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Sample records for leonardo testi osservatorio

  1. Fibonacci, Leonardo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Leonardo Fibonacci (*1170-80, + after 1241) is known for mathematical writing, often submitting topics from the practical traditions to the approach of scholarly mathematics: Liber abbaci, Pratica geometriae, Flos, Letter to master Theodorus, Liber quadratorum. He makes us of Greek and Arabic...

  2. Leonardo Padura

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, Néstor

    2010-01-01

    Nous abordons l’idée de territoire et ses rapports avec les récits policiers de Leonardo Padura dans une double perspective: d’une part, l’insertion du projet de l’auteur dans le domaine du roman policier cubain et dans un sens plus large du champ intellectuel de son pays; d’autre part, la représentation de la ville de La Havane et de sa société entre 1989 et 2003, représentation qui à son tour met en cause de manière dynamique les différentes représentations et constructions symboliques de l...

  3. Leonardo sild / Alar Just

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Just, Alar

    2003-01-01

    31. XI 2001. a. Asi linna lähedal Norras liikluseks avatud puidust jalgteesillast, mis ehitati Leonardo da Vinci projekti järgi. Lõplikud joonised tegi arhitektuuribüroo Selberg Architects. Leonardo-silla ehitamise initsiaatoriks oli norra kunstnik Vebjorn Sand. 4 ill

  4. Valgusfestival Tallinnas / Leonardo Meigas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meigas, Leonardo, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Valgusfestivalidest, -installatsioonidest ja -etendustest maailmas. MTÜ Valgusfestival osaleb tänavu projektis "Lux scientia", millest võtavad osa Eesti, Poola ja Suurbritannia kunstnikud, kuraatorid ja teadlased. 22.-25. sept.-ni saab installatsioonidega tutvuda valgusfestivalil Tallinnas. Esitusele tulevatest teostest "60 sek katedraal" (Dominik Lejman, Poola), "Pleenum" (Simeon Nelson, Suurbritannia) ja "Hartmanni võre" (Leonardo Meigas, Eesti)

  5. Don Leonardo, ¡magister!

    OpenAIRE

    Choza Armenta, Jacinto Luis

    2014-01-01

    1. Años de formación de don Leonardo. 2. Director de Estudios de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la Universidad de Navarra. 3. Polo y su filosofía en los 70 y 80. 4. Maestro y consejero. 5. Personalidad. Cualidades y puntos ciegos. 6. Huérfano de don Leonardo. 1. Formative Years of Don Leonardo. 2. Director of Studies of the Faculty of Arts of the University of Navarra. 3. Polo and his philosophy in the 70s and 80s. 4. Teacher and counselor. 5. Personality. attributes and blind spots....

  6. [Leonardo da Vinci--a dyslectic genius?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røsstad, Anna

    2002-12-10

    Leonardo da Vinci's texts consist almost exclusively of scientific notes. Working on a book on Leonardo's art, I studied all Leonardo's published texts carefully for any new information. In some prefaces I came to suspect that Leonardo might have suffered from dyslexia. This article considers the question of whether it is possible to find indications of dyslexia in Leonardo's texts and in the accounts of his life.

  7. Reale Osservatorio Vesuviano: the First Volcanological Observatory in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avvisati, Gala; de Vita, Sandro; Di Vito, Mauro Antonio; Marotta, Enrica; Sangianantoni, Agata; Peluso, Rosario; Pasquale Ricciardi, Giovanni; Tulino, Sabrina; Uzzo, Tullia; Ghilardi, Massimo; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    The Reale Osservatorio Vesuviano (ROV), historic home of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), is the oldest volcanological observatory in the world. It was founded in 1841 by the Bourbon king of Naples. The building is located on the western slope of Mount Vesuvius, one of the most famous and dangerous volcanoes in the world. Since its foundation, the ROV has always attracted researchers, visitors and students from many countries. The ROV site is an elegant neo-classical building which at present hosts permanent exhibitions of part of its inheritance of valuable mineral, scientific instrument and art collections. A radical change is now under way, starting with the structural reinforcement of the building, renewal and upgrading of services, and the redefinition of exhibition itineraries so as to make visits still more enjoyable and informative. This will include the integration of outdoor footpaths and theme-based routes designed for users of differing levels of expertise. This major transformation also involves a study and a number of operations aimed at the possibility of developing self-financed activities. To this end an analysis of tourist movements in Campania was conducted, in part so as to attract to the ROV a larger and more varied group of visitors. In an area that - despite its unique characteristics - is currently significantly degraded and underused, the creation of such a powerful tourist and cultural attraction would serve as a focus for the development of additional activities and services that would greatly enhance it and stimulate growth. These activities would, of course, be compatible with a territory that has a high risk of volcanic hazards - indeed, such growth would constitute an important component in mitigating this risk in the area. The example given illustrates how the restoration and enhancement of a piece of our historic, scientific and cultural heritage could be the driving force behind the economic revival of an

  8. Leonardo da Vinci and the Downburst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    1990-05-01

    Evidence from the drawings, experiments, and writings of Leonardo da Vinci are presented to demonstrate that da Vinci recognized and, possibly, discovered the downburst and understood its associated airflow. Other early references to vortex flows resembling downbursts are mentioned.

  9. [Studies of vision by Leonardo da Vinci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, L

    2001-01-01

    Leonardo was an advocate of the intromission theory of vision. Light rays from the object to the eye caused visual perceptions which were transported to the brain ventricles via a hollow optic nerve. Leonardo introduced wax injections to explore the ventricular system. Perceptions were assumed to go to the "senso comune" in the middle (3rd) ventricle, also the seat of the soul. The processing station "imprensiva" in the anterior lateral horns together with memory "memoria" in th posterior (4th) ventricle integrated the visual perceptions to visual experience. - Leonardo's sketches with circular lenses in the center of the eye reveal that his dependence on medieval optics prevailed over anatomical observations. Drawings of the anatomy of the sectioned eye are missing although Leonardo had invented a new embedding technique. In order to dissect the eye without spilling its contents, the eye was first boiled in egg white and then cut. The procedure was now repeated and showed that the ovoid lens after boiling had become spherical. - Leonardo described that light rays were refracted and reflected in the eye but his imperfect anatomy prevented a development of physiological optics. He was, however, the first to compare the eye with a pin-hole camera (camera obscura). Leonardo's drawings of the inverted pictures on the back wall of a camera obscura inspired to its use as an instrument for artistic practice. The camera obscura was for centuries a model for explaining human vision.

  10. Leonardo da Vinci on alati moes / Linda Järve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järve, Linda, 1946-

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna Energiakeskuses avati Leonardo da Vinci lennumasin, mille aluseks on Milanos Biblioteca Ambrosiana raamatukogus säilitatavad joonised. Artikli autor külastas Itaalias Leonardo da Vinciga seotud paiku

  11. Two empirical notes on Freud's Leonardo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, M

    1994-02-01

    Why did Freud, in his Leonardo study, speak of a vulture instead of a kite (in Italian nibbio)? It can be shown that contemporary dictionaries rendered nibbio by Hühnergeier; that this designation of the kite was unfamiliar in Standard German; but that it was automatically understood as referring to a sub-species of Geier (vulture). Freud had an anachronistic idea about non-marital sex relations in quattrocento Italy. Such liaisons were not uncommon between higher-ranking males and lower-ranking females, their offspring were assigned to the paternal family. Leonardo's mother probably served as wetnurse for her illegitimate son, returning him to his father and being married to a man of equal standing after the customary time of weaning (ca. 18 months). Concerning Leonardo's psycho-sexual development, the corrected data shift the emphasis from the oedipal level (Freud) to an earlier, ambivalent mother-child relation (Eissler). Both notes warn against some pitfalls of psychobiography.

  12. Pychoanalysis and art, Freud and Leonardo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, H P

    2001-01-01

    Freud was the first to apply psychoanalysis to art, choosing for his subject the life and work of Leonardo da Vinci. Observing Leonardo's partly fused image of the Virgin and St. Anne, he inferred that the artist had depicted his two mothers, his biological mother and his stepmother. This very early analytic discourse on parent loss and adoption changed the course of the interpretation of art. Freud explored the psychology of art, the artist, and aesthetic appreciation. Confronting the age-old enigma of the Mona Lisa, he proposed a daring solution to the riddle of the sphinxlike smile of this icon of art. His paper prefigures concepts of narcissism, homosexuality, parenting, and sublimation. Lacking modern methodology and theory, Freud's pioneering insights overshadow his naive errors. In this fledgling inquiry, based on a childhood screen memory and limited knowledge of Leonardo's artistic and scientific contributions, Freud identified with this Renaissance genius in his own self-analytic and creative endeavor.

  13. L'Osservatorio delle disuguaglianze dell'Azienda USL di Ferrara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Togni

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    È ormai riconosciuto che bassa condizione socio-economica e limitato sviluppo culturale possono agire negativamente sul benessere individuale e sul livello di salute collettiva e determinano criticità nell’accesso alle cure, fenomeni che appaiono prevedibili, prevenibili e correggibili per migliorare la qualità e l’efficienza del sistema sanitario. Nell’area ferrarese sono presenti situazioni di svantaggio relativo non riconosciute e di difficile individuazione, il cui miglioramento si tradurrebbe in un beneficio sia per la condizione individuale che per la collettività.

    Obiettivi: la direzione sanitaria ed il Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica dell’Azienda USL e l’Università degli Studi di Ferrara hanno dato vita al progetto “Osservatorio sulle disuguaglianze” allo scopo di sperimentare nuove modalità informative, più agili e tempestive delle rilevazioni censuarie, per individuare aree geografiche e/o fasce di popolazione verso le quali promuovere azioni di contrasto alle disuguaglianze in salute.

    Metodi: l’osservatorio prevede inizialmente tre sottoprogetti: 1. accesso agli screening femminili per definire i determinanti socio-ambientali e culturali delle donne non rispondenti; 2. salute neonati che, sulla base del nuovo certificato di assistenza al parto (CEDAP, mira a valutare situazioni di disuguaglianza in una fascia di età molto fragile; 3. coinvolgimento di medici di medicina generale (MMG, aderenti volontariamente all’indagine, nella raccolta sistematica di informazioni utili a monitorare il fenomeno delle disuguaglianze nella popolazione ferrarese. Risultati: l’attività dell’osservatorio è iniziata nell’aprile 2003 con l’elaborazione di un questionario da presentare alle donne non aderenti allo screening dei tumori del collo uterino e con la valutazione delle modalità di somministrazione del questionario (postale o telefonico avvalendosi della

  14. Automated processing of thermal infrared images of Osservatorio Vesuviano permanent surveillance network by using Matlab code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansivero, Fabio; Vilardo, Giuseppe; Caputo, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    The permanent thermal infrared surveillance network of Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV) is composed of 6 stations which acquire IR frames of fumarole fields in the Campi Flegrei caldera and inside the Vesuvius crater (Italy). The IR frames are uploaded to a dedicated server in the Surveillance Center of Osservatorio Vesuviano in order to process the infrared data and to excerpt all the information contained. In a first phase the infrared data are processed by an automated system (A.S.I.R.A. Acq- Automated System of IR Analysis and Acquisition) developed in Matlab environment and with a user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI). ASIRA daily generates time-series of residual temperature values of the maximum temperatures observed in the IR scenes after the removal of seasonal effects. These time-series are displayed in the Surveillance Room of Osservatorio Vesuviano and provide information about the evolution of shallow temperatures field of the observed areas. In particular the features of ASIRA Acq include: a) efficient quality selection of IR scenes, b) IR images co-registration in respect of a reference frame, c) seasonal correction by using a background-removal methodology, a) filing of IR matrices and of the processed data in shared archives accessible to interrogation. The daily archived records can be also processed by ASIRA Plot (Matlab code with GUI) to visualize IR data time-series and to help in evaluating inputs parameters for further data processing and analysis. Additional processing features are accomplished in a second phase by ASIRA Tools which is Matlab code with GUI developed to extract further information from the dataset in automated way. The main functions of ASIRA Tools are: a) the analysis of temperature variations of each pixel of the IR frame in a given time interval, b) the removal of seasonal effects from temperature of every pixel in the IR frames by using an analytic approach (removal of sinusoidal long term seasonal component by using a

  15. Hidden sketches by Leonardo da Vinci revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumé, Belle

    2009-02-01

    Three drawings on the back of Leonardo da Vinci's The Virgin and Child with St Anne (circa 1508) have been discovered by researchers led by Michel Menu from the Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF) and the Louvre Museum in Paris.

  16. On the scientific work of Leonardo Caldarola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    The present KfK report, dedicated to the early died Leonardo Caldorala, gives the full text of three important papers of L. Caldarola: 1) The balanced oscillator experiment; 2) Fuel-coolant interaction in fast reactors and 3) Coherent systems with multistate components. (RW)

  17. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caouette, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program. His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. (Contains 3 resources and 3 online…

  18. Leonardo da Vinci õpiränne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci programmi raames viibisid välispraktikal Hollandis 2008. a. sügisel Kuressaare ametikooli 4. kursuse paadiehituse õpilased Keiti Kangur ja Kaspar Nõgu ning 2009. a. kevadel 3. kursuse paadiehituse õpilased Kaspar Kõiv, Karl Truutsi ja Martin Müürisepp. 2009 a. kevadel sooritasid praktika Küprosel toitlustusteeninduse eriala õpilased: Heldur Hillak, Rain Rohumägi ja Karel Raudsepp

  19. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Painter, inventor and polymath, born in Vinci (near Empolia), Italy. Although astronomy does not figure large in Leonardo's works, he realized the possibility of constructing a telescope (`making glasses to see the Moon enlarged'). He suggested that `… in order to observe the nature of the planets, open the roof and bring the image of a single planet onto the base of a concave mirror. The image o...

  20. The real code of leonardo da vinci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ose, Leiv

    2008-02-01

    Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy. Among the researchers and scientists, he is favourably known for his remarkable efforts in scientific work. His investigations of atherosclerosis judiciously combine three separate fields of research. In 1506, he finished his masterpiece, painting of Mona Lisa. A careful clinical examination of the famous painting reveals a yellow irregular leather-like spot at the inner end of the left upper eyelid and a soft bumpy well-defined swelling of the dorsum of the right hand beneath the index finger about 3 cm long. This is probably the first case of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). The FH code of Leonardo da Vinci was given immense consideration by scientists like Carl Muller, who described the xanthomas tuberosum and angina pectoris. On the contrary, Akira Endo searched for microbial metabolites that would inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol and finally, Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein published a remarkable series of elegant and insightful papers in the 70s and 80s. They established that the cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) essentially requires the LDL receptor. this was the real Code of Leonardo da Vinci.

  1. Leonardo Pisano (Fibonacci) the book of squares

    CERN Document Server

    Sigler, L E

    1987-01-01

    The Book of Squares by Fibonacci is a gem in the mathematical literature and one of the most important mathematical treatises written in the Middle Ages. It is a collection of theorems on indeterminate analysis and equations of second degree which yield, among other results, a solution to a problem proposed by Master John of Palermo to Leonardo at the Court of Frederick II. The book was dedicated and presented to the Emperor at Pisa in 1225. Dating back to the 13th century the book exhibits the early and continued fascination of men with our number system and the relationship among numbers

  2. In search of Leonardo: computer-based facial image analysis of Renaissance artworks for identifying Leonardo as subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christopher W.; Smith, William A. P.; Stork, David G.

    2012-03-01

    One of the enduring mysteries in the history of the Renaissance is the adult appearance of the archetypical "Renaissance Man," Leonardo da Vinci. His only acknowledged self-portrait is from an advanced age, and various candidate images of younger men are difficult to assess given the absence of documentary evidence. One clue about Leonardo's appearance comes from the remark of the contemporary historian, Vasari, that the sculpture of David by Leonardo's master, Andrea del Verrocchio, was based on the appearance of Leonardo when he was an apprentice. Taking a cue from this statement, we suggest that the more mature sculpture of St. Thomas, also by Verrocchio, might also have been a portrait of Leonardo. We tested the possibility Leonardo was the subject for Verrocchio's sculpture by a novel computational technique for the comparison of three-dimensional facial configurations. Based on quantitative measures of similarities, we also assess whether another pair of candidate two-dimensional images are plausibly attributable as being portraits of Leonardo as a young adult. Our results are consistent with the claim Leonardo is indeed the subject in these works, but we need comparisons with images in a larger corpora of candidate artworks before our results achieve statistical significance.

  3. Eestisse jõuab Leonardo da Vinci arvatav autoportree

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis eksponeeritakse 5.-12. veebruarini Leonardo da Vinci arvatavat autoportreed. Toimub maali pidulik avamine ja maali analüüse tutvustav rahvusvaheline konverents "Da Vinci kood" Tallinna Ülikoolis

  4. Leonardo aitab mahetootjaid / Aret Vooremäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vooremäe, Aret, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Põllumajanduskonsulentide koolitamisest Balti põllumajandusülikoolides Leonardo da Vinci projekti raames. Projekti käigus töötatakse koostöös Saksamaa ja Inglismaa partneritega välja õppematerjalid

  5. Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Agutter, Paul S; Loukas, Marios; Benninger, Brion; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Namdar, Husain; Ghabili, Kamyar; Khalili, Majid; Tubbs, R Shane

    2013-08-20

    Leonardo da Vinci's detailed drawings are justly celebrated; however, less well known are his accounts of the structures and functions of the organs. In this paper, we focus on his illustrations of the heart, his conjectures about heart and blood vessel function, his experiments on model systems to test those conjectures, and his unprecedented conclusions about the way in which the cardiovascular system operates. In particular, da Vinci seems to have been the first to recognize that the heart is a muscle and that systole is the active phase of the pump. He also seems to have understood the functions of the auricles and pulmonary veins, identified the relationship between the cardiac cycle and the pulse, and explained the hemodynamic mechanism of valve opening and closure. He also described anatomical variations and changes in structure and function that occurred with age. We outline da Vinci's varied career and suggest ways in which his personality, experience, skills and intellectual heritage contributed to these advances in understanding. We also consider his influence on later studies in anatomy and physiology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Leonardo da Vinci's foot: historical evidence of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastifer, James R; Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2012-10-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), world-renowned Italian renaissance master, is known for his contributions to, and broad interests in science and art. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the extent of his science by applying the use of his concepts to current models of foot and ankle mechanics. The art and science of Leonardo Da Vinci were extensively analyzed by reviewing his original drawings and hand written notebooks as well as their English translation. Current medical journals including the topics of foot, ankle, and biomechanics were reviewed for modern evidence and application of his concepts. The library of Michigan State University and the electronic library of the Royal Library at Windsor Castle were extensively utilized. From the depths of Santa Maria Nuova Hospital in Florence and Santo Spirito Hospital in Rome, through his commentary and anatomical drawings of around 30 cadaver dissections he performed, Leonardo da Vinci expressed his concept of foot and ankle anatomy and mechanics. He laid forth concepts, which vary little from current theories including those of proportion, statics and joint stability, sesamoid biomechanics, and structural support of the foot. Leonardo da Vinci, by combining an interest in anatomy and a gift of genius and artistic ability laid a foundation of foot and ankle anatomy and mechanics that have been applied in modern clinical sciences. Leonardo in this way made important contributions to the practice of foot and ankle orthopedics.

  7. Leonardo Da Vinci, the genius and the monsters. Casual encounters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciseri, Lorenzo Montemagno

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses Leonardo's interest in monsters and deformed reality, one of the lesser known aspects of his vast and multifaceted output. With the possible exception of his studies of physiognomy, relevant drawings, sketches and short stories represent a marginal aspect of his work, but they are nevertheless significant for historians of teratology. The purpose of this study is to provide a broad overview of the relationship between Leonardo and both the literature on mythological monsters and the reports on monstrous births that he either read about or witnessed personally. While aspects of his appreciation and attention to beauty and the pursuit of perfection and good proportions are the elements most emphasised in Leonardo's work, other no less interesting aspects related to deformity have been considered of marginal importance. My analysis will demonstrate that Leonardo approached the realm of monstrosity as if he considered abnormality a mirror of normality, deformity a mirror of harmony, and disease a mirror of health, as if to emphasise that, ultimately, it is the monster that gives the world the gift of normality. Two special cases of monstrosity are analysed: the famous monster of Ravenna, whose image was found among his papers, and a very rare case of parasitic conjoined twins (thoracopagus parasiticus) portrayed for the first time alive, probably in Florence, by Leonardo himself.

  8. Building the mammalian testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje; Koopman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Development of testes in the mammalian embryo requires the formation and assembly of several cell types that allow these organs to achieve their roles in male reproduction and endocrine regulation. Testis development is unusual in that several cell types such as Sertoli, Leydig, and spermatogonial...

  9. Leonardo da Vinci meets celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Chiara; Ventura, Giovanna; Di Leo, Grazia; Orzes, Nicoletta; Ronfani, Luca; Not, Tarcisio; Ventura, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    Leonardo da Vinci's face symmetry derives from 3 equal craniofacial segments: trichion-nasion (tn), which represents the superior third of the face, nasion-subnasal (ns) that is the medium third of the face, and subnasal-gnathion (sg) that is the length of the lower third of the face. It has been reported that adult subjects with celiac disease (CD) can be identified on the basis of a greater extension of the forehead in comparison to the medium third of the face, with a high tn/ns ratio. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between facial asymmetry and CD in childhood and adulthood. We studied 126 biopsy-proven patients with CD (76 children and 50 adults) and 102 healthy controls (43 children and 59 adults). Their faces were photographed; the pictures were edited using a software program to calculate the facial segments. The tn length was significantly different between adult celiac and adult controls (7.43 ± 1.46 cm vs 6.38 ± 1.73 cm, P = 0.001). The cutoff of 6.5 cm tn, derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, identified 43 of 50 patients (sensitivity 86%), but 34 of 59 controls were positive (specificity 54.2%). The positive predictive value was 56%; however, the tn/ns ratio was not significantly different between celiacs and controls. Neither the tn length nor the tn/ns ratio in celiacs correlated to the time of gluten exposure. Adults, but not children, with celiac disease show a forehead extension significantly greater than controls, but this test's specificity appears too low to be used in the screening of CD.

  10. Kas tõesti Leonardo da Vinci? / Orest Kormašov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kormašov, Orest, 1964-

    2010-01-01

    Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis eksponeeritakse 5.-12. veebruarini 2010 Leonardo da Vinci arvatavat autoportreed ning 6. veebruaril toimub Tallinna Ülikoolis rahvusvaheline konverents "Võti Leonardo juurde" ("A Key to Leonardo"). Maalist, mille itaalia kunstiajaloolane Nicola Barbatelli leidis 2008. a. ühest erakogust Lõuna-Itaalias. Maali uuringutest, milles osalevad Orest Kormašov ja Helen Kokk, kes on loonud Leonardo da Vinci peast kolmedimensioonilise mudeli

  11. [Regarding the Manuscript D " Dell' occhio " of Leonardo da Vinci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci's Manuscript D consists of five double pages sheets, which, folded in two, comprise ten folios. This document, in the old Tuscan dialect and mirror writing, reveals the ideas of Leonardo on the anatomy of the eye in relation to the formation of images and visual perception. Leonardo explains in particular the behavior of the rays in the eye in terms of refraction and reflection, and is very mechanistic in his conception of the eye and of the visual process. The most significant innovations found in these folios are the concept of the eye as a camera obscura and the intersection of light rays in the interior of the eye. His texts nevertheless show hesitation, doubts and a troubled confusion, reflecting the ideas and uncertainties of his era. He did not share his results in his lifetime, despite both printing and etching being readily available to him.

  12. Leonardo da Vinci: the search for the soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Maestro, R F

    1998-11-01

    The human race has always contemplated the question of the anatomical location of the soul. During the Renaissance the controversy crystallized into those individuals who supported the heart ("cardiocentric soul") and others who supported the brain ("cephalocentric soul") as the abode for this elusive entity. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) joined a long list of other explorers in the "search for the soul." The method he used to resolve this anatomical problem involved the accumulation of information from ancient and contemporary sources, careful notetaking, discussions with acknowledged experts, and his own personal search for the truth. Leonardo used a myriad of innovative methods acquired from his knowledge of painting, sculpture, and architecture to define more clearly the site of the "senso comune"--the soul. In this review the author examines the sources of this ancient question, the knowledge base tapped by Leonardo for his personal search for the soul, and the views of key individuals who followed him.

  13. Leonardo da Vinci y la nutrición humana

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero Gómez, Mª Begoña

    2011-01-01

    En esta experiencia trabajamos el tema la nutrición humana con una perspectiva diferente. Para ello hemos utilizado el libro de cocina “Notas de cocina de Leonardo da Vinci” de Shelagh and Routh, como texto base del que hemos extraído diferentes fragmentos, recetas y variada información de cómo era la forma de alimentarse y nutrirse en el Renacimiento. Se han realizado comparaciones entre la época actual y la de Leonardo. Para redondear la experiencia hemos cocinado algunas receta...

  14. LEONARDO DA VINCI AND THE ORIGIN OF SEMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Denis; DiFrancesco, Dario; Zancani, Diego

    2014-12-20

    It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings (before 1500) were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing (after 1500) in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy.

  15. Leonardo da Vinci y la nutrición humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Begoña Carretero Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta experiencia trabajamos el tema la nutrición humana con una perspectiva diferente. Para ello hemos utilizado el libro de cocina “Notas de cocina de Leonardo da Vinci” de Shelagh and Routh, como texto base del que hemos extraído diferentes fragmentos, recetas y variada información de cómo era la forma de alimentarse ynutrirse en el Renacimiento. Se han realizado comparaciones entre la época actual y la de Leonardo. Para redondear la experiencia hemos cocinado algunas recetas extraídas del libro.

  16. Women and Technical Professions. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs for women in technical professions that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) Artemis and Diana (vocational guidance programs to help direct girls toward technology-related careers); (2) CEEWIT (an Internet-based information and…

  17. Studying and Working Abroad. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles recent successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The following examples are presented: (1) 3 Finnish students…

  18. Training and Health. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs in the fields of health and medicine that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) CYTOTRAIN (a transnational vocational training program in cervical cancer screening); (2) Apollo (a program of open and distance learning for paramedical…

  19. Un nuevo Leonardo Da Vinci Dibujos para la ciencia

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    When the scientists of CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, have to illustrate one of their technical article, they don't need to look for a designer: they already have in their team Sergio Cittolin, a physicist who has the same talents as his fellow countryman, the famous Leonardo

  20. Võimalus osta Leonardo joonistus / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2001-01-01

    10. VII tuleb Londonis Christies'i oksjonil müügile Leonardo da Vinci etüüd ratsanikust, mis kuulub kunstniku poolelijäänud "Tarkade kummardamise" kompositsiooni ettevalmistavate etüüdide hulka. Müügihinnaks arvatakse kujunevat 3,5 miljonit naela.

  1. Leonardo da Vinci and the first hemodynamic observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins e Silva, J

    2008-02-01

    Leonardo da Vinci was a genius whose accomplishments and ideas come down to us today, five centuries later, with the freshness of innovation and the fascination of discovery. This brief review begins with a summary of Leonardo's life and a description of the most important works of art that he bequeathed us, and then concentrates on his last great challenge. There was a point at which Leonardo's passion for art gave way to the study of human anatomy, not only to improve his drawing but to go beyond what had been simply a representation of form to understand the underlying functioning. Among his many interests, we focus on his study of the heart and blood vessels, which he observed carefully in animals and human autopsies, and reproduced in drawings of great quality with annotations of astonishing acuteness. The experience that he had acquired from observing the flow of water in currents and around obstacles, and the conclusions that he drew concerning hydrodynamics, were central to his interpretation of the mechanisms of the heart and of blood flow, to which he devoted much of his time between 1508 and 1513. From these studies, immortalized in drawings of great clarity, come what are acknowledged to be the first hemodynamic records, in which Leonardo demonstrates the characteristics of blood flow in the aorta and great vessels and the importance of blood reflux and the formation of eddies in the sinus in aortic valve his assiduous and careful observations, and his subsequent deductions, Leonardo put forward detailed findings on hemodynamic questions that advanced technology has only recently enabled us to confirm.

  2. Leonardo da Vinci, visual perspective and the crystalline sphere (lens): if only Leonardo had had a freezer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilloowala, Rumy

    2004-06-01

    This study confirms Leonardo's claim to have experimented on the bovine eye to determine the internal anatomy of the eye. The experiment, as described by Leonardo, was repeated in our laboratory. The study further discusses Leonardo's primary interest in the study of the eye (especially the lens), to determine how the image of an object which enters the eye in an inverted form is righted. The study shows the evolution of Leonardo's understanding of the anatomy and the physiology of vision. Initially, in keeping with his reading of the literature, the lens was placed in the centre but he made it globular. Later he promulgated two theories, reflection from the uvea and refraction within the lens to explain reversal of the image in the eye. Subsequently he rejected the first theory and, putting credence in the second theory, experimented (1509) to show that the lens is globular and is centrally placed. The fact that the present knowledge about the lens is at variance from his findings is not because he did not carry out the experiment, as suggested by some modern authors, but because of the limitation of the techniques available to him at the time.

  3. The undescended testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikraman, Jaya; Hutson, John M; Li, Ruili

    2016-01-01

    Undescended testes (UDT), where one or both testes fail to migrate to the base of the scrotum, can be congenital (2-5% of newborn males) or acquired (1-2% of males). The testis may be found in any position along its usual line of descent. Cryptorchidism affects the developing testicular germ cells...... and increases the risk of infertility and malignancy. Clinical management aims to preserve spermatogenesis and prevent the increased risk of seminoma. Examination to document the testicular position will guide the need for imaging, medical management and the surgical approach to orchidopexy....

  4. Descent of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutson, John M.; Thorup, Jørgen M.; Beasley, Spencer W.

    changes in the management of both congenital and acquired cryptorchidism, such as the widespread use of laparoscopy for impalpable testes inside the abdominal cavity, are fully described. Evidence for the benefits of orchidopexy within the first year of life is reviewed, and an individual chapter is also......This book provides a state of the art overview of all aspects of testicular descent and cryptorchidism, including the mechanisms of descent and the causes, consequences, diagnosis, and treatment of undescended testis. The advances in understanding that have been achieved over the past two decades...

  5. Il Leonardo di Gramsci, tra estetica e politica

    OpenAIRE

    Versiero, Marco

    2010-01-01

    International audience; An abridged version of a paper presented at the Conference "Marx e Gramsci. Filologia, Filosofia e Politica allo Specchio", held in Naples on December 4-5, 2008. A critical approach to Gramsci's category of cosmopolitanism against Croce's idea of intellectual apoliticality, through their own interpretation of Leonardo's personality as a thinker, to explain the cultural and political failure of the Italian Renaissance. With excerpts of unpublished letters of Gramsci's w...

  6. "Leonardo da Vinci" projekt kutsehariduses / Piret Kärtner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärtner, Piret

    2001-01-01

    14.-25. mainì2001 viibisid seitse Eesti kutsekoolide inglise keele õpetajat ja kaks Riikliku Eksami- ja Kvalifikatsioonikeskuse esindajat Leonardo da Vinci projekti raames Rootsis Malmös, et tutvuda rootslaste ja hollandlaste koostöös välja töötatud programmi TENTEC - Teaching English for Technical Purposes rakendusvõimalustega, innovatiivsete võõrkeeleõppemeetoditega, eriala- ja keeleõppe integreeritud õpetusega, õppematerjalidega, mis põhinevad IT võimalustel

  7. Perineal Ektopik Testis: Nadir Bir Konjenital Anomali

    OpenAIRE

    Çiçek, Tufan; Gönülalan, Umut; Öztürk, Bülent; Koşan, Tevfik Murat

    2013-01-01

    Perineal ectopic testis is a rare congenital anomally. The incidence of perineal ectopic testis is less than 1% in all undescended testis. Patient usually applied to urology with empty scrotum and testicular agenesia. The main treatment is surgical and hormonal therapy is not indicated in these patients. We report an eleven years old patient with right perineal ectopic testis that was underwent scrotal orchidopexy

  8. Kinesis 'versus' logos en la filosofía de Leonardo Polo

    OpenAIRE

    Aspe, V. (Virginia)

    2006-01-01

    Kinesis versus logos in Leonardo Polo´s philosophy. Kinesis and praxis are analogous concepts in Aristotle. Although Leonardo Polo’s philosophy is right in pointing the differences between these concepts, the article demonstrates that beyond their opposition these terms refer to an analogous pros en: energeia. The author explains Leonardo Polo’s ne-cessity to point the difference and Aristotle’s concern for poin-ting their similarity.

  9. Leonardo da Vinci and Kethem-Kiveris vena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Antonín; Skorepova-Honzlova, Zita; Jelen, Karel

    2012-01-01

    In the drawing of coitus by Leonardo da Vinci are pictured the contemporary hypotheses regarding this act. The authors analyze the mamillaruteral connection depicted by the artist and grow up to believe that this is a hypothetical kiveris vena, female vein described by Anatomist Master Nicolai Physicus from the Salerno School. The Hebrew roots were found in the name. The connection is described also by Mondino in The Anathomia. The same connection can be found in the picture of the pregnant woman in Fasciculus Medicinæ by Johannes De Ketham.

  10. Leonardo da Vinci: engineer, bioengineer, anatomist, and artist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2017-03-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) enjoys a reputation as one of the most talented people of all time in the history of science and the arts. However, little attention has been given to his contributions to physiology. One of his main interests was engineering, and he was fascinated by structural problems and the flow patterns of liquids. He also produced a large number of ingenious designs for warfare and a variety of highly original flying machines. But of particular interest to us are his contributions to bioengineering and how he used his knowledge of basic physical principles to throw light on physiological function. For example, he produced new insights into the mechanics of breathing including the action of the ribs and diaphragm. He was the first person to understand the different roles of the internal and external intercostal muscles. He had novel ideas about the airways including the mode of airflow in them. He also worked on the cardiovascular system and had a special interest in the pulmonary circulation. But, interestingly, he was not able to completely divorce his views from those of Galen, in that although he could not see pores in the interventricular septum of the heart, one of his drawings included them. Leonardo was a talented anatomist who made many striking drawings of the human body. Finally, his reputation for many people is based on his paintings including the Mona Lisa that apparently attracts more viewers than any other painting in the world. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Perineal Ectopic Testis: A Rare Congenital Anomally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Cicek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Perineal ectopic testis is a rare congenital anomally. The incidence of perineal ectopic testis is less than 1% in all undescended testis. Patient usually applied to urology with empty scrotum and testicular agenesia. The main treatment is surgical and hormonal therapy is not indicated in these patients. We report an eleven years old patient with right perineal ectopic testis that was underwent scrotal orchidopexy [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 138-141

  12. Perineal Ectopic Testis: A Rare Congenital Anomally

    OpenAIRE

    Tufan Cicek; Umut Gonulalan; Bulent Ozturk; Tevfik Murat Kosan

    2013-01-01

    Perineal ectopic testis is a rare congenital anomally. The incidence of perineal ectopic testis is less than 1% in all undescended testis. Patient usually applied to urology with empty scrotum and testicular agenesia. The main treatment is surgical and hormonal therapy is not indicated in these patients. We report an eleven years old patient with right perineal ectopic testis that was underwent scrotal orchidopexy [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000): 138-141

  13. Testis. Strategy for the management of seminoma testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterly, J.C.M.

    1984-01-01

    Many years of experience demonstrate the marked radiocurability of seminoma testis with modest radiation dosage, and accordingly large volumes may be radiated without damage to surrounding normal structures. While several histological types of seminoma are described (classical, anaplastic, or spermatocytic) our treatment strategy is identical

  14. AN ARTISTIC AND PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH OF LEONARDO DA VINCI’S PAINTINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Andreea STOLERIU

    2015-01-01

    The starting point of the present paper is the work 'The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne', made by Leonardo da Vinci. The paper is based both on an artistic and psychoanalytic approach which opens new ways of interpretation due to the research of Sigmund Freud - 'Leonardo da Vinci and a Memory of His Childhood'. Freud claims that Leonardo had found the lost image of his mother in his works 'The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne' and 'Mona Lisa', thus justifying the artist’s direct attachment ...

  15. Risk factors for undescended testis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Bruijne, L.M. de; Gier, R.P.E. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of the etiology of undescended testis (UDT), by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were recruited at five hospitals and included 200 boys with surgically corrected UDT and

  16. Os estudos anatómicos de Leonardo da Vinci

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Ricardo Jorge de Sá

    2015-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências Farmacêuticas Leonardo da Vinci foi um dos maiores génios de todos os tempos, considerando-se que dentro dos seus variadíssimos estudos realizados, dedicou-se ao estudo da anatomia do corpo humano, com vista a saber a sua constituição e entender o seu funcionamento. Esta dissertação sustenta-se numa revisão bibliográfica, recorrendo ao mét...

  17. Sine ars scientia nihil est: Leonardo da Vinci and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickhöfel, Eduardo H P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reflect on the relationship between art and science so far as it concerns a symposium on neurosciences. We undertake a historical overview of that relationship, paying particular attention to the sui generis case of Leonardo da Vinci, who very often is regarded as the man who worked on art and science with equal ease. We then explain why his idea of merging these two forms of knowledge failed, considering the clear-cut distinction between art and science in his time. With this clarification, we explore the matter today. We look at Raphael's The Transfiguration, in which the representation of the possessed boy is seen by neuroscientists as indicative of an epileptic seizure. We also look at the ideas of neuroscientists Semir Zeki and Vilayanur Ramachandran, who study particular aspects of brain function and suggest a new merging of art and science.

  18. LEONARDO PADURA FUENTES Y SU DETECTIVE NOSTÁLGICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens A Franken K

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo inserta las novelas policiales del conocido autor cubano Leonardo Padura Fuentes en la tradición tanto del género policial en general como del cubano en especial. Se analiza el perfil psicológico, social e ideológico del investigador principal y protagonista Mario Conde, su método de investigación, su relación con sus amigos, compañeros de trabajo y las mujeres y su fuerte crítica social y cultural. Además, se da especial énfasis a las formas de asimilación (polémica del policial cubano, paródica tanto del género policial clásico del enigma como del género policial negro en sus novelas policiales híbridas y cada vez más posmodernas.This article places the detective novels by the well known Cuban author Leonardo Padura Fuentes within the general tradition of detective fiction, as well as within the Cuban tradition. The psychological, social and ideological profile of the novels' main investigator and protagonist, Mario Conde, are analyzed together with his method of investigation, his relationship with friends, workmates, women and his strong social and cultural criticism. Besides, a special emphasis is placed on the forms of assimilation (polemical of the Cuban detective genre and parodical both of the classic mystery detective genre and the hard-boiled detective fiction in his hybrid detective novels increasingly moving into a more postmodern detective literature.

  19. The first marriage of despot Leonardo III Tocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević Nada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The marriage between Leonardo III — the last member of the Tocco family who ruled the Heptanese (1448-1479 — and Milica Branković, the daughter of the Serbian Despot Lazar Branković and Helen Palaiologos, concluded in Dubrovnik on May 1 1463, is an intriguing issue: it was concluded under unusual circumstances, and its significance was variously presented by the couple's earlier and later contemporaries. An analysis of several historical sources (mainly those of documentary character, also some of a narrative nature shows that, despite the belittlement of its significance made by some of the pair's contemporaries, the marriage was generally seen as a prospective alliance, designed not only to satisfy the existential needs of the couple but also to enhance the interests of various important political factors of the time: Thomas Palaiologos, the authorities of Dubrovnik, the Roman Curia and Cardinal Bessarion. As widely known, the political prospectives opened by this marriage were not fully accomplished due to the short duration of this relationship (Milica died soon after the wedding. Yet this conjugal alliance proved useful for the Tocco party even after its conclusion. In the time following Leonardo's flight from the Ottomans to Naples (after 1479, he referred to the lineage with Milica as an alliance with the Byzantine imperial family, supposedly in order to achieve certain benefices from the Italian environment where he repatriated. In parallel to the analysis of the sources about the motives and significance of the first marriage of the last Tocco despot, in this paper I also deal with several pro-sopographic and topographic details of regional importance, mentioned on the occasion of the Tocco-Brankovic wedding ceremony (e.g. Bishop of Bologna Blasius Constantii Paliki, etc. .

  20. "Trovo modo da offendere e difendere": la concezione della guerra nel pensiero politico di Leonardo.

    OpenAIRE

    Versiero, Marco

    2014-01-01

    International audience; the text of a conference given on the occasion of the International Symposium "Leonardo da Vinci: arte della pace, arte della guerra" (Florence, Palagio di Parte Guelfa, December 5th, 2013).

  1. Tüli Leonardo pärast / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2001-01-01

    Firenze Uffizi galerii kavatsusest asuda restaureerima nende valduses olevat Leonardo "Kuningate kummardamist". Plaan on leidnud vastuseisu rahvusvahelisel kunstiareenil: 30 itaalia ja ameerika kunstiteadlast on ArtWatch Internationali egiidi all kirjutanud avaliku kirja muuseumi juhtkonnale.

  2. Effectiveness of testis cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feucht, H.

    1983-04-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany there are about thousand to two-thousand incidences of testis cancer yearly. The screening (and examination) program currently used for the early detection of cancer includes the screening of malignant tumours of the testis. Since only males 45 years and older are invited to make use of the preventive measures, the most seriously affected age-group between twenty and forty is hereby not considered. The objective of this study is to find out which of the generally conceivable preventive measures could lead to an improvement of the present situation. The analysis shows that, for a diagnostic accuracy of 1 and a participation of 100%, the quantifyable cost of a yearly performed special screening is higher than the quantifyable cost savings achieved. A final judgement of other ways of execution is only possible when the diagnostic accuracy of suitable screening methods and the percentage of the participants of the groups of people concerned are known. (orig.)

  3. [Laparoscopy for the undescended testis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broto, J; Marhuenda, C; Gil-Vernet, J M; Asensio, M; Lloret, J; Boix Ochoa, J

    1997-07-01

    The authors show their experience in the use of the laparoscopic approach in 18 cases of unilateral exploratory anorchia. They highlight the advantages that this method offers in efficiency, speed, security and minimal aggression compared with conventional exploration of the inguinal channel in the search of the undetectable testis. In the 18 cases studied through the insertion of 5 mm lense in the umbilical area, it was established that a testicular hypoplasia was present in 8 cases. In another 5 cases testicular agenesia was diagnosed, and in the remaining 5, intraabdominal testis were found. In four of these testicles, a laparoscopic approach helped in their correct placement and also in the removal of the fifth in a patient with recurrent leukemia.

  4. Cancer testis antigen and immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnadas DK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Kolaseri Krishnadas, Fanqi Bai, Kenneth G Lucas Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: The identification of cancer testis (CT antigens has been an important advance in determining potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple previous studies have shown that CT antigen vaccines, using both peptides and dendritic cell vaccines, can elicit clinical and immunologic responses in several different tumors. This review details the expression of melanoma antigen family A, 1 (MAGE-A1, melanoma antigen family A, 3 (MAGE-A3, and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1 in various malignancies, and presents our current understanding of CT antigen based immunotherapy. Keywords: cancer testis antigens, immunotherapy, vaccine

  5. [Project Leonardo-da-Vinci for better nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor, Katalin; Csanádi, Lajosné; Helembai, Kornélia; Szögi, Zoltánné; Tulkán, Ibolya; Unginé, Kántor Katalin

    2002-08-18

    The aim of the present paper is to inform physicians about the work completed by nurses and professors of baccalaureat nurses in the framework of Leonardo da Vinci project, organised and sponsored by the European Union. The goal of the project was to increase the effectiveness of chief nurses throughout their further training programme in the field of management. The team of Szeged chose the human resource management, since in this field is possible to achieve the greatest improvement with the smallest financial investment. We measured the fluctuations and the absentees of the nurses, the changes in the degree of education, the nurse' and patient' satisfaction at the beginning and at the end of the period studied. Except the patient's satisfaction all the other parameters improved by the end of tested period. The project provided a unique possibility to compare the state of the Hungarian nursing with that of the countries belonging to the European Union, to exchange the experience and to learn some new methods. In the framework of this project a book of two volumes was prepared containing the suggestions of EU. This book is widely available in English and in French.

  6. How did Leonardo perceive himself? Metric iconography of da Vinci's self-portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christopher W.

    2010-02-01

    Some eighteen portraits are now recognized of Leonardo in old age, consolidating the impression from his bestestablished self-portrait of an old man with long white hair and beard. However, his appearance when younger is generally regarded as unknown, although he was described as very beautiful as a youth. Application of the principles of metric iconography, the study of the quantitative analysis of the painted images, provides an avenue for the identification of other portraits that may be proposed as valid portraits of Leonardo during various stages of his life, by himself and by his contemporaries. Overall, this approach identifies portraits of Leonardo by Verrocchio, Raphael, Botticelli, and others. Beyond this physiognomic analysis, Leonardo's first known drawing provides further insight into his core motivations. Topographic considerations make clear that the drawing is of the hills behind Vinci with a view overlooking the rocky promontory of the town and the plain stretching out before it. The outcroppings in the foreground bear a striking resemblance to those of his unique composition, 'The Virgin of the Rocks', suggesting a deep childhood appreciation of this wild terrain. and an identification with that religious man of the mountains, John the Baptist, who was also the topic of Leonardo's last known painting. Following this trail leads to a line of possible selfportraits continuing the age-regression concept back to a self view at about two years of age.

  7. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  8. Urodynamics in the anatomical work of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, D; Grünewald, V; Jonas, U

    1999-06-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) incorporates the symbiosis of art and medicine and can be addressed as the founder of medical illustration in the time of the Renaissance. His anatomy studies were not published in his time, which explains why Leonardo's outstanding knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and medicine had no impact on his scientific contemporaries and is therefore primarily of retrospective importance in the history of medicine. The collection of anatomical illustrations remained unknown until their rediscovery in the eighteenth century and their wide publication at the beginning of our century. This article systematically reviews Leonardo's genitourinary drawings with regard to urodynamic aspects of the upper and lower urinary tract, highlighting topics such as vesicoureteral reflux and urinary sphincter mechanisms.

  9. Leonardo Da Vinci and stroke - vegetarian diet as a possible cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Serefnur; Altieri, Marta; Troisi, Pina

    2010-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 to May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. It has been gleaned from the many available historical documents that da Vinci was a vegetarian who respected and loved animals, and that he suffered from right hemiparesis in the last 5 years of his life. A vegetarian diet has both positive and negative influences on the cerebrovascular system. In this report, a possible relation between a vegetarian diet and stroke is discussed from various perspectives as related to Leonardo da Vinci's stroke. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Estudio del 'tener' según Gabriel Marcel y Leonardo Polo

    OpenAIRE

    Urabayen, J. (Julia)

    2003-01-01

    Estudio del idener» según Gabriel Marcel y Leonardo Polo.- El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el pensamiento de Gabriel Marcel y Leonardo Polo acerca de un rasgo esencial del ser humano, el tener, y la visión del hombre que se obtiene desde esta característica. Polo considera que existe una jerarquía en el tener, que puede adoptar tres formas: el tener corpóreo, el tener cognoscitivo y el tener habitual. Marcel establece una diferencia entre ser y tener, y vincula el tener...

  11. San Francisco Syncope Rule, Osservatorio Epidemiologico sulla Sincope nel Lazio risk score, and clinical judgment in the assessment of short-term outcome of syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipaola, Franca; Costantino, Giorgio; Perego, Francesca; Borella, Marta; Galli, Andrea; Cantoni, Giulia; Barbic, Franca; Casella, Francesco; Duca, Pier Giorgio; Furlan, Raffaello

    2010-05-01

    The study aimed to compare the efficacy of the Osservatorio Epidemiologico sulla Sincope nel Lazio (OESIL) risk score, San Francisco Syncope Rule, and clinical judgment in assessing the short-term prognosis of syncope. We studied 488 patients consecutively seen for syncope at the emergency department of 2 general hospitals between January and July 2004. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios for short-term (within 10 days) severe outcomes were computed for each decision rule and clinical judgment. Severe outcomes comprised death, major therapeutic procedures, and early readmission to hospital. Clinical judgment had a sensitivity of 77%, a specificity of 69%, and would have admitted less patients (34%, P < .05 vs decision rules). The OESIL risk score was characterized by a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 60% (admission 43%). San Francisco Syncope Rule sensitivity was 81% and specificity was 63% (admission 40%). According to both clinical rules, no discharged patient would have died. With combined OESIL risk score and clinical judgment, the probability of adverse events was 0.7% for patients with both low risk scores, whereas that for both high risk scores was roughly 16%. Because of a relatively low sensitivity, both risk scores were partially lacking in recognizing patients with short-term high-risk syncope. However, the application of the decision rules would have identified all patients who subsequently died, and OESIL risk score and clinical judgment combined seem to improve the decision-making process concerning the identification of high-risk patients who deserve admission. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Papillary mesothelioma of the albuginea testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjandra, B. S.; Daemen, M. J.; Weil, E. H.

    1994-01-01

    An eleven-year-old boy is presented with symptom of a torsion of the testis. Scrotal exploration revealed a papillary mesothelioma of the tunica albuginea which is extremely rare in childhood. We report 1 case and review the literature

  13. AN ARTISTIC AND PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH OF LEONARDO DA VINCI’S PAINTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Andreea STOLERIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of the present paper is the work 'The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne', made by Leonardo da Vinci. The paper is based both on an artistic and psychoanalytic approach which opens new ways of interpretation due to the research of Sigmund Freud - 'Leonardo da Vinci and a Memory of His Childhood'. Freud claims that Leonardo had found the lost image of his mother in his works 'The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne' and 'Mona Lisa', thus justifying the artist’s direct attachment to these creations. Along with specific interpretations of the creative process, the psychoanalytic approach intends to explain and enrich the content of ideas of the present paper regarding one of the most valuable creations of Leonardo and also an artistic testament created towards the end of his life. Freud’s psychoanalytic approach brings specific interpretative content for the mentioned work of art. It is different from the artistic method, not contradicting various artistic studies, but complementing them in a harmonious way.

  14. Hard-Boiled for Hard Times in Leonardo Padura Fuentes's Detective Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H. Rosi

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on Leonardo Padura Fuentes's hard-boiled fiction, this essay traces the origin and evolution of the genre in Cuba. Padura Fuentes has challenged the officially sanctioned socialist "literatura policial" that became popular in the 1970s and 1980s. creating a new model of criticism that is not afraid to confront the island's socio-economic…

  15. Leonardo da Vinci's Geology: The Authenticity of The Virgin of the Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Viewed from a geological perspective, all of Leonardo's paintings and drawings reveal a remarkable fidelity to nature. The Virgin of the Rocks in the National Gallery in London (1495-1508), attributed to him, displays no such fidelity. If we compare it to the Virgin of the Rocks in the Louvre in Paris (1483-86) whose geological accuracy is astounding, we cannot help questioning whether Leonardo painted the background in the National Gallery work. Over the centuries, various arguments have called into question the attribution of the National Gallery painting to Leonardo. Scholars have analyzed the brush strokes, undertaken document searches and tried to prove definitively that Leonardo produced the National Gallery version. However, there have always been doubts, naysayers and many unanswered questions concerning its authenticity. The fact that attribution of the work has been the subject of such controversy throughout history suggests that new diagnostic means of determining authenticity is in order. A comparison of the representations of geological formations in the two paintings offers such means. It seems unlikely that the same person could have portrayed rock formations so accurately in the Louvre work and so incongruously in the National Gallery painting.

  16. Leonardo da Vinci's "A skull sectioned": skull and dental formula revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Peter O; Veening, Jan G

    2013-05-01

    What can be learned from historical anatomical drawings and how to incorporate these drawings into anatomical teaching? The drawing "A skull sectioned" (RL 19058v) by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), hides more detailed information than reported earlier. A well-chosen section cut explores sectioned paranasal sinuses and ductus nasolacrimalis. A dissected lateral wall of the maxilla is also present. Furthermore, at the level of the foramen mentale, the drawing displays compact and spongious bony components, together with a cross-section through the foramen mentale and its connection with the canalis mandibulae. Leonardo was the first to describe a correct dental formula (6424) and made efforts to place this formula above the related dental elements. However, taking into account, the morphological features of the individual elements of the maxilla, it can be suggested that Leonardo sketched a "peculiar dental element" on the position of the right maxillary premolar in the dental sketch. The fact that the author did not make any comment on that special element is remarkable. Leonardo could have had sufficient knowledge of the precise morphology of maxillary and mandibular premolars, since the author depicted these elements in the dissected skull. The fact that the author also had access to premolars in situ corroborates our suggestion that "something went wrong" in this part of the drawing. The present study shows that historical anatomical drawings are very useful for interactive learning of detailed anatomy for students in medicine and dentistry. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Transparency of Vocational Qualifications: The Leonardo da Vinci Approach. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornavold, Jens; Pettersson, Sten

    This report gives an overview of the situation of transparency of vocational qualifications by presenting measures introduced at the European Community level and by drawing attention to projects within the Leonardo da Vinci Program dealing with the issue. A 16-page executive summary appears first. Chapter 1 provides general background and aims.…

  18. Leonardo da Vinci, One Year on...a Different Look at Vocational Training in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Magazine, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the success of the Leonardo da Vinci program, a European laboratory of innovation in vocational training, a priority focus of investment in human resources and intelligence, and a way to mobilize innovative forces beyond national boundaries. Trends identified by the program focus on new information and communication technologies. (JOW)

  19. [Leonardo da Vinci and his studies on the human fetus and the placenta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, L; Fanos, V

    2000-01-01

    To review the accuracy of Leonardo's anatomical studies of the female external genitalia and the foetus, particularly those concerning the umbilical cord with its blood vessels. The anatomical drawings of Leonardo da Vinci which are now stored in the Windors Castle near London were reviewed and the accuracy of the details of the genital apparatus and foetus was evaluated. A written comment characterizes many of his drawings. He described accurately the position of the uterine blood vessels and the relationship between the pelvic organs. However his drawing and description of the female external genitalia and human placenta was incorrect because his understanding of it was inadequate. He believed that the human placenta had cotyledons like that of the ungulate uterus (drown side A of sheet 19). At the top of that sheet some Leonardo's details of the anatomic relationship are shown. In our opinion, Leonardo's misunderstanding is probably because he was only able to perform one anatomical dissection of a pregnant women and foetus and therefore his knowledge was limited. The resulting documentation of the pregnant women and foetus was therefore heavily supplemented with his enormous experience in animal anatomy.

  20. 'Beauty adorns virtue'. Dress in portraits of women by Leonardo da Vinci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Sara Jacomien van

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with dress in Leonardo’s portraits of women: his Ginevra de’ Benci, the Lady with an Ermine, La Belle Ferronnière, the portrait cartoon of Isabella d’Este and Mona Lisa. Leonardo portrayed his sitters in strikingly plain dress, without the sumptuous gold brocaded silk fabrics and

  1. Leonardo da Vinci's "A Skull Sectioned" : Skull and dental formula revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Peter O.; Veening, Jan G.

    What can be learned from historical anatomical drawings and how to incorporate these drawings into anatomical teaching? The drawing A skull sectioned (RL 19058v) by Leonardo da Vinci (14521519), hides more detailed information than reported earlier. A well-chosen section cut explores sectioned

  2. Kormašov puhus Leonardo autoportree intriigi lõkkele / Tiiu Leis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leis, Tiiu

    2010-01-01

    Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis eksponeeritakse Leonardo da Vinci arvatavat autoportreed. Lõuna-Itaalia erakogust leitud maali uurimisprotsessi kaasati Tallinna Ülikooli kunstiosakonna juhataja, maali ja maalitehnoloogia õppejõud Orest Kormašov, kes jagab selgitusi maali uuringute kohta. Ekspertiisis osales ka Eesti Kunstiakadeemia graafilise disaini tudeng Helen Kokk

  3. UNDESCENDED TESTIS, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarta Lesmana Handrea

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Undescended testis (UDT or cryptorchidism is one of the commonest abnormalities in male infants. In this anomaly, testes are not located normally in the scrotum. The incidence of UDT is 4-5% of term male infants, and 20-33% of premature male infants. The occurrence of abnormalities of hormones control or anatomy process that is required in the normal process of lowering the testes can cause UDT. UDT can be differentiated into palpable and nonpalpable. The diagnosis of UDT can be known through physical examination. However, if the testes are impalpable, laparoscopy can be done to determine the position of the testis. Hormonal therapy to overcome UDT is still under controversy. The action that often done is surgery, called orchidopexy. The most serious complication of orchidopexy is testicular atrophy. It occurs in a small percentage, which is about 5-10%. Infertility may occur in 1 to 3 of 4 adult males and the risk of occurrence of malignancies is increased by as much as 5-10 times higher in men with a history of UDT. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  4. Arts and science under the sign of Leonardo. The case of the National Museum of Science and Technology ‘Leonardo da Vinci’ of Milan (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Giorgione

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the example of Leonardo da Vinci, who was able to combine arts and science in his work, the National Museum of Science and Technology of Milan has always pursued the blending and the dialogue of humanistic and scientific knowledge. It has employed this approach in all of its activities, from the set design of exhibition departments to the acquisition of collections and, more recently, in the dialogue with the public. Now more than ever, following a renewal path for the Museum, these guidelines are being subject to research to achieve a new and more up-to-date interpretation.

  5. Arts and science under the sign of Leonardo. The case of the National Museum of Science and Technology ‘Leonardo da Vinci’ of Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Giorgione

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the example of Leonardo da Vinci, who was able to combine arts and science in his work, the National Museum of Science and Technology of Milan has always pursued the blending and the dialogue of humanistic and scientific knowledge. It has employed this approach in all of its activities, from the set design of exhibition departments to the acquisition of collections and, more recently, in the dialogue with the public. Now more than ever, following a renewal path for the Museum, these guidelines are being subject to research to achieve a new and more up-to-date interpretation.

  6. Activin receptor subunits in normal and dysfunctional adult human testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, V; Meachem, S; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2008-01-01

    The cellular sites of activin action and its regulation in the normal and dysfunctional adult human testis are unknown.......The cellular sites of activin action and its regulation in the normal and dysfunctional adult human testis are unknown....

  7. Visual degradation in Leonardo da Vinci's iconic self-portrait: A nanoscale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, A. Mosca; Pulci, O.; Misiti, M. C.; Lojewska, J.; Teodonio, L.; Violante, C.; Missori, M.

    2014-06-01

    The discoloration of ancient paper, due to the development of oxidized groups acting as chromophores in its chief component, cellulose, is responsible for severe visual degradation in ancient artifacts. By adopting a non-destructive approach based on the combination of optical reflectance measurements and time-dependent density functional theory ab-initio calculations, we describe and quantify the chromophores affecting Leonardo da Vinci's iconic self-portrait. Their relative concentrations are very similar to those measured in modern and ancient samples aged in humid environments. This analysis quantifies the present level of optical degradation of the Leonardo da Vinci's self-portrait which, compared with future measurements, will assess its degradation rate. This is a fundamental information in order to plan appropriate conservation strategies.

  8. Development and descent of the testis in relation to cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Helena E; Cortes, Dina; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The testis descends in two phases. Animal studies suggest, that the transabdominal descent of the testis depends on the insulin-like hormone 3 (INSL3). Androgens are important in the inguinoscrotal testicular descent in animals and humans. In general, the cause of cryptorchidism is unknown...... and the aetiology is possibly multifactorial. Histological changes in cryptorchid testes demonstrate disturbed development. Conclusion: Since testicular descent is regulated by testis-derived hormones, cryptorchidism may reflect a functional defect of the testis....

  9. Historical continuity in the methodology of modern medical science: Leonardo leads the way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2014-02-01

    Early modern medical science did not arise ex nihilo, but was the culmination of a long history stretching back through the Renaissance, the Middle Ages, Byzantium and Roman times, into Greek Antiquity. The long interval between Aristotle and Galen and Harvey and Descartes was punctuated by outstanding visionaries, including Leonardo, the ultimate Renaissance man. His attitude and mindset were based on Aristotelian pursuit of empirical fact and rational thought. He declared himself to be a "man without letters" to underscore his disdain for those whose culture was only mnemonics and philosophical inferences from authoritative books. Leonardo read the Book of Nature with the immense curiosity of the pioneering scientist, ushering in the methodology of modern medical science with help from forerunners. He left no publications, but extensive personal Notebooks: on his scientific research, hydrodynamics, physiological anatomy, etc. Apparently, numerous successors availed themselves of his methodologies and insights, albeit without attribution. In his Notebooks, disordered and fragmentary, Leonardo manifests the exactitude of the engineer and scientist, the spontaneous freshness of one speaking of what he has at heart and that he knows well. His style is unrefined, but intensely personal, rich with emotion and, sometimes, poetic. Leonardo, the visionary anatomist, strived consistently not merely to imitate nature by depicting body structures, but to perceive through analysis and simulations the intimate physiologic processes; i.e., the biomechanics underlying the workings of all bodily organs and components, even the mysterious beating heart. It is fitting to regard him as the first modern medical scientist. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Handedness of Leonardo da Vinci: A Tale of the Complexities of Lateralisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I. C.; Drury, Helena

    2004-01-01

    The handedness of Leonardo da Vinci is controversial. Although there is little doubt that many of his well-attributed drawings were drawn with the left hand, the hatch marks of the shading going downwards from left to right, it is not clear that he was a natural left-hander, there being some suggestion that he may have become left-handed as the…

  11. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and his depictions of the human spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Garvin; Gonzales, Jocelyn; Iwanaga, Joe; Fisahn, Christian; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-12-01

    Few individuals in history have exerted so great an influence and made such extensive contributions to so many disciplines as Leonardo da Vinci. Da Vinci's inquisitive, experimental mentality led him to many discoveries, such as spinal cord function and the proper anatomy of several organ systems. Respected not only as an artist but also as an anatomist, he made many significant contributions to the field. This article explores da Vinci's drawings, in relation to the anatomy of the human spine.

  12. Eestisse jõuab arvatav Leonardo da Vinci autoportree / Maiki Voore

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voore, Maiki, 1983-

    2010-01-01

    5.-12. veebruarini eksponeeritakse Kadrioru kunstimuuseumis Leonardo da Vinci arvatavat autoportreed. 5. veebruaril on kunstimuuseumis maali pidulik esitlus, 6. veebruaril avatakse Tallinna ülikoolis maali analüüse tutvustav rahvusvaheline konverents "Da Vinci kood". Lõuna-Itaalia erakogust leitud maali analüüsimisega tegelesid Tallinna Ülikooli maali ja maalitehnoloogia õppejõud Orest Kormašov, kes valmistas klassikalise portreeskulptuuri, arvutisimulatsiooni teostas Eesti Kunstiakadeemia graafilise disaini tudeng Helen Kokk

  13. Tunica vaginalis hydrocele of reposited testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Manish

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunica vaginalis hydrocele (TVH is a relatively common entity. The procedure of testicular reposition in a subcutaneous pouch following severe scrotal avulsion injury is also a standard line of care. Though, the occurrence of TVH in such a reposited testis is extremely rare clinical presentation. We herein report a case of 55-year male patient who presented with swelling over medial aspect of left upper thigh which was diagnosed as TVH of reposited testis on detailed assessment. The patient was managed on the usual lines of management protocols of TVH with successful outcome.

  14. Absent testis: does it exist in 46,XY males?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Pediatric Surgery 2013, 9:79–80. Keywords: absent testis, undescended testis, vanishing testis. Al Noor Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Correspondence to Mohamed Amin ElGohary, FRCS, Al Noor Hospital,. PO Box 48481, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Tel: + 971 506 225 532; fax: + 971 249 44470; e-mail: amingoh@gmail.com.

  15. Leonardo da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius; the shoulder girdle and the spine, a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganseman, Y; Broos, P

    2008-01-01

    Leonardo Da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius were two important renaissance persons; Vesalius was a surgeon-anatomist who delivered innovative work on the study of the human body, Leonardo da Vinci was an artist who delivered strikingly accurate and beautiful drawings on the human body. Below we compare both masters with regard to their knowledge of the working of the muscles, their method and system of dissection and their system and presentation of the drawings. The investigation consisted of a comparison between both anatomists, in particular concerning their study on the shoulder girdle and spine, by reviewing their original work as well as already existing literature on this subject. The investigation led to the conclusion that the drawings mentioned meant a change in history, and were of high quality, centuries ahead of their time. Both were anatomists, both were revolutionary, only one changed history at the moment itself, while the other changed history centuries later. Leonardo has made beautiful drawings that are at a match with the drawings of today or are even better. Vesalius set the start for medicine as a science as it is until this day. Their lives differed as strongly as their impact. In the light of their time, the achievement they made was extraordinary.

  16. Free radicals in adolescent varicocele testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Carmelo; Santoro, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using "adolescent," "varicocele," "free radicals," "oxidative and nitrosative stress," "testis," and "seminiferous tubules" as keywords. Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved. We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina. With regard to few available data in current literature, further clinical trials on the pre- and postoperative ROS and RNS levels together with morphological studies of the cellular component of the testis are fundamental for complete comprehension of the role played by free radicals in the pathogenesis of adolescent varicocele and could justify its pharmacological treatment with antioxidants.

  17. Phantom testis syndrome: prevalence, phenomenology and putative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pühse, Gerald; Wachsmuth, Julia Urte; Kemper, Sebastian; Husstedt, Ingo W; Kliesch, Sabine; Evers, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Chronic phantom pain has been found in up to 78% of limb amputees and is a major complication of limb amputation. Less is known about phantom phenomena after the amputation of other, i.e. visceral, parts of the body. In a retrospective design, we identified 539 patients in whom one testis was removed between 1995 and 2005. The operative technique was a unilateral standard radical inguinal orchiectomy. The underlying pathology in all cases was a testicular germ cell tumour. All patients received a detailed questionnaire asking about the occurrence of phantom testis pain (pain felt in the removed testis), phantom testis sensations (non-painful sensations as if the removed testis was still intact) and hallucinations (illusionary perceptions on the removed testis). Furthermore, we asked about the occurrence and clinical presentation of pain before and after surgery and about pre-operative testicular pain. Out of 238 respondents, 125 patients (53%) reported any kind of phantom experience. The prevalence of phantom testis pain was 25% (60/238), non-painful phantom sensations 16% (37/238) and male gonad hallucinations 12% (28/238). Patients with phantom symptoms reported pre-operative pain in the removed testis more often than patients without phantom symptoms. This study presents first data on the clinical characteristics and possible mechanisms of the phantom testis syndrome after surgical removal of one testis.

  18. [The Vitruvian Man: an anatomical drawing for proportions by Leonardo Da Vinci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floch-Prigent, P

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to find out and to analyse the text by Vitruvius which inspired the famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci (circa 1490) kept in the Galleria dell'Accademia, in Venezia, Italy: the man inscribed in one circle and in one square. The book "de Architectura" by Vitruvius Marcus Pollio was printed several times since the Renaissance when both the roman architecture of antiquity and this text became very popular. From a French translation by Claude Perrault in 1864, it became easy to find a French translation with the original text in Latin (Paris, 2003, Les Belles Lettres, French text by Pierre Gros). The drawing by Leonardo da Vinci illustrates with great accuracy and fidelity the quotation of Vitruvius (with the exception of two of the 12 main relationships). The genius of Leonardo da Vinci was to keep only one trunk, head and neck for two pairs of limbs: scapular and pelvic; to make the circle tangent to the lower edge of the square; to adjust a few features of the quotation for the equilibrium of the whole figure; and of course to bring his incredible skill as a drawer (one of the best of his century). The drawing was made on a sheet of paper 344x245mm, in black ink which became dark brown with time; several lines complete the figure above and below; a short caption and a horizontal scale appear just under the drawing. The celebrity of the drawing, a symbol of the Renaissance, of the equilibrium of man and mankind, of the universality of the artists and intellectuals of the time (Humanism) made it iconic and it has been constantly reproduced and adapted especially for advertisement and logos, not only in the medical field.

  19. An update of the macaque testis proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of rhesus macaque is a draft version with many errors and is lack of Y chromosome annotation. In the present dataset, we reanalyzed the previously published macaque testis proteome. We searched for refined protein sequences, potential Y chromosome proteins and transcripts predicted proteins in addition to the latest Ensembl protein sequences of macaque. A total of 74,433 peptides corresponding to 9247 protein groups were identified, and the data are supplied in this paper. The updated version of macaque testis proteome provided evidences for predicted genes or transcripts at the peptide level. It can be used for further in-depth proteogenomic annotation of macaque genome and is useful for studying the mechanisms of macaque spermatogenesis.

  20. [The anatomy of a reduced skull model--visualisation of Leonardo da Vinci's anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahner, E

    2008-04-02

    The article focuses on a rare example of a miniature skull of unknown origin. The profoundness of the anatomical details, conjoint with outstanding virtuosity, reminds of Leonardo da Vinci's anatomical skull studies and asks for additional interpretation beside the emblematic "memento mori"-character. Following the miscellaneous topics of his skull studies an anatomical-anthropological interpretation is proposed. For such a project the mergence of anthropology, history of medicine and history of art was mandatory. Concerning some discrepancies within the anatomical realism, the depiction of a pathology is discussed and beyond the visualisation of a historic concept of brain function.

  1. OCT structural examination of Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targowski, Piotr; Iwanicka, Magdalena; Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Kaszewska, Ewa A.; Frosinini, Cecilia

    2013-05-01

    Madonna dei Fusi (`Madonna of the Yarnwider') is a spectacular example of Italian Renaissance painting, attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. The aim of this study is to give an account of past restoration procedures. The evidence of a former retouching campaign will be presented with cross-sectional images obtained non-invasively with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Specifically, the locations of overpaintings/retouchings with respect to the original paint layer and secondary varnishes will be given. Additionally, the evidence of a former transfer of the pictorial layer to the new canvas support by detecting the presence of its structure incised into paint layer will be shown.

  2. Thyroid hormone and leptin in the testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fonte Ramos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs. Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in humans and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis.

  3. [Leonardo da Vinci the first human body imaging specialist. A brief communication on the thorax oseum images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Raúl; Criales, José Luis; Cardoso, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The impressive development of computed tomography (CT) techniques such as the three dimensional helical CT produces a spatial image of the thoracic skull. At the beginning of the 16th century Leonardo da Vinci drew with great precision the thorax oseum. These drawings show an outstanding similarity with the images obtained by three dimensional helical CT. The cumbersome task of the Renaissance genius is a prime example of the careful study of human anatomy. Modern imaging techniques require perfect anatomic knowledge of the human body in order to generate exact interpretations of images. Leonardo's example is alive for anybody devoted to modern imaging studies.

  4. Kihutav politseijuht Antropov testis Saaremaal Hummerit / Risto Berendson, Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berendson, Risto, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    Politsei pressishefi sõnul testis politseijuht Robert Antropov Saaremaal julgestuspolitsei tarbeks maastikuautot Hummer. Endise politseijuhi Ain Seppiku kommentaare. Tabel: Tavaline politseimaastur võrreldes Hummeriga

  5. The uncatchable smile in Leonardo da Vinci's La Bella Principessa portrait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranzo, Alessandro; Newberry, Michelle

    2015-08-01

    A portrait of uncertain origin recently came to light which, after extensive research and examination, was shown to be that rarest of things: a newly discovered Leonardo da Vinci painting entitled La Bella Principessa. This research presents a new illusion which is similar to that identified in the Mona Lisa; La Bella Principessa's mouth appears to change slant depending on both the Viewing Distance and the Level of Blur applied to a digital version of the portrait. Through a series of psychophysics experiments, it was found that a perceived change in the slant of the La Bella Principessa's mouth influences her expression of contentment thus generating an illusion that we have coined the "uncatchable smile". The elusive quality of the Mona Lisa's smile has been previously reported (Science, 290 (2000) 1299) and so the existence of a similar illusion in a portrait painted prior to the Mona Lisa becomes more interesting. The question remains whether Leonardo da Vinci intended this illusion. In any case, it can be argued that the ambiguity created adds to the portrait's allure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Luis de Morales y Leonardo. Nuevas fuentes iconográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaluguina, Elena O.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El nombre del maestro de Vinci era sinónimo en España de «gran artista». La fama de este pintor, conocido en la Península Ibérica ya desde finales del siglo XV, alcanzó su apogeo en la primera mitad del siglo siguiente. Francisco de Holanda, primer historiador de la pintura española y portuguesa, en su tratado «Da Pintura Antigua» (1548, calificándoles de «águilas» del arte contemporáneo italiano, otorgaba el primer puesto a Miguel Ángel, tras el cual «seguía Leonardo da Vinci, descubridor y pionero con su valiente contraposición de luz y sombra». Es poco probable que en el siglo XVI hubiese en la península ibérica obras originales del gran artista italiano. Aunque en muchos inventarios de colecciones reales y privadas se enumeraban obras de Leonardo, es un hecho conocido que se trata de obras de sus discípulos o de copias de sus obras originales…

  7. Use of Simulation in Nursing Education: Initial Experiences on a European Union Lifelong Learning Programme--Leonardo Da Vinci Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzioglu, Fusun; Tuna, Zahide; Duygulu, Sergul; Boztepe, Handan; Kapucu, Sevgisun; Ozdemir, Leyla; Akdemir, Nuran; Kocoglu, Deniz; Alinier, Guillaume; Festini, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to share the initial experiences on a European Union (EU) Lifelong Learning Programme Leonardo Da Vinci Transfer of Innovation Project related to the use of simulation-based learning with nursing students from Turkey. The project started at the end of the 2010 involving 7 partners from 3 different countries including…

  8. Virtual Mobility in Reality: A Study of the Use of ICT in Finnish Leonardo da Vinci Mobility Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valjus, Sonja

    An e-mail survey and interviews collected data on use of information and communications technology (ICT) in Finnish Leonardo da Vinci mobility projects from 2000-02. Findings showed that the most common ICT tools used were e-mail, digital tools, and the World Wide Web; ICT was used during all project phases; the most common problems concerned…

  9. Educating in the Design and Construction of Built Environments Accessible to Disabled People: The Leonardo da Vinci AWARD Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattari, Antonio; Dalpra, Michela; Bernardi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    An interdisciplinary partnership within an European Leonardo da Vinci project has developed a new approach aimed at educating secondary school students in the creation of built environments accessible to disabled people and at sensitizing them towards the inclusion of people with disabilities in all realms of social life. The AWARD (Accessible…

  10. Leonardo da Vinci jõudis Tallinna / Orest Kormašov, Helen Kokk ; intervjueerinud Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kormašov, Orest, 1964-

    2010-01-01

    Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis eksponeeritakse 5.-12. veebruarini 2010. a. Leonardo da Vinci arvatavat autoportreed. Itaalia kunstiajaloolased kaasasid autoportree uurimisse Tallinna Ülikooli maaliosakonna juhataja Orest Kormašovi, kes teostas klassikalise portreeskulptuuri, ja Eesti Kunstiakadeemia graafilise disaini tudengi Helen Koka, kes valmistas arvutiimitatsiooni

  11. The oldest anatomical handmade skull of the world c. 1508: 'the ugliness of growing old' attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missinne, Stefaan J

    2014-06-01

    The author discusses a previously unknown early sixteenth-century renaissance handmade anatomical miniature skull. The small, naturalistic skull made from an agate (calcedonia) stone mixture (mistioni) shows remarkable osteologic details. Dr. Saban was the first to link the skull to Leonardo. The three-dimensional perspective of and the search for the senso comune are discussed. Anatomical errors both in the drawings of Leonardo and this skull are presented. The article ends with the issue of physiognomy, his grotesque faces, the Perspective Communis and his experimenting c. 1508 with the stone mixture and the human skull. Evidence, including the Italian scale based on Crazie and Braccia, chemical analysis leading to a mine in Volterra and Leonardo's search for the soul in the skull are presented. Written references in the inventory of Salai (1524), the inventory of the Villa Riposo (Raffaello Borghini 1584) and Don Ambrogio Mazenta (1635) are reviewed. The author attributes the skull c. 1508 to Leonardo da Vinci.

  12. Ectopic Splenic Tissue in the Testis: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectopic SplENic tiSSUE iN thE tEStiS associated with bilateral cryptorchidism and hypospadias4. Brasch et al. reported a case involving the right testis5. Ultrasonography, scintigraphy (with technetium-99m) and single positron emission computerized tomography are considered the best diagnostic tools for this condition2,3.

  13. Testicular development and relationship between body weight, testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... testicular components, absolute testis weight and body weight in boars. There is evidence in literature that the volume percentage occupied by the spermatogenetic tissues increased with age, body weight and testis weight in boars (Allrich et al., 1983; Harder et al., 1995). These reports seem to indicate that ...

  14. Reliability of hypertrophy of the contralateral testis in prediction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The hypertrophied testis can predict the status of the impalpable contralateral one. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of contralateral testicular hypertrophy for predicting the presence or absence of impalpable undescended testis (UDT) in Egyptian boys. Patients and methods: This study was ...

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human testis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spermatogenesis-related gene 8 (SRG8). Materials and methods. Data-mining of UniGene database. In this study, the DDD tool was used according to the database instructions. Nine testis-derived cDNA libraries. Keywords. digital differential display; testis; real-time PCR; Northern blot. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No.

  16. Prevalence of Undescended Testis and its Associated Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Undescended Testis and its Associated Factors among under-fives seen at Reproductive and Child Health Clinic in Ifakara, Tanzania. ... The male sexual differentiation and development is important for the normal reproductive life span. Similarly, risk of carcinoma of testis will be prevented, if early diagnosis of ...

  17. Management of supernumerary testis: a rare case of polyorchidism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supernumeracy testis is frequently associated with undescended testis, testicular torsion, inguinal hernia, and hydrocele. Management is controversial with some advocating for orchidectomy due to concerns of malignancy. The family was educated about the risk for malignancy and the importance of regular follow-up and ...

  18. Imaging of mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, M. [University of Trieste, Department of Radiology, Trieste (Italy); Boulay-Coletta, I. [Fondation Hopital Saint Joseph, Service d' Imagerie Medical, Paris (France); Butini, R. [Ospedale S. Giacomo, Department of Radiology, Castelfranco Veneto, TV (Italy); Dudea, S.M. [Univ. Med. Pharm. ' ' Iuliu Hatieganu' ' , Department of Radiology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Oltmanns, G. [University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ramchandani, P. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Stein, M.W. [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Valentino, M. [Sant' Antonio Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tolmezzo, UD (Italy); Derchi, Lorenzo E. [University of Genoa, Department of Health Sciences, Genova (Italy); IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino IST, Radiologia d' Urgenza, Genova (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    To describe the imaging findings in a series of patients with mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. We reviewed clinical data, imaging findings and follow-up information in a series of 10 pathology-proven cases of mesothelioma (all had US; 2 had MR) of the tunica vaginalis. A variety of patterns could be observed, the most common (5/10) being a hydrocele with parietal, solid and hypervascular vegetations; one patient had a septated hydrocele with hypervascular walls; one had multiple, solid nodules surrounded by a small, physiological quantity of fluid; one a cystic lesion with thick walls and vegetations compressing the testis; two had a solid paratesticular mass. MR showed multiple small nodules on the surface of the tunica vaginalis in one case and diffuse thickening and vegetations in the other one; lesions had low signal intensity on T2-w images and were hypervascular after contrast injection. A preoperative diagnosis of mesotheliomas presenting as solid paratesticular masses seems very difficult with imaging. On the contrary, the diagnosis must be considered in patients in whom a hydrocele with parietal vegetations is detected, especially if these show high vascularity. (orig.)

  19. Alchemy in popular culture: Leonardo Fioravanti and the search for the philosopher's stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamon, W

    2000-05-01

    This article examines the alchemical ideas and practices of the sixteenth-century Italian surgeon Leonardo Fioravanti. I argue that Fioravanti's "search for the philosopher's stone" was as much an effort at self-fashioning as a search for alchemical gold. Exploiting the fashion for alchemical drugs, he framed a "new theory" of healing that relied on the use of distilled drugs as a means of purging bodily corruptions. His theory resonated with popular culture, and made him the focus of an alternative medical movement. I conclude that Fioravanti's alchemy was not Paracelsianism, but relied much more on more immediate sources such as Arnald of Villanova, the pseudo-Lull, and the contemporary Milanese alchemist Ettore Ausonio.

  20. The influence of ancient Greek thought on fifteenth century anatomy: Galenic influence and Leonardo da Vinci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Richard Isaiah; Gonzales, Jocelyn; Iwanaga, Joe; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-05-29

    Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) can be called one of the earliest contributors to the history of anatomy and, by extension, the study of medicine. He may have even overshadowed Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), the so-called founder of human anatomy, if his works had been published within his lifetime. While some of the best illustrations of their time, with our modern knowledge of anatomy, it is clear that many of da Vinci's depictions of human anatomy are inaccurate. However, he also made significant discoveries in anatomy and remarkable predictions of facts he could not yet discover with the technology available to him. Additionally, da Vinci was largely influenced by Greek anatomists, as indicated from his ideas about anatomical structure. In this historical review, we describe da Vinci's history, influences, and discoveries in anatomical research and his depictions and errors with regards to the musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, and other organs.

  1. Microbiological Analysis of Surfaces of Leonardo Da Vinci's Atlantic Codex: Biodeterioration Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsitani, Gianfranco; Moroni, Catia; Cappitelli, Francesca; Pasquariello, Giovanna; Maggi, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    Following the discovery of discoloration on some pages of the Atlantic Codex (AC) of Leonardo da Vinci kept in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, some investigations have been carried out to verify the presence of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. To verify the presence of microorganisms a noninvasive method of sampling has been used that was efficient and allowed us to highlight the microbial facies of the material that was examined using conventional microbiological techniques. The microclimatic conditions in the storage room as well as the water content of the volume were also assessed. The combined observations allowed the conclusion that the discoloration of suspected biological origin on some pages of AC is not related to the presence or current attack of microbial agents.

  2. Bell's palsy: the answer to the riddle of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Mona Lisa'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, W J

    2011-05-01

    The smile of the famed portrait 'The Mona Lisa' has perplexed both art historians and researchers for the past 500 years. There has been a multitude of theories expounded to explain the nature of the model's enigmatic smile. The origin of the model's wry smile can be demonstrated through a careful analysis of both documented facts concerning the portrait--some gathered only recently through the use of modern technology--and a knowledge of the clinical presentation of Bell's palsy. Bell's palsy is more prevalent in women who are either pregnant or who have recently given birth. This paper postulates that the smile of the portrait's model was due to Leonardo da Vinci's anatomically precise representation of a new mother affected by Bell's palsy subsequent to her recent pregnancy.

  3. Microbiological Analysis of Surfaces of Leonardo Da Vinci’s Atlantic Codex: Biodeterioration Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Tarsitani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of discoloration on some pages of the Atlantic Codex (AC of Leonardo da Vinci kept in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, some investigations have been carried out to verify the presence of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. To verify the presence of microorganisms a noninvasive method of sampling has been used that was efficient and allowed us to highlight the microbial facies of the material that was examined using conventional microbiological techniques. The microclimatic conditions in the storage room as well as the water content of the volume were also assessed. The combined observations allowed the conclusion that the discoloration of suspected biological origin on some pages of AC is not related to the presence or current attack of microbial agents.

  4. El nuevo gobierno de Sancho by Leonardo Castellani, in the light of Cervantine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Rodríguez Temperley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost since its publication, Don Quixote had an attractive magnetism in writers from different languages and different times, who imitated, continued and rewroted the Cervantes’s best literary work. Argentine is possibly the american country that most has contributed to increased this literary heritage. Contemporary to the famous «Pierre Menard, autor del Quijote» published by Jorge Luis Borges in 1939 and 1941 (perhaps the paradigmatic rewriting of a Cervantine text in the argentine literature will rise an original and unclasificable text: a political satire of the argentine reality of the River Plate, looking for an argentine identity. This work is El nuevo gobierno de Sancho, published by the Jesuit Leonardo Castellani in 1942. The purpose of this article is to do a comparative study with Don Quixote.

  5. Crimes do texto, crimes verdadeiros:a máfia na voz de Leonardo Sciascia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Pimentel Pinto

    Full Text Available RESUMO Nas entrevistas ou nos pronunciamentos parlamentares que realizou - assim como em sua ficção - o escritor siciliano Leonardo Sciascia denunciou incessantemente a máfia. Para ele, a hegemonia do crime organizado e suas articulações na política institucional impediam o acesso à verdade e à justiça. Coerentemente, suas peculiares narrativas policiais apresentam crimes sem solução, detetives derrotados, silêncios e omissões. Associando os crimes do texto e os crimes verdadeiros, Sciascia desenha, assim, o perfil da Sicília e, de forma mais ampla, da Itália.

  6. Thinking like Leonardo da Vinci and its implications for the modern doctor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Most people when asked to name the most creative, innovative, and multidimensional people in history would agree that Leonardo da Vinci is either at the top or very close to the number one position on that list. Wouldn't it be nice to think like da Vinci? This article shares the seven unique principles of thinking that da Vinci used that enabled him to be the greatest painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer of his (if not of all) time. This article will take you deep into the notebooks and codices of da Vinci, and suggest ways his ideas can be used by anyone in the healthcare profession to make them a better healthcare provider.

  7. Entrevista a Leonardo Filippini: “Sáquenme de Estocolmo si me enamoro de mi secuestrador”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Lauzán

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Leonardo Filippini es abogado de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. Es máster en Derecho de la Universidad de Palermo y de la Universidad de Yale. Actualmente es Profesor de grado y posgrado en la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de Palermo, Investigador del Centro Internacional para la Justicia Transicional (ICTJ y candidato a doctor por la Escuela de Derecho de Yale. En esta entrevista, se discute sobre la Ley Nº 26.549 que modificó el Código Procesal Penal en Argentina, y que autoriza a la realización de pruebas compulsivas de ADN, en el contexto de los juicios que buscan restablecer la identidad de los niños y niñas apropiados o sustraídos ilegalmente durante la dictadur, y cuya identidad aún no se ha logrado establecer.

  8. Molecular and cellular endocrinology of the testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanini, M.; Conti, M.; Geremia, R.; Ziparo, E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the IV European Workshop on Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology of the Testis held in Capri (Italy) between the 9th and 12th April 1986. The workshop was organized in several symposia related to some of the most relevant aspects of the regulation of testicular function. Main topics were the role of cell interactions, the mechanisms of signal transduction, gene expression and metabolic response of somatic cells as well as differentiation of germ cells. One session was devoted to prostaglandins in the male reproductive system and to brief discussions on interstitial fluid and on antispermatogenic compounds. In this book only the main lectures and some selected short papers are presented. (Auth.)

  9. Aggressive surgical management of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Maganty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is a rare and aggressive malignancy arising from the epididymal epithelium. We present a case of a 66-year-old male who presented with left testis mass. Histopathological analysis of orchiectomy specimen was consistent with adenocarcinoma of the rete testis. Subsequent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection revealed metastatic disease not detected on preoperative PET-CT. Prior reports have suggested poor response rates to both systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Aggressive surgical management of the retroperitoneum should be considered even in clinically node-negative patients given the paucity of other effective treatment regimens.

  10. [The art of Leonardo Da Vinci as a resource to science and the ideal of nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maria Aparecida de Luca; de Brito, Isabela Jorge; Dehoul, Marcelo da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical reflection whose goal is to demonstrate the art a nursing team is required to show in order to perform a technical procedure for transfer of solutions from a normal vial to a microdrops vial, based on Leonardo Da Vinci's theoretical referential, inspired by his work called "Vitruvian Man", so that body harmony is kept. The authors emphasize its relationship to nursing care, viewing it from its broadest sense, and its own motto--"Science, Art and Ideal".

  11. Leonardo da Vinci maali näidatakse peagi Kadriorus / Gianni Glinni, Orest Kormašov ; intervjueerinud Mart Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Glinni, Gianni

    2009-01-01

    Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis eksponeeritakse 5.-12. veebruarini 2010. a. Leonardo da Vinci arvatavat autoportreed ning 6. veebruaril toimub Tallinna Ülikoolis maali analüüse tutvustav konverents. Portree leiti 2008. aastal ühest Lõuna-Itaalia erakogust. TLÜ kunstiosakonna juhataja Orest Kormašov valmistas maali järgi skulptuuri ja EKA tudeng ja graafiline disainer Helen Kokk arvutimudeli. Intervjuus jagavad teemakohaseid selgitusi üks uuringute eestvedaja Gianni Glinni ja Orest Kormašov

  12. FlyTED: the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jun; Klyne, Graham; Benson, Elizabeth; Gudmannsdottir, Elin; White-Cooper, Helen; Shotton, David

    2009-01-01

    FlyTED, the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database, is a biological research database for gene expression images from the testis of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. It currently contains 2762 mRNA in situ hybridization images and ancillary metadata revealing the patterns of gene expression of 817 Drosophila genes in testes of wild type flies and of seven meiotic arrest mutant strains in which spermatogenesis is defective. This database has been built by adapting a widely used digita...

  13. The Science Museum and the Leonardo da Vinci Quincentenary Exhibition of 1952

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor Jim Bennett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A large and successful exhibition to mark the 500th anniversary of the birth of Leonardo da Vinci was held at the Royal Academy, Burlington House, London, in 1952. It was an important event for the public appreciation of Leonardo’s genius. The proposal for the exhibition had come from the Science Museum, whose staff arranged a ‘scientific section’ of the exhibition, providing and displaying photographs and models. The story of these early models is particularly interesting in the light of the subsequent expansion in the use of mechanical models and animations to interpret and present Leonardo’s work. Questions that surrounded their introduction are accentuated by the ubiquity of models today. Some of the 1952 models will be displayed at the Science Museum in 2016, alongside an exhibition of a large group of ‘historical models’ first displayed in Milan in 1953. The occasion should provoke some thoughtful consideration of the current influence of this tool for research and display.

  14. Em nome do Pai: o Francisco de Assis de Leonardo Boff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Timotheo da Costa

    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente texto analisa a imagem de Francisco de Assis construída por Leonardo Boff. Discute-se aqui como o ainda frade franciscano Boff respondeu às sanções disciplinares a ele impostas pela Santa Sé, reação expressa no livro Francisco de Assis: a saudade do Paraíso (1985. Nessa obra, um exercício memorial inspirado em fontes franciscanas primitivas, Boff vai além da mera celebração da legenda de Francisco de Assis, apresentando o santo medieval como ícone da Teologia da Libertação, crente paradigmático para nosso tempo e patrono das causas populares. Assim, interpretando Francisco de Assis por intermédio dos ideais cristãos liberacionistas, Boff contestou seus adversários, ratificando sua teologia militante. Por fim, ele proclamou projeto político de oposição à ordem estabelecida no Brasil e na Igreja Católica.

  15. Laparoscopic diagnosis and treatment of nonpalpable testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco T. Denes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Treatment of the cryptorchid testicle is justified due to the increased risk of infertility and malignancy as well as the risk of testicular trauma and psychological stigma on patients and their parents. Approximately 20% of cryptorchid testicles are nonpalpable. In these cases, the videolaparoscopic technique is a useful alternative method for diagnosis and treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present data concerning 90 patients submitted to diagnostic laparoscopy for impalpable testicles. Forty-six patients (51.1% had intra-abdominal gonads. In 25 testicles of 19 patients, we performed a two stage laparoscopic Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy. The other 27 patients underwent primary laparoscopic orchiopexy, in a total of 29 testicles. RESULTS: We obtained an overall 88% success rate with the 2 stage Fowler-Stephens approach and only 33% rate success using one stage Fowler-Stephens surgery with primary vascular ligature. There was no intraoperative complication in our group of patients. In the laparoscopic procedures, the cosmetic aspect is remarkably more favorable as compared to open surgeries. Hospital stay and convalescence were brief. CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric age group, the laparoscopic approach is safe and feasible. Furthermore, the laparoscopic orchiopexy presents excellent results in terms of diagnosis and therapy of the impalpable testis, which is why this technique has been routinely incorporated in our Department.

  16. Undescended testis: how extensive should the work up be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, Altaf Hussain; Baba, Aejaz Ahsan; Gupta, Shyam Kumar; Gupta, Geetanjali; Sherwani, Afak Yusuf

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight various anomalies associated with undescended testis and to determine how much work up is necessary for this condition. The study was conducted in the department of Pediatric Surgery SKIMS Srinagar, Kashmir. All patients between 0-14 years of age who attended out patient department (OPD) from January 2002 to December 2003 with maldescent of testes were included in the study. Detailed relevant history and physical examination findings were recorded in all the cases. Baseline investigations were performed along with ultrasonography of the abdomen. In relevant cases other investigations like intravenous urography, micturating cystourethrography, CT scan and laparoscopy were performed as and when indicated. A total of 250 cases of undescended testis were registered during this period. Maximum number of cases were in the age group of 5-10 years. In 130 (52%) cases the right testis was undescended while 75 (30%) had left sided undescended testis and 45 (18%) had bilateral undescended testis. Maldescended testis comprised 11% of the admissions. The majority of cases were having gestational age of 37 weeks or more. The associated anomalies picked up on investigations included duplication of upper urinary tract (3.2%), hydronephrosis and polycystic kidney (0.8% each), horseshoe kidney, ectopic kidney, crossed renal ectopia (0.4% each) Posterior urethral valves, Prune belly syndrome (0.4%) and spina bifida (0.4%). On detailed clinical examination of genitalia several abnormalities were picked which included hydrocele, hypospadias, hernia, chordee, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. We recommend ultrasonography to be done in all cases of undescended testis in addition to a thorough history and physical examination. Intravenous pyelography, micturating cystourethrogram, CT scan and other investigations should be performed selectively based on history, physical examination or ultrasound findings.

  17. Undesended testis: How extensive should the work up be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shera Altaf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to highlight various anomalies associated with undescended testis and to determine how much work up is necessary for this condition. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Pediatric Surgery SKIMS Srinagar, Kashmir. All patients between 0-14 years of age who attended out patient department (OPD from January 2002 to December 2003 with maldescent of testes were included in the study. Detailed relevant history and physical examination findings were recorded in all the cases. Baseline investigations were performed along with ultrasonography of the abdomen. In relevant cases other investigations like intravenous urography, micturating cystourethrography, CT scan and laparoscopy were performed as and when indicated. Results: A total of 250 cases of undescended testis were registered during this period. Maximum number of cases were in the age group of 5-10 years. In 130 (52% cases the right testis was undescended while 75 (30% had left sided undescended testis and 45 (18% had bilateral undescended testis. Maldescended testis comprised 11% of the admissions. The majority of cases were having gestational age of 37 weeks or more. The associated anomalies picked up on investigations included duplication of upper urinary tract (3.2%, hydronephrosis and polycystic kidney (0.8% each, horseshoe kidney, ectopic kidney, crossed renal ectopia (0.4% each Posterior urethral valves, Prune belly syndrome (0.4% and spina bifida (0.4%. On detailed clinical examination of genitalia several abnormalities were picked which included hydrocele, hypospadias, hernia, chordee, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Conclusion: We recommend ultrasonography to be done in all cases of undescended testis in addition to a thorough history and physical examination. Intravenous pyelography, micturating cystourethrogram, CT scan and other investigations should be performed selectively based on history, physical examination or

  18. Contralateral testicular biopsy in testis cancer: current concepts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Axel

    2009-11-01

    Of all patients with unilateral testis cancer, approximately 5% harbour testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) in their contralateral testicle that will progress into an invasive germ cell tumour over time. The accurate diagnosis of TIN by a random two-site surgical testis biopsy and effective therapy by local radiation has led to the concept of a contralateral screening biopsy in all patients with testis cancer. However, screening and preventive treatment are only indicated if the therapeutic outcome of the screened population is improved, and the physiological function of the affected organ is not impaired. Based on a critical review of previous reports, some drawbacks of this policy have to be considered and question the routine indication for contralateral testis biopsy: (i) all TIN-negative patients still have to undergo meticulous follow-up for metachronous testis cancer due to a false negative biopsy rate of 0.5-1.0%; (ii) local radiation of TIN results in irreversible infertility due to eradication of spermatogenesis; (iii) local radiation of TIN results in an impairment of endocrine Leydig cell function in 25% of the patients; (iv) therapeutic outcome and prognosis will not be improved in irradiated patients as compared to patients on surveillance; (v) local tumour resection for the management of metachronous testicular cancer represents an effective and viable option. Current reports do not support the strategy of contralateral testis biopsy in all patients with unilateral testicular germ cell tumours. According to the recommendations of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group, a testis biopsy might be offered to high-risk patients for contralateral TIN (testicular volume <12 mL, history of cryptorchidism, age <30 years).

  19. Thyroid Hormone Role and Economy in the Developing Testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arturo

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) exhibit pleiotropic regulatory effects on growth, development, and metabolism, and it is becoming increasingly apparent that the developing testis is an important target for them. Testicular development is highly dependent on TH status. Both hypo- and hyperthyroidism affect testis size and the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli, Leydig, and germ cells, with consequences for steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. These observations suggest that an appropriate content of TH and by implication TH action in the testis, whether the result of systemic hormonal levels or regulatory mechanisms at the local level, is critical for normal testicular and reproductive function. The available evidence indicates the presence in the developing testis of a number of transporters, deiodinases and receptors that could play a role in the timely delivery of TH action on testicular cells. These include the thyroid hormone receptor alpha (THRA), the MCT8 transporter, the TH-activating deiodinase DIO2, and the TH-inactivating deiodinase DIO3, all of which appear to modulate testicular TH economy and testis outcomes. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. UNFOLDING LEONARDO DA VINCI’S GLOBE (AD 1504 TO REVEAL ITS HISTORICAL WORLD MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Verhoeven

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports in detail on the image-based modelling and unwrapping approach used to create a two-dimensional projected map of an astonishing ostrich egg globe from AD 1504. This miniature egg globe is not only the oldest extant engraved globe, but it is also the oldest post-Columbian globe of the world and the first ever to depict Newfoundland and many other territories. The intention of digitally recording the surface geometry and colour of this unique artefact was to portray the original layout of the world map used by the Florentine Renaissance artist to make this globe. In addition, it was expected to substantiate iconographical details, which are hard to study at its scale of 1:80,000,000. The ostrich egg globe is the prototype of the Lenox Globe kept at the New York Public Library. The latter is very beneficial to examine how the egg globe looked like before being glued together at its equator. On the other hand, unfolding the map engraved in the ostrich egg halves enables a more detailed study of the remarkable details visible on both globes, since the engravings on the quasi-white egg surface are much easier to discern than those of the highly reflective red copper Lenox Globe. Finally, a detailed study of the unwrapped 3D surface is essential to learn more about the world vision of its creator and the incredible efforts that went into making this globe. Thanks to some particular pictographic details as well as the way in which the engravings are applied (by a left-handed person, the globe artist can be identified as Leonardo da Vinci.

  1. Unfolding Leonardo DA Vinci's Globe (ad 1504) to Reveal its Historical World Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, G. J.; Missinne, S. J.

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports in detail on the image-based modelling and unwrapping approach used to create a two-dimensional projected map of an astonishing ostrich egg globe from AD 1504. This miniature egg globe is not only the oldest extant engraved globe, but it is also the oldest post-Columbian globe of the world and the first ever to depict Newfoundland and many other territories. The intention of digitally recording the surface geometry and colour of this unique artefact was to portray the original layout of the world map used by the Florentine Renaissance artist to make this globe. In addition, it was expected to substantiate iconographical details, which are hard to study at its scale of 1:80,000,000. The ostrich egg globe is the prototype of the Lenox Globe kept at the New York Public Library. The latter is very beneficial to examine how the egg globe looked like before being glued together at its equator. On the other hand, unfolding the map engraved in the ostrich egg halves enables a more detailed study of the remarkable details visible on both globes, since the engravings on the quasi-white egg surface are much easier to discern than those of the highly reflective red copper Lenox Globe. Finally, a detailed study of the unwrapped 3D surface is essential to learn more about the world vision of its creator and the incredible efforts that went into making this globe. Thanks to some particular pictographic details as well as the way in which the engravings are applied (by a left-handed person), the globe artist can be identified as Leonardo da Vinci.

  2. From Leonardo to da Vinci: the history of robot-assisted surgery in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, David R; Vaessen, Christophe; Roupret, Morgan

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Numerous urological procedures can now be performed with robotic assistance. Though not definitely proven to be superior to conventional laparoscopy or traditional open surgery in the setting of a randomised trial, in experienced centres robot-assisted surgery allows for excellent surgical outcomes and is a valuable tool to augment modern surgical practice. Our review highlights the depth of history that underpins the robotic surgical platform we utilise today, whilst also detailing the current place of robot-assisted surgery in urology in 2011. The evolution of robots in general and as platforms to augment surgical practice is an intriguing story that spans cultures, continents and centuries. A timeline from Yan Shi (1023-957 bc), Archytas of Tarentum (400 bc), Aristotle (322 bc), Heron of Alexandria (10-70 ad), Leonardo da Vinci (1495), the Industrial Revolution (1790), 'telepresence' (1950) and to the da Vinci(®) Surgical System (1999), shows the incredible depth of history and development that underpins the modern surgical robot we use to treat our patients. Robot-assisted surgery is now well-established in Urology and although not currently regarded as a 'gold standard' approach for any urological procedure, it is being increasingly used for index operations of the prostate, kidney and bladder. We perceive that robotic evolution will continue infinitely, securing the place of robots in the history of Urological surgery. Herein, we detail the history of robots in general, in surgery and in Urology, highlighting the current place of robot-assisted surgery in radical prostatectomy, partial nephrectomy, pyeloplasty and radical cystectomy. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  3. Testicular microlithiasis in boys and young men with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, J.; Hack, W.W.M.; Voort-Doedens, L.M. van der; Pierik, F.H.; Looijenga, L.H.J.; Sijstermans, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis by ultrasound in boys and young men with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis. Materials and Methods: During followup for testicular growth patients with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis were also

  4. Macrophages Contribute to the Spermatogonial Niche in the Adult Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony DeFalco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The testis produces sperm throughout the male reproductive lifespan by balancing self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs. Part of the SSC niche is thought to lie outside the seminiferous tubules of the testis; however, specific interstitial components of the niche that regulate spermatogonial divisions and differentiation remain undefined. We identified distinct populations of testicular macrophages, one of which lies on the surface of seminiferous tubules, in close apposition to areas of tubules enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia. These macrophages express spermatogonial proliferation- and differentiation-inducing factors, such as colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1 and enzymes involved in retinoic acid (RA biosynthesis. We show that transient depletion of macrophages leads to a disruption in spermatogonial differentiation. These findings reveal an unexpected role for macrophages in the spermatogonial niche in the testis and raise the possibility that macrophages play previously unappreciated roles in stem/progenitor cell regulation in other tissues.

  5. Initial Development of an Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Mirilas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop our previously presented mechanical device, the Testis Rigidity Tester (TRT, into an electronic system (Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester, ETRT by applying tactile imaging, which has been used successfully with other solid organs. A measuring device, located at the front end of the ETRT incorporates a tactile sensor comprising an array of microsensors. By application of a predetermined deformation of 2 mm, increased pressure alters linearly the resistance of each microsensor, producing changes of voltage. These signals were amplified, filtered, and digitized, and then processed by an electronic collector system, which presented them as a color-filled contour plot of the area of the testis coming into contact with the sensor. Testis models of different rigidity served for initial evaluation of ETRT; their evacuated central spaces contained different, increasing glue masses. An independent method of rigidity measurement, using an electric weight scale and a micrometer, showed that the more the glue injected, the greater the force needed for a 2-mm deformation. In a preliminary test, a single sensor connected to a multimeter showed similar force measurement for the same deformation in these phantoms. For each of the testis models compressed in the same manner, the ETRT system offered a map of pressures, represented by a color scale within the contour plot of the contact area with the sensor. ETRT found certain differences in rigidity between models that had escaped detection by a blind observer. ETRT is easy to use and provides a color-coded “insight“ of the testis internal structure. After experimental testing, it could be valuable in intraoperative evaluation of testes, so that the surgeon can decide about orchectomy or orcheopexy.

  6. Surgical treatment and follow up on undescended testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Cortes, D.

    2009-01-01

    With skill and ability to control a variety of operative techniques, undescended testes can be placed in the scrotum with 90% success rate in palpable testes and 85% in abdominal testes. Long term results are related also to the variability of the disease. A hypothesis that in cryptorchid testes...... number at birth in some cryptorchid testes and Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia seen in early childhood. The hypothesis that the abnormal location of the testis exposes the testis to infertility and malignant transformation is supported by the findings of early treatment lowering the risk of both...

  7. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

  8. File list: ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis hg19 All antigens Gonad Testis ERX096851,ERX096875,SRX66344...441,SRX663438,SRX663451,SRX663439,SRX663445,SRX663442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis hg19 Input control Gonad Testis SRX663452,SRX663439,SRX6634...45,SRX663442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  10. File list: His.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis mm9 Histone Gonad Testis SRX118394,SRX803711,SRX803710,SRX3...SRX112973,SRX185799,SRX185788 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis hg19 All antigens Gonad Testis ERX096851,SRX663448,SRX12124...444,SRX663451,SRX663439,SRX663438,SRX663445,SRX663442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis mm9 Input control Gonad Testis SRX349389,SRX1011025,SRX1183...X838550,SRX118389 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis mm9 All antigens Gonad Testis SRX118394,SRX349391,SRX803711...SRX112541,SRX118388,SRX118389,ERX144545,ERX144532,SRX112536,SRX112537 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis dm3 Histone Adult Testis SRX017854,SRX017856,SRX390502,SRX3...90501 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  15. File list: NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis hg19 No description Gonad Testis ERX096851,ERX161924,ERX096...870,ERX096849,ERX096875,ERX096874,ERX096842 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  16. File list: His.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis dm3 Histone Adult Testis SRX390502,SRX390501,SRX017856,SRX0...17854 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis hg19 TFs and others Gonad Testis SRX663441,SRX663451,SRX663...450,SRX663444,SRX663438 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis mm9 Input control Gonad Testis SRX112977,SRX349389,SRX10110...X803713,SRX838550 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis dm3 All antigens Adult Testis SRX017857,SRX017854,SRX017856...,SRX390502,SRX390501,SRX390503 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  20. File list: NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis mm9 No description Gonad Testis ERX144544,ERX144521,ERX2210...144545,ERX144532 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis mm9 Input control Gonad Testis SRX112534,SRX349389,SRX02744...X112541,SRX118389 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testis SRX349391,SRX112975,SRX1437...96,SRX237511,SRX237510,SRX244355 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis mm9 All antigens Gonad Testis SRX118383,SRX112538,SRX118394...ERX144545,ERX144553,SRX118378,SRX118389,SRX112536,ERX144532,SRX112537 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  4. File list: His.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis dm3 Histone Adult Testis SRX390502,SRX390501,SRX017856,SRX0...17854 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  5. Absent testis: does it exist in 46,XY males? | El Gohary | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion Based on embryological process of testicular development and testicular descent, agentic absent testis cannot exist. Therefore we strongly recommend to re-scope all patients who were initially diagnosed as absent testis to look for a hidden testis at the initial site of development and along the line of descent.

  6. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_testis mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic testis SRX14917...57137,SRX1156635,SRX149168,SRX149172,SRX1175150,SRX149166,SRX149170,SRX1175149 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_testis.bed ...

  7. File list: InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic testis SRX1491...74,SRX149168,SRX957136,SRX149172,SRX149166,SRX1175150,SRX1175149 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis.bed ...

  8. File list: DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_testis mm9 DNase-seq Embryo Embryonic testis SRX1156635 ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_testis.bed ...

  9. Characteristics of A spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes in the vitamin A-deficient rat testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, A. M.; van Dissel-Emiliani, F. M.; Gaemers, I. C.; van der Burg, M. J.; Tanke, H. J.; de rooij, D. G.

    1995-01-01

    The proliferative activity and other characteristics of germ cells in the vitamin A-deficient (VAD) rat testis were investigated. In the VAD testis, A spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes were found. The A spermatogonia in the VAD testis showed a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index of

  10. The mother relationship and artistic inhibition in the lives of Leonardo da Vinci and Erik H. Erikson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Donald

    2008-12-01

    In four earlier articles, I focused on the theme of the relationship of melancholia and the mother, and suggested that the melancholic self may experience humor (Capps, 2007a), play (Capps, 2007b), dreams (Capps, 2008a), and art (Capps, 2008b) as restorative resources. I argued that Erik H. Erikson found these resources to be valuable remedies for his own melancholic condition, which had its origins in the fact that he was illegitimate and was raised solely by his mother until he was three years old, when she remarried. In this article, I focus on two themes in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood (1964): Leonardo's relationship with his mother in early childhood and his inhibitions as an artist. I relate these two themes to Erikson's own early childhood and his failure to achieve his goal as an aspiring artist in his early twenties. The article concludes with a discussion of Erikson's frustrated aspirations to become an artist and his emphasis, in his psychoanalytic work, on children's play.

  11. The LEONARDO-DA-VINCI pilot project "e-learning-assistant" - Situation-based learning in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferle, Petra Ina; Van den Stock, Etienne; Nauerth, Annette

    2010-07-01

    E-learning will play an important role in the training portfolio of students in higher and vocational education. Within the LEONARDO-DA-VINCI action programme transnational pilot projects were funded by the European Union, which aimed to improve the usage and quality of e-learning tools in education and professional training. The overall aim of the LEONARDO-DA-VINCI pilot project "e-learning-assistant" was to create new didactical and technical e-learning tools for Europe-wide use in nursing education. Based on a new situation-oriented learning approach, nursing teachers enrolled in the project were instructed to adapt, develop and implement e- and blended learning units. According to the training contents nursing modules were developed by teachers from partner institutions, implemented in the project centers and evaluated by students. The user-package "e-learning-assistant" as a product of the project includes two teacher training units, the authoring tool "synapse" to create situation-based e-learning units, a student's learning platform containing blended learning modules in nursing and an open sourced web-based communication centre. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Big Data Sensors of Organic Advocacy: The Case of Leonardo DiCaprio and Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leas, Eric C; Althouse, Benjamin M; Dredze, Mark; Obradovich, Nick; Fowler, James H; Noar, Seth M; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ayers, John W

    2016-01-01

    The strategies that experts have used to share information about social causes have historically been top-down, meaning the most influential messages are believed to come from planned events and campaigns. However, more people are independently engaging with social causes today than ever before, in part because online platforms allow them to instantaneously seek, create, and share information. In some cases this "organic advocacy" may rival or even eclipse top-down strategies. Big data analytics make it possible to rapidly detect public engagement with social causes by analyzing the same platforms from which organic advocacy spreads. To demonstrate this claim we evaluated how Leonardo DiCaprio's 2016 Oscar acceptance speech citing climate change motivated global English language news (Bloomberg Terminal news archives), social media (Twitter postings) and information seeking (Google searches) about climate change. Despite an insignificant increase in traditional news coverage (54%; 95%CI: -144 to 247), tweets including the terms "climate change" or "global warming" reached record highs, increasing 636% (95%CI: 573-699) with more than 250,000 tweets the day DiCaprio spoke. In practical terms the "DiCaprio effect" surpassed the daily average effect of the 2015 Conference of the Parties (COP) and the Earth Day effect by a factor of 3.2 and 5.3, respectively. At the same time, Google searches for "climate change" or "global warming" increased 261% (95%CI, 186-335) and 210% (95%CI 149-272) the day DiCaprio spoke and remained higher for 4 more days, representing 104,190 and 216,490 searches. This increase was 3.8 and 4.3 times larger than the increases observed during COP's daily average or on Earth Day. Searches were closely linked to content from Dicaprio's speech (e.g., "hottest year"), as unmentioned content did not have search increases (e.g., "electric car"). Because these data are freely available in real time our analytical strategy provides substantial lead time

  13. Big Data Sensors of Organic Advocacy: The Case of Leonardo DiCaprio and Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Leas

    Full Text Available The strategies that experts have used to share information about social causes have historically been top-down, meaning the most influential messages are believed to come from planned events and campaigns. However, more people are independently engaging with social causes today than ever before, in part because online platforms allow them to instantaneously seek, create, and share information. In some cases this "organic advocacy" may rival or even eclipse top-down strategies. Big data analytics make it possible to rapidly detect public engagement with social causes by analyzing the same platforms from which organic advocacy spreads. To demonstrate this claim we evaluated how Leonardo DiCaprio's 2016 Oscar acceptance speech citing climate change motivated global English language news (Bloomberg Terminal news archives, social media (Twitter postings and information seeking (Google searches about climate change. Despite an insignificant increase in traditional news coverage (54%; 95%CI: -144 to 247, tweets including the terms "climate change" or "global warming" reached record highs, increasing 636% (95%CI: 573-699 with more than 250,000 tweets the day DiCaprio spoke. In practical terms the "DiCaprio effect" surpassed the daily average effect of the 2015 Conference of the Parties (COP and the Earth Day effect by a factor of 3.2 and 5.3, respectively. At the same time, Google searches for "climate change" or "global warming" increased 261% (95%CI, 186-335 and 210% (95%CI 149-272 the day DiCaprio spoke and remained higher for 4 more days, representing 104,190 and 216,490 searches. This increase was 3.8 and 4.3 times larger than the increases observed during COP's daily average or on Earth Day. Searches were closely linked to content from Dicaprio's speech (e.g., "hottest year", as unmentioned content did not have search increases (e.g., "electric car". Because these data are freely available in real time our analytical strategy provides substantial

  14. Experiences with surgical management of undescended testis at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative risk of testicular cancer in an undescended testis is between 2.75 to 8 that of a normal male. The risk appears higher in patients with bilateral UDT and late (after age of 12) or uncorrected UDT (David & Iyekoretin,. 2008). Previous studies have estimated that an UDT increases the risk of testicular torsion by 10.

  15. Primary Plasmacytoma of The Testis with no Evidence of Multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasmacytomas of the testis are extremely rare tumours, especially when occurring in the absence of a previous or concurrent diagnosis of multiple myeloma. We report a new case of solitary testicular plasmacytoma, with immunohistochemical studies showing monoclonal cytoplasmic production of IgG lambda light chains, ...

  16. Primary Plasmacytoma of The Testis with no Evidence of Multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    ABSTRACT. Plasmacytomas of the testis are extremely rare tumours, especially when occurring in the absence of a previous or concurrent diagnosis of multiple myeloma. We report a new case of solitary testicular plasmacytoma, with immunohistochemical studies showing monoclonal cytoplasmic production of IgG lambda ...

  17. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor on the histological features in carp testis. Methods: Adult male fish, koi carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) for a period of 21 days. A single dose of 17-β estradiol (1 ...

  18. Terminology and details of the diagnostic process for testis cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connolly, Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    We examined the process and causes of diagnostic delay, defined as the interval from symptom onset to diagnosis, for testis (germ cell) cancer and the change with time. Diagnostic delay influences disease burden and may be subdivided into symptomatic interval, defined as symptom onset to first presentation, and diagnostic interval, defined as first presentation to diagnosis.

  19. Obestatin induces testosterone secretion from rat testis in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effect of obestatin (23 amino acid peptide) on testosterone secretion in vitro, in the rat testis was observed. For this purpose, two different doses of obestatin (10-9 M and 10-8 M) were used alone and in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in fasting and fed conditions in two age groups.

  20. Asthenoteratozoospermia in mice lacking testis expressed gene 18 (Tex18)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaroszynski, L.; dev, A.; Li, M.; Meinhardt, A.; de rooij, D. G.; Mueller, Christian; Böhm, Detlef; Wolf, S.; Adham, I. M.; Wulf, G.; Engel, W.; Nayernia, K.

    2007-01-01

    Testis expressed gene 18 (Tex18) is a small gene with one exon of 240 bp, which is specifically expressed in male germ cells. The gene encodes for a protein of 80 amino acids with unknown domain. To investigate the function of (Tex18) gene, we generated mice with targeted disruption of the (Tex18)

  1. Synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma of the testis and kidney: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde M. Duduyemi

    2015-04-15

    Apr 15, 2015 ... Abstract Rhabdomyosarcoma is the commonest soft tissue sarcoma in both children and adoles- cents representing 40% of such tumours in North America and more than 50% in Africa. The involvement of the paratesticular tissue, testis and the kidney are generally rare and more so when it is occurring ...

  2. Sox9 induces testis development in XX transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, V. P.; Chaboissier, M. C.; de rooij, D. G.; Schedl, A.

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in SOX9 are associated with male-to-female sex reversal in humans. To analyze Sox9 function during sex determination, we ectopically expressed this gene in XX gonads. Here, we show that Sox9 is sufficient to induce testis formation in mice, indicating that it can substitute for the

  3. Steroidogenic Enzyme Histochemistry In The Testis Of Sprague ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conclude that the water extract of papaya seed suppresses the activities of steroidogenic enzymes in the testis of Sprague Dawley rats, and that this may contribute to reversible suppression of spermatogenesis, a property that gives a possible male contraceptive potential. Key words: carica papaya seed extract; ...

  4. Obestatin induces testosterone secretion from rat testis in vitro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... Obestatin induces testosterone secretion from rat testis in vitro. Hizbullah, Sarwat Jahan* and Shakeel Ahmed. Reproductive physiology lab, Department of Animal sciences Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. Pakistan. Accepted 10 March, 2011. In this study, the effect of obestatin (23 amino acid peptide) ...

  5. Laparoscopic classification of the impalpable testis: an update ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose We present a classification for the nonpalpable testis (NPT) based on laparoscopic findings and suggest guidelines for the interpretation of these findings. Patients and methods From October 2002 to December 2010, 121 patients with NPT underwent laparoscopy at two tertiary centers of Pediatric surgery in Egypt.

  6. Oxytocin gene expression and action in goat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, T; Nakayama, Y; Tani, H; Tamada, H; Kawate, N; Sawada, T

    1999-08-01

    Gene expression, immunohistochemical localization, binding and effects of oxytocin (OT) on androgen production in the testis of adult goats were studied. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis we were able to detect OT gene transcripts in the goat testis. Immunohistochemistry revealed that both OT and neurophysin epitopes were expressed together in the intratubular regions, especially in the Sertoli cells, suggesting the production of OT in these cells. However, enzyme immunoassay found no difference in OT concentration between testicular arterial and venous plasma. Saturable, specific [3H]-OT binding sites were present in membrane fractions of the goat testis. Scatchard analysis indicated an apparent affinity of 42 +/- 7 L/nmol and binding capacity of 24 +/- 4 fmol OT bound/mg DNA. In vitro treatment of goat testes for 6 h with 100 nM OT led to a 3.5-fold increase (P conversion to DHT. These results indicate that the goat testis produces OT, which may be involved in the local control of androgen biosynthesis.

  7. Efek Mangiferin terhadap Toksisitas Doksorubisin pada Testis Tikus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supraja Dwiyono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan doksorubisin (DOX sebagai antikanker dapat menyebabkan efek samping di organ lainseperti testis akibat peningkatan stres oksidatif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek antioksidanmangiferin yang terkandung dalam Mangifera indica untuk mengurangi toksisitas testis. Sebanyak 24 ekortikus jantan sprague dawley, dibagi menjadi empat kelompok. Kelompok normal mendapatkan injeksi NaCl0,9%, kelompok kontrol negatif mendapatkan DOX total 15mg/kgBB; kelompok DOX mendapat mangiferin30mg/kgBB dan mangiferin 60mg/kgBB. Setelah 7 minggu, tikus dimatikan dan testis dikumpulkan untukanalisis parameter stres oksidatif biokimia yaitu kadar malonedyaldehide (MDA, aktivitas superoxidedysmutase (SOD, perubahan histologi dan apoptosis kaspase-9 dan kaspase-12. Pemberian mangiferindosis 30mg/kgBB dan 60mg/kgBB selama 7 minggu dapat mengurangi kerusakan sel spermatogenik dansel sertoli tubulus seminiferus testis, menurunkan kadar MDA dan menurunkan ekspresi kaspase-9 padakelompok yang diberikan DOX dan mangiferin. Perbaikan parameter tersebut mengindikasikan mangiferinmempunyai efek proteksi terhadap kerusakan sel spematogenik dan sel sertoli tubulus seminiferus testis tikusyang diberikan DOX. Kata kunci: toksisitas doksorubisin, stres oksidatif, apoptosis, mangiferin, testis.   Mangiferin Effects against Doxorubicin Toxicity in Rat Testis Abstract The use of doxorubicin (DOX as an anti-cancer agent might cause side effects to other organs suchas testicle due to increased oxidative stress. This study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant effect ofmangiferin inside Mangifera indica for lowering testicle toxicity. A total of 24 sprague dawley male rats wasdivided into 4 groups. The normal group was injected with 0.9% of NaCl, the negative control group receivedDOX with dosage of 15 mg/BW while DOX treated group received mangiferin with dosage of 30 mg/BW and60 mg/BW. After 7 weeks, all rats were killed and testicles from every rats were

  8. Pengaruh Perbedaan Dosis Ekstrak Biji Jarak Pagar (Jatropha curcas terhadap Jumlah Spermatozoa, Spermatozoa Motil, Berat Testis, dan Diameter Testis pada Mencit Jantan (Mus Musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Wahyu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakIndonesia menghadapi persoalan kependudukan dan keluarga berencana yang cukup berat, salah satu penyebabnya dikarenakan rendahnya partisipasi pria dalam penggunaan kontrasepsi. Salah satu tanaman yang bersifat antifertilitas adalah jarak pagar (Jatropha curcas. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh perbedaan dosis ekstrak biji jarak pagar terhadap jumlah spermatozoa, spermatozoa motil, berat testis dan diameter testis pada mencit jantan (Mus musculus. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode post test only control group design terhadap mencit jantan dengan berat 20–30 gram. Sampel terdiri dari 24 ekor mencit dibagi dalam 3 kelompok P1, P2, dan P3 dengan memberikan ekstrak biji jarak pagar dengan 3 tingkatan dosis selama 36 hari. Hasil penelitian semakin tinggi dosis yang diberikan semakin rendah jumlah spermatozoa, spermatozoa motil, berat testis dan diameter testis namun secara statistik tidak terdapat pengaruh yang bermakna pada jumlah spermatozoa p=0,06 dan spermatozoa motil p=0,15 (p > 0,05 dan terdapat pengaruh bermakna pada berat testis p=0,00 dan diameter testis p= 0,00 (p< 0,05.Kesimpulannya pemberian ekstrak biji jarak pagar menurunkan jumlah spermatozoa, spermatozoa motil, berat testis dan diameter testis namun secara statistik ekstrak biji jarak pagar tidak terdapat pengaruh yang bermakna terhadap jumlah spermatozoa dan spermatozoa motil dan terdapat pengaruh bermakna terhadap berat testis dan diameter testis.Kata kunci: ekstrak biji jarak pagar, jumlah spermatozoa, spermatozoa motil, berat testis, diameter testis. AbstractIndonesia faces the quite severe problem of population and family planning, one reason is because the low participation of men in the use of contraception. One antifertility plants and are found in Indonesia is jatropha (Jatropha curcas. This study aims to determine the effect of different doses of extract of Jatropha seeds on sperm count, motile of sperm, testis weight and diameter of the testis in male

  9. Xenoestrogens diethylstilbestrol and zearalenone negatively influence pubertal rat's testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Eliza; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Renata; Oszukowska, Elzbieta; Guminska, Anna; Marchlewska, Katarzyna; Kula, Krzysztof; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of xenoestrogens: diethylstilbestrol (DES) and zearalenone (ZEA) on rat's pubertal testis and to compare it with the effect of natural estrogen - 17beta-estradiol (E). Male Wistar rats were daily, subcutaneously injected at 5th-15th postnatal days (p.d.) with E (1.25 or 12.5 mug) or DES (1.25 or 12.5 mug) or ZEA (4 or 40 mug) or vehicle. At 16th p.d. testes were dissected, weighted, and paraffin embedded. Following parameters were assessed: diameter and length of seminiferous tubule, numbers of spermatogonia A+intermediate+B (A/In/B), preleptotene spermatocytes (PL), leptotene+zygotene+pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA) and Sertoli cells per testis. Testes weight, seminiferous tubule diameter and length were decreased by both doses of E, DES and ZEA. DES effect was the strongest, but its influence on testis weight and seminiferous tubule length, on the contrary to E and ZEA, was not dose-dependent. Similarly, DES in both doses had the most severe negative impact on the number of germ and Sertoli cells. The negative influence of E on germ cells was less pronounced. The negative effect of ZEA was seen only after administration of the higher dose on spermatogonia number, while DES and E decreased A/In/B number more evidently. Sertoli cell number were decreased after both doses of E. ZEA40 decreased Sertoli cell number while ZEA4 had no effect. exposure of prepubertal male rat to DES has the strongest detrimental effect on the developing testis in comparison to E and ZEA. Both, E and DES, decreased number of germ and Sertoli cells, diminished seminiferous tubule diameter, length and testis weight. ZEA had much more weaker effect than the potent estrogens.

  10. Xenoestrogens diethylstilbestrol and zearalenone negatively influence pubertal rat's testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Marchlewska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of xenoestrogens: diethylstilbestrol (DES and zearalenone (ZEA on rat's pubertal testis and to compare it with the effect of natural estrogen - 17beta-estradiol (E. Male Wistar rats were daily, subcutaneously injected at 5th-15th postnatal days (p.d. with E (1.25 or 12.5 mug or DES (1.25 or 12.5 mug or ZEA (4 or 40 mug or vehicle. At 16th p.d. testes were dissected, weighted, and paraffin embedded. Following parameters were assessed: diameter and length of seminiferous tubule, numbers of spermatogonia A+intermediate+B (A/In/B, preleptotene spermatocytes (PL, leptotene+zygotene+pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA and Sertoli cells per testis. Testes weight, seminiferous tubule diameter and length were decreased by both doses of E, DES and ZEA. DES effect was the strongest, but its influence on testis weight and seminiferous tubule length, on the contrary to E and ZEA, was not dose-dependent. Similarly, DES in both doses had the most severe negative impact on the number of germ and Sertoli cells. The negative influence of E on germ cells was less pronounced. The negative effect of ZEA was seen only after administration of the higher dose on spermatogonia number, while DES and E decreased A/In/B number more evidently. Sertoli cell number were decreased after both doses of E. ZEA40 decreased Sertoli cell number while ZEA4 had no effect. Conclusion: exposure of prepubertal male rat to DES has the strongest detrimental effect on the developing testis in comparison to E and ZEA. Both, E and DES, decreased number of germ and Sertoli cells, diminished seminiferous tubule diameter, length and testis weight. ZEA had much more weaker effect than the potent estrogens.

  11. "El conocimiento de la naturaleza humana desde la sin-déresis. Estudio de la propuesta de Leonardo Polo" [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    Rumayor, M. (Miguel)

    2011-01-01

    Reseña de Iosu Ahedo, "El conocimiento de la naturaleza humana desde la sindéresis. Estudio de la propuesta de Leonardo Polo". Cuadernos de Anuario Filosófico, Serie Universitaria, nº 223, Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, 2010, 96 págs.

  12. Het wezen van de schilderkunst volgens Leonardo da Vinci : over de verhouding tussen kunsttheorie en de praktijk van de schilder in de Renaissance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkelstein, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Op 19 oktober houdt prof. dr. Michael Kwakkelstein zijn oratie aan de Universiteit Utrecht over de verhouding tussen kunsttheorie en -praktijk bij Leonardo da Vinci. Kwakkelstein stelt dat Leonardo’s schilderkunst niet altijd beantwoordt aan de criteria voor goede schilderkunst die de grote

  13. The role of MRI and laparoscopy in the management of the nonpalpable testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizawa, Shuji; Nukui, Akinori; Koshimizu, Takeshi [Jichi Medical School, Minamikawachi, Tochigi (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-12-01

    Preoperative localization of nonpalpable testes will aid in planning of the surgical management. We evaluate the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the preoperative study in the management of the nonpalpable testis in the laparoscopic era. From 1997 to 2001, a total of 30 MRI evaluation was performed for 30 patients with nonpalpable testis. When the imaging study demonstrated a viable testis in the inguinal region, the patient underwent inguinal orchiopexy. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed for the patient whose testis was intraabdominal or could not be detected by imaging. Thirty-one testes from 30 patients were evaluated. The imaging studies showed 16 testes from 15 patients in the inguinal region. Fifteen testes were found in the inguinal region and one was intraabdominal during groin exploration. Four testes were pointed out to be intraabdominal by MRI and identified by laparoscopic examination. Eleven testes could not be detected by the imaging studies and they underwent laparoscopic examination. Two abdominal testes were identified. Nine patients underwent inguinal surgical exploration and had a diagnosis of inguinal vanishing testis. No gonadal tissue was identified in those specimens. The sensitivity and the specificity of our MRI studies in predicting the presence of nonpalpable testis were 90.5% and 100%, respectively. Inguinal undescended testes could be diagnosed accurately with MRI and laparoscopy was informative regarding the testis location in all cases. When no intraabdominal testis is identified laparoscopically in the patient whose testis can not be detected in the inguinal region by MRI, the testis is likely vanished. (author)

  14. Dynamics of testis-ova in a wild population of Japanese pond frogs, Rana nigromaculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Kumakura, Masahiko; Yoshie, Sumio; Sugishima, Tomomi; Horie, Yoshifumi

    2015-02-01

    Although many studies have reported the occurrence of testis-ova in wild frog populations, the origin and trigger of testis-ova differentiation/development remain unclear. A high frequency of testis-ova has been previously reported for wild populations of the Japanese pond frog, Rana nigromaculata (cf. Iwasawa and Asai, '59). In the present study, we aimed to clarify the dynamics of testis-ova in this frog species, including the origin and artificial induction of testis-ova. Testis-ova were observed in both mature frogs and puberty-stage frogs (i.e., 0- and 1-year-old frogs). However, the early stages of testis-ova (~pachytene stage) were mostly observed in puberty-stage male frogs at the onset of spermatogenesis. The early stages of testis-ova were observed in the cysts of early secondary spermatogonia and the single cysts of the primary spermatogonium. This finding indicates that testis-ova differentiation occurs during spermatogonial proliferation and that it is correlated with the initiation of spermatogenesis. We also examined whether estrogen exposure induced testis-ova differentiation and how it is correlated with the progression of spermatogenesis. When 1-year-old frogs were exposed to estradiol-17β during spring (i.e., when spermatogenesis was initiated), testis-ova differentiation was induced in a dose-dependent manner. However, this phenomenon did not occur in 1-year-old frogs during summer, (i.e., when the transition from spermatogonia to spermatocytes mainly occurs). These results present the first evidence that testis-ova of the Japanese pond frog are derived from primary and early secondary spermatogonia, and that estrogen exposure induces testis-ova differentiation accompanied by the initiation of spermatogenesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Leonardo da Vinci's drapery studies: characterization of lead white pigments by µ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Victor; Calligaro, Thomas; Pichon, Laurent; Wallez, Gilles; Mottin, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    This work focuses on the composition and microstructure of the lead white pigment employed in a set of paintworks, using a combination of µ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF, directly applied on five drapery studies attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and conserved in the Département des Arts Graphiques, Musée du Louvre and in the Musée des Beaux- Arts de Rennes. Trace elements present in the composition as well as in the lead white highlights were imaged by 2D scanning XRF. Mineral phases were determined in a fully noninvasive way using a special µ-XRD diffractometer. Phase proportions were estimated by Rietveld refinement. The analytical results obtained will contribute to differentiate lead white qualities and to highlight the artist's technique.

  16. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumor of the Rete Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran P. Sajadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

  17. Gene expression during testis development in Duroc boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lervik, Siri; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Conley, Lene

    2015-01-01

    and rodents, act at specific ages and developmental stages in the boar testis. The age dependency and complexity shown for development-specific testis transcripts must be considered when selecting phenotypic parameters for genetic selection for low androstenone. The results of selection based on measurement......Androstenone is a steroid pheromone occurring in the pubertal Leydig cells. Breeding against androstenone can decrease pheromone odour in swine meat but appears to cause unwanted side effects such as delayed onset of puberty. To study causality, global gene expression in developing boar testes...... with the onset of pubertal development. With elevated steroidogenesis (weeks 16 to 27), there was an increase in the expression of genes in the MAPK pathway, STAR and its analogue STARD6. A pubertal shift in genes coding for cellular cholesterol transport was observed. Increased expression of meiotic pathways...

  18. Effects of a simulated microgravity model on cell structure and function in rat testis and epididymis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jill A.; Hall, Joseph C.; O'Brien, Ami; Ball, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The effect of simulated microgravity on the structure and function of the testis and epididymis cells was investigated in rats subjected to 7 days of tail suspension. Results of a histological examination revealed presence of disorganized seminiferous tubules and accumulation of large multinucleated cells and spermatids in the lumen of the epididymis. In addition, decreases in the content of testis protein and in testosterone levels in the testis, the interstitial fluid, and the epididymis were observed.

  19. A psychoanalytic understanding of the desire for knowledge as reflected in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Rachel B

    2006-10-01

    The author offers an understanding of the psychoanalytic notion of the desire for knowledge and the possibility of attaining it as it fi nds expression in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood. This understanding has not been explicitly articulated by Freud but may be considered integral to psychoanalysis' Weltanschauung as shaped by Freud's legacy. It emerges through an attempt to explain basic shifts, contradictions, inconsistencies and tensions that become apparent from a close reading of the text of Leonardo. Articulating this implicit understanding of knowledge provides the grounds for a stance on epistemology that is integral to psychoanalysis and relevant to contemporary psychoanalytic concerns on this topic. This epistemology focuses on the necessary involvement of passion, rather than detachment, in the search for knowledge and views the psychoanalytic aim of self-knowledge as a derivative, and most immediate expression, of a broader and more basic human drive to know.

  20. Dos grandes banquetes à expressão pessoal: a culinária renascentista no Codex Romanoff de Leonardo da Vinci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Borges Martins

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa um conjunto de anotações culinárias que pode nos revelar aspectos particulares de um dos artistas mais citados na história. Leonardo da Vinci, em seus cadernos de cozinha, deixou relatos e impressões que nos auxiliam a uma análise pessoal, o que, consequentemente, abriu a possibilidade de entendermos como o seu momento histórico influenciou seu cotidiano.

  1. De cuando Pinocho aprende valores. Una lectura de la novela de Collodi a la luz de las teorías de Shalom H. Schwartz y Leonardo Boff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rubio-Torres

    2009-06-01

    Carlo Collodi publicó los capítulos de la novela Pinocho entre 1880 y 1883. Desde entonces, se ha convertido en una obra fundamental de la literatura universal. En este artículo se contempla la posibilidad de que Pinocho ayude al lector a construir valores, con base en las perspectivas del psicólogo social Shalom H. Schwartaz y el teólogo Leonardo Boff.

  2. Cadmium inhibits testis and epididymal acidification in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caflisch, C.r.p; DuBose, T.D. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    The testis is known to be highly sensitive to functional impairment by cadmium, a widely distributed trace metal. Both vascular compromise and inhibition of Leydig cell androgen production may result in impaired sperm maturation and motility. Recent studies by our laboratory have confirmed the presence of an acid mileau in the testis and epididymis which may play an important role in sperm maturation. In this study the effect of cadmium on luminal acidification was assessed in rat seminiferous tubules, caput and cauda epididymis by glass membrane double-barrelled pH microelectrodes in vivo. Four Sprague-Dawley rats received CdCl/sub 2/ (0.015 mM/kg s.c.) 24 hrs. prior to micropuncture and 4 rats served as controls. Arterial blood gas values were within the normal range and were not different in the two groups. Cadmium resulted in marked alkalinization of seminiferous tubule fluid compared to controls (7.30 +/- 0.01 (15) vs 6.97 +/- 0.01 (25)) (p < 0.001). Similarly, the pH in proximal caput after CdCl/sub 2/ was 7.07 +/- 0.02 (19) a value significantly more alkaline (p < 0.001) than 6.58 +/- 0.02 (24) in untreated animals. In contrast, however, pH in the distal caput was 6.90 +/- 0.03 (19), a value indistinguishable from that observed in controls. In summary, CdCl/sub 2/ administration is associated with marked impairment of acidification in the testis and proximal epididymus while acidification in the distal epididymus remains intact.

  3. Testicular sparing surgery in small testis masses: A multinstitutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Galosi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of benign testicular tumors is increasing in particular in small lesion incidentally found at scrotal ultrasonography. Primary aim of this study was to perform radical surgery in malignant tumor. Secondary aim was to verify the efficacy of the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway recently adopted in management of small masses with testis sparing surgery in benign lesions. Materials and methods: In this multicenter study, we reviewed all patients with single testis lesion less than 15 mm at ultrasound as main diameter. We applied the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway described by Sbrollini et al. (Arch Ital Urol Androl 2014; 86:397 which comprises: 1 testicular tumor markers, 2 repeated scrotal ultrasound at the tertiary center, 3 surgical exploration with inguinal approach, intraoperative ultrasound, and intraoperative pathological examination. Definitive histology was reviewed by a dedicated uro-pathologist. Results: Twenty-eight patients completed this clinical flowchart. The mean lesion size was 9.3 mm (range 2.5-15. Testicular tumor markers were normal except in a case. Intraoperative ultrasound was necessary in 8/28 cases. We treated 11/28 (39.3% with immediate radical orchiectomy and 17/28 (60.7% with testis-sparing surgery. Definitive pathological results were: malignant tumor in 6 cases (seminoma, benign tumor in 10 cases (5 Leydig tumors, 2 Sertoli tumors, 1 epidermoid cyst, 1 adenomatoid tumor, 1 angiofibroma, benign disease in 11 (8 inflammation with haemorragic infiltration, 2 tubular atrophy, 1 fibrosis, and normal parenchyma in 1 case. We observed a good concordance between frozen section examination and definitive histology. Any malignant tumor was treated conservatively. Any delayed orchiectomy was necessary based on definitive histology. Conclusions: The incidence of benign lesions in 60% of small testis lesions with normal tumor markers makes orchiectomy an overtreatment. Testicular sparing surgery of single

  4. Diagnostic-therapeutic pathway for small lesions of the testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Sbrollini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of our study was to define a diagnostic-therapeutic pathway for proper treatment of not-palpable testicular masses, that may be benign in 38% of cases. Since the intraoperative diagnosis is difficult to reach in particular in small lesion (< 8 mm and the risk of tissue loss in frozen section analysis occurs frequently, we propose a diagnostic flow chart for the best management of small testis lesions. This proposed protocol has to be shown in details to physicians and patients, who must understand the clinical implications and the risk to undergo a second radical surgery.

  5. Prevention of H2O2 Induced Oxidative Damages of Rat Testis by Thymus algeriensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesmi, Fatma; Beghalem, Hamida; Tyagi, Amit K; Ali, Manel Ben; Mouhoub, Ramla Ben; Bellamine, Houda; Landoulsi, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    We evaluate the effects of Thymus algeriensis (TEO) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) toxicity on body and testis weight, testis sperm count, testis lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities in rats. Rats were treated with low (LD) and high dose (HD) of H2O2 (0.1 and 1 mmol/L) in the presence or absence of TEO (150 mg/kg). The results exhibited a significant decrease in body weight and testis weight, in total sperm number decrease (P<0.05), sperm motility and percentage of sperm viability, leading to complete arrest, in sperm flagellar beat frequency by the gavage of 1 mmol/L H2O2 compared to controls. The administration of H2O2 resulted in a significant reduction in testis GSH, GPx, CAT, SOD, and GST activity and significant increase (P<0.05) in MDA concentration compared with the untreated control animals. TEO pre-treatment protected testis from the H2O2 generated oxidative stress. These results were confirmed by histological architecture examinations. H2O2 has the ability to alter the sperm function, characteristics and development of testis. However, TEO is an efficient natural agent, which can prevent the testis from H2O2-induced oxidative damage in rats. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  6. Diethylstilbestrol regulates mouse gubernaculum testis cell proliferation via PLC-Ca2+-CREB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Ping, Hong-Yan; Li, Jian-Hong; Duan, Shou-Xin; Jiang, Xue-Wu

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested a positive correlation between environmental estrogens (EEs) and high incidence of abnormalities in male urogenital system, but the mechanism remains unclear. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a nonsteroidal synthetic estrogen that disrupts the morphology and proliferation of gubernaculum testis cells, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, mouse gubernaculum testis cells were pretreated with phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U-73122 and then treated with DES. The results demonstrated that U-73122 impaired DES-evoked intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in gubernaculum testis cells and inhibited DES-induced proliferation of gubernaculum testis cells. Mechanistically, we found that U-73122 inhibited DES-induced activation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in gubernaculum testis cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that the effects of DES on mouse gubernaculum testis cells are mediated by PLC-Ca 2+ -CREB pathway. Environmental estrogens remain a serious threat to male reproductive health, and it is important to understand the mechanism by which EEs affect the male productive system. Here we explore potential mechanisms how the proliferation and contractility of gubernaculum testis cells are regulated by diethylstilbestrol. Our findings provide the first evidence that PLC-Ca 2+ -CREB signalling pathway mediates the nongenomic effects of diethylstilbestrol on gubernaculum testis cells. These findings provide new insight into the role of diethylstilbestrol in the aetiology of male reproductive dysfunction and will help develop better approaches for the prevention and therapy of male reproductive malformation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Efek ekstrak testis terhadap jumlah implantasi dan jumlah anak pada mencit (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Extract of testis contains the testis specific proteins. The testis proteins may raise immune responses. The immune responses arethe antibodies against testis specific anti-protein. The reaction between the antibodies and the sperms can inhibit fertilization. Thisprocess has contraception effects. This research used 24 female and 20 male mice strain Balb/c. The experiment used the completerandom design with 4 concentration treatments (0, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg extracts of testis and 3 replications. Mice were injected 3times with time interval 21 days. After 15 days from the rising of vaginal plug, 3 mice were dissected and counted the implantation. Theothers mice were waited until delivered of the children. The datas were analyzed by ANOVA and LSD (α = 5%. The results showed thatextract of testis did not influence the amount of implantation at the uterus endometrial, but it decreased the amount of children. Theeffective concentration of extract testis is 2000 μg. So, this study showed that the intraperitoneum injection of the extract of testis hadcontraception effects.

  8. Serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the rete testis: Unusual ultrasonography and pathological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mermershtain Wilmosh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the rete testis in a 22-year-old man. Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is highly resistant to radiotherapy and any known chemotherapeutic regimen. We recommend radical orchiectomy At last follow up, the patient was well, without any evidence of recurrence, ten years after surgery.

  9. Gene expression profiles in testis of pigs with extreme high and low levels of androstenone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Maren; Meuwissen, Theo; Lien, Sigbjørn

    2007-01-01

    Boar taint is a major obstacle when using uncastrated male pigs for swine production. One of the main compounds causing this taint is androstenone, a pheromone produced in porcine testis. Here we use microarrays to study the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously in testis of high and lo...

  10. Leydig cells in the testis of the rat : heterogeneity, development and similarities with macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Molenaar (Rinkje)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractLeydig cells are present in the interstitium of the testis and are responsible for the steroid production of the testis. This production is regulated by the pituitary hormone LH and there are indications that it is also under the influence of local factors. Heterogeneity of cell

  11. utilization of crude testis extract to enhance broiler production in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EKWUEME

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of using aqueous testis extracts as growth promoters. In the first experiments, 100 Abore Acre chicks were assigned to four treatments in which the birds were given 0, 10,15 and 20% of a 3.3. % aqueous bull testis extract in drinking water ad libitum from week ...

  12. Concentration of radiolabeled cholesterol in a feminizing adenoma of the testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J.M.; Rudd, T.G.; Gurgess, E.C.; Monda, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative tissue studies demonstrated increased 19-[ 131 I]-iodocholesterol concentration in a feminizing adenoma of the testis. The potential application of iodocholesterol and its isomers in the detection of steroid-secreting neoplasms of the testis and ovary is suggested

  13. Leiomyoma of Testis –Rare Benign Mimicker of Testicular Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Baliyan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyomas are benign tumours that originate from any organ containing smooth muscles. The testis is an extremely rare site. We report a case of testicular leiomyoma in a 50-year-old. Testis-associated leiomyomas are a benign and rare disease presenting as a painless, slowly-growing mass. Only histological examination with immunohistochemistry can validate the diagnosis.

  14. Revascularization of the testis using a vascular induction technique: a potential approach for staged orchiopexy in high-undescended testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erçöçen, Ali Riza; Soejima, Kazutaka; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Yenidünya, Sibel; Kikuchi, Yuji; Nozaki, Motohiro

    2004-02-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether a fasciovascular flap as a vascular carrier could be used to revascularize the undescended testis for avoiding the hazardous effects of the Fowler-Stephens procedure, high division of the spermatic vessels, and for bringing high-undescended testes into the scrotum. A total of 25 Wistar rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. In each group, surgical procedures were performed bilaterally, i.e. ten testes in each group, as follows: sham-operated controls (group 1), undescended testes (group 2), high division of the spermatic vessels (group 3), vascular induction with immediate division of spermatic vessels (group 4), and with delayed division of spermatic vessels (group 5). Evaluations were done by measuring the testicular weight and volume, testicular blood flow, and testicular biopsy scores and by microangiography. A moderate to severe decrease in testicular weight and volume in all experimental groups was observed compared with the sham-operated controls (group 1), but this was significantly less in groups 2 and 5. High division of the spermatic vessels in groups 3 and 4 resulted in a significantly greater decrease in the testicular blood flow, but this did not occur in group 5. Microangiographically, an impaired vascular supply from the deferential artery in group 3 and insufficient revascularization from the fasciovascular carrier in group 4 were observed. However, efficient revascularization stemming from the superficial epigastric artery of the fasciovascular flap was found in group 5. The testicular biopsy scores of groups 2 and 5 were significantly greater than those of groups 3 and 4. The results of the present study demonstrate that the fasciovascular flap as a vascular carrier revascularizes the testis through spermatic vessels after delayed division and provides an adjuvant treatment modality or first-stage procedure in a salvage operation for high-undescended testis during staged

  15. Sertoli cell tumor arising in a cryptorchid testis presenting as a content of inguinal hernial sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sertoli cell tumors (SCTs are rare tumors accounting for <1% of all testicular tumors. Here, we report a rare case of SCT in a 60-year-old man presenting as a painless swelling in the right groin since childhood. Clinically, he presented with right-sided inguinal hernia with absence of the right testis. He had normal left testis and had no gynecomastia or infertility. The specimen of hernial sac showed testis with a 1.6 cm × 1.5 cm nodular mass having gray tan-cut surface. Histopathologically, the testis showed atrophy and the nodular portion showed tumor cells arranged in tubular and microcystic pattern, with no solid pattern or necrosis. The diagnosis of SCT was confirmed with immunohistochemical staining for inhibin which showed fine granular cytoplasmic positivity. Cryptorchid testis having SCT and presenting as a content of inguinal hernia is a rare occurrence.

  16. ‘n Vergelykende histomorfologiese assessering van die testis van twee Clarias spesies van die Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Mokae

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die testis van twee Clarias species wat in die Okavango Delta voorkom, is histomorfologiesgeassesseer om die verskil in struktuur te beskryf, omdat die twee spesies se testiskleur verskilmet die Clarias ngamensis ‘n swart testis en die Clarias gariepinus ‘n roomkleurige testis.

  17. Amid the possible causes of a very famous foxing: molecular and microscopic insight into Leonardo da Vinci's self‐portrait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafer, Hakim; Sterflinger, Katja; Pinzari, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Leonardo da Vinci's self‐portrait is affected by foxing spots. The portrait has no fungal or bacterial infections in place, but is contaminated with airborne spores and fungal material that could play a role in its disfigurement. The knowledge of the nature of the stains is of great concern because future conservation treatments should be derived from scientific investigations. The lack of reliable scientific data, due to the non‐culturability of the microorganisms inhabiting the portrait, prompted the investigation of the drawing using non‐invasive and micro‐invasive sampling, in combination with scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging and molecular techniques. The fungus E urotium halophilicum was found in foxing spots using SEM analyses. Oxalates of fungal origin were also documented. Both findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tonophilic fungi germinate on paper metabolizing organic acids, oligosaccharides and proteic compounds, which react chemically with the material at a low water activity, forming brown products and oxidative reactions resulting in foxing spots. Additionally, molecular techniques enabled a screening of the fungi inhabiting the portrait and showed differences when different sampling techniques were employed. Swabs samples showed a high abundance of lichenized Ascomycota, while the membrane filters showed a dominance of A cremonium sp. colonizing the drawing. PMID:26111623

  18. 2D and 3D optical diagnostic techniques applied to Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, R.; Gambino, M. C.; Greco, M.; Marras, L.; Materazzi, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Pelagotti, A.; Pezzati, L.; Poggi, P.; Sanapo, C.

    2005-06-01

    3D measurement and modelling have been traditionally applied to statues, buildings, archeological sites or similar large structures, but rarely to paintings. Recently, however, 3D measurements have been performed successfully also on easel paintings, allowing to detect and document the painting's surface. We used 3D models to integrate the results of various 2D imaging techniques on a common reference frame. These applications show how the 3D shape information, complemented with 2D colour maps as well as with other types of sensory data, provide the most interesting information. The 3D data acquisition was carried out by means of two devices: a high-resolution laser micro-profilometer, composed of a commercial distance meter mounted on a scanning device, and a laser-line scanner. The 2D data acquisitions were carried out using a scanning device for simultaneous RGB colour imaging and IR reflectography, and a UV fluorescence multispectral image acquisition system. We present here the results of the techniques described, applied to the analysis of an important painting of the Italian Reinassance: `Madonna dei Fusi', attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

  19. The Psychological Roots of Creativity in Messages Left by Leonardo da Vinci, Giorgio Vasari, and a Neanderthal Troglodyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cassella

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The perfect memory that informs our local autistic facet is insufficient to deal with the unforeseen change that challenges our nonlocal artistic facet. The loss of quantum nonlocality leads autistics to fail tests rooted in overcoming the less-than-perfect ambiguity that elicits our creativity. The psychological structure by which perfect memory and less-than-perfect creativity empower each other remains in darkness. This article broaches the hypothesis that Leonardo da Vinci envisioned the union of local perfection and nonlocal less-than-perfection, and that he hid his insight in the Adoration of the Magi. Leonardo’s knowledge - expressed here as the logos heuristic—guides a psychological interpretation of the smile of Mona Lisa; of the four avatars of the Vitruvian Man; of the recognition and location of Leonardo’s unknown painting Natività; of the exact location of his lost work, Battaglia di Anghiari; and of a 39,000-year-old abstract engraving in Gorham’s cave at Gibraltar. Logos can be used to single out local, nonlocal computing, and their alliance in pursuing a humanistic path to progress.

  20. Escrituras migrantes. Las cuatro orillas de la literatura en español. Entrevista a Leonardo Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina González

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ¿Es posible hablar de cosmopolitismo dentro de los límites que impone la geografía cultural del Ecuador? Leonardo Valencia piensa que sí y se define como un escritor nómada. Asumiendo la diversidad étnica de su Guayaquil natal ha traspasado las fronteras físicas a partir de viajes y residencias en el extranjero. Entre 1993 y 1998 vivió en Lima, y a partir de este último año vive en España, pero virtualmente no conoce un destino fijo; autor de una ficción progresiva que impulsa a la escritura continua, sus proyectos desafían las convenciones editoriales. De la novela total a los libros de pequeño formato, de la letra impresa al libro flotante de la web, Valencia expande en Kazbek –novela editada en España (2008 y en Argentina (2009–, sus reflexiones sobre el canon literario, los desplazamientos de la identidad y los distintos modos de hacer ficción. La siguiente entrevista fue realizada en junio de 2011 en su Laboratorio de Escritura en la calle El Escorial, en la ciudad de Barcelona.

  1. Distribution of the DAZ gene transcripts in human testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J B Warchoł

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of variety of genes, especially located on Y chromosome, is critical for the regulation of spermatogenesis. In particular, fertility candidate genes such as deleted in azoospermia (DAZ are believed to have important function in sperm production, since DAZ is frequently deleted in azoospermic and severy oligozoospermic men. The role of the DAZ gene is supported by its exclusive expression in the testis and by its deletion in about 10% of azoospermic and severely oligozoospermic patients. The distribution of DAZ transcripts in seminiferous epithelium of human testis is reported in the present study. The use of Adobe Photoshop and Scion Image softwares allowed for semi-quantitative analysis of in situ RT-PCR (ISRT-PCR results. The intensity of ISRT-PCR product's fluorescence was different within individual seminiferous tubules. It was clearly shown by using the pseudocolour scale and transforming the intensity of the fluorescence into levels of greyscale images. The more intense fluorescence characterised single spermatogonia and those organized in small groups inside separate tubules. The most intense accumulation of DAZ mRNA was observed in spermatogonia.

  2. Stage I seminoma of the testis. Adjuvant radiotherapy or surveillance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allhoff, E.P.; Liedke, S.; De Riese, W.; Stief, C.; Schneider, B.

    1991-01-01

    Lately the role of radiotherapy in stage I seminoma of the testis has been questioned by some authors who reported on a ''surveillance'' strategy for these patients. Since 1980, 124 patients with seminoma of the testis have been referred to this institution; 97 of 116 patients analysed presented with stage I disease and 10 of these had elevated levels of βHCG. A total of 64 patients were given radiotherapy after orchiectomy and 33 entered a surveillance protocol. After a median follow-up of 48 months, 3 patients in the surveillance group relapsed after 5, 13 and 49 months and 2 of the irradiated patients did so after 25 and 33 months. Elevation of βHCG was not significant because none of these patients showed progression. A low rate of progression and excellent survival are associated with standard treatment (orchiectomy and radiotherapy) and good results have been achieved with chemotherapy in cases of relapse. A surveillance policy is not recommended in stage I seminoma because of its slower growth compared with non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGTC), the absence of a specific tumour marker, the 10% risk of occult metastases and the 3-fold higher progression rate compared with irradiated patients. We suggest the use of a reduced dosage and radiation field. (author)

  3. Effect of hydrocele on appendix testis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsa, Tamás; Telek, Andrea; Kutasy, Balázs; Benyó, Mátyás; Csanádi, Gábor; Kovács, Ilona; Balla, György; Flaskó, Tibor; Csernoch, László; Kiss, Csongor

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an elevated hydrostatic pressure of hydrocele on the structural integrity and steroid receptor expression pattern of the appendix testis in children. Twenty-six testicular appendages were obtained from boys (aged between 13 and 79 months, mean 40 months) who underwent surgical exploration because of hydrocele or congenital inguinal hernia. The tissue sections of testicular appendages were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence laser microscopy were performed using monoclonal mouse anti-human receptors against androgen and estrogen receptors. Patients were divided into three groups: group A (n = 8) represented patients with groin hernia without hydrocele, who served as control group; group B (n = 7) represented patients with communicating hydrocele; and group C (n = 11) represented patients with noncommunicating hydrocele. The tissue sections of appendix testis expressed both androgen and estrogen receptors in all patients in groups A and B, and epithelial destruction was not present. The presence of androgen receptor (two of 11, P hydrocele did not influence the receptor expression pattern and the anatomic structure of testicular appendages, whereas noncommunicating hydrocele caused damage as indicated by the absence of steroid receptors and destruction of the epithelial surface. A better understanding of the physiological role of testicular appendages may change the indications of surgical treatment in patients with noncommunicating hydrocele.

  4. Flow cytometry of DNA in mouse sperm and testis nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meistrich, M.L. (Univ. of Texas, Houston); Lake, S.; Steinmetz, L.L.; Gledhill, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    Mutations that occur in spermatogenic cells may be expressed as changes in DNA content, but developmentally-dependent alteration of its staining properties complicates the quantitation of DNA in individual germ cells. These alterations have been studied with flow cytometric techniques. Nuclei from mouse testis cells and sperm were stained by the acriflavine--Feulgen method. The fluorescence intensity frequency distribution of nuclei of testis cells was characterized by 2 major and 5 minor peaks. Nuclei sorted from the various peaks with a fluorescence-activated cell sorter were identified microscopically. These data were confirmed by generation of peaks with nuclei prepared from cell suspensions enriched in specific cell types. One of the major peaks corresponded to round spermatid nuclei. The other major peak, located at 0.6 of the fluorescence intensity of the round nuclei, corresponded to elongated spermatid nuclei. Purified nuclei of epididymal and vas deferens spermatozoa displayed asymmetric fluorescence distributions. A minor peak at 0.8 the intensity of the round spermatid nuclei was tentatively assigned to elongating spermatids. 2 of the minor peaks, located at 1.7 and 2.0 times the fluorescence intensity of the round nuclei, corresponded to clumps of 2 haploid and diploid nuclei.

  5. Anatomy and histology of the scrotal ligament in adults: inconsistency and variability of the gubernaculum testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalie, G; Bellier, Alexandre; Marnas, G; Boisson, B; Robert, Y; Rabattu, P Y; Chaffanjon, P

    2018-04-01

    The anatomy of gubernaculum testis (GT) is often discussed; however, the postnatal anatomy of the GT or scrotal ligament (SL) is rarely described. Hence, we performed an anatomical and histological study to analyze histologically the structures between testis and scrotum. We performed anatomical dissections on 25 human fresh cadavers' testes. Each testis was removed with its envelopes and macroscopically analyzed. Then samples were included for histological study. Finally, they were analyzed under microscope, looking for attachments between testis, epididymis and scrotal envelopes. The absence of proximal and distal attachment was found in 56.0% of cases. Looking at the proximal attachment of the SL, the main one found is the epididymal attachment (28.0%), whereas no cases of testis attachment was found. Distally, there are more variations with scrotal attachment (12%) and cremaster attachment (12.0%). We found a significant prevalence of multiple adherences in 16.0% of cases too. Finally, in 15 cases (57.7%) an attachment is present between testis and epididymis, as it is commonly described. In the majority of cases there is no attachment of the lower pole of the testis and epididymis and these structures remain free. So it seems that the SL disappears with aging. Moreover, there is not only one kind of ligamentous attachment, but a high variability of attachments at the lower pole of the testiculo-epididymal structure. When it exists, this structure is never a real ligament and it seems more appropriate to use the term "attachments".

  6. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective

  7. Testis cancer. Ichthyosis constitutes a significant risk factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, G; Bennett, P; Lykkesfeldt, A E

    1991-01-01

    Testis cancer and ichthyosis are both relatively rare diseases. Hence the finding of six individuals with both these conditions in a small population with testicular cancer is highly conspicuous and indicates some kind of connection among such persons. Despite the identical clinical appearances...... of their ichthyoses, three of the ichthyotic subjects had no measurable activity of the enzyme, steroid sulfatase (STS) in leucocytes, a distinct characteristic of recessive X-linked ichthyosis (RXLI). However, the remaining three subjects had normal STS activity, a strong indicator of autosomal dominant ichthyosis...... (ADI). The STS activity in patients with testicular cancer who do not have ichthyosis (N = 30) was also within the normal range. The patients with testicular cancer with no skin disease had elevated serum levels of 4-androstenedione (4-AD), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone...

  8. [Metastasis of germ cell tumors of the testis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machover, D; Goldschmidt, E

    1991-01-01

    The development of metastases from germ cell tumours of the testis is studied in terms of its histopathological, ontogenetic, anatomical and evolutive aspects. The treatment of non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and pure seminomas is analysed separately. The prognostic factors defined by the risk of failure of treatment are described and the medical and surgical strategies or combinations of both modalities are proposed for each stage of these cancers. The major points and novelties include: the usual histological polymorphism of these tumours. The markers include alpha-foetoprotein and HCG. Combination chemotherapy, essentially the EBP sequence, is the treatment for non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. In the case of failure, toxic sequences can be used followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation. In the case of persistent lesions (lung, mediastinum, liver, retroperitoneum), salvage surgery may be useful. Metastatic seminomas are treated by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, depending on their stage.

  9. Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis in the testis of Paragonimus heterotremus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uabundit, Nongnut; Kanla, Pipatphong; Puthiwat, Phongphithak; Arunyanart, Channarong; Chaiciwamongkol, Kowit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi

    2013-12-01

    Lung fluke, Paragonimus heterotremus, is a flatworm causing pulmonary paragonimiasis in cats, dogs, and humans in Southeast Asia. We examined the ultrastructure of the testis of adult P. heterotremus with special attention to spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The full sequence of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, from the capsular basal lamina to the luminal surface, was demonstrated. The sequence comprises spermatogonia, spermatocytes with obvious nuclear synaptonemal complexes, spermatids, and eventual spermatozoa. Moreover, full steps of spermatid differentiation were shown which consisted of 1) early stage, 2) differentiation stage representing the flagella, intercentriolar body, basal body, striated rootlets, and electron dense nucleus of thread-like lamellar configuration, and 3) growing spermatid flagella. Detailed ultrastructure of 2 different types of spermatozoa was also shown in this study.

  10. Local Actions of Melatonin in Somatic Cells of the Testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frungieri, Mónica Beatriz; Calandra, Ricardo Saúl; Rossi, Soledad Paola

    2017-05-31

    The pineal hormone melatonin regulates testicular function through the hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal axis. In addition, direct actions of melatonin in somatic cells of the testis have been described. Melatonin acts as a local modulator of the endocrine activity in Leydig cells. In Sertoli cells, melatonin influences cellular growth, proliferation, energy metabolism and the oxidation state, and consequently may regulate spermatogenesis. These data pinpoint melatonin as a key player in the regulation of testicular physiology (i.e., steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis) mostly in seasonal breeders. In patients with idiopathic infertility, melatonin exerts anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects on testicular macrophages, and provides protective effects against oxidative stress in testicular mast cells. Consequently, melatonin is also involved in the modulation of inflammatory and oxidant/anti-oxidant states in testicular pathology. Overall, the literature data indicate that melatonin has important effects on testicular function and male reproduction.

  11. Recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia in cryptorchid testis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Góes, Luccas Santos Patto de [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lopes, Roberto Iglesias [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Campos, Octavio Henrique Arcos [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Neves de; Sant' Anna, Alexandre Crippa; Dall' Oglio, Marcos Francisco; Srougi, Miguel [Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    A 23-year-old male with a history of bone marrow transplant for acute myeloid leukemia. He presented a large mass in the right inguinal region 5 years ago. Upon physical examination, right-sided cryptorchidism was observed. The tumor markers alpha-fetoprotein and beta-HCG were within normalcy range and lactate dehydrogenase was raised. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed right testicular mass in contiguity with the inguinal canal to the ipsilateral retroperitoneum, associated with right hydronephrosis. Due to the risk of germ-cell tumor in undescended testicle, the patient underwent radical right orchiectomy. The pathological examination showed recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia in the testis. He was referred to oncology for adjuvant therapy. Our literature review found no similar cases described.

  12. Live Imaging of the Drosophila Testis Stem Cell Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Leah J; Matunis, Erika L

    2017-01-01

    Live imaging of adult tissue stem cell niches provides key insights into the dynamic behavior of stem cells, their differentiating progeny, and their neighboring support cells, but few niches are amenable to this approach. Here we discuss a technique for long-term live imaging of the Drosophila testis stem cell niche. Culturing whole testes ex vivo for up to 12.5 h allows for tracking of cell-type specific behaviors under normal and various chemically or genetically modified conditions. Fixing and staining tissues after live imaging allows for the molecular confirmation of cell identity and behavior. Utilization of live imaging in intact niches will facilitate further understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate stem cell function in vivo.

  13. Screening for carcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis in patients with germinal testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, J G; Skakkebaek, N E; von der Maase, H

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty biopsy specimens from the contralateral testis in patients with unilateral germinal testicular cancer were analysed by light microscopy for carcinoma-in-situ changes. Changes were found in 13 (5.2%) patients. One-third of patients with an atrophic contralateral testis (volume...... of cryptorchidism or both had been screened. Since the natural course of carcinoma in situ in the contralateral testis of patients with germinal testicular cancer has not been established, the patients are being re-evaluated frequently. To date two patients with carcinoma in situ have developed a second cancer....

  14. Examination for intratubular germ cell neoplasia at operation for undescended testis in boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Frisch, M

    1994-01-01

    1 nonseminoma of the contralateral testis, which had been treated before surgery for an undescended testis, 1 nonseminoma found at followup, 1 seminoma and 2 intratubular germ cell neoplasms. Of the later 3 patients 1 had a 45,X/46,XY karyotype and 2 had abnormal external genitalia. Previous...... testicular biopsy from the patient in whom nonseminoma was noted at followup showed Sertoli cells only. We recommend that testicular biopsy be performed at operation for undescended testis in boys with abnormal sex chromosomes, particularly 45,X/46,XY karyotype, and in those with abnormal external genitalia...

  15. Primary adenocarcinoma of the rete testis: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Yao, Wenqing; Yang, Lulu; Wang, Jianzhong; Wazir, Romel; Wang, Kunjie

    2014-02-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is an extremely rare extratesticular neoplasm. Due to its low occurrence and the scarcity of data, sonographic characteristics of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis are still poorly defined. A 46-year-old male complained of swelling and pain in the right side of the scrotum. No associated symptoms were observed. Anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy yielded no response. Postoperative pathology revealed a diagnosis of poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the rete testis. Using the ultrasonography features observed, combined with a review of current literature, the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this neoplasm are presented.

  16. Estrogen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity of genistein in the mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, C; Penza, M; Jeremic, M; Rando, G; Ciana, P; Maggi, A; La Sala, G; De Felici, M; Di Lorenzo, D

    2009-04-01

    Here we show that genistein, through an estrogen receptor-mediated action, modulates gene expression in the mouse testis throughout development. Genistein passed from the lactating mother to the suckling offspring at levels sufficient to activate gene expression in the testis of the pups. Testis are already responsive to genistein as well as to estradiol at day 14.5 of fetal development. Activation of luciferase correlates with an activation of cell proliferation. In conclusion, our results show that genistein affects reproductive organs of male mice at all developmental ages.

  17. Expression of the GM2 activator protein in mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Teh; Li, Su-Chen; Chen, I-Li

    2017-12-01

    The GM2-activator protein (GM2-AP), revealed by Li et al. in 1973 in human liver, was initially identified as a protein cofactor that stimulated β-hexosaminidase A to hydrolyze N-acetylgalactosamine from GM2 ganglioside. This cofactor was found to be missing in human variant AB Tay-Sachs disease. Over the years, the GM2-AP has also been shown to be involved in kidney vesicular transport, lipid presentation by CD1 molecule to T-cells, and interaction of human sperm with zona pellucida. Since the expression of the GM2-AP via mRNA detection in mouse tissues was found to be the highest in testis, we became interested in the localization of the GM2-AP at cellular level in mouse testis during spermatogenesis. Using immunohistochemical analysis and electron microscopy, we found that the GM2-AP was predominantly localized in the basal cytoplasm and the attenuated processes of Sertoli cells. The stained structure appeared to be lysosomes. The most interesting finding was the association of the GM2-AP with the acrosomal apparatus in early spermatids. A modest to intense staining was observed in some acrosomal granules and acrosomal caps. The GM2-AP seemed to disappear from acrosomal caps in the later stage of spermatids, in which the nucleus became elongated and condensed. These results suggest that the GM2-AP may be involved in the normal functions of Sertoli cells and play important roles during the development of acrosomal caps in the early spermatids. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. Feasibility and effectiveness of a disease and care management model in the primary health care system for patients with heart failure and diabetes (Project Leonardo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Aquilino, Ambrogio; Cortese, Francesca; Scicchitano, Pietro; Sassara, Marco; Mola, Ernesto; Rollo, Rodolfo; Caldarola, Pasquale; Giorgino, Francesco; Pomo, Vincenzo; Bux, Francesco

    2010-05-06

    Project Leonardo represented a feasibility study to evaluate the impact of a disease and care management (D&CM) model and of the introduction of "care manager" nurses, trained in this specialized role, into the primary health care system. Thirty care managers were placed into the offices of 83 general practitioners and family physicians in the Apulia Region of Italy with the purpose of creating a strong cooperative and collaborative "team" consisting of physicians, care managers, specialists, and patients. The central aim of the health team collaboration was to empower 1,160 patients living with cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, heart failure, and/or at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk) to take a more active role in their health. With the support of dedicated software for data collection and care management decision making, Project Leonardo implemented guidelines and recommendations for each condition aimed to improve patient health outcomes and promote appropriate resource utilization. Results show that Leonardo was feasible and highly effective in increasing patient health knowledge, self-management skills, and readiness to make changes in health behaviors. Patient skill-building and ongoing monitoring by the health care team of diagnostic tests and services as well as treatment paths helped promote confidence and enhance safety of chronic patient management at home. Physicians, care managers, and patients showed unanimous agreement regarding the positive impact on patient health and self-management, and attributed the outcomes to the strong "partnership" between the care manager and the patient and the collaboration between the physician and the care manager. Future studies should consider the possibility of incorporating a patient empowerment model which considers the patient as the most important member of the health team and care managers as key health care collaborators able to enhance and support services to patients provided by physicians in

  19. Täter- und Opfergeschichten. Schuld in Alois Hotschnigs Prosawerken «Aus», «Leonardos Hände» und «Ludwigs Zimmer»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Gösweiner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The assumption this article is based on is that guilt is perhaps the most important theme in Alois Hotschnig’s writing. This article therefore aims at analyzing Hotschnig’s focus on the theme of guilt in his novels. Three examples of Hotschnig’s prose work serve as case studies: his debut Aus, and the two novels Leonardos Hände, and Ludwigs Zimmer. Since guilt seems to be a very important topic in the Austrian literary tradition, this article also tries to establish whether and how Hotschnig takes up this grand Austrian tradition of writing about guilt.

  20. Una aproximación analítica a las mallas recíprocas diseñadas por Leonardo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is a topic to refer Leonardo when we introduce any branch of the art, science o technique because his manuscripts ever contain news that before him never where explored, nor profited even later. This can be understood because these manuscripts never where published till five centuries later. Observations referred to design of structures are the less known and otherwise the less studied. Really the most important problems about this subject are contained in the Codex I of Madrid, some in the Codex Atlantic, and less in the Codex II of Madrid. Other books do not refer these questions. Leonardo, in his drawings, manifested an obsessive search for solutions to the problem of how to span great distances with short pieces. In his notebooks, we find reiterative diagrams which seem to be searching for variants of frames capable of constituting structures, mainly roofs, floors and bridges, which could cover large distances by using manageable pieces that could easily be supplied. In this paper we analyze with actual computer programs how his proposals could be achieved and we establish some conclusions about it.

    Ya resulta tópico referirse a Leonardo cada vez que tocamos algún tema de arte, ciencia o técnica puesto que en sus escritos siempre podemos encontrar aspectos que nadie estudió antes ni, en muchos casos, nadie explotó después. Esto se explica porque sus manuscritos no fueron publicados hasta cinco siglos después. Sus observaciones respecto al diseño de estructuras son menos conocidas y son también las menos estudiadas. Realmente sus principales aportaciones se contienen en el Códice I de Madrid, y menos en el Códice II de Madrid, algunas otras, más generales, en el Códice Atlántico. Sus otros cuadernos de notas no tratan de estas cuestiones. En sus dibujos, Leonardo manifestó una obsesiva búsqueda de soluciones para cubrir grandes luces con piezas cortas. En sus Cuadernos encontramos diagramas de muchas variantes para

  1. INCUMPLIMIENTOS DE LAS MEDIDAS PREVENTIVAS EN LAS PERSONAS VULNERABLES RESPECTO AL DELITO DE FEMINICIDIO EN EL DISTRITO DE JOSÉ LEONARDO ORTIZ

    OpenAIRE

    Huapaya Cueva, Tatiana Elizabeth; Universidad Señor de Sipan, Chiclayo, Perú; Sánchez López, Mirian del Rosario; Universidad Señor de Sipan, Chiclayo, Perú

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación tiene por objetivo evitar la vulneración u omisión de las medidas preventivas en las personas vulnerables respecto al delito de Feminicidio en el distrito de José Leonardo Ortiz debido a la falta de una respuesta adecuada por parte del sistema de administración de justicia. La metodología utilizada en la presente investigación consistió en la descriptiva explicativa, asimismo se realizaron encuestas en donde los informantes fueron abogados, fiscales y poli...

  2. Diseño y análisis del automóvil automático de Leonardo da Vinci

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Regaño, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Diseño, análisis y simulación del primer automóvil automático de Leonardo da Vinci, con el software Catia V5 Ciencias de los materiales e ingeniería metalúrgica, expresión gráfica en la ingeniería, ingeniería cartográfica, geodesia y fotogrametría, ingeniería mecánica e ingeniería de los procesos de fabricación Ingeniero Industrial

  3. Expression of immunoglobulin gene with classical V-(D)-J rearrangement in mouse testis and epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Li; Ma, Teng; Zhang, Pei; Qiu, Xiaoyan

    2009-04-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules have thus far been found only to be produced by differentiated B lymphocytes. As we know, immune privilege in the normal adult mouse testis exists to make these privileged sites generally free of patrolling immune cells and Igs. However, in this study, the expression of Ig in normal adult mouse testis and epididymis was detected. First, by IHC, a strong pattern of Ig expression was detected in the spermatogenic cells of adult mouse testis at different development stages. Second, by Western blot analysis, different strong bands of Igs in mouse testicular spermatogenic cells and epididymal epithelial cell extract were recognized using specific antibodies against IgG. More importantly, by ISH and cell sorting-related RT-PCR, rearranged Ig gamma chain and kappa chain transcripts were expressed in testicular spermatogenic cells and epididymal epithelial cells. These results suggested that Ig in testis and epididymis was mainly produced by adult mouse testicular spermatogenic cells and epididymal epithelial cells.

  4. Expression and Location of Glucose-regulated Protein 78 in Testis and Epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To know the role of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78/BiP/HSPA5 in spermatogenesis and its expression and location in the testis and epididymis. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect GRP78 location and expression in the testis and epididymis. Results: Glucose-regulated protein 78 was observed in spermatocytes, round spermatids and interstitial cells of the testis and in principal cells of the epididymis. Glucose-regulated protein 78 was first detected in the rat testis at postnatal day 14. Thereafter, the protein level increased gradually with age and was maintained at a high and stable state after postnatal day 28. In the rat, GRP78 was expressed in the principal cells but not in clear cells of the epididymis. Conclusion: Glucose-regulated protein 78 participates in the process of spermatogenesis.

  5. Myotube migration to cover and shape the testis of Drosophila depends on Heartless, Cadherin/Catenin, and myosin II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Rothenbusch-Fender

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During Drosophila metamorphosis, nascent testis myotubes migrate from the prospective seminal vesicle of the genital disc onto pupal testes and then further to cover the testes with multinucleated smooth-like muscles. Here we show that DWnt2 is likely required for determination of testis-relevant myoblasts on the genital disc. Knock down of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR heartless by RNAi and a dominant-negative version revealed multiple functions of Heartless, namely regulation of the amount of myoblasts on the genital disc, connection of seminal vesicles and testes, and migration of muscles along the testes. Live imaging indicated that the downstream effector Stumps is required for migration of testis myotubes on the testis towards the apical tip. After myoblast fusion, myosin II is needed for migration of nascent testis myotubes, in which Thisbe-dependent fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling is activated. Cadherin-N is essential for connecting these single myofibers and for creating a firm testis muscle sheath that shapes and stabilizes the testis tubule. Based on these results, we propose a model for the migration of testis myotubes in which nascent testis myotubes migrate as a collective onto and along the testis, dependent on FGF-regulated expression of myosin II.

  6. [Intrascrotal malignant mesothelioma diagnosed after surgery for hydrocele testis: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryuichi; Matsuda, Yohei; Maehana, Takeshi; Miyao, Noriomi; Konishi, Yasuhiro; Kon, Shin-Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    We report here a case of intrascrotal malignant mesothelioma, arising from the tunica vaginalis, which was diagnosed after surgery for hydrocele testis. A 52-year-old man underwent left hydrocelectomy for hydrocele testis. After pathological diagnosis as malignant mesothelioma from the specimen of tunica vaginalis, left radical orchiectomy was performed. The patient had no exposure to asbestos and there has been no evidence of recurrence.

  7. Contralateral testicular biopsy procedure in patients with unilateral testis cancer: is it indicated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Axel; Moul, Judd W

    2002-11-01

    About 5% of all patients with unilateral testis cancer harbor testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) in their contralateral testicle, which will progress into an invasive germ-cell tumor over time. Accurate diagnosis of TIN by a random surgical testis biopsy examination and effective therapy by local radiation has led to the concept of a contralateral screening biopsy procedure in all testis cancer patients. Screening and preventive treatment, however, only are indicated if (1) therapeutic outcome of the screened population is improved and (2) physiologic function of the affected organ might be maintained. Based on a critical review of the literature, some drawbacks of this policy have to be considered and the routine indication for contralateral testis biopsy procedure has to be questioned: (1) all TIN-negative patients still have to undergo meticulous follow-up evaluation for metachronous testis cancer owing to a false-negative biopsy diagnosis rate of 0.3%; (2) testis biopsy procedure is associated with a 15% to 20% complication rate, which might a negative impact on endocrine and exocrine testicular function; (3) local radiation of TIN results in irreversible infertility owing to eradication of spermatogenesis; (4) local radiation of TIN results in an impairment of endocrine Leydig cell function in 25% of patients; (5) therapeutic outcome and prognosis will not be improved in irradiated patients as compared with patients on surveillance; (6) local tumor resection for the management of metachronous testicular cancer represents an effective and viable option. The current literature does not support the strategy to perform contralateral testis biopsy procedures in all patients with unilateral testicular germ-cell tumors. Testis biopsy procedures might, however, be offered to high-risk (34%) patients for contralateral TIN with a testicular volume less than 12 mL, a history of cryptorchidism, and an age less than 30 years. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA

  8. Cancer/testis antigens and gametogenesis: a review and "brain-storming" session

    OpenAIRE

    Kalejs, Martins; Erenpreisa, Jekaterina

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Genes expressed both in normal testis and in malignancies (Cancer/ Testis associated genes – CTA) have become the most extensively studied antigen group in the field of tumour immunology. Despite this, many fundamentally important questions remain unanswered: what is the connection between germ-cell specific genes and tumours? Is the expression of these genes yet another proof for the importance of genome destabilisation in the process of tumorigenesis?, or maybe activation of these ...

  9. Plastins regulate ectoplasmic specialization via its actin bundling activity on microfilaments in the rat testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastins are a family of actin binding proteins (ABPs known to cross-link actin microfilaments in mammalian cells, creating actin microfilament bundles necessary to confer cell polarity and cell shape. Plastins also support cell movement in response to changes in environment, involved in cell/tissue growth and development. They also confer plasticity to cells and tissues in response to infection or other pathological conditions (e.g., inflammation. In the testis, the cell-cell anchoring junction unique to the testis that is found at the Sertoli cell-cell interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB and at the Sertoli-spermatid (e.g., 8-19 spermatids in the rat testis is the basal and the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES, respectively. The ES is an F-actin-rich anchoring junction constituted most notably by actin microfilament bundles. A recent report using RNAi that specifically knocks down plastin 3 has yielded some insightful information regarding the mechanism by which plastin 3 regulates the status of actin microfilament bundles at the ES via its intrinsic actin filament bundling activity. Herein, we provide a brief review on the role of plastins in the testis in light of this report, which together with recent findings in the field, we propose a likely model by which plastins regulate ES function during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis via their intrinsic activity on actin microfilament organization in the rat testis.

  10. Diffusion-weighted MRI of the testis in hydrocele: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulum, Mehmet; Cece, Hasan; Yeni, Ercan; Savas, Murat; Ciftci, Halil; Karakas, Ekrem; Celik, Hakim; Yagmur, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of increased pressure due to the accumulated fluid around testis in hydrocele on testis diffusion and whether this effect (if any) is correlated with the amount of fluid and duration of hydrocele. 49 patients with unilateral hydrocele were evaluated by magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging. In the study group, while the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the testicles with hydrocele differed significantly before and 3 months after the hydrocelectomy (p = 0.001), the ADC values of the testicles without hydrocele were not statistically different (p = 0.101). There was a significant negative correlation between the ADC values of the testicles with hydrocele and the amount of the liquid aspirated during the hydrocelectomy (r = -0.615, p = 0.001). There was no correlation between the ADC values of testis and the duration of hydrocele (r = -287, p = 0.156). This is supported by the findings of the present study of reduced ADC values of testis, meaning reduced diffusion of the testis, with an increasing amount of fluid. The pressure of the fluid was suggested to show a mechanical effect that plays an important role in the dysfunction of the testis. The possible dysfunctions of the testicular tissue suggest that they may have a negative effect on fertility. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Márgenes de la ciudad como márgenes de la nación en La cola de la serpiente de Leonardo Padura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Aguilar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de Estado-Nación, construcción legitimada en las comunidades imaginadas de Benedict Anderson, ha sido ampliamente discutido en los últimos años. La obra de Leonardo Padura configura, en este sentido, nuevos procesos de resignificación cultural y política que rompen con la idea de unidad y homogeneidad de la identidad nacional. La cola de la serpiente agudiza esta ruptura con la introducción de la comunidad china en la Habana. El barrio chino será la metáfora de la pertenencia a la nación en cuanto sus espacios destruidos aterrizan los grandes “valores nacionales” a la inmediatez de la violencia y la necesidad. The concept of Nation-state, a construction legitimated in the approaches of imagined communities of Benedict Anderson, has been widely discussed in recent years. The work of Leonardo Padura configured, in this way, new processes of cultural and political redefinition which break with the idea of unity and homogeneity of national identity. La cola de la serpiente exacerbated this rupture with the introduction of the Chinese community in Havana. Chinatown is the metaphor of belonging to the nation as its destroyed spaces land the great “national values” to the immediacy of violence and necessity.

  12. The Comparison of the Baroque and Renaissance Aesthetics Paintings of “The Last Supper” by Caravaggio and Leonardo da Vinci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Kun Adnyana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paintings of Caravaggio’s and Leonardo da Vinci’s The Last Supper are two iconic artworks from two maestros in a different era. Caravaggio is one of the fame Baroque’s artists and da Vinci is the most famous Renaissance man, who created the same theme of a painting, The Last Supper. The theme represents the story of Christ’s supper. Through an inductive view, this comparative study analyzes the aesthetic structures of both paintings, by using Feldman’s perspective in Art as Image and Idea (1967. The analysis includes visual structures, including line, form, darkness-lightness; elements of the organization, including unity, balance, rhythm, and proportion; and elements of perception and aesthetic, inclu- ding empathy and a psychic distance. The result of this research discovers two different perspectives of aesthetic characteristics of Baroque and Renaissance paintings.   Keywords: baroque, Caravaggio, Leonardo da Vinci, renaissance, the last supper

  13. Endocrine disrupting compounds exposure and testis development in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbowona, Biola F.; Mustapha, Olajide A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last few decades, there is substantial evidence that male reproductive function is deteriorating in humans and wildlife and this is associated with unintentional exposure to widely used synthetic chemicals. Subsequently, much has been done to show that certain chemicals in the environment adversely interfere with the developing fetal gonads of the laboratory animals. Some in vitro studies have demonstrated treatment-induced reproductive problems in offspring exposed to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) which are similar to those observed in wildlife and human population. Few EDC studies have demonstrated that there are certain periods of gestation when the developing fetus is highly sensitive and at risk of small endocrine changes. Similar observations have been made in the sewage sludge model, however, while animal studies have been insightful in providing valuable information about the range of effects that can be attributed to in utero exposure to EDCs, varying levels of maternal doses administered in different studies exaggerated extrapolation of these results to human. Thus the EDC concentration representative of fetal exposure levels is uncertain because of the complexities of its nature. So far, the level of fetal exposure can only be roughly estimated. There is substantial evidence from animal data to prove that EDCs can adversely affect reproductive development and function in male and more has accumulated on the mechanisms by which they exert their effects. This paper therefore, reviews previous studies to highlight the extent to which testis development can be disrupted during fetal life. PMID:29255381

  14. Mesothelioma of the testis and nephrotic syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacchetta Justine

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Paraneoplastic glomerulopathies are rare manifestations of neoplastic disease to be distinguished from iatrogenic renal damage. Solid tumors are preferentially associated with membranous nephropathy, whereas Hodgkin's lymphomas are associated with minimal change disease. Case presentation We report a 63-year-old Caucasian male diagnosed with a mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis who, secondary to this, also presented with a nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease. In the present case, the paraneoplastic etiology of the nephrotic syndrome can be discussed on four unusual elements: minimal change lesions were found; the glomerulopathy was very sensitive to corticosteroids; the nephrotic syndrome occurred 11 months after the diagnosis of the primary malignancy, but concomitantly with the recurrence; and the nephrotic syndrome did not decrease with tumor control and did not recur when the mesothelioma escaped treatment. No other etiologies could nevertheless explain this phenomenon. Conclusion Paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome is often associated with membranous nephropathy in patients with solid tumors, especially in patients with lung and gastrointestinal tract neoplasia. The management of these patients is associated with a symptomatic treatment such as sodium and water restriction, diuretics and ACE inhibitors and a prophylaxis of specific complications of nephrotic syndrome including thromboembolism, infections and lipid abnormalities. Treatment of neoplasia must be undertaken rapidly, treatments must be regularly analyzed and drugs binding to albumin may be used with precaution.

  15. De niet-scrotale testis: huidige standpunten van de Werkgroep Kinderurologie van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Urologie [Undescended testis: Current views and advice for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hack, W.W.M.; Sijstermans, K.; Voort-Doedens, L.M. van der; Meijer, R.W.; Heij, H.A.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Pierik, F.H.

    2008-01-01

    Eerder dit jaar verschenen in dit tijdschrift drie artikelen gewijd aan de niet-scrotale testis (NST).1-3 Ze hebben tot veel discussie geleid binnen de Werkgroep Kinderurologie (WGKU) van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Urologie (NVU), hetgeen resulteerde in dit commentaar. Vooral de artikelen van

  16. An overview of the GAGE cancer/testis antigen family with the inclusion of newly identified members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, M F; Ditzel, H J

    2008-01-01

    GAGE cancer/testis antigens are frequently expressed in many different types of cancer, whereas their expression in normal tissues is limited to the germ cells of the immune-privileged organs, testis and ovary. Thus, GAGE proteins may be attractive candidates for immunotherapy of cancer. This rev......GAGE cancer/testis antigens are frequently expressed in many different types of cancer, whereas their expression in normal tissues is limited to the germ cells of the immune-privileged organs, testis and ovary. Thus, GAGE proteins may be attractive candidates for immunotherapy of cancer...

  17. TORSION TESTIS : ROLE OF COLOR DOPPLER : A STUDY OF 50 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: T orsion testis is one of the catast r ophic conditions in children and young a d u lts. Traditionally the diagnosis was made clinical presentation and suspicion. Critical decision making is essential to save the testis . OBJECTIVE: To study the usefu lness and efficacy of Doppler ultrasound in correctly diagnosing acute scrotal conditions in children and young adults to save the testis and to avoid negative explorations. METHODS: Over a period of two years 50 patients with acute scrotum were admitted i n general surgery department who underwent Doppler ultrasound scrotum and its efficacy in correctly diagnosing the pathology was analysed. RESULTS: 50 patients with age group <25 years were included in study. Scrotal pain was the most frequent presenting s ymptom of acute scrotum (98% followed by Swelling of the hemiscrolum on the involved side present in 86% of the patients. Doppler ultrasound showed torsion of testis in 18 patients. On Scrotal exploration, torsion of spermatic cord was confirmed in 16 pat ients, one patient had torsion of appendix of testis and the other had Epididymo - orchitis. Thus the sensitivity and specificity of Doppler ultrasonography for testicular torsion was 86.9% and 92.6% respectively. 2 patients with equivocal Doppler findings, but strong clinical suspicion of testicular torsion were explored, and testis was found to be torsed in both two patients. Doppler ultrasonography showed Epididymo - orchitis in 22 patients, torsion of testicular appendage in 2 patients, Idiopathic scrotal edema in one, and in 5 pts no significant pathology found. All twenty patients of epididymo - orchitis, two patients of torsion of testicular appendage, and one patient of idiopathic scrotal edema were managed conservatively. At three weeks follow up, all th e patients were free of symptoms. The sensitivity and specificity of Doppler ultrasonography for epididymo - orchitis was 95% and 100% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: color

  18. Declaración conjunta suscrita entre el presidente de El Salvador, señor Alfredo Cristiani Burkard y el Presidente de Honduras, señor Rafael Leonardo Callejas Romero.

    OpenAIRE

    Burkard, Alfredo Cristiani; Callejas Romero, Rafael Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Declaración conjunta suscrita entre el presidente de El Salvador, señor Alfredo Cristiani Burkard y el Presidente de Honduras, señor Rafael Leonardo Callejas Romero. San Salvador, El Salvador 29 de setiembre de 1992

  19. Feasibility and effectiveness of a disease and care management model in the primary health care system for patients with heart failure and diabetes (Project Leonardo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Marco Matteo Ciccone1, Ambrogio Aquilino2, Francesca Cortese1, Pietro Scicchitano1, Marco Sassara1, Ernesto Mola3, Rodolfo Rollo4,Pasquale Caldarola5, Francesco Giorgino6, Vincenzo Pomo2, Francesco Bux21Section of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, School of Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Agenzia Regionale Sanitaria – Regione Puglia (ARES, Apulia, Italy; 3ASL, Lecce, Italy; 4ASL, Brindisi, Italy; 5Cardiologia, Ospedale “Sarcone”, Terlizzi, Italy; 6Section of Endocrinology, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, School of Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, ItalyPurpose: Project Leonardo represented a feasibility study to evaluate the impact of a disease and care management (D&CM model and of the introduction of “care manager” nurses, trained in this specialized role, into the primary health care system. Patients and methods: Thirty care managers were placed into the offices of 83 general practitioners and family physicians in the Apulia Region of Italy with the purpose of creating a strong cooperative and collaborative “team” consisting of physicians, care managers, specialists, and patients. The central aim of the health team collaboration was to empower 1,160 patients living with cardiovascular disease (CVD, diabetes, heart failure, and/or at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk to take a more active role in their health. With the support of dedicated software for data collection and care management decision making, Project Leonardo implemented guidelines and recommendations for each condition aimed to improve patient health outcomes and promote appropriate resource utilization.Results: Results show that Leonardo was feasible and highly effective in increasing patient health knowledge, self-management skills, and readiness to make changes in health behaviors. Patient skill-building and ongoing monitoring by the health care team of diagnostic tests and services

  20. Transcriptome profiling of testis during sexual maturation stages in Eriocheir sinensis using Illumina sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin He

    Full Text Available The testis is a highly specialized tissue that plays dual roles in ensuring fertility by producing spermatozoa and hormones. Spermatogenesis is a complex process, resulting in the production of mature sperm from primordial germ cells. Significant structural and biochemical changes take place in the seminiferous epithelium of the adult testis during spermatogenesis. The gene expression pattern of testis in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been performed on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for testis of E. sinensis. In two runs, we produced 25,698,778 sequencing reads corresponding with 2.31 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 342,753 contigs or 141,861 scaffold sequences, which identified 96,311 unigenes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 39,995 unigenes were annotated based on having a Blast hit in the non-redundant database or ESTscan results with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5. This is the first report of a mitten crab transcriptome using high-throughput sequencing technology, and all these testes transcripts can help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved in spermatogenesis and testis maturation.

  1. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius were examined three times (beginning, mid and end in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the measuring tape during all the seasons of year. The tunics of the testes appeared as hyperechoic lines surrounding the homogenous, moderately echogenic parenchyma of the testis. The mediastinum testis was visualized as hyperechoic central line and a spot, in longitudinal and transverse sections, respectively. During winter season, the parenchyma was hyperechoic and mediastinum testis was seen as thin hyperechoic line. In spring, the echogenicity of parenchyma was moderate and mediastinum appeared relatively thick central hyperechoic line. In summer and autumn, less echoic parenchyma and thick band of mediastinum was recorded. Biometric studies showed significantly (P<0.01 higher scrotal length and width of the testis during winter and spring season as compared to summer and autumn. Present study revealed that the ultrasonic structure of camel testis resembles other mammals and season has an apparent effect on the testicular size and echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma in the one-humped camel.

  2. Vulnerability of Prepubertal Mice Testis to Iron Induced Oxidative Dysfunctions In Vivo and Functional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyagaraju BM

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study describes the susceptibility of prepubertal testis of mice toprooxidant induced oxidative impairments both under in vitro and in vivo exposure conditions.Materials and Methods: Following in vitro exposure to iron (5,10 and 25 M, oxidative responsemeasured in terms of lipid peroxidation and hydroperoxide levels in testis of pre pubertal mice (4wk was more robust compared to that of pubertal mice (6 wk.Results: Further, in an in vivo study, pre pubertal mice administered (i.p sub lethal doses (12.5,25 and 50mg/100g bw/d, 5d of Iron dextran, showed significant induction of oxidative stressresponse in testis cytosol and mitochondria manifested as lipid peroxidation, generation of reactiveoxygen species, hydroperoxide levels and enhanced protein carbonyl levels (a measure of proteinoxidation. Diminished levels of GSH and total thiols in both cytosol and mitochondria of testissuggested an altered redox state. Significant perturbations in the activities of antioxidant enzymessuch as glutathione transferase, glutathione peroxidase and SOD were discernible suggesting theongoing oxidative stress in vivo. These oxidative impairments were accompanied by functionalimplications in testis as reflected in the altered activities of dehydrogenases and reduced activitiesof both 3 - and 17 -hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase.Conclusion: Collectively, these data provide an account of the susceptibility of prepubertal testisto iron-induced oxidative stress, associated functional consequences and this model is being furtherexploited for understanding the implications on the physiology of testis and consequent effect onfertility.

  3. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naga Raju, G.J.; John Charles, M.; Bhuloka Reddy, S.; Sarita, P.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Rama Lakshmi, P.V.B.; Vijayan, V.

    2005-01-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal

  4. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga Raju, G.J. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); John Charles, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Bhuloka Reddy, S. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India)]. E-mail: sbr_r@yahoo.com; Sarita, P. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Seetharami Reddy, B. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Rama Lakshmi, P.V.B. [Pathology Department, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam 530 002 (India); Vijayan, V. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 001 (India)

    2005-04-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

  5. [Construction of a yeast two-hybrid cDNA library from the human testis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Jia, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Hai-Yan

    2012-04-01

    To construct a human testis cDNA library for yeast two-hybrid screening. Human normal testis mRNA was purified from total RNA, and ds cDNA was synthesized and amplified using primers SMART III and CDS III oligo (dT) as the base of recombination. The purified PCR products and linearized plasmid pGADT7-Rec were co-transformed into the competent yeast Y187 and recombined by yeast homologous recombinase in the yeast cells to form an active cyclic plasmid. All the clones growing on the SD/-Leu plates were harvested to constitute a human testis cDNA library. We constructed a human testis cDNA library with high multiplication and adequate capacity, from which 2.0 x 10(6) recombinants were obtained. The amplified PCR fragments were between 0.3 kb and 4.0 kb in length. The yeast two-hybrid cDNA library of human testis was successfully constructed by the Clontech SMART method, which has prepared a ground for further studies on the molecular mechanism of spermatogenesis.

  6. TGF-β superfamily signaling in testis formation and early male germline development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Julia C; Wakitani, Shoichi; Loveland, Kate L

    2015-09-01

    The TGF-β ligand superfamily contains at least 40 members, many of which are produced and act within the mammalian testis to facilitate formation of sperm. Their progressive expression at key stages and in specific cell types determines the fertility of adult males, influencing testis development and controlling germline differentiation. BMPs are essential for the interactive instructions between multiple cell types in the early embryo that drive initial specification of gamete precursors. In the nascent foetal testis, several ligands including Nodal, TGF-βs, Activins and BMPs, serve as key masculinizing switches by regulating male germline pluripotency, somatic and germline proliferation, and testicular vascularization and architecture. In postnatal life, local production of these factors determine adult testis size by regulating Sertoli cell multiplication and differentiation, in addition to specifying germline differentiation and multiplication. Because TGF-β superfamily signaling is integral to testis formation, it affects processes that underlie testicular pathologies, including testicular cancer, and its potential to contribute to subfertility is beginning to be understood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Epididymal anomalies in boys with undescended testis or hydrocele: Significance of testicular location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ouck; Na, Seong Woong; Yu, Ho Song; Kwon, Dongdeuk

    2015-10-24

    Epididymal anomalies and patent processus vaginalis are frequently found in boys with cryptorchidism or hydrocele. We conducted this study to evaluate the association between epididymal anomalies and testicular location or patent processus vaginalis in boys with undescended testis or hydrocele. Children undergoing surgery with undescended testis (group A, 136 boys and 162 testes) or communicating hydrocele (group B, 93 boys and 96 testes) were included. Testicular locations and epididymal anomalies were investigated prospectively. An anomalous epididymis was defined as anomalies of epididymal fusion that consisted of loss of continuity between the testis, the epididymis, and the long looping epididymis. The epididymis was considered normal when a normal, firm attachment between the testis, the caput, and the cauda epididymis was present. The mean ages of groups A and B were 24.6 ± 19.7 (range, 8-52 months) and 31.4 ± 20.6 months (range, 10-59 months). The incidence of epididymal anomalies was significantly higher in group A than that in group B (65.4 % vs. 13.5 %, P hydrocele, and that these anomalies were more frequent when undescended testis was at a higher level. These results suggest that testicular location is associated with epididymal anomalies rather than patent processus vaginalis.

  8. Cancer-testis antigen expression in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradet, Yves; Picard, V; Bergeron, A; LaRue, H

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the potential of cCancer-t/Testis antigens (CTAs) as targets for immunotherapy of bladder cancer, we evaluated the expression of 9 CTA genes or families of genes in normal urothelia, bladder tumours and bladder cancer human bladder tissuescell lines. As expression of most CTAs is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms, we also evaluated the effect of the DNA methylase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-DC), and/or theand histone deacetylase inhibitors Trichostatin A (TSA) on their expression in bladder cancer cell lines. Expression of NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1, MAGE-A, MAGE-C1, BAGE, HOM-TES-85, SCP-1, SSX-1, SSX-2 and SSX-4 was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting on 10 normal urothelia, 23 24 superficial and 223 invasive tumours and on 10 cell lines treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-DC) and/or Trichostatin A (TSA). Expression of all CTA genes could be observed in at least 1 tumour except for HOM-TES-85 for which mRNA was never detected. MAGE-A, BAGE and NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 mRNAs were the most frequently detected, respectively in 5677%, 212% and 89% of superficial and in 6461%, 4139% and 276% of invasive tumours. With the exception of MAGE-A, CTA transcripts were rarely detected in the cell lines. However, expression of all CTA genes, except SCP-1, could be induced at various levels by the drugs and 5-AZA-DC was a much more potent inducer than TSA. These data suggest that immunotherapy of bladder cancer could target CTAs, especially those expressed at higher frequency such as MAGE-A, BAGE and NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1. Moreover, their induction by chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-AZA-DC, provides a potential pretreatment aimed at inducing the immunogenicity of the tumours.

  9. Optical Coherence Tomography aids in revealing the hidden history of "The Landsdowne Virgin of the Yarnwinder" by Leonardo da Vinci and studio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targowski, Piotr; Iwanicka, Magdalena; Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Frosinini, Cecilia; Striova, Jana; Fontana, Raffaella

    2018-03-07

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was used for non-invasive examination of a well-known, yet complex, painting from the studio of Leonardo da Vinci in combination with routine imaging in various bands of electromagnetic radiation. In contrast with these techniques, OCT provides depth-resolved information. Three post-processing modalities were explored: cross-sectional views, maps of scattering from given depths, and their 3D models. Some hidden alterations of the painting due to past restorations were traced: retouching and overpainting with their positioning within varnish layers as well as indications of a former transfer to canvas. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Leonardo da Vinci's drapery studies: characterization of lead white pigments by μ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Victor; Calligaro, Thomas [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, C2RMF, Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech-CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, UMR8247, Paris (France); Pichon, Laurent; Mottin, Bruno [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, C2RMF, Paris (France); Wallez, Gilles [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech-CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, UMR8247, Paris (France); Sorbonne University, UPMC Univ., Paris 06 (France)

    2015-11-15

    This work focuses on the composition and microstructure of the lead white pigment employed in a set of paintworks, using a combination of μ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF, directly applied on five drapery studies attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and conserved in the Departement des Arts Graphiques, Musee du Louvre and in the Musee des Beaux-Arts de Rennes. Trace elements present in the composition as well as in the lead white highlights were imaged by 2D scanning XRF. Mineral phases were determined in a fully noninvasive way using a special μ-XRD diffractometer. Phase proportions were estimated by Rietveld refinement. The analytical results obtained will contribute to differentiate lead white qualities and to highlight the artist's technique. (orig.)

  11. Recuperar el afán de conocimientos de Leonardo da Vinci en la era de las nuevas tecnologías: arte, ciencia y vida cotidiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carretero Gómez, Mª.B.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo describimos de forma resumida el trabajo interdisciplinar,que formando parte de un proyecto de innovación educativa,han llevado a cabo un grupo de profesores de enseñanza secundaria pertenecientes al I.E.S.Isabel la Católica.El eje central del mismo ha sido la figura de Leonardo da Vinci maestro en numerosasdisciplinas:pintor,escultor,cocinero,inventor etc.Con él hemos querido contagiar a nuestros alumnos de su incansable afán por conocer y aprender.Se han realizado numerosas actividades (talleres,proyección de películas,recetas de cocina etc.quedestacan por la interconexión entre distintas áreas del saber y por la participación mayoritaria tanto del profesorado como del alumnado del centro.

  12. Leonardo da Vinci's drapery studies: characterization of lead white pigments by μ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Victor; Calligaro, Thomas; Pichon, Laurent; Mottin, Bruno; Wallez, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the composition and microstructure of the lead white pigment employed in a set of paintworks, using a combination of μ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF, directly applied on five drapery studies attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and conserved in the Departement des Arts Graphiques, Musee du Louvre and in the Musee des Beaux-Arts de Rennes. Trace elements present in the composition as well as in the lead white highlights were imaged by 2D scanning XRF. Mineral phases were determined in a fully noninvasive way using a special μ-XRD diffractometer. Phase proportions were estimated by Rietveld refinement. The analytical results obtained will contribute to differentiate lead white qualities and to highlight the artist's technique. (orig.)

  13. The fine structure of the testis wall in Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, M; Greven, H; Schindelmeiser, J

    1982-09-01

    In mature fire salamander testes examined in early spring, smooth muscle cells can as a rule be observed in the connective tissue which underlies the peritoneal epithelium covering the testis. These smooth muscle cells show a variable degree of differentiation that ranges from fibroblast-like cells in the cranial immature parts of the testis to contracted smooth muscle cells with bundles of myofilaments in the caudal (regressive) glandular tissue, indicating a close relationship to the spermatogenic cycle. The monolayered peritoneal epithelium consists of one cell type only, which is extremely flattened in most parts of the testis and columnar in the glandular tissue. The height of the epithelium may partly be due to the non-contracted resp. contracted state of the underlying muscle cells. The muscle cells are possibly involved in sperm discharge.

  14. Lipid peroxidation in kidney and testis tissues in experimental hypothyroidism: the role of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R; Ayyildiz, M; Kafali, E; Koyuncuoglu, T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation and zinc deficiency on the lipid peroxidation in the testis and kidney tissues of rats with experimentally induced hypothyroidism. The experimental Groups were formed as follows: 1 - Control; 2 - Sham-Hypothyroidism; 3 - Hypothyroidism (intraperitoneal administration of 10 mg/kg/day PTU for 4 weeks); 4 - Hypothyroidism + 3 mg/kg/day zinc supplementation (4 weeks); 5 - Hypothyroidism + zinc deficiency (4 weeks). The examination of the study results revealed that hypothyroidism in testis and kidney tissues increased MDA levels and decreased GSH levels (phypothyroidism, however, reduced the increased MDA amount and elevated GSH levels (phypothyroidism, on the other hand, was found to produce the opposite results (phypothyroidism caused lipid peroxidation in kidney and testis tissues. Zinc deficiency together with hypothyroidism made lipid peroxidation more evident, while zinc supplementation significantly inhibited the increased oxidative stress by activating the antioxidant system (Tab. 1, Ref. 24).

  15. Screening for Y microdeletions in men with testicular cancer and undescended testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bor, Pinar; Hindkjaer, Johnny; Kølvraa, Steen

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate a possible association between testicular cancer or undescended testis and Y microdeletions. METHODS: It was designed as a retrospective clinical study. A total of 225 men with testicular cancer or undescended testis were included to study. Fertile men (n = 200) were...... investigated as a control. Genomic DNA, which was extracted from blood samples were investigated with a fluorescent multiplex PCR protocol for screening for Y microdeletions. RESULTS: A single STS missing was found in eight men; one from the control group (sY153), seven from the patients group. The positive...... cases showed a single STS missing of marker sY153 and sY139 in testicular cancer (6/185) and undescended testis (1/40) patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Since no contiguous, real Y microdeletions were found in the study population, it seems that Y microdeletions are not a likely common etiological...

  16. The structural and functional state of hemomicrocirculatory bed and parenchyma of the testis in varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Khallo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Varicose veins of the spermatic cord and testis membranes play a key role in the development of male infertility. Aim. To study the structural features of the bloodstream and testicular parenchyma in terms of varicose veins of the spermatic cord and testis membranes. Meyhods and results. In 23 testicular preparations taken from men of mature age convoluted seminiferous tubules diameter, number of cells of spermatogenic epithelium and interstitial endocrinocytes nuclei volume were studied using macro- and microscopic morphometric methods. It was established that in varicocele testis volume, diameter of convoluted seminiferous tubules and interstitial endocrinocytes nuclei volume significantly reduced. Conclusion. This indicates the presence of circulatory hypoxia of testicles, which leads to a decrease in the volume of interstitial endocrinocytes nuclei by 31%, thereby reducing their functional properties.

  17. Effects of catuaba cristal® on the testis of wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Moura de Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal® (CC, an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8 or water (n=9. Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC group, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissue and lymphatic space were reduced in the treated group. In the CC group, although the nuclear volume of Leydig cells (LC decreased, the number of LC per testis increased. These results suggested that CC had no beneficial effect on spermatogenesis of Wistar rats.

  18. Xenografting of sheep testis tissue and isolated cells as a model for preservation of genetic material from endangered ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, Lucía; Rathi, Rahul; Megee, Susan O; Honaramooz, Ali; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S; Dobrinski, Ina

    2008-07-01

    Recovery of germ cells could be an option for preservation of the genetic pool of endangered animals. In immature males, xenografting of testis tissue provides the opportunity to recover sperm from these animals. In adult animals, xenografting has been less successful, but de novo morphogenesis of functional testis tissue from dissociated testis cells could be an alternative. To assess the potential use of these techniques in endangered bovid species, the domestic sheep was used as a model. Testes from 2-week-old lambs were grafted as tissue fragments or cell suspensions into nude mice. Grafts were recovered at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post grafting. For isolated cells, two additional time points at 35 and 40 weeks after grafting were added. In addition, to analyse the possible effect of social stress among mice within a group on the development of the grafts, testis tissue grafts were recovered 13 weeks post grafting from mice housed individually and in groups. Complete spermatogenesis occurred in sheep testis xenografts at 12 weeks, similar to the situation in situ. Isolated sheep testis cells were able to reorganize and form functional testicular tissue de novo. Housing mice individually or in groups did not have any effect on the development of xenografts. Xenografting of testis tissue might be useful to obtain sperm from immature endangered ungulates that die prematurely. Testis tissue de novo morphogenesis from isolated cells could open interesting options to recover germ cells from mature males with impaired spermatogenesis.

  19. Long non-coding RNA expression profiling of mouse testis during postnatal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    Full Text Available Mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis play critical roles in male fertility and continuation of a species. Previous research into the molecular mechanisms of testis development and spermatogenesis has largely focused on the role of protein-coding genes and small non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs and piRNAs. Recently, it has become apparent that large numbers of long (>200 nt non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are transcribed from mammalian genomes and that lncRNAs perform important regulatory functions in various developmental processes. However, the expression of lncRNAs and their biological functions in post-natal testis development remain unknown. In this study, we employed microarray technology to examine lncRNA expression profiles of neonatal (6-day-old and adult (8-week-old mouse testes. We found that 8,265 lncRNAs were expressed above background levels during post-natal testis development, of which 3,025 were differentially expressed. Candidate lncRNAs were identified for further characterization by an integrated examination of genomic context, gene ontology (GO enrichment of their associated protein-coding genes, promoter analysis for epigenetic modification, and evolutionary conservation of elements. Many lncRNAs overlapped or were adjacent to key transcription factors and other genes involved in spermatogenesis, such as Ovol1, Ovol2, Lhx1, Sox3, Sox9, Plzf, c-Kit, Wt1, Sycp2, Prm1 and Prm2. Most differentially expressed lncRNAs exhibited epigenetic modification marks similar to protein-coding genes and tend to be expressed in a tissue-specific manner. In addition, the majority of differentially expressed lncRNAs harbored evolutionary conserved elements. Taken together, our findings represent the first systematic investigation of lncRNA expression in the mammalian testis and provide a solid foundation for further research into the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs function in mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis.

  20. Synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma of the testis and kidney: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde M. Duduyemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma is the commonest soft tissue sarcoma in both children and adolescents representing 40% of such tumours in North America and more than 50% in Africa. The involvement of the paratesticular tissue, testis and the kidney are generally rare and more so when it is occurring synchronously. We present a case of 22 year old male with inguinoscrotal swelling, fever and abdominal distention who was diagnosed as having obstructed left inguinoscrotal hernia and a right renal mass. The patient had surgery, and a diagnosis of synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma of the left testis, paratesticular tissue and right kidney was made by histology and immunohistochemistry.

  1. Purification of beta-acetylglucosaminase and beta-galactosidase from ram testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caygill, J C; Roston, C P; Jevons, F R

    1966-02-01

    1. The presence of beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) in an acetic acid extract of ram testis is reported. Some properties of the crude enzyme preparation were studied. 2. The purification of beta-acetylglucosaminase (EC 3.2.1.30) and of beta-galactosidase from the ram-testis extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation and chromatography on a CM-cellulose column is described. 3. The final purifications of the separated enzymes achieved were for the beta-acetylglucosaminase 35 times and for the beta-galactosidase 99 times. 4. The possibility of using DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 to purify the enzymes was investigated.

  2. Endocrine function in patients treated for carcinoma in situ in the testis with irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Daugaard, Gedske; Rørth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    CIS is found in the contralateral testis in 5% of the patients with testicular germ cell cancer. The management of CIS in the contralateral testis is important because the majority - if not all - cases of CIS will progress to invasive disease without treatment. It is well documented that testicular...... are sparse. One study has indicated that more radiotherapy with lower doses per fraction could be useful, but more data are needed to confirm this. Endocrine testicular function has been shown to be impaired already before treatment in patients with CIS and is further impaired after testicular irradiation...

  3. [The age factor in bilateral hydrocele diagnosis secondary to a primitive testis lymphoma: case report, diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaziani, E; Di Filippo, A; Picchio, M; De Angelis, F; Corazza, S; Narilli, F; Cimino, G

    2012-01-01

    Primitive NHL represents 9% of testis tumours and the 85% is diagnosed in patient older thant 60 years old. Usually pain and a testis mass are the main manifestations. The Authors report the case of a 82 years-old man with bilateral hydrocele causing severe alteration in the deambulation. The cytology did not show blood cells or neoplastic cell in the FNAB. The US showed a complete modification in the testis. The patient underwent to surgery intervention of vaginalis tunic eversion and resection with the aim of control the symptoms. The histology on multiple biopsy of testis and epidydims bilaterally showed a large B-cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with 6 chemotheray cycles (Rituximab, Vincristine, Cyclophosphamide, Prednisone). Bilateral hydrocele is a rare clinical presentation of testis NHL. In this patient, blood and neoplastic cell absence in the cytology made difficult the differential diagnosis between inflammatory pathology and neoplasia. Hystopathologic study and immunologic pattern can make a certain diagnosis.

  4. IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2/LS CON TESTI TEATRALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Ardissino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio tratta dell'impiego di testi teatrali come fonti di esercizi per l'apprendimento dell'italiano L2/LS. Dopo alcune riflessioni teoriche, si presentano sei proposte di lavoro, con relative soluzioni, adatte a studenti del livello B2-C2 del quadro di riferimento. Si tratta di esercizi ricavati da drammi in un unico atto di Pirandello (La morsa e Lumìe di Sicilia, da Verga (un confronto fra Cavalleria rusticana nella forma drammatica e novellistica, e da Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre. Ogni proposta sfrutta una peculiarità del testo teatrale che si costituisce nell'incontro di dialoghi con didascalie. Anzitutto si tratta di comprendere come si costruiscono i personaggi, quindi di vedere la funzione delle didascalie in relazione al testo, infine di riflettere sulle diverse modalità in cui avvengono i dialoghi, includendo le forme di silenzio. Il testo teatrale appare così molto adatto ad esercizi di lingua, perché mette in gioco le capacità interpretative e immaginative degli studenti, li fa discutere e parlare sulla base delle loro intuizioni.   This paper investigates the use of play scripts as inspiration for Italian L2/FL exercises. After a brief discussion on theory, six project proposals and their solutions, suitable for B2-C2 level students, are presented.  These exercises are based on one-act plays by Pirandello (La Morsa and Lumìe di Sicilia, Verga (a comparison between Cavalleria Rusticana in drama and narrative forms and Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre.  Each project focuses on a specific aspect of the script  and is made up of dialogues with captions. After the way the characters are constructed is investigated, then the function of the captions in relation to the texts is considered, and finally students reflect on the different ways the dialogues are presented, including the pauses. Play scripts lend themselves to language exercises, because they encourage students to use their interpretation skills and imaginations to talk about

  5. The protective effect of ischemic preconditioning on rat testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciralik Harun

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that brief episodes of sublethal ischemia-reperfusion, so-called ischemic preconditioning, provide powerful tissue protection in different tissues such as heart, brain, skeletal muscle, lung, liver, intestine, kidney, retina, and endothelial cells. Although a recent study has claimed that there are no protective effects of ischemic preconditioning in rat testis, the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on testicular tissue have not been investigated adequately. The present study was thus planned to investigate whether ischemic preconditioning has a protective effect on testicular tissue. Methods Rats were divided into seven groups that each contained seven rats. In group 1 (control group, only unilateral testicular ischemia was performed by creating a testicular torsion by a 720 degree clockwise rotation for 180 min. In group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5, group 6, and group 7, unilateral testicular ischemia was performed for 180 min following different periods of ischemic preconditioning. The ischemic preconditioning periods were as follows: 10 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 2; 20 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 3; 30 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 4; multiple preconditioning periods were used (3 × 10 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 5; multiple preconditioning periods were used (5, 10, and 15 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 6; and, multiple preconditioning periods were used (10, 20, and 30 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 7. After the ischemic protocols were carried out, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and testicular tissue samples were taken for biochemical measurements (protein, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and histological examination

  6. Identification of testis-relevant genes using in silico analysis from testis ESTs and cDNA microarray in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongsurawat Thidathip

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor reproductive maturation of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon in captivity is one of the serious threats to sustainability of the shrimp farming industry. Understanding molecular mechanisms governing reproductive maturation processes requires the fundamental knowledge of integrated expression profiles in gonads of this economically important species. In P. monodon, a non-model species for which the genome sequence is not available, expressed sequence tag (EST and cDNA microarray analyses can help reveal important transcripts relevant to reproduction and facilitate functional characterization of transcripts with important roles in male reproductive development and maturation. Results In this study, a conventional testis EST library was exploited to reveal novel transcripts. A total of 4,803 ESTs were unidirectionally sequenced and analyzed in silico using a customizable data analysis package, ESTplus. After sequence assembly, 2,702 unique sequences comprised of 424 contigs and 2,278 singletons were identified; of these, 1,133 sequences are homologous to genes with known functions. The sequences were further characterized according to gene ontology categories (41% biological process, 24% molecular function, 35% cellular component. Through comparison with EST libraries of other tissues of P. monodon, 1,579 transcripts found only in the testis cDNA library were identified. A total of 621 ESTs have not been identified in penaeid shrimp. Furthermore, cDNA microarray analysis revealed several ESTs homologous to testis-relevant genes were more preferentially expressed in testis than in ovary. Representatives of these transcripts, homologs of saposin (PmSap and Dmc1 (PmDmc1, were further characterized by RACE-PCR. The more abundant expression levels in testis than ovary of PmSap and PmDmc1 were verified by quantitative real-time PCR in juveniles and wild broodstock of P. monodon. Conclusions Without a genome sequence, a

  7. Why testes are resistant to hydatidosis: Is blood-testis-barrier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was demonstrable hydatid cyst (protoscoleces and germinative layer) in testes of five rabbits from Group A, but in one rabbit, both testes were normal. In Group B, three out of four rabbits developed peritoneal hydatidosis. The mechanism of testicular resistance to echinococcosis could be due to blood-testis barrier ...

  8. Testis sparing surgery for Leydig cell tumors: New three cases and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Chaabouni

    www.ees.elsevier.com/afju · www.sciencedirect.com. Testis sparing surgery for Leydig cell tumors: New three cases and review of the current literature. A. Chaabouni. ∗. , K. Chabchoub, N. Rebai, M. Bouacida, M.H. Slimen,. A. Bahloul, M.N. Mhiri. Department of Urology, Habib Bourguiba University Hospital, Majida Boulila ...

  9. The comparative histology of the testis of two cultured clariid species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and subsequently viewed under light microscope. Our findings showed that the seminiferous tubules of the Clarias gariepinus testis had wider lumen than those found in Heterobranchus bidorsalis. On the other hand the interlobular spaces were extensive in the Heterobranchus bidorsalis than that of Clarias gariepinus.

  10. Venous infarction of the testis - a cause of non-response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venous infarction of the testis - a cause of non-response to conservative therapy in epididymo-orchitis. ... poorly to conservative measures. Testicular infarction may be one reason tor this complication. Ultrasonography and radionuclide scanning can elucidate the cause. A patient with this complication is described.

  11. Why testes are resistant to hydatidosis: Is blood-testis-barrier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testes are extremely rare sites for echinococcosis. To our knowledge only three cases of testicular hydatid disease have been reported so far. In this laboratory animal model, we studied hydatidosis in rabbit testis. Fourteen male albino rabbits (body weight 2.5-3 kg) were randomized into two groups: Group A (study group), ...

  12. Testicular germ cell cancer despite previous local radiotherapy to the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, K-P; Lauke, H; Michl, U; Winter, E; Loy, V

    2002-06-01

    Testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN, also carcinoma in situ of the testis) is the uniform precursor of testicular germ cell cancer. Local radiotherapy to the testis with dosages of 18-20 Gy has been found to safely eradicate TIN and germ cells, too. Thus, the general assumption is that the development of invasive germ cell tumours can be prevented by this radiotherapy. Herein, we report two patients with one-sided testicular tumour and biopsy-proven contralateral TIN. Both of them developed germ cell neoplasms in the remaining testis although local radiotherapy with 20 Gy had been applied to the testis. One patient developed pure seminoma 7 years after completion of radiotherapy, the other developed a combined tumour consisting of embryonal carcinoma and seminoma after 5 years. Treatment consisted of orchiectomy in each of the cases. Histologically, both had TIN in the testicular tissue surrounding the new growths. Pathogenetically, a small fraction of radioresistent TIN cells overcoming irradiation and progressing to full-blown germ cell cancer in the later course may be the histogenetic clue to explain these unexpected events. Other explanations, though less probable, could be technical radiotherapeutic failure due to targeting problems and a pre-existing radioresistent germ cell tumour in the irradiated testicle.

  13. Protective effects of some fruit juices with low-fat diet on rat testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effects of some fruit juices with low-fat diet on rat testis damaged by carbon tetrachloride: A genetic and histological study. Medhat R. Rehan, Amina M. G. Zedan, Samah A. El-Hashash, Mona A. Farid, Gehan A. El-Shafie ...

  14. Regulation of androgen receptor mRNA and protein in the rat testis by testosterone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Blok (Leen); J.M.S. Bartlett (John); J. Bolt-de Vries (Joan); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert); G.F. Weinbauer (G.); E. Nieschlag (Eberhard); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Adult rats were treated with ethane dimethane sulphonate (EDS), an agent that destroys Leydig cells. Within 5 days after EDS treatment, the levels of testosterone (T) in the circulation and in the testis were decreased to very low values, which makes it possible to

  15. Peritubular Contractile Cells in Testis and Epididymis of the Dog, Canis lupus familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter F. Egger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractile cells surrounding the tubular system of the mammalian testis and epididymis are supposed to contribute to the initial transport of spermatozoa from the testis to epididymis. Testicular peritubular smooth muscle cells have been characterised in detail especially in rodents and humans. The aim of our study was to assess the distribution of peritubular contractile cells of the canine tubuli seminiferi, rete testis channels, ductuli efferentes, and ductus epididymidis by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy and to classify these cells with respect to their possible physiological function. The entire tubular system of the canine testis and epididymis is surrounded by contractile cells expressing smooth muscle actin, smooth muscle myosin and desmin, which are enveloped, at least partly, by a basal lamina. Some contractile cells of the tubuli seminiferi, rete channels, and efferent ducts and sometimes also single peritubular cells of the ductus epididymidis express vimentin. Contractile cells of seminiferous tubules and efferent ducts represent an intermediate cell type exhibiting characteristics of both smooth muscle cells (SMC and myofibroblasts, those of rete channels stellate myofibroblasts, and those of the ductus epididymidis SMC. Differences in structure and arrangement of the contractile cells between seminiferous tubules, rete channels, efferent ducts, and ductus epididymidis suggest different functions. Myofibroblasts and contractile cells similar to them could be mainly responsible for the maintenance of an appropriate tissue turgor, whereas contraction of SMC of the ductus epididymidis might cause propulsion of spermatozoa by peristaltic waves.

  16. Antioxidant effects of alpha-tocopherol (vitamine E on testis regeneration in busulfan-treated mice

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    Fatemeh Rohnavaz

    2016-09-01

    (35, 40 mg/kg body weight intraperitonealy. The effects of busulfan was examinned on destruction of testis tissue, semen parameters and catalase enzymatic activity compared with control group after 30 days. Finally, fter determining the effective dose of busulfan, Vitamin E was injected to the mice as an antioxidant enzyme  and its effects on semen parameters and testis tissue was examined after one month.  Results: The results showed that oxidative stress was increased in busulfan-treated mice during 30 days. Catalase enzymatic activity decreased significantly in testis of Busulfan-treated mice in comparison with control group. A significant decrease of sperm number was observed according to treatment by Busulfan. After finding the most damaging dose of busulfan (40 mg/kg in destruction of testis tissue, these mice were injected by vitamine E. The results showed that the oxidative stress and percentage of abnormal sperm were decreased in Busulfan-treated mice that exposed a dose of 100 mg/kg vitamin E. The number of sperm and antioxidant activity of catalase was increased. Conclusion: Vitamin E improves a revival of spermatogenesis and improves testicular parameters in these patients. 

  17. Comparative genomic and in situ hybridization of germ cell tumors of the infantile testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, M; Rosenberg, C; Stoop, H; Schuyer, M; Timmer, A; Oosterhuis, W; Looijenga, L

    Chromosomal information on germ cell tumors of the infantile testis, ie, teratomas and yolk sac tumors, is limited and controversial. We studied two teratomas and four yolk sac tumors using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and in situ hybridization. No chromosomal anomalies were found in the

  18. Testis sparing surgery for Leydig cell tumors: New three cases and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Chaabouni

    KEYWORDS. Leydig cell tumor;. Organ-sparing surgery;. Radical orchitectomy. Abstract. Introduction: Leydig cells tumors of the testis are uncommon, representing between 1 and 3% of the testicular tumors and for which the natural history and therapy are debated between radical orchitectomy and organ-sparing surgery.

  19. EXPRESSION OF THE SPERMATOGENIC CELL-SPECIFIC GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (GAPDS) IN RAT TESTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spermatogenic cell-specific variant of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) has been cloned from a rat testis cDNA library and its pattern of expression determined. A 1417 nucleotide cDNA has been found to encode an enzyme with substantial homology to mouse GAPDS...

  20. Hydatid cyst of testis: An unusual presentation of hydatid disease - case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldev Singh

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hvdatid disease is a parasitic disease usually caused by Echinococcus granulosus. It usually presents with liver involvement and uncommonly lungs and rarely other organs are involved. A rare case of hydatid testis is reported that was provisionally diagnosed as testicular tumor.

  1. Isolation and characterization of all-trans-retinoic acid-responsive genes in the rat testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaemers, I. C.; van Pelt, A. M.; Themmen, A. P.; de rooij, D. G.

    1998-01-01

    By way of differential screening of testis cDNA libraries from vitamin A-deficient (VAD) rats before and after administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), genes, the transcription of which was influenced by ATRA, were isolated. Most clones with an increased transcription encoded different

  2. Lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase in human testis and in germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J E; Lindegaard, M L; Friis-Hansen, L

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate endothelial lipase (EL, LIPG) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA and protein expression in normal human testis and testicular germ cell tumours (GCT). Both EL and LPL were expressed in normal seminiferous tubules and in the interstitial compartment. EL mRNA...

  3. Examination for intratubular germ cell neoplasia at operation for undescended testis in boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Frisch, M

    1994-01-01

    A total of 843 consecutive boys (median age 12.7 years) who had undergone testicular biopsy at operation for undescended testis was followed into adulthood (median age 25.2 years) to examine for testicular germ cell neoplasia. Five cases of testicular germ cell neoplasia were identified, including...

  4. Tumor in undescended intrapelvic testis revealed by supraclavicular lymphadenopathy: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Riyach, Omar; Ahsaini, Mustapha; Ahallal, Youness; Khallouk, Abdelhak; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2013-04-26

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease. The incidence of testicular cancer in undescended testicles is of 3 to 48 times greater than in the general population. In the developed countries, the existence of undescended testicles in the adult population is rare, due to systematic practice of elective orchidopexy before the second year of life and orchiectomy in post adolescent males with undescended testicles. Despite these prevention measures, there are still some isolated cases of intra-abdominal testicular tumors in adults. We report a case of testicular cancer in cryptorchid testis revealed by supraclavicular lymphadenopathy. We report a case of a 46 year old fertile man with a history of unilateral cryptorchidism who presented with a palpable left supraclavicular mass and absence of the right testicle. On investigations an intrapelvic testis tumor was diagnosed. Laparotomy and complete excision was carried out. The possible association between the undescended testis and cancer transformations is briefly discussed. Testicular cancer in undescended testicles should not be ignored. Only early diagnosis and lower of testis in scrotumprevent such clinical forms.

  5. Histological changes in the testis of rats treated with Alomo Bitter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the increasing demand for herbal aphrodisiacs, this study investigates the effect of Alomo bitters on the histology of testis in adult rats. 36 male rats of comparable weight (151.67 ± 2.89 grams) and sizes were involved in this study. The animals were assigned into four groups; a control group (A) and three test ...

  6. Protective effect of ginger on gentamicin-induced apoptosis in testis of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Afshin; Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Khaki, Arash; Ahmadnejad, Behnam

    2012-01-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, is one of the most widely used spices for various foods and as an herbal medicine in Asian countries. It has been shown that ginger has antioxidant power. Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with a very broad spectrum against microbial pathogens, especially the gram-negative. Many studies revealed that gentamicin induces an oxidative stress-status in the testis by increasing free radical formation and lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate on the effects of Ginger as a natural anioxidant on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin in rats. In order to study the recovery effects of ginger on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin 40 adult Wistar male rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Normal salin control (group I) (n=10), gentamicin control (group II), ginger control (group III) and gentamicin + ginger (group IV) each 10 rats. There was observation of negative effect of Gentamicin on testis histology in rats. The results revealed that there was a significant increase in apoptosis in group III when compared with other groups (P<0.05).However, ginger could decrease apoptosis in group IV that received 100mg/kg/rat of Ginger. Regarding the results, it is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections.

  7. Protective Effect of Ginger on Gentamicin-Induced Apoptosis in Testis of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Zahedi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, is one of the most widely used spices for various foods and as an herbal medicine in Asian countries. It has been shown that ginger has antioxidant power. Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with a very broad spectrum against microbial pathogens, especially the gram-negative. Many studies revealed that gentamicin induces an oxidative stress-status in the testis by increasing free radical formation and lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate on the effects of Ginger as a natural anioxidant on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin in rats. Methods: In order to study the recovery effects of ginger on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin 40 adult Wistar male rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Normal salin control (group I (n=10, gentamicin control (group II, ginger control (group III and gentamicin + ginger (group IV each 10 rats. There was observation of negative effect of Gentamicin on testis histology in rats. Results: The results revealed that there was a significant increase in apoptosis in group III when compared with other groups (P<0.05.However, ginger could decrease apoptosis in group IV that received 100mg/kg/rat of Ginger. Conclusion: Regarding the results, it is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections.

  8. Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis: A case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Neng; Fu, Ni; Peng, Su; Luo, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis is an extremely rare tumor without specific clinical manifestations, mainly including hydrocele formation and a painless mass. We herein present the case of a patient with hydrocele of the left testis, without any other complaints. Tunica vaginalis subinvolution was performed, and postoperative pathological examination revealed a malignant mesothelioma arising from the left tunica vaginalis testis. Whole-body positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and subsequent abdominal and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed no evidence of local lymphadenopathy. Radical left orchiectomy was performed after the pathological diagnosis. The pathological examination after the second surgery demonstrated that the tumor had invaded the adjacent periorchium and spermatic cord, but there was no evidence of local lymph node metastasis. Pemetrexed and cisplatin were administered at a dose of 900 and 130 mg, respectively, on the first day of a 28-day cycle. After 6 months of therapy, the disease had not progressed on abdominal and pelvic PET-CT and MRI. The patient was still followed up in our urology outpatient clinic at the time of the present report. Although testicular hydrocele is a common and easily diagnosed condition, detailed medical history and physical examination are required. Thus, when clinicians encounter patients with testicular hydrocele, a variety of possible causes must be considered, including testicular or paratesticular tumors, even rare tumors such as mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. PMID:29285372

  9. Primary Lymphoma of the Testis in Remission for more than Ten ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A working diagnosis of right hydrocele with differential diagnosis of lymphangioma was made. Invesigations were essentially normal and patient was scheduled for hydrocelectomy but findings at operations were different. RESULTS: At surgery, there was grossly enlarged hard right testis with thickened spermatic cord.

  10. METABOLOMIC EVALUATION OF RAT LIVER AND TESTIS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TOXICITY OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of two triazole fungicides, myclobutanil and triadimefon, on endogenous rat metabolite profiles in blood serum, liver, and testis was assessed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for...

  11. Endocrine roles of D-aspartic acid in the testis of lizard Podarcis s. sicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucci, F; D'Aniello, S; Di Fiore, M M

    2005-12-01

    In the lizard Podarcis s. sicula, a substantial amount of D-aspartate (D-Asp) is endogenous to the testis and shows cyclic changes of activity connected with sex hormone profiles during the annual reproductive phases. Testicular D-Asp content shows a direct correlation with testosterone titres and a reverse correlation with 17beta-estradiol titres. In vivo experiments, consisting of i.p. injections of 2.0 micromol/g body weight of D-Asp or other amino acids, in lizards collected during the three main phases of the reproductive cycle (pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-reproductive period), revealed that the testis can specifically take up and accumulate D-Asp alone. Moreover, this amino acid influences the synthesis of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol in all phases of the cycle. This phenomenon is particularly evident during the pre- and post-reproductive period, when endogenous testosterone levels observed in both testis and plasma were the lowest and 17beta-estradiol concentrations were the highest. D-Asp rapidly induces a fall in 17beta-estradiol and a rise in testosterone at 3 h post-injection in the testis and at 6 h post-injection in the blood. In vitro experiments show that testicular tissue converted L-Asp into D-Asp through an aspartate racemase. D-Asp synthesis was measured in all phases of the cycle, but was significantly higher during the reproductive period with a peak at pH 6.0. The exogenous D-Asp also induces a significant increase in the mitotic activity of the testis at 3 h (P proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The effects of D-Asp on the testis appear to be specific since they were not seen in lizards injected with other D- or L-forms of amino acids with known excitatory effects on neurosecretion. Our results suggest a regulatory role for D-Asp in the steroido-genesis and spermatogenesis of the testis of the lizard Podarcis s. sicula.

  12. Unilateral orchidectomy in donkey (Equus asinus: Evaluation of different surgical techniques, histological and morphological changes on remaining testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Ali Yousef Hussein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral orchidectomy (UO is required when further breeding potential is important. It is sometimes necessary to remove a single testis in a matured stallion for therapeutic reasons. In this study, twelve donkeys were used to evaluate three techniques of unilateral castration, histological and morphological changes on the remaining testis. Results of the study showed that each of the surgical techniques used had its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with the other two techniques. Therefore the selection among the three techniques depends on the surgeon preferences and the environment in which the unilateral orchidectomy is performed. The volume of the remaining testis recorded at the end of the study was significantly greater than that estimated at the start of the study (p < 0.05. The percentage of sperm motility obtained from the remaining testis was significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Histological examination of the testis in open surgery (group I (where the scrotum was left opened revealed severe hemorrhages, edema and fibrosis. The testis showed degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and interstitial orchitis. Histological examination of the testes removed using a closed technique, (in groups II and III where the scrotum wound was sutured, revealed hyperplasia of spermatogenic series and Leydig cells. In conclusion, unilateral orchidectomy had compensatory effects on the weight and volume of remaining testis. Adverse effects on sperm motility and viability can affect the fertility of the animal.

  13. Influence of Aluminium Chloride on Antioxidant System in the Testis and Epididymis of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Kalaiselvi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the use of chemicals in agriculture, industry, and public health has become so common that the environment is continuously contaminated by the toxic substance-like metals. Aluminum released due to anthropogenic activities such as mining and industrial uses. Aluminium has several industrial uses. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aluminium chloride (AlCl3 on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the testis and epididymis of rats. Methods: Adult male rats were administered with aluminium chloride at two different doses, 50 mg and 100 mg/kg body weight, orally, daily for 45 days. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and their testis and the epididymis were removed. Antioxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, and glutathione-s-transferase (GST were assayed. Lipid peroxidation (LPO, vitamin C, and vitamin E levels were also determined. Results: Aluminium chloride administration had no effect on the bodyweight of the animals but the weight of the testis and epididymis was decreased. Almost all the antioxidant enzymes studied markedly diminished in the testis and epididymis of aluminium chloride treated animals. The non-enzymatic antioxidants, vitamin C and vitamin E, also declined. Lipid peroxidation, on the other hand, significantly increased. The influence was found to be more in 100 mg treated rats when compared to 50 mg treated rats. Conclusions: The present study suggests the reproductive toxicity of aluminium by inducing the oxidative stress in the testis and epididymis and possible interference in sperm production and further maturational processes.

  14. The gut microbiota and developmental programming of the testis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Al-Asmakh

    Full Text Available Nutrients and environmental chemicals, including endocrine disruptors, have been incriminated in the current increase in male reproductive dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The gastrointestinal tract represents the largest surface area exposed to our environment and thereby plays a key role in connection with exposure of internal organs to exogenous factors. In this context the gut microbiome (all bacteria and their metabolites have been shown to be important contributors to body physiology including metabolism, cognitive functions and immunity. Pivotal to male reproduction is a proper development of the testis, including the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB that encapsulates and protects germ cells from stress induced environmental cues, e.g. pathogenic organisms and xenobiotics. Here we used specific pathogen free (SPF mice and germ-free (GF mice to explore whether gut microbiota and/or their metabolites can influence testis development and regulation of BTB. Lumen formation in the seminiferous tubules, which coincides with the development of the BTB was delayed in the testes of GF mice at 16 days postpartum. In addition, perfusion experiments (Evans blue demonstrated increased BTB permeability in these same mice. Reduced expressions of occludin, ZO-2 and E-cadherin in GF testis suggested that the microbiota modulated BTB permeability by regulation of cell-cell adhesion. Interestingly, exposure of GF mice to Clostridium Tyrobutyricum (CBUT, which secrete high levels of butyrate, restored the integrity of the BTB and normalized the levels of cell adhesion proteins. Moreover, the GF mice exhibited lower serum levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH than the SPF group. In addition, the intratesticular content of testosterone was lower in GF compared to SPF or CBUT animals. Thus, the gut microbiome can modulate the permeability of the BTB and might play a role in the regulation of endocrine functions of the testis.

  15. Effect of varicocelectomy on testis volume and semen parameters in adolescents: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele repair in adolescent remains controversial. Our aim is to identify and combine clinical trials results published thus far to ascertain the efficacy of varicocelectomy in improving testis volume and semen parameters compared with nontreatment control. A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase and Web of Science, which included results obtained from meta-analysis, randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies. The study population was adolescents with clinically palpable varicocele with or without the testicular asymmetry or abnormal semen parameters. Cases were allocated to treatment and observation groups, and testis volume or semen parameters were adopted as outcome measures. As a result, seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs and nonrandomized controlled trials studying bilateral testis volume or semen parameters in both treatment and observation groups were identified. Using a random effect model, mean difference of testis volume between the treatment group and the observation group was 2.9 ml (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6, 5.2; P< 0.05 for the varicocele side and 1.5 ml (95% CI: 0.3, 2.7; P< 0.05 for the healthy side. The random effect model analysis demonstrated that the mean difference of semen concentration, total semen motility, and normal morphology between the two groups was 13.7 × 10 6 ml−1 (95% CI: −1.4, 28.8; P = 0.075, 2.5% (95% CI: −3.6, 8.6; P= 0.424, and 2.9% (95% CI: −3.0, 8.7; P= 0.336 respectively. In conclusion, although varicocelectomy significantly improved bilateral testis volume in adolescents with varicocele compared with observation cases, semen parameters did not have any statistically significant difference between two groups. Well-planned, properly conducted RCTs are needed in order to confirm the above-mentioned conclusion further and to explore whether varicocele repair in adolescents could improve subsequently spontaneous pregnancy rates.

  16. CRISPR/Cas9 Promotes Functional Study of Testis Specific X-Linked Gene In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyan Li

    Full Text Available Mammalian spermatogenesis is a highly regulated multistage process of sperm generation. It is hard to uncover the real function of a testis specific gene in vitro since the in vitro model is not yet mature. With the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 system, we can now rapidly generate knockout mouse models of testis specific genes to study the process of spermatogenesis in vivo. SYCP3-like X-linked 2 (SLX2 is a germ cell specific component, which contains a Cor1 domain and belongs to the XLR (X-linked, lymphocyte regulated family. Previous studies suggested that SLX2 might play an important role in mouse spermatogenesis based on its subcellular localization and interacting proteins. However, the function of SLX2 in vivo is still elusive. Here, to investigate the functions of SLX2 in spermatogenesis, we disrupted the Slx2 gene by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Since Slx2 is a testis specific X-linked gene, we obtained knockout male mice in the first generation and accelerated the study process. Compared with wild-type mice, Slx2 knockout mice have normal testis and epididymis. Histological observation of testes sections showed that Slx2 knockout affected none of the three main stages of spermatogenesis: mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. In addition, we further confirmed that disruption of Slx2 did not affect the number of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis progression or XY body formation by immunofluorescence analysis. As spermatogenesis was normal in Slx2 knockout mice, these mice were fertile. Taken together, we showed that Slx2 itself is not an essential gene for mouse spermatogenesis and CRISPR/Cas9 technique could speed up the functional study of testis specific X-linked gene in vivo.

  17. The germ cell nuclear proteins hnRNP G-T and RBMY activate a testis-specific exon.

    OpenAIRE

    Yilei Liu; Cyril F Bourgeois; Shaochen Pang; Marek Kudla; Natacha Dreumont; Liliane Kister; Yong-Hua Sun; James Stevenin; David J Elliott

    2009-01-01

    The human testis has almost as high a frequency of alternative splicing events as brain. While not as extensively studied as brain, a few candidate testis-specific splicing regulator proteins have been identified, including the nuclear RNA binding proteins RBMY and hnRNP G-T, which are germ cell-specific versions of the somatically expressed hnRNP G protein and are highly conserved in mammals. The splicing activator protein Tra2beta is also highly expressed in the testis and physically intera...

  18. Sperm protein 17: clinical relevance of a cancer/testis antigen, from contraception to cancer immunotherapy, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Sperm protein 17 belongs to the cancer/testis antigen family and was found to play a key role in the cell fusion process between the mammalian spermatozoa and egg. Sperm protein 17-specific autoantibodies in vasectomized males suggest its high expression in the testis. Sperm protein 17 expression levels are low or absent in normal tissues, other than the testis. Sperm protein 17 is expressed by tumors, including ovarian cancer, indicating that it is an ideal target for cancer immunotherapy, and plays a role in tumorigenesis and drug resistance. This review recapitulates the milestones of sperm protein 17 research and highlights its potential use in translational medicine.

  19. The Effect of Orally Administered L-carnitine on Testis Tissue Sperm Parameters and Daily Sperm Production in Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zohre Zare; Hossein Eimani; Moslem Mohammadi; Mahmood Mofid; Hossein Dashtnavard

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate body and testis weight, testis tissue,counts, motility, viability, morphology, and chromatin quality of epididymal sperm, aswell as the testicular spermatid number (TSN) per gram of testis, and daily sperm production(DSP) in L-carnitine treated mice.Materials and Methods: In the present study, adult male NMRI mice (mean age of 4weeks) were administered L-carnitine by gavage for two weeks. The experimental groupsreceived 1mg L-carnitine/1...

  20. Use of the processes vaginalis: A new technique for reinforcing the neourethra in hypospadias associated with undescended testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Acharya

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: In patients of undescended testis with hypospadias, simultaneous repair with the processes vaginalis flap is an ideal technique with good results. Processes vaginalis is good vascular cover for neourethra.

  1. Expression and action of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta1, TGFbeta2, and TGFbeta3) during embryonic rat testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, A S; Kim, G; Skinner, M K

    1999-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the role of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) during seminiferous cord formation and embryonic testis development. The expression pattern of mRNA for TGFbeta isoforms was evaluated during testis development through a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) procedure. Expression of mRNA for TGFbeta1 was highest at postnatal day 0 (P0) and P10. In contrast, TGFbeta2 was high at embryonic day 15 (E15), declined at E16, and showed a transient increase at P0 through P3 of testis development. Interestingly, expression of mRNA for TGFbeta3 was high during embryonic development and then declined after P3. Immunohistochemical localization of TGFbeta1 and TGFbeta2 demonstrated expression in Sertoli cells at E14 and in the seminiferous cords at P0. Selective interstitial cells expressed high concentrations of TGFbeta1 and TGFbeta2 in P0 testis. TGFbeta3 was expressed in selective cells at the junction of the E14 testis and mesonephros. The cells expressing TGFbeta3 in the testis appeared to be preperitubular cells that resided around the seminiferous cords. TGFbeta3 was localized to gonocytes in P0 testis. TGFbeta1 was found to have no influence on seminiferous cord formation in embryonic organ cultures of E13 testis. In contrast, growth of both E13 and E14 embryonic organ cultures was inhibited by TGFbeta1 and resulted in reduced testis size (40% of controls) with fewer cords present. A P0 testis cell culture and thymidine incorporation assay were used to directly examine the effects of recombinant TGFbeta1. TGFbeta1 alone had no influence on thymidine incorporation in P0 testis cell cultures when compared to controls. Interestingly, TGFbeta1 inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF), and 10% calf serum stimulated P0 testis cell growth but not FSH-stimulated growth. Therefore, TGFbeta1 appears to inhibit testis growth in both the embryonic and early postnatal periods. The hormonal

  2. Lack of ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 Cancer/Testis Antigen Expression in Lung and Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheswaran, Emeaga; Pedersen, Christina B; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    inhibitors has been proposed as an attractive strategy to increase the expression of cancer/testis antigens in tumors before immunotargeting; however, neither ADAM2, CALR3 nor SAGE1 could be significantly induced in lung and breast cancer cell lines using this strategy. Our results suggest that ADAM2, CALR3...... and antigenic properties, but the expression patterns of most of the more than 200 identified cancer/testis antigens in various cancers remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, we investigated the expression of the cancer/testis antigens ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 in lung and breast cancer, the two most...... frequent human cancers, with the purpose of providing novel therapeutic targets for these diseases. We used a set of previously uncharacterized antibodies against the cancer/testis antigens ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 to investigate their expression in a large panel of normal tissues as well as breast and lung...

  3. The left ventricle as a mechanical engine: from Leonardo da Vinci to the echocardiographic assessment of peak power output-to-left ventricular mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Frank L; Guarini, Giacinta; Ballo, Piercarlo; Carluccio, Erberto; Maiello, Maria; Capozza, Paola; Innelli, Pasquale; Rosa, Gian M; Palmiero, Pasquale; Galderisi, Maurizio; Razzolini, Renato; Nodari, Savina

    2013-03-01

    The interpretation of the heart as a mechanical engine dates back to the teachings of Leonardo da Vinci, who was the first to apply the laws of mechanics to the function of the heart. Similar to any mechanical engine, whose performance is proportional to the power generated with respect to weight, the left ventricle can be viewed as a power generator whose performance can be related to left ventricular mass. Stress echocardiography may provide valuable information on the relationship between cardiac performance and recruited left ventricular mass that may be used in distinguishing between adaptive and maladaptive left ventricular remodeling. Peak power output-to-mass, obtained during exercise or pharmacological stress echocardiography, is a measure that reflects the number of watts that are developed by 100 g of left ventricular mass under maximal stimulation. Power output-to-mass may be calculated as left ventricular power output per 100 g of left ventricular mass: 100× left ventricular power output divided by left ventricular mass (W/100 g). A simplified formula to calculate power output-to-mass is as follows: 0.222 × cardiac output (l/min) × mean blood pressure (mmHg)/left ventricular mass (g). When the integrity of myocardial structure is compromised, a mismatch becomes apparent between maximal cardiac power output and left ventricular mass; when this occurs, a reduction of the peak power output-to-mass index is observed.

  4. Una consideración sobre el espacio en Leonardo da Vinci, desde la ciencia, el arte y la filosofía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Vallejo Clavijo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de captar, transmitir y comunicar la realidad a través del sen- tido de la vista, la experiencia vivida y la habilidad manual constituye uno de los propósitos más importantes en las obras de Leonardo da Vinci. S e aclar a, sin embargo, que al querer abordar el espacio en una pintura o en un dibujo, el proceso de elaboración de este debe inicialmente centrarse en operaciones mentales, dado que ellas mismas residen en el espíritu del pintor. Para Da Vinci, el espacio es concebido desde una peculiar visión de la matemática y la geometría, puesto que ellas mismas son conc ebidas desde una perspec tiva dinámica y visual. De la misma manera, el criter io adoptado par a analizar el desplazamiento del cuer po en el espacio es lo visual , lo cualitativo, acorde con el realismo aristotélico. El tránsit o de in tegración que presenta el artista entre la teoría y la práctica vendr á a c onstituirse en el eje fundamental de la ciencia moderna, en par ticular en la física newt oniana, dado su carácter operativo .

  5. Transcriptome analysis of spermatogenically regressed, recrudescent and active phase testis of seasonally breeding wall lizards Hemidactylus flaviviridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Gautam

    Full Text Available Reptiles are phylogenically important group of organisms as mammals have evolved from them. Wall lizard testis exhibits clearly distinct morphology during various phases of a reproductive cycle making them an interesting model to study regulation of spermatogenesis. Studies on reptile spermatogenesis are negligible hence this study will prove to be an important resource.Histological analyses show complete regression of seminiferous tubules during regressed phase with retracted Sertoli cells and spermatognia. In the recrudescent phase, regressed testis regain cellular activity showing presence of normal Sertoli cells and developing germ cells. In the active phase, testis reaches up to its maximum size with enlarged seminiferous tubules and presence of sperm in seminiferous lumen. Total RNA extracted from whole testis of regressed, recrudescent and active phase of wall lizard was hybridized on Mouse Whole Genome 8×60 K format gene chip. Microarray data from regressed phase was deemed as control group. Microarray data were validated by assessing the expression of some selected genes using Quantitative Real-Time PCR. The genes prominently expressed in recrudescent and active phase testis are cytoskeleton organization GO 0005856, cell growth GO 0045927, GTpase regulator activity GO: 0030695, transcription GO: 0006352, apoptosis GO: 0006915 and many other biological processes. The genes showing higher expression in regressed phase belonged to functional categories such as negative regulation of macromolecule metabolic process GO: 0010605, negative regulation of gene expression GO: 0010629 and maintenance of stem cell niche GO: 0045165.This is the first exploratory study profiling transcriptome of three drastically different conditions of any reptilian testis. The genes expressed in the testis during regressed, recrudescent and active phase of reproductive cycle are in concordance with the testis morphology during these phases. This study will pave

  6. A Multiplex Cancer/Testis Antigen-Based Biomarker Panel to Predict Aggressive Phenotype of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    correlated with no protein translation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer; metastatic prostate cancer; cancer/testis antigens (CTA); biomarker ; gene...Antigen retrieval was performed under heat and adequate pH. After that, steps for endogenous peroxide activity and unspecific protein blocking were...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0535 TITLE: A Multiplex Cancer/Testis Antigen-Based Biomarker Panel to Predict Aggressive Phenotype of Prostate

  7. Immunotherapy for adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands: cancer/testis antigens and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Suxia; Fan, Mingwen

    2009-11-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands is the epithelial tumor. There are amount of malignant occurrences of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands in the head and neck area. Cancer/testis antigens can be found in various malignant tumors, normal adult testis and occasionally placenta, but not in the other normal adult tissues. This characteristic makes Cancer/testis antigens as potential markers to be applied in immunotherapeutic strategies against cancer. It has been shown that in different tumors, the expression of certain Cancer/testis antigens is activated treated with 5-aza-CdR via the demethylation of their promoter CpG islands. It is logical that multiple Cancer/testis antigens may correlate with the clinicopathologic factors of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands and be the potential markers of prognosis treated with 5-aza-CdR. So the hypothesis will provide the new direction that we can use Cancer/testis antigens as candidate antigens for adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands immunotherapy due to the high expression rate activated with 5-aza-CdR.

  8. Unilateral orchidectomy in donkey (Equus asinus): Evaluation of different surgical techniques, histological and morphological changes on remaining testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud Ali Omar, Magda; Mohamed Ahmed Hassanein, Khaled; Khalifa Abdel-Razek, Abdel-Razek; Ali Yousef Hussein, Haroon

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral orchidectomy (UO) is required when further breeding potential is important. It is sometimes necessary to remove a single testis in a matured stallion for therapeutic reasons. In this study, twelve donkeys were used to evaluate three techniques of unilateral castration, histological and morphological changes on the remaining testis. Results of the study showed that each of the surgical techniques used had its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with the other two techniques. Therefore the selection among the three techniques depends on the surgeon preferences and the environment in which the unilateral orchidectomy is performed. The volume of the remaining testis recorded at the end of the study was significantly greater than that estimated at the start of the study (p < 0.05). The percentage of sperm motility obtained from the remaining testis was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Histological examination of the testis in open surgery (group I) (where the scrotum was left opened) revealed severe hemorrhages, edema and fibrosis. The test is showed degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and interstitial orchitis. Histological examination of the testes removed using a closed technique, (in groups II and III) where the scrotum wound was sutured, revealed hyperplasia of spermatogenic series and Leydig cells. In conclusion, unilateral orchidectomy had compensatory effects on the weight and volume of remaining testis. Adverse effects on sperm motility and viability can affect the fertility of the animal.

  9. Impaired testicular function in patients with carcinoma-in-situ of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Giwercman, A; Hansen, S W

    1999-01-01

    for testicular cancer. Biopsy of the contralateral testis had showed CIS in a group of 24 patients and no evidence of CIS in the other group of 30 patients. Semen quality and serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were compared in these two groups of men...... after orchidectomy but before further treatment for testicular cancer. RESULTS: Significantly higher LH levels (median, 8.1 IU/L v 4.8 IU/L; P ...PURPOSE: To elucidate the biologic association between germ cell neoplasia and testicular dysfunction, through investigation of Leydig cell function and semen quality in men with carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) of the testis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined two groups of men, unilaterally orchidectomized...

  10. Persistent mullerian duct syndrome with teratoma in an ectopic testis: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narlawar, R.S.; Patankar, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Seth G. S. Medical College and K. E. M. Hospital, Parel, Mumbai (India); Shah, J.R.; Parikh, V. [Dept. of CT and Ultrasound, Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

    2001-06-01

    The persistent mullerian duct syndrome represents a rare form of male pseudohermaphroditism, secondary to mullerian inhibiting factor (MIF) deficiency. We describe imaging findings in a 30-year-old male (46 XY karyotype) with bilateral cryptorchidism and mullerian duct anomalies (presence of uterus and fallopian tubes). Grade-III teratoma with yolk sac tumour was detected in one of the undescended testis, lying in the pelvic cavity. The other testis was in the inguinal canal. The rest of the wolffian duct structures (e. g. prostate, seminal vesicles) were nearly normal. Very few reports of imaging findings of this entity have been published thus far, probably because of the rarity of entity, incidental detection of most of the cases at surgery and relatively asymptomatic clinical presentation. (orig.)

  11. Distribution of terminal sugar residues in the testis of the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguoro, Annamaria; Prisco, Marina; Mennella, Clotilde; Ricchiari, Loredana; Angelini, Francesco; Andreuccetti, Piero

    2004-08-01

    Lectins represent a class of proteins/glycoproteins binding specifically to terminal sugar residues. The present investigation aims to identify lectin-binding sites in testis of Torpedo marmorata. Using a panel of lectins coupled with fluoresceine isothiocyanate, we demonstrated that germ and somatic cells present in Torpedo testis contain glycoconjugates, whose distribution at the level of the surface, the cytoplasm and the nucleus changes during germ cell differentiation. Moreover our observations demonstrate that the germ cells undergoing apoptosis (Prisco et al., 2003a: Mol Reprod Dev 64:341-348) overexpress a residual sugar recognised by WFA lectin that can be considered a specific marker for apoptotic germ cells. Finally, our results indicate that there is a progressive increase in glycosilation during spermatogenesis, especially at the level of the acrosome in the spermatocyte-spermatid step, and that Leydig cells are differently stained in relation to the spermatogenetic cycle. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Gilgamesh is required for the maintenance of germline stem cells in Drosophila testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Zhu, Xiangxiang; Zhou, Lijuan; Wang, Jian; Tao, Xiaoqian; Wang, Shuang; Sun, Fuling; Kan, Xianzhao; Han, Zhengqi; Gu, Yuelin

    2017-07-18

    Emerging evidence supports that stem cells are regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. However, factors that determine the fate of stem cells remain incompletely understood. The Drosophila testis provides an exclusive powerful model in searching for potential important regulatory factors and their underlying mechanisms for controlling the fate of germline stem cells (GSCs). In this study, we have found that Drosophila gilgamesh (gish), which encodes a homologue of human CK1-γ (casein kinase 1-gamma), is required intrinsically for GSC maintenance. Our genetic analyses indicate gish is not required for Dpp/Gbb signaling silencing of bam and is dispensable for Dpp/Gbb signaling-dependent Dad expression. Finally, we show that overexpression of gish fail to dramatically increase the number of GSCs. These findings demonstrate that gish controls the fate of GSCs in Drosophila testis by a novel Dpp/Gbb signaling-independent pathway.

  13. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF may play an importantrole. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpacatestis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemicalstaining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old(newborn alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (p 0.05; NGF at different cell stages showed nosignificant differences (p > 0.05. It suggests that NGF may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis,which provides direct evidence for NGF action in the alpaca testis during postnatal development and spermatogenesis.

  14. Blood-testis barrier and spermatogenesis: lessons from genetically-modified mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hua Jiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The blood-testis barrier (BTB is found between adjacent Sertoli cells in the testis where it creates a unique microenvironment for the development and maturation of meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells in seminiferous tubes. It is a compound proteinous structure, composed of several types of cell junctions including tight junctions (TJs, adhesion junctions and gap junctions (GJs. Some of the junctional proteins function as structural proteins of BTB and some have regulatory roles. The deletion or functional silencing of genes encoding these proteins may disrupt the BTB, which may cause immunological or other damages to meiotic and postmeiotic cells and ultimately lead to spermatogenic arrest and infertility. In this review, we will summarize the findings on the BTB structure and function from genetically-modified mouse models and discuss the future perspectives.

  15. Rat Testis Damage Caused by Lead Sulfide Nanoparticles After Oral Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanhua; Wang, Dong; Li, Qingzhao; Deng, Hongliang; Shen, Jian; Zheng, Guoying; Sun, Miao

    2016-03-01

    Lead sulfide nanoparticals (PbS NPs) is an important semiconductor material due to its unique physical and chemical properties, but its potential health hazard to reproductive system is not clear. In the current study, we systematically explored the reproductive toxicity of PbS NPs in rats by measuring the body weight and testicular coefficient, testing serum testosterone levels, and studying the sperm survival rate and sperm abnormality rate. Furthermore, in order to study the toxic mechanism we performed lead contents measurements in testis, and investigated the pathology in testis. Our results confirmed that PbS NPs showed high reproductive toxicity due to PbS NPs in rats' testicular tissue by the establishment of PbS NPs chronic exposure model.

  16. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N; Vierula, M; Jacobsen, R

    2011-01-01

    Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we...... carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study of testis cancer incidence among Finnish men to explore recent trends. A total of 858 men were investigated in the semen quality study during 1998-2006. Median sperm concentrations were 67 (95% CI 57-80) million/mL, 60 (51-71) and 48 (39...... included in the registry study, which confirmed the increasing incidence of testicular cancer in recent cohorts. These simultaneous and rapidly occurring adverse trends suggest that the underlying causes are environmental and, as such, preventable. Our findings necessitate not only further surveillance...

  17. STEREOLOGICAL QUANTITATION OF LEYDIG AND SERTOLI CELLS IN THE TESTIS FROM YOUNG AND OLD MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Petersen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the newer stereological methods, the optical fractionator, was applied to the study of the effects of ageing on the human testis. The estimated total number of Sertoli and Leydig cells per testis in men younger than 30 years were 430×106 (CV = SD/mean = 0.35 and 117×106 (CV = 0.53, respectively, while in men older than 50 years the estimated total Sertoli cell number was 266×106 (CV = 0.46 and the mean Leydig cell number 83×106 (CV = 0.53. The difference between the number of Sertoli cells in men younger than 30 years compared with men older than 50 years was close to statistical significance (p = 0.052 while no differences was found in total Leydig cell number (p = 0.22.

  18. Testis cancer: role of radiotherapy in 2003; Cancer du testicule: place de la radiotherapie en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clippe, S. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 69 - Lyon (France); Flechon, A.; Droz, J.P. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, Dept. de Cancerologie Medicale, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2003-11-01

    Germ-cell minors of the testis are rare tumors of the young adult. Half of them are seminoma. The majority of patients have disease limited to the testis. Radiotherapy still remains the standard treatment of these patients. Almost all patients are cured by orchidectomy and radiotherapy on the lomboaortic area extended to homolateral iliac area. The dose is 24 to 30 Gy in a standard fractionation. Different studies are ongoing to reduce the irradiation field (omission of the pelvic irradiation), to decrease irradiation dose (to 20 Gy). Other treatment options are strict surveillance and adjuvant carbo-platin based chemotherapy. None of these options are standard treatments. A strict attention must be directed on controlateral germ-cell tumors and second cancers. (author)

  19. Purification of β-acetylglucosaminase and β-galactosidase from ram testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caygill, J. C.; Roston, Christine P. J.; Jevons, F. R.

    1966-01-01

    1. The presence of β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) in an acetic acid extract of ram testis is reported. Some properties of the crude enzyme preparation were studied. 2. The purification of β-acetylglucosaminase (EC 3.2.1.30) and of β-galactosidase from the ram-testis extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation and chromatography on a CM-cellulose column is described. 3. The final purifications of the separated enzymes achieved were for the β-acetylglucosaminase 35 times and for the β-galactosidase 99 times. 4. The possibility of using DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 to purify the enzymes was investigated. PMID:5949569

  20. Late effects of ionizing radiation on testis; Effets tardifs des radiations ionisantes sur le testicules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardet, E. [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes (France)

    1997-12-01

    Most of the basic data regarding the effect of radiation on the testis are issued from animal studies. They demonstrate the extreme radiosensitivity on the germ cell lineage but little is known about the reversible or definitive aspects of these radiation induced effects. In man, the late non stochastic effects of radiation to the testicle are mainly related to persisting spermatogenesis disturbances or/and hormone related problems. Morphological, physiological, radiobiological specificities of the human testis along with numerous parameters depending on radiation conditions make it difficult to evaluate the late effects and radiation tolerance doses. Evaluation of such effects based on a common scale for therapeutic radiation schedules would improve the present understanding and possibility prevent the occurrence of these delayed effects, for the benefit of patients. (author)

  1. Metastasis of sigmoid colon cancer in cryptorchid testis: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampa, Mario; Battaglia, Luigi; Caprotti, Andrea; Gazzano, Giacomo; Prestianni, Pierpaolo; Muscarà, Cecilia; Vannelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Isolated testicular metastasis from colorectal cancer is considered an unusual event. In this case report we describe for the first time a metastasis from an adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon to a cryptorchid testis. The patient developed a painless testicular nodule three years after the diagnosis of primary sigmoid colon cancer. Recent reports have suggested that the incidence of genitourinary abnormalities in human males has increased over the past 50 years; in particular, cryptorchid testes increase the clinical risk factors for primary or metastatic testicular cancer. In conclusion, there should be awareness of the risk of metastasis of colorectal cancer to the testis in the workup of patients with testicular symptoms. Furthermore, patients with colorectal cancer and cryptorchidism should be managed with a single surgical intervention: when the primary colorectal tumor is removed, the cryptorchid testicle should also be removed to reduce the risk of late metastases.

  2. Biochemical characterization of glycyrrhizin as an effective inhibitor for hyaluronidases from bovine testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, T; Yamagata, S; Shimoyama, Y; Fujihara, M; Morishima, N; Ohtsuki, K

    1997-09-01

    The inhibitory effects of several anti-inflammatory agents, including glycyrrhizin (GL), on the activities of hyaluronidases (HAses) purified from bovine testes and Streptomyces were investigated in vitro. It was found that (i) GL inhibits the activity of HAse (p55) from bovine testes in a dose-dependent manner, but does not affect HAse from Streptomyces; (ii) GL was the most effective of the compounds tested on bovine testis HAse activity (50% inhibition with approx. 3 microM GL); and (iii) glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), a derivative (oGA) of GA and diglucuronic acid had no detectable effects on HAse activity at 9.0 microM. The GL-induced inhibition of HAse activity is uncompetitive for its substrates. Data are provided to support the contentions that (i) bovine testis HAse (p55) is a GL-binding protein; and (ii) GL acts as a potent inhibitor of HAse in vitro.

  3. D-type cyclins in adult human testis and testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, J; Rajpert-de Meyts, E; Skakkebaek, N E

    1999-01-01

    D-type cyclins are proto-oncogenic components of the 'RB pathway', a G1/S regulatory mechanism centred around the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor (pRB) implicated in key cellular decisions that control cell proliferation, cell-cycle arrest, quiescence, and differentiation. This study focused...... on immunohistochemical and immunochemical analysis of human adult testis and 32 testicular tumours to examine the differential expression and abundance of cyclins D1, D2, and D3 in relation to cell type, proliferation, differentiation, and malignancy. In normal testis, the cell type-restricted expression patterns were...... dominated by high levels of cyclin D3 in quiescent Leydig cells and the lack of any D-type cyclin in the germ cells, the latter possibly representing the only example of normal mammalian cells proliferating in the absence of these cyclins. Most carcinoma-in-situ lesions appeared to gain expression of cyclin...

  4. Long-term testicular volume after orchiopexy at diagnosis of acquired undescended testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Evelyn M; Zijp, Gerda W; Froeling, Frank M J A; van der Voort-Doedens, Laszla M; Meij-de Vries, Annebeth; Goede, Joery; Hack, Wilfried W M

    2013-07-01

    We studied long-term outcomes of orchiopexy at diagnosis of acquired undescended testes using ultrasound to determine testicular volume. Patients who had undergone orchiopexy for acquired undescended testis at diagnosis were recruited to assess testicular volume. Testis volume was measured by ultrasound and compared with recently developed normative values for testicular size. For young adults (older than 18 years) volumes were grouped and compared to normative values reported in the literature. In all unilateral cases testicular volume was compared with its counterpart. A total of 155 patients 5.1 to 26.6 years old (181 acquired undescended testes) were included in the study. Mean ± SD followup was 6.6 ± 3.8 years (range 1.4 to 15.5). For all patients 18 years old or younger (125 patients, 143 testes) operated testis volume was 0.1 to 12.7 ml (mean ± SD 2.5 ± 2.9), which was significantly smaller than the normative values (50th percentile) for the same age (p <0.001). Mean ± SD testis volume in young adults (38 testes) was 8.1 ± 3.7 ml, compared to a mean volume of 13.4 ml reported in the literature (p <0.001). In unilateral cases the mean volume of the testes fixed by orchiopexy differed significantly from their counterparts (3.4 ± 3.3 ml vs 4.6 ± 4.6 ml, p <0.001). The long-term volumes at diagnosis of acquired undescended testes after orchiopexy were significantly less than the normative values at all ages. In unilateral cases the volumes were also significantly less compared to the contralateral testes. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gene expression profiling in liver and testis of rats to characterize the toxicity of triazole fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tully, Douglas B.; Bao Wenjun; Goetz, Amber K.; Blystone, Chad R.; Ren, Hongzu; Schmid, Judith E.; Strader, Lillian F.; Wood, Carmen R.; Best, Deborah S.; Narotsky, Michael G.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Rockett, John C.; Dix, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected for hormone measurements, and liver and testes were collected for histology, enzyme biochemistry, or gene expression profiling. Body and testis weights were unaffected, but liver weights were significantly increased by all four triazoles, and hepatocytes exhibited centrilobular hypertrophy. Myclobutanil exposure increased serum testosterone and decreased sperm motility, but no treatment-related testis histopathology was observed. We hypothesized that gene expression profiles would identify potential mechanisms of toxicity and used DNA microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to generate profiles. Triazole fungicides are designed to inhibit fungal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 51 enzyme but can also modulate the expression and function of mammalian CYP genes and enzymes. Triazoles affected the expression of numerous CYP genes in rat liver and testis, including multiple Cyp2c and Cyp3a isoforms as well as other xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) and transporter genes. For some genes, such as Ces2 and Udpgtr2, all four triazoles had similar effects on expression, suggesting possible common mechanisms of action. Many of these CYP, XME and transporter genes are regulated by xeno-sensing nuclear receptors, and hierarchical clustering of CAR/PXR-regulated genes demonstrated the similarities of toxicogenomic responses in liver between all four triazoles and in testis between myclobutanil and triadimefon. Triazoles also affected expression of multiple genes involved in steroid hormone metabolism in the two tissues. Thus, gene expression profiles helped identify possible toxicological mechanisms of the triazole fungicides

  6. Association of Human Development Index with global bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Alyssa K; Rosoff, James S; Prasad, Sandip M

    2017-12-01

    To describe contemporary worldwide age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer and their association with development. We obtained gender-specific, age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) at national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with socio-economic development using the 2014 United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). Age-standardized incidence rates were 2.9 (bladder) to 7.4 (testis) times higher for genitourinary malignancies in more developed countries compared with less developed countries. Age-standardized mortality rates were 1.5-2.2 times higher in more vs less developed countries for prostate, bladder and kidney cancer, with no variation in mortality rates observed in testis cancer. There was a strong inverse relationship between HDI and MIR in testis (regression coefficient 1.65, R 2 = 0.78), prostate (regression coefficient -1.56, R 2 = 0.85), kidney (regression coefficient -1.34, R 2 = 0.74), and bladder cancer (regression coefficient -1.01, R 2 = 0.80). While incidence and mortality rates for genitourinary cancers vary widely throughout the world, the MIR is highest in less developed countries for all four major genitourinary malignancies. Further research is needed to understand whether differences in comorbidities, exposures, time to diagnosis, access to healthcare, diagnostic techniques or treatment options explain the observed inequalities in genitourinary cancer outcomes. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Blood-Testis Barrier and Male Sexual Dysfunction following Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Naive Single live cells (% ) 0 5 10 15 B cells T cells Neutrophils Dendritic cells Macrophages NK cells NKT cells Age-matched naive 1.5 year post-SCI...antigenic sperm and sperm cell -containing compartments within the testis. We also demonstrated that once failed, the BTB remains permeable, essentially...through mature) as well as sperm precursor/stem cells from the immune system. We reported that a contusive injury to the rat spinal cord causes a

  8. Identification of cancer/testis-antigen genes by massively parallel signature sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yao-Tseng; Scanlan, Matthew J.; Venditti, Charis A.; Chua, Ramon; Theiler, Gregory; Stevenson, Brian J.; Iseli, Christian; Gure, Ali O.; Vasicek, Tom; Strausberg, Robert L.; Jongeneel, C. Victor; Old, Lloyd J.; Simpson, Andrew J. G.

    2005-01-01

    Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) generates millions of short sequence tags corresponding to transcripts from a single RNA preparation. Most MPSS tags can be unambiguously assigned to genes, thereby generating a comprehensive expression profile of the tissue of origin. From the comparison of MPSS data from 32 normal human tissues, we identified 1,056 genes that are predominantly expressed in the testis. Further evaluation by using MPSS tags from cancer cell lines and EST data fro...

  9. Aspiration and tetracycline sclerotherapy of primary vaginal hydrocoele of testis in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, J.; Anwar, W.

    2008-01-01

    Primary Vaginal Hydrocoele of Testis is a common condition which is primarily treated surgically. Many patients with Hydrocoele of testis are either not willing or are unfit for surgery. This study was done to know the safety, efficacy and out come of tetracycline induced sclerotherapy of Primary Vaginal Hydrocoele of Testis in adults. This quasi experimental study was done in Shahina Jamil Hospital, attached with Frontier Medical College and Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from March 2006 to April, 2007. Thirty-seven patients with primary vaginal hydrocoele were included in the study. Aspiration and instillation of Tetracycline was done after spermatic cord block with 2% lignocaine. Procedure time, Peri and Post-procedure complications, number of injections for cure and patients satisfaction with the procedure were recorded. Patients were discharged home 3 to 4 hours after the procedure and followed up after one week, one month, three months and six months. Direct admission and re-admissions were recorded. The mean age of patients was 47 years. Mean procedure time was 45 minutes. All patients were cured. Mild postoprocedure pain occurred in 12 (40%), moderate pain in 14 (46%) patients and severe pain in 4 (13.3%) patients. No patient developed haematoma or local infection. One patient (3.3%) had micturition problem. Two (6.6%) patients had minimal recurrence. One injection was sufficient for cure in all patients, 28 (93%) patients were satisfied while 2 (6.6%) patients were not satisfied with this procedure. No patient was admitted in the hospital after the procedure. Aspiration and injection of tetracycline in Primary vaginal Hydrocoele of Testis in adults is safe, effective and very economical procedure. (author)

  10. The Blood Testis Barrier and Male Sexual Dysfunction following Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    privileged”. Our focus has been on the blood- spinal cord barrier (BSCB) and how trauma collapses this important spinal vascular specialization...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0481 TITLE: The Blood-Testis Barrier and Male Sexual Dysfunction following Spinal Cord Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...21702-5012 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Nearly 70% of males exhibit a profound loss of fertility following spinal cord injury

  11. Gene expression profiles in testis of pigs with extreme high and low levels of androstenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendixen Christian

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Boar taint is a major obstacle when using uncastrated male pigs for swine production. One of the main compounds causing this taint is androstenone, a pheromone produced in porcine testis. Here we use microarrays to study the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously in testis of high and low androstenone boars. The study allows identification of genes and pathways associated with elevated androstenone levels, which is essential for recognising potential molecular markers for breeding purposes. Results: Testicular tissue was collected from 60 boars, 30 with extreme high and 30 with extreme low levels of androstenone, from each of the two breeds Duroc and Norwegian Landrace. The samples were hybridised to porcine arrays containing 26,877 cDNA clones, detecting 563 and 160 genes that were differentially expressed (p Conclusion: This study contributes to the understanding of the complex genetic system controlling and responding to androstenone levels in pig testis. The identification of new pathways and genes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of androstenone is an important first step towards finding molecular markers to reduce boar taint.

  12. Amyloid precursor protein interaction network in human testis: sentinel proteins for male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana Vieira; Yoon, Sooyeon; Domingues, Sara; Guimarães, Sofia; Goltsev, Alexander V; da Cruz E Silva, Edgar Figueiredo; Mendes, José Fernando F; da Cruz E Silva, Odete Abreu Beirão; Fardilha, Margarida

    2015-01-16

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is widely recognized for playing a central role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Although APP is expressed in several tissues outside the human central nervous system, the functions of APP and its family members in other tissues are still poorly understood. APP is involved in several biological functions which might be potentially important for male fertility, such as cell adhesion, cell motility, signaling, and apoptosis. Furthermore, APP superfamily members are known to be associated with fertility. Knowledge on the protein networks of APP in human testis and spermatozoa will shed light on the function of APP in the male reproductive system. We performed a Yeast Two-Hybrid screen and a database search to study the interaction network of APP in human testis and sperm. To gain insights into the role of APP superfamily members in fertility, the study was extended to APP-like protein 2 (APLP2). We analyzed several topological properties of the APP interaction network and the biological and physiological properties of the proteins in the APP interaction network were also specified by gene ontologyand pathways analyses. We classified significant features related to the human male reproduction for the APP interacting proteins and identified modules of proteins with similar functional roles which may show cooperative behavior for male fertility. The present work provides the first report on the APP interactome in human testis. Our approach allowed the identification of novel interactions and recognition of key APP interacting proteins for male reproduction, particularly in sperm-oocyte interaction.

  13. Prophylactic efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) on testis of lead-exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena; Sharma, Arti

    2010-09-01

    Lead poisoning is a worldwide health problem, and its treatment is under investigation. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) in reducing lead-induced changes in mice testis. Animal exposed to lead nitrate showed significant decrease in testicular SOD, CAT, GSH, total protein, and tissue lead level. This was accompanied by simultaneous increase in the activities of LPO, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, and cholesterol level. Serum testosterone level and sperm density were suppressed in lead-treated group compared with the control. These influences of lead were prevented by concurrent daily administration of C. sativum extracts to some extent. Treating albino mice with lead-induced various histological changes in the testis and treatment with coriander led to an improvement in the histological testis picture. The results thus led us to conclude that administration of C. sativum significantly protects against lead-induced oxidative stress. Further work need to be done to isolate and purify the active principle involved in the antioxidant activity of this plant.

  14. Identification of cancer/testis-antigen genes by massively parallel signature sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Tseng; Scanlan, Matthew J; Venditti, Charis A; Chua, Ramon; Theiler, Gregory; Stevenson, Brian J; Iseli, Christian; Gure, Ali O; Vasicek, Tom; Strausberg, Robert L; Jongeneel, C Victor; Old, Lloyd J; Simpson, Andrew J G

    2005-05-31

    Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) generates millions of short sequence tags corresponding to transcripts from a single RNA preparation. Most MPSS tags can be unambiguously assigned to genes, thereby generating a comprehensive expression profile of the tissue of origin. From the comparison of MPSS data from 32 normal human tissues, we identified 1,056 genes that are predominantly expressed in the testis. Further evaluation by using MPSS tags from cancer cell lines and EST data from a wide variety of tumors identified 202 of these genes as candidates for encoding cancer/testis (CT) antigens. Of these genes, the expression in normal tissues was assessed by RT-PCR in a subset of 166 intron-containing genes, and those with confirmed testis-predominant expression were further evaluated for their expression in 21 cancer cell lines. Thus, 20 CT or CT-like genes were identified, with several exhibiting expression in five or more of the cancer cell lines examined. One of these genes is a member of a CT gene family that we designated as CT45. The CT45 family comprises six highly similar (>98% cDNA identity) genes that are clustered in tandem within a 125-kb region on Xq26.3. CT45 was found to be frequently expressed in both cancer cell lines and lung cancer specimens. Thus, MPSS analysis has resulted in a significant extension of our knowledge of CT antigens, leading to the discovery of a distinctive X-linked CT-antigen gene family.

  15. Congenital juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Talini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT is a very rarely diagnosed benign tumor, accounting for 1.2% of all prepubertal testicular tumors. A full-term healthy neonate was diagnosed with a painless left scrotal mass. During evaluation it was identified to have about two times the volume of the contralateral testis, presenting a firm consistency, not as hard as the consistency of a prenatal testicular torsion. Doppler ultrasound detected a multicystic left testicular mass, with normal blood flow, but failed in detecting normal-appearing testis. Human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP were normal. Inguinal approach was performed, section of the lesion was sent to frozen biopsy and excluded yolk sac tumor, and however the impossibility of detecting normal testis tissue indicated orchiectomy with high ligation of the spermatic cord. Histological evaluation demonstrated gray testicular parenchyma with multicystic aspect fulfilled with yellow fluid. The usual clinical presentation of JGCT is a painless scrotal mass, radiological imaging demonstrates a multicystic tumor. Tumoral markers levels are normal and the standard treatment is the inguinal orchiectomy.

  16. Sertoli cells maintain Leydig cell number and peritubular myoid cell activity in the adult mouse testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Rebourcet

    Full Text Available The Sertoli cells are critical regulators of testis differentiation and development. In the adult, however, their known function is restricted largely to maintenance of spermatogenesis. To determine whether the Sertoli cells regulate other aspects of adult testis biology we have used a novel transgenic mouse model in which Amh-Cre induces expression of the receptor for Diphtheria toxin (iDTR specifically within Sertoli cells. This causes controlled, cell-specific and acute ablation of the Sertoli cell population in the adult animal following Diphtheria toxin injection. Results show that Sertoli cell ablation leads to rapid loss of all germ cell populations. In addition, adult Leydig cell numbers decline by 75% with the remaining cells concentrated around the rete and in the sub-capsular region. In the absence of Sertoli cells, peritubular myoid cell activity is reduced but the cells retain an ability to exclude immune cells from the seminiferous tubules. These data demonstrate that, in addition to support of spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells are required in the adult testis both for retention of the normal adult Leydig cell population and for support of normal peritubular myoid cell function. This has implications for our understanding of male reproductive disorders and wider androgen-related conditions affecting male health.

  17. Regulation of blood-testis barrier assembly in vivo by germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiu-Xia; Jin, Cheng; Wang, Yu-Qian; Sun, Tie-Cheng; Li, Jian; Tang, Ji-Xin; Batool, Alia; Deng, Shou-Long; Chen, Su-Ren; Cheng, C Yan; Liu, Yi-Xun

    2018-01-03

    The assembly of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) during postnatal development is crucial to support meiosis. However, the role of germ cells in BTB assembly remains unclear. Herein, Kit W /Kit WV mice were used as a study model. These mice were infertile, failing to establish a functional BTB to support meiosis due to c-Kit mutation. Transplantation of undifferentiated spermatogonia derived from normal mice into the testis of Kit W /Kit WV mice triggered functional BTB assembly, displaying cyclic remodeling during the epithelial cycle. Also, transplanted germ cells were capable of inducing Leydig cell testosterone production, which could enhance the expression of integral membrane protein claudin 3 in Sertoli cells. Early spermatocytes were shown to play a vital role in directing BTB assembly by expressing claudin 3, which likely created a transient adhesion structure to mediate BTB and cytoskeleton assembly in adjacent Sertoli cells. In summary, the positive modulation of germ cells on somatic cell function provides useful information regarding somatic-germ cell interactions.-Li, X.-Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, X.-X., Jin, C., Wang, Y.-Q., Sun, T.-C., Li, J., Tang, J.-X., Batool, A., Deng, S.-L., Chen, S.-R., Cheng, C. Y., Liu, Y.-X. Regulation of blood-testis barrier assembly in vivo by germ cells.

  18. Tudor Domain Containing Protein TDRD12 Expresses at the Acrosome of Spermatids in Mouse Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tdrd12 is one of tudor domain containing (Tdrd family members. However, the expression pattern of Tdrd12 has not been well studied. To compare the expression levels of Tdrd12 in various tissues, real time-polymerase chain reaction was performed using total RNAs from liver, small intestine, heart, brain, kidney, lung, spleen, stomach, uterus, ovary, and testis. Tdrd12 mRNA was highly expressed in testis. Antibody against mouse TDRD12 were generated using amino acid residues SQRPNEKPLRLTEKKDC of TDRD12 to investigate TDRD12 localization in testis. Immunostaining assay shows that TDRD12 is mainly localized at the spermatid in the seminiferous tubules of adult testes. During postnatal development, TDRD12 is differentially expressed. TDRD12 was detected in early spermatocytes at 2 weeks and TDRD12 was localized at acrosome of the round spermatids. TDRD12 expression was not co-localized with TDRD1 which is an important component of piRNA pathway in germ cells. Our results indicate that TDRD12 may play an important role in spermatids and function as a regulator of spermatogenesis in dependent of TDRD1.

  19. Intravaginal testicular torsion in newborns. To fix or not to fix the contralateral testis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bordin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Scrotal swelling suggesting testicular torsion is a rare urological emergency which requires a clinical urgent evaluation and most of the times must be managed surgically. In newborns it can occur in the postnatal period, usually within the twenty-eighth day of life, or more frequently in utero, during the descent of the testis into the scrotum. Usually its poor fixedness allows the testis an abnormal mobility inside the scrotum, configuring the framework of extravaginal torsion. On the contrary during the perinatal period a twist that takes place inside the tunica vaginalis, known as intravaginal torsion, is extremely uncommon and only few cases are well documented in the literature. Authors present a rare case of intravaginal testicular torsion occurred in perinatal period. In this situation only the early surgical exploration of the scrotum may allow the rescue of the gonad, although in rare cases. Timing of surgical treatment and need for contralateral testicular fixation remain controversial. However since the anatomical defect of the tunica vaginalis can be bilateral the surgical fixation even of the contralateral testis is important, now or later, in order to prevent any future torsion of this gonad. The authors also present a brief review of recent literature on the subject.

  20. Histopathological evaluation of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio testis following exposure to methyl paraben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Hassanzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Methyl paraben (MP is widely used as a preservative in various products. It frequently enters into aquatic environment and renders potential threat to fish. The aim of this study was to evaluate reproductive toxicity of MP on zebrafish (Danio rerio under laboratory conditions. Male zebrafish were exposed to four concentrations of MP (0.001, 0.01, 1, and 10 mg L-1 for 21 days in semi-static condition. Changes in mean length, mean weight, gonadosomatic index (GSI and histology of testis were studied. Treatment at 0.001 to 10 mg L-1 MP had no significant effect on the survival, mean length and mean weight of fish. But, GSI decreased in a dose dependent manner and the decrease was significant in the group that received the highest dose. Histological alteration of testis consisted of general testicular atrophy, multi-nucleated gonocytes (MNGs, impaired germ cell, spermatogonial proliferation, Leydig cell hyperplasia, interstitial fibrosis and apoptosis of Sertoli cells. It was concluded that sub-chronic exposures of MP could adversely affect GSI, disrupt the histology of testis and produce estrogenic and antispermatogenic activity in male zebra fish.

  1. Expressed sequence tags from Peromyscus testis and placenta tissue: Analysis, annotation, and utility for mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullard-Dillard Rebecca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mice of the genus Peromyscus are found in nearly every habitat from Alaska to Central America and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. They provide an evolutionary outgroup to the Mus/Rattus lineage and serve as an intermediary between that lineage and humans. Although Peromyscus has been studied extensively under both field and laboratory conditions, research has been limited by the lack of molecular resources. Genes associated with reproduction typically evolve rapidly and thus are excellent sources of evolutionary information. In this study we describe the generation of two cDNA libraries, one from placenta and one from testis, characterize the resulting ESTs, and describe their utility for mapping the Peromyscus genome. Results The 5' ends of 1,510 placenta and 4,798 testis clones were sequenced. Low quality sequences were removed and after clustering and contig assembly, 904 unique placenta and 2,002 unique testis sequences remained. Average lengths of placenta and testis ESTs were 711 bp and 826 bp, respectively. Approximately 82% of all ESTs were identified using the BLASTX algorithm to Mus and Rattus, and 34 – 54% of all ESTs could be assigned to a biological process gene ontology category in either Mus or Rattus. Because the Peromyscus genome organization resembles the Rattus genome more closely than Mus we examined the distribution of the Peromyscus ESTs across the rat genome finding markers on all rat chromosomes except the Y. Approximately 40% of all ESTs were specific to only one location in the Mus genome and spanned introns of an appropriate size for sequencing and SNP detection. Of the primers that were tried 54% provided useful assays for genotyping on interspecific backcross and whole-genome radiation hybrid cell panels. Conclusion The 2,906 Peromyscus placenta and testis ESTs described here significantly expands the molecular resources available for the genus. These ESTs allow for specific PCR amplification

  2. Ascending testis after repair of pediatric inguinal hernia and hydrocele: A misunderstood operative complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Furan; Zhong, Hongji; Zhao, Junfeng

    2017-02-01

    Ascending testis (AT) is a rare complication after repair of an inguinal hernia/hydrocele. However, there has been some controversy concerning the AT following laparoscopic and open procedures. To review the experience of, and discuss the associated mechanisms with, testicular ascent after pediatric inguinal hernia/hydrocele surgery. A retrospective review of the medical records of male children who underwent inguinal hernia/hydrocele repair at the present hospital between January 2000 and December 2014. Those who underwent subsequent orchiopexies due to ipsilateral cryptorchidism were identified. The ATs that were misdiagnosed, caused by improper operation, and retractile testes were excluded. The Poisson distribution evaluated the incidences of subgroups. A total of 17,295 inguinal hernias and hydroceles were repaired on 12,849 males; of whom, 10 testes (0.058%) developed ATs on nine individuals postoperatively (Summary Table). The difference of AT incidences between subgroups was insignificant (P > 0.05), except for that grouped by the age at initial operation (cutoff = 1 year, P = 0.008; cutoff = 2 years, P = 0.012). During orchiopexy, extensive adhesions were found in the inguinal canal only in the two cases following open repair. The hernia sac/processus vaginalis remained intact in the canal of AT after laparoscopic repair, and partial after open herniotomy. It was generally assumed that testicular ascent after repair of an inguinal hernia/hydrocele was caused by adhesion of the spermatic cord. However, the cord was not dissected during laparoscopic procedure, so adhesion was not the major reason for AT following laparoscopic surgery. The sac/processus were partially excised during open repair, but kept intact in laparoscopic procedure. Therefore, remnants of the sac/processus might play a greater role in postoperative testicular ascent than adhesions. Furthermore, it was found that AT incidence after the repair was not higher than that in 'normal

  3. A testis-specific and testis developmentally regulated tumor protein D52 (TPD52)-like protein TPD52L3/hD55 interacts with TPD52 family proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Qinhong; Chen Jie; Zhu Li; Liu Yun; Zhou Zuomin; Sha Jiahao; Wang Shui; Li Jianmin

    2006-01-01

    Tumor protein D52-like proteins (TPD52) are small coiled-coil motif bearing proteins that were first identified in breast cancer. TPD52 and related proteins have been implicated in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and vesicle trafficking. To date, three human TPD52 members had been identified, named hD52 (TPD52), hD53 (TPD52L1), and hD54 (TPD52L2). The most important characteristic of the protein family is a highly conserved coiled-coil motif that is required for homo- and heteromeric interaction with other TPD52-like proteins. Herein, we identified a novel TPD52-like sequence (TPD52L3, or hD55) in human testis using cDNA microarray. Sequence analysis of the deduced protein suggests that hD55 contains a coiled-coil motif and is highly conserved compared with other TPD52-like sequences. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays revealed that hD55 interacts with hD52, hD53, hD54, and itself. cDNA microarray detection found that hD55 was expressed at 5.6-fold higher levels in adult testis than in fetal testis. Additionally, the expression profile shows that hD55 is testis-specific, indicating a potential role for hD55 in testis development and spermatogenesis

  4. TÉCNICA E TECNOLOGIA PRESENTES NAS OBRAS DE LEONARDO DA VINCI NO PERÍODO RENASCENTISTA: UMA ABORDAGEM DE CIÊNCIA E PEDAGOGIA HISTÓRICO-CRÍTICA POR MEIO DE SEQUÊNCIA DIDÁTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Adriane Gonçalves Gomes; Secretaria de Estado de Educação do Espírito Santo; Carlos Roberto Pires Campos; Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo

    2014-01-01

    O artigo resulta de uma proposta de sequência didática interdisciplinar que aborda temas da história em interface com a ciência, organizada nos três momentos pedagógicos, tendo por intuito apresentar, de maneira diferenciada e lúdica, a temática Tecnologia e Técnica no Período Renascentista com enfoque nas criações de Leonardo da Vinci, tais como suas obras de arte e invenções, no intento de promove...

  5. Práctica curricular Leonardo da Vinci como estrategia que favorece el desarrollo de la autonomía para reducción del abandono en la educación superior

    OpenAIRE

    Chica Cañas, Francisco Alonso

    2016-01-01

    La marca Leonardo Da Vinci concebida como una estrategia de formación para la autonomía a partir de las TIC fue incorporada dentro y fuera del aula de clase presencial para la reducción del abandono en el estudio, cuando el aprendiz desarrolla la creatividad y la imaginación con base en la observación de los postulados de las disciplinas con los anteojos del mundo virtual que conduce a un conocimiento experiencial y cognitivo para verificar los axiomas y taxonomías de los saberes, tomando com...

  6. Development of heterotopic transplantation of the testis with the epididymis to evaluate an aspect of testicular immunology in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yi

    Full Text Available Transplantation of testicular cells and tissues has been studied for the investigation of immunology of the testis, which is an immunologically privileged organ. However, reports of transplant of the testis at organ level have been extremely limited because of technical difficulties of the orthotopic testis transplantation (OTT in experimental animals. In the present study, we developed a new and simple model of the heterotopic testis transplantation (HTT, which is donor testis transplantation into the cervical region of recipients, in a syngeneic model in rats [donor Lewis (LEW graft to LEW recipient]. The duration of HTT was significantly shorter and success rate higher than that of OTT. To histologically evaluate HTT, the local immune responses were compared among the syngeneic model, an acute rejection allogeneic model [donor Augustus Copenhagen Irish (ACI graft to LEW recipient] and a chronic rejection allogeneic model (donor F344 graft to LEW recipient at postoperative day 3. We found that allogeneic ACI grafts resulted in mild and not severe orchitic lesions, whereas immune responses of allogeneic F344 grafts seemed intact and were not significantly different from those of syngeneic LEW grafts. These results suggest that our new operative procedure will be useful in future for the investigation of the testicular immunology.

  7. Subcellular distribution of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in rat testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Saito, Yoshiaki; Imai, Kiyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Subcellular distribution of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) in the testis was studied by single oral administration of [3,4,5,6- 3 H]-phthalic acid di-(2-ethylhexyl) ester (DEHP- 3 H) or phthalic acid di-(2-ethyl[1- 3 H]hexyl) ester ( 3 H-DEHP) to 8-week-old male rats. Autoradiographs and electron microscopic autoradiographs were prepared from the testis, liver and kidney at 6 and 24 hr after administration and distribution of radioactive materials in the tissues were observed. In the autoradiographic specimen at 6 hr after administration of DEHP 3 H-labeled at phthalic acid moiety (DEHP- 3 H), many grains were observed in the testis, mainly at the basal area of seminiferous tubules at the stages IX to I of the spermatogenic cycle. Electron microscopic autoradiographs taken at the same time revealed that localization of grains were in the smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of Sertoli cells. A few grains were also present at the Golgi apparatus and lysosome of Sertoli cells, and at the interfaces between the Sertoli cells or between Sertoli cells and spermatocytes, and in the cytoplasm of spermatocytes. Autoradiographs of the liver revealed grains in the centrilobular hepatocytes, localized at mitochondria, rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes. In the kidney, the radioactivity was localized at the brush border of the tubular cells in the pars recta of proximal tubules. In the 24-hr specimen, the grain density in the seminiferous tubules obviously decreased. On the other hand, by autoradiography with DEHP 3 H-labeled at the alcohol ( 3 H-DEHP), only a few grains were observed in autoradiographs of the testes at 6 hr after administration. No grains were noted in autoradiographs of the liver and kidney with 3 H-DEHP. The results showed that the phthalic acid ester was splitted rapidly in the body and only the phthalic acid moiety distributed into the cells. (author)

  8. DUX4 binding to retroelements creates promoters that are active in FSHD muscle and testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Young

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The human double-homeodomain retrogene DUX4 is expressed in the testis and epigenetically repressed in somatic tissues. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is caused by mutations that decrease the epigenetic repression of DUX4 in somatic tissues and result in mis-expression of this transcription factor in skeletal muscle. DUX4 binds sites in the human genome that contain a double-homeobox sequence motif, including sites in unique regions of the genome as well as many sites in repetitive elements. Using ChIP-seq and RNA-seq on myoblasts transduced with DUX4 we show that DUX4 binds and activates transcription of mammalian apparent LTR-retrotransposons (MaLRs, endogenous retrovirus (ERVL and ERVK elements, and pericentromeric satellite HSATII sequences. Some DUX4-activated MaLR and ERV elements create novel promoters for genes, long non-coding RNAs, and antisense transcripts. Many of these novel transcripts are expressed in FSHD muscle cells but not control cells, and thus might contribute to FSHD pathology. For example, HEY1, a repressor of myogenesis, is activated by DUX4 through a MaLR promoter. DUX4-bound motifs, including those in repetitive elements, show evolutionary conservation and some repeat-initiated transcripts are expressed in healthy testis, the normal expression site of DUX4, but more rarely in other somatic tissues. Testis expression patterns are known to have evolved rapidly in mammals, but the mechanisms behind this rapid change have not yet been identified: our results suggest that mobilization of MaLR and ERV elements during mammalian evolution altered germline gene expression patterns through transcriptional activation by DUX4. Our findings demonstrate a role for DUX4 and repetitive elements in mammalian germline evolution and in FSHD muscular dystrophy.

  9. Protective effects of Launaea procumbens on rat testis damage by CCl4

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    Khan Rahmat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally various human diseases of kidneys, hormonal imbalance and sexual diseases are treated with Launaea procumbens (L. In the present study protective effects of methanolic extract of Launaea procumbens (LPME was evaluated against CCl4-induced oxidative damages in rat testis. Methods To examine the protective effects of Launaea procumbens on testis against oxidative stress of carbon tetrachloride in male rat, 30 male albino rats were equally divided into 5 groups (6 rats. First group was given standard diet and drinking water. Second group received CCl4 3 ml/kg intraperitoneally (30% in olive oil. Third and forth were given orally 100; 200 mg/kg b.w., in 99.8% dimethyl sulphooxide (DMSO, Launaea procumbens methanolic extracts (LPME after 48 h of CCl4 treatment twice a week and sixth group received only LPME in DMSO at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w., for four weeks. Protective effects of Launaea procumbens were observed on sperm concentration, motility and morphology, serum reproductive hormonal level, activity of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation (TBARS and DNA damages. Results Results of the present study revealed that treatment of CCl4 significantly (p  reduced sperm concentration and motility comparatively to controls. Level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, were depleted markedly (p with treatment of CCl4. In addition, CCl4 induction in rats reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes while increased lipid peroxidation and DNA damages. Co-administration of LPME significantly (p improved these alterations in improving of hormonal level, activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation near to control rats. Conclusion From the results it is suggested that Launaea procumbens methanolic extract has the ability to protect testis against oxidative damages, possibly through antioxidant effects of its bioactive compounds.

  10. Mechanisms of the Testis Toxicity Induced by Chronic Exposure to Mequindox

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    Qianying Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mequindox (MEQ is a synthetic antimicrobial agent widely used in China since the 1980s. Although the toxicity of MEQ is well recognized, its testis toxicity has not been adequately investigated. In the present study, we provide evidence that MEQ triggers oxidative stress, mitochondrion dysfunction and spermatogenesis deficiency in mice after exposure to MEQ (0, 25, 55, and 110 mg/kg in the diet for up to 18 months. The genotoxicity and adrenal toxicity may contribute to sperm abnormalities caused by MEQ. Moreover, using LC/MS-IT-TOF analysis, two metabolites, 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl quinoxaline-N4-monoxide (M4 and 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl quinoxaline-N1-monoxide (M8, were detected in the serum of mice, which directly confirms the relationship between the N→O group reduction metabolism of MEQ and oxidative stress. Interestingly, only M4 was detected in the testes, suggesting that the higher reproductive toxicity of M4 than M8 might be due to the increased stability of M4-radical (M4-R compared to M8-radical (M8-R. Furthermore, the expression of the blood-testis barrier (BTB-associated junctions such as tight junctions, gap junctions and basal ectoplasmic specializations were also examined. The present study demonstrated for the first time the role of the M4 in testis toxicity, and illustrated that the oxidative stress, mitochondrion dysfunction and interference in spermatogenesis, as well as the altered expression of BTB related junctions, were involved in the reproductive toxicity mediated by MEQ in vivo.

  11. Identification of cancer/testis-antigen genes by massively parallel signature sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Tseng; Scanlan, Matthew J.; Venditti, Charis A.; Chua, Ramon; Theiler, Gregory; Stevenson, Brian J.; Iseli, Christian; Gure, Ali O.; Vasicek, Tom; Strausberg, Robert L.; Jongeneel, C. Victor; Old, Lloyd J.; Simpson, Andrew J. G.

    2005-01-01

    Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) generates millions of short sequence tags corresponding to transcripts from a single RNA preparation. Most MPSS tags can be unambiguously assigned to genes, thereby generating a comprehensive expression profile of the tissue of origin. From the comparison of MPSS data from 32 normal human tissues, we identified 1,056 genes that are predominantly expressed in the testis. Further evaluation by using MPSS tags from cancer cell lines and EST data from a wide variety of tumors identified 202 of these genes as candidates for encoding cancer/testis (CT) antigens. Of these genes, the expression in normal tissues was assessed by RT-PCR in a subset of 166 intron-containing genes, and those with confirmed testis-predominant expression were further evaluated for their expression in 21 cancer cell lines. Thus, 20 CT or CT-like genes were identified, with several exhibiting expression in five or more of the cancer cell lines examined. One of these genes is a member of a CT gene family that we designated as CT45. The CT45 family comprises six highly similar (>98% cDNA identity) genes that are clustered in tandem within a 125-kb region on Xq26.3. CT45 was found to be frequently expressed in both cancer cell lines and lung cancer specimens. Thus, MPSS analysis has resulted in a significant extension of our knowledge of CT antigens, leading to the discovery of a distinctive X-linked CT-antigen gene family. PMID:15905330

  12. Expression of orexin B and its receptor 2 in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Giovanna; Pavone, Luigi Michele; Assisi, Loredana; Langella, Emilia; Tafuri, Simona; Mirabella, Nicola; Costagliola, Anna; Vittoria, Alfredo

    2017-02-01

    The peptides orexin A (OxA) and orexin B (OxB) deriving from a common precursor molecule, prepro-orexin, by proteolytic cleavage, bind the two G-coupled OX 1 and OX 2 receptors. While OX 1 selectively binds OxA, OX 2 shows similar affinity for both orexins. Firstly discovered in the hypothalamus, orexins and their receptors have been found in other brain regions as well as in peripheral tissues of mammals, thus resulting involved in the regulation of a broad variety of physiological functions. While the functional localization of OxA and OX 1 in the mammalian genital tract has been already described, the expression of OxB and OX 2 and their potential role in the reproductive functions remain to be explored. Here, we investigated the presence of OxB and OX 2 in the rat testis by immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses. The results definitely demonstrated the localization of OxB and OX 2 in pachytene and second spermatocytes as well as in spermatids at all stages of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. The expression of both OX 2 mRNA and protein in the rat testis was also established by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The analysis of the molecular mechanism of action of OxB in the rat testis showed that OxB, in contrast with OxA, is unable to promote steroidogenesis. These results translate into the regulation of diverse biological actions by OxA and OxB in the male gonad. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Extreme divergence of Wolbachia tropism for the stem-cell-niche in the Drosophila testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Michelle E; Frydman, Horacio M

    2014-12-01

    Microbial tropism, the infection of specific cells and tissues by a microorganism, is a fundamental aspect of host-microbe interactions. The intracellular bacteria Wolbachia have a peculiar tropism for the stem cell niches in the Drosophila ovary, the microenvironments that support the cells producing the eggs. The molecular underpinnings of Wolbachia stem cell niche tropism are unknown. We have previously shown that the patterns of tropism in the ovary show a high degree of conservation across the Wolbachia lineage, with closely related Wolbachia strains usually displaying the same pattern of stem cell niche tropism. It has also been shown that tropism to these structures in the ovary facilitates both vertical and horizontal transmission, providing a strong selective pressure towards evolutionary conservation of tropism. Here we show great disparity in the evolutionary conservation and underlying mechanisms of stem cell niche tropism between male and female gonads. In contrast to females, niche tropism in the male testis is not pervasive, present in only 45% of niches analyzed. The patterns of niche tropism in the testis are not evolutionarily maintained across the Wolbachia lineage, unlike what was shown in the females. Furthermore, hub tropism does not correlate with cytoplasmic incompatibility, a Wolbachia-driven phenotype imprinted during spermatogenesis. Towards identifying the molecular mechanism of hub tropism, we performed hybrid analyses of Wolbachia strains in non-native hosts. These results indicate that both Wolbachia and host derived factors play a role in the targeting of the stem cell niche in the testis. Surprisingly, even closely related Wolbachia strains in Drosophila melanogaster, derived from a single ancestor only 8,000 years ago, have significantly different tropisms to the hub, highlighting that stem cell niche tropism is rapidly diverging in males. These findings provide a powerful system to investigate the mechanisms and evolution of

  14. The short term effects of resveratrol on ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuluğ, Esin; Türedi, Sibel; Karagüzel, Ersagun; Kutlu, Omer; Menteşe, Ahmet; Alver, Ahmet

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify changes taking place in the rat testis at the 24th hour of reperfusion following testicular torsion and to evaluate the effects of resveratrol (RSV), a powerful antioxidant, in preventing these changes using novel biochemical parameters and histopathology. Eighteen adult male rats were divided into three groups: Sham-operated (S), torsion/detorsion (T/D), and T/D+RSV groups. In the T/D group, testicular ischemia was achieved by rotating the left testis 720° clockwise for 4h. In the T/D+RSV group, 20mg/kg RSV was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before detorsion. All rats were sacrificed 24h after detorsion. Serum and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, ischemia modified albumin (IMA), total oxidative status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and histopathological damage score were analyzed. Serum MDA, IMA, TOS, and OSI levels rose significantly in the T/D group. Serum MDA and IMA values were lower in the T/D+RES groups, but not significantly. OSI and TOS values were lower in the T/D+RES group, and the difference was significant. TAS values decreased significantly in the T/D group and rose in the T/D+RSV group, but not significantly. Ipsilateral tissue MDA values were significantly elevated in the T/D group and decreased in the T/D+RSV group, but not significantly. Apoptosis and histopathological damage increased significantly in the T/D group and decreased significantly in the T/D+RSV group. In the contralateral testis, apoptosis increased significantly in the T/D group. It decreased significantly in the T/D+RSV group. Our findings show that RSV had a protective effect against oxidative damage induced with a testicular T/D model, especially at the antiapoptotic and histopathological level. OSI may be a good guide to the clinical status of testicular T/D. © 2014.

  15. Survey of Growth Hormone Effects on Methotrexate Side Effects in Rat Testis

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    A. Khaki

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Methotrexate (MTX is a chemotherapeutic agent that used for the treatment of a variety of tumors and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was planed to see the role of human growth hormone (hGH on testis recovery after treatment with MTX in rat. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study the fifty male wistar rat were selected and randomly divided into five groups; control (n=10 and test (n=40. Hormone grope was received 0.3mg/kg hGH (IP for 28 consequence day, drug group was received 1mg/kg MTX (IP per week for four consequence week, protective group was received 0.3mg/kg hGH (IP for 28 consequence day plus1mg/kg MTX (IP per week for four consequence week and treatment group was received 1mg/kg MTX (IP per week for two consequence week with 0.3mg/kg hGH (IP for14 consequence day, however the control group just received vehicle (IP. In 14 and 28 day the testis tissue of rat in whole groups were removed and sperm was collected from epididymis then prepared for analysis. The statically analysis was ANOVA test. Results: This study was confirmed MTX had destructive effects in testis germinal cells and rate of spermatogenesis was decreased (P<0.05 as compared with control group, and HGh had treatment effects in degenerative seminiferous epithelium and improve spermatogenesis (P<0.05 as compared in other groups.Conclusion: Since in our study hGH had recovery effect on spermatogenesis cycle after treatment with MTX, and it can not have useful effect if only prescript in chemotherapy period than consequently hGH inducement is suitable for sperm health ability parameters after chemotherapy in patient.

  16. Towards a rational terminology in the study of the gubernaculum testis: arguments in support of the notion that the cremasteric sac should be considered the gubernaculum in postnatal rats and other mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van der Schoot

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThere is need for a consistent definition of structures caudal to the testis that variously are termed 'gubernaculum testis' as a basis for understanding the emergence and sexually dimorphic further growth and differentiation of this specifically mammalian

  17. Expression and function analysis of metallothionein in the testis of Portunus trituberculatus exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Dong-Fang [School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); The Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Zhu, Jun-Quan; Jin, Shan [School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Hu, Yan-Jun [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Tan, Fu-Qing [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Yang, Wan-Xi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [The Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •We identified P. trituberculatus MT-1 and MT-2 complete cDNA sequence. •We analyzed the protein alignment comparisons and phylogenetic trees of MT-1 and MT-2. •RT-PCR analysis the tissue expression of MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA. •The spatial and temporal distribution pattern of MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA during spermiogenesis. •Testis MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA expression are dramatically affected after the cadmium exposure. -- Abstract: Metallothioneins (MTs) possess a unique molecular structure that provides metal-binding and redox capabilities. These capabilities include the maintenance of metal equilibria that protect against heavy metals (especially cadmium) and oxidative damage. Past studies have focused on the function of MTs in vertebrates. However, the functions of MTs during spermiogenesis in invertebrates remain unclear. In order to investigate the function of MTs during spermiogenesis in Portunus trituberculatus, we used RT-PCR and RACE to identify two MT complete cDNA sequences in the total RNA from the P. trituberculatus testis. The 450 bp MT-1 cDNA consists of a 77 bp 5′ untranslated region, a 196 bp 3′ untranslated region, and a 177 bp open reading frame that encodes 58 amino acids including 19 cysteines. The 581 bp MT-2 cDNA consists of 73 bp 5′ untranslated region, a 328 bp 3′ untranslated region, and a 180 bp open reading frame that encodes 59 amino acids including 18 cysteines. MT-1 and MT-2 of P. trituberculatus more closely resemble invertebrate (especially crab) MT homologues than vertebrate MT homologues as indicated by protein alignment comparisons and phylogenetic tree analysis. MT-1 and MT-2 were detected in the heart, testis, muscle, hepatopancreas, and gill of P. trituberculatus by tissue expression analysis. In addition, MT-1 and MT-2 are present during the entire process of spermiogenesis in P. trituberculatus as indicated by H and E staining and in situ hybridization. MT-1 and MT-2 expression levels significantly increase

  18. Validation of endogenous normalizing genes for expression analyses in adult human testis and germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, T; Jørgensen, Anne; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of gene expression levels in cells and tissues typically depends on a suitable point of reference for inferring biological relevance. For quantitative (or real-time) RT-PCR assays, the method of choice is often to normalize gene expression data to an endogenous gene that is stably...... to define suitable normalizing genes for specific cells and tissues. Here, we report on the performance of a panel of nine commonly employed normalizing genes in adult human testis and testicular pathologies. Our analyses revealed significant variability in transcript abundance for commonly used normalizers...

  19. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis: A rare intrascrotal lesion managed with limited testicular excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzariti, Francesco; Servi, Lucilla; Fabiani, Andrea; Filosa, Alessandra; Mammana, Gabriele

    2016-10-05

    Testicular cancer is one of the most frequent in young men and its incidence is increasing in recent years because of incidental finding during routine ultrasound exams. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis is one of the benign and rare pathological types incidentally detected and very few cases are described in the literature. A 40 years old man come to our attention for a balanoposthitis without testicular pain. During andrological examination we performed palpation of the testes and we noticed a palpable nodule of hard consistency in the left testicle. We then performed an ultrasound exam of the testis which highlighted the presence of an intra-didymus neoformation with diameters of 1.2 x 1.6 cm and with the presence of cysts inside. We also performed blood tests to check tumor markers alpha fetoprotein, beta hCG and LDH which resulted inside the normal range. We then conducted a chest and abdomen CT scan that showed no pathological elements. Therefore, as we suspected that this tumor was benign, we performed an enucleation of the neoplasm. The definitive histological examination revealed the presence of dilated ducts lined with epithelial cubic-columnar cells with clear cytoplasm rich in glycogen and the pathologist so concluded that the tumor could be classified as adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis. At three months of follow up, the patient doesn't have any recurrent lesion to either testicles. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis is a very rare intrascrotal lesion. This histological type is the most frequent between benign lesion of the ovary, but few works in literature reported this histological type in the male gonad and, in most of these works, authors described these lesion at epididymis. We believe that a conservative approach must be considered mandatory in case of testicular lesions 1.5 cm in diameter. A radical approach might have alterate fertility of the patient and also have caused psychological trauma more than an enucleation

  20. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis: A rare intrascrotal lesion managed with limited testicular excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Catanzariti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Testicular cancer is one of the most frequent in young men and its incidence is increasing in recent years because of incidental finding during routine ultrasound exams. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis is one of the benign and rare pathological types incidentally detected and very few cases are described in the literature. Case report: A 40 years old man come to our attention for a balanoposthitis without testicular pain. During andrological examination we performed palpation of the testes and we noticed a palpable nodule of hard consistency in the left testicle. We then performed an ultrasound exam of the testis which highlighted the presence of an intra-didymus neoformation with diameters of 1.2 x 1.6 cm and with the presence of cysts inside. We also performed blood tests to check tumor markers alpha fetoprotein, beta hCG and LDH which resulted inside the normal range. We then conducted a chest and abdomen CT scan that showed no pathological elements. Therefore, as we suspected that this tumor was benign, we performed an enucleation of the neoplasm. The definitive histological examination revealed the presence of dilated ducts lined with epithelial cubic-columnar cells with clear cytoplasm rich in glycogen and the pathologist so concluded that the tumor could be classified as adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis. At three months of follow up, the patient doesn’t have any recurrent lesion to either testicles. Discussion: Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis is a very rare intrascrotal lesion. This histological type is the most frequent between benign lesion of the ovary, but few works in literature reported this histological type in the male gonad and, in most of these works, authors described these lesion at epididymis. Conclusion: We believe that a conservative approach must be considered mandatory in case of testicular lesions 1.5 cm in diameter. A radical approach might have alterate fertility of the

  1. An unexpected finding of a rare intrascrotal lesion: the sertoliform cystadenoma of the rete testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahnan, Kapil; Manjunath, Aditya; Vaughan-Shaw, Peter G; Mitsopoulos, Grigorios

    2013-02-20

    A 19-year-old man presented with a right testicular swelling. Testicular ultrasound demonstrated areas suspicious for malignancy and so it was decided to proceed for a right radical inguinal orchiectomy. Initial histological examination revealed a multiloculated cystic lesion at the area of the rete testis yet normal testicular parenchyma elsewhere. Specialist histological opinion was sought from the regional teratoma multi-disciplinary team which confirmed the diagnosis of a sertoliform cystadenoma, an extremely rare benign testicular neoplasm. The recognition of the benign nature of the mass enabled complete reassurance to be offered to the patient and avoided further oncological treatment.

  2. Metastatic Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder to the Testis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Kozak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An 84-year-old gentleman presented with onset of gross hematuria in September 2010. Follow-up investigations revealed T1 superficially invasive, poorly differentiated, papillary urothelial carcinoma. He subsequently had GreenLight laser for BPH and bladder neck contracture on two occasions. He developed a right hydrocele 16 months after initial presentation and during his hydrocelectomy, a rock-hard right epididymis and testicle were discovered. Pathology revealed metastatic urothelial carcinoma replacing nearly the entire testis with lymphovascular invasion.

  3. Expression and localization of N- and E-cadherin in the human testis and epididymis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Edvardsen, K; Skakkebaek, N E

    1994-01-01

    Cellular interactions in the testis and epididymis are an important prerequisite for spermatogenesis and sperm maturation, and involve a well-developed complex of intercellular junctions. Cadherins are cell surface proteins which mediate intercellular Ca(2+)-dependent adhesion and are believed...... epididymis E-cadherin, but not N-cadherin, was expressed and localized to the surface of the principal epithelial cells as shown by immunohistochemistry. These observations indicate that cadherins play an important role in the organization of the seminiferous and epididymal epithelium....

  4. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma associated with deep vein thrombosis following radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Hajime; Ataka, Ken; Mashima, Ichiro; Suzuki, Kenta; Takahashi, Toru; Umezu, Hajime; Gejyo, Fumitake

    2000-01-01

    A 52-year-old man developed malignant peritoneal mesothelioma 17 years after radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis. Although asbestos exposure is considered to be the major risk factor for the development of malignant mesothelioma, prior therapeutic radiation has also been postulated as a causative factor. The unexplained appearance of ascites or pleural effusion within a previously irradiated area should be considered suggestive of malignant mesothelioma in any long-term survivor of cancer. In addition, the patient suffered a deep vein thrombosis four years before the diagnosis of mesothelioma. Deep vein thrombosis is a common complication of malignant disease, and is often the first clue to occult malignancy. (author)

  5. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma associated with deep vein thrombosis following radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Hajime; Ataka, Ken; Mashima, Ichiro; Suzuki, Kenta; Takahashi, Toru; Umezu, Hajime; Gejyo, Fumitake [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-11-01

    A 52-year-old man developed malignant peritoneal mesothelioma 17 years after radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis. Although asbestos exposure is considered to be the major risk factor for the development of malignant mesothelioma, prior therapeutic radiation has also been postulated as a causative factor. The unexplained appearance of ascites or pleural effusion within a previously irradiated area should be considered suggestive of malignant mesothelioma in any long-term survivor of cancer. In addition, the patient suffered a deep vein thrombosis four years before the diagnosis of mesothelioma. Deep vein thrombosis is a common complication of malignant disease, and is often the first clue to occult malignancy. (author)

  6. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsheng Dong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF may play an important role. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpaca testis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemical staining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old (newborn alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (p < 0.05; 12- and 24-month old alpacas showed no significant differences (p > 0.05; NGF at different cell stages showed no significant differences (p > 0.05. It suggests that NGF may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis, which provides direct evidence for NGF action in the alpaca testis during postnatal development and spermatogenesis. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 55–61

  7. SOX9 regulates microRNA miR-202-5p/3p expression during mouse testis differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainwright, Elanor N; Jorgensen, Joan S; Kim, Youngha

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs are important regulators of developmental gene expression, but their contribution to fetal gonad development is not well understood. We have identified the evolutionarily conserved gonadal microRNAs miR-202-5p and miR-202-3p as having a potential role in regulating mouse embryonic gonad...... differentiation. These microRNAs are expressed in a sexually dimorphic pattern as the primordial XY gonad differentiates into a testis, with strong expression in Sertoli cells. In vivo, ectopic expression of pri-miR-202 in XX gonads did not result in molecular changes to the ovarian determination pathway...... findings indicate that expression of the conserved gonad microRNA, miR-202-5p/3p, is downstream of the testis-determining factor SOX9, suggesting an early role in testis development....

  8. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis with small teratomatous foci: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Prabir

    2015-01-01

    I have reported a case of endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis in a 20-year-old boy. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is a rare tumor. A few cases have been reported in ovary. In case of male, a case of pure glandular endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is reported in a 43 years male in right undescended testis and another case of abdominal metastasis showing endometrioid pattern from mixed testicular germ cell tumor comprising of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. My patient was a 20-year-old male presented with painless enlargement of right testis. Grossly the tumor was glistening creamish white with a multicystic appearance. Histopathological examination showed the tumor to be composed of glandular elements resembling early secretory endometrium, foci of keratinized thin squamous epithelium and a single focus of benign cartilage. The glandular elements show immunohistochemical positivity for AFP, cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA).

  9. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis with small teratomatous foci: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Hazarika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available I have reported a case of endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis in a 20-year-old boy. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is a rare tumor. A few cases have been reported in ovary. In case of male, a case of pure glandular endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is reported in a 43 years male in right undescended testis and another case of abdominal metastasis showing endometrioid pattern from mixed testicular germ cell tumor comprising of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. My patient was a 20-year-old male presented with painless enlargement of right testis. Grossly the tumor was glistening creamish white with a multicystic appearance. Histopathological examination showed the tumor to be composed of glandular elements resembling early secretory endometrium, foci of keratinized thin squamous epithelium and a single focus of benign cartilage. The glandular elements show immunohistochemical positivity for AFP, cytokeratin 7 (CK7 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA.

  10. Analysis of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigen expression in early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Pøhl, Mette; Olsen, Karen E

    2013-01-01

    NSCLC has shown promising results. However, little is known about the expression of other cancer/testis antigens in NSCLC. In the present study the expression of cancer/testis antigens GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was investigated in patients with completely resected, early stage, primary NSCLC....

  11. Emilio Pasquini, ed., Studi e problemi di critica testuale: 1960-2010. Per i 150 anni della Commissione per i testi di lingua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Di Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de Emilio Pasquini, ed., Studi e problemi di critica testuale: 1960-2010. Per i 150 anni della Commissione per i testi di lingua, Commissione per i testi di lingua (Collezione di opere inedite o rare, 169, Bologna, 2012, x + 320 pp. ISBN: 9788898096152.

  12. Evidence that active demethylation mechanisms maintain the genome of carcinoma in situ cells hypomethylated in the adult testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, D G; Nielsen, J E; Jørgensen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    cells were assessed by quantitative measurements. The expression of TET1, TET2, APOBEC1, MBD4, APEX1, PARP1, DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L in adult testis specimens with CIS and in human fetal testis was investigated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence.Results:DNA from micro-dissected CIS...... cells contained very low levels of 5hmC produced by ten eleven translocation (TET) enzymes. CIS cells and fetal germ cells expressed the suggested initiator of active demethylation, APOBEC1, and the base excision repair proteins MBD4, APEX1 and PARP1, whereas TETs - the alternative initiators were...

  13. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-01-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  14. Escargot Restricts Niche Cell to Stem Cell Conversion in the Drosophila Testis

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    Justin Voog

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells reside within specialized microenvironments, or niches, that control many aspects of stem cell behavior. Somatic hub cells in the Drosophila testis regulate the behavior of cyst stem cells (CySCs and germline stem cells (GSCs and are a primary component of the testis stem cell niche. The shutoff (shof mutation, characterized by premature loss of GSCs and CySCs, was mapped to a locus encoding the evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Escargot (Esg. Hub cells depleted of Esg acquire CySC characteristics and differentiate as cyst cells, resulting in complete loss of hub cells and eventually CySCs and GSCs, similar to the shof mutant phenotype. We identified Esg-interacting proteins and demonstrate an interaction between Esg and the corepressor C-terminal binding protein (CtBP, which was also required for maintenance of hub cell fate. Our results indicate that niche cells can acquire stem cell properties upon removal of a single transcription factor in vivo.

  15. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, N.; Vierula, M.; Jacobsen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we...... carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study of testis cancer incidence among Finnish men to explore recent trends. A total of 858 men were investigated in the semen quality study during 1998-2006. Median sperm concentrations were 67 (95% CI 57-80) million/mL, 60 (51-71) and 48 (39......-60) for birth cohorts 1979-81, 1982-83 and 1987; total sperm counts 227 (189-272) million, 202 (170-240) and 165 (132-207); total number of morphologically normal spermatozoa 18 (14-23) million, 15 (12-19) and 11 (8-15). Men aged 10-59 years at the time of diagnosis with testicular cancer during 1954-2008 were...

  16. A Panel of Cancer Testis Antigens and Clinical Risk Factors to Predict Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer

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    Ramyar Molania

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third common carcinoma with a high rate of mortality worldwide and several studies have investigated some molecular and clinicopathological markers for diagnosis and prognosis of its malignant phenotypes. The aim of this study is to evaluate expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer testis antigen (CTA genes as well as some clinical risk markers to predict liver metastasis of colorectal cancer patients. The expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer/testis antigen (CTA genes was obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay in 90 colorectal tumor samples including both negative and positive liver metastasis tumors. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the association of three studied genes and clinical risk factors with CRC liver metastasis. The frequency of PAGE4 and SCP-1 genes expression was significantly higher in the primary tumours with liver metastasis when statistically compared with primary tumors with no liver metastasis (P<0.05. Among all clinical risk factors studied, the lymph node metastasis and the depth of invasion were statistically correlated with liver metastasis of CRC patients. In addition, using multiple logistic regression, we constructed a model based on PAGE4 and lymph node metastasis to predict liver metastasis of CRC.

  17. Ectopic Expression of Testis Germ Cell Proteins in Cancer and Its Potential Role in Genomic Instability

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    Aaraby Yoheswaran Nielsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancer and an enabling factor for the genetic alterations that drive cancer development. The processes involved in genomic instability resemble those of meiosis, where genetic material is interchanged between homologous chromosomes. In most types of human cancer, epigenetic changes, including hypomethylation of gene promoters, lead to the ectopic expression of a large number of proteins normally restricted to the germ cells of the testis. Due to the similarities between meiosis and genomic instability, it has been proposed that activation of meiotic programs may drive genomic instability in cancer cells. Some germ cell proteins with ectopic expression in cancer cells indeed seem to promote genomic instability, while others reduce polyploidy and maintain mitotic fidelity. Furthermore, oncogenic germ cell proteins may indirectly contribute to genomic instability through induction of replication stress, similar to classic oncogenes. Thus, current evidence suggests that testis germ cell proteins are implicated in cancer development by regulating genomic instability during tumorigenesis, and these proteins therefore represent promising targets for novel therapeutic strategies.

  18. Growing indications for CEUS: The kidney, testis, lymph nodes, thyroid, prostate, and small bowel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantisani, V., E-mail: vito.cantisani@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Bertolotto, M. [Department of Radiology, University of Trieste (Italy); Weskott, H.P. [Central Ultrasound Department, Klinikum Siloah , Hannover (Germany); Romanini, L. [University Hospital of Pavia (Italy); Grazhdani, H. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Passamonti, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Ospedale di Lodi (Italy); Drudi, F.M.; Malpassini, F. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Isidori, A. [Department of Experimental Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Meloni, F.M. [Dipartimento servizi diagnostici, Ospedale Valduce, Como (Italy); Calliada, F. [University Hospital of Pavia (Italy); D’Ambrosio, F. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications. • There is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. • Updated knowledge for proper use of CEUS in uncommon fields is provided. - Abstract: Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications as well, so that nearly all organs have been investigated. Among them, there is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. The possibility to differentiate benign from malignant nodes in cancer patients has been investigated. A new application is in the detection of sentinel nodes after intradermal microbubble injection. The need to distinguish thyroid nodules eligible for fine needle aspiration cytology has led to the use of CEUS in thyroid examinations as well. The potential of CEUS for prostate cancer detection has been extensively investigated, with encouraging initial results. Early promise, however, has not been fulfilled. New perspective regards evaluation of the extent of prostate tissue devascularization following ablative treatments.

  19. An adolescent presenting with malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the testis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lian-Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is a very common subtype of soft-tissue sarcoma in middle and late adulthood. However, malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the testis is very rare in adolescents. Case presentation We report here the case of a 14-year-old Han Chinese boy, who presented with left scrotal mass lasting for 20 days along with distending pain for 5 days. A physical examination revealed a chicken egg-sized, firm, well-defined mass and unclear epididymis. A B-scan ultrasonography of the left scrotum displayed a 9.0×5.2×4.5cm medium- or low-echoic lobulated mass, which suggested a left testicular neoplasm. A fine needle aspiration cytology examination revealed that the cells obtained from the patient’s testicular neoplasm were composed of myxoid spindle, and ovoid cells with nuclear atypia and mitotic activity, and arranged in a whirlpool or storiform pattern. Under histological examination, the tumor cells were arranged in a storiform pattern, which displayed mucoid matrix degeneration, and grew invasively. Consequently, a histopathological diagnosis suggested myxofibrosarcoma (or myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Conclusions An ultrasonic examination combined with fine needle aspiration cytology should be helpful for the initial differential diagnosis of testicular malignant fibrous histiocytoma. However, the final confirmation relies on histopathological examination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the testis in an adolescent.

  20. Growing indications for CEUS: The kidney, testis, lymph nodes, thyroid, prostate, and small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantisani, V.; Bertolotto, M.; Weskott, H.P.; Romanini, L.; Grazhdani, H.; Passamonti, M.; Drudi, F.M.; Malpassini, F.; Isidori, A.; Meloni, F.M.; Calliada, F.; D’Ambrosio, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications. • There is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. • Updated knowledge for proper use of CEUS in uncommon fields is provided. - Abstract: Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications as well, so that nearly all organs have been investigated. Among them, there is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. The possibility to differentiate benign from malignant nodes in cancer patients has been investigated. A new application is in the detection of sentinel nodes after intradermal microbubble injection. The need to distinguish thyroid nodules eligible for fine needle aspiration cytology has led to the use of CEUS in thyroid examinations as well. The potential of CEUS for prostate cancer detection has been extensively investigated, with encouraging initial results. Early promise, however, has not been fulfilled. New perspective regards evaluation of the extent of prostate tissue devascularization following ablative treatments

  1. Association between testicular microlithiasis, testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and history of ascending testis

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    Stamatiou Konstantinos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To prospectively determine the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis in symptomatic patients who were referred for scrotal ultrasound examination and to evaluate the possible association of testicular microlithiasis with testicular cancer and other conditions such as cryptorchidism or history of ascending testis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 391 men who were referred to our institutions between July 2002 and May 2005 for any type of symptoms from the testicles, underwent physical and scrotal ultrasound examination. The presence of testicular microlithiasis, the number of lesions and the involvement of both testicles in relation to the symptoms as well as the coexistence of other lesions were studied. RESULTS: Eighteen (4.6% of 391 men enrolled into the study had testicular microlithiasis. Two out of the eighteen patients (11% had concomitant testicular cancer, which was confirmed by pathological evaluation of the orchidectomy specimen. One of the patients with testicular microlithiasis presented a rising in biochemical tumor markers (LDH, and HCG and underwent orchidectomy one year later. Five of the remaining 373 (1.3% patients without microlithiasis were diagnosed with testicular cancer. Thirty six men reported having a history of ascending testis, but none of them was found with testicular cancer. Two cases of testicular torsion in a cryptorchid position had testicular microlithiasis, but the orchidectomy specimen (after surgery was negative for testicular cancer. The correlation between testicular cancer and testicular microlithiasis found in our study was statistically significant (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: There seems to be an association between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer.

  2. In vitro maintenance of spermatogenesis in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risley, M.S.; Miller, A.; Bumcrot, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Spermatogenesis has been maintained for extended periods in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media supplemented with bovine serum albumin, insulin, transferrin, follicle-stimulating hormone, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, retinol, ascorbate, and tocopherol. The organization of the testis fragments was maintained for 28 days, and all stages of development were present throughout the culture period. 3 H-Thymidine-labeled secondary (Type B) spermatogonia developed in 28 days into spermatids at the acrosomal vesicle stage whereas labeled zygotene spermatocytes became mature spermatids in 28 days. Spermatogonial proliferation also continued in vitro for 28 days. Germ cell differentiation was not dependent upon exogenous testosterone, ascorbate, or tocopherol since 3 H-labeled spermatogonia became mature spermatids in testes cultured 35 days in media lacking these supplements. Autoradiography demonstrated that 55% of the luminal sperm present in explants cultured 10 days had differentiated in vitro. Sperm from testes cultured 10-35 days were similar to sperm from freshly dissected testes with regard to motility and fecundity, and eggs fertilized with sperm from explant cultures developed normally into swimming tadpoles. The results demonstrate the feasibility of maintaining vertebrate spermatogenesis in culture and suggest that in vitro analysis of Xenopus spermatogenesis using defined media may provide important insights into the evolution of regulatory mechanisms in spermatogenesis

  3. Effects of Nigella sativa on heat-induced testis damage in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, D; Kaffashi Elahi, R

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is one of the major health problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Nigella sativa on heat-induced testicular damage. Forty male mice were randomly divided into the four equal groups as Control, Heat stressed and, Heated and treated with Nigella sativa 10 % and 20 % in diet. The scrotum of mice except to the control mice were immersed for 15 min in a water bath at 43 °C. Animals in the control group were treated identically except that the water bath was maintained at 23 °C. Fifty days after the heating, blood samples were collected for testosterone levels. Testes were removed for the measurement of seminiferous tubules diameter and percentage of spermatogenesis and oxidant/antioxidant status. Heating stress significantly reduced blood testosterone level and increased lipid peroxidation product and decreased antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (p Nigella sativa treatment significantly increased blood testosterone level and decreased testis malondialdehyde level and increased antioxidant enzymes activities (p Nigella sativa, testes illustrated normal spermatogenesis and structure. The results indicated that supplementation of Nigella sativa in diet improves spermatogenesis and antioxidant status after a short exposure of the mouse testis to heat (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 45).

  4. Exposure of the mouse perinatal testis to radiation leads to hypospermia at sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forand, A.; Messiaen, S.; Habert, R.; Bernardino-Sgherri, J.

    2009-01-01

    The first round of mouse spermatogenesis begins from 3 to 4 days after birth through differentiation of gonocytes into spermatogonial-stem cells and type A spermatogonia. Consequently, this step of differentiation may determine generation of the original population of stem cells and the fertility potential of the adult mouse. We aimed to determine the effect of perinatal exposure to ionizing radiation on the testis at the end of the first wave of spermatogenesis and at sexual maturity. Our results show that, radiation sensitivity of the testis substantially decreases from late foetal life to the end of the first week after birth. In addition, partial or full recovery from radiation induced testicular weight loss occurred between the first round of spermatogenesis and sexual maturity, and this was associated with the stimulation of spermatogonial proliferation. Exposure of mice at 17.5 days after conception or at 1 day after birth to γ-rays decreased the sperm counts at sexual maturity, while exposure of 8 day-old mice had no effect. This suggests that irradiation of late foetal or early neonatal testes has a direct impact on the generation of the neonatal spermatogonial-stem cell pool. (authors)

  5. EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines as vaccines against cancer testis antigen-positive tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Frank; Kaddu-Mulindwa, Dominic; Widmann, Thomas; Preuss, Klaus-Dieter; Held, Gerhard; Zwick, Carsten; Roemer, Klaus; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Kubuschok, Boris

    2013-07-01

    EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) are potent antigen-presenting cells. To investigate their potential use as cancer testis antigen (CTA) vaccines, we studied the expression of 12 cancer testis (CT) genes in 20 LCL by RT-PCR. The most frequently expressed CT genes were SSX4 (50 %), followed by GAGE (45 %), SSX1 (40 %), MAGE-A3 and SSX2 (25 %), SCP1, HOM-TES-85, MAGE-C1, and MAGE-C2 (15 %). NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-A4 were found in 1/20 LCL and BORIS was not detected at all. Fifteen of 20 LCL expressed at least one antigen, 9 LCL expressed ≥2 CT genes, and 7 of the 20 LCL expressed ≥4 CT genes. The expression of CT genes did not correlate with the length of in vitro culture, telomerase activity, aneuploidy, or proliferation state. While spontaneous expression of CT genes determined by real-time PCR and Western blot was rather weak in most LCL, treatment with DNA methyltransferase 1 inhibitor alone or in combination with histone deacetylase inhibitors increased CTA expression considerably thus enabling LCL to induce CTA-specific T cell responses. The stability of the CT gene expression over prolonged culture periods makes LCL attractive candidates for CT vaccines both in hematological neoplasias and solid tumors.

  6. Regulation of Blood-Testis Barrier (BTB) Dynamics, Role of Actin-, and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qing; Tang, Elizabeth I; Li, Nan; Mruk, Dolores D; Lee, Will M; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, C Yan

    2018-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis that supports meiosis and postmeiotic spermatid development since a delay in the establishment of a functional Sertoli cell barrier during postnatal development in rats or mice by 17-20 day postpartum (dpp) would lead to a delay of the first wave of meiosis. Furthermore, irreversible disruption of the BTB by toxicants also induces infertility in rodents. Herein, we summarize recent findings that BTB dynamics (i.e., disassembly, reassembly, and stabilization) are supported by the concerted efforts of the actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons. We focus on the role of two actin nucleation protein complexes, namely, the Arp2/3 (actin-related protein 2/3) complex and formin 1 (or the formin 1/spire 1 complex) known to induce actin nucleation, respectively, by conferring plasticity to actin cytoskeleton. We also focus on the MT plus (+)-end tracking protein (+TIP) EB1 (end-binding protein 1) which is known to confer MT stabilization. Furthermore, we discuss in particular how the interactions of these proteins modulate BTB dynamics during spermatogenesis. These findings also yield a novel hypothetical concept regarding the molecular mechanism that modulates BTB function.

  7. Chloroma of the Testis After Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wen Hu

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Chloroma, or granulocytic sarcoma, is a rare extramedullary solid hematologic cancer that affects many sites, usually in concert with acute myeloid leukemia. It is infrequently associated with other myeloproliferative disorders or chronic myelogenous leukemia. Chloroma of the testis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is particularly sparsely represented in the literature. It is often incorrectly diagnosed as malignant lymphoma, especially large-cell lymphoma, owing to the similarity of the histologic morphology, scanty eosinophilic myelocytes, and no or overlooked history of leukemia. Although erroneous diagnosis is decreasing with the advent of ancillary studies, the diagnosis of chloroma continues to be a nightmare for pathologists. It is thus suggested that an appropriate panel of marker studies be performed in conjunction with clinical correlation and circumspection to avoid reaching a misleading conclusion and improper treatment of patients. We report an interesting case of a 35-year-old male with a clinical history of chronic myelogenous leukemia post allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and complete molecular remission, who was found to have chloroma of the left testis.

  8. Cancer/testis antigen SPATA19 is frequently expressed in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kah Keng; Hussain, Faezahtul Arbaeyah; Loo, Suet Kee; López, José I

    2017-12-01

    Spermatogenesis-associated 19 (SPATA19) is a cancer/testis antigen overexpressed in various cancers. However, its protein expression profile in malignant or non-malignant tissues remains unknown. Thus, in this study, we investigated SPATA19 protein expression patterns in a panel of non-malignant human samples and primary prostate cancer (PCa) with or without benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissues. SPATA19 was absent in all non-malignant tissues investigated (n=14) except testis and prostate tissues. In terms of malignancies, all PCa cases were positive for SPATA19 exhibiting frequency between 20 and 100% (median 85%) with 63 (52.5%) and 57 (47.5%) cases demonstrating weak/moderate and strong intensities, respectively. Thirty-nine PCa cases (32.5%) contained BPH, and all BPH glands were SPATA19 positive (frequency between 20 and 100%; median 90%) with 13 (33.3%) demonstrating strong SPATA19 expression. Higher SPATA19 expression (higher frequency, intensity, or H-score) was not associated with overall survival or disease-specific survival (DFS) in all PCa cases. However, biochemical recurrence (BR) was associated with worse DFS (p = 0.005) in this cohort of 120 patients, and cases with strong SPATA19 intensity were associated with BR (p = 0.020). In conclusion, we showed that SPATA19 protein was frequently expressed in both BPH and PCa glands, and this warrants future investigations on its pathogenic roles in the disease. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dalei; Wu, Yaling; Yuan, Yangyang; Liu, Wenwen; Kuang, Haibin; Yang, Jianhua; Yang, Bei; Wu, Lei; Zou, Weiying; Xu, Changshui

    2017-09-01

    The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is used worldwide. It has been associated with a variety of toxicities in rodents. In this study, male mice were orally administered 2,4-D at 50, 100 or 200mg/kg/day to investigate testicular toxicity and the possible mechanisms of action. Exposure to 2,4-D at high concentrations (100 and 200mg/kg/day) for 14 consecutive days caused spermatogenic disruption and seminiferous epithelial destruction. Furthermore, 2,4-D administration (100 and 200mg/kg/day) increased the formation of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde and decreased activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in the testis. Moreover, 2,4-D exposure up-regulated the expression of p53 and Bax protein and down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 protein in the testis. These results demonstrate that oxidative stress and apoptosis may be involved in testicular toxicity induced by high concentrations of 2,4-D in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cancer/testis antigens and gametogenesis: a review and "brain-storming" session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erenpreisa Jekaterina

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genes expressed both in normal testis and in malignancies (Cancer/ Testis associated genes – CTA have become the most extensively studied antigen group in the field of tumour immunology. Despite this, many fundamentally important questions remain unanswered: what is the connection between germ-cell specific genes and tumours? Is the expression of these genes yet another proof for the importance of genome destabilisation in the process of tumorigenesis?, or maybe activation of these genes is not quite random but instead related to some programme giving tumours a survival advantage? This review collates most of the recent information available about CTAs expression, function, and regulation. The data suggests a programme related to ontogenesis, mostly to gametogenesis. In the "brain-storming" part, facts in conflict with the hypothesis of random CTA gene activation are discussed. We propose a programme borrowed from organisms phylogenetically much older than humans, which existed before the differentiation of sexes. It is a programme that has served as a life cycle with prominent ploidy changes, and from which, as we know, the germ-cell ploidy cycle – meiosis – has evolved. Further work may show whether this hypothesis can lead to a novel anti-tumour strategy.

  11. Effects of ginger extract on testis enzymes of X-ray irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shuhua; Li Jingshun; Wang Chunhua; Pan Qin; Yang Qiong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To research the effects of extract of ginger on testis enzymes of X-ray irradiated mice. Methods: Mice were treated with three different doses of extract of ginger: high dose (9.3 mL·kg -1 ), middle dose (4.7 mL·kg -1 ), and low dose (2.3 mL·kg -1 ). All mice were irradiated once with 2.0 Gy X-ray. At the same time, the negative group (treated with vegetable oil only) and positive one (irradiated as well as extract of ginger groups after treated with vegetable oil) were set up. The changes of activities of enzymes in testes of mice were observed. Results: After irradiated, in the group of high dose the activity of G-6-PD was decreased but the activity of LDH was increased (P 0.05). In every group, SDH had no significant difference (P>0.05). Conclusion: The proper dose of extract of ginger has significant effects on stabilization of testis enzymes of X-ray irradiated mice. (authors)

  12. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  13. The SSX Family of Cancer-Testis Antigens as Target Proteins for Tumor Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath A. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs represent an expanding class of tumor-associated proteins defined on the basis of their tissue-restricted expression to testis or ovary germline cells and frequent ectopic expression in tumor tissue. The expression of CTA in MHC class I-deficient germline cells makes these proteins particularly attractive as immunotherapeutic targets because they serve as essentially tumor-specific antigens for MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells. Moreover, because CTAs are expressed in many types of cancer, any therapeutic developed to target these antigens might have efficacy for multiple cancer types. Of particular interest among CTAs is the synovial sarcoma X chromosome breakpoint (SSX family of proteins, which includes ten highly homologous family members. Expression of SSX proteins in tumor tissues has been associated with advanced stages of disease and worse patient prognosis. Additionally, both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to SSX proteins have been demonstrated in patients with tumors of varying histological origin, which indicates that natural immune responses can be spontaneously generated to these antigens in cancer patients. The current review will describe the history and identification of this family of proteins, as well as what is known of their function, expression in normal and malignant tissues, and immunogenicity.

  14. Reforming Upper Secondary Education in Europe. The Leonardo da Vinci Project Post-16 Strategies. Surveys of Strategies for Post-16 Education To Improve the Parity of Esteem for Initial Vocational Education in Eight European Educational Systems. Theory into Practice 92. Institute for Educational Research Publication Series B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers on the Leonardo da Vinci project: "Looking for Post-16 Education Strategies for Parity of Esteem in Europe" (Lasonen); "Improving Parity of Esteem as a Policy Goal" (Makinen, Volanen); "Alternative Strategies for Parity of Esteem between General/Academic and Vocational Education in…

  15. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and ethanol on the Albino rat testis: a scanning electron microscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankaran, T G; Udayakumar, R; Elanchezhiyan, C; Sabhanayakam, Selvi

    2008-02-01

    The effects of sildenafil citrate with ethanol on the rat testis was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Male Albino rats were divided into 8 groups, each being treated for a maximum of 45 days as follows. In the 4 short-term treatment groups, control rats were administered normal saline orally, whereas experimental animals were fed sildenafil citrate (Viagra) 1 microg/g with 18% ethanol (5 g/kg body weight), which was given orally as a single dose. After 1, 2.5, 4 and 24h the rats were killed. In the 4 long-term treatment groups, daily continuous doses of drug and ethanol with a single dosage were given for 15, 30 and 45 days and the animals killed 4h after the last dosage. Changes in the testis were compared with the normal healthy rat testis. The use of a scanning electron microscope for evaluation of the changes in the testis is more suitable for observation of the surface and morphological shapes of the tissue structures.

  16. 18F FDG Uptake of Human Testis on PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Sex Hormones, and Vasectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Eo, Jae Sun; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism of normal human testis on 18F FDG PET/CT and to assess possible correlation among age, the serum levels of sex hormones, and vasectomy. 18F FDG PET/CT was performed in 66 normal healthy men (50.8±13.6 years, range 22-81), and mean standard uptake values (SUV) of 18F FDG in testis and adductor muscle were measured. Testis muscle SUV ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We searched for correlations between T/M ratios and age and the serum concentrations of sex hormones. 18F FDG PET/CT was also performed in 32 vasectomized men (55.7±7.8 years, range 38-71) and 52 nonvasectomized men (55.4±11.6 years, range 37-72). Mean SUVs of testis and adductor muscle were measured, and T/M ratios were calculated. A significant age related decline was found in T/M ratio (r=-0.509, p 18F FDG uptake may have attributed to testicular function and testicular histology. Our findings may have important implications for the interpretation of testicular 18F FDG uptake in the normal adult population.

  17. Human testis-derived embryonic stem cell-like cells are not pluripotent, but possess potential of mesenchymal progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikhovskaya, J. V.; Jonker, M. J.; Meissner, A.; Breit, T. M.; Repping, S.; van Pelt, A. M. M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous in vitro transition of undifferentiated spermatogonia into the pluripotent cell state has been achieved using neonatal and adult mouse testis tissue. In an effort to establish an analogous source of human patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, several research groups have

  18. Expression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and steroidgenic enzymes in canine testis tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M.A.J.; Mol, J.A.; Wolferen, van M.E.; Oosterlaken-Dijksterhuis, M.A.; Teerds, K.J.; Sluijs, van F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Testis tumors occur frequently in dogs. The main types of tumors are Sertoli cell tumors, seminomas, and Leydig cell tumors. Mixed tumors and bilateral occurrence of tumors may be encountered frequently. To elucidate the possible relationship between the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and

  19. The Type 3 Deiodinase is a Critical Determinant of Appropriate Thyroid Hormone Action in the Developing Testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Martinez, M. (Elena); A. Karaczyn, A. (Aldona); J. Stohn, J. (Patrizia); W. Donnelly, W. (William); W. Croteau, W. (Walburga); P. Peeters, P. (Robin); V.A. Galton (Valerie Anne); D. Forrest (Douglas); D.L. St Germain (Donald); A. Hernandez (Arturo)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTimely and appropriate levels of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling are necessary to ensure normal developmental outcomes in many tissues. Studies using pharmacological models of altered TH status have revealed an influence of these hormones on testis development and size, but little

  20. Appearance and cellular distribution of lectin-like receptors for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in the developing rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U O; Bøg-Hansen, T C; Kirkeby, S

    1996-01-01

    A histochemical avidin-biotin technique with three different alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoforms showed pronounced alterations in the cellular localization of two alpha 1-acid glycoprotein lectin-like receptors during cell differentiation in the developing rat testis. The binding of alpha 1-acid...

  1. Molecular Cloning, mRNA Expression, and Localization of the G-protein Subunit Galphaq in Sheep Testis and Epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive function of G-protein subunit Galphaq (GNAQ, a member of the G protein alpha subunit family, has been extensively studied in humans and rats. However, no data is available on its status in ruminants. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the expression pattern of the GNAQ in the testis and epididymis of sheep by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The mRNA expression levels were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, and cellular localization of GNAQ in the testis and epididymis was examined by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, GNAQ protein was qualitatively evaluated via western blot, with the results indicating that similarities between GNAQ mRNA levels from sheep was highly conserved with those observed in Bos taurus and Sus scrofa. Our results also indicated that GNAQ exists in the caput and cauda epididymis of sheep, while GNAQ in the testis and epididymis was localized to Leydig cells, spermatogonial stem cells, spermatocytes, Sertoli cells, spermatid, principal cells, and epididymis interstitial cells. The concentrations of GNAQ mRNA and protein in the caput and cauda epididymis were significantly greater than those observed in the corpus epididymis (p<0.01 and testis (p<0.05. Our results indicated that GNAQ exists at high concentrations in the caput and cauda epididymis of sheep, suggesting that GNAQ may play an important role in gonad development and sperm maturation.

  2. Anatomical relationships between testis and epididymis during the fetal period in humans (10-36 weeks postconception)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favorito, LA; Sampaio, FJB

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the anatomy of the epididymis and its relationship with the testis during the fetal period in normal individuals. Methods: We studied bilaterally 146 testes and epididymides taken from 73 normal fresh human fetuses ranging in age from 10 to 36 weeks postconception. The

  3. The effects of different endocrine disruptors defining compound-specific alterations of gene expression profiles in the developing testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Casas, Pedro P.; Mizrak, Sefika C.; López-Fernández, Luis A.; Paz, María; de Rooij, Dirk G.; del Mazo, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Environmental contaminants considered endocrine disruptors have been shown to affect testis development and function but the mechanisms of action are not clear. We now have analyzed the effects on the transcriptome in testes of mice exposed to mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (9.2; 46.3 or 92.7

  4. A second Leonardo da Vinci?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Mitsuko; Endo, Toshitaka; Tanaka, Shigeki

    2003-10-01

    We describe a young woman who suddenly began mirror writing with her right hand and has not reverted to normal writing for more than 6 years, although she writes normally with her left hand. She is ambidextrous, although she had previously used only her right hand for writing and drawing. Since it is much easier for her to use right-handed mirror writing, she uses her left hand only for writing meant to be read by others and her right hand for all other writing. Her hobbies are sculpture and painting, and her chief complaint is migraine accompanied by sensory and perceptive disturbances.

  5. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor actions in the embryonic testis influences normal cord development and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzumcu, Mehmet; Dirks, Kristen A; Skinner, Michael K

    2002-03-01

    Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are paracrine factors with roles in mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during normal and pathologic processes. Previously, PDGF and its receptor (PDGFR) have been shown to be present in perinatal, peripubertal, and adult rat testes. The role of PDGF in embryonic testicular cord formation is not known. The hypothesis tested is that PDGFs and PDGFRs are expressed during cord formation and that inhibition of their action influences normal cord formation during embryonic testis development. Embryonic Day (E) 13 gonadal organ cultures were used. Organs were cultured for 3 days and treated daily with vehicle or a PDGFR-specific tyrosine phosphorylation inhibitor (i.e., the tyrphostin AG1295 or AG1296). Vehicle-treated testes formed normal cords, whereas tyrphostin-treated testes formed "swollen cords," a phenomenon characterized by a significant decrease in the number of cords per testis area and increased cord diameter due to fusion of cords. Expression of PDGF and PDGFR in E13, E14, E16, Postnatal Day (P) 0, and P20 testes was examined. Messenger RNAs for PDGF-A and -B and PDGF alpha- and beta-receptors were expressed in isolated testes during all developmental periods examined. Immunoreactivity for PDGF was present throughout the testicular compartment at E14, restricted primarily to testicular cords at E16, and present in cells of the testicular cords with a stronger immunoreactivity in certain interstitial cell types of P0 testis. PDGFR beta-receptor immunoreactivity was primarily localized to the mesonephros of E14 organs and the testicular interstitium of E16 and P0 testes. Tyrphostins did not affect apoptotic cell number in the testis. PDGF had no effect on cell growth in P0 testis cultures. The results show that PDGFs and PDGFRs are expressed in embryonic testis during cord formation in a tissue-specific manner. Inhibition of PDGF actions does not inhibit cord formation but does alter normal cord development and

  6. The germ cell nuclear proteins hnRNP G-T and RBMY activate a testis-specific exon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yilei; Bourgeois, Cyril F; Pang, Shaochen; Kudla, Marek; Dreumont, Natacha; Kister, Liliane; Sun, Yong-Hua; Stevenin, James; Elliott, David J

    2009-11-01

    The human testis has almost as high a frequency of alternative splicing events as brain. While not as extensively studied as brain, a few candidate testis-specific splicing regulator proteins have been identified, including the nuclear RNA binding proteins RBMY and hnRNP G-T, which are germ cell-specific versions of the somatically expressed hnRNP G protein and are highly conserved in mammals. The splicing activator protein Tra2beta is also highly expressed in the testis and physically interacts with these hnRNP G family proteins. In this study, we identified a novel testis-specific cassette exon TLE4-T within intron 6 of the human transducing-like enhancer of split 4 (TLE4) gene which makes a more transcriptionally repressive TLE4 protein isoform. TLE4-T splicing is normally repressed in somatic cells because of a weak 5' splice site and surrounding splicing-repressive intronic regions. TLE4-T RNA pulls down Tra2beta and hnRNP G proteins which activate its inclusion. The germ cell-specific RBMY and hnRNP G-T proteins were more efficient in stimulating TLE4-T incorporation than somatically expressed hnRNP G protein. Tra2b bound moderately to TLE4-T RNA, but more strongly to upstream sites to potently activate an alternative 3' splice site normally weakly selected in the testis. Co-expression of Tra2beta with either hnRNP G-T or RBMY re-established the normal testis physiological splicing pattern of this exon. Although they can directly bind pre-mRNA sequences around the TLE4-T exon, RBMY and hnRNP G-T function as efficient germ cell-specific splicing co-activators of TLE4-T. Our study indicates a delicate balance between the activity of positive and negative splicing regulators combinatorially controls physiological splicing inclusion of exon TLE4-T and leads to modulation of signalling pathways in the testis. In addition, we identified a high-affinity binding site for hnRNP G-T protein, showing it is also a sequence-specific RNA binding protein.

  7. Testis size, peripheral concentrations of testosterone, semen criteria and Sertoli and germ cell numbers in Nelore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Bezerra de Menezes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the associations among testis size, testosterone concentrations, semen parameters and aspects of spermatogenesis in Nelore bulls (n = 28. Testis size was measured from 10 to 29 months of age. Bulls were treated with GnRH (12 to 21 months and semen samples also collected from 25 to 29 months. At 30 months, animals were slaughtered. Correlations were significant when p < 0.05. Basal testosterone was highest at 18 months, suggesting that bulls reached puberty at this age. At 30 months, seminiferous tubules represented 77.9 ± 3.8 % of the testicular parenchyma and there were 33.6 ± 8.4 round spermatids/A1 spermatogonium/tubule section, indicating a 47.5% degeneration rate during spermatogenesis. At 30 months, heavier testis correlated with Sertoli cell numbers/testis (r = 0.77, and round spermatids/tubule section, Sertoli cell and A1 spermatogonium (r = 0.50 – 0.60. Scrotal circumference (SC taken between 10 and 29 months correlated with the percentage of tubules with spermatids (r = 0.42 – 0.59 and number of A1 spermatogonium and round spermatids/Sertoli cell (r = 0.49 – 0.68. Epididymal weight was related to Sertoli cell numbers/testis, and round spermatids/ Sertoli cell and A1 spermatogonium (r = 0.51 – 0.61. GnRH-stimulated testosterone from 17 to 21 months correlated with SC between 14 and 29 months (r = 0.48 – 0.60, testis and epididymal weights (r = 0.41 – 0.64 and with parameters of spermatogenesis (r = 0.44 – 0.58. Additionally, sperm motility and vigor from 25 to 29 months correlated with the number of tubules with spermatids (r = 0.42 – 0.59 and GnRH-stimulated testosterone at 12, 13 and 18 months (r = 0.46 – 0.57. In conclusion, testis size during and after the period of pronounced increases in testosterone is an indicator of quantitative parameters of spermatogenesis of post-pubertal bulls.

  8. Expression profiling of rainbow trout testis development identifies evolutionary conserved genes involved in spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esquerré Diane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spermatogenesis is a late developmental process that involves a coordinated expression program in germ cells and a permanent communication between the testicular somatic cells and the germ-line. Current knowledge regarding molecular factors driving male germ cell proliferation and differentiation in vertebrates is still limited and mainly based on existing data from rodents and human. Fish with a marked reproductive cycle and a germ cell development in synchronous cysts have proven to be choice models to study precise stages of the spermatogenetic development and the germ cell-somatic cell communication network. In this study we used 9K cDNA microarrays to investigate the expression profiles underlying testis maturation during the male reproductive cycle of the trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Results Using total testis samples at various developmental stages and isolated spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids, 3379 differentially expressed trout cDNAs were identified and their gene activation or repression patterns throughout the reproductive cycle were reported. We also performed a tissue-profiling analysis and highlighted many genes for which expression signals were restricted to the testes or gonads from both sexes. The search for orthologous genes in genome-sequenced fish species and the use of their mammalian orthologs allowed us to provide accurate annotations for trout cDNAs. The analysis of the GeneOntology terms therefore validated and broadened our interpretation of expression clusters by highlighting enriched functions that are consistent with known sequential events during male gametogenesis. Furthermore, we compared expression profiles of trout and mouse orthologs and identified a complement of genes for which expression during spermatogenesis was maintained throughout evolution. Conclusion A comprehensive study of gene expression and associated functions during testis maturation and germ cell differentiation in

  9. Identification of metalloprotease/disintegrins in Xenopus laevis testis with a potential role in fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, F M; Krätzschmar, J; Cai, H; Weskamp, G; Gayko, U; Leibow, J; Myles, D G; Nuccitelli, R; Blobel, C P

    1997-06-15

    Proteins containing a membrane-anchored metalloprotease domain, a disintegrin domain, and a cysteine-rich region (MDC proteins) are thought to play an important role in mammalian fertilization, as well as in somatic cell-cell interactions. We have identified PCR sequence tags encoding the disintegrin domain of five distinct MDC proteins from Xenopus laevis testis cDNA. Four of these sequence tags (xMDC9, xMDC11.1, xMDC11.2, and xMDC13) showed strong similarity to known mammalian MDC proteins, whereas the fifth (xMDC16) apparently represents a novel family member. Northern blot analysis revealed that the mRNA for xMDC16 was only expressed in testis, and not in heart, muscle, liver, ovaries, or eggs, whereas the mRNAs corresponding to the four other PCR products were expressed in testis and in some or all somatic tissues tested. The xMDC16 protein sequence, as predicted from the full-length cDNA, contains a metalloprotease domain with the active-site sequence HEXXH, a disintegrin domain, a cysteine-rich region, an EGF repeat, a transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. To study a potential role for these xMDC proteins in fertilization, peptides corresponding to the predicted integrin-binding domain of each protein were tested for their ability to inhibit X. laevis fertilization. Cyclic and linear xMDC16 peptides inhibited fertilization in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas xMDC16 peptides that were scrambled or had certain amino acid replacements in the predicted integrin-binding domain did not affect fertilization. Cyclic and linear xMDC9 peptides and linear xMDC13 peptides also inhibited fertilization similarly to xMDC16 peptides, whereas peptides corresponding to the predicted integrin-binding site of xMDC11.1 and xMDC11.2 did not. These results are discussed in the context of a model in which multiple MDC protein-receptor interactions are necessary for fertilization to occur.

  10. Normal uptake of 18F-FDG in the testis. An assessment by PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Sugimura, Kazuro; Nakamoto, Yuji; Senda, Michio; Onishi, Yumiko; Okizuka, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the physiological uptake of 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) by an apparently normal testis with combined positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) and its correlation with age, blood glucose level, and testicular volume. The testicular uptake of 18 F-FDG, expressed as the standardized uptake value (SUV), was measured on PET/CT images in 203 men. The correlation between SUV and age, blood glucose level, and testicular volume was assessed. The SUV in the total of 406 testes was 2.44±0.45 (range 1.23-3.85). The SUV was 2.81±0.43 (2.28-3.85) for 30-39 years (n=12), 2.63±0.45 (1.77-3.75) for 40-49 years (n=64), 2.46±0.35 (1.44-3.15) for 50-59 years (n=82), 2.51±0.41 (1.50-3.46) for 60-69 years (n=86), 2.43±0.47 (1.42-3.29) for 70-79 years (n=86), and 2.18±0.45 (1.23-3.03) for 80-89 years (n=76). When we calculated the mean SUV of bilateral testes in each patient, there were significant statistical differences between those in the age group of 30-39 years and 80-89 years, 40-49 years and 80-89 years, and 50-60 years and 80-89 years, when using an unpaired test with Bonferroni correction. The laterality index (|L-R|/(L+R) x 2) in 203 men was 0.066±0.067 (0-0.522). There was a mild correlation between the mean SUV and age (r=-0.284, P<0.001) as well as between the mean SUV and mean volume (r=+0.368, P<0.001). There was no correlation between the mean SUV and glucose blood level (r=-0.065, P=0.358). Some uptake of FDG is observed in the normal testis and declines slightly with age. Physiological FDG uptake in the testis should not be confused with pathological accumulation. (author)

  11. Characteristics of PCR-SSCP and RAPD-HPCE methods for identifying authentication of Penis et testis cervi in Traditional Chinese Medicine based on cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingcheng; Gao, Lijun; Qu, Li; Sun, Jingyu; Yuan, Guangxin; Xia, Wei; Niu, Jiamu; Fu, Guilian; Zhang, Lihua

    2016-07-01

    The use of Penis et testis cervi, as a kind of precious Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which is derived from dry deer's testis and penis, has been recorded for many years in China. There are abundant species of deer in China, the Penis et testis from species of Cervus Nippon and Cervus elaphusL were authentic, others species were defined as adulterant (different subspecies of deer) or counterfeits (different species). Identification of their origins or authenticity becomes a key in controlling the herbal products. A modified column chromatography was used to extract mitochondrial DNA of dried deer's testis and penis from sika deer (C. Nippon) and red deer (C. elaphusL) in addition to adulterants and counterfeits. Column chromatography requires for a short time to extract mitochondrial DNA of high purity with little damage of DNA molecules, which provides the primary structure of guarantee for the specific PCR; PCR-SSCP method showed a clear intra-specific difference among patterns of single-chain fragments, and completely differentiate Penis et testis origins from C. Nippon and C. elaphusL. RAPD-HPCE was based on the standard electropherograms to compute a control spectrum curve as similarity reference (R) among different samples. The similarity analysis indicated that there were significant inter-species differences among Penis et testis' adulterant or counterfeits. Both techniques provide a fast, simple, and accurate way to directly identify among inter-species or intra-species of Penis et testis.

  12. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Cyrus; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Naseri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urtica dioica L (U.dioica) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. The main goal is to investigate whether the U.dioica could inhibit nicotine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone. In this study, hydro-alcoholic extract of U.dioica was prepared and various doses of U.dioica (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and U.dioica plus nicotine (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to 56 male mice for 28 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=7) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility, and morphology), testis and prostate weight, testis histology and testosterone hormone were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that nicotine administration (0.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone level, count and motility of sperm cells, and testis weight compared to control group (p=0.00). However, increasing the dose of U.dioica significantly boosted motility, count, normal morphology of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, and testosterone in all groups compared to control (p=0.00) and testis weight in 20 and 50 mg/kg doses in comparison with control group (p=0.00). It seems that U.dioica hydro-alcoholic extract administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and inhibits nicotine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters.

  13. Cancer-testis antigen expression in synovial sarcoma: NY-ESO-1, PRAME, MAGEA4, and MAGEA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iura, Kunio; Maekawa, Akira; Kohashi, Kenichi; Ishii, Takeaki; Bekki, Hirofumi; Otsuka, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Harimaya, Katsumi; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yoshinao

    2017-03-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is regarded as a relatively chemosensitive sarcoma, but the prognosis of advanced SSs remains poor. Here we identified highly expressed cancer-testis antigens that could be promising immunotherapy targets for SS, using a previously conducted cDNA microarray, and we assessed the clinicopathological or prognostic relationships of these antigens in SS. We compared the gene expression profiles of 11 SSs with those of 3 normal adipose tissues. Among the up-regulated cancer-testis antigens, we analyzed PRAME, MAGEA1, and MAGEA4 and another cancer-testis antigen (NY-ESO-1) together, by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction in 108 SSs. Immunohistochemically, NY-ESO-1, PRAME, MAGEA4, and MAGEA1 were positive in 66 (61%), 93 (86%), 89 (82%), and 16 (15%) of 108 SSs, respectively, and 104 (96%) of 108 SSs showed the immunohistochemical expression of at least 1 of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4. Moreover, the high expression of at least 1 of these 3 antigens was observed in 83% of the SSs. High expression of NY-ESO-1 and MAGEA4 was significantly correlated with the presence of necrosis and advanced clinical stage. The immunohistochemical expression of these cancer-testis antigens was not correlated with prognosis, but the coexpression of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4 was significantly associated with adverse prognosis. The real-time polymerase chain reaction results were closely related to the immunohistochemical results: NY-ESO-1 (P = .0019), PRAME (P = .039), MAGEA4 (P = .0149), and MAGEA1 (P = .0766). These data support the potential utility of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4 as immunotherapy targets and ancillary prognostic parameters, suggesting the possible benefit of the combined use of these cancer-testis antigens as an SS immunotherapy target. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. {sup 18F} FDG Uptake of Human Testis on PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Sex Hormones, and Vasectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Eo, Jae Sun; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism of normal human testis on {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT and to assess possible correlation among age, the serum levels of sex hormones, and vasectomy. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was performed in 66 normal healthy men (50.8{+-}13.6 years, range 22-81), and mean standard uptake values (SUV) of {sup 18F} FDG in testis and adductor muscle were measured. Testis muscle SUV ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We searched for correlations between T/M ratios and age and the serum concentrations of sex hormones. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was also performed in 32 vasectomized men (55.7{+-}7.8 years, range 38-71) and 52 nonvasectomized men (55.4{+-}11.6 years, range 37-72). Mean SUVs of testis and adductor muscle were measured, and T/M ratios were calculated. A significant age related decline was found in T/M ratio (r=-0.509, p<0.0001). Serum levels of total testosterone and free testosterone were also found to be positively correlated with T/M ratio (r=-0.427, p=0.0003; r=0.435, p=0.0003, respectively). The mean SUV and T/M ratio of vasectomized men were significantly lower than those of nonvasectomized men (p<0.0378 and p=0.0001, respectively). Glucose metabolism in the testis in an adult population was found to be correlated with age, serum sex hormone level, and vasectomy history. These results indicate that testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake may have attributed to testicular function and testicular histology. Our findings may have important implications for the interpretation of testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the normal adult population.

  15. RNA deep sequencing reveals novel candidate genes and polymorphisms in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Gunawan

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an unpleasant smell and taste of pork meat derived from some entire male pigs. The main causes of boar taint are the two compounds androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-3-one and skatole (3-methylindole. It is crucial to understand the genetic mechanism of boar taint to select pigs for lower androstenone levels and thus reduce boar taint. The aim of the present study was to investigate transcriptome differences in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels using RNA deep sequencing (RNA-Seq. The total number of reads produced for each testis and liver sample ranged from 13,221,550 to 33,206,723 and 12,755,487 to 46,050,468, respectively. In testis samples 46 genes were differentially regulated whereas 25 genes showed differential expression in the liver. The fold change values ranged from -4.68 to 2.90 in testis samples and -2.86 to 3.89 in liver samples. Differentially regulated genes in high androstenone testis and liver samples were enriched in metabolic processes such as lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry and molecular transport. This study provides evidence for transcriptome profile and gene polymorphisms of boars with divergent androstenone level using RNA-Seq technology. Digital gene expression analysis identified candidate genes in flavin monooxygenease family, cytochrome P450 family and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase family. Moreover, polymorphism and association analysis revealed mutation in IRG6, MX1, IFIT2, CYP7A1, FMO5 and KRT18 genes could be potential candidate markers for androstenone levels in boars. Further studies are required for proving the role of candidate genes to be used in genomic selection against boar taint in pig breeding programs.

  16. Di(n-butyl phthalate has no effect on the rat prepubertal testis despite its estrogenic activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Długoński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of di(n-butyl phthalate (DBP on the rat’s prepubertal testis. Male Wistar rats were given daily subcutaneous injections with DBP (20 or 200 μg or a vehicle from the 5th to the 15th postnatal day (pd. On the 16th pd, the rats were euthanized, and the testes were dissected, weighed, and paraffin embedded. The blood was collected to determine the serum levels of testosterone (T, estradiol (E and FSH. The following parameters were assessed in the testis sections: diameter and length of seminiferous tubules (st, numbers of spermatogonia A + intermediate + B (A/In/B, preleptotene spermatocytes (PL, leptotene + zygotene + pachytene spermatocytes (L/Z/PA and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. An estrogenicity in vitro test was performed by means of a transgenic yeast strain expressing human estrogen receptor alpha. At both doses, DBP had no influence on testis and seminal vesicle weight, st diameter and length, number of germ and Sertoli cells per testis, percentage of st containing gonocytes or pachytene spermatocytes or lumen. DBP did not change E, T or FSH serum levels. The in vitro yeast screen showed that DBP was a weak estrogenic compound, approximately six to seven orders of magnitude less potent than 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, exposure of a rat to DBP in doses 100 or 1,000-fold higher than a Tolerable Daily Intake for humans had no effect on its testicular development. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 685–689

  17. Minor abnormalities of testis development in mice lacking the gene encoding the MAPK signalling component, MAP3K1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Warr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, the Y chromosome is a dominant male determinant, causing the bipotential gonad to develop as a testis. Recently, cases of familial and spontaneous 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD have been attributed to mutations in the human gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, MAP3K1, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal transduction pathway. In individuals harbouring heterozygous mutations in MAP3K1, dysregulation of MAPK signalling was observed in lymphoblastoid cell lines, suggesting a causal role for these mutations in disrupting XY sexual development. Mice lacking the cognate gene, Map3k1, are viable and exhibit the eyes open at birth (EOB phenotype on a mixed genetic background, but on the C57BL/6J genetic background most mice die at around 14.5 dpc due to a failure of erythropoiesis in the fetal liver. However, no systematic examination of sexual development in Map3k1-deficient mice has been described, an omission that is especially relevant in the case of C57BL/6J, a genetic background that is sensitized to disruptions to testis determination. Here, we report that on a mixed genetic background mice lacking Map3k1 are fertile and exhibit no overt abnormalities of testis development. On C57BL/6J, significant non-viability is observed with very few animals surviving to adulthood. However, an examination of development in Map3k1-deficient XY embryos on this genetic background revealed no significant defects in testis determination, although minor abnormalities were observed, including an increase in gonadal length. Based on these observations, we conclude that MAP3K1 is not required for mouse testis determination. We discuss the significance of these data for the functional interpretation of sex-reversing MAP3K1 mutations in humans.

  18. Meiosis and spermiogenesis in the testis of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelmeiser, J; Greven, H; Bergmann, M

    1985-01-01

    Meiosis and spermiogenesis in the fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra, take place in an intermediate zone of the testis between the cephal immature and the more caudal mature part. Primary spermatocytes in zytogene and pachytene are characterized by synaptonemal complexes, flattened vesicles at the periphery of the cytoplasm and mitochondria with dilated cristae. Mitochondria in primary spermatocytes during meiosis, in secondary spermatocytes and early spermatids are typically arranged beneath the plasmalemma. Secondary spermatocytes are provided with pro-acrosomal granules, nucleolus-like bodies and complexes of annulate lamellae. Cytoplasmic parts with numerous vesicles seem to become extruded from secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. In testicular lobules containing pachytene spermatocytes the normally fibroblast-like follicle cells transform into glandular Sertoli cells. Already after the second meiotic division of germ cells lobule boundary cells show morphological features of steroid hormone secreting cells.

  19. Effects of genotype on testis, semen quality, and mineral composition of semen in various ram breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Handan; Karakus, Kadir; Yılmaz, Ayhan; Aygun, Turgut; Mert, Nihat; Apaydın, Betul; Seyhan, Ercan

    2009-12-01

    This study was carried out on nine 3-5-year-old rams of different species: four Norduz, two Karakas, and three Ile de France × Akkaraman rams. Sperm of each ram was collected by means of an artificial vagina once per month from June to October 2007. In each case, the sperm volume, pH, viscosity, mass activity, motility, concentration, abnormal spermatozoa ratio, and the sperm death/live ratio were recorder along with the animals' testis diameter and scrotum circumferences. The concentrations of calcium, potassium, copper, magnesium, iron, and zinc levels in seminal plasma were determined. There were changes in the measured parameters according to genotype and time of sampling, which can be useful for better planning of anestrous mating programs for these ram species.

  20. Organization of the cysts in bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae testis: number of spermatozoa per cyst

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    Cruz-Landim Carminda da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the cyst cells in Apis mellifera Linné, 1758, Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1804, and Melipona bicolor bicolor Lepeletier, 1836 testis, as well as the average number of spermatic cells are reported. The data indicates a supporting and nourrishing role of the cyst cells to the developing cystocytes. The counts of immature spermatozoa in the cysts show an average of 202.8 ± 21.2 spermatozoa for A. mellifera, 117.4 ± 8.68 for S. postica and 88.8 ± 15.57 for M. bicolor, which predict the occurrence of 8 mitotic cycles in the cystocytes of A. mellifera and 7 in the meliponines, considering that only one spermatozoom originates of each final spermatogonium.

  1. Injury of the blood-testies barrier after low-dose-rate chronic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Young Hoon; Bae Min Ji; Lee, Chang Geun; Yang, Kwang Mo; Jur, Kyu; Kim, Jong Sun [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    The systemic effect of radiation increases in proportionally with the dose and dose rate. Little is known concerning the relationships between harmful effects and accumulated dose, which is derived from continuous low-dose rate radiation exposure. Recent our studies show that low-dose-rate chronic radiation exposure (3.49 mGy/h) causes adverse effects in the testis at a dose of 2 Gy (6 mGy/h). However, the mechanism of the low-dose-rate 2 Gy irradiation induced testicular injury remains unclear. The present results indicate that low-dose rate chronic radiation might affect the BTB permeability, possibly by decreasing levels of ZO-1, Occludin-1, and NPC-2. Furthermore, our results suggest that there is a risk of male infertility through BTB impairment even with low-dose-rate radiation if exposure is continuous.

  2. Metastatic Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Testis: Clinical Presentation and Management

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    Anand Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs of the testis are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that are present in both juvenile and adult subtypes. While most adult GCTs are benign, those that present with distant metastases manifest a grave prognosis. Treatments for aggressive GCTs are not well established. Options that have been employed in previous cases include retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination thereof. We describe the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with a painless left testicular mass and painful gynecomastia. Serum tumor markers (alpha fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase and computed tomography of the chest and abdomen were negative. The patient underwent left radical orchiectomy. Immunohistochemical staining was consistent with a testicular GCT. He underwent a left-template laparoscopic RPLND which revealed 2/19 positive lymph nodes. Final pathological stage was IIA. He remains free of disease 32 months after surgery.

  3. Paracetamol (acetaminophen), aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and indomethacin are anti-androgenic in the rat foetal testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Lesné, L.; Fol, V. Le

    2012-01-01

    on gestational day 14.5 rat testes, we herein show that testosterone production was inhibited by paracetamol, at doses of 0.1??m to 100??m. Similar results were obtained for aspirin (1?100??m) and indomethacin (10??m). The production of the other Leydig cell hormone, Insl3, was not disrupted by exposure...... to paracetamol. Investigations of the gross anatomy of the testis as well as Leydig cells number and rate of gonocyte apoptosis after the 3?days of ex vivo differentiation showed no significant effect of the analgesics tested compared with controls. These data indicate therefore that mild analgesics specifically...... inhibit testosterone production in rat foetal testes in vitro and that these compounds had no effect on gonocyte survival. Parallel determinations of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) production indicated that the effects of paracetamol and aspirin on PGD2 and testosterone were not connected, whereas the effects...

  4. Impaired testicular function in patients with carcinoma-in-situ of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Giwercman, A; Hansen, S W

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To elucidate the biologic association between germ cell neoplasia and testicular dysfunction, through investigation of Leydig cell function and semen quality in men with carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) of the testis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined two groups of men, unilaterally orchidectomized...... cell dysfunction was higher in the group of patients with CIS (11 of 24) than in the group of patients without (two of 30) (P = .01). Sperm concentration and total sperm count were significantly lower (P ... in patients without (median, 9.1 x 10(6)/mL and 32 x 10(6), respectively), whereas the levels of FSH were significantly higher (P function is impaired in testes with CIS...

  5. Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis: a malignancy associated with recurrent epididymitis?

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    Yen Ching-Heng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 53-year-old Taiwanese male had several episodes of left epididymitis with hydrocele refractory to antibiotic treatment. Partial epididymectomy plus preventive vasectomy were planned, and, incidentally, an ill-defined nodule was found lying on the tunica vaginalis near the epididymal head. The pathological diagnosis was malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. Radical orchiectomy with wide excision of the hemi-scrotal wall was performed. So far, there is no evidence of recurrence after more than 3 years of follow-up. Malignant tumor should be considered in the case of recurrent epididymitis refractory to empirically effective antibiotic treatment. Although the nature of this tumor is highly fatal, the malignancy can possibly be cured by early and aggressive surgical treatment.

  6. Testis-Specific Histone Variant H3t Gene Is Essential for Entry into Spermatogenesis

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    Jun Ueda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular differentiation is associated with dynamic chromatin remodeling in establishing a cell-type-specific epigenomic landscape. Here, we find that mouse testis-specific and replication-dependent histone H3 variant H3t is essential for very early stages of spermatogenesis. H3t gene deficiency leads to azoospermia because of the loss of haploid germ cells. When differentiating spermatogonia emerge in normal spermatogenesis, H3t appears and replaces the canonical H3 proteins. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that H3t-containing nucleosomes are more flexible than the canonical nucleosomes. Thus, by incorporating H3t into the genome during spermatogonial differentiation, male germ cells are able to enter meiosis and beyond.

  7. Testicular prosthesis: Patient satisfaction and sexual dysfunctions in testis cancer survivors

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    Francesco Catanzariti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We studied patient satisfaction about sexual activity after prosthesis implantation using validated questionnaires with the aim to discover if testicular prosthesis could be responsible of sexual dysfunctions (erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation. Materials and Methods: We evaluated a total of 67 men who underwent radical orchiectomy for testicular cancer and a silicon testicular prosthesis implantation from January 2008 to June 2014 at our Hospital. These patients completed 5 validated questionnaires the day before orchiectomy and 6 months after surgery: the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF5, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT, the Body Exposure during Sexual Activities Questionnaire (BESAQ, the Body-Esteem Scale and the Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale. We also evaluated 6 months after surgery any defects of the prosthesis complained by the patients. Results: The questionnaires completed by patients didn’t show statistically significant changes for erectile dysfunction (p > 0.05 and premature ejaculation (p > 0.05. On the contrary the psychological questionnaires showed statistically significant change for the BESAQ (p < 0.001 and the Body Esteem Scale (p < 0.001, but not for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (p > 0,05. A total of 15 patients (22.37% were dissatisfied about the prosthesis: the most frequent complaint (8 patients; 11.94% was that the prosthesis was firmer than the normal testis. Conclusions: Testicular prosthesis implantation is a safe surgical procedure that should be always proposed before orchiectomy for cancer of the testis. The defects complained by patients with testicular prosthesis are few, they don’t influence sexual activity and they aren’t able to cause erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation.

  8. IL PROCESSO DI PRODUZIONE SCRITTA: LA COESIONE VERBALE IN TESTI DI SCUOLA PRIMARIA

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    Fabiana Rosi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Una delle principali difficoltà che incontrano i bambini della scuola primaria nella produzione scritta riguarda la coesione verbale, ovvero il mantenimento lungo il testo della dimensione temporale inizialmente selezionata per riportare gli eventi. L’articolo esamina questo specifico tipo di competenza testuale negli alunni di sei classi del secondo ciclo della scuola primaria, tre delle quali hanno partecipato alla sperimentazione educativa sulla produzione di testi scritti “Osservare l’interlingua”. Il confronto fra i dati raccolti all’inizio e alla fine dell’anno scolastico mostra una riduzione dei salti immotivati da un tempo verbale all’altro, definiti shift temporali, nei testi prodotti nelle classi del campione sperimentale in misura maggiore rispetto a quelle di controllo e sottolinea gli effetti positivi, a breve e lungo termine, di una didattica task-based condotta con approccio inclusivo, cooperativo ed attivo.  The process of writing: verb cohesion in primary school textsOne of principal difficulties in producing written texts for primary school pupils concerns verb cohesion, i.e. maintaining the temporal dimension initially chosen for expressing events throughout the text. The paper examines this specific textual competence in pupils from six classes within second cycle of primary school. Three of these classes were involved in the “Observing interlanguage” project focused on written production. The comparison of data collected at the beginning and the end of school year shows a decrease in temporal shifts (transitions from one verb tense to another in the texts produced by the students involved in the project with regard to the control group. These findings highlight the positive effects, both short-term and long-term, of task-based teaching through an inclusive, cooperative and active approach. 

  9. Expression of the cancer-testis antigen BORIS correlates with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Zubair; Hari-Gupta, Yukti; Kita, Georgia-Xanthi; Farrar, Dawn; Seddon, Ian; Corr, John; Klenova, Elena

    2014-02-01

    BORIS, a paralogue of the transcription factor CTCF, is a member of the cancer-testis antigen (CT) family. BORIS is normally present at high levels in the testis; however it is aberrantly expressed in various tumors and cancer cell lines. The main objectives of this study were to investigate BORIS expression together with sub-cellular localization in both prostate cell lines and tumor tissues, and assess correlations between BORIS and clinical/pathological characteristics. We examined BORIS mRNA expression, protein levels and cellular localization in a panel of human prostate tissues, cancer and benign, together with a panel prostate cell lines. We also compared BORIS levels and localization with clinical/pathological characteristics in prostate tumors. BORIS was detected in all inspected prostate cancer cell lines and tumors, but was absent in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Increased levels of BORIS protein positively correlated with Gleason score, T-stage and androgen receptor (AR) protein levels in prostate tumors. The relationship between BORIS and AR was further highlighted in prostate cell lines by the ability of ectopically expressed BORIS to activate the endogenous AR mRNA and protein. BORIS localization in the nucleus plus cytoplasm was also associated with higher BORIS levels and Gleason score. Detection of BORIS in prostate tumors suggests potential applications of BORIS as a biomarker for prostate cancer diagnosis, as an immunotherapy target and, potentially, a prognostic marker of more aggressive prostate cancer. The ability of BORIS to activate the AR gene indicates BORIS involvement in the growth and development of prostate tumors. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Valproic acid induces histologic changes and decreases androgen receptor levels of testis and epididymis in rats

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    Sitthichai Iamsaard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Valproic acid (VPA, an anti-epileptic drug, can cause male subfertility. However, the degree to which testicular and epididymal histopathologies and androgen receptor (AR expression are changed under VPA treatment has never been reported. Objective: To investigate the histopathological changes and AR protein levels of testis and epididymis in VPA-treated rats for every single day. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into control and VPA-treated groups (n=8/ each. Treated rats were injected with 500 mg/ kgBW, intraperitoneally, VPA for 10 consecutive days. At the end of every experimental day, all reproductive parameters including histology by hematoxylin and eosin staining and protein expression of AR by Immuno-Western blot in testis and epididymis were examined. Results: VPA-treated rats showed dramatically changes in testicular and epididymal histopathologies compared to control group. The multinucleated giant cells and sloughing of germ cells were observed on day 6. The germ cell disintegration and increased intercellular spaces of seminiferous tubular epithelium appeared in days 7-10 of VPA treatment. Additionally, extensive multinucleated giant cells and complete exfoliation were clearly found from days 8-10. Such exfoliated germ cells were clearly seen in its epididymal lumen at day 10. The increasing rate of sperm concentration was approximately 32.31% of that in control group at day 10 (p=0.03. Moreover, the protein expressions of testicular and epididymal AR (% intensity/ 80 μg protein lysate was decreased in VPA-treated rats compared with control. Conclusion: VPA treatment induces histologic changes of germ cell epithelium in seminiferous tubules and decreases the expression of testicular and epididymal androgen receptors

  11. Testicular prosthesis: Patient satisfaction and sexual dysfunctions in testis cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzariti, Francesco; Polito, Benedetta; Polito, Massimo

    2016-10-05

    We studied patient satisfaction about sexual activity after prosthesis implantation using validated questionnaires with the aim to discover if testicular prosthesis could be responsible of sexual dysfunctions (erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation). We evaluated a total of 67 men who underwent radical orchiectomy for testicular cancer and a silicon testicular prosthesis implantation from January 2008 to June 2014 at our Hospital. These patients completed 5 validated questionnaires the day before orchiectomy and 6 months after surgery: the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF5), the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), the Body Exposure during Sexual Activities Questionnaire (BESAQ), the Body-Esteem Scale and the Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale. We also evaluated 6 months after surgery any defects of the prosthesis complained by the patients. The questionnaires completed by patients didn't show statistically significant changes for erectile dysfunction (p > 0.05) and premature ejaculation (p > 0.05). On the contrary the psychological questionnaires showed statistically significant change for the BESAQ (p < 0.001) and the Body Esteem Scale (p < 0.001), but not for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (p > 0,05). A total of 15 patients (22.37%) were dissatisfied about the prosthesis: the most frequent complaint (8 patients; 11.94%) was that the prosthesis was firmer than the normal testis. Testicular prosthesis implantation is a safe surgical procedure that should be always proposed before orchiectomy for cancer of the testis. The defects complained by patients with testicular prosthesis are few, they don't influence sexual activity and they aren't able to cause erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation.

  12. Antioxidant and protective effects of Royal jelly on histopathological changes in testis of diabetic rats

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    Elham Ghanbari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease. It has adverse effects on male reproductive function. Royal Jelly (RJ has antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects and show protective effects against diabetes. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RJ on histopathological alterations of the testicular tissue in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (C, royal jelly (R, diabetic (D and RJ-treated diabetic (D+R groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at 50 mg/kg body weight (BW. The rats from the R and D+R groups received daily RJ (100 mg/kg BW for 6 wks orally. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining was used to analyze histopathological changes including: tunica albuginea thickness (TAT, seminiferous tubules diameter (STsD, Johnsen’s score, tubular differentiation index (TDI, spermiogenesis index (SPI, Sertoli cell index (SCI, meiotic index (MI, and mononuclear immune cells (MICs in testes. The antioxidant status was examined by evaluating testicular levels of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and catalase (CAT activity. Results: Histological results of the testis from diabetic rats showed significant decrease in STsD, Johnsen’s score, TDI, SPI, SCI and MI, and significant increase in TAT and MICs, while administration of RJ significantly reverted these changes (p<0.05. RJ treatment markedly increased activity of CAT and FRAP. There were significant differences in FRAP levels among C (13.0±0.5, RJ (13.4±0.3, D (7.8±0.6 and D+R (12.4±0.7 groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: RJ improved diabetes-induced impairment in testis, probably through its antioxidant property.

  13. Hypothalamus-pituitary axis: an obligatory target for endocannabinoids to inhibit steroidogenesis in frog testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianese, Rosanna; Ciaramella, Vincenza; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria

    2014-09-01

    Endocannabinoids - primarily anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) - are lipophilic molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). They affect neuroendocrine activity inhibiting gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and testosterone production in rodents, through a molecular mechanism supposed to be hypothalamus dependent. In order to investigate such a role, we choose the seasonal breeder, the anuran amphibian Rana esculenta, an experimental model in which components of the endocannabinoid system have been characterized. In February, at the onset of a new spermatogenetic wave, we carried out in vitro incubations of frog testis with AEA, at 10(-9)M dose. Such a treatment had no effect on the expression of cytochrome P450 17alpha hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (cyp17) nor 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ-5-4 isomerase (3β-HSD), key enzymes of steroidogenesis. To understand whether or not the functionality of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis could be essential to support the role of endocannabinoids in steroidogenesis, frogs were injected with AEA, at 10(-8)M dose. Differently from in vitro experiment, the in vivo administration of AEA reduced the expression of cyp17 and 3β-HSD. Whereas the effect on 3β-HSD was counteracted by SR141716A (Rimonabant) - a selective antagonist of CB1, thus indicating a CB1 dependent modulation - the effect on cyp17 was not, suggesting a possible involvement of receptors other than CB1, probably the type-1 vanilloid receptor (TRPV1), since AEA works as an endocannabinoid and an endovanilloid as well. In conclusion our results indicate that endocannabinoids, via CB1, inhibit the expression of 3β-HSD in frog testis travelling along the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant Effects of Selenium on Seminiferous Tubules of Immature Mice Testis

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    Davoud Kushki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The freezing of immature testis tissue and then the transplant of it can be considered as a major step in fertility preservation for young boys with cancer, the survival of animal generation exposed to extinction and cloning animalistic desirable species. One of the most prevalent of damages in during the freezing-thawing process is oxidative stress. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of selenium compound (Na2SeO3 on rate of seminiferous tubules injury in during of cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 8 BALB/c immature male mice (6 - 8 days old were randomly selected, and the testes removed surgically (n = 16. The testes divided into 2 groups: experimental group, control group (opposite testes. For each of the two experimental and control groups, two types of soluble (freezing solution and thawing solution were prepared. These solutions, which contain 2 mg/mL solution of Na2SeO3 and control solution, were prepared in the DMEM (Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium base medium. Of each group were 4 testes into fast freezing-thawing procedure and 4 testes were into slow freezing-thawing procedure. Then this testis for analyzing injury, after preparatory process, was stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results: At the slow freezing-thawing procedure, seminiferous tubules injury significantly reduced in experimental group compared to control group. At the fast freezing-thawing procedure, seminiferous tubules injury significantly reduced in experimental group compared with of control group. Conclusions: It seems that Se due to its antioxidant properties, the harmful effects of freezing-thawing process reduces and protects seminiferous tubules from oxidative injury.

  15. Expression analysis of HSP70 in the testis of Octopus tankahkeei under thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ling-Li; Han, Ying-Li; Sheng, Zhang; Du, Chen; Wang, You-Fa; Zhu, Jun-Quan

    2015-09-01

    The gene encoding heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was identified in Octopus tankahkeei by homologous cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA (2471 bp) consists of a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) (89 bp), a 3'-UTR (426 bp), and an open reading frame (1956 bp) that encodes 651 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 71.8 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.34. Based on the amino acid sequence analysis and multiple sequence alignment, this cDNA is a member of cytoplasmic hsp70 subfamily of the hsp70 family and was designated as ot-hsp70. Tissue expression analysis showed that HSP70 expression is highest in the testes when all examined organs were compared. Immunohistochemistry analysis, together with hematoxylin-eosin staining, revealed that the HSP70 protein was expressed in all spermatogenic cells, but not in fibroblasts. In addition, O. tankahkeei were heat challenged by exposure to 32 °C seawater for 2 h, then returned to 13 °C for various recovery time (0-24 h). Relative expression of ot-hsp70 mRNA in the testes was measured at different time points post-challenge by quantitative real-time PCR. A clear time-dependent mRNA expression of ot-hsp70 after thermal stress indicates that the HSP70 gene is inducible. Ultrastructural changes of the heat-stressed testis were observed by transmission electron microscopy. We suggest that HSP70 plays an important role in spermatogenesis and testis protection against thermal stress in O. tankahkeei. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression Analysis of ARMC3, a Testis-Specific Gene, in Breast Cancer Patients

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    Zare

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women. Biomarkers that are expressed in tumors play a pivotal role in diagnosis and treatment. Cancer-testis (CT antigens are predominantly expressed in the testis and also have inappropriate expression in various tumor types. In the case of expression in tumors, they will be used as immunotherapy targets. Objectives Expression of ARMC3, a CT antigen, was analyzed to determine its potential as a tumor marker for breast cancer. Materials and Methods Eighty samples including 40 tumor samples and 40 normal adjacent tissue samples, were gathered from the ICBC biobank. RNA extraction was carried out on all samples. The extracted RNA was treated by DNaseI, after which cDNA was synthesized. Expression of ARMC3 with ACTB (internal control was studied using Real-Time PCR (polymerase chain reaction. Results Overall, 43.6% of tumors and 25.6% of normal adjacent tissues expressed ARMC3. ARMC3 was overexpressed in 41% of tumor samples (P = 0.00 and showed decreased expression in 46.2% (P = 0.00. Also, the expression of this gene in 12.8% of tumors was unchanged, which was statistically significant. It should be noted that all samples expressed ACTB gene. Conclusions Expression of ARMC3 in tumor samples and normal adjacent tissue is very important. The expression of this gene in tumor-adjacent tissue may be associated with the stage of cancer; it may be that these tissues are affected by epigenetic and oncogenic changes of breast cancer. Accordingly, aberrant expression of ARMC3 in tumor samples may be an attractive candidate for use as a tumor marker.

  17. Validation of endogenous normalizing genes for expression analyses in adult human testis and germ cell neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svingen, T; Jørgensen, A; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2014-08-01

    The measurement of gene expression levels in cells and tissues typically depends on a suitable point of reference for inferring biological relevance. For quantitative (or real-time) RT-PCR assays, the method of choice is often to normalize gene expression data to an endogenous gene that is stably expressed across the samples analysed: a so-called normalizing or housekeeping gene. Although this is a valid strategy, the identification of stable normalizing genes has proved challenging and a gene showing stable expression across all cells or tissues is unlikely to exist. Therefore, it is necessary to define suitable normalizing genes for specific cells and tissues. Here, we report on the performance of a panel of nine commonly employed normalizing genes in adult human testis and testicular pathologies. Our analyses revealed significant variability in transcript abundance for commonly used normalizers, highlighting the importance of selecting appropriate normalizing genes as comparative measurements can yield variable results when different normalizing genes are employed. Based on our results, we recommend using RPS20, RPS29 or SRSF4 when analysing relative gene expression levels in human testis and associated testicular pathologies. OCT4 and SALL4 can be used with caution as second-tier normalizers when determining changes in gene expression in germ cells and germ cell tumour components, but the relative transcript abundance appears variable between different germ cell tumour types. We further recommend that such studies should be accompanied by additional assessment of histology and cellularity of each sample. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Gadd45g is essential for primary sex determination, male fertility and testis development.

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    Heiko Johnen

    Full Text Available In humans and most mammals, differentiation of the embryonic gonad into ovaries or testes is controlled by the Y-linked gene SRY. Here we show a role for the Gadd45g protein in this primary sex differentiation. We characterized mice deficient in Gadd45a, Gadd45b and Gadd45g, as well as double-knockout mice for Gadd45ab, Gadd45ag and Gadd45bg, and found a specific role for Gadd45g in male fertility and testis development. Gadd45g-deficient XY mice on a mixed 129/C57BL/6 background showed varying degrees of disorders of sexual development (DSD, ranging from male infertility to an intersex phenotype or complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD. On a pure C57BL/6 (B6 background, all Gadd45g(-/- XY mice were born as completely sex-reversed XY-females, whereas lack of Gadd45a and/or Gadd45b did not affect primary sex determination or testis development. Gadd45g expression was similar in female and male embryonic gonads, and peaked around the time of sex differentiation at 11.5 days post-coitum (dpc. The molecular cause of the sex reversal was the failure of Gadd45g(-/- XY gonads to achieve the SRY expression threshold necessary for testes differentiation, resulting in ovary and Müllerian duct development. These results identify Gadd45g as a candidate gene for male infertility and 46,XY sex reversal in humans.

  19. Signaling by TGF-betas in tubule cultures of adult rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Hui; Galuska, Sebastian P; Kudipudi, Pradeep Kumar; Riaz, Mohammad Assad; Loveland, Kate L; Konrad, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    Although signal transduction of transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-βs) is well characterized in individual cell types, data about TGF-β signaling in a cellular context is still scarce. In this study, we used ex vivo tubule cultures from adult rat testis to investigate TGF-β signaling. We show for the first time in testicular tubules, that TGF-βs also signal via the BMP type I receptors, with ALK2 used by TGF-β1 and ALK3 and ALK6 by TGF-β2. This signal transduction is mediated via Smad3 as well as via Smad1. In contrast, BMPs (BMP2 and BMP7) do not signal via the high-affinity type I and type II TGFβ receptors, TBR1 or TBR2. Furthermore, treatment of tubule cultures with either TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 had profound significant stimulatory effects on secretion of plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1) through utilization of TGF-β and BMP receptors. Specific inhibitors for either TBR1 or BMP receptors yielded nearly complete inhibition of TGF-β signaling. The TBR1-TBR2 signalosome was detected with Duolink upon stimulation with either TGF-β1 or TGF-β2, predominantly in spermatogenic cells of the adult rat testis, particularly in elongated spermatids. In summary, this examination of intact rat testicular tubules demonstrated for the first time that TGF-βs signal mainly through TBR1 and TBR2 but also use BMP receptors, including for secretion of PAI-1. Whereas ALK2 participates in the TGF-β1-induced TBR1-TBR2 signalosome, ALK3 and ALK6 are involved in signaling of TGF-β2. Detection of the TBR1-TBR2 signalosome in late spermiogenic cells indicates a post-meiotic activity.

  20. Is prnt a pseudogene? Identification of ram Prt in testis and ejaculated spermatozoa.

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    Jorge Pimenta

    Full Text Available A hallmark of prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopaties is the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C, expressed by the prion gene (prnp, into an abnormally folded isoform (PrP(Sc with amyloid-like features that causes scrapie in sheep among other diseases. prnp together with prnd (which encodes a prion-like protein designated as Doppel, and prnt (that encodes the prion protein testis specific--Prt with sprn (shadow of prion protein gene, that encodes Shadoo or Sho genes, constitute the "prion gene complex". Whereas a role for prnd in the proper functioning of male reproductive system has been confirmed, the function of prnt, a recently discovered prion family gene, comprises a conundrum leading to the assumption that ruminant prnt is a pseudogene with no protein expression. The main objective of the present study was to identify Prt localization in the ram reproductive system and simultaneously to elucidate if ovine prnt gene is transcribed into protein-coding RNA. Moreover, as Prt is a prnp-related protein, the amyloid propensity was also tested for ovine and caprine Prt. Recombinant Prt was used to immunize BALB/c mice, and the anti-Prt polyclonal antibody (APPA immune response was evaluated by ELISA and Western Blot. When tested by indirect immunofluorescence, APPA showed high avidity to the ram sperm head apical ridge subdomain, before and after induced capacitation, but did not show the same behavior against goat spermatozoa, suggesting high antibody specificity against ovine-Prt. Prt was also found in the testis when assayed by immunohistochemistry during ram spermatogenesis, where spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa, stained positive. These observations strongly suggest ovine prnt to be a translated protein-coding gene, pointing to a role for Prt protein in the ram reproductive physiology. Besides, caprine Prt appears to exhibit a higher amyloid propensity than ovine Prt, mostly associated

  1. Is prnt a pseudogene? Identification of ram Prt in testis and ejaculated spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Jorge; Domingos, Ana; Santos, Pedro; Marques, Carla C; Cantante, Cátia; Santos, Ana; Barbas, João P; Baptista, Maria C; Horta, António E M; Viegas, Aldino; Mesquita, Patrícia; Gonçalves, João; Fontes, Carlos A; Prates, José A M; Pereira, Rosa M L N

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopaties is the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), expressed by the prion gene (prnp), into an abnormally folded isoform (PrP(Sc)) with amyloid-like features that causes scrapie in sheep among other diseases. prnp together with prnd (which encodes a prion-like protein designated as Doppel), and prnt (that encodes the prion protein testis specific--Prt) with sprn (shadow of prion protein gene, that encodes Shadoo or Sho) genes, constitute the "prion gene complex". Whereas a role for prnd in the proper functioning of male reproductive system has been confirmed, the function of prnt, a recently discovered prion family gene, comprises a conundrum leading to the assumption that ruminant prnt is a pseudogene with no protein expression. The main objective of the present study was to identify Prt localization in the ram reproductive system and simultaneously to elucidate if ovine prnt gene is transcribed into protein-coding RNA. Moreover, as Prt is a prnp-related protein, the amyloid propensity was also tested for ovine and caprine Prt. Recombinant Prt was used to immunize BALB/c mice, and the anti-Prt polyclonal antibody (APPA) immune response was evaluated by ELISA and Western Blot. When tested by indirect immunofluorescence, APPA showed high avidity to the ram sperm head apical ridge subdomain, before and after induced capacitation, but did not show the same behavior against goat spermatozoa, suggesting high antibody specificity against ovine-Prt. Prt was also found in the testis when assayed by immunohistochemistry during ram spermatogenesis, where spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa, stained positive. These observations strongly suggest ovine prnt to be a translated protein-coding gene, pointing to a role for Prt protein in the ram reproductive physiology. Besides, caprine Prt appears to exhibit a higher amyloid propensity than ovine Prt, mostly associated with its

  2. Phosphorylation-induced Conformational Ensemble Switching in an Intrinsically Disordered Cancer/Testis Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanan; Chen, Yihong; Mooney, Steven M; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Bhargava, Ajay; Sacho, Elizabeth; Weninger, Keith; Bryan, Philip N; Kulkarni, Prakash; Orban, John

    2015-10-09

    Prostate-associated gene 4 (PAGE4) is an intrinsically disordered cancer/testis antigen that is up-regulated in the fetal and diseased human prostate. Knocking down PAGE4 expression results in cell death, whereas its overexpression leads to a growth advantage of prostate cancer cells (Zeng, Y., He, Y., Yang, F., Mooney, S. M., Getzenberg, R. H., Orban, J., and Kulkarni, P. (2011) The cancer/testis antigen prostate-associated gene 4 (PAGE4) is a highly intrinsically disordered protein. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 13985-13994). Phosphorylation of PAGE4 at Thr-51 is critical for potentiating c-Jun transactivation, an important factor in controlling cell growth, apoptosis, and stress response. Using NMR spectroscopy, we show that the PAGE4 polypeptide chain has local and long-range conformational preferences that are perturbed by site-specific phosphorylation at Thr-51. The population of transient turn-like structures increases upon phosphorylation in an ∼20-residue acidic region centered on Thr-51. This central region therefore becomes more compact and more negatively charged, with increasing intramolecular contacts to basic sequence motifs near the N and C termini. Although flexibility is decreased in the central region of phospho-PAGE4, the polypeptide chain remains highly dynamic overall. PAGE4 utilizes a transient helical structure adjacent to the central acidic region to bind c-Jun with low affinity in vitro. The binding interaction is attenuated by phosphorylation at Thr-51, most likely because of masking the effects of the more compact phosphorylated state. Therefore, phosphorylation of PAGE4 leads to conformational shifts in the dynamic ensemble, with large functional consequences. The changes in the structural ensemble induced by posttranslational modifications are similar conceptually to the conformational switching events seen in some marginally stable ("metamorphic") folded proteins in response to mutation or environmental triggers. © 2015 by The American

  3. GeoGebra como herramienta para la enseñanza de razones trigonométricas en grado décimo en la IED Leonardo Posada Pedraza

    OpenAIRE

    Matta Gualtero, Nestor Javier

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo se da a conocer la posibilidad que tienen los docentes de Matemáticas de apoyar sus clases con software de geometría dinámica como GeoGebra, el cuál es considerado de gran utilidad para la enseñanza de la Geometría, el Cálculo, el Álgebra y la Trigonometría. Usando el software como herramienta para la enseñanza de la Trigonometría, se planteó una propuesta didáctica que se puso en práctica con los estudiantes de grado décimo de la Institución Educativa Distrital Leonardo P...

  4. Characterizing Transcriptional Networks in Male Rainbow Darter (Etheostoma caeruleum that Regulate Testis Development over a Complete Reproductive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina A Bahamonde

    Full Text Available Intersex is a condition that has been associated with exposure to sewage effluents in male rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum. To better understand changes in the transcriptome that are associated with intersex, we characterized annual changes in the testis transcriptome in wild, unexposed fish. Rainbow darter males were collected from the Grand River (Ontario, Canada in May (spawning, August (post-spawning, October (recrudescence, January (developing and March (pre-spawning. Histology was used to determine the proportion of spermatogenic cell types that were present during each period of testicular maturation. Regression analysis determined that the proportion of spermatozoa versus spermatocytes in all stages of development (R2 ≥ 0.58 were inversely related; however this was not the case when males were in the post-spawning period. Gene networks that were specific to the transition from developing to pre-spawning stages included nitric oxide biosynthesis, response to wounding, sperm cell function, and stem cell maintenance. The pre-spawning to spawning transition included gene networks related to amino acid import, glycogenesis, Sertoli cell proliferation, sperm capacitation, and sperm motility. The spawning to post-spawning transition included unique gene networks associated with chromosome condensation, ribosome biogenesis and assembly, and mitotic spindle assembly. Lastly, the transition from post-spawning to recrudescence included gene networks associated with egg activation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, membrane fluidity, and sperm cell adhesion. Noteworthy was that there were a significant number of gene networks related to immune system function that were differentially expressed throughout reproduction, suggesting that immune network signalling has a prominent role in the male testis. Transcripts in the testis of post-spawning individuals showed patterns of expression that were most different for the majority of transcripts

  5. Expression of vitellogenin in the testis and kidney of the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata exposed to 17β-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Giuseppina; Prisco, Marina; Agnese, Marisa; Verderame, Mariailaria; Limatola, Ermelinda; Andreuccetti, Piero

    2011-12-01

    In vertebrates, the liver was long thought to be the only site of vitellogenin (Vtg) production, but recent studies demonstrated that Vtg is also expressed in extrahepatic districts. The aim of this paper is to assess, by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, the expression of Vtg in the testis and kidney of Torpedo marmorata exposed to 17β-estradiol (E(2)). In treated samples vtg mRNA and Vtg were detected contemporaneously only in the testis; differently the kidney cells were positive to Vtg antibody, but negative to vtg mRNA. This is the first study to assess that male germ cells, after an exposure to E(2), synthesize Vtg in a stage-dependent manner. The presence of Vtg and the modifications observed in the kidney after E(2) treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intratubular large cell hyalinizing Sertoli cell tumor of the testis presenting with prepubertal gynecomastia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhan, Hale; Abaci, Ayhan; Sarsık, Banu; Öztürk, Tülay; Olguner, Mustafa; Catli, Gonul; Anik, Ahmet; Olgun, Nur; Bober, Ece

    2017-08-01

    Intratubular large cell hyalinizing Sertoli cell neoplasia (ITLCHSCN) resulting from Sertoli cells of the testis are mainly reported in young adults and these are rarely seen in childhood. The most common presenting symptoms of the patients diagnosed with ITLCHSCN are gynecomastia, enlargement in the testicles, increase in growth velocity, and advanced bone age. Symptoms are basically resulting from increased aromatase enzyme activity in Sertoli cells. In this case report, an eight-and-a-half-year-old case presenting with complaint of bilateral gynecomastia since two years, showing no endocrine abnormality in laboratory during two years of follow-up, determined to have progression in bilateral gynecomastia, increase in testicular volumes, advanced bone age, increase in growth velocity in the clinical follow-up, and diagnosed with ITLCHSCN after testis biopsy was presented.

  7. Permeability barrier in the mantle epithelium lining the testis in the apple-snail Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, E A; Cavicchia, J C

    2001-04-01

    Intercellular junctions are studied in the epithelium lining the testis of the freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata by conventional staining and lanthanum tracer techniques. The junctional complex consists of belt desmosomes and septate junctions. Septate junctions are of the pleated-sheet type and they are constantly associated with mitochondria. Gap and tight junctions appear to be absent. These septate junctions seem to be the structural correlate of an epithelial permeability barrier that separate the testis from the extrapallial space where the shell elements are deposited. These junctions may contribute to a functional barrier in the male gonad of Pomacea canaliculata. The results indicate that freshwater prosobranchs have junctional structures very close to those found in other molluscs.

  8. Expression of FGFR3 during human testis development and in germ cell-derived tumours of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewen, Katherine A; Olesen, Inge A; Winge, Sofia B

    2013-01-01

    development and to ascertain whether FGFR3 signalling is linked to germ cell proliferation and the pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of young adult men. Using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, we examined 58 specimens of human testes throughout development for FGFR3...... expression, and then compared expression of FGFR3 with proliferation markers (PCNA or Ki67). We also analysed for FGFR3 expression 30 TGCTs and 28 testes containing the tumour precursor cell, carcinoma in situ (CIS). Fetal and adult testes expressed exclusively the FGFR3IIIc isoform. FGFR3 protein expression...... was restricted to the cytoplasm/plasma membrane of spermatogonia and was most prevalent at mid-gestation, infancy and from puberty onwards. Phosphorylated (p)FGFR was detected in pre-spermatogonia at mid-gestation and in spermatogonia during puberty and in the adult testis. Throughout normal human testis...

  9. An examination of the characteristics, concentration, and distribution of androgen receptor in rat testis during sexual maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzek, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    In these studies a nuclear exchange assay was established in rat testis in which exchange after 86 hours at 4 degree C was greater than 85% complete and receptor was stable. Receptor concentration per DNA measured by exchange declined between 15 and 25 days of age in the rat testis, then increased 4-fold during sexual maturation. Proliferation of germ cells which had low receptor concentration appeared to account for the early decline in testicular receptor concentration, whereas increase in receptor number per Sertoli cell between 25 and 35 days of age contributed to the later increase. Detailed studies showed that other possible explanations for changes in receptor number were not likely. Androgen receptor dynamics in testicular cells showed rapid, specific uptake of [ 3 H]-testosterone that was easily blocked by unlabeled testosterone, and medroxyprogesterone acetate, but not as well as by the anti-androgens cyproterone acetate and hydroxyflutamide

  10. Optimizing Staining Protocols for Laser Microdissection of Specific Cell Types from the Testis Including Carcinoma In Situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Dalgaard, Marlene D; Nielsen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    Microarray and RT-PCR based methods are important tools for analysis of gene expression; however, in tissues containing many different cells types, such as the testis, characterization of gene expression in specific cell types can be severely hampered by noise from other cells. The laser microdis......Microarray and RT-PCR based methods are important tools for analysis of gene expression; however, in tissues containing many different cells types, such as the testis, characterization of gene expression in specific cell types can be severely hampered by noise from other cells. The laser......-containing cells, which is useful for isolation of the androgen-producing Leydig cells. Both protocols retain a morphology that is compatible with laser microdissection and yield RNA of a quality suitable for PCR and microarray analysis....

  11. Immunohistochemistry of the cytoskeleton in the excurrent ducts of the testis in birds of the Galloanserae monophyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aire, T A; Ozegbe, P C

    2008-08-01

    The presence, location and degree of immunoexpression of various microfilament (MF) and intermediate filament (IF) systems (actin, cytokeratins, desmin, vimentin) were studied in the excurrent ducts of the testis in sexually mature and active galliform (Japanese quail, domestic fowl, turkey) and anseriform (duck) birds. These proteins were variably expressed between the epithelia and periductal tissue (periductal smooth muscle cell layer and interductal connective tissue) types and between species. Variable heterogeneous co-expression of filament systems was also found in the various duct epithelia and periductal tissue types: co-expression of filament systems was the rule rather than the exception. In the duck, neither vimentin nor cytokeratin was present in any of the tissues, whereas actin and desmin (absent in the rete testis) were co-expressed in the efferent ducts and epididymal duct unit (comprising the ductus conjugens, ductus epididymidis and ductus deferens). Actin, desmin and vimentin were generally co-expressed in the rete testis, efferent ducts and epididymal duct unit of the quail, domestic fowl and turkey, with vimentin being more strongly immunoreactive than actin and desmin in the epididymal duct unit, but more weakly immunoexpressed in the efferent ducts. Cytokeratin was present and co-expressed with actin, desmin and vimentin in the rete testis, efferent ducts and epididymal duct unit of the domestic fowl and turkey, but not in the quail and duck. The periductal smooth muscle cell layer and interductal tissue co-expressed actin, desmin and vimentin variably in all birds. Luminal spermatozoa of both the turkey and duck were immunonegative for all protein systems, whereas those of the quail and domestic fowl co-expressed actin, desmin and vimentin moderately or strongly. The tissues of the reproductive tract of male birds thus contain cytoskeletal protein systems that are variably but mostly co-expressed and whose contractile ability appears

  12. Effects of aging and calorie restriction on the global gene expression profiles of mouse testis and ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Dan L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aging of reproductive organs is not only a major social issue, but of special interest in aging research. A long-standing view of 'immortal germ line versus mortal soma' poses an important question of whether the reproductive tissues age in similar ways to the somatic tissues. As a first step to understand this phenomenon, we examine global changes in gene expression patterns by DNA microarrays in ovaries and testes of C57BL/6 mice at 1, 6, 16, and 24 months of age. In addition, we compared a group of mice on ad libitum (AL feeding with a group on lifespan-extending 40% calorie restriction (CR. Results We found that gene expression changes occurred in aging gonads, but were generally different from those in somatic organs during aging. For example, only two functional categories of genes previously associated with aging in muscle, kidney, and brain were confirmed in ovary: genes associated with complement activation were upregulated, and genes associated with mitochondrial electron transport were downregulated. The bulk of the changes in gonads were mostly related to gonad-specific functions. Ovaries showed extensive gene expression changes with age, especially in the period when ovulation ceases (from 6 to 16 months, whereas testes showed only limited age-related changes. The same trend was seen for the effects of CR: CR-mediated reversal of age-associated gene expression changes, reported in somatic organs previously, was limited to a small number of genes in gonads. Instead, in both ovary and testis, CR caused small and mostly gonad-specific effects: suppression of ovulation in ovary and activation of testis-specific genes in testis. Conclusion Overall, the results are consistent with unique modes of aging and its modification by CR in testis and ovary.

  13. A Multiplex Cancer/Testis Antigen-Based Biomarker Panel to Predict the Aggressive Phenotype of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    correlated with no protein translation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer; metastatic prostate cancer; cancer/testis antigens (CTA); biomarker ; gene...endogenous peroxide activity and unspecific protein blocking were performed at room temperature. Incubation with primary antibody was performed overnight...that allowed us to use more statistical tools to determine the potential of our CTA candidates as PCa biomarkers . • We determined the protein expression

  14. Global transcriptome analysis of the C57BL/6J mouse testis by SAGE: evidence for nonrandom gene order

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Divina, Petr; Vlček, Čestmír; Strnad, Petr; Pačes, Václav; Forejt, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2005), s. 29-45 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A079; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK5052113 Grant - others:HHMI(US) 55000306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : SAGE * testis * gene expression Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2005

  15. [Diagnosis and treatment of yolk sac tumor of the testis with hydrocele in children: report of 7 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-Song; Wu, Deng-Long; Gui, Ya-Ping; Zhao, Xin; Xie, Hua

    2013-11-01

    To study the clinical characteristics of yolk sac tumor of the testis with concomitant testicular hydrocele in children and the association between the two conditions in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 7 cases of stage-I yolk sac tumor of the testis with concomitant testicular hydrocele. The patients ranged in age from 6 to 14 (mean 11) months. As treatment, we performed radical high spermatic cord orchiectomy after diagnosis established on intraoperative frozen sections, and conducted follow-up visits by medical examination, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) detection, chest X-ray, ultrasonography and CT for 3-41 (mean 17) months, every month in the first year, every 3 months in the second year and every 6 months in the third year after surgery. Postoperative pathology confirmed yolk sac tumor in all the cases, with negative incisal margin. The level of serum AFP were decreased to normal in 6 cases within 1 month after surgery, all diagnosed as at stage I, and cured without chemotherapy. The other 1 case, with the serum AFP level of 116 microg/L at 1 month after operation, was diagnosed as at stage II and received PVC chemotherapy, but lost to follow-up at 3 months post-operatively. Yolk sac tumor of the testis with concomitant testicular hydrocele is easily misdiagnosed in children. Ultrasonography is necessitated as routine examination in its diagnosis. Radical high spermatic cord orchiectomy can be performed for patients in stage I, and chemotherapy should follow for those in stage II. Its prognosis is similar to that of other yolk sac tumors. Hitherto, there has been no evidence for a definitive correlation between yolk sac tumor of the testis and hydrocele in children.

  16. The Role of Cremaster Muscle as a Cause of Ascending Testis after Inguinal Hernia/Hydrocele Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrollah Salimi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Ascending testis (AT is one of the rare but serious complication that may occurs following inguinal hernia/hydrocele repair. We aimed to review our more than 7 years’ experience and discuss the possible mechanism through which the AT possibly occurs following inguinal hernia/hydrocele repair. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis of 7,212 boys who had undergone inguinal hernia/hydrocele repair between March 2009 and April 2016 was conducted. Exclusion criteria were: undescended testis, misdiagnosed AT, and retractile testis. Two types of surgical procedures were performed based on the medical records: (1 transection of the hernia sac and processus vaginalisalone and (2 isolation of the vas deferens and testicular vessels and a global transection of the remaining structures. Subsequently, post-operative incidence of AT was compared across variables extracted from the medical records. Results Sixteen (0.22% patients were diagnosed with AT post operatively. AT incidence after inguinal hernia/hydrocele repair was reported in approximately 0.19% of the entire patient sample (in the 8491 hernia/hydrocele repairs. Comparison of AT incidence with the age at initial operation showed significant increase at the age of one year or less (P =0.017. In addition, AT incidence was significantly higher in the patients for whom only the sac/processus vaginalis was transected rather than the patients who underwent hernia/hydrocele repair with isolation of the vas deferens and testicular vessels (0.06% vs. 0.27%, respectively, P =0.023. Other subgroup analyses remained non-significant. Conclusion We conclude that transection of the cremaster muscle might decrease the incidence of ascending testis following inguinal hernia/ hydrocele repair.

  17. Differential expression profiles of conserved Snail transcription factors in the mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micati, D J; Hime, G R; McLaughlin, E A; Abud, H E; Loveland, K L

    2018-01-30

    Snail transcription factors are key regulators of cellular transitions during embryonic development and tumorigenesis. The closely related SNAI1 and SNAI2 proteins induce epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs), acting predominantly as transcriptional repressors, while the functions of SNAI3 are unknown. An initial examination of Snai2-deficient mice provided evidence of deficient spermatogenesis. To address the hypothesis that Snail proteins are important for male fertility, this study provides the first comprehensive cellular expression profiles of all three mammalian Snail genes in the post-natal mouse testis. To evaluate Snail transcript expression profiles, droplet digital (dd) PCR and in situ hybridization were employed. Snai1, 2 and 3 transcripts are readily detected at 7, 14, 28 days post-partum (dpp) and 7 weeks (adult). Unique cellular expression was demonstrated for each by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry using Western blot-validated antibodies. SNAI1 and SNAI2 are in the nucleus of the most mature germ cell types at post-natal ages 10, 15 and 26. SNAI3 is only detected from 15 dpp onwards and is localized in the Sertoli cell cytoplasm. In the adult testis, Snai1 and Snai2 transcripts are detected in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, while Snai3 is in both germ and Sertoli cells. SNAI1 protein is evident in nuclei of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids and elongated spermatids (Stages IX-XII). SNAI2 is present in the nuclei of spermatogonia and spermatocytes, with a faint signal detected in round spermatids. SNAI3 was detected only in Sertoli cell cytoplasm, as in juvenile testes. Additionally, colocalization of SNAI1 and SNAI2 with previously identified key binding partners, LSD1 and PRC2 complex components, provides strong evidence that these important functional interactions are conserved during spermatogenesis to control gene activity. These distinct expression profiles suggest that each Snail family member has unique

  18. Protective role of hesperidin against γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Nadia Z; Ahmed Zahran, Ahmed M; El-Rashidy, Fatma H; Abdo Kodous, Ahmad S

    2017-12-01

    Gamma (γ) ray, an electromagnetic radiation, is occasionally accompanying the emission of an alpha or beta particle. Exposure to such radiation can cause cellular changes such as mutations, chromosome aberration and cellular damage which depend upon the total amount of energy, duration of exposure and the dose. Ionizing radiation can impair spermatogenesis and can cause mutations in germ cells. In general, type B spermatogonia are sensitive to this type of radiation. The current study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of hesperidin (H), as a polyphenolic compound, on rat testis injury induced by γ-radiation. Rats were divided into groups including C group (control rats), R (irradiated) group (rats irradiated with γ-radiation), Vehicle (V) group (rats administered with dimethylsulfoxide "DMSO"), H group (rats administered with H only), HR and RH groups (rats treated with H before and after exposure to γ-radiation, respectively). Malondialdehyde (MDA: the end product of lipid peroxidation "LPO") and xanthine oxidase (XO: it generates reactive oxygen species "ROS") in testes homogenate as well as nitric oxide (NO: as ROS) in mitochondrial matrix were determined. The apoptotic markers including DNA-fragmentation (DNAF) in testes homogenate and calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) in mitochondrial matrix were determined. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in testes homogenate, while reduced glutathione "GSH" in nuclear matrix were determined. Also histopathological examination for testes tissues through electron microscope was studied. Exposure of rats to γ-radiation (R group) increased the levels of MDA, NO, DNAF, Ca 2+ and XO activity, while it decreased GSH level, SOD and CAT activities as compared to the C groups; γ-radiation increased oxidative stress (OS), LPO, apoptosis and induced testes injuries. These results are in agreement with the histopathological examination. In contrast, treatment with H before or after exposure to

  19. Developmentally distinct in vivo effects of FSH on proliferation and apoptosis during testis maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meachem, Sarah J; Ruwanpura, Saleela M; Ziolkowski, Jessica; Ague, Jacquelyn M; Skinner, Michael K; Loveland, Kate L

    2005-09-01

    The critical influence of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on male fertility relates both to its impact on Sertoli cell proliferation in perinatal life and to its influence on the synthesis of Sertoli cell-derived products essential for germ cell survival and function in the developing adult testis. The nature and timing of this shift of germ cells to their reliance on specific Sertoli cell-derived products are not defined. Based on existing data, it is apparent that the dominant function of FSH shifts between 9 and 18 day postpartum (dpp) during the first wave of spermatogenesis from driving Sertoli cell proliferation to support germ cells. To enable comprehensive analysis of the impact of acute in vivo FSH suppression on Sertoli and germ cell development, FSH was selectively suppressed in Sprague-Dawley rats by passive immunisation for 2 days and/or 4 days prior to testis collection at 3, 9 and 18 dpp. The 3 dpp samples displayed no measurable changes, while 4 days of FSH suppression decreased Sertoli cell proliferation and numbers in 9 dpp, but not 18 dpp, animals. In contrast, germ cell numbers were unaffected at 9 dpp but decreased at 18 dpp following FSH suppression, with a corresponding increase in germ cell apoptosis measured at 18 dpp. Sixty transcripts were measured as changed at 18 dpp in response to 4 days of FSH suppression, as assessed using Affymetrix microarrays. Some of these are known as Sertoli cell-derived FSH-responsive genes (e.g. StAR, cathepsin L, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3), while others encode proteins involved in cell cycle and survival regulation (e.g. cyclin D1, scavenger receptor class B 1). These data demonstrate that FSH differentially affects Sertoli and germ cells in an age-dependent manner in vivo, promoting Sertoli cell mitosis at day 9, and supporting germ cell viability at day 18. This model has enabled identification of candidate genes that contribute to the FSH-mediated pathway by which Sertoli cells

  20. Yolk protein is expressed in the insect testis and interacts with sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachimiak Ewa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male and female gametes follow diverse developmental pathways dictated by their distinct roles in fertilization. While oocytes of oviparous animals accumulate yolk in the cytoplasm, spermatozoa slough off most of their cytoplasm in the process of individualization. Mammalian spermatozoa released from the testis undergo extensive modifications in the seminal ducts involving a variety of glycoproteins. Ultrastructural studies suggest that glycoproteins are involved in sperm maturation in insects; however, their characterization at the molecular level is lacking. We reported previously that the circadian clock controls sperm release and maturation in several insect species. In the moth, Spodoptera littoralis, the secretion of glycoproteins into the seminal fluid occurs in a daily rhythmic pattern. The purpose of this study was to characterize seminal fluid glycoproteins in this species and elucidate their role in the process of sperm maturation. Results We collected seminal fluid proteins from males before and after daily sperm release. These samples were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis, and gels were treated with a glycoprotein-detecting probe. We observed a group of abundant glycoproteins in the sample collected after sperm release, which was absent in the sample collected before sperm release. Sequencing of these glycoproteins by mass spectroscopy revealed peptides bearing homology with components of yolk, which is known to accumulate in developing oocytes. This unexpected result was confirmed by Western blotting demonstrating that seminal fluid contains protein immunoreactive to antibody against yolk protein YP2 produced in the follicle cells surrounding developing oocytes. We cloned the fragment of yp2 cDNA from S. littoralis and determined that it is expressed in both ovaries and testes. yp2 mRNA and YP2 protein were detected in the somatic cyst cells enveloping sperm inside the testis. During the period of sperm

  1. Cancer/Testis OIP5 and TAF7L Genes are Up-Regulated in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasheri, Maryam Beigom; Shirkoohi, Reza; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer still remains as the most frequent cancer with second mortality rate in women worldwide. There are no validated biomarkers for detection of the disease in early stages with effective power in diagnosis and therapeutic approaches. Cancer/testis antigens are recently promising tumor antigens and suitable candidates for targeted therapies and generating cancer vaccines. We conducted the present study to analyze transcript changes of two cancer/testis antigens, OIP5 and TAF7L, in breast tumors and cell lines in comparison with normal breast tissues by quantitative real time RT-PCR for the first time. Significant over-expression of OIP5 was observed in breast tumors and three out of six cell lines including MDA-MB-468, T47D and SKBR3. Not significant expression of TAF7L was evident in breast tumors but significant increase was noted in three out of six cell lines including MDA-MB-231, BT474 and T47D. OIP5 has ssignificant role in chromatin organization and cell cycle control during cell cycle exit and normal chromosome segregation during mitosis and TAF7L is a component of the transcription factor ??D, which is involved in transcription initiation of most protein coding genes. TAF7Lis located at X chromosome and belongs to the CT-X gene family of cancer/testis antigens which contains about 50% of CT antigens, including those which have been used in cancer immunotherapy.

  2. High Doses of Caffeine during the Peripubertal Period in the Rat Impair the Growth and Function of the Testis

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    Minji Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal caffeine exposure adversely affects the development of the reproductive organs of male rat offspring. Thus, it is conceivable that peripubertal caffeine exposure would also influence physiologic gonadal changes and function during this critical period for sexual maturation. This study investigated the impact of high doses of caffeine on the testes of prepubertal male rats. A total of 45 immature male rats were divided randomly into three groups: a control group and 2 groups fed 120 and 180 mg/kg/day of caffeine, respectively, via the stomach for 4 weeks. Caffeine caused a significant decrease in body weight gain, accompanied by proportional decreases in lean body mass and body fat. The caffeine-fed animals had smaller and lighter testes than those of the control that were accompanied by negative influences on the histologic parameters of the testes. In addition, stimulated-testosterone ex vivo production was reduced in Leydig cells retrieved from the caffeine-fed animals. Our results demonstrate that peripubertal caffeine consumption can interfere with the maturation and function of the testis, possibly by interrupting endogenous testosterone secretion and reducing the sensitivity of Leydig cells to gonadotrophic stimulation. In addition, we confirmed that pubertal administration of caffeine reduced testis growth and altered testis histomorphology.

  3. Abnormal spermatogenesis following sodium fluoride exposure is associated with the downregulation of CREM and ACT in the mouse testis.

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    Wang, Chong; Chen, Yan; Manthari, Ram Kumar; Wang, Jundong

    2018-04-01

    cAMP response element modulator (CREM) is involved in regulating gene expression in normal spermatogenesis. The transcriptional activity of CREM is partly regulated by activator of CREM in the testis (ACT). To investigate the effects of different concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the gene and protein expression of CREM and ACT in the mouse testis, sexually mature male Kunming mice were exposed to 50, 100, or 150 mg/L NaF in their drinking water for 90 days. NaF reduced the sperm count and viability and increased the percentage of malformed sperm in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression of CREM and ACT was markedly downregulated in the NaF-treated groups. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed that CREM and ACT proteins were decreased significantly in the 50, 100, and 150 mg/L NaF-treated groups compared to the control group. These findings indicate that the decreased gene and protein expression of CREM and ACT in the testis is associated with an impairment of reproductive functions by NaF.

  4. Morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules of the adult crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, Linnaeus, 1766

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    Bianca Cabral Caldeira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Body and testicular biometric parameters are very important for establishing reproductive patterns and, consequently, the development of protocols for assisted reproduction in different species. A direct correlation between the testis weight and the sperm population was observed in other studied species, because the testis size primarily reflects the total volume of the seminiferous tubule, its main component. The objective of this study was to determine the testicular volume parameters and correlate data from morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules with body mass in six adult crab-eating foxes. The mean body weight of the crab-eating foxes in this study was 6.53 kg, with approximately 0.068% allocated to the testicular mass and 0.042% specifically to seminiferous tubules, which represented 87.5% of the testicular parenchyma. The albuginea comprised 12.5% of the testicular mass. The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules was 236 µm, and the mean thickness of the seminiferous epithelium was 62.9 µm. Values of tubular parameters indicate a sperm productivity close to those observed in previously studied carnivores.

  5. Expression and function analysis of metallothionein in the testis of stone crab Charybdis japonica exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Huan [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Tan Fuqing [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Wang Dahui [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhu Junquan [Faculty of Life Science and Bioengineering, Ningbo University, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Zhou Hong [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang Wanxi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Metallothionein (MT) participates in metallic homeostasis and detoxification in living animals. Previous studies have focused mainly on the functions of MT in vertebrates, but the functions of MT during spermiogenesis in invertebrates remain unclear. In order to investigate the functions of MT during spermiogenesis in the Japanese stone crab (Charybdis japonica), we identified the C. japonica MT complete cDNA sequence from the total RNA of the testis using RT-PCR and RACE. The 587 bp MT cDNA contains: an 80 bp 5 Prime untranslated region, a 333 bp 3 Prime untranslated region, and a 174 bp open reading frame. MT has 57 amino acids including 19 cysteines. The protein alignment between MT sequences of C. japonica and other crabs shows a high similarity and a strong identity in cysteine residues vital for the metal-binding affinity of MT. After the cadmium (Cd) exposure, the testis displays both abnormal morphology and MT mRNA expression both of which indicate a sensitive response of testis MT to Cd. Therefore, we suggest that MT is an excellent biomarker candidate for evaluating Cd pollution.

  6. Effects of Common Fig (Ficus carica) Leaf Extracts on Sperm Parameters and Testis of Mice Intoxicated with Formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Majid; Maghbool, Maryam; Seifalah-Zade, Morteza; Mahaldashtian, Maryam; Makoolati, Zohreh; Kouhpayeh, Seyed Amin; Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Fereydouni, Narges

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is the leading cause of cellular injury and oxidative damage in testis that is one of the main infertility causes. There has been an increasing evidence of herbal remedies use in male infertility treatment. This assay examines the role of Ficus carica (Fc) leaf extracts in sperm parameters and testis of mice intoxicated with FA. Twenty-five adult male mice were randomly divided into control; sham; FA-treated (10 mg/kg twice per day); Fc-treated (200 mg/kg); and FA + Fc-treated groups. Cauda epididymal spermatozoa were analyzed for viability, count, and motility. Testes were weighed and gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated. Also, histoarchitecture of seminiferous tubules was assessed in the Haematoxylin and Eosin stained paraffin sections. The findings showed that FA significantly decreased GSI and increased percentage of immotile sperm compared with control group. Disorganized and vacuolated seminiferous epithelium, spermatogenic arrest, and lumen filled with immature germ cells were also observed in the testes. However, Fc leaf extracts improved sperm count, nonprogressive motility of spermatozoa, and GSI in FA-treated testes. Moreover, seminiferous tubule with spermatogenic arrest was rarely seen, indicating that Fc has the positive effects on testis and epididymal sperm parameters exposed with FA. PMID:26904140

  7. Effects of Common Fig (Ficus carica Leaf Extracts on Sperm Parameters and Testis of Mice Intoxicated with Formaldehyde

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    Majid Naghdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA is the leading cause of cellular injury and oxidative damage in testis that is one of the main infertility causes. There has been an increasing evidence of herbal remedies use in male infertility treatment. This assay examines the role of Ficus carica (Fc leaf extracts in sperm parameters and testis of mice intoxicated with FA. Twenty-five adult male mice were randomly divided into control; sham; FA-treated (10 mg/kg twice per day; Fc-treated (200 mg/kg; and FA + Fc-treated groups. Cauda epididymal spermatozoa were analyzed for viability, count, and motility. Testes were weighed and gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. Also, histoarchitecture of seminiferous tubules was assessed in the Haematoxylin and Eosin stained paraffin sections. The findings showed that FA significantly decreased GSI and increased percentage of immotile sperm compared with control group. Disorganized and vacuolated seminiferous epithelium, spermatogenic arrest, and lumen filled with immature germ cells were also observed in the testes. However, Fc leaf extracts improved sperm count, nonprogressive motility of spermatozoa, and GSI in FA-treated testes. Moreover, seminiferous tubule with spermatogenic arrest was rarely seen, indicating that Fc has the positive effects on testis and epididymal sperm parameters exposed with FA.

  8. Effect of modified Wuzi Yanzong Pill () on Tip60-mediated apoptosis in testis of male rats after microwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai-Xiang; Sun, Jing; Gao, Ya-Jing; Fang, Hong; Xu, Shao-Qiang; Dong, Jing; Wei, Li-Zhao; Luo, Shao-Bo; Shen, Chuan-Yun; Zhang, Qi-Long; Xie, Ya-Lan

    2017-10-24

    To investigate the effect of a modified Wuzi Yanzong Pill (, WZYZP) on the male rats' testis after microwave radiation, as well as its potential mechanism. Forty-five male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the control group, the radiation group, and the WZYZP group. The rats in the radiation group and WZYZP group were exposed to microwave radiation for 15 min once, while the rats in the control group were not exposed to any radiation. The rats in the WZYZP group were given a modified of WZYZP by gavage daily for 7 days. Apoptosis in the testis was evaluated using terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Histopathological alterations of the testis were observed by haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Tat-interactive protein, 60kD (Tip60) and p53 expressions were determined by Western blotting. The apoptosis index (AI) in the radiation group was higher than that of the WZYZP group and control group on day 1 (D1), day 7 (D7) day 14 (D14) after radiation (Pradiation group, the partial seminiferous tubules were collapsed, basement membranes of the seminiferous epithelia became detached. WZYZP could restore the morphological changes. There was no expression of Tip60 among the three groups on D7 and D14. The expression of p53 was higher in the radiation group than in the control group (Pradiation on D7 and D14 (Peffects may partly result from its ability to intervene in Tip60 mediated apoptosis.

  9. Effect of aluminum exposure on superoxide and peroxide handling capacities by liver, kidney, testis and temporal cortex in rat.

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    Chaitanya, T V Balasai; Mallipeddi, Kalyani; Bondili, J S; Nayak, Prasunpriya

    2012-10-01

    Oxidant imbalance is one of the causative mechanisms of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity. In this study, we investigated aluminum-induced oxidant imbalance in non-neuronal tissues (liver, kidney and testis) and temporal cortex in rats. The differences in adaptations to superoxide and peroxide handling capacities (SPHC) of studied organs due to aluminum insult were also evaluated. Male Wistar rats were exposed to aluminum (10 mg/Kg body wt/day) for 4 weeks through orogastric intubation. Liver showed significant decrease in reduced glutathione level, while significant alteration in lipid peroxidation was observed in temporal cortex in aluminium-exposed animals. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly altered in liver and temporal cortex and catalase activity significantly reduced in the liver due to aluminum exposure, while glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities were altered in all the tested organs. Among the organs, glutathione-independent SPHC was relatively higher in liver and kidney, while glutathione-dependent SPHC was relatively higher in testis and temporal cortex. As compared to control, aluminum-exposed rats demonstrated reduction in glutathione-dependent SPHC in temporal cortex and increment of the same in testis, while increment in glutathione-independent SPHC was observed in liver. In conclusion, aluminum-induced alteration in oxidant handling capacity could be the cause of oxidative stress both in the neuronal and non-neuronal tissues.

  10. The testis and ovary transcriptomes of the rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus: A bony fish with a unique neo Y chromosome

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    Dongdong Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus is considerably one of the most economically important marine fish in East Asia and has a unique neo-Y chromosome system that is a good model to study the sex determination and differentiation in fish. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the testis and ovary tissues of rock bream. A total of 40,004,378 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406649 and 53,108,992 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406648 high quality reads were obtained from testis and ovary RNA sequencing, respectively, and 60,421 contigs (with average length of 1301 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 14,036 contigs that show gender-enriched expressional profile with either testis-enriched (237 contigs or ovary-enriched (581 contigs with RPKM >100. There are 237 male- and 582 female-abundant expressed genes that show sex dimorphic expression. We hope that the gonad transcriptome and those gender-enriched transcripts of rock bream can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of teleost gonad tissue and give useful information in fish gonad development.

  11. Estrogen alters gonadal soma-derived factor (Gsdf)/Foxl2 expression levels in the testes associated with testis-ova differentiation in adult medaka, Oryzias latipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Chiba, Ayaka; Sato, Tadashi; Myosho, Taijun; Yamamoto, Jun; Okamura, Tetsuro; Onishi, Yuta; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Iguchi, Taisen; Horie, Yoshifumi

    2017-10-01

    Testis-ova differentiation in sexually mature male medaka (Oryzias latipes) is easily induced by estrogenic chemicals, indicating that spermatogonia persist in sexual bipotentiality, even in mature testes in medaka. By contrast, the effects of estrogen on testicular somatic cells associated with testis-ova differentiation in medaka remain unclear. In this study, we focused on the dynamics of sex-related genes (Gsdf, Dmrt1, and Foxl2) expressed in Sertoli cells in the mature testes of adult medaka during estrogen-induced testis-ova differentiation. When mature male medaka were exposed to estradiol benzoate (EB; 800ng/L), testis-ova first appeared after EB treatment for 14days (observed as the first oocytes of the leptotene-zygotene stage). However, the testis remained structurally unchanged, even after EB treatment for 28days. Although Foxl2 is a female-specific sex gene, EB treatment for 7days induced Foxl2/FOXL2 expression in all Sertoli cell-enclosed spermatogonia before testis-ova first appeared; however, Foxl2 was not detected in somatic cells in control testes. Conversely, Sertoli-cell-specific Gsdf mRNA expression levels significantly decreased after EB treatment for 14days, and no changes were observed in DMRT1 localization following EB treatment, whereas Dmrt1 mRNA levels increased significantly. Furthermore, after EB exposure, FOXl2 and DMRT1 were co-localized in Sertoli cells during testis-ova differentiation, although FOXL2 localization was undetectable in Sertoli-cell-enclosed apoptotic testis-ova, whereas DMRT1 remained localized in Sertoli cells. These results indicated for the first time that based on the expression of female-specific sex genes, feminization of Sertoli cells precedes testis-ova differentiation induced by estrogen in mature testes in medaka; however, complete feminization of Sertoli cells was not induced in this study. Additionally, it is suggested strongly that Foxl2 and Gsdf expression constitute potential molecular markers for

  12. STUDIARE IN ITALIANO: ELABORAZIONE DI ESERCIZI SU TESTI UNIVERSITARI DI GEOGRAFIA

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    Thomas Gilardi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nella prospettiva indicata dal CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning l'articolo presenta un modello di unità didattica in cui si collocano esercizi per lo sviluppo della capacità di lettura per l'apprendimento disciplinare destinati a studenti universitari stranieri con l'obiettivo di sviluppare un livello di competenza linguistico-comunicativa corrispondente ai livelli B1 e B2 del Quadro Comune Europeo di Riferimento per le Lingue. Gli esercizi proposti sono finalizzati alla comprensione di testi, tratti da manuali di geografia, di cui viene indicato il livello di difficoltà in base all'indice di difficoltà Gulpease.   Following the CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning guidlines, this article presents a model for a didactic unit which includes reading skills exercises in a specific field of study for foreign university students.  The aim for the students was to reach a B1 linguistic and a B2 comunicative language level according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The  reading comprehension exercises utilize texts from Geography textbooks, which are marked with the level of difficulty based on the Gulpease difficulty index.

  13. The immature part of the testis in Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

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    Schindelmeiser, J; Greven, H; Bergmann, M

    1983-04-01

    The immature part of the testis in the European fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra, consists of cephalo-caudally orientated zones of primary spermatogonia, secondary spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids associated with follicle cells. Germ cells and follicle cells are arranged in lobules separated from each other by a vascularized connective tissue. Primordial germ cells are dispersed throughout the testicular stroma, preferably near the efferent ductules. They possess a multilobated nucleus, irregularly arranged mitochondria, nuage material, and a few lipid droplets. Primary spermatogonia are characterized by a more spherical nucleus, a coronal distribution of cell organelles--mainly mitochondria--small amounts of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and lipid droplets. Secondary spermatogonia exhibit an irregular distribution of cell organelles with increased amounts of vesicular profiles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum; they are highly interdigitated and connected by intercellular bridges. In this stage degenerative processes may take place. Primary spermatocytes are provided with basal bodies and peripheral microtubules. Secondary spermatocytes and spermatids will be described elsewhere. Follicle cells and their projections surround each germinal cyst. Their nucleated parts are commonly localized in the central part of the lobule. Follicle cells and lobule boundary cells are very similar to fibrocytes. Already in the primary spermatocyte zone, both cell types show ultrastructural features indicating a setting in glandular activity.

  14. Morphological and biochemical studies on the innervation of the testis of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelmeiser, J; Bergmann, M; Straub, H; Greven, H

    1983-05-01

    The innervation of the male gonad of Salamandra salamandra was studied by fluorescence microscopy using the glyoxylic acid method, acetylcholinesterase histochemistry, electron microscopy using glutaraldehyde/osmium tetroxide and chromate/dichromate fixation, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection of biogenic amines in homogenates of the testicular tissue. Noradrenaline has been found to be the prevailing neurotransmitter in the testicular nerves; dopamine could be identified only in minor concentration. The relatively scarce noradrenergic innervation is mainly restricted to the connective tissue septa between the immature and the mature part of the testis and between the mature part and the glandular tissue. Most of the fluorescent fibers have a close connection to blood vessels. After chromate/dichromate fixation the nerve profiles contain in most cases small vesicles with electron-dense reaction products, indicating the presence of catecholamines. Varicosities are to be found near the capillaries, in the vicinity of vascular (in the wall of arterioles) and non-vascular (near the testicular surface) smooth muscle cells; no relationships were found between nerve fibers and glandular (steroid hormone-secreting) or germinal cells. Cholinergic fibers could not be identified, non-adrenergic/non-cholinergic fibers were present only in very small numbers.

  15. Cancer testis antigen vaccination affords long-term protection in a murine model of ovarian cancer.

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    Maurizio Chiriva-Internati

    Full Text Available Sperm protein (Sp17 is an attractive target for ovarian cancer (OC vaccines because of its over-expression in primary as well as in metastatic lesions, at all stages of the disease. Our studies suggest that a Sp17-based vaccine can induce an enduring defense against OC development in C57BL/6 mice with ID8 cells, following prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. This is the first time that a mouse counterpart of a cancer testis antigen (Sp17 was shown to be expressed in an OC mouse model, and that vaccination against this antigen significantly controlled tumor growth. Our study shows that the CpG-adjuvated Sp17 vaccine overcomes the issue of immunologic tolerance, the major barrier to the development of effective immunotherapy for OC. Furthermore, this study provides a better understanding of OC biology by showing that Th-17 cells activation and contemporary immunosuppressive T-reg cells inhibition is required for vaccine efficacy. Taken together, these results indicate that prophylactic and therapeutic vaccinations can induce long-standing protection against OC and delay tumor growth, suggesting that this strategy may provide additional treatments of human OC and the prevention of disease onset in women with a family history of OC.

  16. Pseudorabies Virus Induces Viability Changes and Oxidative Stress in Swine Testis Cell-Line

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    Xiao-Zhan Zhang§1, Ye Chen§1, Hong-Liang Huang§2, Dong-Lei Xu1, Chang-Bao Ren2, Bi-Tao Liu1, Shuo Su1 and Zhao-Xin Tang1, 2*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the association between pseudorabies (PRV virus-induced viability changes and oxidative stress in vitro cultivated swine testis (ST cells. The kinetic of 2, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h during the cell culture with PRV by using a multiplicity of infection (MOI of 1 TCID50 per cell were adopted. The results suggested a complex relation between cell viability and oxidative stress during PRV infection. In the early stages of PRV infection, the cell viability was higher than the control group, and the state of cellular oxidative stress remained relatively stable. After 24 h, the cell viability began to decrease, and the amount of the cellular malondialdehyde in ST cells increased significantly, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased significantly (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the rising concentrations of cellular hydrogen peroxide were detected prior to the changes in cell viability and oxidative stress. In conclusion, the PRV infection of ST cells leads to oxidative stress, and this stress could play a crucial role on the cell viability as the PRV infection time progresses.

  17. A Testis-Specific Chaperone and the Chromatin Remodeler ISWI Mediate Repackaging of the Paternal Genome

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    Cécile M. Doyen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During spermatogenesis, the paternal genome is repackaged into a non-nucleosomal, highly compacted chromatin structure. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that Drosophila sperm chromatin proteins are characterized by a motif related to the high-mobility group (HMG box, which we termed male-specific transcript (MST-HMG box. MST77F is a MST-HMG-box protein that forms an essential component of sperm chromatin. The deposition of MST77F onto the paternal genome requires the chaperone function of tNAP, a testis-specific NAP protein. MST77F, in turn, enables the stable incorporation of MST35Ba and MST35Bb into sperm chromatin. Following MST-HMG-box protein deposition, the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler ISWI mediates the appropriate organization of sperm chromatin. Conversely, at fertilization, maternal ISWI targets the paternal genome and drives its repackaging into de-condensed nucleosomal chromatin. Failure of this transition in ISWI mutant embryos is followed by mitotic defects, aneuploidy, and haploid embryonic divisions. Thus, ISWI enables bi-directional transitions between two fundamentally different forms of chromatin.

  18. Effects of melatonin on spinal cord injury-induced oxidative damage in mice testis.

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    Yuan, X-C; Wang, P; Li, H-W; Wu, Q-B; Zhang, X-Y; Li, B-W; Xiu, R-J

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of melatonin on spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced oxidative damage in testes. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into sham-, SCI- or melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p.)-treated SCI groups. To induce SCI, a standard weight-drop method that induced a contusion injury at T10 was used. After 1 week, testicular blood flow velocity was measured using the Laser Doppler Line Scanner. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), oxidised glutathione (GSSG) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in testis homogenates. Microvascular permeability of the testes to Evan's Blue was examined by spectrophotometric and fluorescence microscopic quantitation. The tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin in testes were assessed by immunoblot analysis. Melatonin increased the reduced blood flow and decreased SCI-induced permeability of capillaries. MDA levels and MPO activity were elevated in the SCI group compared with shams, which was reversed by melatonin. In contrast, SCI-induced reductions in GSH/GSSG ratio were restored by melatonin. Decreased expression of ZO-1 and occludin was observed, which was attenuated by melatonin. Overall, melatonin treatment protects the testes against oxidative stress damage caused by SCI. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Effects of a Simulated Microgravity Model on cell structure and function in mouse testis

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    M.A. Masini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreased testicular blood flow shift occurring under microgravity conditions causes impaired spermatogenesis in males. The tail suspended model has been used mainly in studies of muscle atrophy/osteoporosis and of body fluid shift in few studies aimed at spermatogenesis. We examined serum testosterone levels, testis morphology and apoptotic phenomena in tail suspended mice, a model used to reproduce some of the effects of the absence of gravity. Male C57BL mice (6months old were divided into two groups: tail suspended (TS and controls (C. After 14 days of treatment testosterone levels were determined. On fixed sections histological stain (HE was performed; DNA fragmentation was visualized using TUNEL technique. On the frozen samples immunoblotting for BAX, Bcl2, Caspase 39 and p53 was carried out. Testosterone levels were 0.18±0.09 and 3.74±2.2 ng/ml (mean±DS in suspended and control animals, respectively. HE staining showed disturbed cell arrangement and a markedly decreased number of spermatozoa in the testes, TUNEL revealed an increased apoptotic index and immunoblotting provided evidence of apoptotic markers in TS animals. These data support results previously obtained by other groups showing a significant influence of short duration microgravity conditions on testicular function.

  20. Effects of caffeine and its reactive metabolites theophylline and theobromine on the differentiating testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, I; Locquet, O; Solvar, A; Magre, S

    2001-01-01

    A previous study in the rat (Pollard et al. 1990) established that caffeine, when administered during pregnancy, significantly inhibited the differentiation of the seminiferous cords and subsequent Leydig cell development in the interstitium. However, that study could not distinguish between the direct effects of caffeine and/or the intermediary secondary toxic effects of metabolites such as theophylline and theobromine. Because the fetus lacks the appropriate enzyme systems, clearance of toxic substances takes place via the placenta and maternal liver. Thus, a suitable in vitro system can effectively differentiate between primary and secondary drug effects. In the present study, 13-day-old fetal testis, at the stage of incipient differentiation, were cultured for 4 days in vitro in the presence of graded doses of caffeine, theophylline or theobromine. It was found that explants exposed to caffeine or theobromine differentiated normally, developing seminiferous cords made up of Sertoli and germ cells, soon followed by the differentiation of functionally active Leydig cells appearing in the newly formed interstitium. However, explants exposed to theophylline failed to develop seminiferous cords and, as a consequence, Leydig cells. In conclusion, insights obtained from different experimental methods, such as organ culture or whole organism studies, are not always identical. It may be prudent, therefore, to take into account that certain experimental techniques, despite providing valuable information, may require confirmation by other test methods in order to obtain an in-depth understanding of mechanisms of action involved.