mode. A total of ∼400 polyhalogenated compounds were detected, among them dechloranes and possibly transformation products, two tetrabrominated metabolites of PBT and several compounds unknown to us which could not be identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Secondary poisoning hazard of fenthion to American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, K A; Bird, D M; Mineau, P; Shutt, L

    1991-07-01

    The possibility that fenthion, an organophosphorus pesticide, could represent a secondary poisoning hazard to birds of prey was tested, using American kestrels (Falco sparverius) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) as representative models of a naturally occurring predator-prey interaction. Fourteen kestrels were presented with live sparrows exposed previously to perches containing Rid-A-Bird 1100 solution (11% fenthion active ingredient). Eleven kestrels died within twenty-four h after consuming one fenthion-exposed sparrow. Two kestrels died after consumption of a second fenthion-exposed sparrow on day 2, and a final kestrel died after partially consuming a third fenthion-exposed sparrow on day 3. Brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in kestrels was depressed to levels diagnostic of poisoning by a ChE-inhibiting compound. The majority of fenthion contamination of sparrows was external, with the highest amounts measured on the feet. The detection of fenthion residues in kestrel gastro-intestinal tracts confirmed secondary fenthion poisoning.

  2. Simultaneous quantification of progesterone, estrone, estradiol-17 beta and corticosterone in female American kestrel plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, N B; Lague, P C; Bird, D M

    1984-04-01

    Progesterone, estrone, estradiol-17 beta and corticosterone were quantified simultaneously for the first time in female American kestrel (Falco sparverius) plasma. A mean level for each hormone was determined for the laying and non-laying periods of the summer (April-September), and for February. Means were comparable to those of other wild avian species and were significantly higher for the laying period than for the other 2 periods. The mean corticosterone level for February was higher than that for the non-laying summer period. Plasma from laying kestrels, unlike that from other avian species, required lipid removal before column chromatography. Of 2 lipid removal techniques compared, i.e. the cold methanol and hexane:methanol techniques, the latter proved superior.

  3. Eggshell thickness and reproduction in American kestrels exposed to chronic dietary lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, O.H.

    1984-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were randomly paired and fed 0, 10, or 50 ppm metallic lead in their diet from November 1979-May 1980. Lead levels were elevated in bones and livers of birds receiving the treated diets, particularly the 50 ppm treatment group. Differential deposition of lead was noted between males and females, with the highest levels in the females. No adverse effects were evident with respect to survival, egg laying, or initiation of incubation in any treatment group nor was fertility or eggshell thickness affected. Little or no lead was transferred to the egg contents and although lead was present in the shell, the levels were too variable for this to be considered a useful measure of exposure.

  4. Isolation of a herpesvirus from an American kestrel with inclusion body disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, L N; Kocan, A A; Kocan, K M

    1979-01-01

    A herpesvirus was isolated from the liver of a captive-bred American kestrel (Falco sparverius) which had died of inclusion body disease. Initial isolation was achieved in chicken embryo fibroblasts after three blind passages. Cell-adapted virus produced a distinct rounding of CEF cells within 24 to 48 h. Biologic and serologic tests suggested that the kestrel virus is similar to falcon herpesvirus and pigeon herpesvirus and is at least partially related to owl herpesvirus. However, serologic tests indicated that the kestrel herpesvirus is neither related to infectious laryngotracheitis virus nor to a herpesvirus from a psittacine bird; (Eupsittula canicularis) with Pacheco's parrot disease. This is the first report on the recovery of a herpesvirus similar to falcon herpesvirus from an American kestrel with naturally-occurring inclusion body disease, and on the serologic comparison between falcon herpesvirus and a psittacine herpesvirus.

  5. Partial migration and wintering localities of American kestrels nesting in the Pacific northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Brady, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    Based on banding recoveries, an estimated 89.5% of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) nesting in eastern Oregon, eastern Washington, and Idaho (excluding the Snake River Plain) are migratory and primarily migrate to western Mexico for the winter. Band recoveries from Mexico may be biased; however, we do not know whether the bias is toward more or fewer recoveries. The banding data imply that the remaining kestrels from the region (10.5%) are permanent residents, and we found 2.8% of a northeastern Oregon population on nesting territories in January 1981 (permanent residents). A higher percentage of the nesting population appears to be permanent residents in the valleys along the Snake River Plain than in the remainder of Idaho, eastern Oregon, and eastern Washington (p = 0.02). Limited evidence shows that permanent resident kestrels in eastern Oregon nest earlier than migrants. Information available for the population west of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon and Washington was limited.

  6. Interfon

    CERN Multimedia

    Interfon

    2011-01-01

    Une nouvelle année pleine d’optimisme … En vous souhaitant une Bonne Année 2011, Interfon continuera, cette année encore, à mettre toute son énergie à votre service afin de vous faire profiter des avantages que nos partenaires nous consentent spécialement. Certes, la concurrence est dure et nous ne sommes pas toujours à même de vous offrir les prix les meilleurs du marché local, mais nous nous y efforçons à chaque fois que nous en avons l’opportunité. Néanmoins sachez que nous attachons beaucoup d’attention à la qualité des services proposés et que nos partenaires s’emploient à y répondre avec beaucoup de sérieux.   ****** Grande Salento Market à Cessy (près de Falco carrelage) : Importateur exclusif d...

  7. Caryospora neofalconis and other enteroparasites in raptors from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Santana-Sánchez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A coprological survey of enteroparasites in raptors (60 Falconiformes from Central Mexico is reported. Three samples contained coccidian unsporulated oocysts, one contained Eimeria sp., one contained trematode eggs and one contained capillarid and trematode eggs and Eimeria sp. After sporulation at the laboratory, oocysts from a Falco peregrinus were identified as Caryospora neofalconis. The phylogenetic analysis of the C. neofalconis (GenBank accession number KT037081 showed a close relationship to the Australian strain RY 2014 isolate 16710 (GenBank accession number KJ634019 of Caryospora daceloe, with 99.2% similarity. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of C. neofalconis in raptors from Mexico and the Americas.

  8. Serologic evidence of exposure of raptors to influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redig, Patrick T; Goyal, Sagar M

    2012-06-01

    Serum or plasma samples from raptors that prey or scavenge upon aquatic birds were tested by a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the evidence of antibodies to influenza A virus. Samples were taken from birds (n = 616) admitted to two rehabilitation centers in the United States. In addition, samples from 472 migrating peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) trapped on autumnal and vernal migrations for banding purposes were also tested. Only bald eagles were notably seropositive (22/406). One each of peregrine falcon, great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), and Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperi) from a total of 472, 81, and 100, respectively, were also positive. None of the turkey vultures (n = 21) or black vultures (n = 8) was positive. No clinical signs referable to avian influenza were seen in any bird at the time of capture. These data indicate that, among raptors, bald eagles do have exposure to influenza A viruses.

  9. Unusual raptor nests around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Craig, T.; Craig, E.; Postupalsky, S.; LaRue, C.T.; Nelson, R.W.; Anderson, D.W.; Henny, C.J.; Watson, J.; Millsap, B.A.; Dawson, J.W.; Cole, K.L.; Martin, E.M.; Margalida, A.; Kung, P.

    2009-01-01

    From surveys in many countries, we report raptors using unusual nesting materials (e.g., paper money, rags, metal, antlers, and large bones) and unusual nesting situations. For example, we documented nests of Steppe Eagles Aquila nipalensis and Upland Buzzards Buteo hemilasius on the ground beside well-traveled roads, Saker Falcon Falco cherrug eyries in attics and a cistern, and Osprey Pandion haliaetus nests on the masts of boats and on a suspended automobile. Other records include a Golden Eagle A. chrysaetos nest 7.0 m in height, believed to be the tallest nest ever described, and, for the same species, we report nesting in rudimentary nests. Some nest sites are within a few meters of known predators or competitors. These unusual observations may be important in revealing the plasticity of a species' behavioral repertoire. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  10. Researches regarding the influence of the weather on the flight of the white storks (Ciconia ciconia in the spring migration across the Doamnei River hydrographical basin (Argeş County, Romania (II. Other considerations about the migration over the area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MESTECANEANU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this last part of the series of articles concerning the migration of the white storks (Ciconia ciconia in the Doamnei River hydrographical basin, the authors make some considerations regarding the overflown areas and habitats, the aerial activity dependingon the lapse of time and the intra- and inter-specific bonds. The most individuals were observed in the hilly area, flying principally over the settlements and forests. April was the most intense month regarding the migration, the maximum of the aerial activity being between 16:00 and 17:00 for the observations per hour and between 17:00 and 18:00 for the observed individuals per hour. The birds avoided to fly on bad weather conditions and they preferred to use the soaring and gliding flights. Usually, they did not emit any sound.Rarely, the storks were temporarily accompanied in flight by other birds (Pernis apivorus, Accipiter nisus and Falco tinnunculus.

  11. Magnetic fields produced by power lines do not affect growth, serum melatonin, leukocytes and fledging success in wild kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Costantini, David; Lucini, Valeria; Antonucci, Giovanni; Nonno, Romolo; Polichetti, Alessandro

    2009-09-01

    Nesting on high voltage transmission line towers exposes birds to electric and magnetic fields for long periods. Nestlings are exposed from their development in ovo until fledging. This is a critical period for them because the quality of the developmental environment may affect their fitness at adulthood. We carried out a field study on Eurasian kestrels, Falco tinnunculus, to compare chicks from pairs nesting on high voltage power lines vs. those nesting in control sites in similar habitats. The magnetic field (MF) was measured in each nest-box and analysed in relation to growth curves, melatonin levels, leukocyte counts, and fledging success. None of the variables differed between exposed and control nestlings. Wing length (proxy of age) showed a negative covariation with serum melatonin concentration. Our findings suggest that exposure to MFs produced by high voltage power lines during the embryonic and post-hatching period (until fledging) does not have significant short-term physiological effects on kestrel nestlings.

  12. [Blood chemical parameters for wild raptor patients and their changes after liver biopsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lierz, M; Ewringmann, A; Göbel, T

    1998-01-01

    The present paper tried to find relations between specific anamnesis of wild raptors and blood chemistry values at their day of presentation. 60 (88%) of 68 presented birds of prey showed changes in their blood values. In most birds an increase of GOT, GPT and AP was seen. Some birds showed increases of uric acid, urea and changes in the relation of Ca and P as well. A comparison between Eurasian buzzards with fractures and some without clinical signs showed a significant increase of uric acid, urea, potassium and inorganic phosphorus in the group of fractured birds. Changes of blood chemistry values after liver biopsy are investigated in the second part of the present study. Liver- and kidney values showed an increase after the biopsy. Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) showed the maximum of the increase at the first day after biopsy while Eurasian buzzards (Buteo buteo) had the maximum at the third and Black kites (Milvus migrans) at the fifth day after biopsy.

  13. INTERFON

    CERN Multimedia

    INTERFON

    2010-01-01

    Prochaine journée « Portes Ouvertes » Mercredi 29 septembre de 16h00 à 20h00 Salle Jean Monnet à St Genis Au cours de laquelle vous pourrez rencontrer nos partenaires devant un agréable buffet campagnard.   Deux nouveaux partenaires … Grande Salento Market à Cessy (près de Falco carrelage) : Importateur exclusif de produits alimentaires typiquement italiens. Vous trouverez charcuteries, pâtes alimentaires, fromages, huile d’olive vierge, condiments, vins, liqueurs … Vous pourrez déguster tous ces produits, tout en passant vos commandes, lors de notre journée « Portes Ouvertes » Découvrez dès maintenant, sur nos comptoirs le catalogue de ces produits et leurs tarifs spéciaux pour nos...

  14. Raptor responses to low-level jet aircraft and sonic booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David H.; Ellis, Catherine H.; Mindell, David P.

    1991-01-01

    We estimated effects of low-level military jet aircraft and mid- to high-altitude sonic booms (actual and simulated) on nesting peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and seven other raptors by observing their responses to test stimuli, determining nesting success for the test year, and evaluating site reoccupancy rates for the year following the tests. Frequent and nearby jet aircraft passes: (1) sometimes noticeably alarmed birds, (2) occasionally caused birds to fly from perches or eyries, (3) most often evoked only minimal responses, and (4) were never associated with reproductive failure. Similarly, responses to real and simulated mid- to high-altitude sonic booms were often minimal and never appeared productivity limiting. Eighteen (95%) of 19 nest sites subjected to low-level jet flights and/or simulated sonic booms in 1980 fledged young during that year. Eighteen (95%) of 19 sites disturbed in 1980 were reoccupied by pairs or lone birds of the same species in 1981.We subjected four pairs of prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus) to low-level aircraft at ad libitum levels during the courtship and incubation phases when adults were most likely to abandon: all four eyries fledged young. From heart rate (HR) data taken via a telemetering egg at another prairie falcon eyrie, we determined that stimulus-induced HR alterations were comparable to rate changes for birds settling to incubate following flight.While encouraging, our findings cannot be taken as conclusive evidence that jet flights and/or sonic booms will have no long-term negative effects for other raptor species or for other areas. In addition, we did not experiment with totally naive wild adults, rotary-winged aircraft, or low-level sonic booms.

  15. Health assessment of raptors in triage in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D de A Andery

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Falconiformes (n=82, Strigiformes (n=84 and Cathartiformes (n=14 at a triage center (CETAS-Belo Horizonte, IBAMA, Brazil were examined between 2008 and 2010 . No bird was reactive at hemagglutination-inhibition (HI for antibodies against Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg. Two Caracara plancus (2/68 had HI titers (16-32 against Newcastle disease virus. No Chlamydophila psittaci DNA was detected in the liver (PCR; n=95. Blood smears (Giemsa; n=89 and spleen fragments (PCR; n=82 were 13.5% and 8.5% positive, respectively, for Haemoproteus only. Necropsy of Cathartiformes (n=10, Falconiformes (n=42 and Strigiformes (n=57 showed that trauma injuries were the main cause (63.3% of admission and death, being fractures (38.5% of the thoracic limbs (57.1% the most frequent. Nematode (12.8%, cestode (1.8%, trematode (0.9%, and acanthocephalan (2.7% parasite infections were relevant. Mites (Acari were the most frequent (17.4% external parasites, particularly Ornithonyssus sylviarum in Asio clamator and Amblyomma cajennense in Tyto alba. Chewing lice (10.1% and Pseudolynchia spp. (9.2% were also found. Histomonas spp. (6.4% was found in the ceca of Bubo virginianus, Athene cunicularia, Tyto alba, and Asio clamator, but not in Falconiformes or Cathartiformes. Trichomonas spp. (oral cavity, pharynx and upper esophagus; 9.1% was detected in Falconiformes and Strigiformes, but not in Cathartiformes. Trichomonas spp. were found in A. cunicularia, Asio clamator, Glaucidium brasilianum and Tyto alba (Strigiformes, and in Rupornis magnirostris, Milvago chimachima, Falco femoralis, Falco sparverius and Caracara plancus (Falconiformes. Coccidia (9.1% (Sarcocystis spp., 6.4% and mycosis were observed in most Tyto alba (70%. The evaluated Orders may not pose risks for commercial poultry production. Habitat loss and urban adaptation may be increasingly affecting raptors.

  16. [Occurrence of parasites in indigenous birds of prey and owls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lierz, M; Göbel, T; Schuster, R

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper a general overview on parasites in birds of prey and owls is given. This part is followed by a study investigating the prevalences and species of parasites in free-ranging birds of prey and owls in Berlin and Brandenburg State, Germany. Over a one year period, 84 birds of prey and owls of the following species were examined for the presence of endo- and ectoparasites: Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) (n = 32), Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) (n = 20), Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) (n = 9), Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) (n = 8), Black Kite (Milvus migrans) (n = 4), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) (n = 3), Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) (n = 1), White-tailed-Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) (n = 1), Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) (n = 4), Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) (n = 1) and Barn Owl (Tyto alba) (n = 1). In 97.6% of the cases, ectoparasites (feather mites and hippoboscid flies) were found. Especially eyasses (93.3%) were positive for hippoboscid flies. Trichomonas was detected in 28.6% of all birds of prey and owls examined. A prevalence of 100% was established in the Sparrow Hawks as well as Peregrine Falcons. Leucozytozoon sp. and Hemoproteus sp. as blood parasites were found in 26.9% of the birds in total. Common Buzzards showed the highest prevalence (44.8%). 58.3% of birds examined were positive for endoparasites. Flukes were found in 16.7%, tapeworms in 14.3%, round-worms in 48.8% and acanthocephales in 2.4% of the cases. Interestingly, Tylodelphis clavata (in a Common Buzzard) and Hovorkonema variegatum (in a Goshawk) were found for the first time in raptors. The results of this study underline the importance of a parasitological examination in the process of raptor rehabilitation.

  17. Assessment of the exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and PAHs in six species of predatory birds of the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

    2014-02-15

    In the present study, we investigated the concentrations and distributions of 57 anthropogenic pollutants, including 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liver samples from 102 birds of prey of six species that were found dead or that had died during their stay in the Wildlife Recovery Centers of the Canary Islands (Spain) between 2009 and 2012. The dual goal of this work was to determine the occurrence of these contaminants in these six species of birds of prey, and also whether they can be used as bioindicators for monitoring environmental pollution in the region. We found that Accipiter nisus, Falco pelegrinoides and Falco tinnunculus were the most contaminated species. The profiles of contamination among the species were extremely similar in the case of organochlorine contaminants, with DDT and its metabolites as the most abundant compounds. The contamination by DDT and its metabolites, as well as contamination by dieldrin, could be considered high in these animals, much higher than reports from other regions of the planet, which is in agreement with previous reports from our group regarding humans, food and other animals from this area. In contrast, the contamination by PCBs could be considered extremely low and was probably below the threshold of toxicity for these contaminants. The content of carcinogenic/mutagenic PAHs in these animals was clearly dependent on the feeding pattern of the species; however, the levels were also well below the values that were considered toxic in predictive models. This study represents the first report of contamination by PAHs in all these species and is also the first report of PCB levels in Barbary Falcons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. REINTERPRETATION OF THE LATE PLEISTOCENE INGARANO CAVE DEPOSIT BASED ON THE FOSSIL BIRD ASSOCIATION (APULIA, SOUTH-EASTERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA BEDETTI

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of Late Pleistocene fossil bird remains from Ingarano (Apulia, SE Italy, based on the revision of previously published material and the study of unpublished fossils bones. New field observations make it possible to simplify the stratigraphy of the deposit compared to previous work. The systematic study of the fossil bird bones revealed the presence of 15 taxa, including two hypothetical ones: Circus aeruginosus, Buteo rufinus, Aquila chrysaëtos, Falco columbarius, Falco cherrug, Alectoris graeca, Perdix perdix, Columba livia, Otus scops, Nyctea scandiaca, Nyctea scandiaca vel Bubo bubo, Athene noctua, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corone, Corvus corone vel Corvus frugilegus, Corvus corax. Our detailed study also helps improve the taphonomical interpretation of the deposit: the remains from the lower layers were accumulated after mammalian predator activity and were transported over short distances, while the ones from the upper layers show sings of intense transport, such as fractures and surface abrasion. Two different bird assemblages were recognized, respectively from the lowermost and the upper layers of the clastic succession exposed in the Ingarano deposit; this difference is also confirmed by the fossil mammal remains. The systematic study makes it possible to make palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic reconstructions: both assemblages indicate open environments, and the taxa of the lower layers indicate the presence of woods and wetlands with colder characteristics, while birds of the upper layers indicate drier and warmer conditions. This analysis, and the dating established through geochemical analyses and study of lithic artefacts, lead us to date the formation of the Ingarano deposit to the Late Pleistocene, in particular to the MIS 3. The presence of a layer dated to the MIS 2 at the base of the succession indicated in previous works cannot be confirmed. 

  19. Potential use of Vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in Peregrine falcon exposed to organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B. [CSIC, Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Madrid (Spain); Mori, G.; Concejero, M.A.; Casini, S.; Fossi, M.C. [Siena Univ. (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Many different classes of environmental contaminants such as industrial chemicals (e.g. alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, PAHs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans), ''can cause adverse effects in the reproductive functions of intact organisms or their progenies, consequent to changes in endocrine functions'' showing a so-called Endocrine disruptor activity. Avian raptor species, such as peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) for their peculiar position in the food web are potentially at risk in relation to the accumulation of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals. Recent studies carried out with Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Spain reveal a contamination with organochlorine compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) which could be responsible of the decrease of successful pairs observed during the last ten years. Thus there is a need to develop sensitive diagnostic monitoring tools for the evaluation of toxicological risk and potential effects on the reproductive function and population dynamic of avian top predator species. Two markers for the detection of EDs effects in oviparous vertebrates are induction of Vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona Radiata Proteins (ZR). Vtg, a complex phospholipoglycoprotein, is the major egg-yolk protein precursor and is normally synthesized by females in response to estradiol. ZR together with Zona Pellucida (ZP) constitutes in birds part of the eggshell. These proteins (Vtg, ZR and ZP) are normally synthesised in the liver as a response to an estrogen signal given by Estradiol. Males and sexually undifferentiated specimens also have the Vtg and ZR genes but do not express them unless exposed to estrogenic compounds. The main aim of this preliminary study was to develop methods for the detection of Vtg and ZR in plasma obtained from peregrine falcon as a specific biomarker for the evaluation of the effects of EDCs.

  20. Size dimorphism, molt status, and body mass variation of Prairie Falcons nesting in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, Karen; McKinley, James O.

    2006-01-01

    Birds face challenges in how they allocate energy during the reproductive season. Most temperate zone species do not breed and molt at the same time, presumably because of the high energy demands of these two activities (Espie et al. 1996 and citations therein). However, representatives of at least four raptor genera are known to molt during the nesting season (Schmutz and Schmutz 1975, Newton and Marquiss 1982, Schmutz 1992, Espie et al. 1996). Molt strategies vary among raptor species depending on prey abundance, migration strategies, and the relative costs of reproduction. Sexually-dimorphic raptors typically have different roles in parenting, which result in different strategies for energy allocation. Male and female Eurasian Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), for example, exhibit different molt patterns and mass changes during the breeding season (Village 1990). Prairie Falcons (Falco mexicanus) are similar to Eurasian Kestrels in that males provide most of the prey to females and young during the first part of the nesting season (Holthuijzen 1990), but no published data exist on molt patterns or mass changes in Prairie Falcons. Reliable information about raptor molt and morphometrics has important implications for modeling energetics and for understanding the role of sexes in raising young. Such knowledge also has practical application for distinguishing sexes of raptors and for determining appropriate size limits of transmitters used for telemetry studies. In this paper, we report on morphometric characteristics useful in distinguishing sexes of Prairie Falcons captured during several breeding seasons in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA), and we assess changes in mass and molt status through the nesting season.

  1. Natural cross chlamydial infection between livestock and free-living bird species.

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    Jesús A Lemus

    Full Text Available The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus and lesser (Falco naumanni kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus, an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species.

  2. Genetic characterization of oropharyngeal trichomonad isolates from wild birds indicates that genotype is associated with host species, diet and presence of pathognomonic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Herrero, M C; Sansano-Maestre, J; López Márquez, I; Obón, E; Ponce, C; González, J; Garijo-Toledo, M M; Gómez-Muñoz, M T

    2014-01-01

    Oropharyngeal trichomonad isolates of wild birds from Spain were studied. A total of 1688 samples (1214 of predator birds and 474 of prey species) from wildlife recovery centres and scientific bird-ringing campaigns were analysed from 2011 to 2013. The overall infection prevalence was 20.3% (11.4% in predator birds and 43.3% in prey species). Pathognomonic lesions were present in 26% of the infected birds (57.3% in predator birds and 4.9% in prey species). The most commonly parasitized species were the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, 74.5%) and the rock pigeon (Columba livia, 79.4%). Host species in which the parasite has not been previously analysed by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing in Spain are also reported: Columba palumbus, Streptopelia turtur, Pica pica, A. gentilis, Accipiter nisus, Asio otus, Bubo bubo, Buteo buteo, Circus aeruginosus, Circus cyaneus, Falco naumanni, Falco peregrinus, Neophron percnopterus, Otus scops, Pernis apivorus and Strix aluco. Sequence analysis of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 region revealed five different genotypes and also some mixed infections. A relationship between genotype and host species was observed, but only two genotypes (ITS-OBT-Tg-1and ITS-OBT-Tg-2) were widely distributed. Genotype ITS-OBT-Tg-1 was most frequently found in predator birds and statistically associated with pathognomonic lesions. Non-strict ornithophagous species were at higher risk to develop disease than ornithophagous ones. Genotypes ITS-OBT-Tcl-1 and ITS-OBT-Tcl-2 are new reports, and ITS-OBT-Tvl-5 is reported for the first time in Spain. They showed higher genetic homology to Trichomonas canistomae and Trichomonas vaginalis than to Trichomonas gallinae, indicating the possibility of new species within this genus.

  3. A 30-year chronosequence of burned areas in Arizona: effects of wildfires on vegetation in Sonoran Desert Tortoise (Gopherus morafkai) habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shryock, Daniel F.; Esque, Todd C.; Chen, Felicia C.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is widely regarded as a key evolutionary force in fire-prone ecosystems, with effects spanning multiple levels of organization, from species and functional group composition through landscape-scale vegetation structure, biomass, and diversity (Pausas and others, 2004; Bond and Keeley 2005; Pausas and Verdu, 2008). Ecosystems subjected to novel fire regimes may experience profound changes that are difficult to predict, including persistent losses of vegetation cover and diversity (McLaughlin and Bowers, 1982; Brown and Minnich, 1986; Brooks, 2012), losses to seed banks (Esque and others, 2010a), changes in demographic processes (Esque and others, 2004; DeFalco and others, 2010), increased erosion (Soulard and others, 2013), changes in nutrient availability (Esque and others, 2010b), increased dominance of invasive species (Esque and others, 2002; Brooks and others, 2004), and transitions to alternative community states (Davies and others, 2012). In the deserts of the Southwestern United States, fire size and frequency have increased substantially over the last several decades because of an invasive grass/fire feedback cycle (Schmid and Rogers, 1988; D’Antonio and Vitousek, 1992; Swantek and others, 1999; Brooks and Matchett, 2006; Esque and others, 2010a), in which invasive annual species are able to establish fuel loads capable of sustaining large-scale wildfires following years of high rainfall (Esque and Schwalbe, 2002). Native perennial vegetation is not well-adapted to fire in these environments, and widespread, physiognomically dominant species such as creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia), giant saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea), and paloverde (Parkinsonia spp.) may be reduced or eliminated (Brown and Minnich, 1986; Esque and others, 2006; DeFalco and others, 2010), potentially affecting wildlife populations including the Sonoran and federally threatened Mojave Desert Tortoises (Gopherus morafkai and Gopherus agassizii

  4. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

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    Oscar Cabezón

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610, Strigiformes (n=260, Ciconiiformes (n=156, Gruiformes (n=21, and other orders (n=32, from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25 were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:23.5-28.7 of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus, short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata, golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus, osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus, Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus, peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus, long-eared owl (Asio otus, common scops owl (Otus scops, Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia, white stork (Ciconia ciconia, grey heron (Ardea cinerea, common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus; in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti, lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni and great bustard (Otis tarda; and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus. The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo (68.1%, 98 of 144. The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild

  5. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Molina-López, Rafael; Marco, Ignasi; Blanco, Juan M; Höfle, Ursula; Margalida, Antoni; Bach-Raich, Esther; Darwich, Laila; Echeverría, Israel; Obón, Elena; Hernández, Mauro; Lavín, Santiago; Dubey, Jitender P; Almería, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610), Strigiformes (n=260), Ciconiiformes (n=156), Gruiformes (n=21), and other orders (n=32), from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25) were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:)23.5-28.7) of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), long-eared owl (Asio otus), common scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus); in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and great bustard (Otis tarda); and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus). The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) (68.1%, 98 of 144). The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in

  6. Vulnerability of birds to climate change in California's Sierra Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney B. Siegel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In a rapidly changing climate, effective bird conservation requires not only reliable information about the current vulnerability of species of conservation concern, but also credible projections of their future vulnerability. Such projections may enable managers to preempt or reduce emerging climate-related threats through appropriate habitat management. We used NatureServe's Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI to predict vulnerability to climate change of 168 bird species that breed in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA. The CCVI assesses species-specific exposure and sensitivity to climate change within a defined geographic area, through the integration of (a species' range maps, (b information about species' natural history traits and ecological relationships, (c historic and current climate data, and (d spatially explicit climate change projections. We conducted the assessment under two different downscaled climate models with divergent projections about future precipitation through the middle of the 21st century. Assessments differed relatively little under the two climate models. Of five CCVI vulnerability ranking categories, only one species, White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura, received the most vulnerable rank, Extremely Vulnerable. No species received the second-highest vulnerability ranking, Highly Vulnerable. Sixteen species scored as Moderately Vulnerable using one or both climate models: Common Merganser (Mergus merganser, Osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus, Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus, Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius, Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa, Black Swift (Cypseloides niger, Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana, American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus, Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus, American Pipit (Anthus rubescens, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch (Leucosticte tephrocotis, Pine Grosbeak

  7. Malófagos (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera em aves cativas no sudeste do Brasil Chewing lice (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera on captive birds in southeastern Brazil

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    Salete Oliveira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram identificadas 12 espécies de malófagos no Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba e Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. Ciconiphilus pectiniventris em Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae; Kurodaia sp. em Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae; Degeeriella sp. em Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae; Colpocephalum sp. e Goniocotes parviceps em Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae; Goniodes pavonis em Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae; Colpocephalum cristatae e Heptapsogaster sp. em Cariama cristata (Gruiformes, Cariamidae; Austrophilopterus cancellosus em Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Ramphastidae; Strigiphilus crucigerus em Otus choliba (Strigiformes, Strigidae; Kurodaia sp. em Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigiformes, Strigidae e Colpocephalum pectinatum em Speotyto cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae. As relações parasito hospedeiros em Strigiformes são novas no Brasil.Twelve chewing lice species were identified in Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba and Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. The parasites found were: Ciconiphilus pectiniventris in Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae; Kurodaia sp. in Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae; Degeeriella sp. in Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae; Colpocephalum sp. and Goniocotes parviceps in Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae; Goniodes pavonis in Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae; Colpocephalum cristatae and Heptapsogaster sp. in Cariama cristata (Gruiformes, Cariamidae; Austrophilopterus cancellosus in Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Ramphastidae; Strigiphilus crucigerus in Otus choliba (Strigiformes, Strigidae; Kurodaia sp. in Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigiformes, Strigidae and Colpocephalum pectinatum in Speotyto cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae. The host-lice relationships are new in Strigiformes in Brazil.

  8. Vacant Nests and Other Factors Influencing Nest Site Selection of Birds of Prey Based on Case Studies in Forest Habitats in the Forest-Steppe and Steppe Zones of Eastern Ukraine

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    Stanislav G. Viter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study was conducted in 2003–2012 in Eastern Ukraine, in the basin of the Seversky Donets river. The total surveyed area was ca. 900 km2 of nesting habitats suitable for raptors. A total of 69 vacant nests were found, i.e. 33.2 % of the total number of nests (208. Nests occupied by recipient species, i.e. the so-called ‘effective nest pool’, were 23–24, i.e. 33.3–34.7 % of the pool of available nests. Up to 25 % of all pairs of raptors depend on the availability of vacant nests of heterospecifics. Ravens (Corvus corax are the most significant donors of nests: 42.5 % of the pool of available nests is built by this species, and more than 60 % of them are occupied by recipient species. Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo comes second with 26.09 and 58.3 %, respectively. The most common recipients of nests are Hobbies (Falco subbuteo, Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus and Booted Eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus. The most significant factors that govern occupation of vacant nests by recipient species are: availability of nests in the marginal zone of forest plots, i.e. within 500 m from the forest edge, large distance from human settlements (>1500 m, presence of nests located on trees in the canopy storey, and mature and submature age of forest stands. For seven species considered in our research (n=227, the most important factors were position of nests, in the forest canopy layer, no logging activity within300 m of the nest, no regular human disturbance, and presence of “windows” in the canopy made by fallen trees.

  9. Highly (H5N1) and Low (H7N2) Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Falcons Via Nasochoanal Route and Ingestion of Experimentally Infected Prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Busquets, Núria; Abad, Francesc Xavier; García de la Fuente, Jorge; Solanes, David; Cordón, Iván; Costa, Taiana; Dolz, Roser; Majó, Natàlia

    2012-01-01

    An experimental infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses was carried out on falcons in order to examine the effects of these viruses in terms of pathogenesis, viral distribution in tissues and viral shedding. The distribution pattern of influenza virus receptors was also assessed. Captive-reared gyr-saker (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug) hybrid falcons were challenged with a HPAI H5N1 virus (A/Great crested grebe/Basque Country/06.03249/2006) or a LPAI H7N2 virus (A/Anas plathyrhynchos/Spain/1877/2009), both via the nasochoanal route and by ingestion of previously infected specific pathogen free chicks. Infected falcons exhibited similar infection dynamics despite the different routes of exposure, demonstrating the effectiveness of in vivo feeding route. H5N1 infected falcons died, or were euthanized, between 5–7 days post-infection (dpi) after showing acute severe neurological signs. Presence of viral antigen in several tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR), which were generally associated with significant microscopical lesions, mostly in the brain. Neither clinical signs, nor histopathological findings were observed in any of the H7N2 LPAI infected falcons, although all of them had seroconverted by 11 dpi. Avian receptors were strongly present in the upper respiratory tract of the falcons, in accordance with the consistent oral viral shedding detected by RRT-PCR in both H5N1 HPAI and H7N2 LPAI infected falcons. The present study demonstrates that gyr-saker hybrid falcons are highly susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection, as previously observed, and that they may play a major role in the spreading of both HPAI and LPAI viruses. For the first time in raptors, natural infection by feeding on infected prey was successfully reproduced. The use of avian prey species in falconry husbandry and wildlife rehabilitation facilities could put valuable birds of prey

  10. Highly (H5N1 and low (H7N2 pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in falcons via nasochoanal route and ingestion of experimentally infected prey.

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    Kateri Bertran

    Full Text Available An experimental infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI viruses was carried out on falcons in order to examine the effects of these viruses in terms of pathogenesis, viral distribution in tissues and viral shedding. The distribution pattern of influenza virus receptors was also assessed. Captive-reared gyr-saker (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug hybrid falcons were challenged with a HPAI H5N1 virus (A/Great crested grebe/Basque Country/06.03249/2006 or a LPAI H7N2 virus (A/Anas plathyrhynchos/Spain/1877/2009, both via the nasochoanal route and by ingestion of previously infected specific pathogen free chicks. Infected falcons exhibited similar infection dynamics despite the different routes of exposure, demonstrating the effectiveness of in vivo feeding route. H5N1 infected falcons died, or were euthanized, between 5-7 days post-infection (dpi after showing acute severe neurological signs. Presence of viral antigen in several tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR, which were generally associated with significant microscopical lesions, mostly in the brain. Neither clinical signs, nor histopathological findings were observed in any of the H7N2 LPAI infected falcons, although all of them had seroconverted by 11 dpi. Avian receptors were strongly present in the upper respiratory tract of the falcons, in accordance with the consistent oral viral shedding detected by RRT-PCR in both H5N1 HPAI and H7N2 LPAI infected falcons. The present study demonstrates that gyr-saker hybrid falcons are highly susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection, as previously observed, and that they may play a major role in the spreading of both HPAI and LPAI viruses. For the first time in raptors, natural infection by feeding on infected prey was successfully reproduced. The use of avian prey species in falconry husbandry and wildlife rehabilitation facilities could put valuable birds

  11. Reference intervals for intraocular pressure measured by rebound tonometry in ten raptor species and factors affecting the intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Anne; Müller, Kerstin; Arndt, Gisela; Eule, Johanna Corinna

    2011-09-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with the TonoVet rebound tonometer in 10 raptor species, and possible factors affecting IOP were investigated. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed, and IOP was assessed in 2 positions, upright and dorsal recumbency, in 237 birds belonging to the families Accipitridae, Falconidae, Strigidae, and Tytonidae. Mean IOP values of healthy eyes were calculated for each species, and differences between families, species, age, sex, left and right eye, as well as the 2 body positions were evaluated. Physiologic fluctuations of IOP were assessed by measuring IOP serially for 5 days at the same time of day in 15 birds of 3 species. Results showed IOP values varied by family and species, with the following mean IOP values (mm Hg +/- SD) determined: white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), 26.9 +/- 5.8; red kite (Milvus milvus), 13.0 +/- 5.5; northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), 18.3 +/- 3.8; Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), 15.5 +/- 2.5; common buzzard (Buteo buteo), 26.9 +/- 7.0; common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), 9.8 +/- 2.5; peregrine falcon, (Falco peregrinus), 12.7 +/- 5.8; tawny owl (Strix aluco), 9.4 +/- 4.1; long-eared owl (Asio otus), 7.8 +/- 3.2; and barn owl (Tyto alba), 10.8 +/- 3.8. No significant differences were found between sexes or between left and right eyes. In goshawks, common buzzards, and common kestrels, mean IOP was significantly lower in juvenile birds than it was in adult birds. Mean IOP differed significantly by body position in tawny owls (P = .01) and common buzzards (P = .04). By measuring IOP over several days, mean physiologic variations of +/- 2 mm Hg were detected. Differences in IOP between species and age groups should be considered when interpreting tonometric results. Physiologic fluctuations of IOP may occur and should not be misinterpreted. These results show that rebound tonometry is a useful diagnostic tool in measuring IOP in birds of prey because it provides rapid

  12. An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ramírez, P; Shore, R F; van den Brink, N W; van Hattum, B; Bustnes, J O; Duke, G; Fritsch, C; García-Fernández, A J; Helander, B O; Jaspers, V; Krone, O; Martínez-López, E; Mateo, R; Movalli, P; Sonne, C

    2014-06-01

    Biomonitoring using raptors as sentinels can provide early warning of the potential impacts of contaminants on humans and the environment and also a means of tracking the success of associated mitigation measures. Examples include detection of heavy metal-induced immune system impairment, PCB-induced altered reproductive impacts, and toxicity associated with lead in shot game. Authorisation of such releases and implementation of mitigation is now increasingly delivered through EU-wide directives but there is little established pan-European monitoring to quantify outcomes. We investigated the potential for EU-wide coordinated contaminant monitoring using raptors as sentinels. We did this using a questionnaire to ascertain the current scale of national activity across 44 European countries. According to this survey, there have been 52 different contaminant monitoring schemes with raptors over the last 50years. There were active schemes in 15 (predominantly western European) countries and 23 schemes have been running for >20years; most monitoring was conducted for >5years. Legacy persistent organic compounds (specifically organochlorine insecticides and PCBs), and metals/metalloids were monitored in most of the 15 countries. Fungicides, flame retardants and anticoagulant rodenticides were also relatively frequently monitored (each in at least 6 countries). Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), tawny owl (Strix aluco) and barn owl (Tyto alba) were most commonly monitored (each in 6-10 countries). Feathers and eggs were most widely analysed although many schemes also analysed body tissues. Our study reveals an existing capability across multiple European countries for contaminant monitoring using raptors. However, coordination between existing schemes and expansion of monitoring into Eastern Europe is needed. This would enable

  13. Environmental extremes and biotic interactions facilitate depredation of endangered California Ridgway’s rail in a San Francisco Bay tidal marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Cory T.; Bobzien, Steven; Grefsrud, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    On 23 December 2015 while performing a high tide population survey for endangered Ridgway’s rails (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; formerly known as the California clapper rail) and other rail species at Arrowhead Marsh, Martin Luther King Jr. Regional Shoreline, Oakland, California, the authors observed a series of species interactions resulting in the predation of a Ridgway’s rail by an adult female peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). High tide surveys are performed during the highest tides of the year when tidal marsh vegetation at Arrowhead Marsh becomes inundated, concentrating the tidal marsh obligate species into the limited area of emergent vegetation remaining as refuge cover. Annual mean tide level (elevation referenced relative to mean lower low water) at Arrowhead Marsh is 1.10 m, mean higher high water is 2.04 m (NOAA National Ocean Service 2014) and the average elevation of the marsh surface is 1.60 m (Overton et al. 2014). Tidal conditions on the day of the survey were predicted to be 2.42 m. Observed tides at the nearby Alameda Island tide gauge were 8 cm higher than predicted due to a regional low-pressure system and warmer than average sea surface temperatures (NOAA National Ocean Service 2014). The approximately 80 cm deep inundation of the marsh plain was sufficient to completely submerge tidal marsh vegetation and effectively remove 90% of refugia habitats.

  14. Falcons pursue prey using visual motion cues: new perspectives from animal-borne cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Suzanne Amador; Zamani, Marjon

    2014-01-15

    This study reports on experiments on falcons wearing miniature videocameras mounted on their backs or heads while pursuing flying prey. Videos of hunts by a gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), gyrfalcon (F. rusticolus)/Saker falcon (F. cherrug) hybrids and peregrine falcons (F. peregrinus) were analyzed to determine apparent prey positions on their visual fields during pursuits. These video data were then interpreted using computer simulations of pursuit steering laws observed in insects and mammals. A comparison of the empirical and modeling data indicates that falcons use cues due to the apparent motion of prey on the falcon's visual field to track and capture flying prey via a form of motion camouflage. The falcons also were found to maintain their prey's image at visual angles consistent with using their shallow fovea. These results should prove relevant for understanding the co-evolution of pursuit and evasion, as well as the development of computer models of predation and the integration of sensory and locomotion systems in biomimetic robots.

  15. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24 h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R?) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex? and Phos-Chek WD881?) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881? and Silv-Ex? were above the predetermined 2000 mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R? because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  16. Discovery of the elusive leptin in birds: identification of several 'missing links' in the evolution of leptin and its receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy W Prokop

    Full Text Available Leptin is a pleiotropic protein best known for regulation of appetite and fat storage in mammals. While many leptin orthologs have been identified among vertebrates, an authentic leptin in birds has remained elusive and controversial. Here we identify leptin sequence from the Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus (pfleptin, and identify sequences from two other birds (mallard and zebra finch, and 'missing' vertebrates (elephant shark, alligator, Indian python, Chinese soft-shelled turtle, and coelacanth. The pattern of genes surrounding leptin (snd1, rbm28 is syntenic between the falcon and mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic analysis of all known leptin protein sequences improves our understanding of leptin's evolution. Structural modeling of leptin orthologs highlights a highly conserved hydrophobic core in the four-helix cytokine packing domain. A docked model of leptin with the leptin receptor for Peregrine falcon reveals several conserved amino acids important for the interaction and possible coevolution of leptin with its receptor. We also show for the first time, an authentic avian leptin sequence that activates the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. These newly identified sequences, structures, and tools for avian leptin and its receptor will allow elucidation of the function of these proteins in feral and domestic birds.

  17. Avian polymavirus in wild birds: genome analysis of isolates from Falconiformes and Psittaciformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne, R; Müller, H

    1998-01-01

    Avian polyomavirus (APV) infections have been reported to cause fatal disease in a wide range of psittacine species. Here we demonstrate APV infections in buzzards (Buteo buteo) and in a falcon (Falco tinnunculus) found dead in Germany, and in lovebirds (Agapornis pullaria) with fatal disease, wild-caught in Moçambique. APV infection in buzzards was determined by PCR amplification of parts of the viral genome followed by Southern blot hybridisation. The genomes of the isolates obtained from the falcon and one of the lovebirds proved to be very closely related to those of Budgerigar Fledgling Disease Virus (BFDV)-1, BFDV-2 and BFDV-3, isolated from budgerigar, chicken, and parakeet, respectively. A consensus sequence was delineated from the known nucleotide sequences of APV isolates. The significance of some nucleotide changes is discussed. Infectivity of all of these isolates was neutralized by antibodies directed against BFDV-1. Data presented in this investigation show that the polyomavirus isolates obtained from different avian species so far all belong to one genotype and one serotype within the proposed subgenus Avipolyomavirus of the family Papovaviridae. The designation Budgerigar Fledgling Disease Virus (BFDV) is, therefore, misleading as this virus type infects different species of birds. The name Avian Polymavirus and the abreviation APV should be adopted to all of the isolates investigated in detail at present. The possible role of birds of passage in the epidemiology in APV infections is discussed.

  18. Dietary toxicity and tissue accumulation of methylmercury in American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard S.; French, John B.; Rossmann, Ronald; Haebler, Romona J.

    2009-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed meat diets containing 0, 3, 6, or 12 ppm (dry weight) methylmercury chloride. Birds fed the 12-ppm diet started to show signs of neurotoxicity after 26 days and all died in 39?49 days. One male kestrel fed the 6-ppm diet died after 75 days of exposure and several others showed signs of neurotoxicity after 45 days. None of the birds fed the 3-ppm diet died or showed signs of toxicity. After 59 days of exposure, mercury concentrations in the liver, kidney, and blood of nonreproducing kestrels increased with increasing dietary concentration. Tissue concentrations of mercury also steadily increased over time in birds fed diets with 6 ppm mercury, which were necropsied at 8, 15, 29, or 59 days of exposure, reaching mean total mercury concentrations of 57, 46, and 45 ppm (wet weight) at 59 days in the liver, kidney, and whole blood, respectively. Two pairs of kestrels at each dietary concentration were allowed to breed. Eggs averaged 8.3 and 18.1 ppm (wet weight) total mercury from birds fed 3- and 6-ppm diets, respectively. Feathers grown during mercury exposure contained high concentrations of mercury: Birds fed 3- and 6-ppm diets contained 275 and 542 ppm total mercury, respectively.

  19. Helminth fauna of Falconiform and Strigiform birds of prey in Galicia, Northwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartín, M L; Alvarez, F; Barreiro, G; Leiro, J

    2004-02-01

    This is a survey of the helminth fauna of 285 individuals of 14 species of birds of prey (Falconiformes and Strigiformes) from Galicia (northwest Spain), namely Buteo buteo, Accipiter nisus, A. gentilis, Milvus migrans, M. milvus, Pernis apivorus, Circus pygargus, Falco tinnunculus, F. peregrinus, F. subbuteo, Tyto alba, Strix aluco, Asio otus and Athene noctua. A total of 15 helminth species were detected, namely 8 nematodes ( Eucoleus dispar, Capillaria tenuissima, Synhimantus laticeps, Microtetrameres sp., Physaloptera alata, Procyrnea leptoptera, Hovorkonema variegatum and Porrocaecum angusticolle), 4 cestodes ( Cladotaenia globifera, Paruterina candelabraria and Mesocestoides sp.), 2 trematodes ( Neodiplostomum attenuatum and Strigea falconis), and 1 acanthocephalan ( Centrorhynchus globocaudatus). The helminth communities observed were basically similar, although there were marked differences in species richness, which was higher in falconiforms (except for A. gentilis) than in strigiforms. More specifically, species richness was highest in B. buteo (13 species), followed by A. nisus (11 species). In the falconiforms, the helminth species present generally exhibited a clear relationship with host diet. In the strigiforms, by contrast, species richness was lower than expected given the host's diet, suggesting that a different explanation is needed.

  20. Assessment of Trace Element Concentrations in Birds of Prey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2016-07-01

    This study presents liver concentrations of trace elements of cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus), common buzzards (Buteo buteo), common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo) collected in Korea from 2007 to 2008. Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in common kestrel juveniles were greater than in other juveniles of birds of prey. Adult cinereous vultures had greater Fe, Pb, and Cd concentrations than in those of other species, but common kestrels had greater Mn and Cu concentrations than in those of other birds of prey. Zinc concentrations in Eurasian eagle owl juveniles and adults were greater than in juveniles and adults of other species, respectively. In common kestrels, Fe, Cu, Pb, and Cd concentrations were significantly greater in adults than in juveniles. In Eurasian eagle owls, only Pb concentrations were greater in adults than in juveniles. Essential elements, such as Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu concentrations, were within the range of other birds of prey studies. Seventeen individual birds of prey (30 %) were at a level considered Pb exposed (6-30 µg/g dw). This is a greater proportion than reported earlier in herons, egrets, and other birds from Korea. Elevated Pb concentration might be attributed to ingestion of Pb shot and bullet fragments for cinereous vultures and common buzzards, and urbanization for common kestrels. Cadmium concentrations in birds of prey were within the background concentrations (<3 µg/g dw) for wild birds.

  1. A reassessment on the state of knowledge of Chilean Falconidae in the last hundred years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Soto-Saravia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight species of falcons (Falconidae have been recorded in Chile. To date, all relevant studies considered birds of prey in general, with no specific focus on this family. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, an updated report is presented on the state of knowledge of falcons in Chile. This data set comprises a total of 165 studies published from 1915 to 2015. Scientific productivity was lowest in 1945-1955 and highest in 2005-2015, with a steady increase since 1985. However, the focus of research in Chile is biased towards two species: Milvago chimango and Falco sparverius. Two administrative regions, Santiago Metropolitan Region and Araucanía, were the most studied whereas Arica, Tarapacá, and Antofagasta regions accounted for fewer than 1% of the studies. Faunistic studies (including abundance were the most common research topic. It is suggested that the lack of knowledge regarding species in the genus Phalcoboenus may negatively affect the conservation status of these species, and believed that the lack of preference for certain research topics, such as systematics and natural history, are the result of historical factors including the decrease of field biology and perhaps a biased interest of the researchers. Finally, this review highlights the paucity of information on falcons and provides a framework for directing future research.

  2. Characterization, polymorphism, and evolution of MHC class II B genes in birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Miguel; Edwards, Scott V; Negro, Juan J

    2007-11-01

    During the last decade, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has received much attention in the fields of evolutionary and conservation biology because of its potential implications in many biological processes. New insights into the gene structure and evolution of MHC genes can be gained through study of additional lineages of birds not yet investigated at the genomic level. In this study, we characterized MHC class II B genes in five families of birds of prey (Accipitridae, Pandionidae, Strigidae, Tytonidae, and Falconidae). Using PCR approaches, we isolated genomic MHC sequences up to 1300 bp spanning exons 1 to 3 in 26 representatives of each raptor lineage, finding no stop codons or frameshift mutations in any coding region. A survey of diversity across the entirety of exon 2 in the lesser kestrel Falco naumanni reported 26 alleles in 21 individuals. Bayesian analysis revealed 21 positively selected amino acid sites, which suggests that the MHC genes described here are functional and probably expressed. Finally, through interlocus comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, we also discuss genetic evidence for concerted and transspecies evolution in the raptor MHC.

  3. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the April 8-10 of 2014 an International Conference “Birds of Prey in the North Caucasus and Adjacent Regions: distribution, ecology, population dynamics, protection” was held in Sochi National Park, Sochi, Russia. The Saker Falcon Falco cherrug Global Action Plan (SakerGAP has been presented at the 11th Meeting of the Parties of the Bonn Convention (CMS, which took place in Quito (Ecuador on 4-9 November 2014. On the December 17 of 2014 a meeting between inspectors of Nature Reserve “Khakasskiy”, police of Khakasia Republic and experts of Siberian Environmental Center was held in the Nature Reserve “Khakasskiy”. On the December 20 of 2014 an annual meeting of members of Siberian Environmental Center (SEC was held in Akademgorodok, Novosibirsk, Russia. Project leaders presented reports on the main activities and achievements gained in 2014. The Long-eared Owl (Asio otus became the Bird of the Year announced by the public organization "APB-BirdLife Belarus". The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 will be held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia.

  4. Detection and molecular analysis of West Nile virus infections in birds of prey in the eastern part of Austria in 2008 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodak, Eveline; Richter, Susanne; Bagó, Zoltán; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert; Winter, Petra

    2011-05-05

    The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) was expected in Austria since the initial discovery of the infection in neighbouring Hungary in 2003/2004. In 2008 six cases of West Nile disease were diagnosed at the Institute for Veterinary Disease Control Mödling, Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), involving five goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) and one gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), which were found dead in the eastern Austrian federal states of Lower Austria, Vienna and Styria, respectively. Pathomorphological and immunohistochemical findings suggested a WNV infection. Virus was isolated in embryonated specific pathogen free chicken eggs and propagated in mouse neuroblastoma cells (NA), in which a cytopathic effect occurred. The virus was identified and characterised by electron microscopic examination and molecular detection using RT-PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. The Austrian WNV sequences exhibited nucleotide identities of 99.9% to the lineage 2 WNV sequences described in Hungary since 2004. In addition, 71 sera of 14 different bird species were screened for the presence of WNV antibodies using a commercial ELISA: 43.7% of the tested samples showed antibody titers. Selected positive sera were also subjected to WNV neutralisation tests, in which the ELISA results were verified in 66%. The results of this study confirm unambiguously the presence of a lineage 2 WNV infection in birds of prey in the eastern part of Austria. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The occurrence and pathogenicity of Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea) in birds of prey from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M; D'Alessio, N; Di Prisco, F; Kinsella, J M; Barca, L; Degli Uberti, B; Restucci, B; Martano, M; Troisi, S; Galiero, G; Veneziano, V

    2016-05-01

    The air sacs of free-ranging birds of prey (n= 652) from southern Italy, including 11 species of Accipitriformes and six of Falconiforms, were examined for infections with Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda: Diplotriaenoidea). Of the 17 species of birds examined, 25 of 31 (80.6%) peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) from Calabria Region and a single northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) from Campania Region were infected with S. tendo, suggesting a strong host specificity for the peregrine falcon. The northern goshawk and 18 of 25 infected peregrine falcons showed cachexia and all infected birds had bone fractures. At gross examination, air sacculitis and pneumonia were the most common lesions in infected birds. Microscopically, the air-sac walls showed thickening of the smooth muscle cells, resulting in a papillary appearance, along with hyperplasia of the mesothelium and epithelium, and foci of plasma cell infiltration and macrophages associated with several embryonated eggs and adult parasites. Extensive areas of inflammation were found in the lungs, characterized by lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts surrounding embryonated eggs. The northern goshawk also had detachment of the dextral lung with several necrotic foci. In this case, the death of the bird was directly attributed to S. tendo infection. Lesions and pathological changes observed here suggest that S. tendo can cause disease.

  6. Fatal columbid herpesvirus-1 infections in three species of Australian birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, D N; Holz, P; Rasmussen, L; Bayley, C

    2011-05-01

    We document columbid herpesvirus-1 (CoHV-1) infection in two barking owls (Ninox connivens), a powerful owl (Ninox strenua) and an Australian hobby (Falco longipennis). Antemortem signs of infection were non-specific and the birds either died soon after they were identified as ill or were found dead unexpectedly. Gross postmortem findings were also not specific. Microscopically, marked to massive splenic and hepatic necrosis with the presence of eosinophilic inclusion bodies in remaining splenocytes and hepatocytes was found in all birds. Herpesvirus virions were identified in liver sections from one of the boobook owls by electron microscopy. Using CoHV-1-specific primers and polymerase chain reaction, CoHV-1 DNA was amplified from tissue samples from all birds. A comparison of these sequences to previously reported sequences of CoHV-1 found them to be identical or to vary by a single base pair. These findings increase the number of known species of birds of prey that are susceptible to CoHV-1 infection and indicate that rock pigeons (Columbia livia) should not be included in the diet of captive Australian birds of prey. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Role of birds of prey as carriers and spreaders of Cryptococcus neoformans and other zoonotic yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchia, C; Romito, D; Iatta, R; Camarda, A; Montagna, M T; Otranto, D

    2006-09-01

    In the last 20 years, cases of human cryptococcosis, have increased in immunocompromised patients. In several instances, the cases have been associated with the exposure of the patients to bird droppings. In order to investigate birds of prey as potential carriers and spreaders of Cryptococcus neoformans and other yeasts of importance in human infections, 182 swab samples were collected from the cloacae of several species of birds of prey (Group I) and 32 faecal samples from aviaries in which the birds were housed (Group II). Samples were also taken from digestive tract of 60 dead birds (Group III). A total of 454 samples were cultured from which 215 colonies of yeastlike fungi were recovered and identified. Cryptococcusneoformans var. grubii was isolated from three cloacae samples (4.8%) collected from Falco tinnunculus and from one sample (3.1%) obtained from Buteo buteo, as well as from samples collected at the aviaries in which these birds were kept. Overall, 18 samples (9.9%) from Group I, 13 (40.6%) from Group II, 12 crops (20%), three proventriculi (5%) and 12 cloacae (20%) from Group III yielded positive cultures for yeasts. The results indicate that birds of prey and in particular, F. tinnunculus and B. buteo, may act as carriers and spreaders of C. neoformans and other zoonotic yeasts.

  8. The role of prolactin in the regulation of clutch size and onset of incubation behavior in the American kestrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H; Sharp, P J

    2000-11-01

    In most bird species, the timing of incubation onset may influence the degree of hatching asynchrony, which, together with variation in clutch size, affects reproductive success. In some domesticated species that usually show no hatching asynchrony, plasma prolactin concentrations in females rise with the onset of incubation and the end of laying, and this rise enhances incubation behavior and may terminate laying. To investigate whether a rise in prolactin during laying is involved in the regulation of clutch size and incubation onset in a species with hatching asynchrony, we measured plasma concentrations of immunoreactive prolactin (ir-prolactin) in laying American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and quantified clutch size and incubation behavior. In a separate study, we administered one of three concentrations of ovine prolactin (o-prolactin) via osmotic pumps implanted in females when egg 2 of a clutch was laid. ir-Prolactin concentrations during laying were higher in small than in large clutches and increased in parallel with the development of incubation behavior. o-Prolactin treatment enhanced incubation behavior, but did not affect clutch size, possibly because the manipulation was performed after clutch size had already been determined. Consistent with studies on domesticated species that show synchronous hatching, our results indicate that rising prolactin during laying enhances the expression of incubation behavior in a species that shows hatching asynchrony. Further studies are necessary to determine whether the relationship between prolactin and clutch size in the American kestrel is one of causation or of mere association. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Toxicity of paraquat in nestling birds: effects on plasma and tissue biochemistry in American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Daivd J.; Franson, J. Christian; Pattee, Oliver H.; Bunck, Christine M.; Murray, Helen C.

    1987-01-01

    Beginning the day after hatching, American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed daily for 10 days with 5 μL/g of distilled water (controls), 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 60 mg/kg of paraquat dichloride (1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride) in distilled water. Forty-four percent of the nestlings receiving 60 mg/kg died after 4 days. Plasma LDH activity and total protein concentration were elevated, and plasma alkaline phosphatase activity was lower in survivors of the 60 mg/kg group at 10 days. Lung total sulfhydryl (TSH) and protein-bound sulfhydryl (PBSH) concentrations were significantly higher in the 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 60 mg/kg groups. Lung DNA, RNA, protein, and hydroxyproline (collagen) concentrations were not significantly affected by treatment. Liver NPSH was lower in the 60 mg/kg group while liver glycogen concentration was not affected by treatment. Kidney DNA, RNA, and RNA to protein concentration ratio were higher in the 25 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg groups. These findings in combination with recently reported effects on growth and histopathology suggest that altricial nestling kestrels are more sensitive to paraquat exposure than young or adult birds of precocial species. From a comparative viewpoint, lungs of nestling kestrels are less sensitive to paraquat than mammalian lungs.

  10. Plasma corticosterone in American kestrel siblings: effects of age, hatching order, and hatching asynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Oliver P; Bird, David M; Shutt, Laird J

    2003-04-01

    Although it is well documented that hatching asynchrony in birds can lead to competitive and developmental hierarchies, potentially greatly affecting growth and survival of nestlings, hatching asynchrony may also precipitate modulations in neuroendocrine development or function. Here we examine sibling variation in adrenocortical function in postnatally developing, asynchronously hatching American kestrels (Falco sparverius) by measurements of baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone at ages 10, 16, 22, and 28 days posthatching. There was a significant effect of hatching order on both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels during development and these effects grew stronger through development. First-hatched chicks exhibited higher baseline levels than later-hatched chicks throughout development and higher stress-induced levels during the latter half of development. Furthermore, there was significant hatching span (difference in days between first- and last-hatched chicks) x hatching order interaction on both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels during development. Hatching span was also positively correlated with both measures of corticosterone and body mass in first-hatched chicks, but was negatively correlated with these factors through most of the development in last-hatched chicks. It is known that hatching asynchrony creates mass and size hierarchies within kestrel broods and we suggest that hierarchies in adrenocortical function among siblings may be one physiological mechanism by which these competitive hierarchies are maintained.

  11. Dicofol (Kelthane?)-induced eggshell thinning in captive American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Spann, J.W.; Bunck, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Reproductive parameters of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were measured through two breeding seasons. Exposure to Kelthane? (containing no DDT-related compounds) at dietary concentrations of 0 (contro!), 1, 3, 10 and 30 ug/g (wet weight) began in late November before, and continued through, the second season. Kelthane thinned eggshells and lowered the thickness index at dietary concentrations >3 ?g/g and it reduced shell weight at >10 ?g/g when comparisons were to concurrent controls. Kelthane reduced the thickness index at >3 ug/g and it reduced shell thickness and weight at >10 ug/g when comparisons were to the same birds during the previous season. All changes were dose-related. It was not previously known that as little as 3 ug/g dicofol could cause these effects. Kestrels resembled previously studied eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) in that 10 ug/ g reduced hatchability of eggs. Both these raptors showed eggshell changes without serious effects on production of young. Available data show dicofol only equal to or less effective than DDE as a shell-thinning agent. Also, DDE may have more impact than dicofol on such critical aspects of reproduction as egg hatchability and survivability of hatchlings. Field studies of dicofol residues in food chains and of residue concentrations in eggs vs. nesting success from areas of heavy dicofol use are needed to judge this chemical's ecological impact.

  12. Estimating Raptor Nesting Success: Old and New Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessi L; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N; Bond, Laura

    2013-07-01

    Studies of nesting success can be valuable in assessing the status of raptor populations, but differing monitoring protocols can present unique challenges when comparing populations of different species across time or geographic areas. We used large datasets from long-term studies of 3 raptor species to compare estimates of apparent nest success (ANS, the ratio of successful to total number of nesting attempts), Mayfield nesting success, and the logistic-exposure model of nest survival. Golden eagles ( Aquila chrysaetos ), prairie falcons ( Falco mexicanus ), and American kestrels ( F. sparverius ) differ in their breeding biology and the methods often used to monitor their reproduction. Mayfield and logistic-exposure models generated similar estimates of nesting success with similar levels of precision. Apparent nest success overestimated nesting success and was particularly sensitive to inclusion of nesting attempts discovered late in the nesting season. Thus, the ANS estimator is inappropriate when exact point estimates are required, especially when most raptor pairs cannot be located before or soon after laying eggs. However, ANS may be sufficient to assess long-term trends of species in which nesting attempts are highly detectable.

  13. Methyl parathion and fenvalerate toxicity in American kestrels: Acute physiological responses and effects of cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and toxicological effects of p.o. methyl parathion (0.375-3.0 mg/kg) or fenvalerate (1000-4000 mg/kg) were examined over a 10-h period in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) maintained in thermoneutral (22?C) and cold (-5?C) environments. Methyl parathion was highly toxic (estimated median lethal dose of 3.08 mg/kg, 95% confidence limits of 2.29 -4.14 mg/kg), producing dose-dependent inhibition of brain and plasma cholinesterase activity, hyperglycemia, and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration. Brain and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in excess of 50% was associated with transient but pronounced hypothermia 2 h after intubation, although the magnitude of this response was yariable. Fenvalerate, at doses far exceeding those encountered in the environment, caused mild intoxication and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activity. Cold intensified methyl parathion toxicity, but did not affect that of fenvalerate. Thus, it would appear that organophosphorus insecticides pose far greater hazard than pyrethroids to raptorial birds.

  14. Acute responses of American kestrels to methyl parathion and fenvalerate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and toxicological effects of p.o, methyl parathion (0.375-3.0 mg/kg) or fenvalerate (1000-4000 mg/kg) were examined over a 10 h period in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) maintained in thermoneutral (22?.C) and cold (-5?.C) environments. Methyl parathion was highly toxic (LD50=3.08 mg/kg, 95% confidence limits=2.29-4.l4 mg/kg, producing overt intoxication (abnormal posture, ataxia, paresis), dose-dependent inhibition (26-67%) of brain acetylcholinesterase activity, hyperglycemia, and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration. Transient but pronounced hypothermia was associated with plasma cholinesterase inhibition in excess of 50% (2 h after intubation), although this response was highly variable (plasma ChE inhibition vs. A cloacal temperature, r=-0.60). Fenvalerate, at doses far exceeding those encountered in the environment, caused mild intoxication (irregular head movement) and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, but did not alter cloacal temperature, plasma activities of CK, U-HBDH, and LDK, or concentrations of corticosterone, glucose, triiodothyronine, and uric acid. Cold exposure intensified methyl parathion toxicity, but did not affect that of fenvalerate. It would thus appear that the organophosphorus insecticide methyl parathion poses far greater hazard than the pyrethroid fenvalerate to raptorial birds.

  15. Female American Kestrel survives double amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Ben R.; Boal, Clint W.

    2011-01-01

    Free-ranging raptors are susceptible to a variety of injuries, many of which are sustained while pursuing and/or capturing live prey. Injuries hindering an individual’s ability to capture prey, such as partial blindness, damage to the bill, and foot or leg injuries, are debilitating and potentially life-threatening. However, there are ample observations in the literature of free-ranging raptors with eye (Bedrosian and St.Pierre 2007), bill (Strobel and Haralson-Strobel 2009) and foot and leg injuries (Blodget et al. 1990, Murza et al. 2000, Dwyer 2006, Bedrosian and St.Pierre 2007), suggesting that some individuals are able to compensate for their injuries if only partial functionality is lost (e.g., loss of only one eye). Reports of injuries resulting in the complete loss of functionality (e.g., loss of both eyes) are rare as individuals suffering such severe trauma presumably do not survive long. Here we report the capture on a bal-chatri trap of an American Kestrel (Falco sparverius; hereafter kestrel) with previous amputation of both legs

  16. Dicofol residues in eggs and carcasses of captive American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Clark, D.R.; Spann, J.W.; Belisle, A.A.; Bunck, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed diets containing 0 (control), 1, 3, 10, and 30 ?g/g (wet wt) of Kelthane?. Residues of dicofol and its metabolites were then analyzed in the eggs and carcasses of females. Significant differences occurred among treatments for residues of both p,p'-dicofol and p,p'-dechlorodicofol (DCD) in both eggs and carcasses and for p,p'-dicholorbenzophenone (DCBP) in eggs. Residue concentrations increased with increasing treatment exposure. Residues of p,p'-dicofol, p,p'-DCD, and p,p'-DCBP in eggs were significantly correlated with eggshell quality parameters. Significant correlations also occurred among contaminants in eggs and for individual contaminants between eggs and carcasses. The lowest-observed-dietary-effect concentration for eggshell thinning was 3 ?g/g, whereas 1 ?g/g may be considered to be near a no-observable-adverse-effect concentration. Concentrations of dicofol in potential prey items and eggs of wild birds generally have been lower than dietary-effect concentrations or concentrations in tissues or eggs associated with eggshell thinning and reduced reproductive success.

  17. Dietary toxicity and tissue accumulation of methylmercury in American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard S; French, John B; Rossmann, Ronald; Haebler, Romona

    2009-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed meat diets containing 0, 3, 6, or 12 ppm (dry weight) methylmercury chloride. Birds fed the 12-ppm diet started to show signs of neurotoxicity after 26 days and all died in 39-49 days. One male kestrel fed the 6-ppm diet died after 75 days of exposure and several others showed signs of neurotoxicity after 45 days. None of the birds fed the 3-ppm diet died or showed signs of toxicity. After 59 days of exposure, mercury concentrations in the liver, kidney, and blood of nonreproducing kestrels increased with increasing dietary concentration. Tissue concentrations of mercury also steadily increased over time in birds fed diets with 6 ppm mercury, which were necropsied at 8, 15, 29, or 59 days of exposure, reaching mean total mercury concentrations of 57, 46, and 45 ppm (wet weight) at 59 days in the liver, kidney, and whole blood, respectively. Two pairs of kestrels at each dietary concentration were allowed to breed. Eggs averaged 8.3 and 18.1 ppm (wet weight) total mercury from birds fed 3- and 6-ppm diets, respectively. Feathers grown during mercury exposure contained high concentrations of mercury: Birds fed 3- and 6-ppm diets contained 275 and 542 ppm total mercury, respectively.

  18. Possible mechanisms for sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides in eastern screech-owls and American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Thiele, L.A.; Garland, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a single dietary exposure to fenthion and carbofuran on the survival, feeding behavior and brain ChE activity of eastern screech-owls, Otus asio and American kestrels, Falco sparverius, were evaluated. Birds were exposed to fenthion (23.6–189.0 ppm) or carbofuran (31.7–253.6 ppm) via meatballs. Carbofuran-exposed owls ate either ≤10% or ≥80% of the meatball whereas all kestrels ate ≤10% of the meatball before exhibiting acute signs of toxicity. Fenthion-exposed owls and kestrels displayed a wide spectrum of meatball consumption (kestrels exposed to fenthion and carbofuran and dead owls exposed to fenthion (P<0.0001). Brain ChE activity of owls exposed to carbofuran that survived was not different from that of controls (P=0.25). Data suggest: (1) slow feeding on a carbamate-contaminated item may provide limited protection from the toxicity of the chemical at certain rates of exposure; (2) the degree of ChE inhibition at neuromuscular junctions may be critical in determining the sensitivity of a species to a carbamate insecticide; (3) sensitivity may be a function of the ChE affinity for the carbamate inhibitor; and (4) the importance of neuromuscular junction ChE depression in determining the sensitivity of an animal may be species-specific.

  19. Clinal variation in the juvenal plumage of American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, J.A.; Natale, C.; Steenhof, K.; Meetz, M.; Marti, C.D.; Melvin, R.J.; Bortolotti, G.R.; Robertson, R.; Robertson, S.; Shuford, W.R.; Lindemann, S.A.; Tornwall, B.

    1999-01-01

    The American Kestrel(Falco sparverius) is a sexually dichromatic falcon that exhibits considerable individual plumage variability. For example, the anterior extent of the black dorsal barring in juvenile males has been used throughout North America as one of several aging criteria, but recent data demonstrate that the variability among individual Southeastern American Kestrels(E S. paulus)exceeds that accounted for by age. The objective of this study was to search for geographic patterns in the variability of juvenal plumage, particularly those characteristics considered indicative of age. Nestling kestrels (n = 610) were examined prior to fledging during the 1997 breeding season at nest box programs across a large portion of the North American breeding range. From south to north (1) the crown patches of both males and females become more completely rufous, and (2) shaft streaks on forehead and crown feathers become more pronounced, especially in males. Male Southeastern American Kestrels differed from other males (E s. sparverius) in that the anterior extent of dorsal barring averaged less but was more variable. The variability observed in North America appears to be part of a cline extending across the species range in the Western Hemisphere, where tropical subspecies are small and have reduced dorsal barring. Both body size and, especially in males, dorsal barring increases with increasing north and south latitude. We suggest that this geographic pattern is adaptive in terms of thermoregulation, and that differences in the sex roles may explain why males become less barred with maturity while females do not.

  20. Accumulation of lead and organochlorine residues in captive American kestrels fed pine voles from apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendell, Rey C.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Stehn, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) were collected from pesticide-treated orchards in New York and fed to 3 captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) for 60 days to evaluate potential hazards from soil-borne persistent insecticides. Three control kestrels were fed uncontaminated laboratory mice (Mus musculus). The pine voles contained an average of 38 ppm lead, 48 ppm DDE and 1.2 ppm dieldrin (dry weight). The kestrels accumulated sublethal amounts of lead (1 ppm lead wet weight) in their livers. In contrast, DDE and dieldrin accumulated in the tissues and brains of kestrels to toxicologically significant concentrations. Control kestrels remained healthy and accumulated insignificant concentrations of the contaminants. The results indicated raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination by organochlorine pesticides. raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination byorganochlorine pesticides. lead wet weight) in their livers.

  1. Effects of small increases in corticosterone levels on morphology, immune function, and feather development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michael W; Leppert, Lynda L; Dufty, Alfred M

    2010-01-01

    Stressors encountered during avian development may affect an individual's phenotype, including immunocompetence, growth, and feather quality. We examined effects of simulated chronic low-level stress on American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings. Continuous release of corticosterone, a hormone involved in the stress response, can model chronic stress in birds. We implanted 13-d-old males with either corticosterone-filled implants or shams and measured their growth, immune function, and feather coloration. We found no significant differences between groups at the end of the weeklong exposure period in morphometrics (mass, tarsus, wing length, and asymmetry), immunocompetence (cutaneous immunity, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and humoral immunity), or feather coloration. One week subsequent to implant removal, however, differences were detected. Sham-implanted birds had significantly longer wings and a reduced level of cutaneous immune function compared with those of birds given corticosterone-filled implants. Therefore, increases of only 2 ng/mL in basal corticosterone titer can have small but measurable effects on subsequent avian development.

  2. Cannibalism of nestling American kestrels by their parents and siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Gary R.; Wiebe, Karen L.; Iko, William M.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the frequency of cannibalism of nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) in north-central Saskatchewan. We investigated human disturbance and food shortages as possible causes of it. Cannibalism of nestlings by their parents and siblings was confirmed by observation and by the presence of partially eaten carcasses, or inferred from the sudden disappearance of a nestling between frequent nest checks. Cannibalism occurred at 8% of 48 nests in 1988, and 18% of 92 nests in 1989. Not all nestlings that died were cannibalized. Where nestling mortality occurred, carcasses were eaten in at least 20% of nests in 1988, and 63% of nests in 1989. The chicks that were cannibalized died at a significantly younger age than those that died but were not cannibalized. The mass and age of the parent and the laying date were not associated with the occurrence of cannibalism. We found no strong evidence of a causal link between human disturbance and nestling mortality or cannibalism; however, the abundance of small mammal prey was inversely related to the frequency of cannibalism between years, and there were fewer prey and lower prey delivery rates in territories where cannibalism occurred than in territories where nestling mortality did not occur. The fact that some nestlings died but were not eaten suggests that such mortality was unrelated to food shortages. The food advantage of cannibalism may not outweigh potential disadvantages such as disease transmission.

  3. Body condition and the adrenal stress response in captive American kestrel juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J A; Dufty, A M

    1998-01-01

    We examined the adrenal response to handling stress of birds in different body conditions. In order to affect the birds' body condition, young (73-d old) female American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were maintained for 6 wk on one of three diets: a control diet (fed ad lib.) and two calorically restricted diets. To invoke a stress response, we removed birds from their cages and took repeated blood samples over the course of an hour. All birds responded to handling stress with an increase in plasma corticosterone, but control birds (in good body condition) showed a more rapid increase to maximum corticosterone levels, followed by a decrease. Both groups of food-restricted birds had a slower rate of increase to maximum corticosterone levels and then maintained high corticosterone levels through 60 min. These results suggest that birds in good physical condition respond more quickly to stressors and adapt physiologically to stressful situations more rapidly than do birds in poor physical condition. This difference may reflect the ability of birds in good condition to mobilize fat for energy, while birds in poor condition must mobilize protein (i.e., muscle).

  4. Investigating endocrine and physiological parameters of captive American kestrels exposed by diet to selected organophosphate flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kimberly J; Palace, Vince; Peters, Lisa E; Basu, Nil; Letcher, Robert J; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Schultz, Sandra L; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Rattner, Barnett A

    2015-06-16

    Organophosphate triesters are high production volume additive flame retardants (OPFRs) and plasticizers. Shown to accumulate in abiotic and biotic environmental compartments, little is known about the risks they pose. Captive adult male American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed the same dose (22 ng OPFR/g kestrel/d) daily (21 d) of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), or tris(1,2-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). Concentrations were undetected in tissues (renal, hepatic), suggesting rapid metabolism. There were no changes in glutathione status, indicators of hepatic oxidative status, or the cholinergic system (i.e., cerebrum, plasma cholinesterases; cerebrum muscarinic, nicotinic receptors). Modest changes occurred in hepatocyte integrity and function (clinical chemistry). Significant effects on plasma free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations occurred with exposure to TBOEP, TCEP, TCIPP, and TDCIPP; TBOEP and TCEP had additional overall effects on free thyroxine (FT4), whereas TDCIPP also influenced total thyroxine (TT4). Relative increases (32%-96%) in circulating FT3, TT3, FT4, and/or TT4 were variable with each OPFR at 7 d exposure, but limited thereafter, which was likely maintained through decreased thyroid gland activity and increased hepatic deiodinase activity. The observed physiological and endocrine effects occurred at environmentally relevant concentrations and suggest parent OPFRs or metabolites may have been present despite rapid degradation.

  5. Endocrine, developmental and reproductive impacts of polychlorinated biphenyl (Arochlor 1242) in American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.B.; Henry, P.F.P.; Rattner, B.A.; Ottinger, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Diverse field and experimental studies suggest that abnormal sexual and reproductive development in wildlife could be caused by endocrine-like action of pollutants on embryos, and that functional deficits would be evident only later in life, during breeding. We tested these hypotheses in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Aroclor 1242 is a commercial mixture of PCB congeners shown to be estrogenic in mice and the mixture approximates the environmental exposure of Common terns (Sterna hirundo) where abnormal development of gonads in male tern chicks was seen. Pairs of kestrels were exposed to high and low levels of Aroclor in food resulting in mean egg concentrations of 80.4 and 9.4 ppm respectively. The gonadal orphology of hatchlings was consistent with their genetic sex, and male testes showed only little histological intersexuality; fledglings had nomal gonadal morphology and histology. Female hatchlings tended to show increased androgen and decreased estrogen in their serum with increased dose of Aroclor. Similarly exposed siblings were raised to breeding age and displayed some differences in incubation behavior, but no difference in reproductive output from controls. Overall, kestrels exposed to Aroclor 1242 as embryos showed some moderate disruption of normal development, but siblings showed little functional deficit at breeding age.

  6. Acute toxicity of four anticholinesterase insecticides to American kestrels, eastern screech-owls and northern bobwhites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Sparling, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius), eastern screech-owls (Otus asio), and northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) were given single acute oral doses of four widely diverse anticholinesterase pesticides: EPN, fenthion, carbofuran, and monocrotophos. LD50s, based on birds that died within 5 d of dosage, were computed for each chemical in each species. Sex differences in the sensitivity of northern bobwhites in reproductive condition were examined. American kestrels were highly sensitive to all chemicals tested (LD50s 0.6--4.0 mg/kg). Eastern screech-owls were highly tolerant to EPN (LD50 274 mg/kg) but sensitive to the remaining chemicals (LD50s 1.5-3.9 mg/kg). Northern bobwhites were highly sensitive to monocrotophos (LD50 0.8 mg/kg) and less sensitive to the remaining chemicals (LD50s 4.6--31 mg/kg). Female bobwhites (LD50 3.1 mg/kg) were more sensitive to fenthion than males (LD50 7.0 mg/kg). Mean percent depression of brain cho[inesterase (ChE) of birds that died on the day of dosing exceeded 65% for all chemicals in all species. The response of one species to a given pesticide should not be used to predict the sensitivity of other species to the same pesticide. The need for research on several topics is discussed

  7. Sex-related differences in habitat associations of wintering American Kestrels in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfino, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    We used roadside survey data collected from 19 routes over three consecutive winters from 200708 to 200910 to compare habitat associations of male and female American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) in the Central Valley of California to determine if segregation by sex was evident across this region. As a species, American Kestrels showed positive associations with alfalfa and other forage crops like hay and winter wheat, as well as grassland, irrigated pasture, and rice. Habitat associations of females were similar, with female densities in all these habitats except rice significantly higher than average. Male American Kestrels showed a positive association only with grassland and were present at densities well below those of females in alfalfa, other forage crops, and grassland. Males were present in higher densities than females in most habitats with negative associations for the species, such as orchards, urbanized areas, and oak savannah. The ratio of females to males for each route was positively correlated with the overall density of American Kestrels on that route. Our findings that females seem to occupy higher quality habitats in winter are consistent with observations from elsewhere in North America. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  8. Response of brown anoles Anolis sagrei to multimodal signals from a native and novel predator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar L. ELMASRI, Marcus S. MORENO, Courtney A. NEUMANN, Daniel T. BLUMSTEIN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple studies have focused on the importance of single modalities (visual, auditory, olfactory in eliciting anti-predator behavior, however multiple channels are often engaged simultaneously. While examining responses to multiple cues can potentially reveal more complex behavioral responses, little is known about how multimodal processing evolves. By contrasting response to familiar and novel predators, insights can be gained into the evolution of multimodal responses. We studied brown anoles’ (Anolis sagrei response to acoustic and visual predatory cues of a common potential predator, the great-tailed grackle Quiscalus mexicanus and to the American kestrel Falco sparverius, a species found in other populations but not present in our study population. We observed anole behavior before and after a stimulus and quantified rates of looking, display, and locomotion. Anoles increased their rate of locomotion in response to grackle models, an effect modulated by grackle vocalizations. No such response or modulation was seen when anoles were presented with kestrel stimuli. This suggests that the degree of sophistication of anole response to predators is experience dependent and that relaxed selection can result in reduced anti-predator response following loss of predators [Current Zoology 58 (6: 791–796, 2012].

  9. Amino Acid Specific Stable Nitrogen Isotope Values in Avian Tissues: Insights from Captive American Kestrels and Wild Herring Gulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, C E; Popp, B N; Fernie, K J; Ka'apu-Lyons, C; Rattner, B A; Wallsgrove, N

    2016-12-06

    Through laboratory and field studies, the utility of amino acid compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis (AA-CSIA) in avian studies is investigated. Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed an isotopically characterized diet and patterns in δ 15 N values of amino acids (AAs) were compared to those in their tissues (muscle and red blood cells) and food. Based upon nitrogen isotope discrimination between diet and kestrel tissues, AAs could mostly be categorized as source AAs (retaining baseline δ 15 N values) and trophic AAs (showing 15 N enrichment). Trophic discrimination factors based upon the source (phenylalanine, Phe) and trophic (glutamic acid, Glu) AAs were 4.1 (muscle) and 5.4 (red blood cells), lower than those reported for metazoan invertebrates. In a field study involving omnivorous herring gulls (Larus argentatus smithsonianus), egg AA isotopic patterns largely retained those observed in the laying female's tissues (muscle, red blood cells, and liver). Realistic estimates of gull trophic position were obtained using bird Glu and Phe δ 15 N values combined with β values (difference in Glu and Phe δ 15 N in primary producers) for aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Egg fatty acids were used to weight β values for proportions of aquatic and terrestrial food in gull diets. This novel approach can be applied to generalist species that feed across ecosystem boundaries.

  10. Mercury in the blood and eggs of American kestrels fed methylmercury chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.B.; Bennett, R.S.; Rossmann, R.

    2010-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed diets containing methylmercury chloride (MeHg) at 0, 0.6, 1.7, 2.8, 3.9, or 5.0 ??g/g (dry wt) starting approximately eight weeks before the onset of egg laying. Dietary treatment was terminated after 12 to 14 weeks, and unhatched eggs were collected for Hg analysis. Blood samples were collected after four weeks of treatment and the termination of the study (i.e., 12-14 weeks of treatment). Clutch size decreased at dietary concentrations above 2.8 ??g/g. The average total mercury concentration in clutches of eggs and in the second egg laid (i.e., egg B) increased linearly with dietary concentration. Mercury concentrations in egg B were approximately 25% lower than in the first egg laid and similar in concentration to the third egg laid. Mercury concentrations in whole blood and plasma also increased linearly with dietary concentration. Total Hg concentrations in June blood samples were lower than those in April, despite 8 to 10 weeks of additional dietary exposure to MeHg in the diet. This is likely because of excretion of Hg into growing flight feathers beginning shortly after the start of egg production. The strongest relationships between Hg concentrations in blood and eggs occurred when we used blood samples collected in April before egg laying and feather molt. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  11. Effects of electromagnetic fields on photophasic circulating melatonin levels in American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, K J; Bird, D M; Petitclerc, D

    1999-11-01

    Birds reproduce within electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from transmission lines. Melatonin influences physiologic and behavioral processes that are critical to survival, and melatonin has been equivocally suppressed by EMFs in mammalian species. We examined whether EMFs affect photophasic plasma melatonin in reproducing adult and fledgling American kestrels (Falco sparverius), and whether melatonin was correlated with body mass to explain previously reported results. Captive kestrel pairs were bred under control or EMF conditions for one (short-term) or two (long-term) breeding seasons. EMF exposure had an overall effect on plasma melatonin in male kestrels, with plasma levels suppressed at 42 days and elevated at 70 days of EMF exposure. The similarity in melatonin levels between EMF males at 42 days and controls at 70 days suggests a seasonal phase-shift of the melatonin profile caused by EMF exposure. Melatonin was also suppressed in long-term fledglings, but not in short-term fledglings or adult females. Melatonin levels in adult males were higher than in adult females, possibly explaining the sexually dimorphic response to EMFs. Melatonin and body mass were not associated in American kestrels. It is likely that the results are relevant to wild raptors nesting within EMFs.

  12. Gnezdilke Parka Škocjanske jame (Kras, JZ Slovenija/ The breeding birds of Škocjan Caves Park (Kras, SW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figelj Jernej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study done in 2011 and 2012 was to identify the number of breeding bird species, to provide population estimates as well as to evaluate the conservational importance of Škocjan Caves Park for birds. Common bird species were surveyed using the territory mapping method. Rare species and nocturnally active species were surveyed using species-specific methods: observation, the playback method and the line transect method. 81 species were registered, 49 of which bred within the boundaries of the Park. The most abundant breeding species were Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla (260-320 breeding pairs, Robin Erithacus rubecula (250-310 breeding pairs, Blackbird Turdus merula (230-280 breeding pairs, Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs (230-280 breeding pairs and Marsh Tit Poecile palustris (200-240 breeding pairs. Qualifying species for the Special Protected Area (SPA Kras (SI5000023 also bred within the Park: Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus, Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus, Scops Owl Otus scops and Woodlark Lululla arborea. Eagle Owl Bubo bubo was also registered, but breeding attempts during the study period were unsuccessful due to the negative influence of several factors. One of the largest colonies of Alpine Swifts Apus melba, a rare and localized species in Slovenia, is also of conservation concern.

  13. Environmental contaminants in Texas, USA, wetland reptiles: Evaluation using blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Bickham, J.W.; Baker, D.L.; Cowman, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    Four species of reptiles (diamondback water snake [Nerodia rhombifer], blotched water snake [N. erythrogaster], cottonmouth [Agkistrodon piscivorus], and red-eared slider [Trachemys scripta]) were collected at two contaminated and three reference sites in Texas, USA. Old River Slough has received intensive applications of agricultural chemicals since the 1950s. Municipal Lake received industrial arsenic wastes continuously from 1940 to 1993. Blood samples were analyzed for organochlorines, potentially toxic elements, genetic damage, and plasma cholinesterase (ChE). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations reached as high as 3.0 ppm (wet weight) in whole blood of a diamondback water snake at Old River Slough, a level probably roughly equivalent to the maximum concentration found in plasma of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) in 1978 to 1979 when DDE peaked in this sensitive species. Possible impacts on diamondback water snakes are unknown, but at least one diamondback water snake was gravid when captured, indicating active reproduction. Arsenic was not found in red-eared sliders (only species sampled) from Municipal Lake. Red-eared sliders of both sexes at Old River Slough showed declining levels of ChE with increasing mass, suggesting a life-long decrease of ChE levels. Possible negative population consequences are unknown, but no evidence was found in body condition (mass relative to carapace length) that red-eared sliders at either contaminated site were harmed.

  14. Social phenotype extended to communities: expanded multilevel social selection analysis reveals fitness consequences of interspecific interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobello, Daniela; Hare, James F; Sarà, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    In social species, fitness consequences are associated with both individual and social phenotypes. Social selection analysis has quantified the contribution of conspecific social traits to individual fitness. There has been no attempt, however, to apply a social selection approach to quantify the fitness implications of heterospecific social phenotypes. Here, we propose a novel social selection based approach integrating the role of all social interactions at the community level. We extended multilevel selection analysis by including a term accounting for the group phenotype of heterospecifics. We analyzed nest activity as a model social trait common to two species, the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and jackdaw (Corvus monedula), nesting in either single- or mixed-species colonies. By recording reproductive outcome as a measure of relative fitness, our results reveal an asymmetric system wherein only jackdaw breeding performance was affected by the activity phenotypes of both conspecific and heterospecific neighbors. Our model incorporating heterospecific social phenotypes is applicable to animal communities where interacting species share a common social trait, thus allowing an assessment of the selection pressure imposed by interspecific interactions in nature. Finally, we discuss the potential role of ecological limitations accounting for random or preferential assortments among interspecific social phenotypes, and the implications of such processes to community evolution. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Terminal attack trajectories of peregrine falcons are described by the proportional navigation guidance law of missiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Caroline H; Thomas, Adrian L R; Taylor, Graham K

    2017-12-19

    The ability to intercept uncooperative targets is key to many diverse flight behaviors, from courtship to predation. Previous research has looked for simple geometric rules describing the attack trajectories of animals, but the underlying feedback laws have remained obscure. Here, we use GPS loggers and onboard video cameras to study peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus , attacking stationary targets, maneuvering targets, and live prey. We show that the terminal attack trajectories of peregrines are not described by any simple geometric rule as previously claimed, and instead use system identification techniques to fit a phenomenological model of the dynamical system generating the observed trajectories. We find that these trajectories are best-and exceedingly well-modeled by the proportional navigation (PN) guidance law used by most guided missiles. Under this guidance law, turning is commanded at a rate proportional to the angular rate of the line-of-sight between the attacker and its target, with a constant of proportionality (i.e., feedback gain) called the navigation constant ( N ). Whereas most guided missiles use navigation constants falling on the interval 3 ≤ N ≤ 5, peregrine attack trajectories are best fitted by lower navigation constants (median N law could find use in small visually guided drones designed to remove other drones from protected airspace. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  16. A reassessment on the state of knowledge of Chilean Falconidae in the last hundred years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Saravia, Ricardo; Ruiz, Víctor Hugo; Benítez-Mora, Alfonso; Marchant, Margarita; Vega-Román, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Eight species of falcons (Falconidae) have been recorded in Chile. To date, all relevant studies considered birds of prey in general, with no specific focus on this family. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, an updated report is presented on the state of knowledge of falcons in Chile. This data set comprises a total of 165 studies published from 1915 to 2015. Scientific productivity was lowest in 1945-1955 and highest in 2005-2015, with a steady increase since 1985. However, the focus of research in Chile is biased towards two species: Milvago chimango and Falco sparverius. Two administrative regions, Santiago Metropolitan Region and Araucanía, were the most studied whereas Arica, Tarapacá, and Antofagasta regions accounted for fewer than 1% of the studies. Faunistic studies (including abundance) were the most common research topic. It is suggested that the lack of knowledge regarding species in the genus Phalcoboenus may negatively affect the conservation status of these species, and believed that the lack of preference for certain research topics, such as systematics and natural history, are the result of historical factors including the decrease of field biology and perhaps a biased interest of the researchers. Finally, this review highlights the paucity of information on falcons and provides a framework for directing future research. PMID:28138302

  17. Long-term prairie falcon population changes in relation to prey abundance, weather, land uses, and habitat conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Carpenter, L.B.; Lehman, Robert N.

    1999-01-01

    We studied a nesting population of Prairie Falcons (Falco mexicanus) in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) from 1974-1997 to identify factors that influence abundance and reproduction. Our sampling period included two major droughts and associated crashes in Townsend's ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendii) populations. The number of Prairie Falcon pairs found on long-term survey segments declined significantly from 1976-1997. Early declines were most severe at the eastern end of the NCA, where fires and agriculture have changed native shrubsteppe habitat. More recent declines occurred in the portion of canyon near the Orchard Training Area (OTA), where the Idaho Army National Guard conducts artillery firing and tank maneuvers. Overall Prairie Falcon reproductive rates were tied closely to annual indexes of ground squirrel abundance, but precipitation before and during the breeding season was related inversely to some measures of reproduction. Most reproductive parameters showed no significant trends over time, but during the 1990s, nesting success and productivity were lower in the stretch of canyon near the OTA than in adjacent areas. Extensive shrub loss, by itself, did not explain the pattern of declines in abundance and reproduction that we observed. Recent military training activities likely have interacted with fire and livestock grazing to create less than favorable foraging opportunities for Prairie Falcons in a large part of the NCA. To maintain Prairie Falcon populations in the NCA, managers should suppress wildfires, restore native plant communities, and regulate potentially incompatible land uses.

  18. Developmental toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides in nestling American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Spann, J W; LeCaptain, L J; Bunck, C M; Rattner, B A

    1991-11-01

    Beginning the day after hatching, American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed for 10 consecutive days with 5 microliters/g of corn oil (controls) or one of the diphenyl ether herbicides (nitrofen, bifenox, or oxyfluorfen) at concentrations of 10, 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg in corn oil. At 500 mg/kg, nitrofen resulted in complete nestling mortality, bifenox in high (66%) mortality, and oxyfluorfen in no mortality. Nitrofen at 250 mg/kg reduced nestling growth as reflected by decreased body weight, crown-rump length, and bone lengths including humerus, radius-ulna, femur, and tibiotarsus. Bifenox at 250 mg/kg had less effect on growth than nitrofen, but crown-rump, humerus, radius-ulna, and femur were significantly shorter than controls. Liver weight as a percent of body weight increased with 50 and 250 mg/kg nitrofen. Other manifestations of impending hepatotoxicity following nitrofen ingestion included increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in all nitrofen-treated groups, and increased plasma enzyme activities for ALT, AST, and LDH-L in the 250-mg/kg group. Bifenox ingestion resulted in increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in the 50- and 250-mg/kg groups. Nitrofen exposure also resulted in an increase in total plasma thyroxine (T4) concentration. These findings suggest that altricial nestlings are more sensitive to diphenyl ether herbicides than young or adult birds of precocial species.

  19. Immunochemical analysis of fumigaclavine mycotoxins in respiratory tissues and in blood serum of birds with confirmed aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Hadri; Gross, Madeleine; Fischer, Dominik; Lierz, Michael; Usleber, Ewald

    2015-11-01

    The ergoline alkaloid fumigaclavine A (FuA) is one of the major mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus fumigatus, the main causative fungal agent of avian aspergillosis. To study in situ production of FuA, post-mortem respiratory tissues of various avian species, as well as blood samples of falcons (Falco sp.), were analysed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). At a detection limit of 1.5 ng/ml, FuA EIA positive results were obtained for tissue samples from seven (64%) out of 11 birds with confirmed aspergillosis, with a maximum concentration of 38 ng/g, while all controls (n = 7) were negative. No FuA could be detected in blood serum (detection limit 0.7 ng/ml) of 15 falcons, experimentally inoculated with A. fumigatus conidia. Fungal mycelium material from tissue of clinical aspergillosis cases, cultured on malt extract agar, was highly positive in the FuA EIA in milligrams per gram range. Chromatographic analysis of mycelium extracts revealed the co-presence of FuA and the structurally related fumigaclavine C (FuC). Alkaline hydrolysis of FuA and FuC yielded the corresponding deacetylation products, FuB and FuE. This is the first report showing that fumigaclavine alkaloids are produced by A. fumigatus in situ during the course of clinical aspergillosis in birds; however, the role of these compounds in the pathogenesis of this disease is still unknown.

  20. High rates of detection of Clade 2.3.4.4 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5 viruses in wild birds in the Pacific Northwest during the winter of 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Kim Torchetti, Mia; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G.; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses spread across the Republic of Korea and ultimately were reported in China, Japan, Russia and Europe. Mortality associated with a reassortant HPAI H5N2 virus was detected in poultry farms in Western Canada at the end of November. The same strain (with identical genetic structure) was then detected in free-living wild birds that had died prior to December 8 of unrelated causes in Whatcom County, Washington, USA in an area contiguous with the index Canadian location. A gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) that had hunted and fed on an American wigeon (Anas americana) on December 6 in the same area and died two days later, tested positive for the Eurasian origin HPAI H5N8. Subsequently, an Active Surveillance Program using hunter-harvest waterfowl in Washington and Oregon detected ten HPAI H5 viruses, of three different subtypes (four H5N2, three H5N8 and three H5N1) with 4 segments in common (HA, PB2, NP and MA). In addition, a mortality-based Passive Surveillance Program detected 18 HPAI (14 H5N2 and four H5N8) cases from Idaho, Kansas, Oregon, Minnesota, Montana, Washington and Wisconsin. Comparatively, mortality-based passive surveillance appears to be detecting these HPAI infections at a higher rate than active surveillance during the period following initial introduction into the US.

  1. High Rates of Detection of Clade 2.3.4.4 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5 Viruses in Wild Birds in the Pacific Northwest During the Winter of 2014-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S; Dusek, Robert J; Bodenstein, Barbara; Torchetti, Mia Kim; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2016-05-01

    In 2014, clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses spread across the Republic of Korea and ultimately were reported in China, Japan, Russia, and Europe. Mortality associated with a reassortant HPAI H5N2 virus was detected in poultry farms in western Canada at the end of November. The same strain (with identical genetic structure) was then detected in free-living wild birds that had died prior to December 8, 2014, of unrelated causes in Whatcom County, Washington, U. S. A., in an area contiguous with the index Canadian location. A gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) that had hunted and fed on an American wigeon (Anas americana) on December 6, 2014, in the same area, and died 2 days later, tested positive for the Eurasian-origin HPAI H5N8. Subsequently, an active surveillance program using hunter-harvested waterfowl in Washington and Oregon detected 10 HPAI H5 viruses, of three different subtypes (four H5N2, three H5N8, and three H5N1) with four segments in common (HA, PB2, NP, and MA). In addition, a mortality-based passive surveillance program detected 18 HPAI (14 H5N2 and four H5N8) cases from Idaho, Kansas, Oregon, Minnesota, Montana, Washington, and Wisconsin. Comparatively, mortality-based passive surveillance appears to have detected these HPAI infections at a higher rate than active surveillance during the period following initial introduction into the United States.

  2. Spatial assessment of the potential risk of avian influenza A virus infection in three raptor species in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Sachiko; Onuma, Manabu; Goka, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    Avian influenza A, a highly pathogenic avian influenza, is a lethal infection in certain species of wild birds, including some endangered species. Raptors are susceptible to avian influenza, and spatial risk assessment of such species may be valuable for conservation planning. We used the maximum entropy approach to generate potential distribution models of three raptor species from presence-only data for the mountain hawk-eagle Nisaetus nipalensis, northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis and peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, surveyed during the winter from 1996 to 2001. These potential distribution maps for raptors were superimposed on avian influenza A risk maps of Japan, created from data on incidence of the virus in wild birds throughout Japan from October 2010 to March 2011. The avian influenza A risk map for the mountain hawk-eagle showed that most regions of Japan had a low risk for avian influenza A. In contrast, the maps for the northern goshawk and peregrine falcon showed that their high-risk areas were distributed on the plains along the Sea of Japan and Pacific coast. We recommend enhanced surveillance for each raptor species in high-risk areas and immediate establishment of inspection systems. At the same time, ecological risk assessments that determine factors, such as the composition of prey species, and differential sensitivity of avian influenza A virus between bird species should provide multifaceted insights into the total risk assessment of endangered species.

  3. Estimating raptor nesting success: old and new approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessi L.; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Bond, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Studies of nesting success can be valuable in assessing the status of raptor populations, but differing monitoring protocols can present unique challenges when comparing populations of different species across time or geographic areas. We used large datasets from long-term studies of 3 raptor species to compare estimates of apparent nest success (ANS, the ratio of successful to total number of nesting attempts), Mayfield nesting success, and the logistic-exposure model of nest survival. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius) differ in their breeding biology and the methods often used to monitor their reproduction. Mayfield and logistic-exposure models generated similar estimates of nesting success with similar levels of precision. Apparent nest success overestimated nesting success and was particularly sensitive to inclusion of nesting attempts discovered late in the nesting season. Thus, the ANS estimator is inappropriate when exact point estimates are required, especially when most raptor pairs cannot be located before or soon after laying eggs. However, ANS may be sufficient to assess long-term trends of species in which nesting attempts are highly detectable.

  4. Trophic Niche in a Raptor Species: The Relationship between Diet Diversity, Habitat Diversity and Territory Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Navarro-López

    Full Text Available Recent research reports that many populations of species showing a wide trophic niche (generalists are made up of both generalist individuals and individuals with a narrow trophic niche (specialists, suggesting trophic specializations at an individual level. If true, foraging strategies should be associated with individual quality and fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that individuals will select the most favourable habitats for feeding. In addition, the "landscape heterogeneity hypothesis" predicts a higher number of species in more diverse landscapes. Thus, it can be predicted that individuals with a wider realized trophic niche should have foraging territories with greater habitat diversity, suggesting that foraging strategies, territory quality and habitat diversity are inter-correlated. This was tested for a population of common kestrels Falco tinnunculus. Diet diversity, territory occupancy (as a measure of territory quality and habitat diversity of territories were measured over an 8-year period. Our results show that: 1 territory quality was quadratically correlated with habitat diversity, with the best territories being the least and most diverse; 2 diet diversity was not correlated with territory quality; and 3 diet diversity was negatively correlated with landscape heterogeneity. Our study suggests that niche generalist foraging strategies are based on an active search for different prey species within or between habitats rather than on the selection of territories with high habitat diversity.

  5. Specialized photoreceptor composition in the raptor fovea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitkus, Mindaugas; Olsson, Peter; Toomey, Matthew B; Corbo, Joseph C; Kelber, Almut

    2017-06-15

    The retinae of many bird species contain a depression with high photoreceptor density known as the fovea. Many species of raptors have two foveae, a deep central fovea and a shallower temporal fovea. Birds have six types of photoreceptors: rods, active in dim light, double cones that are thought to mediate achromatic discrimination, and four types of single cones mediating color vision. To maximize visual acuity, the fovea should only contain photoreceptors contributing to high-resolution vision. Interestingly, it has been suggested that raptors might lack double cones in the fovea. We used transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry to evaluate this claim in five raptor species: the common buzzard (Buteo buteo), the honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus), the Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), the red kite (Milvus milvus), and the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). We found that all species, except the Eurasian sparrowhawk, lack double cones in the center of the central fovea. The size of the double cone-free zone differed between species. Only the common buzzard had a double cone-free zone in the temporal fovea. In three species, we examined opsin expression in the central fovea and found evidence that rod opsin positive cells were absent and violet-sensitive cone and green-sensitive cone opsin positive cells were present. We conclude that not only double cones, but also single cones may contribute to high-resolution vision in birds, and that raptors may in fact possess high-resolution tetrachromatic vision in the central fovea. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ultraviolet sensitivity and colour vision in raptor foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Olle; Mitkus, Mindaugas; Olsson, Peter; Kelber, Almut

    2013-05-15

    Raptors have excellent vision, yet it is unclear how they use colour information. It has been suggested that raptors use ultraviolet (UV) reflections from vole urine to find good hunting grounds. In contrast, UV plumage colours in songbirds such as blue tits are assumed to be 'hidden' communication signals, inconspicuous to raptors. This ambiguity results from a lack of knowledge about raptor ocular media transmittance, which sets the limit for UV sensitivity. We measured ocular media transmittance in common buzzards (Buteo buteo), sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), red kites (Milvus milvus) and kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) so that, for the first time, raptor UV sensitivity can be fully described. With this information, and new measurements of vole urine reflectance, we show that (i) vole urine is unlikely to provide a reliable visual signal to hunting raptors and (ii) blue tit plumage colours are more contrasting to blue tits than to sparrowhawks because of UV reflectance. However, as the difference between blue tit and sparrowhawk vision is subtle, we suggest that behavioural data are needed to fully resolve this issue. UV cues are of little or no importance to raptors in both vole and songbird interactions and the role of colour vision in raptor foraging remains unclear.

  7. Plans to Develop a Gas Field in the Kansu on the Border of the Usturt State Nature Reserve is a Real Threat for the Ecosystem of the Reserve and Largest Population of the Saker Falcon in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V. Pestov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plans of JSC “KazMunayGaz” National Company” on developing the Kansu gas field, which is situated right next to current southern borders of Usturt natural reserve on Kenderli-Kayasan conservation zone (Mangystau Province of the Republic of Kazakhstan are a direct danger for the largest population of the Saker Falcon Falco cherrug korelovi in Kazakhstan and for Kenderli-Kayasan conservation zone’s ecosystem as a whole. On the contrary, the realization of plans to expand the Usturt State Reserve within the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan/GEF/UNDP project “Rising of stability of systems in conservation territories in desert ecosystems through promoting life sustaining sources compatible with biodiversity in and around conservation areas” and international expert group’s initiative of Mangystau Protected Area System to be nominated for UNESCO World Heritage status could create favorable environment for Usturt population of the Saker Falcon. It’s evident that all possible outcomes should be taken into account in the long-term planning of future development of Mangystau region, and options of development with less negative effect on environment should be chosen. In their letter to President of Kazakhstan the experts described their opinion on the necessity of imposing a moratorium on exploration and development of the Kansu gas field and concentrating on alternative fields.

  8. Condition-dependent expression of melanin-based coloration in the Eurasian kestrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piault, Romain; van den Brink, Valentijn; Roulin, Alexandre

    2012-05-01

    Melanin is the most common pigment in animal integuments and is responsible for some of the most striking ornaments. A central tenet of sexual selection theory states that melanin-based traits can signal absolute individual quality in any environment only if their expression is condition-dependent. Significant costs imposed by an ornament would ensure that only the highest quality individuals display the most exaggerated forms of the signal. Firm evidence that melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent is still rare in birds. In an experimental test of this central assumption, we report condition-dependent expression of a melanin-based trait in the Eurasian kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus). We manipulated nestling body condition by reducing or increasing the number of nestlings soon after hatching. A few days before fledging, we measured the width of sub-terminal black bands on the tail feathers. Compared to nestlings from enlarged broods, individuals raised in reduced broods were in better condition and thereby developed larger sub-terminal bands. Furthermore, in 2 years, first-born nestlings also developed larger sub-terminal bands than their younger siblings that are in poorer condition. This demonstrates that expression of melanin-based traits can be condition-dependent.

  9. Dr John Dickinson (1832-1863): The man behind the bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conacher, I D

    2016-08-01

    The surgeon/naturalists Dr John Kirk, Dr Charles Meller and Dr John Dickinson, associated with the Zambezi Expedition (1857-1864) under the leadership of Dr David Livingstone are, like him, credited with the discovery of new species' of birds. A raptor, Falco dickinsoni, is named after Dr John Dickinson. Dickinson, born in the north east of England, trained in medicine in Newcastle upon Tyne. He volunteered to join the Universities' Mission to Central Africa and arrived as part of a second group to join Bishop Frederick Mackenzie, then attempting to build a Mission in Magomero, on the Shire Mountain Plateau in modern Malawi. Livingstone and Mackenzie had sown the seeds of disaster for the first UMCA venture while Dickinson was on his way to Central Africa, and his one meeting with Livingstone was trigger to a chain of events that threatened the whole expedition. Shortly after Dickinson's arrival in Magomero, Bishop Mackenzie and a fellow traveller, Reverend Henry de Wint Burrup, died. Magomero was abandoned and the remaining missionaries retrenched in Chibisa's Village on the River Shire. There, where Dickinson did most of his bird collecting, on 17 March 1863, he died of blackwater fever. Livingstone and Kirk were present at the burial. A marble cross at Chikwawa in Malawi is marker to the event that occurred on the day of Dr John Dickinson's 32nd birthday. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Reynolds number scaling of pocket events in the viscous sublayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, M.; Fershtut, A.; Kunkel, C.; Klewicki, J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent findings [X. Wu et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, E5292 (2017), 10.1073/pnas.1704671114] reinforce earlier assertions [e.g., R. Falco, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A 336, 103 (1991), 10.1098/rsta.1991.0069] that the sublayer pocket motions play a distinctly important role in near-wall dynamics. In the present study, smoke visualization and axial velocity measurements are combined in order to establish the scaling behavior of pocket events in the viscous sublayer of the turbulent boundary layer. In doing so, an identical analysis methodology is employed over an extensive range of friction Reynolds numbers 388 ≤δ+≤2.2 ×105 . Both the pocket width W and time interval between pocket events T increase logarithmically with Reynolds number when normalized by viscous units. Normalization of W and T by the Taylor microscales evaluated at a wall-normal location of about 100 viscous units, however, appears to successfully remove this Reynolds-number dependence. The present results are discussed in the context of motion formation owing to the three dimensionalization of the near-wall vorticity field and, concomitantly, the recurring perturbation of the viscous sublayer.

  11. Breeding avifauna of the Special Protection Area Natura 2000 ‘Grądy Odrzańskie’ in Czernica and Siechnice counties, Wrocław district (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, in the Special Protection Area Natura 2000 ‘Grądy Odrzańskie’ in Czernica and Siechnice counties, Wrocław district, 95 breeding bird species were recorded. For 33 of them, maps of distribution of their breeding pairs are presented and for the remaining a relative abundance was estimated based on line transect method. In 2009, the following species were recorded in the study area for the first time: Cygnus olor, Crex crex, Upupa epops, and Picus canus. On the other hand, 11 species recorded in 1978-87 as breeding in the study area (Ciconia nigra, Pernis apivorus, Milvus migrans, Milvus milvus, Falco tinnunculus, Gallinago gallinago, Limosa limosa, Tringa totanus, Riparia riparia, Anthus campestris, Phoenicurus phoenicurus were not recorded again in 2009. It has been shown that Saxicola torquata, Ficedula albicollis, Corvus corax and Remiz pendulinus have increased in numbers. The following species recorded in 2009 as breeding in the the study area: Cygnus olr, Ciconia ciconia, Circus aeruginosus, Crex crex, Alcedo atthis, Dryocopus martius, Picus canus, Dendrocopos medius, Lulula arborea, Sylvia nisoria, Ficedula albicollis, Lanius collurio and Emberiza hortulana are included in Annex 1 of the Bird Directive.

  12. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

  13. Cadmium, lead, and mercury levels in feathers of small passerine birds: noninvasive sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Nicola; Ancora, Stefania; di Fazio, Noemi; Leonzio, Claudio

    2008-10-01

    Bird feathers have been widely used as a nondestructive biological material for monitoring heavy metals. Sources of metals taken up by feathers include diet (metals are incorporated during feather formation), preening, and direct contact with metals in water, air, dust, and plants. In the literature, data regarding the origin of trace elements in feathers are not univocal. Only in the vast literature concerning mercury (as methyl mercury) has endogenous origin been determined. In the present study, we investigate cadmium, lead, and mercury levels in feathers of prey of Falco eleonorae in relation to the ecological characteristics (molt, habitat, and contamination by soil) of the different species. Cluster analysis identified two main groups of species. Differences and correlations within and between groups identified by cluster analysis were then checked by nonparametric statistical analysis. The results showed that mercury levels had a pattern significantly different from those of cadmium and lead, which in turn showed a significant positive correlation, suggesting different origins. Nests of F. eleonorae proved to be a good source for feathers of small trans-Saharan passerines collected by a noninvasive method. They provided abundant feathers of the various species in a relatively small area--in this case, the falcon colony on the Isle of San Pietro, Sardinia, Italy.

  14. Heavy rainfall increases nestling mortality of an Arctic top predator: experimental evidence and long-term trend in peregrine falcons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anctil, Alexandre; Franke, Alastair; Bêty, Joël

    2014-03-01

    Although animal population dynamics have often been correlated with fluctuations in precipitation, causal relationships have rarely been demonstrated in wild birds. We combined nest observations with a field experiment to investigate the direct effect of rainfall on survival of peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in the Canadian Arctic. We then used historical data to evaluate if recent changes in the precipitation regime could explain the long-term decline of falcon annual productivity. Rainfall directly caused more than one-third of the recorded nestling mortalities. Juveniles were especially affected by heavy rainstorms (≥8 mm/day). Nestlings sheltered from rainfall by a nest box had significantly higher survival rates. We found that the increase in the frequency of heavy rain over the last three decades is likely an important factor explaining the recent decline in falcon nestling survival rates, and hence the decrease in annual breeding productivity of the population. Our study is among the first experimental demonstrations of the direct link between rainfall and survival in wild birds, and clearly indicates that top arctic predators can be significantly impacted by changes in precipitation regime.

  15. Herpesviruses and Newcastle disease viruses in white storks (Ciconia ciconia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, E F; Kummerfeld, N

    1983-01-01

    Three herpesviruses were isolated from white storks (Ciconia ciconia). All isolates reacted in cross-neutralisation tests with homologous antisera and with sera prepared against a herpesvirus from a black stork (Ciconia nigra). These data indicate serologic relatedness of the herpesviruses from both stork species. Antisera prepared against herpesviruses from the domestic chicken (viruses of Marek's disease and infectious laryngotracheitis), turkey, duck and pigeon as well as from the blue-fronted amazon (Amazona aestiva), prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), Lake Victoria cormorant (Phalacrocorax melanoleucos), bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and desmoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo) did not react with the stork herpesviruses. Neutralising antibodies against stork herpesvirus were detected in the majority of 72 blood samples from white and black storks. In addition, three Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) could be isolated from white storks. One isolate was highly virulent the two others were avirulent for the chicken. Haemagglutination inhibition tests have shown that some storks have antibodies against Paramyxovirus- (PMV)-1 (NDV), PMV-2 and PMV-3. No antibodies could be detected in stork sera against PMV-4, -6 and -7.

  16. Secondary poisoning of kestrels by white phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Federoff, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1982, extensive waterfowl mortality due to white phosphorus (P4) has been observed at Eagle River Flats, a tidal marsh near Anchorage, Alaska. Ducks and swans that ingest P4 pellets become lethargic and may display severe convulsions. Intoxicated waterfowl attract raptors and gulls that feed on dead or dying birds. To determine if avian predators can be affected by secondary poisoning, we fed American kestrels (Falco sparverius) 10-day-old domestic chickens that had been dosed with white phosphorus. Eight of 15 kestrels fed intact chicks with a pellet of P4 implanted in their crops died within seven days. Three of 15 kestrels fed chicks that had their upper digestive tracts removed to eliminate any pellets of white phosphorus also died. Hematocrit and hemoglobin in kestrels decreased whereas lactate dehydrogenaseL, glucose, and alanine aminotransferase levels in plasma increased with exposure to contaminated chicks. Histological examination of liver and kidneys showed that the incidence and severity of lesions increased when kestrels were fed contaminated chicks. White phosphorus residues were measurable in 87% of the kestrels dying on study and 20% of the survivors. This study shows that raptors can become intoxicated either by ingesting portions of digestive tracts containing white phosphorus pellets or by consuming tissues of P4 contaminated prey.

  17. Parathion poisoning of Mississippi kites in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian

    1994-01-01

    Parathion(phosphorothioic acid O, O-diethyl O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) is a broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, used on a variety of crops and occasionally for mosquito control, and is highly toxic to birds (Smith 1987). Intentional poisoning with parathion is reported to have killed more than 8000 red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in two separate instances (Stone et al. 1984). Use of parathion on wheat fields has resulted in the mortality of about 1600 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and other waterfowl in one instance (White et al. 1982) and about 200 Canada geese in another (Flickinger et al. 1991). More than 200 laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) died near cotton fields treated with parathion (White et al. 1979). Secondary poisoning of raptors resulting from the consumption of prey exposed to parathion, has been reported experimentally and in the field. Stone et al. (1984) found two dead red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and an American kestrel (Falco sparverius) that had fed on blackbirds killed by parathion. One of four American kestrels died after being fed cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) that had been exposed to 10ppm parathion for 96 hr (Fleming et al. 1982). The Mississippi kite (Ictinia mississippensis) is highly insectivorous (Brown and Amadon 1968) and is thus subject to secondary poisoning resulting from consumption of insects exposed to pesticides. I report here an instance of secondary parathion poisoning in wild Mississippi kites.

  18. Low prevalence of blood parasites in a long-distance migratory raptor: the importance of host habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-López, Rafael; Gangoso, Laura; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Fric, Jakob; López-López, Pascual; Mailleux, Mélanie; Muñoz, Joaquín; Touati, Laïd; Samraoui, Boudjema; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-03-31

    The low prevalence of blood parasites in some bird species may be related to the habitats they frequent, the inexistence of the right host-parasite assemblage or the immunological capacity of the host. Here, we assess the parasite load of breeding populations of Eleonora's falcon (Falco eleonorae), a medium-sized long-distance migratory raptor that breeds on small isolated islets throughout the Mediterranean basin and overwinters in inland Madagascar. We examined the prevalence and genetic diversity of the blood parasites belonging to the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon in Eleonora's falcon nestlings from five colonies and in adults from two colonies from nesting sites distributed throughout most of the species' breeding range. None of the 282 nestlings analysed were infected by blood parasites; on the other hand, the lineages of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon were all found to infect adults. Our results support the idea of no local transmission of vector-borne parasites in marine habitats. Adult Eleonora's falcons thus may be infected by parasites when on migration or in their wintering areas. The characteristics of marine environments with a lack of appropriate vectors may thus be the key factor determining the absence of local transmission of blood parasites. By comparing the parasite lineages isolated in this species with those previously found in other birds we were able to infer the most likely areas for the transmission of the various parasite lineages.

  19. Male-biased predation of western green lizards by Eurasian kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, David; Bruner, Emiliano; Fanfani, Alberto; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2007-12-01

    Selective predation can be an important force driving the evolution of organisms. In particular, sex-biased predation is expected to have implications for sexual selection, sex allocation and population dynamics. In this study, we analysed sex differences in the predation of the western green lizard ( Lacerta bilineata) by the Eurasian kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus) during the reproductive season. In addition, we investigated whether the rate of predation differed during the 8-year study period and among the three habitats studied. We collected lizard remains from nest boxes of kestrels. Freshly killed lizards were sexed by visual inspection, whilst the sex of head remains was assigned by analysing the cephalic scale morphology using geometric morphometrics. Our results show that the risk of being predated by a kestrel in our population was overall about 3.55 times higher for males than for females. To our knowledge this is the first study showing a male-biased predation in a lizard species. The selective predation of males was consistent between years over the 8-year study period (1999-2006) and also consistent between the three types of kestrel hunting habitat. Overall predation rates on lizards differed between habitats, depending on the year. We propose that the observed sex-biased predation is mainly due to sex differences in lizard behaviour.

  20. Focal bird species and risk assessment approach for nonagricultural grassland scenarios in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabacker, Jens; Gerlach, Jochen; Münderle, Marcel; Dietzen, Christian; Ludwigs, Jan-Dieter

    2014-09-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) guideline on risk assessment identifies pesticide exposure scenarios for nontarget wildlife; however, this scheme is not applicable to nonagricultural grassland. For example, different habitats and human utilization on golf courses attract bird communities that differ from those found in agricultural fields with annual crop cycles. The present study determined focal bird species for amenity grasslands such as golf courses following the EFSA guideline. Based on published data and bird surveys, a total of 102 species were found on 13 golf courses in Central Europe. Approximately 58% of the species were recorded on >20% of the golf course and were classified as focal species candidates. Common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), common linnet (Carduelis cannabina), wood pigeon (Columba palumbus), yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella), white wagtail (Motacilla alba), and gray heron (Ardea cinerea) are the most adequate candidate focal species for exposure scenarios of carnivorous, granivorous, herbivorous, omnivorous, insectivorous, and piscivorous birds, respectively. Candidate species were verified on 3 golf courses in southwestern Germany in spring 2012. Observations on feeding behavior identified the main foraging areas of focal species. The results of the field work combined with data from the literature identified reliable exposure scenarios to assess the risk of pesticides to birds found on golf courses. © 2014 SETAC.

  1. Species variation in osmotic, cryoprotectant, and cooling rate tolerance in poultry, eagle, and peregrine falcon spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J M; Gee, G; Wildt, D E; Donoghue, A M

    2000-10-01

    Potential factors influencing spermatozoa survival to cryopreservation and thawing were analyzed across a range of the following avian species: domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Bonelli's eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus), imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), and peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Studies focused on spermatozoa tolerance to the following: 1) osmotic stress, 2) different extracellular concentrations of the cryoprotectant dimethylacetamide (DMA), 3) equilibration times of 1 versus 4 h, 4) equilibration temperature of 4 versus 21 degrees C, and 5) rapid versus slow cooling before cryopreservation and standard thawing. Sperm viability was assessed with the live/dead stain (SYBR-14/propidium iodine). Sperm viability at osmolalities >/=800 mOsm was higher (P: or =2.06 M), experienced decreased (P: < 0. 05) spermatozoa survival in all species, except the golden eagle and peregrine falcon. Number of surviving spermatozoa diminished progressively with increasing DMA concentrations in all species. Increased equilibration temperature (from 4 to 21 degrees C) markedly reduced (P: < 0.05) spermatozoa survival in all species except the Bonelli's eagle and turkey. Rapid cooling was detrimental (P: < 0.05) to spermatozoa from all species except the imperial eagle and the chicken. These results demonstrate that avian spermatozoa differ remarkably in response to osmotic changes, DMA concentrations, equilibration time, temperature, and survival after fast or slow freezing. These differences emphasize the need for species-specific studies in the development and enhancement of assisted breeding for poultry and endangered species.

  2. Prevalence of encysted apicomplexans in muscles of raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L

    1999-01-28

    An acid-pepsin digestion technique was used to examine portions of breast muscle and heart from raptors for encysted protozoans. Apicomplexan zoites were present in 52 (45.6%) of the 114 samples examined: 11 of 12 (91.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 20 of 34 (58.8%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), two of seven (28.6%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), three of four (75%) sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), one (100%) Mississippi kites (Ictinia misisippiensis), one of two (50%) American kestrels (Falco sparverius), one bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), one of two (50%) golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), one of three (33%) turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), two of three (66.7%) black vultures (Coragyps atratus), three of six (50%) great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus), five of 15 (33.3%) barred owls (Strix varia), and one of 12 (8.3%) screech owls (Asio otus). Encysted protozoans were not observed in digests of tissues from three broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), four ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), and five barn owls (Tyto alba). Apicomplexan cysts resembling Sarcocystis species were observed in tissue sections of muscles from 28 (37.8%) of 74 raptors.

  3. Prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in raptors from Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Smith, P C; Hoerr, F J; Blagburn, B L

    1993-12-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds. We examined the hearts and breast muscles from 101 raptors for encysted T. gondii. All of the raptors had been submitted for necropsy to the State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Auburn, Alabama. Tissues were digested in acid-pepsin solution and inoculated into groups of 3-5 laboratory mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 27 of 101 (26.7%) raptors: 8 of 12 (66.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 13 of 27 (41.1%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 1 of 4 (25%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), 1 of 5 (20%) great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), 4 of 15 (26.7%) barred owls (Strix varia), and 1 of 3 (33.3%) kestrels (Falco sparverius). Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from 3 broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), 3 sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), 6 barn owls (Tyto alba), 9 screech owls (Asio otus), a Mississippi kite (Ictinia misisippiensis), 2 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 4 ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), 4 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), or 2 black vultures (Coragyps atratus). No significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence was detected based on sex using chi-square analysis. Chi-square analysis of the data demonstrated that adult raptors had encysted stages of T. gondii significantly (P < 0.05) more often than did immature raptors.

  4. Recent trends in counts of migrant hawks from northeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, K.; Fuller, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Using simple regression, pooled-sites route-regression, and nonparametric rank-trend analyses, we evaluated trends in counts of hawks migrating past 6 eastern hawk lookouts from 1972 to 1987. The indexing variable was the total count for a season. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), merlin (F. columbarius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), and Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) counts increased using route-regression and nonparametric methods (P 0.10). We found no consistent trends (P > 0.10) in counts of sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), northern goshawks (A. gentilis) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), red-tailed hawks (B. jamaicensis), rough-legged hawsk (B. lagopus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius). Broad-winged hawk (B. platypterus) counts declined (P < 0.05) based on the route-regression method. Empirical comparisons of our results with those for well-studied species such as the peregrine falcon, bald eagle, and osprey indicated agreement with nesting surveys. We suggest that counts of migrant hawks are a useful and economical method for detecting long-term trends in species across regions, particularly for species that otherwise cannot be easily surveyed.

  5. Nest-site characteristics and linear abundance of cliff-nesting American kestrels on San Clemente Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brian L.; Kershner, Eric L.; Finn, S.P.; Condon, Anne M.; Cooper, Douglass M.; Garcelon, David K.

    2003-01-01

    American Kestrels( Falco sparverius) are typically secondary-cavity nesters, and use of natural cliff cavities for nest sites is less-commonly reported. On San Clemente Island (SCI), California, however, American Kestrels nest primarily on cliffs in major canyons(93%), to a lesser extent on seacliffs(4%), as well as in man-made structures (3%). We located and mapped 99 American Kestrel territories on SCI, and recorded 11 nest-site characteristics at 40 cliff nests during 2001-02. Nest cliffs were typically fractured igneous rock with mean height of 16.1 m +_ 1.8 SE. Mean slope of nest cliffs was vertical (x=91 degrees). Nest cliffs and cavities were significantly oriented to the southeast, away from the prevailing wind direction(NW). In eight canyons, where we believe that we found all occupied American Kestrel territories, the mean linear abundance was 2.1 pairs/km, greater than most published estimates. Contrary to most previous studies, no American Kestrels nested in tree cavities despite their presence in SCI canyons. The absence of cavity-excavating breeding birds from the island likely restricts kestrels to nesting in naturally-formed cavities and man-made structures.

  6. Diet composition of lesser kestrels in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onolragchaa Ganbold

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The lesser kestrel is recognized as “Least Concern” in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List since 2011. So far, all available diet studies on the lesser kestrel were conducted in its European range or in partial African breeding and nonbreeding range. In particular, little is known about the feeding behavior of this small falcon in Asian ranges. Thus, this study can be considered as the first to examine the diet composition of the central Asian breeding populations of lesser kestrels. This study aims to provide some information about the diet composition of this species among Asian populations through biological and ecological investigations. Pellets (n = 762 dropped by lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni were collected during their breeding season from nine to 10 colony sites in Ikh Nart, between June and September of 2009 and 2010, and analyzed. A total of 1,484 prey items were identified in the pellets collected. After a measure of their weight (g and length and width (mm, we carefully examined each pellet and separated all prey remains using tweezers. Our results indicated that insects (including orthopterans and coleopterans were dominant in lesser kestrel’s diets. We found that the lesser kestrel’s diet mainly consisted of insects (69.7%, lizards (17.4%, small mammals (10%, small birds (2%, and other food (1%. Keywords: diet composition, insects, pellets, reptiles, small mammals

  7. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in wild birds in Galicia (Northwest Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

    2015-06-01

    Faecal samples were obtained from 433 wild birds being treated in wildlife recovery centres in Galicia (Northwest Spain), between February 2007 and September 2009. The birds belonged to 64 species representing 17 different orders. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by an immunofluorescence antibody test and identified at the molecular level by established PCR-sequencing methods. The overall prevalence of Giardia was 2·1% and that of Cryptosporidium, 8·3%. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Giardia sp. in Tyto alba and Caprimulgus europaeus; and of Cryptosporidium sp. in Apus apus, Athene noctua, C. europaeus, Falco tinnunculus, Morus bassanus, Parabuteo unicinctus and Strix aluco. Furthermore, the first PCR-sequence confirmed detection of Giardia duodenalis assemblage B in, Buteo buteo, Coturnix coturnix and Pica pica; G. duodenalis assemblage D in Garrulus glandarius; and G. duodenalis assemblage F in Anas platyrhynchos; Cryptosporidium parvum in Accipiter nisus, B. buteo, Milvus migrans, Pernis apivorus and P. pica; and Cryptosporidium meleagridis in Streptopelia turtur. The study findings demonstrate the wide spread of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between wild birds.

  8. Use of satellite telemetry for study of a gyrfalcon in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, S.S.; Fuller, M.R.; Howey, P.W.; Yates, M.A.; Oar, J.J.; Seegar, J.M.; Seegar, W.S.; Mattox, G.M.; Maechtle, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term research in Greenland has yielded 1 8 years of incidental sightings and 2 years of surveys and observations of gyrfalcons(Falco rusticolus) around Sondrestromfjord, Greenland. Gyrfalcons nest on cliffs along fjords and near rivers and lakes throughout our 2590 sq. km study area. Nestlings are present mid-June to July. In 1990, we marked one adult female gyrfalcon with a 65 g radio-transmitter to obtain location estimates via the ARGOS polar orbiting satellite system. The unit transmitted 8 hours/day every two days. We obtained 145 locations during 5 weeks of the nestling and fledgling stage of breeding. We collected 1-9 locations/day, with a mean of 4/day. We calculated home range estimates based on the Minimum Convex Polygon( MCP) and Harmonic Mean (HM methods and tested subsets of the data based on location quality and number of transmission hours per day. Home range estimated by MCP using higher quality locations was approximately 589 sq. km. Home range estimates were larger when lower-quality locations were included in the estimates. Estimates based on data collected for 4 hours/day were similar to those for 8 hours/day. In the future, it might be possible to extend battery life of the transmitters by reducing the number of transmission hours/day. A longer-lived transmitter could provide information on movements and home ranges throughout the year.

  9. [Monitoring the success of veterinary treatment in rehabilitated and released birds of prey using radiotelemetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D; Hampel, M R; Lierz, M

    2014-01-01

    Free-ranging birds of prey brought to veterinary practice should only be treated after thorough diagnostics. Before their release back into the wild, specific training - including falconry techniques - may be necessary, depending on raptor species and age. Rehabilitated birds of prey were monitored using radiotelemetry after release back into the wild. The success of veterinary therapy and the prognosis of treated diseases/injuries in free-ranging birds were evaluated. In addition, the use of radiotelemetry as a simple technique for surveillance was evaluated. The project was undertaken in cooperation with schools as a contribution to environmental education. MATERIAL UND METHODS: Three common buzzards (Buteo buteo) and one kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)were treated and released with a radio transmitter attached to a tail feather. They were tracked daily (by car or plane), observed using binoculars and their GPS coordinates were documented. One transmitter was lost early, making monitoring of the bird impossible. Three birds were monitored over a period of more than 14 days. These birds were successfully reintroduced into the wild, as documented from courtship displays and mating. The longest flight distance achieved was 44 km. Veterinary treatment aimed at rehabilitating feral birds can be successful. Radiotelemetry is a suitable tool to monitor free-ranging birds. The application of this technique is performed readily by laypeople (school students). Being in agreement with other studies, this data should motivate veterinarians to treat wild birds of prey for rehabilitation.

  10. Do migratory flight paths of raptors follow constant geographical or geomagnetic courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup, K.; Fuller, M.; Alerstam, T.; Hake, M.; Kjellen, N.; Strandberg, R.

    2006-01-01

    We tested whether routes of raptors migrating over areas with homogeneous topography follow constant geomagnetic courses more or less closely than constant geographical courses. We analysed the routes taken over land of 45 individual raptors tracked by satellite-based radiotelemetry: 25 peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus, on autumn migration between North and South America, and seven honey buzzards, Pernis apivorus, and 13 ospreys, Pandion haliaetus, on autumn migration between Europe and Africa. Overall, migration directions showed a better agreement with constant geographical than constant geomagnetic courses. Tracks deviated significantly from constant geomagnetic courses, but were not significantly different from geographical courses. After we removed movements directed far from the mean direction, which may not be migratory movements, migration directions still showed a better agreement with constant geographical than constant geomagnetic courses, but the directions of honey buzzards and ospreys were not significantly different from constant geomagnetic courses either. That migration routes of raptors followed by satellite telemetry are in closer accordance with constant geographical compass courses than with constant geomagnetic compass courses may indicate that geographical (e.g. based on celestial cues) rather than magnetic compass mechanisms are of dominating importance for the birds' long-distance orientation.

  11. El maestro José Francisco Socarrás. Biografía, recuerdos y recuentos!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Sánchez Medina

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available

    “Siempre que se escribe de la historia
    de un hombre, quedan hechos incógnitos”

    “Quien escribe historia y participa en ella no está
    exento de subjetividades y parcializaciones”

    Palabras introductorias
    Para mí es un honor y una gratificación íntima el ser yo quien hoy se dirige a ustedes como coordinador de este homenaje. A todos los presentes les agradezco su presencia. En nombre de la familia Socarrás hago entrega oficial del bello óleo, del maestro Leonel Torres residente en USA. Lamento que por motivos ajenos a mi voluntad no se pueda entregar el libro de la Bio-grafía del Maestro Socarrás. En el mes de febrero próximo saldrá editado por la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia en Tunja, gracias también a la Academia Boyacense de Historia y a su cabeza el Doctor Javier Ocampo Lópcz. Espero poder ofrecer la obra en un futuro próximo, quien le interese puede comunicarse con la Secretaría de la Academia Nacional de Medicina.

    José Francisco Socarrás nació en Valledupar (Cesar el martes 5 de noviembre de 1907 y murió en Bogotá el jueves 23 de marzo de 1995. (2

    Etimología del apellido Socarrás.
    Genealogía e historiografía

    Etimológicamente el apellido Socarrás proviene del árabe: “soco” y “ras”; soco: plaza de mercado o plaza principal; y ras: cabeza. Lo que significa cabeza de la plaza principal o mercado.

    El apellido, relata el profesor José Francisco Socarrás, viene por Evaristo Socarrás, proveniente de una población importante de Coro, Venezuela, quien se casó con Josefa Meriño en Riohacha y por segunda vez en La Paz, una población cercana a Valledupar.

    Su padre fue el General Sabas Socarrás, quien peleó en los tres años de guerra civil a principios de

  12. Perfluorinated Compounds and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Great Blue Heron Eggs from Three Colonies on the Mississippi River, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Kannan, K.; Tao, L.; Yun, S.-H.; Trowbridge, A.

    2010-01-01

    Archived Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) eggs (N = 16) collected in 1993 from three colonies on the Mississippi River in Minnesota were analyzed in 2007 for perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). One of the three colonies, Pig's Eye, was located near a presumed source of PFCs. Based on a multivariate analysis, the pattern of nine PFC concentrations differed significantly between Pig's Eye and the upriver (P = 0.002) and downriver (P = 0.02) colonies; but not between the upriver and downriver colonies (P = 0.25). Mean concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a major PFC compound, were significantly higher at the Pig's Eye colony (geometric mean = 940 ng/g wet weight) than at upriver (60 ng/g wet weight) and downriver (131 ng/g wet weight) colonies. Perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations from the Pig's Eye colony are among the highest reported in bird eggs. Concentrations of PFOS in Great Blue Heron eggs from Pig's Eye were well below the toxicity thresholds estimated for Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus) and Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but within the toxicity threshold estimated for White Leghorn Chickens (Gallus domesticus). The pattern of six PBDE congener concentrations did not differ among the three colonies (P = 0.08). Total PBDE concentrations, however, were significantly greater (P = 0.03) at Pig's Eye (geometric mean = 142 ng/g wet weight) than the upriver colony (13 ng/g wet weight). Polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in two of six Great Blue Heron eggs from the Pig's Eye colony were within levels associated with altered reproductive behavior in American Kestrels (Falco sparverius).

  13. Efficiency of a protected-area network in a Mediterranean region: a multispecies assessment with raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, María D; Martínez, José E; Palazón, José A; Esteve, Miguel A; Calvo, José F

    2011-05-01

    Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km²), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.

  14. Translocation of threatened New Zealand falcons to vineyards increases nest attendance, brooding and feeding rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Kross

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscapes can be rich in resources, and may in some cases provide potential habitat for species whose natural habitat has declined. We used remote videography to assess whether reintroducing individuals of the threatened New Zealand falcon Falco novaeseelandiae into a highly modified agricultural habitat affected the feeding rates of breeding falcons or related breeding behavior such as nest attendance and brooding rates. Over 2,800 recording hours of footage were used to compare the behavior of falcons living in six natural nests (in unmanaged, hilly terrain between 4 km and 20 km from the nearest vineyard, with that of four breeding falcon pairs that had been transported into vineyards and nested within 500 m of the nearest vineyard. Falcons in vineyard nests had higher feeding rates, higher nest attendance, and higher brooding rates. As chick age increased, parents in vineyard nests fed chicks a greater amount of total prey and larger prey items on average than did parents in hill nests. Parents with larger broods brought in larger prey items and a greater total sum of prey biomass. Nevertheless, chicks in nests containing siblings received less daily biomass per individual than single chicks. Some of these results can be attributed to the supplementary feeding of falcons in vineyards. However, even after removing supplementary food from our analysis, falcons in vineyards still fed larger prey items to chicks than did parents in hill nests, suggesting that the anthropogenic habitat may be a viable source of quality food. Although agricultural regions globally are rarely associated with raptor conservation, these results suggest that translocating New Zealand falcons into vineyards has potential for the conservation of this species.

  15. Kestrel-prey dynamic in a Mediterranean region: the effect of generalist predation and climatic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Fargallo

    Full Text Available Most hypotheses on population limitation of small mammals and their predators come from studies carried out in northern latitudes, mainly in boreal ecosystems. In such regions, many predators specialize on voles and predator-prey systems are simpler compared to southern ecosystems where predator communities are made up mostly of generalists and predator-prey systems are more complex. Determining food limitation in generalist predators is difficult due to their capacity to switch to alternative prey when the basic prey becomes scarce.We monitored the population density of a generalist raptor, the Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus over 15 years in a mountainous Mediterranean area. In addition, we have recorded over 11 years the inter-annual variation in the abundance of two main prey species of kestrels, the common vole Microtus arvalis and the eyed lizard Lacerta lepida and a third species scarcely represented in kestrel diet, the great white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula. We estimated the per capita growth rate (PCGR to analyse population dynamics of kestrel and predator species.Multimodel inference determined that the PCGR of kestrels was better explained by a model containing the population density of only one prey species (the common vole than a model using a combination of the densities of the three prey species. The PCGR of voles was explained by kestrel abundance in combination with annual rainfall and mean annual temperature. In the case of shrews, growth rate was also affected by kestrel abundance and temperature. Finally, we did not find any correlation between kestrel and lizard abundances.Our study showed for the first time vertebrate predator-prey relationships at southern latitudes and determined that only one prey species has the capacity to modulate population dynamics of generalist predators and reveals the importance of climatic factors in the dynamics of micromammal species and lizards in the Mediterranean region.

  16. Identifying pollution hot spots from polychlorinated biphenyl residues in birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Richard K; Osborn, Daniel; Shore, Richard F; Wienburg, Claire L; Wadsworth, Richard A

    2003-10-01

    Techniques for determining whether patterns of points are random, clustered, or dispersed are well established; however, when the magnitude of the attribute at each location is also important, the situation is more problematic. The concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the livers of Eurasian sparrowhawks Accipiter nisus and common kestrels Falco tinnunculus has been determined for birds from all over Great Britain for several decades and forms a unique database. When mapped, there appears to be clusters of high values in some parts of the country. If these clusters are truly significant, then they may indicate pollution hot spots and possibly help identify undocumented sources of contamination. What constitutes a cluster is open to debate. We know something about the foraging behavior of birds of prey, but we do not know how many pollution sources (hot spots) there are, how long they persist, or over what area they may disperse PCBs. We used a Monte Carlo simulation approach to determine whether the visually prominent clusters of high PCB residues were significant features or merely illusions. The five largest nonoverlapping clusters (defined in terms of the total PCB concentration) were identified at a range of spatial scales. In addition to the total concentration and the number of observations, the weighted centroid of the clusters and which individual birds were involved were also recorded. This enabled us to determine the scale over which the candidate hot spot was stable. Comparing the magnitude of the observed clusters with those from the trial simulations determined the probability of nonrandomness in the original data set (at each spatial scale). Results showed that some clusters do exist but, in the majority of cases, apparent clusters identified by eye could not be considered an actual aggregation of high concentrations following spatial analysis.

  17. Birds of a feather flock together: Insights into starling murmuration behaviour revealed using citizen science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E Goodenough

    Full Text Available Pre-roost murmuration displays by European starlings Sturnus vulgaris are a spectacular example of collective animal behaviour. To date, empirical research has focussed largely on flock movement and biomechanics whereas research on possible causal mechanisms that affect flock size and murmuration duration has been limited and restricted to a small number of sites. Possible explanations for this behaviour include reducing predation through the dilution, detection or predator confusion effects (the "safer together" hypotheses or recruiting more birds to create larger (warmer roosts (the "warmer together" hypothesis. We collected data on size, duration, habitat, temperature and predators from >3,000 murmurations using citizen science. Sightings were submitted from 23 countries but UK records predominated. Murmurations occurred across a range of habitats but there was no association between habitat and size/duration. Size increased significantly from October to early February, followed by a decrease until the end of the season in March (overall mean 30,082 birds; maximum 750,000 birds. Mean duration was 26 minutes (± 44 seconds SEM. Displays were longest at the start/end of the season, probably due to a significant positive relationship with day length. Birds of prey were recorded at 29.6% of murmurations. The presence of predators including harrier Circus, peregrine Falco peregrinus, and sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus was positively correlated with murmuration size (R2 = 0.401 and duration (R2 = 0.258, especially when these species were flying near to, or actively engaging with, starlings. Temperature was negatively correlated with duration but the effect was much weaker than that of day length. When predators were present, murmurations were statistically more likely to end with all birds going down en masse to roost rather than dispersing from the site. Our findings suggest that starling murmurations are primarily an anti-predator adaptation rather

  18. Schirmer tear test type I readings and intraocular pressure values assessed by applanation tonometry (Tonopen® XL) in normal eyes of four European species of birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Giovanni; Briganti, Angela; Spratte, Johanna R; Ceccherelli, Renato; Breghi, Gloria

    2013-09-01

    To determine normal values for Schirmer tear test I and intraocular pressure in four European species of birds of prey. Twenty birds from each of the following species: Eurasian Tawny owl (Strix aluco), Little owl (Athene noctua), Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), and European kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Both eyes of all birds (80 eyes) underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, which included a Schirmer tear test type I (STT-I) performed with commercially available strips and the assessment of the intraocular pressure (IOP) by applanation tonometry, employing the Tonopen-XL(®) device. The animals, which had been taken to a rescue center, were examined for ocular lesions prior to their eventual release into the wild. STT-I readings and IOP values were expressed as means ± standard deviation. Schirmer tear test type I readings were as follows: Eurasian Tawny owls: 3.12 ± 1.92 mm/min; Little owls: 3.5 ± 1.96 mm/min; Common buzzards: 12.47 ± 2.66 mm/min; European kestrels: 6.20 ± 3.67 mm/min. IOP values were as follows: Eurasian Tawny owls: 11.21 ± 3.12 mmHg; Little owls: 9.83 ± 3.41 mmHg; Common buzzards: 17.2 ± 3.53 mmHg; European kestrels: 8.53 ± 1.59 mmHg. The results of this study give representative values for STT-I and IOP in four of the most common species of birds of prey in Europe. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Results of Monitoring of the Saker Falcon Population in the Altai-Sayan Region in 2014, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on author’s research in 2014 the paper contains information on distribution, numbers and breeding biology of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug in the Altai-Sayan region. A total of 112 breeding territories of the Saker Falcon (28.9% of the territories already known in the Altai-Sayan region located in the Krasnoyarsk Kray, Khakassia, Tyva and Altai Republics were visited in 2014: 94 territories were occupied and 44 territories were successful. Six new territories were discovered in 2014, 7 – recovered within borders of an old empty territory and 11 – were noted as abandoned in 2014. A total of 25 breeding territories of the Saker Falcon located in the Altai Kray were visited in 2014: 4 territories were occupied and 3 territories were successful. Considering the expert estimation a total of 1237–1473 pairs (averaging 1355 pairs breed in the Altai-Sayan region in 2014, and 618–736 pairs (averaging 677 pairs are successful. The population trend was noted as negative and was -26% per past 12 years of the census conducted. The positive population trend for the Saker Falcon has been recorded for the last 3 years due to the growth of its population in Tuva – 2% for the region. Estimation a total of 34–45 pairs (averaging 39 pairs breed in the Altai Kray in 2014, and 17–22 pairs (averaging 19 pairs are successful. The population trend was noted as negative and was -67% per past 12 years of the census conducted (Saker Falcon population in the pine forests has virtually been extinct.

  20. A comparative study of corneal sensitivity in birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Rodrigo P; Obón, Elena; Peña, Maria T; Costa, Daniel; Ríos, Jose; Leiva, Marta

    2014-05-01

    To determine and compare the corneal sensitivity in healthy wild diurnal and nocturnal birds of prey (BP) indigenous to Catalonia (Spain), and to establish if age is a determining factor in corneal sensitivity in those species. Ophthalmic examination was performed in 105 BP. Only birds with no ocular abnormalities were included in the study (n = 81): 21 diurnal BP (Falco tinnunculus: 16 fledglings, 5 adults) and 60 nocturnal BP (20 Athene noctua [9 fledglings, 11 adults], 20 Strix aluco [15 fledglings, 5 adults], and 20 Otus scops [6 fledglings and 14 adults]). Corneal touch threshold (CTT) was determined for each eye in five different corneal regions. Five attempts to cause a blink reflex were made in each region, and when three or more reflexes were positive, the pressure was deemed the CTT. Statistical analysis was performed using a Student's t-test for independent data or an anova model. The results between species and age groups were compared using the Generalized Estimated Equations model. There were no significant differences between any of the corneal regions (P = 0.25), or between the right (CTT = 4.9 ± 1.7 cm) and left (CTT = 4.8 ± 1.7 cm) eye in any of the species (P = 0.692). No difference was found between diurnal and nocturnal species (P = 0.913). Considering all the species, a significant difference was found between the mean CTT of fledglings (5.4 ± 1.2 cm) and adults (4.1 ± 2 cm), P birds of prey. Age is a determining factor in the CTT of A. noctua and S. aluco, with fledglings having a significantly higher CTT. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  1. Acanthocephalans of the genus Centrorhynchus (Palaeacanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) of birds of prey (Falconiformes) and owls (Strigiformes) in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorová, P; Špakulová, M; Hurníková, Z; Uhrín, M

    2015-06-01

    Three species of thorny-headed worms of the genus Centrorhynchus were found to parasitize birds of prey and owls in the territory of the Slovakia during the years 2012-2014. Out of 286 examined bird individuals belonging to 23 species, only Buteo buteo, Buteo rufinus, Falco tinnunculus (Falconiformes), Asio otus, Strix aluco, Strix uralensis and Tyto alba (Strigiformes) were infected by acanthocephalans. All the bird species except for S. aluco represent new host records for Slovakia. The most prevalent acanthocephalan Centrorhynchus aluconis was detected in all 15 examined birds of non-migratory Ural owl S. uralensis (P = 100%); however, it was found occasionally also in two individuals of the tawny owl S. aluco (P = 20%), one long-eared owl A. otus (P = 7.7%), one barn owl T. alba (P = 33.3%) and the common buzzard B. buteo (P = 0.8%). Two other thorny-headed worms occurred exclusively in Falconiformes in raw or mixed infections: Centrorhynchus buteonis was found in 11 individuals of B. buteo (P = 9.2%), and two birds (B. buteo and B. rufinus) were parasitized simultaneously by C. buteonis and the species Centrorhynchus globocaudatus. Moreover, the latest, relatively rare acanthocephalan was found alone in two common kestrels F. tinnunculus (P = 2.7%). Regarding intensity of infection, it ranged from a single female of C. buteonis, C. globocaudatus or C. aluconis per host (four cases) to a maximum of 82 C. aluconis per an Ural owl. The difference in acanthocephalan species spectrum between birds of prey and owls in Slovakia was apparent.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of Columbid herpesvirus-1 in rock pigeons, birds of prey and non-raptorial birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz J; Samorek-Salamonowicz, Elżbieta; Szymański, Piotr; Wencel, Piotr; Houszka, Marek

    2013-03-21

    The identity of herpesviruses isolated in Europe from domestic pigeons (Columbid herpesvirus-1 - CoHV-1) as well as falcons and owls remains unknown. All these herpesviruses are antigenically and genetically related. The falcons and owls are thought to have become infected during the ingestion of pigeon meat thus suggesting the virus's capacity to infect a wide range of hosts. The aim of the conducted study was to detect the occurrence of CoHV-1 and estimating the similarities and differences in the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene of herpesviruses isolated from domestic pigeons, birds of prey and non-raptorial free-ranging birds in Poland. The study has shown the presence of CoHV-1 in 20.4% (18/88) in the examined birds. In case of one CoHV-1, infected Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), neurological signs were observed. Nucleotide sequencing of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene, showed a high similarity among Polish strains (100%), independently from the species of the affected birds. Only one compared CoHV-1 strain - KP 21/23 originating from Germany showed a slightly lower similarity at a level of 99.1%. Further analysis has shown the identity of DNA-dependent DNA polymerase of CoHV-1 strains and other herpesviruses present in poultry as well as other birds ranged from 35.4 to 44.9%. Interestingly CoHV-1 infection was also confirmed for the first time in four non-raptorial birds. The current study has shown a high similarity of CoHV-1 strains and the possible transmission of herpesviruses between domestic rock pigeons and free-ranging birds including raptors and non-raptorial birds. Further studies focused on cloning and the analysis of the whole CoHV-1 genome which is needed to explain the role of the observed similarities and differences between field strains of columbid herpesviruses.

  3. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in chickens, American kestrels, and common terns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Klein, P.N.; Eisemann, J.D.; Spann, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of PCB congeners, PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentaCB) and PCB 77 (3,3'4,4'-tetraCB), were examined in chicken (Gallus gallus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), and common tern (Sterna hirundo) embryos through hatching, following air cell injections on day 4. PCB 126 caused malformations and edema in chickens starting at 0.3 ppb, in kestrels at 2.3 ppb, but in terns only at levels affecting hatching success (44 ppb). Extent of edema was most severe in chickens and least in terns. Defects of the beak were common in all species, but with crossed beak most prevalent in terns. Effects on embryo growth were most apparent for PCB 126 in chickens and kestrels. The approximate LD50 for PCB 126 in chickens was 0.4 ppb, in kestrels was 65 ppb, and in terns was 104 ppb. The approximate LD50 for PCB 77 in chickens was 2.6 ppb and in kestrels was 316 ppb. Induction of cytochrome P450 associated monooxygenase activity (EROD activity) by PCB 126 in chick embryo liver was about 800 times more responsive than in tern and at least 1000 times more responsive than in kestrel. High concentrations of PCB 126 found in bald eagle eggs are nearly 20-fold higher than the lowest toxic concentration tested in kestrels. Concentrations of PCB 126 causing low level toxic effects in common tern eggs are comparable to highest levels in common terns and Forster's terns in the field, suggesting additional involvement of other compounds in the Great Lakes.

  4. Effects of methylmercury on reproduction in American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Koterba, M.T.; Rossmann, R.; Link, W.A.; French, J.B.; Bennett, R.S.; Bauer, W.C.

    2007-01-01

    Sixty breeding pairs of captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were exposed to a range of sublethal dietary concentrations of mercury (Hg), in the form of methylmercuric chloride, and their subsequent reproduction was measured. Egg production, incubation performance, and the number and percent of eggs hatched decreased markedly between 3.3 and 4.6 mg/kg dry weight of Hg (1.2 and 1.7 mg/kg wet wt), in the diet. The number of fledglings and the percent of nestlings fledged were reduced markedly at 0.7 mg/kg dry weight (0.3 mg/kg wet wt) and declined further between 2 and 3.3 mg/kg dry weight (0.7 and 1.2 mg/kg wet wt). Dietary concentrations of ?4.6 mg/kg dry weight (1.7 mg/kg wet wt) were associated with total fledging failure. The estimated decline in fledged young per pair (24%, Bayesian regression) for kestrels consuming 0.7 mg/kg dry weight (0.3 mg/ kg wet wt) raises concerns about population maintenance in areas subject to high inputs of anthropogenic Hg. Mercury concentrations in 20 second-laid eggs collected from all groups were related to dietary concentrations of Hg, and the Hg concentrations in 19 of these eggs were related to eggs laid and young fledged. Concentrations of Hg in eggs from the highest diet group (5.9 mg/kg dry wt; 2.2 mg/kg wet wt) were higher than egg concentrations reported for either wild birds or for captive birds (nonraptors) fed dry commercial food containing 5 mg/kg methylmercury. Accumulation ratios of Hg from diets to eggs were higher than those reported for feeding studies with other species.

  5. Copulatory behaviour and paternity in the American kestrel: the adaptive significance of frequent copulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel; Bird; Kuhnlein

    1998-08-01

    The adaptive significance of repeated withinpair copulations is not well understood. We analysed the copulatory behaviour of 16 pairs of solitary-nesting American kestrels, Falco sparverius, in southern Quebec (Canada), and the achieved reproductive success (paternity) of 21 kestrel families determined by DNA fingerprinting, in terms of four hypotheses. (1) The paternity assurance hypothesis, which suggests that males copulate frequently to avoid being cuckolded, was rejected because there were few extrapair copulation attempts (<1% of all copulations observed), withinpair copulations were not timed during the fertile period and mate attendance did not increase as the fertile period approached. (2) The immediate material benefits hypothesis, which suggests that females trade copulations for food, was refuted because copulations most often occurred without food transfers, especially outside the fertile period. (3) The female mate guarding of males hypothesis, which suggests that females distract their mates from other mating opportunities by copulating frequently, was rejected because extrapair copulation attempts were infrequent, male and female solicitation frequencies were similar and females did not differ in the timing or frequency of solicitations. (4) The mate assessment hypothesis, which suggests that assessment of mate quality is mediated via copulation, most closely predicted the behaviour observed since withinpair copulations were frequent outside the fertile period and at pair formation, males and females solicited similar numbers of copulations and pairs did not differ significantly in solicitation or copulation frequency. In line with this hypothesis we found that only one brood was extrapair, probably the result of mate replacement.Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour

  6. Non-random pairing in American kestrels: mate choice versus intra-sexual competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Gary R.; Iko, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Natural selection may influence the arrangement of individuals into mated pairs through either inter-sexual (mate choice) or intra-sexual selection (competition). A study of the American kestrel, Falco sparverius, in northern Saskatchewan distinguished between these two processes using size as a measure of the bird's competitive ability, and condition (mass scaled to body size) as an index of quality. Both sexes arrive on the study area after spring migration in equal numbers and males establish territories. Males and females that moved among territories at the time of pair formation were not different in size or condition from those that did not move, suggesting that birds were not being displaced by superior competitors, and that females moved to encounter potential mates. Within mated pairs, there was no relationship between a bird's size and the condition of its mate for either sex as would be predicted if intra-sexual competitition explained mating patterns. Instead, there was positive assortative mating by condition, suggesting that both sexes used quality as the criterion in choosing mates. There was no correlation between the sizes of males and females in mated paird. Because there were no differences in size or condition of breeding and non-breeding males, factors other than physical attributes, such as prior experience with the area, may determine a male's success in obtaining a territory. Because females that did not obtain mates were in poorer condition than those that did, males may have rejected poor quality females. The results suggest that intra-sexual competition was not important for pair formation, and that kestrels chose mates on the basis of quality.

  7. Exposure to the androgenic brominated flame retardant 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane alters reproductive and aggressive behaviors in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Letcher, Robert J; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2015-10-01

    Detected in environmental samples, 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl) cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH) is a bioaccumulative isomer of a current-use brominated flame retardant. All 4 structural isomers are androgen agonists; however, little toxicological information exists for this compound. The objective of the present study was to determine if β-DBE-DBCH, the isomer found most prominently in animal tissue, affects androgen-dependent behavior of breeding American kestrels (Falco sparverius). The authors hypothesized that if β-DBE-DBCH acts as an androgen agonist in kestrels, androgen-dependent behaviors (i.e., copulation, courtship, aggression) would increase and behaviors inhibited by androgens (i.e., parental care behaviors) would decrease. Sixteen captive experimental kestrel pairs were exposed to 0.239 ng β-DBE-DBCH/g kestrel/d by diet from 4 wk prior to pairing until their nestlings hatched (mean 82 d) and compared with vehicle only-exposed control pairs (n = 15). Androgen-dependent behaviors were significantly increased in β-DBE-DBCH-exposed birds, consistent with the authors' hypothesis. These behavioral changes included copulation and other sexual behaviors in males and females and aggression in males, suggesting that β-DBE-DBCH may have acted like an androgen agonist in these birds. Parental behaviors were not reduced in exposed birds as predicted, although dietary exposure had ceased before chicks hatched. Further assessment of β-DBE-DBCH is recommended given these behavioral changes and the previously reported reproductive changes in the same birds. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. Occupancy modeling reveals territory-level effects of nest boxes on the presence, colonization, and persistence of a declining raptor in a fruit-growing region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Shave

    Full Text Available Nest boxes for predators in agricultural regions are an easily implemented tool to improve local habitat quality with potential benefits for both conservation and agriculture. The potential for nest boxes to increase raptor populations in agricultural regions is of particular interest given their positions as top predators. This study examined the effects of cherry orchard nest boxes on the local breeding population of a declining species, the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius, in a fruit-growing region of Michigan. During the 2013-2016 study, we added a total of 23 new nest boxes in addition to 24 intact boxes installed previously; kestrels used up to 100% of our new boxes each season. We conducted temporally-replicated surveys along four roadside transects divided into 1.6 km × 500 m sites. We developed a multi-season occupancy model under a Bayesian framework and found that nest boxes had strong positive effects on first-year site occupancy, site colonization, and site persistence probabilities. The estimated number of occupied sites increased between 2013 and 2016, which correlated with the increase in number of sites with boxes. Kestrel detections decreased with survey date but were not affected by time of day or activity at the boxes themselves. These results indicate that nest boxes determined the presence of kestrels at our study sites and support the conclusion that the local kestrel population is likely limited by nest site availability. Furthermore, our results are highly relevant to the farmers on whose properties the boxes were installed, for we can conclude that installing a nest box in an orchard resulted in a high probability of kestrels occupying that orchard or the areas adjacent to it.

  9. Regulation of yolk-androgen concentrations by plasma prolactin in the American kestrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H; Sharp, P J

    2001-12-01

    The concentrations of maternally derived androgens in the yolks of avian eggs vary within and among clutches, but a mechanistic basis for this variation has not been elucidated. We investigated in the American kestrel, Falco sparverius, whether changes in plasma-prolactin concentrations induced by changes in photoperiod and food supply affect yolk-androgen concentrations. Over the course of a photoinduced breeding period in the laboratory, we measured concentrations of plasma immunoreactive prolactin (ir-prolactin) in female kestrels with ad libitum food availability (control) or food availability that was reduced during the early breeding period. In a second laboratory study, we administered via osmotic mini-pumps ovine prolactin (o-prolactin) to females beginning on the day they laid their first egg of a clutch (egg-day 1) to determine the effects of high prolactin concentrations on yolk-androgen concentrations. In both this study and one on free-living kestrels, we quantified changes in yolk-androgen concentrations with date of clutch initiation. Concentrations of ir-prolactin in nonlaying females rose with date, irrespective of food treatment. Egg-day 1 ir-prolactin concentrations were higher in control females laying late during the breeding phase than in those laying early. This increase was absent in food-reduced females. Yolk-androgen concentrations in eggs 3 and 4 but not eggs 1 and 2 of the clutch were higher in clutches initiated late than in clutches initiated early in the breeding phase in both the field and laboratory. o-prolactin treatment elevated yolk-testosterone but not androstenedione concentrations. These findings suggest that, in American kestrels, seasonal and laying-associated increases in plasma-prolactin concentrations elevate yolk-testosterone concentrations. Food availability and other factors may interact with date to regulate the effects of prolactin on yolk-testosterone deposition.

  10. Severe bill deformity of an American Kestrel wintering in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iko, William M.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    During a recent survey for West Nile virus in wild birds around the Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge, Imperial County, California (Dusek et al. 2010), we captured a female American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) with a severe bill deformity (Figure 1). The kestrel was captured on 9 March 2006, at 08:45, approximately 0.25 km south of the intersection of Wiest and Lindsey roads (33°  08' 42' N, 115° 26' 59' W) and 6 km east-northeast of Calipatria. It was caught on a bal-chatri trap baited with a domestic mouse (Berger and Mueller 1959), as were all the 208 kestrels captured during this study. The bird was initially perched on a high transmission line running along Wiest Road and was caught within 10 minutes of our setting the trap. In examining the bird, we observed that the maxilla beyond the cere was missing. The upper bill structure from the palatine process, which included part of the maxilla, the entire premaxilla, and the external rhamphotheca (the hardened keratin layer cover­ ing the premaxilla) was missing rostral to the bird's cere and nares (Threlfall 1968, Lucas and Stettenheim 1972, Proctor and Lynch 1993). The epidermal layer of the cere appeared to have fused over the remaining area between the nares where the upper bill normally would have been. The deformation did not appear to be recent or related to our trapping, as there were no obvious abrasions or open wounds in the region surrounding the nares and oropharynx or signs of recent trauma surrounding the oropharynx area. Both nares were clearly defined, and the tongue protruded from the open oropharynx area. After completing the physical examination, measurements, and obtaining a blood sample for testing for West Nile virus, we released the kestrel at the location of capture. After its release, we monitored the kestrel's behavior for approximately 30 minutes but did not observe any additional hunting.

  11. Site fidelity, mate fidelity, and breeding dispersal in American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, K.; Peterson, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed mate fidelity, nest-box fidelity, and breeding dispersal distances of American Kestrels (falco sparverius) nesting in boxes in southwestern Idaho from 1990 through 2006. Seventy-seven percent of boxes had different males and 87% had different females where nest-box occupants were identified in consecutive years. High turnover rates were partly a result of box-switching. Forty-eight percent of males and 58% of females that nested within the study area in successive years used different boxes. The probability of changing boxes was unrelated to gender, nesting success in the prior year, or years of nesting experience. Breeding dispersal distances for birds that moved to different boxes averaged 2.2 km for males (max = 22 km) and 3.2 km for females (max = 32 km). Approximately 70% of birds that nested in consecutive years on the study area had a different mate in the second year. Mate fidelity was related to box fidelity but not to prior nesting success or years of nesting experience. Mate changes occurred 32% of the time when the previous mate was known to be alive and nesting in the area. Kestrels that switched mates and boxes did not improve or decrease their subsequent nesting success. Kestrels usually switched to mates with less experience and lower lifetime productivity than their previous mates. The costs of switching boxes and mates were low, and there were no obvious benefits to fidelity. The cost of "waiting" for a previous mate that might have died could be high in species with high annual mortality.

  12. Molecular confirmation of Trichomonas gallinae and other parabasalids from Brazil using the 5.8S and ITS-1 rRNA regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecco, Roselene; Preis, Ingred S; Vilela, Daniel A R; Luppi, Marcela M; Malta, Marcelo C C; Beckstead, Robert B; Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; Stimmelmayer, Raphaela; Gerhold, Richard W

    2012-11-23

    Clinical, gross, and histopathology lesions and molecular characterization of Trichomonas spp. infection were described in two striped owls (Asio (Rhinoptynx) clamator), one American kestrel (Falco sparverius), two green-winged saltators (Saltator similis), and in a toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) from Brazil. These birds presented clinical signs including emaciation, ruffled feathers, abundant salivation and open mouth breathing presumably due to abundant caseous material. Gross lesions were characterized by multifocal yellow friable plaques on the surface of the tongue, pharynx and/or caseous masses partially occluding the laryngeal entrance. In the owls, the caseous material extended into the mandibular muscles and invaded the sinuses of the skull. Histopathologically, marked necrotic and inflammatory lesions were associated with numerous round to oval, pale eosinophilic structures (6-10μm) with basophilic nuclei, consistent with trichomonads. Organisms similar to those described above also were found in the liver of the two green-winged saltators. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of trichomonosis in a striped owl and a toco toucan. Sequence analysis of the Trichomonas spp. internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region and partial 5.8S of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) disclosed significant genetic diversity. Two sequences had 100% identity to Trichomonas gallinae, whereas two sequences had a 99% and 92% identity to a Trichomonas vaginalis-like sequence, respectively. One sequence (green-winged saltator 502-08) had a 100% identity to a newly recognized genus Simplicomonas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Developmental toxicity of in ovo exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: II. Effects of maternal or paternal exposure on second-generation nestling american kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim; Bortolotti, Gary; Drouillard, Ken; Smits, Judit; Marchant, Tracy

    2003-11-01

    The development of second-generation nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) was altered by in ovo exposure of only one parent to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Polychlorinated biphenyls appear to alter nestling development through both maternally and paternally mediated effects. In 1998, F0 parent kestrels consumed approximately 5 to 7 microg total PCBs/g bird/d (Aroclors 1248:1254: 1260) for approximately 100 d prior to eggs hatching; these eggs, containing total PCB concentrations of 34.1 microg/g, produced 13 F1 offspring, which were then paired in 1999 with unexposed kestrels to examine developmental effects of maternal or paternal in ovo PCB exposure. Using a toxicokinetics model, eggs from the maternally exposed group had predicted PCB levels of 0.03 to 0.34 microg/g, with enriched higher chlorinated congeners. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in eggs of all generations have recently been found in eggs and nestlings of free-ranging eagles. Consistent with the first generation, maternally exposed F2 females generally were larger, had altered growth rates, and delayed maximal growth and fledging compared with control females. Maternally exposed F2 males were heavier but had shorter bones, grew more quickly and earlier, and fledged 2 d later than control males. In the maternally exposed group, concentrations of plasma triiodothyronine were elevated in F2 females but suppressed in F2 males. Paternally exposed F2 hatchlings of both sexes were comparable in size to controls with the exception of having longer tarsi bones, but subsequently showed slower, delayed growth (both sexes) and fledging (females) and lower thyroxine concentrations (males). The alterations in thyroid hormones in the F2 generation are discussed in light of the enrichment of higher chlorinated PCB congeners and hydroxylated PCB congeners. The developmental changes in the kestrel nestlings are likely a function of several possible mechanisms involving maternal PCB deposition

  14. Habitat Selectivity and Reliance on Live Corals for Indo-Pacific Hawkfishes (Family: Cirrhitidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Coker, Darren James

    2015-11-03

    Hawkfishes (family: Cirrhitidae) are small conspicuous reef predators that commonly perch on, or shelter within, the branches of coral colonies. This study examined habitat associations of hawkfishes, and explicitly tested whether hawkfishes associate with specific types of live coral. Live coral use and habitat selectivity of hawkfishes was explored at six locations from Chagos in the central Indian Ocean extending east to Fiji in the Pacific Ocean. A total of 529 hawkfishes from seven species were recorded across all locations with 63% of individuals observed perching on, or sheltering within, live coral colonies. Five species (all except Cirrhitus pinnulatus and Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus) associated with live coral habitats. Cirrhitichthys falco selected for species of Pocillopora while Paracirrhites arcatus and P. forsteri selected for both Pocillopora and Acropora, revealing that these habitats are used disproportionately more than expected based on the local cover of these coral genera. Habitat selection was consistent across geographic locations, and species of Pocillopora were the most frequently used and most consistently selected even though this coral genus never comprised more than 6% of the total coral cover at any of the locations. Across locations, Paracirrhites arcatus and P. forsteri were the most abundant species and variation in their abundance corresponded with local patterns of live coral cover and abundance of Pocilloporid corals, respectively. These findings demonstrate the link between small predatory fishes and live coral habitats adding to the growing body of literature highlighting that live corals (especially erect branching corals) are critically important for sustaining high abundance and diversity of fishes on coral reefs.

  15. Intraspecific evolutionary relationships among peregrine falcons in western North American high latitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L Talbot

    Full Text Available Subspecies relationships within the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus have been long debated because of the polytypic nature of melanin-based plumage characteristics used in subspecies designations and potential differentiation of local subpopulations due to philopatry. In North America, understanding the evolutionary relationships among subspecies may have been further complicated by the introduction of captive bred peregrines originating from non-native stock, as part of recovery efforts associated with mid 20th century population declines resulting from organochloride pollution. Alaska hosts all three nominal subspecies of North American peregrine falcons-F. p. tundrius, anatum, and pealei-for which distributions in Alaska are broadly associated with nesting locales within Arctic, boreal, and south coastal maritime habitats, respectively. Unlike elsewhere, populations of peregrine falcon in Alaska were not augmented by captive-bred birds during the late 20th century recovery efforts. Population genetic differentiation analyses of peregrine populations in Alaska, based on sequence data from the mitochondrial DNA control region and fragment data from microsatellite loci, failed to uncover genetic distinction between populations of peregrines occupying Arctic and boreal Alaskan locales. However, the maritime subspecies, pealei, was genetically differentiated from Arctic and boreal populations, and substructured into eastern and western populations. Levels of interpopulational gene flow between anatum and tundrius were generally higher than between pealei and either anatum or tundrius. Estimates based on both marker types revealed gene flow between augmented Canadian populations and unaugmented Alaskan populations. While we make no attempt at formal taxonomic revision, our data suggest that peregrine falcons occupying habitats in Alaska and the North Pacific coast of North America belong to two distinct regional groupings-a coastal grouping

  16. Transboundary pollution: Persistent organochlorine pesticides in migrant birds of the Southwestern United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    1997-01-01

    The hypothesis that migratory birds accumulate persistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) during the winter in Latin America has been prevalent for many years, particularly since 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2–bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) was banned in the United States in 1972. It has been suggested that peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibises (Plegadis chihi), various migratory waterfowl and shorebirds, and other avian species accumulate higher concentrations of POPs while on migration or on their wintering grounds in Latin America. Nonetheless, the data obtained thus far are limited, and there is no clear pattern to suggest that such accumulation occurs on a widespread basis. In this review wildlife contaminant studies conducted along the U.S.-Mexico border and throughout Mexico are discussed. The results for the most part seem to indicate that no major accumulation of 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene) (DDE), the most persistent organochlorine compound, has occurred or been reported for most parts of Mexico. The majority of the DDE values in birds from Mexico were similar to those reported in birds from the southwestern United States during the same years. More work needs to be done, particularly in those cotton-producing areas of Mexico where DDT was applied heavily in the past (e.g., Chiapas and Michoacan). Because DDT is still used for malaria control and may still be used in agriculture in Chiapas, this state is probably the one where most migrant species would still be at a significant risk of increased accumulation of DDE and DDT.

  17. Old males reduce melanin-pigmented traits and increase reproductive outcome under worse environmental conditions in common kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Idiaquez, David; Vergara, Pablo; Fargallo, Juan Antonio; Martinez-Padilla, Jesús

    2016-02-01

    Secondary sexual traits displayed by males and females may have evolved as a signal of individual quality. However, both individual quality and investment on producing or maintaining enhanced sexual traits change as individuals age. At the same time, the costs associated to produce sexual traits might be attenuated or increased if environmental conditions are benign or worse respectively. Accordingly, environmental conditions are expected to shape the association between the expression of sexual traits and their reproductive outcome as individuals age. Nonetheless, little is known about the environmental influence on the co-variation between sexual traits and reproductive outcome throughout the life of individuals. We studied the age-dependency of the number and size of back spots, a melanin-based and sexual trait in adults of common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus). We analysed the age-dependence of reproductive traits and the environmental influence, defined as vole abundance, using a 10-year individual-based dataset. We broke down age-related changes of reproductive traits into within- and between-individual variation to assess their contribution to population-level patterns. Our results showed a within-individual decrease in the number, but not the size, of back spots in males. The size of back spots was positively correlated with food availability in males. Reproductive performance of males increased as they aged, in agreement with the life-history theory but depending of vole abundance. Remarkably, we found that having fewer back spots was positively associated with clutch size only for old individuals under low-food conditions. We suggest that environmental variation may shape the association between the expression of a sexual signal and reproductive outcome. We speculate that the reliability of sexual traits is higher when environmental conditions are poor only for old individuals. Within an evolutionary context, we suggest that the expression of sexual traits

  18. The visual system of diurnal raptors: updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín-Moro, J; Hernández-Verdejo, J L; Clement-Corral, A

    2017-05-01

    Diurnal birds of prey (raptors) are considered the group of animals with highest visual acuity (VA). The purpose of this work is to review all the information recently published about the visual system of this group of animals. A bibliographic search was performed in PubMed. The algorithm used was (raptor OR falcon OR kestrel OR hawk OR eagle) AND (vision OR «visual acuity» OR eye OR macula OR retina OR fovea OR «nictitating membrane» OR «chromatic vision» OR ultraviolet). The search was restricted to the «Title» and «Abstract» fields, and to non-human species, without time restriction. The proposed algorithm located 97 articles. Birds of prey are endowed with the highest VA of the animal kingdom. However most of the works study one individual or a small group of individuals, and the methodology is heterogeneous. The most studied bird is the Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), with an estimated VA of 140 cycles/degree. Some eagles are endowed with similar VA. The tubular shape of the eye, the large pupil, and a high density of photoreceptors make this extraordinary VA possible. In some species, histology and optic coherence tomography demonstrate the presence of 2foveas. The nasal fovea (deep fovea) has higher VA. Nevertheless, the exact function of each fovea is unknown. The vitreous contained in the deep fovea could behave as a third lens, adding some magnification to the optic system. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Persistent environmental pollutants in eggs of aplomado falcons from Northern Chihuahua, Mexico, and south Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, M A; Montoya, A B; Lee, M C; Macías-Duarte, A; Rodríguez-Salazar, R; Juergens, P W; Lafón-Terrazas, A

    2008-01-01

    The northern aplomado falcon (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) disappeared from south Texas in the 1940s. Due to great success in the release of captive-reared aplomado falcons in south Texas, there are currently more than 40 established nesting pairs in the region. Addled eggs from aplomado falcons nesting in northern Chihuahua and south Texas were analyzed to determine organochlorine (OC) and inorganic element contaminant burdens and their potential association with egg failures and effects on reproduction. Among the OCs, DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] was present at the highest concentrations (range 262-21487 ng/g wet weight) followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, range 88-3274 ng/g ww). DDE was greater (P=0.03) in eggs from El Sueco (Chihuahua, Mexico) than in those from Matagorda Island (Texas, USA). DDE concentrations in eggs of aplomado falcons from El Sueco were elevated; however, reproductive success in the two Chihuahuan populations did not seem to be affected by DDE. DDE and metals in potential avian prey of the aplomado falcon from Matagorda Island were very low and below levels in the diet at which some negative effects might be expected. Except for mercury (Hg), metal concentrations in eggs were fairly low and were not different among locations in Chihuahua and south Texas. Hg was somewhat elevated and was greater (PChihuahua locations. Periodic monitoring of Hg concentrations in addled eggs of aplomado falcons in south Texas is recommended to continue evaluating potential negative effects on their recovery.

  20. A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Predatory Bird Research Group

    1995-05-01

    Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam owls (Tyto alba), and others. Among the species of raptors killed at Altamont Pass, the one whose local population is most likely to be impacted is the golden eagle. Besides its being less abundant than the others, the breeding and recruitment rates of golden eagles are naturally slow, increasing their susceptibility to decline as a result of mortality influences. The golden eagle is a species afforded special federal protection because of its inclusion within the Bald Eagle Protection Act as amended in 1963. There are no provisions within the Act which would allow the killing ``taking`` of golden eagles by WRA structures. This report details the results of field studies conducted during 19941. The primary purpose of the investigation is to lay the groundwork for determining whether or not turbine strikes and other hazards related to energy at Altamont Pass may be expected to affect golden eagles on a population basis. We also seek an understanding of the physical and biotic circumstances which attract golden eagles to the WRA within the context of the surrounding landscape and the conditions under which they are killed by wind turbines. Such knowledge may suggest turbine-related or habitat modifications that would result in a lower incidence of eagle mortality.

  1. Hard times in the city - attractive nest sites but insufficient food supply lead to low reproduction rates in a bird of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumasgutner, Petra; Nemeth, Erwin; Tebb, Graham; Krenn, Harald W; Gamauf, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a global phenomenon that is encroaching on natural habitats and decreasing biodiversity, although it is creating new habitats for some species. The Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is frequently associated with urbanized landscapes but it is unclear what lies behind the high densities of kestrels in the urban environment. Occupied nest sites in the city of Vienna, Austria were investigated along a gradient of urbanization (percentage of land covered by buildings or used by traffic). Field surveys determined the abundance of potential prey (birds and rodents) and the results were compared to the birds' diets. A number of breeding parameters were recorded over the course of three years. The majority of kestrels breed in semi-natural cavities in historic buildings. Nearest neighbour distances (NND) were smallest and reproductive success lowest in the city centre. Abundance of potential prey was not found to relate to the degree of urbanization but there was a significant shift in the birds' diets from a heavy reliance on rodents in the outskirts of the city to feeding more on small birds in the centre. The use of urban habitats was associated with higher nest failure, partly associated with predation and nest desertion, and with significantly lower hatching rates and smaller fledged broods. High breeding densities in urban habitats do not necessarily correlate with high habitat quality. The high density of kestrel nests in the city centre is probably due to the ready availability of breeding cavities. Highly urbanized areas in Vienna are associated with unexpected costs for the city dwelling-raptor, in terms both of prey availability and of reproductive success. The kestrel appears to be exploiting the urban environment but given the poor reproductive performance of urban kestrels it is likely that the species is falling into an ecological trap.

  2. Movements of juvenile Gyrfalcons from western and interior Alaska following departure from their natal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, C.L.; Douglas, D.C.; Adams, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile raptors often travel thousands of kilometers from the time they leave their natal areas to the time they enter a breeding population. Documenting movements and identifying areas used by raptors before they enter a breeding population is important for understanding the factors that influence their survival. In North America, juvenile Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) are routinely observed outside the species' breeding range during the nonbreeding season, but the natal origins of these birds are rarely known. We used satellite telemetry to track the movements of juvenile Gyrfalcons during their first months of independence. We instrumented nestlings with lightweight satellite transmitters within 10 d of estimated fledging dates on the Seward Peninsula in western Alaska and in Denali National Park (Denali) in interior Alaska. Gyrfalcons spent an average of 41.4 ?? 6.1 d (range = 30-50 d) in their natal areas after fledging. The mean departure date from natal areas was 27 August ?? 6.4 d. We tracked 15 individuals for an average of 70.5 ?? 28.1 d post-departure; Gyrfalcons moved from 105 to 4299 km during this period and tended to move greater distances earlier in the tracking period than later in the tracking period. Gyrfalcons did not establish temporary winter ranges within the tracking period. We identified several movement patterns among Gyrfalcons, including unidirectional long-distance movements, multidirectional long-and shortdistance movements, and shorter movements within a local region. Gyrfalcons from the Seward Peninsula remained in western Alaska or flew to eastern Russia with no movements into interior Alaska. In contrast, Gyrfalcons from Denali remained in interior Alaska, flew to northern and western Alaska, or flew to northern Alberta. Gyrfalcons from both study areas tended to move to coastal, riparian, and wetland areas during autumn and early winter. Because juvenile Gyrfalcons dispersed over a large geographic area and across three

  3. RAI1 gene mutations: mechanisms of Smith–Magenis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falco M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mariateresa Falco,1,* Sonia Amabile,1,* Fabio Acquaviva2 1Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Translational Medical Sciences (DISMET, Section of Pediatric Clinical Genetics, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS; OMIM #182290 is a complex genetic disorder characterized by distinctive physical features, developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and a typical behavioral phenotype. SMS is caused by interstitial 17p11.2 deletions, encompassing multiple genes and including the retinoic acid-induced 1 gene (RAI1, or by mutations in RAI1 itself. About 10% of all the SMS patients, in fact, carry an RAI1 mutation responsible for the phenotype. RAI1 (OMIM *607642 is a dosage-sensitive gene expressed in many tissues and highly conserved among species. Over the years, several studies have demonstrated that RAI1 (or its homologs in animal models acts as a transcriptional factor implicated in embryonic neurodevelopment, neuronal differentiation, cell growth and cell cycle regulation, bone and skeletal development, lipid and glucose metabolisms, behavioral functions, and circadian activity. Patients with RAI1 pathogenic variants show some phenotypic differences when compared to those carrying the typical deletion. They usually have lower incidence of hypotonia and less cognitive impairment than those with 17p11.2 deletions but more frequently show the behavioral characteristics of the syndrome and overeating issues. These differences reflect the primary pathogenetic role of RAI1 without the pathogenetic contribution of the other genes included in the typical 17p11.2 deletion. The better comprehension of physiological roles of RAI1, its molecular co-workers and interactors, and its contribution in determining the typical SMS phenotype will certainly open a new path

  4. Efficiency of a Protected-Area Network in a Mediterranean Region: A Multispecies Assessment with Raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, María D.; Martínez, José E.; Palazón, José A.; Esteve, Miguel Á.; Calvo, José F.

    2011-05-01

    Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km2), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel ( Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.

  5. High seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sargo, Roberto; Rodrigues, Manuela; Cardoso, Luís

    2011-05-01

    We report an investigation of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in 52 wild birds and 20 wild mammals from northern and central areas of Portugal by using the modified agglutination test. The birds comprised 26 common buzzards (Buteo buteo), five tawny owls (Strix aluco), four white storks (Ceconia ceconia), three Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo), three northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus), two common barn owls (Tyto alba), two Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), two short-toed eagles (Circaetus gallicus), one black kite (Milvus migrans), one Griffin vulture (Gyps fulvus), and one peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). The mammals were eight wild boars (Sus scrofa), six red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two common genets (Genetta genetta), two European badgers (Meles meles), one European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and one Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus). Fifty percent of the wild birds and 90% of the wild mammals were seropositive; the overall seroprevalence of infection was 61.1%. When comparing the prevalence of antibodies in birds and mammals from northern Portugal, a significant difference was found, but the same was not true for birds and mammals from central Portugal. Seroprevalence levels were 30.0% in juvenile and 62.5% in adult birds (p=0.046), 0.0% in juvenile and 94.7% in adult mammals (p=0.100), 80.0% in female and 66.7% in male birds (p=1.000), and 81.8% in female and 100% in male mammals (p=0.479). This is the first study performed on T. gondii in birds of prey, white storks, and wild carnivores in Portugal.

  6. Role of raptors in contaminant research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter reviews the history of and approaches used in studies focused on the effects of contaminants on raptors and raptor populations at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent) in Laurel, MD. Worldwide raptor declines following World War II were unprecedented and resulted in a sequence of major efforts at Patuxent to understand their cause(s). The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and osprey (Pandion haliaetus) were the species of most concern in North America. Laboratory and field studies at Patuxent complemented each other and yielded timely results of national and international importance, including some findings published in the journals “Science” and “Nature.” Concern about contaminant effects on wildlife populations came to the forefront during the years immediately following World War II. This concern was worldwide and not limited to one taxonomic group or to personnel and investigations at Patuxent. Contaminant studies of raptors were only part of the story, but this review, with minor exceptions, is limited to raptor studies and the role Patuxent played in this research. Indeed, many important nonraptor contaminant studies done at Patuxent, as well as raptor studies conducted elsewhere, are not mentioned here. For other reviews of contaminant-wildlife issues in the 1950s and 1960s, the reader is referred to “Silent Spring” by Rachel Carson (1962), “Pesticides and the Living Landscape” by Robert Rudd (1964), and “Return of the Peregrine: A North American Saga of Tenacity and Teamwork” by Tom Cade and Bill Burnham (Cade and Burnham, 2003).

  7. Linking pre-laying energy allocation and timing of breeding in a migratory arctic raptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarre, Vincent; Franke, Alastair; Love, Oliver P; Legagneux, Pierre; Bêty, Joël

    2017-03-01

    For migratory species, acquisition and allocation of energy after arrival on the breeding grounds largely determine reproductive decisions. Few studies have investigated underlying physiological mechanisms driving variation in breeding phenology so far. We linked physiological state to individual timing of breeding in pre-laying arctic-nesting female peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius). We captured females from two populations 2-20 days before egg-laying to assess plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyric acid (BUTY) and triglyceride (TRIG), two metabolites known to reflect short-term changes in fasting and fattening rate, respectively. We also assessed baseline corticosterone (CORTb), a hormone that mediates energy allocation, and the scaled mass index (SMI) as an indicator of somatic body reserves. Plasma BUTY was slightly higher during the pre-recruiting period compared to the period of rapid follicular growth, indicating a reduction in catabolism of lipid reserves before investment in follicle development. Conversely, TRIG levels increased in pre-recruiting females, and best-predicted individual variation in pre-laying interval and lay date. A marked increase in CORTb occurred concomitantly with the onset of rapid follicle growth. SMI was highly variable possibly reflecting variation in food availability or individuals at different stages. Results suggest that (1) lower rates of pre-laying fattening and/or lower mobilization rate of lipoproteins to ovarian follicles delayed laying, and (2) an elevation in pre-laying CORTb may result from, or be required to compensate for, the energetic costs of egg production. Results of this study illustrate how variation in the allocation of energy before laying can influence individual fitness-related reproductive decisions.

  8. Assessing bat droppings and predatory bird pellets for vector-borne bacteria: molecular evidence of bat-associated Neorickettsia sp. in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Szőke, Krisztina; Estók, Péter; Krawczyk, Aleksandra; Haarsma, Anne-Jifke; Kováts, Dávid; Boldogh, Sándor A; Morandini, Pál; Szekeres, Sándor; Takács, Nóra; Kontschán, Jenő; Meli, Marina L; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; de la Fuente, José; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Sulyok, Kinga M; Weibel, Beatrice; Gönczi, Enikő; de Bruin, Arnout; Sprong, Hein; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2018-02-28

    In Europe, several species of bats, owls and kestrels exemplify highly urbanised, flying vertebrates, which may get close to humans or domestic animals. Bat droppings and bird pellets may have epidemiological, as well as diagnostic significance from the point of view of pathogens. In this work 221 bat faecal and 118 bird pellet samples were screened for a broad range of vector-borne bacteria using PCR-based methods. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 13 bat faecal DNA extracts, including the sequence of a rickettsial insect endosymbiont, a novel Rickettsia genotype and Rickettsia helvetica. Faecal samples of the pond bat (Myotis dasycneme) were positive for a Neorickettsia sp. and for haemoplasmas of the haemofelis group. In addition, two bird pellets (collected from a Long-eared Owl, Asio otus, and from a Common Kestrel, Falco tinnunculus) contained the DNA of a Rickettsia sp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, respectively. In both of these bird pellets the bones of Microtus arvalis were identified. All samples were negative for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Francisella tularensis, Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydiales. In conclusion, bats were shown to pass rickettsia and haemoplasma DNA in their faeces. Molecular evidence is provided for the presence of Neorickettsia sp. in bat faeces in Europe. In the evaluated regions bat faeces and owl/kestrel pellets do not appear to pose epidemiological risk from the point of view of F. tularensis, C. burnetii and Chlamydiales. Testing of bird pellets may provide an alternative approach to trapping for assessing the local occurrence of vector-borne bacteria in small mammals.

  9. Causes of morbidity in wild raptor populations admitted at a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Spain from 1995-2007: a long term retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, Rafael A; Casal, Jordi; Darwich, Laila

    2011-01-01

    Morbidity studies complement the understanding of hazards to raptors by identifying natural or anthropogenic factors. Descriptive epidemiological studies of wildlife have become an important source of information about hazards to wildlife populations. On the other hand, data referenced to the overall wild population could provide a more accurate assessment of the potential impact of the morbidity/mortality causes in populations of wild birds. The present study described the morbidity causes of hospitalized wild raptors and their incidence in the wild populations, through a long term retrospective study conducted at a wildlife rehabilitation centre of Catalonia (1995-2007). Importantly, Seasonal Cumulative Incidences (SCI) were calculated considering estimations of the wild population in the region and trend analyses were applied among the different years. A total of 7021 birds were analysed: 7 species of Strigiformes (n = 3521) and 23 of Falconiformes (n = 3500). The main causes of morbidity were trauma (49.5%), mostly in the Falconiformes, and orphaned/young birds (32.2%) mainly in the Strigiformes. During wintering periods, the largest morbidity incidence was observed in Accipiter gentillis due to gunshot wounds and in Tyto alba due to vehicle trauma. Within the breeding season, Falco tinnunculus (orphaned/young category) and Bubo bubo (electrocution and metabolic disorders) represented the most affected species. Cases due to orphaned/young, infectious/parasitic diseases, electrocution and unknown trauma tended to increase among years. By contrast, cases by undetermined cause, vehicle trauma and captivity decreased throughout the study period. Interestingly, gunshot injuries remained constant during the study period. Frequencies of morbidity causes calculated as the proportion of each cause referred to the total number of admitted cases, allowed a qualitative assessment of hazards for the studied populations. However, cumulative incidences based on

  10. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Monophasic Variant 4,12:i:- Isolated from Asymptomatic Wildlife in a Catalonian Wildlife Rehabilitation Center, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, Rafael A; Vidal, Anna; Obón, Elena; Martín, Marga; Darwich, Laila

    2015-07-01

    Wildlife can act as long-term asymptomatic reservoirs for zoonotic bacteria, such as Salmonella. The prevalence and antimicrobial-susceptibility profiles of Salmonella spp. were assessed in 263 cases in wildlife from 22 animal orders from a wildlife rehabilitation center in Catalonia (NE Spain), September 2013-May 2014. Eleven of 263 tested animals were positive for Salmonella spp., representing an overall prevalence of 4.2%. Prevalences by taxonomic categories were 2% in mammals, 4.7% in birds, and 4.5% in reptiles. By species, one each of European hedgehog (Erinaceus europeus; from a sample of n = 26), Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo; n = 2), Barn Owl (Tyto alba; n = 3), Tawny Owl (Strix aluco; n = 20), Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus; n = 1), Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus; n = 1), and Hoopoe (Upupa epops; n = 2), and two each Common Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus; n = 16) and pond sliders (Trachemys scripta; n = 25) were positive for Salmonella. By serotyping, seven of eleven isolates were classified as S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and five of seven belonged to the monophasic variant 4,12:i:-. All the monophasic variants were isolated from birds (4/5 in raptors) and showed a multidrug-resistance (MDR) profile to at least ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline (R-type ASSuT), and up to 12 antibiotics. The large proportion of S. Typhimurium monophasic MDR strains detected in wildlife never treated with antibiotics, especially in raptors, adds more complexity to the epidemiologic control of one of the most frequent serovars involved in human and livestock infection.

  11. Asymmetry in Lotto carpets and its implication for Hockney's optical projection theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, David G.

    2005-03-01

    Recently the artist David Hockney theorized that some European painters as early as 1420 used concave mirrors and, later, converging lenses, to project real inverted images onto their canvases or other supports which they then traced and painted over. We consider a specific painting adduced as the primary evidence for this bold theory by Hockney and his collaborator, thin-film physicist Charles Falco: Lorenzo Lotto"s Husband and wife (c. 1543). These projection theorists attribute perspective anomalies in the painting to Lotto repositioning a concave mirror, specifically to overcome its limitations in depth of field. Their analysis lies thoroughly and crucially upon the assumption that the physical carpet pattern was symmetric. We point to a study of "Lotto carpets" surviving in museum collections that shows that these comparison carpets are significantly asymmetric. There seems to be no persuasive independent evidence to support the projection proponents" assumption that these carpets, hand-knotted by children in 16th-century Turkey, were symmetric. Moreover, the angular asymmetries in these surviving carpets are nearly the same as those corresponding to the anomalies in the painting, strongly suggesting that these "anomalies" are in fact due to inherent carpet asymmetries, not to changes in configuration of an optical projector. We show that a non-optical explanation can fit the visual evidence with a precision roughly equal to that of the projection theory, but without the need to invoke a complicated, undocumented optical system. Finally, had Lotto used such an optical projector, we would expect both the general historical documentary record and Lotto"s own writings to indicate as much; however no such corroboratory evidence exists. We conclude by rejecting the numerous claims of "proof" that Lotto used optical projections when executing this painting.

  12. Landscape heterogeneity drives intra-population niche variation and reproduction in an arctic top predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'hérault, Vincent; Franke, Alastair; Lecomte, Nicolas; Alogut, Adam; Bêty, Joël

    2013-09-01

    While intra-population variability in resource use is ubiquitous, little is known of how this measure of niche diversity varies in space and its role in population dynamics. Here we examined how heterogeneous breeding environments can structure intra-population niche variation in both resource use and reproductive output. We investigated intra-population niche variation in the Arctic tundra ecosystem, studying peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus tundrius, White) breeding within a terrestrial-marine gradient near Rankin Inlet, Nunavut, Canada. Using stable isotope analysis, we found that intra-population niches varied at the individual level; we examined within-nest and among-nest variation, though only the latter varied along the terrestrial-marine gradient (i.e., increased among-nest variability among birds nesting within the marine environment, indicating higher degree of specialization). Terrestrial prey species (small herbivores and insectivores) were consumed by virtually all falcons. Falcons nesting within the marine environment made use of marine prey (sea birds), but depended heavily on terrestrial prey (up to 90% of the diet). Using 28-years of peregrine falcon nesting data, we found a positive relationship between the proportion of terrestrial habitat surrounding nest sites and annual nestling production, but no relationship with the likelihood of successfully rearing at least one nestling reaching 25 days old. Annually, successful inland breeders raised 0.47 more young on average compared to offshore breeders, which yields potential fitness consequences for this long-living species. The analyses of niche and reproductive success suggest a potential breeding cost for accessing distant terrestrial prey, perhaps due to additional traveling costs, for those individuals with marine nest site locations. Our study indicates how landscape heterogeneity can generate proximate (niche variation) and ultimate (reproduction) consequences on a population of generalist

  13. Individual quality explains variation in reproductive success better than territory quality in a long-lived territorial raptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabi Zabala

    Full Text Available Evolution by natural selection depends on the relationship between individual traits and fitness. Variation in individual fitness can result from habitat (territory quality and individual variation. Individual quality and specialization can have a deep impact on fitness, yet in most studies on territorial species the quality of territory and individuals are confused. We aimed to determine if variation in breeding success is better explained by territories, individual quality or a combination of both. We analysed the number of fledglings and the breeding quality index (the difference between the number of fledglings of an individual/breeding pair and the average number of fledglings of the monitored territories in the same year as part of a long term (16 years peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus monitoring program with identification of individuals. Using individual and territory identities as correlates of quality, we built Generalised Linear Models with Mixed effects, in which random factors depicted different hypotheses for sources of variation (territory/individual quality in the reproductive success of unique breeding pairs, males and females, and assessed their performance. Most evidence supported the hypothesis that variation in breeding success is explained by individual identity, particularly male identity, rather than territory. There is also some evidence for inter year variations in the breeding success of females and a territory effect in the case of males. We argue that, in territorial species, individual quality is a major source of variation in breeding success, often masked by territory. Future ecological and conservation studies on habitat use should consider and include the effect of individuals, in order to avoid misleading results.

  14. Colonizing the world in spite of reduced MHC variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoso, L.; Alcaide, M.; Grande, J.M.; Muñoz, J.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sage, Kevin; Figuerola, J.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced immune gene diversity is thought to negatively affect the capacity of organisms to adapt to pathogen challenges, which represent a major force in natural selection. Genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) are the most widely invoked adaptive loci in conservation biology, and have become the most popular genetic markers to investigate pathogen-host interactions in vertebrates. Although MHC genes are the most polymorphic genes described in the vertebrate genome, the extent to which MHC diversity determines the long-term persistence of populations is, unclear and often debated, as recent studies have documented the occurrence of natural populations thriving even after a depletion of MHC diversity caused by genetic drift. Here, we show that some phylogenetically related species belonging to the Falco genus (Aves: Falconidae) present a dramatically low MHC variability that has not precluded, nevertheless, the successful colonization of almost all existing regions and habitats worldwide. We found evidence for two remarkably different patterns of MHC variation within the genus. While kestrels show a high MHC variation according to the general theory, falcons exhibit an ancestrally low intra- and inter-specific MHC allelic diversity. We provide compelling evidence that this pattern is not caused by the degeneration of functional genes into pseudogenes, the inadvertent analyses of paralogous MHC genes, or the devastating action of genetic drift. Instead, our results strongly support the idea of an evolutionary transition driven and maintained by natural selection from primarily highly variable towards low polymorphic, but functional and expressed, MHC genes with species-specific pathogen-recognition capabilities.

  15. An integrated analysis of micro- and macro-habitat features as a tool to detect weather-driven constraints: A case study with cavity nesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobello, D; Lindström, J; Di Maggio, R; Sarà, M

    2017-01-01

    The effects of climate change on animal populations may be shaped by habitat characteristics at both micro- and macro-habitat level, however, empirical studies integrating these two scales of observation are lacking. As analyses of the effects of climate change commonly rely on data from a much larger scale than the microhabitat level organisms are affected at, this mismatch risks hampering progress in developing understanding of the details of the ecological and evolutionary responses of organisms and, ultimately, effective actions to preserve their populations. Cavity nesters, often with a conservation status of concern, are an ideal model because the cavity is a microenvironment potentially different from the macroenvironment but nonetheless inevitably interacting with it. The lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) is a cavity nester which was until recently classified by as Vulnerable species. Since 2004, for nine years, we collected detailed biotic and abiotic data at both micro- and macro-scales of observation in a kestrel population breeding in the Gela Plain (Italy), a Mediterranean area where high temperatures may reach lethal values for the nest content. We show that macroclimatic features needed to be integrated with both abiotic and biotic factors recorded at a microscale before reliably predicting nest temperatures. Among the nest types used by lesser kestrels, we detected a preferential occupation of the cooler nest types, roof tiles, by early breeders whereas, paradoxically, late breeders nesting with hotter temperatures occupied the overheated nest holes. Not consistent with such a suggested nest selection, the coolest nest type did not host a higher reproductive success than the overheated nests. We discussed our findings in the light of cavity temperatures and nest types deployed within conservation actions assessed by integrating selected factors at different observation scales.

  16. Avian wildlife as sentinels of ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Judit E G; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2013-05-01

    Birds have been widely used as sentinels of ecosystem health reflecting changes in habitat quality, increased incidence of disease, and exposure to and effects of chemical contaminants. Numerous studies addressing these issues focus on the breeding period, since hormonal, behavioural, reproductive, and developmental aspects of the health can be observed over a relatively short time-span. Many body systems within individuals are tightly integrated and interdependent, and can be affected by contaminant chemicals, disease, and habitat changes in complex ways. Animals higher in the food web will reflect cumulative effects of multiple stressors. Such features make birds ideal indicators for assessing environmental health in areas of environmental concern. Five case studies are presented, highlighting the use of different species which have provided insight into ecosystem sustainability, including (i) the consequences of anthropogenic disturbances of sagebrush habitat on the greater northern sage grouse Centrocercus urophasianus; (ii) the high prevalence of disease in very specific passerine species in the Canary Islands closely paralleling deterioration of formerly productive desert habitat and ensuing interspecific stressors; (iii) fractures, abnormal bone structure, and associated biochemical aberrations in nestling storks exposed to acidic tailings mud from a dyke rupture at an iron pyrite mine near Sevilla, Spain; (iv) newly presented data demonstrating biochemical changes in nestling peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus and associations with exposure to major chemical classes in the Great Lakes Basin of Canada; and (v) the variability in responses of tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor to contaminants, biological and meteorological challenges when breeding in the Athabasca oil sands. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The First Results of the Project on Restoration of Genetic Diversity of the Saker Falcon Populations in the Altai-Sayan Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available On summer 2017 a pilot project on population recovery of Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug was conducted in Altai-Sayan region of Russia. Ten 20-days old falcons of “Altaic” morph from a breeding center were placed in nests of wild falcons of other color morphs. Sequence of control region (D-loop of mitochondrial genome from 414 to 1417 bp (1004 bp proofed that in particular cases haplotypes of non-native nestlings from the breeding center were similar to those of native falcons that acted as adoptive parents. Analysis also revealed that haplotypes of nestlings matched the previously determined western and eastern haplogroups. Ten nestlings from a breeding center were placed in 6 nests of wild Sakers with 24 native nestlings. Video-recording revealed no aggression between native and no-native nestlings, as well as no aggression from adult birds towards non-native nestlings. The losses before fledging amounted to 4 nestlings. One native and one non-native nestlings were killed on a nest by an Eagle Owl in Altai Republic, and 2 native nestlings died for an unknown cause in Tuva Republic. In total, 9 non-native nestlings and 21 native nestlings successfully fledged and left the nests. The known losses after fledging amounted to 2 young birds – one native and one non-native, both were killed by bigger raptors. The youngest female from the nest in Altai Republic tagged with GPS-GSM tracker successfully migrates and winters now in Mongolia.

  18. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ydenberg, Ronald C; Dekker, Dick; Kaiser, Gary; Shepherd, Philippa C F; Ogden, Lesley Evans; Rickards, Karen; Lank, David B

    2010-01-21

    We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica) wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative to roosting during the high tide period. Fat stores offer protection against starvation, but are a liability in escape performance, and increase flight costs. Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) were scarce on the Fraser River estuary in the 1970s, but their numbers have since recovered, and they prey heavily on dunlins. The increase has altered the balance between predation and starvation risks for dunlins, and thus how dunlins regulate roosting behavior and body mass to manage the danger. We therefore predicted an increase in the frequency of over-ocean flocking as well as a decrease in the amount of fat carried by dunlins over these decades. Historical observations indicate that over-ocean flocking of dunlins was rare prior to the mid-1990s and became common thereafter. Residual body masses of dunlins were higher in the 1970s, with the greatest difference between the decades coinciding with peak peregrine abundance in October, and shrinking over the course of winter as falcon seasonal abundance declines. Whole-body fat content of dunlins was lower in the 1990s, and accounted for most of the change in body mass. Pacific dunlins appear to manage danger in a complex manner that involves adjustments both in fat reserves and roosting behavior. We discuss reasons why over-ocean flocking has apparently become more common on the Fraser estuary than at other dunlin wintering sites.

  19. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogden Lesley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative to roosting during the high tide period. Fat stores offer protection against starvation, but are a liability in escape performance, and increase flight costs. Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus were scarce on the Fraser River estuary in the 1970s, but their numbers have since recovered, and they prey heavily on dunlins. The increase has altered the balance between predation and starvation risks for dunlins, and thus how dunlins regulate roosting behavior and body mass to manage the danger. We therefore predicted an increase in the frequency of over-ocean flocking as well as a decrease in the amount of fat carried by dunlins over these decades. Results Historical observations indicate that over-ocean flocking of dunlins was rare prior to the mid-1990s and became common thereafter. Residual body masses of dunlins were higher in the 1970s, with the greatest difference between the decades coinciding with peak peregrine abundance in October, and shrinking over the course of winter as falcon seasonal abundance declines. Whole-body fat content of dunlins was lower in the 1990s, and accounted for most of the change in body mass. Conclusions Pacific dunlins appear to manage danger in a complex manner that involves adjustments both in fat reserves and roosting behavior. We discuss reasons why over-ocean flocking has apparently become more common on the Fraser estuary than at other dunlin wintering sites.

  20. Variation of a carotenoid-based trait in relation to oxidative stress and endocrine status during the breeding season in the Eurasian kestrel: a multi-factorial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, S; Dell'omo, G; Costantini, D; Tagliavini, J; Groothuis, T

    2011-09-01

    Carotenoid-based skin colorations vary seasonally in many bird species and are thought to be honest sexually selected signals. In order to provide more insight in the potential signal function and underlying mechanisms of such colorations we here quantified patterns of variation of leg coloration in adult male and female Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus tinnunculus) over the breeding season, and evaluated the relationship between coloration and levels of carotenoids, androgens and estrogens, oxidative damage and plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity. We studied both reproducing wild and non-reproducing captive birds to test for the effect of diet and breeding effort. Males were more colored than females only during mating, and independently of diet, suggesting that leg-color is a sexually selected trait. Seasonal variation in leg color was associated with circulating carotenoids, but concentrations of these molecules were not related to antioxidant capacity, body condition or oxidative damage. These results indicate that carotenoid-based colorations may not be an honest signal of health status in this species. Production of carotenoid rich eggs coincided with low levels of circulating carotenoids in females, indicating that carotenoids might be a limited resource for laying female kestrels. Finally, young rearing males had higher levels of oxidative damage than females, and wild birds of both sexes had higher levels of these parameters than captive birds. These results may indicate that parental effort and physical activity are costly, independently from hormonal status. Since androgens did not explain carotenoid variation we suggest that multiple interacting factors can regulate carotenoid levels along the season. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined use of tri-axial accelerometers and GPS reveals the flexible foraging strategy of a bird in relation to weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pliego, Jesús; Rodríguez, Carlos; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Bustamante, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Tri-axial accelerometry has proved to be a useful technique to study animal behavior with little direct observation, and also an effective way to measure energy expenditure, allowing a refreshing revisit to optimal foraging theory. This theory predicts that individuals should gain the most energy for the lowest cost in terms of time and energy when foraging, in order to maximize their fitness. However, during a foraging trip, central-place foragers could face different trade-offs during the commuting and searching parts of the trip, influencing behavioral decisions. Using the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) as an example we study the time and energy costs of different behaviors during the commuting and searching parts of a foraging trip. Lesser kestrels are small insectivorous falcons that behave as central-place foragers during the breeding season. They can commute by adopting either time-saving flapping flights or energy-saving soaring-gliding flights, and capture prey by using either time-saving active hovering flights or energy-saving perch-hunting. We tracked 6 lesser kestrels using GPS and tri-axial accelerometers during the breeding season. Our results indicate that males devoted more time and energy to flight behaviors than females in agreement with being the sex responsible for food provisioning to the nest. During the commuting flights, kestrels replaced flapping with soaring-gliding flights as solar radiation increased and thermal updrafts got stronger. In the searching part, they replaced perch-hunting with hovering as wind speed increased and they experienced a stronger lift. But also, they increased the use of hovering as air temperature increased, which has a positive influence on the activity level of the preferred prey (large grasshoppers). Kestrels maintained a constant energy expenditure per foraging trip, although flight and hunting strategies changed dramatically with weather conditions, suggesting a fixed energy budget per trip to which they

  2. Retrospective: Adjusting contaminant concentrations in bird eggs to account for moisture and lipid Loss during their incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Blus, Lawrence J.

    2016-01-01

    By the 1960s, research and monitoring efforts on chlorinated pesticide residues in tissues of wildlife were well underway in North America and Europe. Conservationists and natural resource managers were attempting to resolve whether pesticide exposure and accumulated residues were related to population declines in several species of predatory and scavenging birds (e.g., bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis and osprey Pandion haliaetus). The avian egg was a favored sampling matrix even before the realization that eggshell thinning was linked to population declines (Ratcliffe 1967; Hickey and Anderson 1968) and that the concentration of p,p’-DDE in an egg was associated with the shell thinning phenomenon (e.g., Blus et al. 1972; Wiemeyer et al. 1988). The necessity for making wet-weight concentration adjustments to account for natural moisture loss during incubation of viable eggs was realized. Correction for the more dramatic moisture loss in non-viable decaying eggs was recognized as being paramount. For example, the ∑DDT residues in osprey eggs were reported to vary by as much as eightfold without accounting for moisture loss adjustments (Stickel et al. 1965). In the absence of adjusting concentrations to the fresh wet-weight that was present at the time of egg laying, the uncorrected values exaggerated contaminant concentrations, yielding artifactual results and ultimately incorrect conclusions. The adjustment to fresh wet-weight concentration is equally important for many other persistent contaminants including PCBs, dioxins, furans, and brominated diphenyl ethers.

  3. Antibody Prevalence and Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Raptors in the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David; Kwok, Oliver C; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Dubey, Jitender P; Bellah, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. These prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( Felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. We assessed T. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of 22/71 Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ), 25/54 Barred Owls ( Strix varia ), 9/41 Red-shouldered Hawks ( Buteo lineatus ), 13/28 Great Horned Owls ( Bubo virginianus ), 6/20 Broad-winged Hawks ( Buteo platypterus ), 2/16 Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio), 12/13 Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ), 6/12 Cooper's Hawks ( Accipiter cooperii ), 1/8 Black Vultures ( Coragyps atratus ), and 1/1 Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ). Antibodies were not detected in 5 Barn Owls ( Tyto alba ), 3 American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ), 1 Mississippi Kite ( Ictinia mississippiensis ), and 1 Osprey ( Pandion haliaetus ). Viable T. gondii was isolated from the tissues of 1 antibody-positive Barred Owl and identified as a strain having type II alleles at all 10 loci tested, except one (ToxoDB polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism genotype 3). Type II strain is the most common strain in the US. Results of this study indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii in some raptor species and the first reported genotyping from a Barred Owl.

  4. Intraspecific evolutionary relationships among peregrine falcons in western North American high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, Kevin; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Gravley, Meg C.; Swem, Ted; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Longmire, Jonathan L.; Ambrose, Skip; Flamme, Melanie J; Lewis, Stephen B.; Phillips, Laura M.; Anderson, Clifford; White, Clayton M

    2017-01-01

    Subspecies relationships within the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) have been long debated because of the polytypic nature of melanin-based plumage characteristics used in subspecies designations and potential differentiation of local subpopulations due to philopatry. In North America, understanding the evolutionary relationships among subspecies may have been further complicated by the introduction of captive bred peregrines originating from non-native stock, as part of recovery efforts associated with mid 20th century population declines resulting from organochloride pollution. Alaska hosts all three nominal subspecies of North American peregrine falcons–F. p. tundrius, anatum, and pealei–for which distributions in Alaska are broadly associated with nesting locales within Arctic, boreal, and south coastal maritime habitats, respectively. Unlike elsewhere, populations of peregrine falcon in Alaska were not augmented by captive-bred birds during the late 20th century recovery efforts. Population genetic differentiation analyses of peregrine populations in Alaska, based on sequence data from the mitochondrial DNA control region and fragment data from microsatellite loci, failed to uncover genetic distinction between populations of peregrines occupying Arctic and boreal Alaskan locales. However, the maritime subspecies, pealei, was genetically differentiated from Arctic and boreal populations, and substructured into eastern and western populations. Levels of interpopulational gene flow between anatum and tundrius were generally higher than between pealei and either anatum or tundrius. Estimates based on both marker types revealed gene flow between augmented Canadian populations and unaugmented Alaskan populations. While we make no attempt at formal taxonomic revision, our data suggest that peregrine falcons occupying habitats in Alaska and the North Pacific coast of North America belong to two distinct regional groupings–a coastal grouping

  5. A rich Pleistocene-Holocene avifaunal sequence from Te Waka no. 1 : terrestrial fossil vertebrate faunas from inland Hawke's Bay, North Island, New Zealand. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthy, T.H.; Holdaway, R.N.; Alloway, B.V.; Jones, J.; Winn, J.; Turner, D.

    2002-01-01

    The results of 13 m 2 of new excavations in the rockshelter called Te Waka no. 1, 900 m above sea level in inland Hawke's Bay, North Island, New Zealand, are presented. The site is shown to have an unparalleled continuous faunal record in sediments about 3 m deep that spans the period from the Kawakawa eruption 22,600 14 C yrs BP to the present. Good temporal control is afforded by clear stratigraphy, three obvious tephras (Taupo Ignimbrite, one unidentified, Kawakawa Tephra (Oruanui Ignimbrite)), seven AMS radiocarbon ages, and one uranium-series age. Three frog species, a tuatara, five lizards, 42 birds, and three bats are represented in the 2490 identified bones from the combined faunas from W.H. Hartree's late 1950s and our 1999-2000 excavations. The fauna is interpreted as being mainly derived from the prey remains of Falco novaeseelandiae; it includes the first fossil records of Garrodia nereis and Charadrius bicinctus from the North Island. The presence in the fossil avifauna of species that live only in shrubland or forest indicates that such vegetation was present on Te Waka between 22,600 14 C yrs BP and the Late Glacial Maximum (LGM, 18,000 14 C yrs BP). Pterodroma cookii ceased to breed on Te Waka over the LGM. The absence of this species (which nests solely under forest), the lack of forest passerines, and the presence of species characteristic of open vegetation indicate a substantial loss of vegetation around the site at that time. The sedimentary and faunal record indicate that the area was reafforested about 14,000 14 C yrs BP. (author). 75 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Secondary toxicity in raptors caused by white phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparling, D.W. [Patuxent Environmental Science Center, Laurel, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    White phosphorus (WP) has caused waterfowl die-offs in a tidal saltmarsh used by the US Army for artillery practice for > 40 years. Bald (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)and golden (Aquila chrysaetos) eagles have been observed feeding on dead and dying waterfowl on the marsh and may be exposed to WP through ingestion of contaminated birds. One carcass of each eagle species has been found with measurable levels of WP in fat. To determine if raptors can become intoxicated by ingesting prey that have been exposed to WP the authors fed live, 10-day-old white leghorn chicks three sublethal doses of WP. Six hrs after the last dose the authors euthanized the chicks and separated them into two groups one with the digestive system from gizzard anteriorly removed (NoGut) and one with the digestive system intact and a 1.1 mg pellet of WP implanted deep into the crop (Pel). A third group of same-aged chicks unexposed to WP was used for controls. Fifteen kestrels (Falco sparverius) were randomly assigned to each of the treatments and 1 0 to the control diet. By 7 d of the study 8 of the kestrels had died on the Pel and 3 on the NoGut diet. Survivors on the Pel diet had significantly lower hematocrit, hemoglobin, final body weights and greater liver/body weight ratios and weight loss than control birds. The study showed that raptors and possibly other predators are at risk both when consuming flesh of prey that have succumbed to WP poisoning and when ingesting WP pellets that are incorporated in body parts but that the risk is greater when pellets are present.

  7. PREFACE: Introduction to the proceedings of Dynamics Days South America 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macau, Elbert E. N.; Pereira, Tiago; Prado, Antonio F. B. A.; Turci, Luiz F. R.; Winter, Othon C.

    2011-03-01

    São PauloSão Carlos - SP - Brazil Rubens SampaioPontifícia Universidade CatólicaRio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil Ruedi StoopSwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyUZH/ETHZ Zurich - Switzerland Sylvio Ferraz MelloUniversidade de São PauloSão Paulo - SP - Brazil Takashi YoneyamaITA - Instituto Tecnológico de AeronáuticaSão José dos Campos - SP - Brazil Ying-Cheng LaiArizona State UniversityTempe - AZ - USA Organizing Committee Antonio Carlos Roque da SilvaUSP - Universidade de São PauloRibeirão Preto - SP - Brazil Antonio F Bertachini de Almeida Prado (Co-chair)INPE - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas EspaciaisSão José dos Campos - SP - Brazil Arturo C MartiFacultad de CienciaMontevideo - Uruguai Carlos Leopoldo Pando LambruschiniBenemérita Universidad Autónoma de PueblaPuebla - Mexico Edson Denis LeonelUNESP - "Júlio de Mesquisa Filho"Rio Claro - SP - Brazil Elbert E N Macau (Chair)INPE - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas EspaciaisSão José dos Campos - SP - Brazil Gerard Olivar TostUniversidad National de ColombiaManizales - Colombia Hamilton VarelaUSP - Universidade de São PauloSão Carlos - SP - Brazil Hilda Cerdeira (Co-chair)IFT - Instituto de Física TeóricaSão Paulo - SP - Brazil Iberê Luiz CaldasUSP - Universidade de São PauloSão Paulo - SP - Brazil José Manoel BalthazarUNESP - "Júlio de Mesquisa Filho"Rio Claro - SP - Brazil José Roberto Castilho PiqueiraUSP - Universidade de São PauloSão Paulo - SP - Brazil Luciano da Fontoura CostaUSP - Universidade de São PauloSão Carlos - SP - Brazil Luiz de Siqueira Martins FilhoUFABC - Universidade Federal do ABCSanto André - SP - Brazil Marcel G ClercUniversidad de ChileSantiago - Chile Miguel VizcardoUniversidad de ArequipaArequipa - Peru Gonzalo Marcelo Ramirez ÁvilaUniversidad Mayor de San AndrésLa Paz - Bolivia Marco Aurélio Pires IdiartUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto Alegre - RS - Brazil Marcus de AguiarUNICAMPCampinas - SP - Brazil Mario CosenzaUniversidad de Los Andes

  8. Dynamics of a recovering Arctic bird population: the importance of climate, density dependence, and site quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Jason E.; Swem, Ted; Andersen, David E.; Kennedy, Patricia L.; Nigro, Debora A.

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect vital rates and population-level processes, and understanding these factors is paramount to devising successful management plans for wildlife species. For example, birds time migration in response, in part, to local and broadscale climate fluctuations to initiate breeding upon arrival to nesting territories, and prolonged inclement weather early in the breeding season can inhibit egg-laying and reduce productivity. Also, density-dependent regulation occurs in raptor populations, as territory size is related to resource availability. Arctic Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius; hereafter Arctic peregrine) have a limited and northern breeding distribution, including the Colville River Special Area (CRSA) in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska, USA. We quantified influences of climate, topography, nest productivity, prey habitat, density dependence, and interspecific competition affecting Arctic peregrines in the CRSA by applying the Dail-Madsen model to estimate abundance and vital rates of adults on nesting cliffs from 1981 through 2002. Arctic peregrine abundance increased throughout the 1980s, which spanned the population's recovery from DDT-induced reproductive failure, until exhibiting a stationary trend in the 1990s. Apparent survival rate (i.e., emigration; death) was negatively correlated with the number of adult Arctic peregrines on the cliff the previous year, suggesting effects of density-dependent population regulation. Apparent survival and arrival rates (i.e., immigration; recruitment) were higher during years with earlier snowmelt and milder winters, and apparent survival was positively correlated with nesting season maximum daily temperature. Arrival rate was positively correlated with average Arctic peregrine productivity along a cliff segment from the previous year and initial abundance was positively correlated with cliff height. Higher cliffs with documented higher productivity (presumably

  9. Attempts to identify the source of avian vacuolar myelinopathy for waterbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Thomas, N.J.; Meteyer, C.U.; Quist, C.F.; Fischer, John R.; Augspurger, T.; Ward, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Attempts were made to reproduce avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) in a number of test animals in order to determine the source of the causative agent for birds and to find a suitable animal model for future studies. Submerged vegetation, plankton, invertebrates, forage fish, and sediments were collected from three lakes with ongoing outbreaks of AVM and fed to American coots (Fulica americana), mallard ducks and ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos), quail (Coturnix japonica), and laboratory mice either via gavage or ad libitum. Tissues from AVM-affected coots with brain lesions were fed to ducklings, kestrels (Falco sparverius), and American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Two mallards that ingested one sample of Hydrilla verticillata along with any biotic or abiotic material associated with its external surface developed brain lesions consistent with AVM, although neither of the ducks had clinical signs of disease. Ingestion of numerous other samples of Hydrilla from the AVM affected lakes and a lake with no prior history of AVM, other materials (sediments, algae, fish, invertebrates, and water from affected lakes), or tissues from AVM-affected birds did not produce either clinical signs or brain lesions in any of the other test animals in our studies. These results suggest that waterbirds are most likely exposed to the causative agent of AVM while feeding on aquatic vegetation, but we do not believe the vegetation itself is the agent. We hypothesize that the causative agent of AVM might either be accumulated by aquatic vegetation, such as Hydrilla, or associated with biotic or abiotic material on its external surfaces. In support of that hypothesis, two coots that ingested Hydrilla sampled from a lake with an ongoing AVM outbreak in wild birds developed neurologic signs within 9 days (ataxia, limb weakness, and incoordination), and one of two coots that ingested Hydrilla collected from the same site 13 days later became sick and died within 38 days. None of these three

  10. Introduction: surgical management of skull base meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zada, Gabriel; Başkaya, Mustafa K; Shah, Mitesh V

    2017-10-01

    Meningiomas represent the most common primary intracranial neoplasm treated by neurosurgeons. Although multimodal treatment of meningiomas includes surgery, radiation-based treatments, and occasionally medical therapy, surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for most symptomatic meningiomas. Because of the intricate relationship of the dura mater and arachnoid mater with the central nervous system and cranial nerves, meningiomas can arise anywhere along the skull base or convexities, and occasionally even within the ventricular system, thereby mandating a catalog of surgical approaches that neurosurgeons may employ to individualize treatment for patients. Skull base meningiomas represent some of the most challenging pathology encountered by neurosurgeons, on account of their depth, invasion, vascularity, texture/consistency, and their relationship to bony anatomy, cranial nerves, and blood vessels. Resection of complex skull base meningiomas often mandates adequate bony removal to achieve sufficient exposure of the tumor and surrounding region, in order to minimize brain retraction and optimally identify, protect, control, and manipulate sensitive neurovascular structures. A variety of traditional skull base approaches has evolved to address complex skull base tumors, of which meningiomas are considered the paragon in terms of both complexity and frequency. In this supplemental video issue of Neurosurgical Focus, contributing authors from around the world provide instructional narratives demonstrating resection of a variety of skull base meningiomas arising from traditionally challenging origins, including the clinoid processes, tuberculum sellae, dorsum sellae, petroclival region, falco-tentorial region, cerebellopontine angle, and foramen magnum. In addition, two cases of extended endoscopic endonasal approaches for tuberculum sellae and dorsum sellae meningiomas are presented, representing the latest evolution in accessing the skull base for selected tumors

  11. Health of an ex situ population of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes in Mexico: diagnosis of internal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Successful programs for ex situ and in situ conservation and management of raptors require detailed knowledge about their pathogens. The purpose of this study was to identify the internal parasites of some captive raptors in Mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health status of infected birds. Birds of prey were confiscated and kept in captivity at the Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS in Los Reyes La Paz, Mexico State. For this, fecal and blood samples from 74 birds of prey (66 Falconiformes and eight Strigiformes of 15 species, juveniles and adults from both sexes (39 males and 35 female, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. Besides, the oropharyngeal cavity was macroscopically examined for the presence of lesions compatible with trichomoniasis. Among our results we found that lesions compatible with Trichomonas gallinae infection were detected only in two Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis (2.7%; nevertheless, infected birds were in good physical condition. Overall, gastrointestinal parasites were found in 10 (13.5% raptors: nine falconiforms (13.6% and one strigiform (12.5%, which mainly presented a single type of gastrointestinal parasite (90%. Eimeria spp. was detected in Harris’s hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus, Swainson’s hawk (Buteo swainsoni, Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicensis and Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus; whereas trematodes eggs were found in Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus and Swainson’s hawk (B. swainsoni. Furthermore, eggs of Capillaria spp. were found in one Swainson’s hawk (B. swainsoni, which was also infected by trematodes. Hemoprotozoarian were detected in five (6.7% falconiforms: Haemoproteus spp. in American kestrel (F. sparverius and Leucocytozoon spp. in Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicencis. Despite this, no clinical signs referable to gastrointestinal or blood parasite infection were observed in any birds. All parasites identified were

  12. Producing progeny from endangered birds of prey: treatment of urine-contaminated semen and a novel intramagnal insemination approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Juan Manuel; Gee, George F; Wildt, David E; Donoghue, Ann M

    2002-03-01

    Wild raptors brought into an ex situ environment often have poor semen quality that is further compromised by urine contamination. Generally, it is believed that in birds, artificial insemination into the cloaca or caudal vagina of females requires large doses of high-quality spermatozoa to maximize fertility. In an effort to define and overcome some of the challenges associated with reproduction in wild raptors, the objectives of this study were to 1) evaluate the frequency, impact, and remediation of urine contamination in fresh ejaculates for the purpose of maintaining sperm motility and viability in vitro, and 2) develop a deep insemination method that allows low numbers of washed sperm to be placed directly into the magnum to increase the probability of producing fertilized eggs. The species evaluated include golden eagle (Aquila chrysoetos), imperial eagle (A. adalberti), Bonelli's eagle (Hiernaetus fasciatus), and peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Semen samples were collected and pooled by species, and a minimum of 25 pooled ejaculates per species were evaluated for urine contamination, pH, sperm viability, and sperm motility; the samples were either unwashed or washed in neutral (pH 7.0) or alkaline (pH 8.0) modified Lake's diluent. Female golden eagles and peregrine falcons were inseminated via transjunctional, intramagnal insemination with washed spermatozoa from urine-contaminated samples. Urine contamination occurred in 36.8 +/- 12.8% (mean +/- SEM) golden eagle, 43.1 +/- 9.1% imperial eagle. 28.7 +/- 16.1% Bonelli's eagle, and 48.2 +/- 17.3% peregrine falcon ejaculates. The pH in urine-contaminated semen samples ranged from 6.48 +/- 0.3 to 6.86 +/- 0.2, and in noncontaminated samples it ranged from from 7.17 +/- 0.1 to 7.56 +/- 0.1. Sperm viability and motility were reduced (P < 0.05) in all species for unwashed vs. washed sperm after 30 min incubation at room temperature. Two peregrine falcon chicks and one golden eagle chick hatched after

  13. Color plumage polymorphism and predator mimicry in brood parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Alfréd; Grim, Tomáš

    2013-05-10

    Plumage polymorphism may evolve during coevolution between brood parasites and their hosts if rare morph(s), by contravening host search image, evade host recognition systems better than common variant(s). Females of the parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) are a classic example of discrete color polymorphism: gray females supposedly mimic the sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), while rufous females are believed to mimic the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Despite many studies on host responses to adult cuckoos comprehensive tests of the "hawk mimicry" and "kestrel mimicry" hypotheses are lacking so far. We tested these hypotheses by examining host responses to stuffed dummies of the sparrowhawk, kestrel, cuckoo and the innocuous turtle dove (Streptopelia turtur) as a control at the nest. Our experimental data from an aggressive cuckoo host, the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus), showed low effectiveness of cuckoo-predator mimicry against more aggressive hosts regardless of the type of model and the degree of perfection of the mimic. Specifically, warblers discriminated gray cuckoos from sparrowhawks but did not discriminate rufous cuckoos from kestrels. However, both gray and rufous cuckoos were attacked vigorously and much more than control doves. The ratio of aggression to gray vs. rufous cuckoo was very similar to the ratio between frequencies of gray vs. rufous cuckoo morphs in our study population. Overall, our data combined with previous results from other localities suggest polymorphism dynamics are not strongly affected by local predator model frequencies. Instead, hosts responses and discrimination abilities are proportional, other things being equal, to the frequency with which hosts encounter various cuckoo morphs near their nests. This suggests that female cuckoo polymorphism is a counter-adaptation to thwart a specific host adaptation, namely an ability to not be fooled by predator mimicry. We hypothesize the dangerousness of a particular

  14. Flame retardants in eggs of American kestrels and European starlings from southern Lake Ontario region (North America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Letcher, Robert J; Martin, Pamela

    2012-11-01

    While a number of studies have extensively investigated flame retardant (FR) contamination in aquatic ecosystems from the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, there remains a dearth of information for terrestrial ecosystems. In the current study, American kestrels (Falco sparverius) (AMKE) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) (EUST) that are terrestrial ecosystem consumers, and from the southern Lake Ontario regions, were investigated as potential terrestrial bio-monitoring species. Egg homogenates were screened for sixteen PBDE congeners and nineteen non-PBDE FRs of established or emerging environmental importance. PBDE congeners dominated the FR burdens in eggs of AMKE and EUST, with total concentrations ranging from 3.4 to 39.8 (median: 13.5) and 1.5 to 117 (median: 4.9) ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. Although the production and application of the Firemaster FF-1 (a commercial hexabromobiphenyl PBB mixture) has been discontinued for over four decades, its major component, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153), was still frequently detected in AMKE and EUST eggs. Two isomers of the chlorinated FR Dechlorane plus (DP) were mostly detected in eggs collected from Niagara-on-the-Lake in the western portion of Lake Ontario, approximately 15 km from the only North American DP manufacturing site, clearly reflecting point source influences. FR comparisons in eggs from AMKE, EUST and Great Lakes herring gulls revealed species-specific contamination burdens and PBDE congener profiles, likely due to influences from trophic levels and PBDE congener-specific bioaccumulation and biomagnification capacities in terrestrial versus aquatic food chains. Insectivorous birds (e.g. great tit) and relatives of AMKE have also been used as bio-monitoring tools in European and Asian regions, allowing investigation of spatial distribution patterns on a more international scale. AMKE and EUST have also been used as model species for laboratory evaluation of FR toxic effects in

  15. Ground Squirrel Shooting and Potential Lead Exposure in Breeding Avian Scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Wagner, Mason T

    2016-01-01

    Recreational ground squirrel shooting is a popular activity throughout the western United States and serves as a tool for managing ground squirrel populations in agricultural regions. Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) are routinely shot in California, Nevada, and Oregon across habitats that overlap with breeding avian scavengers. Ground squirrels shot with lead (Pb)-based bullets may pose a risk to avian scavengers if they consume carcasses containing Pb fragments. To assess the potential risk to breeding avian scavengers we developed a model to estimate the number, mass, and distribution of Pb fragments in shot ground squirrels using radiographic images. Eighty percent of shot carcasses contained detectible Pb fragments with an average of 38.6 mg of Pb fragments. Seven percent of all carcasses contained Pb fragment masses exceeding a lethal dose for a model raptor nestling (e.g. American kestrel Falco sparverius). Bullet type did not influence the number of fragments in shot ground squirrels, but did influence the mass of fragments retained. Belding's ground squirrels shot with .17 Super Mag and unknown ammunition types contained over 28 and 17 times more mass of Pb fragments than those shot with .22 solid and .22 hollow point bullets, respectively. Ground squirrel body mass was positively correlated with both the number and mass of Pb fragments in carcasses, increasing on average by 76% and 56% respectively across the range of carcass masses. Although the mass of Pb retained in ground squirrel carcasses was small relative to the original bullet mass, avian scavenger nestlings that frequently consume shot ground squirrels may be at risk for Pb-induced effects (e.g., physiology, growth, or survival). Using modeling efforts we found that if nestling golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and Swainson's hawks (B. swainsoni) consumed shot ground squirrels proportionately to the nestling's mass, energy needs, and diet

  16. The Peculiarities of Territorial Distribution and Abundance of Birds of Prey in Kharkiv Region, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav G. Viter

    2014-11-01

    (Accipiter gentilis – 214–224, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Ac. nisus – 336–365, Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo – 1000–1050, Long-Legged Buzzard (B. rufinus – 185–190, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus – no more than 6 pairs, Booted Eagle – 119–124, Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca – 56–60, Greater Spotted Eagle (A. clanga – 3–4, Lesser Spotted Eagle (A. pomarina – 10–11, Hobby (Falco subbuteo – 160–175, Common Kestrel (F. tinnunculus – 297–320 pairs.

  17. Fidelity analysis of mechanically aided copying/enlarging of Jan van Eyck's Portrait of Niccolo Albergati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, David G.; Duarte, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The contemporary artist David Hockney has hypothesized that some early Renaissance painters secretly projected optical images onto their supports (canvas, paper, oak panel, ...), directly traced these projections, and then filled in the tracings with paint[1]. Hockney has presented somewhat impressionistic image evidence for this claim, but he and thin-film physicist Charles Falco also point to perspective anomalies, to the fidelity of passages in certain paintings, and to historical documents in search of support for this direct tracing claim[2]. Key visual evidence adduced in support of this tracing claim is a pair of portraits by Jan van Eyck of Cardinal Niccolo Albergati - a small informal silverpoint study of 1431 and a slightly larger formal work in oil on panel of 1432. The contours in these two works bear striking resemblance in shape (after being appropriately scaled) and there are at least two "relative shifts" - passages that co-align well after a spatial shift of one of the images [2]. This evidence has led the theory's proponents to claim that van Eyck copied the silverpoint by means of an optical projector, or epidiascope, the relative shifts due to him accidentally bumping the setup during the copying. Previous tests of the tracing theory for these works considered four candidate methods van Eyck might have used to copied and enlarged the image in the silverpoint study: unaided ("by eye"), mechanical, grid, and the optical projection method itself [3]. Based on the full evidence, including the recent discovery of tiny pinprick holes in the silverpoint, reenactments, material culture and optical knowledge in the early 15th century, the mechanical method was judged most plausible and optical method the least plausible[3]. However, this earlier work did not adequately test whether a trained artist could "re-enact" the copying by mechanical methods: "Although we have not explicitly verified that high fidelities can be achieved through the use of a

  18. Molecular evolution of the toll-like receptor multigene family in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Miguel; Edwards, Scott V

    2011-05-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are membrane-bound sensors of the innate immune system that recognize invariant and distinctive molecular features of invading microbes and are also essential for initiating adaptive immunity in vertebrates. The genetic variation at TLR genes has been directly related to differential pathogen outcomes in humans and livestock. Nonetheless, new insights about the impact of TLRs polymorphism on the evolutionary ecology of infectious diseases can be gained through the investigation of additional vertebrate groups not yet investigated in detail. In this study, we have conducted the first characterization of the entire TLR multigene family (N = 10 genes) in non-model avian species. Using primers targeting conserved coding regions, we aimed at amplifying large segments of the extracellular domains (275-435 aa) involved in pathogen recognition across seven phylogenetically diverse bird species. Our analyses suggest avian TLRs are dominated by stabilizing selection, suggesting that slow rates of nonsynonymous substitution help preserve biological function. Overall, mean values of ω (= d(n)/d(s)) at each TLR locus ranged from 0.196 to 0.517. However, we also found patterns of positive selection acting on specific amino acid sites that could be linked to species-specific differences in pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition. Only 39 of 2,875 (∼1.35%) of the codons analyzed exhibited significant patterns of positive selection. At least one half of these positively selected codons can be mapped to putative ligand-binding regions, as suggested by crystallographic structures of TLRs and their ligands and mutagenic analyses. We also surveyed TLR polymorphism in wild populations of two bird species, the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni and the House Finch Carpodacus mexicanus. In general, avian TLRs displayed low to moderate single nucleotide polymorphism levels and an excess of silent nucleotide substitutions, but also conspicuous instances of

  19. Modelling interactions of toxicants and density dependence in wildlife populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Aafke M.; Hendriks, Harrie W.M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Hendriks, A. Jan; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.

    2013-01-01

    1. A major challenge in the conservation of threatened and endangered species is to predict population decline and design appropriate recovery measures. However, anthropogenic impacts on wildlife populations are notoriously difficult to predict due to potentially nonlinear responses and interactions with natural ecological processes like density dependence. 2. Here, we incorporated both density dependence and anthropogenic stressors in a stage-based matrix population model and parameterized it for a density-dependent population of peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus exposed to two anthropogenic toxicants [dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)]. Log-logistic exposure–response relationships were used to translate toxicant concentrations in peregrine falcon eggs to effects on fecundity. Density dependence was modelled as the probability of a nonbreeding bird acquiring a breeding territory as a function of the current number of breeders. 3. The equilibrium size of the population, as represented by the number of breeders, responded nonlinearly to increasing toxicant concentrations, showing a gradual decrease followed by a relatively steep decline. Initially, toxicant-induced reductions in population size were mitigated by an alleviation of the density limitation, that is, an increasing probability of territory acquisition. Once population density was no longer limiting, the toxicant impacts were no longer buffered by an increasing proportion of nonbreeders shifting to the breeding stage, resulting in a strong decrease in the equilibrium number of breeders. 4. Median critical exposure concentrations, that is, median toxicant concentrations in eggs corresponding with an equilibrium population size of zero, were 33 and 46 μg g−1 fresh weight for DDE and PBDEs, respectively. 5. Synthesis and applications. Our modelling results showed that particular life stages of a density-limited population may be relatively insensitive to

  20. Ground Squirrel Shooting and Potential Lead Exposure in Breeding Avian Scavengers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Herring

    Full Text Available Recreational ground squirrel shooting is a popular activity throughout the western United States and serves as a tool for managing ground squirrel populations in agricultural regions. Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi are routinely shot in California, Nevada, and Oregon across habitats that overlap with breeding avian scavengers. Ground squirrels shot with lead (Pb-based bullets may pose a risk to avian scavengers if they consume carcasses containing Pb fragments. To assess the potential risk to breeding avian scavengers we developed a model to estimate the number, mass, and distribution of Pb fragments in shot ground squirrels using radiographic images. Eighty percent of shot carcasses contained detectible Pb fragments with an average of 38.6 mg of Pb fragments. Seven percent of all carcasses contained Pb fragment masses exceeding a lethal dose for a model raptor nestling (e.g. American kestrel Falco sparverius. Bullet type did not influence the number of fragments in shot ground squirrels, but did influence the mass of fragments retained. Belding's ground squirrels shot with .17 Super Mag and unknown ammunition types contained over 28 and 17 times more mass of Pb fragments than those shot with .22 solid and .22 hollow point bullets, respectively. Ground squirrel body mass was positively correlated with both the number and mass of Pb fragments in carcasses, increasing on average by 76% and 56% respectively across the range of carcass masses. Although the mass of Pb retained in ground squirrel carcasses was small relative to the original bullet mass, avian scavenger nestlings that frequently consume shot ground squirrels may be at risk for Pb-induced effects (e.g., physiology, growth, or survival. Using modeling efforts we found that if nestling golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos, red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis, and Swainson's hawks (B. swainsoni consumed shot ground squirrels proportionately to the nestling's mass, energy

  1. The use of genetics for the management of a recovering population: temporal assessment of migratory peregrine falcons in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeff A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.; Burnham, Kurt K.; Brown, Joseph W.; Maechtle, Tom L.; Seegar, William S.; Yates, Michael A.; Anderson, Bud; Mindell, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Background:Our ability to monitor populations or species that were once threatened or endangered and in the process of recovery is enhanced by using genetic methods to assess overall population stability and size over time. This can be accomplished most directly by obtaining genetic measures from temporally-spaced samples that reflect the overall stability of the population as given by changes in genetic diversity levels (allelic richness and heterozygosity), degree of population differentiation (FST and DEST), and effective population size (Ne). The primary goal of any recovery effort is to produce a long-term self-sustaining population, and these measures provide a metric by which we can gauge our progress and help make important management decisions. Methodology/Principal Findings:The peregrine falcon in North America (Falco peregrinus tundrius and anatum) was delisted in 1994 and 1999, respectively, and its abundance will be monitored by the species Recovery Team every three years until 2015. Although the United States Fish and Wildlife Service makes a distinction between tundrius and anatum subspecies, our genetic results based on eleven microsatellite loci, including those from Brown et al. (2007), suggest no differentiation and warrant delineation of a subspecies in its northern latitudinal distribution from Alaska through Canada into Greenland. Using temporal samples collected at Padre Island, Texas during migration (seven temporal time periods between 1985-2007), no significant differences in genetic diversity or significant population differentiation in allele frequencies between time periods were observed and were indistinguishable from those obtained from tundrius/anatum breeding locations throughout their northern distribution. Estimates of harmonic mean Ne were variable and imprecise, but always greater than 500 when employing multiple temporal genetic methods. These results, including those from simulations to assess the power of each method to

  2. The use of genetics for the management of a recovering population: temporal assessment of migratory peregrine falcons in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff A Johnson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to monitor populations or species that were once threatened or endangered and in the process of recovery is enhanced by using genetic methods to assess overall population stability and size over time. This can be accomplished most directly by obtaining genetic measures from temporally-spaced samples that reflect the overall stability of the population as given by changes in genetic diversity levels (allelic richness and heterozygosity, degree of population differentiation (F(ST and D(EST, and effective population size (N(e. The primary goal of any recovery effort is to produce a long-term self-sustaining population, and these genetic measures provide a metric by which we can gauge our progress and help make important management decisions.The peregrine falcon in North America (Falco peregrinus tundrius and anatum was delisted in 1994 and 1999, respectively, and its abundance will be monitored by the species Recovery Team every three years until 2015. Although the United States Fish and Wildlife Service makes a distinction between tundrius and anatum subspecies, our genetic results based on eleven microsatellite loci suggest limited differentiation that can be attributed to an isolation by distance relationship and warrant no delineation of these two subspecies in its northern latitudinal distribution from Alaska through Canada into Greenland. Using temporal samples collected at Padre Island, Texas during migration (seven temporal time periods between 1985-2007, no significant differences in genetic diversity or significant population differentiation in allele frequencies between time periods were observed and were indistinguishable from those obtained from tundrius/anatum breeding locations throughout their northern distribution. Estimates of harmonic mean N(e were variable and imprecise, but always greater than 500 when employing multiple temporal genetic methods.These results, including those from simulations to assess the power of

  3. Foraging Habitat Quality Constrains Effectiveness of Artificial Nest-Site Provisioning in Reversing Population Declines in a Colonial Cavity Nester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catry, Inês; Franco, Aldina M. A.; Rocha, Pedro; Alcazar, Rita; Reis, Susana; Cordeiro, Ana; Ventim, Rita; Teodósio, Joaquim; Moreira, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Among birds, breeding numbers are mainly limited by two resources of major importance: food supply and nest-site availability. Here, we investigated how differences in land-use and nest-site availability affected the foraging behaviour, breeding success and population trends of the colonial cavity-dependent lesser kestrel Falco naumanni inhabiting two protected areas. Both areas were provided with artificial nests to increase nest-site availability. The first area is a pseudo-steppe characterized by traditional extensive cereal cultivation, whereas the second area is a previous agricultural zone now abandoned or replaced by forested areas. In both areas, lesser kestrels selected extensive agricultural habitats, such as fallows and cereal fields, and avoided scrubland and forests. In the second area, tracked birds from one colony travelled significantly farther distances (6.2 km ±1.7 vs. 1.8 km ±0.4 and 1.9 km ±0.6) and had significant larger foraging-ranges (144 km2 vs. 18.8 and 14.8 km2) when compared to the birds of two colonies in the extensive agricultural area. Longer foraging trips were reflected in lower chick feeding rates, lower fledging success and reduced chick fitness. Availability and occupation of artificial nests was high in both areas but population followed opposite trends, with a positive increment recorded exclusively in the first area with a large proportion of agricultural areas. Progressive habitat loss around the studied colony in the second area (suitable habitat decreased from 32% in 1990 to only 7% in 2002) is likely the main driver of the recorded population decline and suggests that the effectiveness of bird species conservation based on nest-site provisioning is highly constrained by habitat quality in the surrounding areas. Therefore, the conservation of cavity-dependent species may be enhanced firstly by finding the best areas of remaining habitat and secondly by increasing the carrying capacity of high-quality habitat areas

  4. Gliding flight: drag and torque of a hawk and a falcon with straight and turned heads, and a lower value for the parasite drag coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, V A

    2000-12-01

    Raptors - falcons, hawks and eagles in this study - such as peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) that attack distant prey from high-speed dives face a paradox. Anatomical and behavioral measurements show that raptors of many species must turn their heads approximately 40 degrees to one side to see the prey straight ahead with maximum visual acuity, yet turning the head would presumably slow their diving speed by increasing aerodynamic drag. This paper investigates the aerodynamic drag part of this paradox by measuring the drag and torque on wingless model bodies of a peregrine falcon and a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with straight and turned heads in a wind tunnel at a speed of 11.7 m s(-)(1). With a turned head, drag increased more than 50 %, and torque developed that tended to yaw the model towards the direction in which the head pointed. Mathematical models for the drag required to prevent yawing showed that the total drag could plausibly more than double with head-turning. Thus, the presumption about increased drag in the paradox is correct. The relationships between drag, head angle and torque developed here are prerequisites to the explanation of how a raptor could avoid the paradox by holding its head straight and flying along a spiral path that keeps its line of sight for maximum acuity pointed sideways at the prey. Although the spiral path to the prey is longer than the straight path, the raptor's higher speed can theoretically compensate for the difference in distances; and wild peregrines do indeed approach prey by flying along curved paths that resemble spirals. In addition to providing data that explain the paradox, this paper reports the lowest drag coefficients yet measured for raptor bodies (0.11 for the peregrine and 0.12 for the red-tailed hawk) when the body models with straight heads were set to pitch and yaw angles for minimum drag. These values are markedly lower than value of the parasite drag coefficient (C(D,par)) of 0.18 previously

  5. Ground squirrel shooting and potential lead exposure in breeding avian scavengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Wagner, Mason T.

    2016-01-01

    Recreational ground squirrel shooting is a popular activity throughout the western United States and serves as a tool for managing ground squirrel populations in agricultural regions. Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) are routinely shot in California, Nevada, and Oregon across habitats that overlap with breeding avian scavengers. Ground squirrels shot with lead (Pb)-based bullets may pose a risk to avian scavengers if they consume carcasses containing Pb fragments. To assess the potential risk to breeding avian scavengers we developed a model to estimate the number, mass, and distribution of Pb fragments in shot ground squirrels using radiographic images. Eighty percent of shot carcasses contained detectible Pb fragments with an average of 38.6 mg of Pb fragments. Seven percent of all carcasses contained Pb fragment masses exceeding a lethal dose for a model raptor nestling (e.g. American kestrel Falco sparverius). Bullet type did not influence the number of fragments in shot ground squirrels, but did influence the mass of fragments retained. Belding’s ground squirrels shot with .17 Super Mag and unknown ammunition types contained over 28 and 17 times more mass of Pb fragments than those shot with .22 solid and .22 hollow point bullets, respectively. Ground squirrel body mass was positively correlated with both the number and mass of Pb fragments in carcasses, increasing on average by 76% and 56% respectively across the range of carcass masses. Although the mass of Pb retained in ground squirrel carcasses was small relative to the original bullet mass, avian scavenger nestlings that frequently consume shot ground squirrels may be at risk for Pb-induced effects (e.g., physiology, growth, or survival). Using modeling efforts we found that if nestling golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and Swainson’s hawks (B. swainsoni) consumed shot ground squirrels proportionately to the nestling’s mass, energy needs

  6. Toxicity reference values for chlorophacinone and their application for assessing anticoagulant rodenticide risk to raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Schultz, Sandra; Knowles, Susan N.; Abbo, Benjamin G.; Volker, Steven F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread use and benefit, there are growing concerns regarding hazards of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides to non-target wildlife which may result in expanded use of first-generation compounds, including chlorophacinone (CPN). The toxicity of CPN over a 7-day exposure period was investigated in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) fed either rat tissue mechanically-amended with CPN, tissue from rats fed Rozol® bait (biologically-incorporated CPN), or control diets (tissue from untreated rats or commercial bird of prey diet) ad libitum. Nominal CPN concentrations in the formulated diets were 0.15, 0.75 and 1.5 µg/g food wet weight, and measured concentrations averaged 94 % of target values. Kestrel food consumption was similar among groups and body weight varied by less than 6 %. Overt signs of intoxication, liver CPN residues, and changes in prothrombin time (PT), Russell’s viper venom time (RVVT) and hematocrit, were generally dose-dependent. Histological evidence of hemorrhage was present at all CPN dose levels, and most frequently observed in pectoral muscle and heart. There were no apparent differences in toxicity between mechanically-amended and biologically-incorporated CPN diet formulations. Dietary-based toxicity reference values at which clotting times were prolonged in 50 % of the kestrels were 79.2 µg CPN consumed/kg body weight-day for PT and 39.1 µg/kg body weight-day for RVVT. Based upon daily food consumption of kestrels and previously reported CPN concentrations found in small mammals following field baiting trials, these toxicity reference values might be exceeded by free-ranging raptors consuming such exposed prey. Tissue-based toxicity reference values for coagulopathy in 50 % of exposed birds were 0.107 µg CPN/g liver wet weight for PT and 0.076 µg/g liver for RVVT, and are below the range of residue levels reported in raptor mortality incidents attributed to CPN exposure. Sublethal responses associated

  7. Agriculture modifies the seasonal decline of breeding success in a tropical wild bird population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Samantha J; Nicoll, Malcolm A C; Jones, Carl G; Tatayah, Vikash; Norris, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Habitat conversion for agriculture is a major driver of biodiversity loss, but our understanding of the demographic processes involved remains poor. We typically investigate the impacts of agriculture in isolation even though populations are likely to experience multiple, concurrent changes in the environment (e.g. land and climate change). Drivers of environmental change may interact to affect demography, but the mechanisms have yet to be explored fully in wild populations. Here, we investigate the mechanisms linking agricultural land use with breeding success using long-term data for the formerly Critically Endangered Mauritius kestrel Falco punctatus, a tropical forest specialist that also occupies agricultural habitats. We specifically focused on the relationship between breeding success, agriculture and the timing of breeding because the latter is sensitive to changes in climatic conditions (spring rainfall) and enables us to explore the interactive effects of different (land and climate) drivers of environmental change. Breeding success, measured as egg survival to fledging, declines seasonally in this population, but we found that the rate of this decline became increasingly rapid as the area of agriculture around a nest site increased. If the relationship between breeding success and agriculture was used in isolation to estimate the demographic impact of agriculture, it would significantly under-estimate breeding success in dry (early) springs and over-estimate breeding success in wet (late) springs. Analysis of prey delivered to nests suggests that the relationship between breeding success and agriculture might be due, in part, to spatial variation in the availability of native, arboreal geckos. Synthesis and applications. Agriculture modifies the seasonal decline in breeding success in this population. As springs are becoming wetter in our study area and since the kestrels breed later in wetter springs, the impact of agriculture on breeding success will

  8. Testing an attachment method for solar-powered tracking devices on a long-distance migrating shorebird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ying-Chi; Brugge, Martin; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Dekinga, Anne; Porter, Ron; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Small solar-powered satellite transmitters and GPS data loggers enable continuous, multi-year, and global tracking of birds. What is lacking, however, are reliable methods to attach these tracking devices to small migratory birds so that (1) flight performance is not impacted and (2) tags are retained during periods of substantial mass change associated with long-distance migration. We developed a full-body harness to attach tags to Red Knots (Calidris canutus), a medium-sized shorebird (average mass 124 g) that undertakes long-distance migrations. First, we deployed dummy tags on captive birds and monitored them over a complete migratory fattening cycle (February–July 2013) during which time they gained and lost 31–110 g and underwent a pre-alternate moult of body feathers. Using each individual’s previous year fattening and moult data in captivity as controls, we compared individual mass and moult differences between years between the tagged and reference groups, and concluded that the attachment did not impact mass and moult cycles. However, some birds shed feathers under the tags and under the polyester harness line commonly used in avian harnesses. Feather shedding was alleviated by switching to smoothed-bottom tags and monofilament harness lines. To field-trial this design, we deployed 5-g satellite transmitters on ten Red Knots released on 3 October 2013 in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Bird movements and tag performance appeared normal. However, nine tags stopped transmitting 11–170 days post-release which was earlier than expected. We attribute this to bird mortality rather than failure of the attachments or transmitters and suggest that the extra weight and drag caused by the tag and its feather-blocking shield increased the chance of depredation by the locally common Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus). Our results demonstrate that species- and place-specific contexts can strongly determine tagging success. While captive trials are an important first

  9. Foraging habitat quality constrains effectiveness of artificial nest-site provisioning in reversing population declines in a colonial cavity nester.

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    Inês Catry

    Full Text Available Among birds, breeding numbers are mainly limited by two resources of major importance: food supply and nest-site availability. Here, we investigated how differences in land-use and nest-site availability affected the foraging behaviour, breeding success and population trends of the colonial cavity-dependent lesser kestrel Falco naumanni inhabiting two protected areas. Both areas were provided with artificial nests to increase nest-site availability. The first area is a pseudo-steppe characterized by traditional extensive cereal cultivation, whereas the second area is a previous agricultural zone now abandoned or replaced by forested areas. In both areas, lesser kestrels selected extensive agricultural habitats, such as fallows and cereal fields, and avoided scrubland and forests. In the second area, tracked birds from one colony travelled significantly farther distances (6.2 km ± 1.7 vs. 1.8 km ± 0.4 and 1.9 km ± 0.6 and had significant larger foraging-ranges (144 km(2 vs. 18.8 and 14.8 km(2 when compared to the birds of two colonies in the extensive agricultural area. Longer foraging trips were reflected in lower chick feeding rates, lower fledging success and reduced chick fitness. Availability and occupation of artificial nests was high in both areas but population followed opposite trends, with a positive increment recorded exclusively in the first area with a large proportion of agricultural areas. Progressive habitat loss around the studied colony in the second area (suitable habitat decreased from 32% in 1990 to only 7% in 2002 is likely the main driver of the recorded population decline and suggests that the effectiveness of bird species conservation based on nest-site provisioning is highly constrained by habitat quality in the surrounding areas. Therefore, the conservation of cavity-dependent species may be enhanced firstly by finding the best areas of remaining habitat and secondly by increasing the carrying capacity of high

  10. The Sustainable Trapping of Falcons – is It Possible in Russia and Other CIS Countries?

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    Elvira G. Nikolenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article was prepared according on the analysis of the situation with the poaching and smuggling of falcons (Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus, Saker Falcon F. cherrug and Peregrine Falcon F. peregrinus in CIS countries in 2006–2015. It is carried out within the program “Struggle against poaching and smuggling” of the Russian Raptor Research and Conservation Network. The total number of cases of “falcon detentions” in the CIS has 1.6 times increased for 10 years. The number of seized birds has 1.4 times increase from 538 in 1996–2005 to 737 in 2006–2015, including the number of Gyrfalcons has increased by 2.6 times (from 142 to 365, Saker Falcon – 1.1 times (from 260 to 284, Peregrine Falcon – 3.4 times (from 13 to 44. The rate of Gyrfalcon among seized birds has increased by 1.5 times, Peregrine Falcon – 2 times, and the rate of Saker Falcon has decreased by 1.5 times. The number of annual cases of “falcon detentions” has increased from 2–6 in 2006–2008 to 14–16 cases in 2014–2015, on an annual basis their dynamics is correlated with the changes in the legislation. The most effective detentions are in the Far East (Kamchatka and Chukotka, the second region of catching, where there are significantly more cases of detentions, is Altai-Sayan. The maximum number of detentions were made with the participation of MIA members (51; nearly half of the detentions were produced with FSS (23; 20 cases involved customs authorities; 11 cases – border guards. Regional bodies of Environmental Protection participated in arrest only 12 times, Rosprirodnadzor took part in three detentions. In 75 cases of 100 there were detained 155 people, including 51 locals, 13 residents from other regions of the same country, 13 foreign-born citizens and 65 foreigners. The maximum number of foreigners was detained in Siberia – 43 from 6 countries, they account for 75.4% of the total number of detainees, with 75% of foreigners – citizens of

  11. Why Do Kestrels Soar?

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    Jesús Hernández-Pliego

    Full Text Available Individuals allocate considerable amounts of energy to movement, which ultimately affects their ability to survive and reproduce. Birds fly by flapping their wings, which is dependent on the chemical energy produced by muscle work, or use soaring-gliding flight, in which chemical energy is replaced with energy harvested from moving air masses, such as thermals. Flapping flight requires more energy than soaring-gliding flight, and this difference in the use of energy increases with body mass. However, soaring-gliding results in lower speeds than flapping, especially for small species. Birds therefore face a trade-off between energy and time costs when deciding which flight strategy to use. Raptors are a group of large birds that typically soar. As relatively light weight raptors, falcons can either soar on weak thermals or fly by flapping with low energy costs. In this paper, we study the flight behavior of the insectivorous lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni during foraging trips and the influence of solar radiation, which we have adopted as a proxy for thermal formation, on kestrel flight variables. We tracked 35 individuals from two colonies using high frequency GPS-dataloggers over four consecutive breeding seasons. Contrary to expectations, kestrels relied heavily on thermal soaring when foraging, especially during periods of high solar radiation. This produced a circadian pattern in the kestrel flight strategy that led to a spatial segregation of foraging areas. Kestrels flapped towards foraging areas close to the colony when thermals were not available. However, as soon as thermals were formed, they soared on them towards foraging areas far from the colony, especially when they were surrounded by poor foraging habitats. This reduced the chick provisioning rate at the colony. Given that lesser kestrels have a preference for feeding on large insects, and considering the average distance they cover to capture them during foraging trips, to

  12. Why Do Kestrels Soar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pliego, Jesús; Rodríguez, Carlos; Bustamante, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Individuals allocate considerable amounts of energy to movement, which ultimately affects their ability to survive and reproduce. Birds fly by flapping their wings, which is dependent on the chemical energy produced by muscle work, or use soaring-gliding flight, in which chemical energy is replaced with energy harvested from moving air masses, such as thermals. Flapping flight requires more energy than soaring-gliding flight, and this difference in the use of energy increases with body mass. However, soaring-gliding results in lower speeds than flapping, especially for small species. Birds therefore face a trade-off between energy and time costs when deciding which flight strategy to use. Raptors are a group of large birds that typically soar. As relatively light weight raptors, falcons can either soar on weak thermals or fly by flapping with low energy costs. In this paper, we study the flight behavior of the insectivorous lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) during foraging trips and the influence of solar radiation, which we have adopted as a proxy for thermal formation, on kestrel flight variables. We tracked 35 individuals from two colonies using high frequency GPS-dataloggers over four consecutive breeding seasons. Contrary to expectations, kestrels relied heavily on thermal soaring when foraging, especially during periods of high solar radiation. This produced a circadian pattern in the kestrel flight strategy that led to a spatial segregation of foraging areas. Kestrels flapped towards foraging areas close to the colony when thermals were not available. However, as soon as thermals were formed, they soared on them towards foraging areas far from the colony, especially when they were surrounded by poor foraging habitats. This reduced the chick provisioning rate at the colony. Given that lesser kestrels have a preference for feeding on large insects, and considering the average distance they cover to capture them during foraging trips, to commute using flapping

  13. Health of an ex situ population of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes in Mexico: diagnosis of internal parasites

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    Tiziano Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Successful programs for ex situ and in situ conservation and management of raptors require detailed knowledge about their pathogens. The purpose of this study was to identify the internal parasites of some captive raptors in Mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health status of infected birds. Birds of prey were confiscated and kept in captivity at the Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS in Los Reyes La Paz, Mexico State. For this, fecal and blood samples from 74 birds of prey (66 Falconiformes and eight Strigiformes of 15 species, juveniles and adults from both sexes (39 males and 35 female, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. Besides, the oropharyngeal cavity was macroscopically examined for the presence of lesions compatible with trichomoniasis. Among our results we found that lesions compatible with Trichomonas gallinae infection were detected only in two Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis (2.7%; nevertheless, infected birds were in good physical condition. Overall, gastrointestinal parasites were found in 10 (13.5% raptors: nine falconiforms (13.6% and one strigiform (12.5%, which mainly presented a single type of gastrointestinal parasite (90%. Eimeria spp. was detected in Harris’s hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus, Swainson’s hawk (Buteo swainsoni, Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicensis and Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus; whereas trematodes eggs were found in Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus and Swainson’s hawk (B. swainsoni. Furthermore, eggs of Capillaria spp. were found in one Swainson’s hawk (B. swainsoni, which was also infected by trematodes. Hemoprotozoarian were detected in five (6.7% falconiforms: Haemoproteus spp. in American kestrel (F. sparverius and Leucocytozoon spp. in Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicencis. Despite this, no clinical signs referable to gastrointestinal or blood parasite infection were observed in any birds. All parasites identified were

  14. Patrones de distribución, abundancia y riqueza de especies de la avifauna terrestre de la isla de La Palma (islas Canarias

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    Carrascal, L. M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the population size and density, habitat preferences, habitat breadth and probable population trends in the last 25-15 years of the diurnal terrestrial bird species breeding in La Palma island (Canary islands. Data were obtained in a large extensive census program carried out during the 2007 nesting period using line transects that allowed detectability estimations. We also explored patterns of species richness both at inter-habitat and local scale. Local species richness (species per 0.5 km transects showed an important geographical component, increasing from south to north, from west to east, and reaching maximum values at altitudes around 600-1,000 m a.s.l. It was also positively related to vegetation development (specially in the herbaceous and shrub layer, and negatively associated with urbanization and agriculture. Total bird density reached the highest figures in the ‘monteverde’ (laurel and heath forests ca. 650 aves/km2, and in the transition pinewoods-laurel forests (509 aves/km2, while the lowest figures were recorded in high altitude shrublands (153 aves/km2 and recent lava fields (58 aves/km2. The bird species with lower population sizes are Falco [peregrinus] pelegrinoides, Burhinus oedicnemus distinctus, Upupa epops, Carduelis carduelis, Miliaria calandra and Petronia petronia, while the last five species have undergone more negative population trends in the last 15-25 years.

    Se estiman los niveles poblacionales, las densidades ecológicas, los principales patrones de preferencia de hábitat, las posibles tendencias demográficas habidas en los últimos 25 y 15 años, y el estatus de conservación actual de las especies de aves terrestres diurnas reproductoras en la isla de La Palma. Los datos fueron obtenidos durante el periodo reproductor de 2007, utilizando transectos lineales. En total se efectuaron 437 transectos de 0,5 km repartidos por toda la

  15. Editorial. La naturaleza y comprensión del territorio a través del hecho y memoria social

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    Jorge Inzulza Contardo

    2015-12-01

    , clama por una aún esperada sustentabilidad del crecimiento económico y el desarrollo social de la región. El autor agrega que es fundamental y urgente lograr una mejor distribución territorial del cobre, como el ”sueldo de Chile”, para con ello “reducir la brecha entre sus máximos ingresos per capita y su mayor pobreza multidimensional en sus áreas de vivienda, salud y educación; y tender hacia un crecimiento más sustentable”. Posteriormente, se explora la importancia del diseño urbano, a través de una trilogía de trabajos que se sitúan el hábitat residencial y diversos senderos y recorridos, tanto en el ambiente urbano como natural. Dentro de este grupo, Lorena Urbano y Monserrat Delpino nos invitan a explorar el paisaje penquista desde la convivencia y seguridad en espacios comunitarios del movimiento moderno. Usando como escenario la trascendida Remodelación Paicaví en Concepción, las autoras ponen en discusión la dialéctica que ofrece aplicar patrones urbanos como la supermanzana y sus implicancias en el espacio púbico y tejido urbano mayor, advirtiendo dificultades para la interacción de los habitantes y comprensión del barrio. De esta forma, las autoras abogan por las necesidad de metodologías imbricadas de análisis que permitan diagnosticar elementos del entorno tanto inmediatos como mediatos. Por su parte, Paulina Espinosa, Bruno de Meulder, Mabel Alarcón y Leonel Pérez nos presentan una investigación sobre el urbanismo del paisaje, sumergiéndose en el caso del Río Andalién, Concepción. Desde la relación dialéctica agua-ciudad, los autores construyen un atlas exploratorio que permite adentrarse en “la valoración y evaluación de los elementos del paisaje, en busca de conflictos y potencialidades en relación a la urbanización”. Es así que el análisis ha permitido detectar alteraciones en los ciclos del agua y en el territorio que ponen en cuestionamiento temas fundacionales como es el emplazamiento de la ciudad y

  16. Editorial

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    Renzo Ramírez Bacca

    2017-01-01

    Francel Delgado. Extranjeros, mujeres, familias y esclavos son los principales actores históricos  relacionados con el caso colombiano. Las expulsiones de extranjeros por Roger Pita Pico, la mujer y los negocios en la ciudad de Barranquilla por Tomás Caballero Truyol, el impacto del certificado médico prenupcial de las nuevas familias en Antioquia por Natalia María Gutiérrez Urquijo, y la manumisión de esclavos por compra y gracia en esa región por Karen Mejía Velásquez y Luis Miguel Córdoba Ochoa, constituyen los principales aportes. Ya en el plano político, zona andina central, al suroccidente colombiano y Ecuador, autores como William Alfredo Chapman Quevedo, Ángela Lucía Agudelo González y Alex Silgado Ramos estudian la relación de los impresos y la incidencia de grupos políticos en la opinión pública en la primera mitad del siglo diecinueve; mientras que en el escenario quiteño de finales de mismo siglo, Luis Esteban Vizuete Marcillo estudia las estrategias e iniciativas del clero contra la Revolución Liberal en 1895. Ese papel del Iglesia, en el caso del Obispado de Villarica en Chile, es analizado también según la reconstrucción de nuevos espacios de poder —zonas indígenas chilenas— a partir de la cartografía histórica por Hernán Leonel González Quitulef y Daniel Rodrigo Llancavil. Mientra que en el contexto mexicano, Ramón Goyas Mejía, estudia la desaparición de lo pueblos de indios en la costa sur de la Nueva Galicia durante el periodo colonial. Y, cerrando la Sección Artículos, Gustavo Lorenzana Duran estudia el reparto agrario en el valle del Yaqui (Sonora a partir de un diferendo diplomático entre México y los Estados Unidos entre 1936 y 1938. En la Sección Artículos de Revisión, Renato de Mattos, ofrece en su versión portuguesa, una balance historiográfico de los estudios sobre la apertura de puertos brasileños en los comienzos del siglo diecinueve. Finalizan Juliana Martínez Londoño y Juan José Escobar L

  17. Detection probability of gyrfalcons and other cliff-nesting raptors during aerial surveys in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booms, Travis L.; Fuller, Mark R.; Schempf, Philip F.; McCaffery, Brian J.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Watson, Richard T.; Cade, Tom J.; Fuller, Mark; Hunt, Grainger; Potapov, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the status of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and other cliffnesting raptors as the Arctic climate changes often requires aerial surveys of their breeding habitats. Because traditional, count-based surveys that do not adjust for differing detection probabilities can provide faulty inference about population status (Link and Sauer 1998, Thompson 2002), it will be important to incorporate measures of detection probability into survey methods whenever possible. To evaluate the feasibility of this, we conducted repeated aerial surveys for breeding cliff-nesting raptors on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge (YDNWR) in western Alaska to estimate detection probabilities of Gyrfalcons, Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), and also Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Using the program PRESENCE, we modeled detection histories of each species based on single species occupancy modeling following MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2006). We used different observers during four helicopter replicate surveys in the Kilbuck Mountains and five fixed-wing replicate surveys in the Ingakslugwat Hills (hereafter called Volcanoes) near Bethel, Alaska. We used the following terms and definitions throughout: Survey Site: site of a nest used previously by a raptor and marked with a GPS-obtained latitude and longitude accurate to within 20 m. All GPS locations were obtained in prior years from a helicopter hovering approximately 10?20 m from a nest. The site was considered occupied if a bird or an egg was detected within approximately 500 m of the nest and this area served as our sampling unit. When multiple historical nests were located on a single cliff, we used only one GPS location to locate the survey site. Detection probability (p): the probability of a species being detected at a site given the site is occupied. Occupancy (?): the probability that the species of interest is present at a site during the survey period. A site was considered occupied if the

  18. Species differences in the sensitivity of avian embryos to methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    We injected doses of methylmercury into the air cells of eggs of 26 species of birds and examined the dose-response curves of embryo survival. For 23 species we had adequate data to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC50). Based on the dose-response curves and LC50s, we ranked species according to their sensitivity to injected methylmercury. Although the previously published embryotoxic threshold of mercury in game farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) has been used as a default value to protect wild species of birds, we found that, relative to other species, mallard embryos are not very sensitive to injected methylmercury; their LC50 was 1.79 ug/g mercury on a wet-weight basis. Other species we categorized as also exhibiting relatively low sensitivity to injected methylmercury (their LC50s were 1 ug/g mercury or higher) were the hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus), lesser scaup (Aythya affinis), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), and laughing gull (Larus atricilla). Species we categorized as having medium sensitivity (their LC50s were greater than 0.25 ug/g mercury but less than 1 ug/g mercury) were the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), sandhill crane (Grus canadensis), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), chicken (Gallus gallus), common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), herring gull (Larus argentatus), common tern (S terna hirundo), royal tern (Sterna maxima), Caspian tern (Sterna caspia), great egret (Ardea alba), brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), and anhinga (Anhinga anhinga). Species we categorized as exhibiting high sensitivity (their LC50s were less than 0.25 ug/g mercury) were the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), white ibis (Eudocimus albus), snowy egret (Egretta thula), and tri-colored heron (Egretta tricolor). For mallards, chickens, and ring-necked pheasants (all species for which we could compare the toxicity of our

  19. Saker Falcon on the Crimean Peninsula

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    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we made a revaluation of a number of the Saker (Falco cherrug on the Crimean Peninsula based on data obtained in an expedition conducted in May 9–26 of 2015. During this expedition Sakers were observed on 58 sites (31 times they were seen on pylons of power lines, 14 – on cliffs in the foothills of Crimean Mountains, 8 – on the coastal cliffs and 4 on the coastal precipices, and one adult male was seen in the forest shelter belt near Syvash lagoon. We revealed 49 breeding territories of Saker including 42 occupied nests with successful breeding. The estimation of the total number of breeding population on peninsula is 145–184 (mean 165 breeding pairs, including 125–159 (mean 142 pairs which breeding attempts were successful in 2015. The distance between the neighboring pairs is 1.95–15.21 km (mean 6.56±3.37 km, n=43. Pylons of power lines were used by 30 breeding pairs (61.22% out of 49, and 29 successful nests (69.05% out of 42 were built on pylons. Supposedly, 63.83% of all breeding pairs in Crimea are bred on pylons, and the percentage of successful nests out of the total number of nests in population is 71.89%. From the 34 nests that were built on pylons, 24 (70.59% were located on the concrete pylons and 10 (29.41% on the metal ones. On cliffs and precipices we found 24 nests in total. Eighteen (75% of them were built on a bare ground, while the others were found in the nests built by other bird species (most of them were made in the former nests of the Raven (Corvus corax, and one pair occupies a nest of the Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus located on cliff. The percentage of successful nests out of occupied ones was 85.71%. We found broods of 1–4 nestlings, which in average (n=23 makes 2.83±0.78 nestling per successful nest. The majority of broods (65.22% consisted of 3 nestlings. On 20 breeding territories (90.91% male birds were older then 2 years old, and two breeding territories (9.09% were occupied

  20. Propylene glycol energy supplementation during peripartal period in dairy cows and reproduction efficiency parameters

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    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of two energy supplements based on propylene glycol in dairy cows diet on ovarian and follicular morphology, conception, insemination index and length of service period. A total number of 60 Holstein Friesian dairy cows, parity between 2-8, with an average milk production of 7000 kg/305 days of lactation were divided into three experimental groups (20 dairy cows per group. The first group of dairy cows was supplemented daily with "Energy-plus" (O1 group; 200 mL propylene-glycol supplement and the second group was supplemented with "Ketal" (O2 group; 160 mL propylene-glycol supplement, two weeks before partus until 30 days post partum. The third experimental group were non supplemented dairy cows (O3, control group. Ultrasound examination of the reproductive system using real time echo camera Falco VET 100 (ESAOTE PieMedical, Holland, B-shaped scan with linear-array endorectal 5-8 MHz probe was conducted on every animal starting from day 40 postpartum. The diameters of the ovaries (left and right and of the dominant follicle(s were recorded. Ultrasound testing was repeated on day 50 and 60 postpartum only in cows which in the meantime were not inseminated. Reproduction efficiency parameters (conception rate, number of inseminations and length of service period were recorded individually. The statistical significance of the differences between groups was tested using ANOVA with LSD test at the level of significance p<0.05, chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (the length of service period. There was no significant impact of the propylene glycol supplementation on the ovarian and follicular morphology at the first ultrasound examination. At the second ultrasound examination there was a significant difference between left ovarian dominant follicle diameter in the control and supplemented dairy cows (1.67±0.53 vs 1.12±0.29 and 1.11±0.35 cm, p<0.05, O3 vs O1 and O2, respectively. The

  1. An international borderland of concern: Conservation of biodiversity in the Lower Rio Grande Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie,, David M.

    2016-07-20

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of southern Texas is located on the United States-Mexico borderland and represents a 240-kilometer (150-mile) linear stretch that ends at the Gulf of Mexico. The LRGV represents a unique transition between temperate and tropical conditions and, as such, sustains an exceptionally high diversity of plants and animals—some of them found in few, or no other, places in the United States. Examples include Leopardus pardalis albescens (northern ocelot) and Falco femoralis septentrionalis (northern aplomado falcon)—both endangered in the United States and emblematic of the LRGV. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) manages three national wildlife refuges (Santa Ana, Lower Rio Grande Valley, and Laguna Atascosa) that together make up the South Texas Refuge Complex, which actively conserves biodiversity in about 76,006 hectares (187,815.5 acres) of native riparian and upland habitats in the LRGV. These diminished habitats harbor many rare, threatened, and endangered species. This report updates the widely used 1988 USFWS biological report titled “Tamaulipan Brushland of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of South Texas: Description, Human Impacts, and Management Options” by synthesizing nearly 400 peer-reviewed scientific publications that have resulted from biological and sociological research conducted specifically in the four Texas counties of the LRGV in the past nearly 30 years. This report has three goals: (1) synthesize scientific insights gained since 1988 related to the biology and management of the LRGV and its unique biota, focusing on flora and fauna of greatest conservation concern; (2) update ongoing challenges facing Federal and State agencies and organizations that focus on conservation or key natural resources in the LRGV; and (3) redefine conservation opportunities and land-acquisition strategies that are feasible and appropriate today, given the many new and expanding constraints that challenge conservation

  2. Presenza di Volpe Vulpes vulpes in contesto fortemente urbanizzato di periferia metropolitana: il caso del quartiere Scampìa a Napoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Guglielmi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Il fenomeno dell'inurbamento della Volpe si rivela interessante sia da un punto di vista inerente la sua storia naturale che sotto il profilo sanitario, in quanto veicolo del virus della rabbia. A Napoli, dove è presente in estese aree boschive o coltivate quali i boschi dei Camaldoli e Capodimonte, e sulla collina di Monte Sant'Angelo (Fuorigrotta, è stata anche osservata in contesti più urbanizzati quali i vasti prati dell'aeroporto di Capodichino e il quartiere Scampìa, quest'ultimo sito alla periferia nord della città. Le osservazioni compiute in aeroporto riguardano individui solitari - attivi nelle prime ore del giorno, o nel tardo pomeriggio - i quali frequentano habitat prativi caratterizzati soprattutto da Graminacee e distese di Malva Malva sylvestris. Le osservazioni di Scampìa, alle quali si riferisce il presente lavoro, riguardano invece un quartiere di edilizia popolare, sorto alla fine degli anni '60 del secolo scorso, a seguito dell'attuazione della legge "167". L'area è caratterizzata da estesi lotti di case popolari, con palazzi alti fino a 12 piani, intervallati da ampli viali e da incolti ricoperti di rovi (Rubus spp.. L'intera zona aveva un'antica vocazione agricola; qui si rinvenivano, infatti, prima della trasformazione edilizia, colture arboree (ciliegi e vigneti con vitigni stesi in modo caratteristico, tra grossi tronchi di pioppi (Populus spp. capitozzati, a formare tradizionali filari (vite "maritata". Scampìa ospita attualmente una fauna di Vertebrati omeotermi composta prevalentemente da specie ornitiche tipiche di habitat prativi e arbustivi aperti, "adattate" a sopravvivere in contesti fortemente trasformati in chiave urbanistica. Tra queste, vi nidificano l'Averla piccola Lanius collurio e il Saltimpalo Saxicola torquata. L'area viene visitata saltuariamente anche da Gheppi Falco tinnunculus in caccia. Tra i Mammiferi presente anche la Donnola

  3. Gliding flight: speed and acceleration of ideal falcons during diving and pull out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker

    1998-01-14

    Some falcons, such as peregrines (Falco peregrinus), attack their prey in the air at the end of high-speed dives and are thought to be the fastest of animals. Estimates of their top speed in a dive range up to 157 m s-1, although speeds this high have never been accurately measured. This study investigates the aerodynamic and gravitational forces on 'ideal falcons' and uses a mathematical model to calculate speed and acceleration during diving. Ideal falcons have body masses of 0.5-2.0 kg and morphological and aerodynamic properties based on those measured for real falcons. The top speeds reached during a dive depend on the mass of the bird and the angle and duration of the dive. Given enough time, ideal falcons can reach top speeds of 89-112 m s-1 in a vertical dive, the higher speed for the heaviest bird, when the parasite drag coefficient has a value of 0.18. This value was measured for low-speed flight, and it could plausibly decline to 0.07 at high speeds. Top speeds then would be 138-174 m s-1. An ideal falcon diving at angles between 15 and 90 degrees with a mass of 1 kg reaches 95 % of top speed after travelling approximately 1200 m. The time and altitude loss to reach 95 % of top speed range from 38 s and 322 m at 15 degrees to 16 s and 1140 m at 90 degrees, respectively. During pull out at top speed from a vertical dive, the 1 kg ideal falcon can generate a lift force 18 times its own weight by reducing its wing span, compared with a lift force of 1.7 times its weight at full wing span. The falcon loses 60 m of altitude while pulling out of the dive, and lift and loss of altitude both decrease as the angle of the dive decreases. The 1 kg falcon can slow down in a dive by increasing its parasite drag and the angle of attack of its wings. Both lift and drag increase with angle of attack, but the falcon can cancel the increased lift by holding its wings in a cupped position so that part of the lift is directed laterally. The increased drag of wings producing

  4. Flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation: the case study of the Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Antonio; De Falco, Melania; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    In the last years studies concerning the triggering and the run-out susceptibility for different kind of landslides have become more and more precise. In the most of the cases the methodological approach involve the production of detailed thematic maps (at least 1:5000 scale) which represent a very useful tool for territorial planning, especially in urbanized areas. More recently these researches were accompanied by the growth of other studies dealing with landslide magnitude evaluation (especially in terms of volume and velocity estimate). In this paper the results of a flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation are presented. The study area is located in Southern Italy and is very wide (1,500 square kilometres) including all the Campania region. In this context flow type landslides represent the most frequent instabilities as shown by the large number of victims and the huge economic damage caused in the last few centuries. These shallow landslides involve thin cohesionless, unsaturated pyroclastic soils found over steep slopes around Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean district, affecting a wide area where over 100 towns are located. Since the potential volume of flow-type landslides is a measure of event magnitude we propose to estimate the potential volume at the scale of slope or basin for about 90 municipalities affecting 850 hierarchized drainage basins and 900 regular slopes. An empirical approach recently proposed in literature (De Falco et al., 2012), allows to estimate the volume of the pyroclastic cover that can be displaced along the slope. The method derives from the interpretation of numerous geological and geomorphological data gathered from a vast amount of case histories on landslides in volcanic and carbonatic contexts and it is based on determining the thickness of the pyroclastic cover and the width of the detachment and erosion-transport zone. Thickness can be evaluated with a good degree of approximation since, in these landslides, the failure

  5. Ecological study of a wetland in Vercelli area. Bird community of 'palude di San Genuario' (Crescentino-Fontanetto Po); Studio ecologico di una zona umida del Vercellese. La comunita' ornitica della palude di S. Genuario (Crescentino-Fontanetto Po)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cellerino, A.; Rossi, G.L. [ENEA, Divisione Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The Palude di San Genuario, that includes an artificial wetland zone, has been declared a Community importance site according to Directive CEE n. 92/43 (Habitat), because of the rare bird species living in (as Botarus stellaris, Ardea purpurea, Circus aeruginosus). This research has the aim to improve the knowledge about natural characteristics, the ornithological community and the conservation degree of the area. The study has been carried out by the Sezione Componente Biotica dell'Ecosistema of the ENEA Research Center of Saluggia during 1996, 1997, 1998. It has been possible to describe the ornithological wintering and reproductive community, defining it in terms of diversity by the application of indices (Shannon-Weaver, Berger-Parker, Pielou, Simpson). Besides, the community has been analyzed by the calculation of the curves of relative abundance distribution verifying the consistency in respect to four theoretic models. Using Brichetti and Gariboldi's system of evaluation for the nesting species (based on italian species) and verifying the species considered by the Red List of italian birds, by the work of Tucker and Heath concerning the european species of conservation interest (1994) and by International Convention (Berna and Bonn) as well as European Directives (Birds Directive), it has been possible to point out that the most interesting species belong to wetlands habitats. In accordance with these results, some managerial hypothesis have been elaborated in order to preserve the area. [Italian] La palude di S. Genuario, che racchiude una zona umida di origine artificiale, e' stata individuata come sito di Importanza Comunitaria, ai sensi della Direttiva CEE n. 92/43 ({sup H}abitat{sup )}, per le specie avifaunistiche rare che ospita (Tarabuso, Airone rosso, Falco di palude). Questo studio ha lo scopo di costituire uno strumento conoscitivo riguardante le caratteristiche naturali, i popolamenti ornitici e lo stato di conservazione del sito

  6. Distribution and ecology of Dormice (Myoxidae in Sicily: a preliminary account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Sarà

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three dormouse species are recorded in Sicily: Myoxus glis, Muscardinus avellanarius and Eliomys quercinus. Their distribution is mapped according to the 10 x 10 km squares of the UTM grid. Data were collected until May 1993, mostly coming from pellet analysis, and direct records (vocalization listening, museum specimens, field observations, literature, etc.. The Fat dormouse (5.3% of 10 x 10 km squares and the Hazel dormouse (2.1% are mainly localized within deciduous wooded areas like the beech forests and the hazel groves mixed with oaks and chestnuts of Nebrodi and Madonie. The Fat dormouse is also present in south-eastern Sicily (Monti Iblei and on in Eolian island (Salina. The Garden dormouse shows the widest distribution (21.2%, ranging from sea level to the beech forests (1600 m a.s.1.. Dormice are rarely preyed upon by Owls in Sicily, generally forming less than 1.5% of the total prey, with the exception the Fat dormouse (5.3%. Other occasional predators, so far recorded, are the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes and the Lanner (Falco biarmicus. Hibernation regularly occurs at high altitudes, but seems to be absent or curtailed in the warm habitats below 500 m a.s.1. Riassunto Distribuzione ed ecologia dei Mioxidi in Sicilia: dati preliminari - Tre specie di Mioxidi vivono in Sicilia (Myoxus glis, Muscardinus avellanarius, Eliomys quercinus. Storicamente (1850 essi erano presenti nelle principali aree boscate (Nebrodi, Madonie, Etna, solo nella metà di questo secolo, il Ghiro ed il Quercino furono scoperti alle isole Eolie (Salina e Lipari. Si riporta la carta di distribuzione di ogni specie (griglia UTM, 100 kmq ricavata dall'analisi della dieta di predatori, osservazioni dirette, trappolamenti ed esemplari citati in bibliografia o conservati nei musei. Il Ghiro (5,3% ed il Moscardino (2,1% sono localizzati nei

  7. Small mammal taxonomy, taphonomy, and the paleoenvironmental record during the Middle and Upper Paleolithic at Geißenklösterle Cave (Ach Valley, southwestern Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sara E.; Ziegler, Reinhard; Starkovich, Britt M.; Conard, Nicholas J.

    2018-04-01

    Geißenklösterle Cave, located in the Ach Valley of the Swabian Alb and one of six Swabian cave sites recently named as a UNESCO World Heritage site, has a long history of archaeological research resulting in a detailed record of human occupation. Sometime around 45,000 years ago Neanderthals seemingly vanished from the Swabian landscape, and after a period of mostly geogenic deposit at Geißenklösterle Cave we find deposits containing characteristically Aurignacian artifacts dating to as early as 42,500 years ago. These Aurignacian groups brought with them complex symbolic expression and communication including bone and ivory beads, musical instruments, and animal and human figurines. This study examines the climatic context of this depopulation through a taxonomic and taphonomic analysis of the rodent and insectivore remains associated with these periods and provides a relatively unbiased climatic record for the period of ∼45,000-36,000 years ago in this region. Taphonomic analysis indicates that primarily the European eagle owl (Bubo bubo) and the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) were responsible for accumulating the material, and allows us to quantify the potential taxonomic bias resulting from predator behaviour which includes a preference for voles, particularly the water vole (Arvicola terrestris). Additionally, rare taxa (which include species of murids and soricids) may have been present in greater quantities than our sample implies. The assemblage from Geißenklösterle Cave is dominated by the field and common vole (Microtus arvalis/agrestis), the narrow-headed vole (Microtus gregalis), and the root/tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus). Overall, the Middle Paleolithic landscape included significant woodland and forested areas while a high proportion of species restricted to cold tundra environments likely indicate punctuated cold and arid periods. The signal from the nearly geogenic layer overlying the Middle Paleolithic material includes a moderate shift in

  8. Feasibility and outcomes of paid undergraduate student nurse positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamroth, Lucia; Budgen, Claire; Lougheed, Mary

    2006-09-01

    new graduates and to retain existing nurses. Stakeholder groups were administrators, labour organizations, professional associations, educators and government. One idea to support job readiness and retention focussed on the feasibility of implementing cooperative education for nursing students. The effort was unsuccessful owing to lack of funding, but resulted in a review of the literature on cooperative education and other work-study programs. Cooperative education connects classroom learning with paid work experience for the purpose of enhancing students' education (Fitt and Heverly 1990; Heinemann and De Falco 1992; Ryder 1987). Reported benefits for students were improved job preparation and graduate retention (Ishida et al. 1998), additional staffing and reduction in orientation time (Cusack 1990; Ishida et al. 1998), increased practice judgment (Cusack 1990; Siedenberg 1989) and better workload management (Ross and Marriner 1985). A work-study model reported in the literature offered benefits similar to those of cooperative education, with greater flexibility in design. An example was the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston's collaborative work-study scholarship program with local hospitals (Kee and Ryser 2001). Students in second clinical semesters were employed as unlicensed personnel by hospitals. The students, as unlicensed personnel, worked to the level of their nursing preparation. Reported benefits for students were academic credit, financial assistance, interaction with multidisciplinary teams, opportunity to refine clinical skills, understanding of nurses' roles and guaranteed interview for positions on graduation (Kee and Ryser 2001). Benefits for practice organizations were skilled help, the opportunity to recruit new nurses and increased interaction with a university nursing program. While nurse education stakeholders in British Columbia were exploring options, the concept of undergraduate student nurse employment was initiated by a

  9. Internal and environmental secular evolution of disk galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2015-03-01

    This Special Session is devoted to the secular evolution of disk galaxies. Here `secular' means `slow' i.e., evolution on time scales that are generally much longer than the galaxy crossing or rotation time. Internal and environmentally driven evolution both are covered. I am indebted to Albert Bosma for reminding me at the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School on Secular Evolution that our subject first appeared in print in a comment made by Ivan King (1977) in his introductory talk at the Yale University meeting on The Evolution of Galaxies and Stellar Populations: `John Kormendy would like us to consider the possibility that a galaxy can interact with itself.. . . I'm not at all convinced, but John can show you some interesting pictures.' Two of the earliest papers that followed were Kormendy (1979a, b); the first discusses the interaction of galaxy components with each other, and the second studies these phenomena in the context of a morphological survey of barred galaxies. The earliest modeling paper that we still use regularly is Combes & Sanders (1981), which introduces the now well known idea that box-shaped bulges in edge-on galaxies are side-on, vertically thickened bars. It is gratifying to see how this subject has grown since that time. Hundreds of papers have been written, and the topic features prominently at many meetings (e.g., Block et al. 2004; Falcoń-Barroso & Knapen 2012, and this Special Session). My talk here introduces both internal and environmental secular evolution; a brief abstract follows. My Canary Islands Winter School review covers both subjects in more detail (Kormendy 2012). Kormendy & Kennicutt (2004) is a comprehensive review of internal secular evolution, and Kormendy & Bender (2012) covers environmental evolution. Both of these subject make significant progress at this meeting. Secular evolution happens because self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable by the evolution processes

  10. Evaluation of Organochlorine Compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) in Two Raptor Species Inhabiting a Mediterranean Island in Spain (8 pp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Rubén; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep; Olie, Kees

    2007-01-01

    -: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1065/espr2006.01.015 Species that are at high levels of the food web have often been used as bioindicators to evaluate the presence of persistent contaminants in ecosystems. Most of these species are long-lived, so pollutant burdens may be integrated in some complex way over time. This makes them particularly sensitive to deleterious effects of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Birds have been suggested as useful organisms for monitoring pollutant levels. Traditionally such studies have been carried out with raptors such as osprey (Pandion haliaetus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), bald eagle (Haliaetus leucocephalus), etc. In this paper we present the results of a monitoring study conducted on two raptor species, osprey (Pandion haliaetus) and red kite (Milvus milvus), inhabiting a Mediterranean island (Menorca, Spain). These two species have different feeding habits; ospreys prey on fish and red kites feed on terrestrial species. This study constitutes a good opportunity to investigate if differences in feeding habits (aquatic vs. terrestrial) influences the contaminants pattern in two species inhabiting the same area. The study was conducted in a non-destructive way, using only failed eggs, to avoid the damage of the population stability. Eggs were collected during the period 1994-2000. The contaminants examined were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs, including DDT and its main metabolite, DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including ortho PCBs (PCBs with at least one Chlorine atom in the ortho position): #28, 52, 95, 101, 123+149, 118, 114, 153, 132+105, 138, 167, 156, 157, 180, 170, 189, 194; and non ortho PCBs (PCBs with no Chlorine atom in the ortho position): #77, 126, 169 and all the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) with Chlorine atoms at the 2,3,7 and 8 position (2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs). The analysis of organochlorine compounds was performed

  11. Modeling of the impact of Rhone River nutrient inputs on the dynamics of planktonic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Baklouti, Melika; Garreau, Pierre; Guyennon, Arnaud; Carlotti, François

    2014-05-01

    future research. Report of the Workshop «Variability of the Eastern and Western Mediterranean circulation and termohaline properties : similarities and differences ». Rome, 7-9 November, 2011, 48 pp. Parsons, T. R., and Lalli, C. M. (2002) Jellyfish population explosions: Revisiting a hypothesis of possible causes. La Mer 40: 111-121. Pujo-Pay, M., Conan, P., Oriol L., Cornet-Barthaux, V., Falco, C., Ghiglione, J.-F., Goyet, C., Moutin, T. and Prieur, L. (2011) Integrated survey of elemental stoichiometry (C, N, P) from the western to eastern Mediterranean Sea, Biogeoscciences, 8, 883-899. The MerMex Group, Durrieu de Madron X, Guieu C, Sempéré R, Conan P, Cossa D, D'Ortenzio F, Estournel C, Gazeau F, Rabouille C, Stemmann L, Bonnet S, Diaz F, Koubbi P, Radakovitch O, Babin M, Baklouti M, Bancon-Montigny C, Belviso S, Bensoussan N, Bonsang B, Bouloubassi I, Brunet C, Cadiou J-F, Carlotti F, Chami M, Charmasson S, Charrière B, Dachs J, Doxaran D, Dutay J-C, Elbaz-Poulichet F, Eléaume M, Eyrolles F, Fernandez C, Fowler S, Francour P, Gaertner JC, Galzin R, Gasparini S, Ghiglione J-F, Gonzalez J-L, Goyet C, Guidi L, Guizien K, Heimbürger L-E, Jacquet SHM, Jeffrey WH, Joux F, Le Hir P, Leblanc K, Lefèvre D, Lejeusne C, Lemé R, Loÿe-Pilot M-D, Mallet M, Méjanelle L,Mélin F, Mellon C, Mérigot B, Merle P-L, Migon C, Miller WL, Mortier L, Mostajir B, Mousseau L, Moutin T, Para J, Pérez T, Petrenko A, Poggiale J-C, Prieur L, Pujo-Pay M, Pulido-Villena, Raimbult P, Rees AP, Ridame C, Rontani J-F, Ruiz Pino D, Sicre MA, Taillandier V, Tamburini C, Tanaka T, Taupier-Letage I, Tedetti M, Testor P, Thébault H, Thouvenin B, Touratier F, Tronczynski J, Ulses C, Van Wambeke F, Vantrepotte V, Vaz S, Verney R (2011) Marine ecosystems' responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcings in the Mediterranean. Prog Oceanogr 91:97-166

  12. Результаты работы Центра кольцевания хищных птиц Российской сети изучения и охраны пернатых хищников в 2016 году

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinur H. Bekmansurov

    2018-03-01

    дентифицированных птиц с кольцами лидируют скопа (9 особей и орёл-могильник (7 особей, орлан-белохвост (5 особей, степной орёл (Aquila nipalensis и балобан (Falco cherrug (по 4 особи.

  13. Astronomers Find World with Thick, Inhospitable Atmosphere and an Icy Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    is a planet orbiting a star other than the Sun. [2] The star GJ1214 is five times smaller than our Sun and intrinsically three hundred times less bright. [3] Corot-7b is the smallest and fastest-orbiting exoplanet known and has a density quite similar to the Earth's, suggesting a solid, rocky world. Discovered by the CoRoT satellite as a transiting object, its true nature was revealed by HARPS (eso0933). [4] The MEarth project uses an armada of eight small telescopes each with a diameter of 40 cm, located on top of Mount Hopkins, Arizona, USA. MEarth looks for stars that change brightness. The goal is to find a planet that crosses in front of, or transits, its star. During such a mini-eclipse, the planet blocks a small portion of the star's light, making it dimmer. NASA's Kepler mission also uses transits to look for Earth-sized planets orbiting Sun-like stars. However, such systems dim by only one part in ten thousand. The higher precision required to detect the drop means that such worlds can only be found from space. In contrast, a super-Earth transiting a small, red dwarf star yields a greater proportional decrease in brightness and a stronger signal that is detectable from the ground. More information This research was presented in a paper appearing this week in Nature ("A Super-Earth Transiting a Nearby Low-Mass Star", by David Charbonneau et al.). The team is composed of David Charbonneau, Zachory K. Berta, Jonathan Irwin, Christopher J. Burke, Philip Nutzman, Lars Buchhave, David W. Latham, Ruth A. Murray-Clay, Matthew J. Holman, and Emilio E. Falco (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA), Christophe Lovis, Stephane Udry, Didier Queloz, Francesco Pepe, and Michel Mayor (Observatoire de l'Université de Genève, Switzerland), Xavier Bonfils, Xavier Delfosse, and Thierry Forveille (University Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1/CNRS, LOAG, Grenoble, France), and Joshua N. Winn (Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, Cambridge

  14. Motion4D-library extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    seconds to run.References:T. Müller, New version announcement to the GeodesicViewer, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFP_v2_0.html.P. Schneider, J. Ehlers, E. E. Falco, Gravitational Lenses, Springer, 1992.W. Rindler, Phys. Lett. A 245 (1998) 363.D. Kramer, Ann. Phys. 9 (2000) 331.F.J. Ernst, J. Math. Phys. 17 (1976) 54.S. Chandrasekhar, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 421 (1989) 227.H. Stephani, D. Kramer, M. MacCallum, C. Hoenselaers, E. Herlt, Exact Solutions of the Einstein Field Equations, Cambridge University Press, 2009.A.I. Janis, E.T. Newman, J. Winicour, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20 (1968) 878.K. Martel, E. Poisson, Am. J. Phys. 69 (2001) 476.W. Rindler, Relativity - Special, General, and Cosmology, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007.C.W. Misner, K.S. Thorne, J.A. Wheeler, Gravitation, W.H. Freeman, 1973.J. Sultana, C.C. Dyer, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 37 (2005) 1349.D. Bini, C. Cherubini, Robert T. Jantzen, Class. Quantum Grav. 19 (2002) 5481.T. Muller, F. Grave, arXiv:0904.4184 [gr-qc].