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Sample records for leonard wood usa

  1. Hydrologic Analysis of Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    drainage areas are different, hydrological analysis will be conducted on the two basins individually. The results of the two analyses will be combined to...ER D C TR -1 5- 4 Environmental Quality and Installations Hydrologic Analysis of Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri En gi ne er R es ea rc h...Environmental Quality and Installations ERDC TR-15-4 August 2015 Hydrologic Analysis of Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri Michael L. Follum, Darla C. McVan

  2. Black Swan Event Assessment for Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ER D C/ CE RL S R- 16 -1 Net Zero Planning for Fort Leonard Wood Black Swan Event Assessment for Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri Co ns...search for other technical reports published by ERDC, visit the ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Net Zero Planning for...1.8 degrees Celsius knots 0.5144444 meters per second miles (US statute) 1,609.347 meters miles per hour 0.44704 meters per second ERDC/CERL SR

  3. Wood products research in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Wegner

    2010-01-01

    Forest biomass conversion to biofuels and other value-added co-products; hyper-performance advanced composites custom tailored to end use requirements; advanced high performance wood-based structures; and nanomaterials and nano-enable high performance products from wood represent important research and development investment areas for the successful transformation of...

  4. 'Leonard pairs' in classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhedanov, Alexei; Korovnichenko, Alyona

    2002-01-01

    Leonard pairs (LP) are matrices with the property of mutual tri-diagonality. We introduce and study a classical analogue of LP. We show that corresponding classical 'Leonard' dynamical variables satisfy non-linear relations of the AW-type with respect to Poisson brackets. (author)

  5. Mark Leonard : EL ei peakski olema suurvõim / Mark Leonard ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leonard, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu tegevdirektoriga, kes vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA ja Euroopa suhteid, Euroopa Liidu välispoliitikat, Venemaa ja Euroopa Liidu suhteid pärast Gruusia konflikti. Ta peab murettekitavaks, et Venemaa üritab takistada euroopalike väärtuste levitamist oma naaberriikides. Vt. samas: Mark Leonard. Ilmunud ka Sirp : Diplomaatia 14. nov. nr. 11 lk. 13-14

  6. Termite and fungal resistance of in situ polymerized tributyltin acrylate and acetylated Indonesian and USA wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Yusuf Sudo Hadi; Dodi Nandika; Sulaeman Yusuf; Yuliati Indrayani

    2000-01-01

    Wood [Indonesian pine (IP), Indonesian Jabon (IJ) and USA southern yellow pine (USP)] was either in situ polymerized with tributyltin acrylate (TBTA) or acetylated and then exposed to termite and fungal degradation both in laboratory tests and field exposure. The TBTA woods had an average weight percent gain (WPG) of 11% for IP, 12% for IJ, and 10% for USP. The...

  7. Leonard Wood, Operational Artist or Scheming Careerist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    and administrator of Egypt , told the British Foreign Office that there was only one man in the world capable of taking his place but, unfortunately...Pacification is a pyramid built on a base of a secured environment. In unstable environments, collaboration of the population is limited because the

  8. Diana Leonard and Materialist Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stevi

    2013-01-01

    This tribute to Diana Leonard focuses on her contribution to materialist feminism, both through bringing the work of key French theorists to the attention of an Anglophone audience and through her own sociological work on the family, marriage and childhood. In so doing it draws attention to the importance of her work as editor and…

  9. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size......Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood...

  10. Cadmium and lead in tissues of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) using the Illinois River (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levengood, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Tissue lead and cadmium concentrations were examined in two common, widely distributed species of duck, utilizing a major river system. - Cadmium and lead concentrations were determined in the tissues of Mallards and Wood Ducks collected from two waterfowl management areas along the Illinois River, USA, during the autumn and late winter of 1997-1998. Lead concentrations in livers of Mallards were lower than previously reported, and, along with those in a small sample of Wood Duck livers, were within background levels (<2.0 μg/g wet weight). Mean concentrations of cadmium in the kidneys of Wood Ducks utilizing the Illinois River were four times greater than in after-hatch-year Mallards, and 14 times greater than in hatch-year Mallards. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidneys of Wood Ducks were comparable with those of specimens dosed with cadmium or inhabiting contaminated areas in previous studies. Wood Ducks utilizing wetlands associated with the Illinois River, and presumably other portions of the lower Great Lakes region, may be chronically exposed to cadmium

  11. Instream wood loads in montane forest streams of the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen J.; Wohl, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Although several studies examine instream wood loads and associated geomorphic effects in streams of subalpine forests in the U.S. Southern Rocky Mountains, little is known of instream wood loads in lower elevation, montane forests of the region. We compare instream wood loads and geomorphic effects between streams draining montane forest stands of differing age (old growth versus younger) and disturbance history (healthy versus infested by mountain pine beetles). We examined forest stand characteristics, instream wood load, channel geometry, pool volume, and sediment storage in 33 pool-riffle or plane-bed stream reaches with objectives of determining whether (i) instream wood and geomorphic effects differed significantly among old-growth, younger, healthy, and beetle-infested forest stands and (ii) wood loads correlated with valley and channel characteristics. Wood loads were standardized to drainage area, stream gradient, reach length, bankfull width, and floodplain area. Streams flowing through old-growth forests had significantly larger wood loads and logjam volumes (pairwise t-tests), as well as logjam frequencies (Kruskal-Wallis test), residual pool volume, and fine sediment storage around wood than streams flowing through younger forests. Wood loads in streams draining beetle-infested forest did not differ significantly from those in healthy forest stands, but best subset regression models indicated that elevation, stand age, and beetle infestation were the best predictors of wood loads in channels and on floodplains, suggesting that beetle infestation is affecting instream wood characteristics. Wood loads are larger than values from subalpine streams in the same region and jams are larger and more closely spaced. We interpret these differences to reflect greater wood piece mobility in subalpine zone streams. Stand age appears to exert the dominant influence on instream wood characteristics within pool-riffle streams in the study area rather than beetle

  12. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  13. Influences on wood load in mountain streams of the Bighorn National Forest, Wyoming, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Amy L; Wohl, Ellen

    2008-10-01

    We documented valley and channel characteristics and wood loads in 19 reaches of forested headwater mountain streams in the Bighorn National Forest of northern Wyoming. Ten of these reaches were in the Upper Tongue River watershed, which has a history of management including timber harvest, tie floating, and road construction. Nine reaches were in the North Rock Creek watershed, which has little history of management activities. We used these data to test hypotheses that (i) valley geometry correlates with wood load, (ii) stream gradient correlates with wood load, and (iii) wood loads are significantly lower in managed watersheds than in otherwise similar unmanaged watersheds. Statistical analyses of the data support the first and third hypotheses. Stream reaches with steeper valley side slopes tend to have higher wood loads, and reaches in managed watersheds tend to have lower wood loads than reaches in unmanaged watersheds. Results do not support the second hypothesis. Shear stress correlated more strongly with wood load than did stream gradient, but statistical models with valley-scale variables had greater explanatory power than statistical models with channel-scale variables. Wood loads in stream reaches within managed watersheds in the Bighorn National Forest tend to be two to three times lower than wood loads in unmanaged watersheds.

  14. Architectural Survey of Pence Elementary School, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    younger students often learned what they needed to know from older students (Graves 1993, 22). During the first half of the 19th century , urban...of class- rooms with an applied Gothic, Greek Revival, or Victorian facade to create a cohesive building (Figure 5). ERDC/CERL TR-11-25 8...with Eliel and Eero Saarinen and con- structed in 1940, this school was the first to separate from the traditional Victorian style of school buildings

  15. Fort Leonard Wood German POW Stonework: Maintenance and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Mortar 1 part Grey Portland Cement 2 parts masonry sand with a similar gradation curve making sure to include the larger aggregate Water should be...Mortar 1 part Grey Portland Cement 2 parts masonry sand with a similar gradation curve making sure to include the larger aggregate Water ...Brief No. 1: Assessing Cleaning and Water -Repellent Treatments for Historic Masonry Buildings. National Park Service. 2000. 30 July 2009. <http

  16. Black Swan Event Assessment for Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    6.5%, due to shift from natural gas to electricity, assuming no cogeneration • Overall, energy COST increases 2.3% and 6.2% Table 8. Estimated...measures ......................................................................................... 34 ERDC/CERL SR-16-1 iv 9 Emerging Impacts of...FEMA standards category and using ASCE 7-05. (Source: FEMA.) ................ 16 Figure 9. Estimated trajectory and impact area of the Joplin tornado in

  17. Fort Leonard Wood Cantonment Landscape Context, Inventory, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Characteristics Ostrya virginiana Hop Hornbeam Height 30-50’ oval to rounded attractive habit Platanus occiden- talis American Planetree Height 80...langeana olia -white flowers in spring Saucer Magn Height 20-30’ rounded showy pink Prunus maakii Amur Chokecherry s in May Height 30-40’ pyramidal white...mound’’ Pine Spread 3-5 dense, dark green foliage Prunus glandulosa Dwarf Flowering Almond and leggy Height 3-5’, Spread 3-4’ broad rounded pink or

  18. Initial Integrated Strategic Sustainability Plan for Fort Leonard Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    and quantify the benefits of various sustainable workforce staffing tools (e.g., flex time, job sharing, telecommuting , etc.). CPAC 0.1 3Q - 4Q...desk tops NEC G6 1Q — Track telecommuting hours CPAC 1Q — Calculate benefits - miles

  19. Architectural Survey of Pershing Elementary School, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    information important in prehistory or history. 16 NPS 1991. 17 Excerpted from...school has yielded, or was likely to yield, any information important in prehistory or history. Final Determination for Building 6501 It is the

  20. Demonstration of Combined Food and Landscape Waste Composting at Fort Leonard Wood, MO: Fort Leonard Wood Installation Strategic Sustainable Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    potential for it to contain small amounts of materials such as plastic or paper food packaging, eating utensils, and condiment containers. To...randomly collected from breakfast, lunch, and dinner services to determine moisture content. Table 4-1 summarizes these mois- ture contents by date...83.8 Dinner 87.3 16 April 2015 Lunch 78.1 Dinner 84.6 21 April 2015 Breakfast 89.4 Lunch 89.1 22 April 2015 Lunch 85.3 Dinner 78.8 28 April

  1. Potential availability of urban wood biomass in Michigan: Implications for energy production, carbon sequestration and sustainable forest management in the U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Tree and wood biomass from urban areas is a potentially large, underutilized resource viewed in the broader social context of biomass production and utilization. Here, data and analysis from a regional study in a 13-county area of Michigan, U.S.A. are combined with data and analysis from several other studies to examine this potential. The results suggest that urban trees and wood waste offer a modest amount of biomass that could contribute significantly more to regional and national bio-economies than it does at present. Better utilization of biomass from urban trees and wood waste could offer new sources of locally generated wood products and bio-based fuels for power and heat generation, reduce fossil fuel consumption, reduce waste disposal costs and reduce pressure on forests. Although wood biomass generally constitutes a 'carbon-neutral' fuel, burning rather than burying urban wood waste may not have a net positive effect on reducing atmospheric CO 2 levels, because it may reduce a significant long term carbon storage pool. Using urban wood residues for wood products may provide the best balance of economic and environmental values for utilization

  2. Concentrations and content of mercury in bark, wood, and leaves in hardwoods and conifers in four forested sites in the northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Yang; Ruth D. Yanai; Charles T. Driscoll; Mario Montesdeoca; Kevin T. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is deposited from the atmosphere to remote areas such as forests, but the amount of Hg in trees is not well known. To determine the importance of Hg in trees, we analyzed foliage, bark and bole wood of eight tree species at four sites in the northeastern USA (Huntington Forest, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; Bear Brook, ME). Foliar...

  3. Vulnerability and resilience to droughts in South-West USA: carbon allocation and impact on wood and evaporative anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, M. F.; von Arx, G.; McDowell, N. G.; Pockman, W.; Andreu-Hayles, L.; Gentine, P.

    2015-12-01

    Survival and distribution of conifers across the globe will depend on their adaptive potential to the new climatic conditions (warmer, more droughts, heat waves). Recent studies predicting forest evolution have mainly focused on understanding tree mortality processes (hydraulic failure, carbon starvation, biotic stresses). These explicit causes of mortality are also the result of unsuccessful adaptation on a longer period. Using a 7 years drought-irrigation experiment in New Mexico, USA, we investigated the response to water availability on structure-function interactions at the tree level. Bridging dendrology and physiology on multiple individuals of local Pinion pine, we observe a structural dynamics in i) wood anatomy ii) evaporative anatomy and a resulting functional dynamics in i) leaf water potential and ii) water use efficiency on multiple time scales (daily to interannual). These results emphasize the tight coupling between carbon allocation and the surface hydrologic cycle on longer time scales and its impact on resilience and mortality, which is not included in current generation land-surface models. figure: Wood anatomy obtained from a 5.2mm core of a Pinion Edulis from the experimental site - illustrating the variability of the water transport capacities accross years

  4. USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html......http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html...

  5. Economic impacts of industrial wood energy use in the Southeastern U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Boras, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study designed to quantify the conomic impacts associated with industrial/commercial wood energy use in the Southeastern region of the US. The study was funded by the US Department of Energy's Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program, managed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The study involved four overall activities: (1) estimation of industrial fuelwood consumption; (2) calculation of economic impact multipliers for the states and region via the use of the US Forest Service input/output model IMPLAN; (3) development of a personal computer-based input/output decision model using Lotus 1-2-3 software, for use in the study, as well as for future use by state planners, and (4) input of all the state data into the decision model and calculation of the state and regional economic impacts. The results of the analysis found net income for the region to be approximately $880 million/year, with 57,000 net jobs generated, as a result of 47.2 million tons of industrial fuelwood consumption in the region in 1987. For the year 2000, regional wood consumption was estimated to be 65.6 million tons, with the resulting net income for the region estimated to be $1.7 billion, resulting in the creation of 97,700 net jobs

  6. How ``Natural'' are inland wetlands? an example from the trail wood audubon sanctuary in Connecticut, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, Robert M.; Harris, Sandra L.

    1991-09-01

    We examined the geology of a small inland wetland in Hampton, Connecticut to determine its postglacial history and to assess the severity of human impact at this remote wooded site. Using stratigraphic evidence, we dernonstrate that the present wetland was created when sediment pollution from a 19th-century railroad filled a preexisting artificial reservoir, and that the prehistoric wetland was a narrow drainage swale along Hampton Brook. This same, severely impacted wetland was interpreted by the Pulitzer Prize-winning naturalist Edwin Way Teale as a beautiful wilderness area of particular interest. These conflicting perceptions indicate that artificial wetlands can be naturally mitigated in less than a century of healing, even in the absence of deliberate management. We also point out that the “wilderness” value of the Teale wetland was in the eye of the beholder and that unseen human impacts may have improved the aesthetic experience.

  7. Obituary: Leonard Searle (1930-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, George

    2011-12-01

    Leonard Searle, Astronomer and Director Emeritus of Carnegie Observatories, died at his home on July 2, 2010, in Pasadena, CA, in the midst of a busy retirement that followed a long, distinguished scientific career. Searle was born on October 23, 1930, in the London suburb of Mitcham to parents of modest means. He received his Bachelor of Science degree from University of Saint Andrews in Scotland, and his PhD from Princeton University, where he met his future wife, Eleanor Millard. They were married in Princeton in 1952. Eleanor, his lifelong companion, was a distinguished medieval historian who joined the Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences at Caltech as professor in 1979. She died in 1999. Leonard joined the faculty at University of Toronto in 1953, resigning that position in 1960 to become a Senior Research Fellow at Caltech, where he worked with Jesse Greenstein and Wallace Sargent on the chemical compositions of stars. The Caltech appointment marked the beginning of a fruitful association with Sargent, with whom he published 25 papers. In 1963 Searle left Caltech to join the faculty of the Mount Stromlo Observatory in Australia. Then in 1968 he returned to Pasadena to join the staff of Carnegie Observatories, his final academic home. Several themes punctuate Searle's academic career. One of the most persistent was the abundance of helium in the very early universe, a quantity whose numerical value is of great importance for cosmology. He pursued this topic with Sargent, first in the study of old evolved "horizontal branch" stars. Later, convinced that such stars could not provide a satisfactory answer, he and Sargent turned to certain small galaxies which provided more reliable estimates of the important helium-to-hydrogen abundance ratio. In the pursuit of this answer they devised the "simple model" of chemical evolution, a formalism used by astronomers to this day. He worked with the Dutch astronomer Piet van der Kruit to construct successful

  8. Comparison of performance of wood extractives as preservatives in field tests against termites and decay in the USA and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar Hassan; Sohail Ahmed; Mark Mankowski; Grant Kirker

    2017-01-01

    Increasing environmental regulations have limited the use of certain broad spectrum synthetic pesticides as wood preservatives creating a need for more environmentally benign wood preservative systems. Biocidal compounds from natural products have been proposed as alternatives to commercial wood preservatives, but field data from long term performance testing is...

  9. Direct and indirect drivers of instream wood in the interior Pacific Northwest, USA: decoupling climate, vegetation, disturbance, and geomorphic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hough-Snee Nate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Instream wood is a driver of geomorphic change in low-order streams, frequently altering morphodynamic processes. Instream wood is a frequently measured component of streams, yet it is a complex metric, responding to ecological and geomorphic forcings at a variety of scales. Here we seek to disentangle the relative importance of physical and biological processes that drive wood growth and delivery to streams across broad spatial extents. In so doing, we ask two primary questions: (1 is riparian vegetation a composite variable that captures the indirect effects of climate and disturbance on instream wood dynamics? (2 What are the direct and indirect relationships between geomorphic setting, vegetation, climate, disturbance, and instream wood dynamics? We measured riparian vegetation composition and wood frequency and volume at 720 headwater reaches within the American interior Pacific Northwest. We used ordination to identify relationships between vegetation and environmental attributes, and subsequently built a structural equation model to identify how climate and disturbance directly affect vegetation composition and how vegetation and geomorphic setting directly affect instream wood volume and frequency. We found that large wood volume and frequency are directly driven by vegetation composition and positively correlated to wildfire, elevation, stream gradient, and channel bankfull width. Indicator species at reaches with high volumes of wood were generally long-lived, conifer trees that persist for extended durations once delivered to stream habitats. Wood dynamics were also indirectly mediated by factors that shape vegetation: wildfire, precipitation, elevation, and temperature. We conclude that wood volume and frequency are driven by multiple interrelated climatic, geomorphic, and ecological variables. Vegetation composition and geomorphic setting directly mediate indirect relationships between landscape environmental processes and instream

  10. Leonard Bloomfield and the "Cours de Linguistique Generale."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Konrad

    A discussion of the development of Leonard Bloomfield's theory of linguistics focuses on the influence of Ferdinand de Saussure's "Cours de linguistique generale" on Bloomfield's thinking. The discussion begins with a characterization of Bloomfield's early position with regard to general linguistics, especially as found in his 1914 book…

  11. Fluvial wood function downstream of beaver versus man-made dams in headwater streams in Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, G. C.; DeVito, L. F.; Munz, K. T.; Lisius, G.

    2014-12-01

    Fluvial wood is an essential component of stream ecosystems by providing habitat, increasing accumulation of organic matter, and increasing the processing of nutrients and other materials. However, years of channel alterations in Massachusetts have resulted in low wood loads despite the afforestation that has occurred since the early 1900s. Streams have also been impacted by a large density of dams, built during industrialization, and reduction of the beaver population. Beavers were reintroduced to Massachusetts in the 1940s and they have since migrated throughout the state. Beaver dams impound water, which traps sediment and results in the development of complex channel patterns and more ecologically productive and diverse habitats than those found adjacent to man-made dams. To develop better management practices for dam removal it is essential that we understand the geomorphic and ecologic function of wood in these channels and the interconnections with floodplain dynamics and stream water chemistry. We investigate the connections among fluvial wood, channel morphology, floodplain soil moisture dynamics, and stream water chemistry in six watersheds in Massachusetts that have been impacted by either beaver or man-made dams. We hypothesize that wood load will be significantly higher below beaver dams, subsequently altering channel morphology, water chemistry, and floodplain soil moisture. Reaches are surveyed up- and downstream of each type of dam to better understand the impact dams have on the fluvial system. Surveys include a longitudinal profile, paired with dissolved oxygen and ammonium measurements, cross-section and fluvial wood surveys, hydraulic measurements, and floodplain soil moisture mapping. We found that dissolved oxygen mirrored the channel morphology, but did not vary significantly between reaches. Wood loads were significantly larger downstream of beaver dams, which resulted in significant changes to the ammonium levels. Floodplain soil moisture

  12. Concentrations and content of mercury in bark, wood, and leaves in hardwoods and conifers in four forested sites in the northeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Yanai, Ruth D; Driscoll, Charles T; Montesdeoca, Mario; Smith, Kevin T

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is deposited from the atmosphere to remote areas such as forests, but the amount of Hg in trees is not well known. To determine the importance of Hg in trees, we analyzed foliage, bark and bole wood of eight tree species at four sites in the northeastern USA (Huntington Forest, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; Bear Brook, ME). Foliar concentrations of Hg averaged 16.3 ng g-1 among the hardwood species, which was significantly lower than values in conifers, which averaged 28.6 ng g-1 (p < 0.001). Similarly, bark concentrations of Hg were lower (p < 0.001) in hardwoods (7.7 ng g-1) than conifers (22.5 ng g-1). For wood, concentrations of Hg were higher in yellow birch (2.1-2.8 ng g-1) and white pine (2.3 ng g-1) than in the other species, which averaged 1.4 ng g-1 (p < 0.0001). Sites differed significantly in Hg concentrations of foliage and bark (p = 0.02), which are directly exposed to the atmosphere, but the concentration of Hg in wood depended more on species (p < 0.001) than site (p = 0.60). The Hg contents of tree tissues in hardwood stands, estimated from modeled biomass and measured concentrations at each site, were higher in bark (mean of 0.10 g ha-1) and wood (0.16 g ha-1) than in foliage (0.06 g ha-1). In conifer stands, because foliar concentrations were higher, the foliar pool tended to be more important. Quantifying Hg in tree tissues is essential to understanding the pools and fluxes of Hg in forest ecosystems.

  13. Concentrations and content of mercury in bark, wood, and leaves in hardwoods and conifers in four forested sites in the northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Ruth D.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Montesdeoca, Mario; Smith, Kevin T.

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is deposited from the atmosphere to remote areas such as forests, but the amount of Hg in trees is not well known. To determine the importance of Hg in trees, we analyzed foliage, bark and bole wood of eight tree species at four sites in the northeastern USA (Huntington Forest, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; Bear Brook, ME). Foliar concentrations of Hg averaged 16.3 ng g-1 among the hardwood species, which was significantly lower than values in conifers, which averaged 28.6 ng g-1 (p < 0.001). Similarly, bark concentrations of Hg were lower (p < 0.001) in hardwoods (7.7 ng g-1) than conifers (22.5 ng g-1). For wood, concentrations of Hg were higher in yellow birch (2.1–2.8 ng g-1) and white pine (2.3 ng g-1) than in the other species, which averaged 1.4 ng g-1 (p < 0.0001). Sites differed significantly in Hg concentrations of foliage and bark (p = 0.02), which are directly exposed to the atmosphere, but the concentration of Hg in wood depended more on species (p < 0.001) than site (p = 0.60). The Hg contents of tree tissues in hardwood stands, estimated from modeled biomass and measured concentrations at each site, were higher in bark (mean of 0.10 g ha-1) and wood (0.16 g ha-1) than in foliage (0.06 g ha-1). In conifer stands, because foliar concentrations were higher, the foliar pool tended to be more important. Quantifying Hg in tree tissues is essential to understanding the pools and fluxes of Hg in forest ecosystems. PMID:29684081

  14. Book Review: John M. Hobson and Leonard Seabrooke (2007) (eds) Everyday Politics of the World Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Michael Stewart

    2009-01-01

    Book Review: John M. Hobson and Leonard Seabrooke (2007) (eds) Everyday Politics of the World Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 254pp. Udgivelsesdato: 2009......Book Review: John M. Hobson and Leonard Seabrooke (2007) (eds) Everyday Politics of the World Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 254pp. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  15. A Study to Determine the Feasibility of Establishing a Same-Day Surgery Program at General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-23

    C. C. 1 20 -4 20 NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTION EXCEPT VIRAL MENINGITIS 2 23 m 21 VIRAL MENINGITIS -2 8 Dm 22 HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY 1 20 z(n 23... NEWBORNS 2 4 392 SPLENECTOMY AGE >17 4 26 393 SPLENECTOMY AGE 0-17 4 18 394 OTHER O.R. PROCEDURES OF THE BLOOD + BLOOD FORMING ORGANS 1 12 395 RED

  16. A Study to Measure Clinician Productivity in the Internal Medicine Clinic at General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-23

    Ojud fall into if an analysis determined iQroveri-ents:: iie e ssl ir the- vr odk uvti ty cf its z:ervices asc a whole owr of a ny of ’,v dua ijI...data coflected and utflied r e vIw of data collected for the samne timne period of the study N~ the -urrent me-,asuremnent systems wa5 conducted anid a...includes supply and overhead costs. A further subsect or, of the MEPRS is the Uniforrm Staffing Methodoloqy WB$i), the collection system for manhours data

  17. Wood : adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  18. A escrita feminina de Leonard Cohen em A Brincadeira Favorita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Leite Santos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In The Favorite Game (1963, Leonard Cohen uses feminine writing, embodied and eroticized language, to express the inner world of lovers inserted in his novel. This study seeks to test the hypothesis that women’s writing is not restricted to female authors and, in fact, is a resource that can also be employed by male authors. First, we will discuss aspects of male women’s writing, a theory presented by Lucia Castello Branco in O que é escrita feminina? (1991. Then we will develop an analysis of the  novel in light of this concept, for we designate which thematic aspects, stylistic and structural concern in this discourse segment.

  19. Leonard F. Peltier, MD, PhD, 1920-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckling, Frederick W; Lo Vecchio, Janolyn G; Reckling, JoAnn B

    2004-05-01

    Leonard F. Peltier, MD, PhD, was an orthopaedic surgeon, academician, administrator, laboratory investigator, historian, and mentor. His career spanned nearly six decades, beginning with graduate education at the University of Minnesota (UM) under the auspices of Owen H. Wangensteen, MD, PhD. In addition to obtaining a PhD in physiology in the UM Graduate School, he completed general and orthopaedic surgery residencies and attained board certification in each specialty. He served in the US Army Occupation Force Medical Corps in Germany just after World War II. In 1957, at 37 years old, he assumed the chairmanship of the orthopaedic training program at the University of Kansas. In 1971, he couldn't resist the opportunity to become one of the founding members of the "start-up" University of Arizona College of Medicine, accepting an appointment as chair of the new orthopaedic training program, where he remained until his retirement in 1990. He took clinical problems to the laboratory, and made important scientific contributions, particularly in the area of fat embolism and in using calcium sulfate (plaster of Paris) to fill bone defects. He served on governing boards of national professional organizations and presided over the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma from 1980-1981. Throughout his career, he was fascinated by, and published extensively in, the history of medicine arena. Known fondly as "the professor" to many of his residents and colleagues, he had a pragmatic, honest, upbeat, and often humorous approach to life's challenges, valuing personal integrity above other virtues. He explored various eclectic interests far beyond his professional contributions while maintaining his family as a central priority. With his exemplary productivity and interests in the surgical and laboratory sciences, history of medicine, appreciation of fine arts, and perceptive and effective interactions with family, friends, patients, and colleagues, the memory of Leonard

  20. Participatory approach used to develop a sustainability assessment tool for wood-based bioenergy industry in upper Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Ashma; Mayer, Audrey

    2015-04-01

    Biofuel production has grown significantly in the past few decades as a result of global concern over energy security, climate change implications and unsustainable attributes of fossil fuels. Currently, biofuels produced from food crops (such as corn, sugarcane, soy, etc.) constitute the bulk of global biofuel production. However, purported adverse impacts of direct and indirect land-use changes (such as increased food prices, competition for agricultural land and water, and carbon emissions from land-use change) resulting from large-scale expansion of the crop-based biofuel industry have motivated many nations to further shift their attention to second-generation (non crop-based) biofuel production. Current R&D on second-generation biofuel production is largely focused on exploring prospects of using abandoned/fallow land for growing feedstock (such as Jatropha, short rotation woody coppice, Willow/Poplar species, Micanthus etc.), and on producing fuel that is cost-effective and compatible with existing infrastructures. The bulk of existing research on second-generation biofuel production concentrates on enhancing its technical feasibility and compatibility with existing infrastructure; very few have attempted to qualitatively determine and understand stakeholders' concerns and perception regarding this emergent industry. Stakeholders' decisions regarding land and resource use will play a crucial role in ensuring the social sustainability of any industry. Our research is focused on understanding stakeholders' concerns and perceptions regarding biofuel production in the upper Michigan region, where wood-based bioenergy development is being planned and researched by businesses, government agencies, and the local university. Over a century ago, the region's economy was dependent upon mining and clear-cut logging industries, which left the area once the resources were depleted. Since that time, the region has lost significant population due to the lack of economic

  1. Governor-General Leonard Wood’s neoliberal agenda of privatizing public assets stymied, 1921-1927

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Angel S. Ybiernas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available After a serious fiscal and financial crisis erupted in 1920 to 1921 (in the wake of the termination of World War I, the new American Governor General to the Philippines, U.S. Army Major General Leonard Wood, promised in his inaugural address to privatize the country’s government-owned and controlled corporations such as the Philippine National Bank and the Manila Railroad Company, among others. Wood’s neoliberal agenda in the Philippines was opposed by Filipino politicians in the executive and legislative departments from the start. This key policy disagreement climaxed in the resignation en masse of Governor Wood’s Filipino cabinet and the members of the executive-legislative Council of State in 1923. The particulars of the Cabinet Crisis of 1923 —the so-called Conley Affair— however, obscured from plain sight the true gravity of the broader conflict (i.e., Filipino opposition to Wood’s agenda.Moreover, the general perception that Governor Wood’s asset privatization program was successfully blocked by the Cabinet Crisis of 1923 is inaccurate. In truth, Wood was stymied by adverse international and national market conditions from 1921 to 1923. A further delay occurred from 1924 to 1926 when Governor Wood endeavored to get the Council of State and the Filipino Legislature’s Board of Control (an oversight committee on board his neoliberal agenda; he failed to get the support of the Filipino leaders in this regard. When Wood finally decided in 1926 to take unilateral steps, he was tied up by litigation (locally and in the United States arising from his actions until his death from an unsuccessful brain surgery in 1927.

  2. Fiscal Year 2013 Net Zero Energy-Water-Waste Portfolio for Fort Leonard Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    like many restaurants and food operators, throw away inedible (for humans) food scraps, such as banana peels, bones, and egg shells , without...and reseed- ing with native grasses. Application rates up to 64 tons/acre resulted in significantly enhanced plant cover and biomass production when...com- pared to sites that received no compost (Busby et al. 2006). Plant cover and biomass differences were still significantly higher five years

  3. Adaptation Strategies for Training Lands and Ranges at Fort Leonard Wood, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    effectively accomplished with a commercial manure spreader, how- ever, dump trucks or front end loaders can also be used. Using the 0.25-in. organic matter...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s...toughest engineering and environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering , geospatial sciences, water

  4. A Comprehensive Study of the Incentive Award Program at General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... Therefore, they commissioned this study to evaluate the present incentive award program based on fairness and effectiveness and to explore methods of reshaping the program into one that both rewards...

  5. Prioritizing Historical Archaeological Sites at Fort Leonard Wood, Pulaski County, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or...though this farmstead was nestled deep in the Missouri Ozarks, it was by no means isolated from the global trade networks of the period. The

  6. Process Optimization Assessment: Fort Leonard Wood, MO and Fort Carson, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    do not justify the capability of high efficiency load following and all of the "bells and whistles ." "* The result is that one unit randomly will...variety of tools using airborne ultrasound technology allow inspectors to detect deteriorating components and repair them before they fail. The results...plant might limit pe- riodic inspections to one or two departments. As maintenance crews become more familiar with ultrasound and inspection techniques

  7. An Effective Outpatient Appointment System for General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-13

    collection, donated many hours. She asked patients about the appointment system and personally observed clinic personnel. Additionally, as a consumer ...appointment system which must satisfy both the demands 0of external ( patients ) and internal (physicians) customers . At the o0 C 0 same time, the...its health care environment. A variable that can effect patient flow is centralization or decentralization of the registration and appointment system

  8. Fort Leonard Wood Lake of the Ozarks Recreation Area, NRHP Section 110 Inventory and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    is understood, and its meaning (and ultimately its significance) within prehistory or history is made clear (NPS 1997, 7). A historic property is...likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history. 4.3 Aspects of historic integrity In addition to possessing historical...people during any given period in history or prehistory . Feeling Feeling is a property’s expression of the aesthetic or historic sense of a

  9. A Comprehensive Study of the Incentive Award Program at General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, Michael

    2001-01-01

    ... appropriate behavior and motivates employees. The study is broken into three phases. In Phase I, a retrospective study looked at the current incentive award program to determine if awards distribution is equitable...

  10. A Comprehensive Study of the Incentive Award Program at General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-08

    the 95% confidence level (Gravalos & Jack, 1995). Due to slacking sales, Mazda Motors of America, Inc., designed a study similar to the Goodyear... Mazda studies is contained in a 1993/94 study conducted by Innovative Resources. The study Incentive Awards 15 looked at the role emotion plays in the

  11. Floodplain, Wood County, WV, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  12. A Brief History of Leonard Peltier vs. US: Is there Recourse for Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Diane

    1979-01-01

    Asserting the fact that Leonard Peltier is a contemporary element in a stream of Native American genocide, this article outlines the events and presents a picture of the abuses which precipitated a continuous 24 hour vigil at the U.S. Supreme Court. (Author/RTS)

  13. More than a Mentor: Leonard Darwin's Contribution to the Assimilation of Mendelism into Eugenics and Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpente, Norberto

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses the contribution to evolutionary theory of Leonard Darwin (1850-1943), the eighth child of Charles Darwin. By analysing the correspondence Leonard Darwin maintained with Ronald Aylmer Fisher in conjunction with an assessment of his books and other written works between the 1910s and 1930s, this article argues for a more prominent role played by him than the previously recognised in the literature as an informal mentor of Fisher. The paper discusses Leonard's efforts to amalgamate Mendelism with both Eugenics and Darwinism in order for the first to base their policies on new scientific developments and to help the second in finding a target for natural selection. Without a formal qualification in biological sciences and as such mistrusted by some "formal" scientists, Leonard Darwin engaged with key themes of Darwinism such as mimicry, the role of mutations on speciation and the process of genetic variability, arriving at important conclusions concerning the usefulness of Mendelian genetics for his father's theory.

  14. Wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, H

    1955-01-01

    Discussed are the use of wood as a fuel, the technique of wood combustion and the operation of wood-burning stoves for cooking and heating. In addition, there is a section which reviews the use of wood stoves in various countries and lists manufacturers of stoves, central heating furnaces and in some cases sawdust burners.

  15. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  16. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  17. International recognition for ageing research: John Scott Award-2014 to Leonard Hayflick and Paul Moorhead

    OpenAIRE

    Rattan, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    It is with great pleasure and pride that we share the news of the award of the 2014 “City of Philadelphia John Scott Award”, to Dr. Leonard Hayflick and Dr. Paul Moorhead, for their research on ageing. The press release announcing the award states that: “from the first awarded in 1822, the Award is the oldest scientific award in the United States and, as a legacy to Benjamin Franklin, they are in the historic company of past winners who include Marie Curie, Thomas Edison, Jonas Salk, Irving L...

  18. Wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  19. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  20. Utility Monitoring and Control System (UMCS) and Utility Metering Plan and Specifications for Fort Leonard Wood, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-22

    on the order of $1.7 million, or approximately $7500/building. (This estimate factors in some economy of scale, and might be optimistic.) If...economizer interaction. Be sure to have an emergency “exit” strategy in place should the test need to be aborted prior to completion. If a test fails

  1. Manufacturer’s Catalog Data of Automation and Surveillance Systems for Utility Plants at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-30

    JH’iA «4.1 UP SINGLE SYSTEM LOG ISO BLU-ELtll-ELECTRIC BEMANO PBOFIU 01EN 110MHH C’S J538DOI JPK ". t s MW ObPW 4...55 Start-Stop Programs 55 1 .xpansion Capacity 27000 points with added channels and memory tNVIRONMHNTAL: +32 to I05F. 95’? RH maximum POWBR...JC/80 System remedies this deficiency since data transmitted over telephone lines is limited to exceptions" B^T "I V. J 13 iso * i it is

  2. Leonard A. Jason: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research is given to a psychologist whose research has led to important discoveries or developments in the field of applied psychology. To be eligible, this research should have led to innovative applications in an area of psychological practice, including but not limited to assessment, consultation, instruction, or intervention (either direct or indirect). The 2015 recipient is Leonard A. Jason. Jason "is among the most prolific community psychology researchers whose work has had measurable and significant real-world impact. His work is characterized by a continuing desire to apply knowledge to major social problems. His research is methodologically sound and creative, collaborative, and participatory, thereby increasing stakeholders' support for proposed changes." Jason's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  4. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Forest Products Laboratory. USDA Forest Service.

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  5. Constructing Failure: Leonard Hayflick, Biomedicine, and the Problems with Tissue Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Wook

    2016-07-01

    By examining the use of tissue culture in post-war American biomedicine, this paper investigates how scientists experience and manage failure. I study how Leonard Hayflick forged his new definition of failure and ways of managing it by refuting Alexis Carrel's definition of failure alongside his theory of the immortality of cultured cells. Unlike Carrel, Hayflick claimed that every vertebrate somatic cell should eventually die, unless it transformed into a tumour cell. This claim defined cell death, which had been a problem leading to a laboratory failure, as a normal phenomenon. On the other hand, permanent life, which had been considered a normal cellular characteristic, became a major factor causing scientific failure, since it implied malignant transformation that scientists hoped to control. Hayflick then asserted that his cell strains and method would partly enable scientists to manage this factor-especially that occurred through viral infection-alongside other causes of failure in routine tasks, including bacterial contamination. I argue that the growing biomedical enterprise fostered this work of Hayflick's, which had repercussions in both his career and the uses of cells in diverse investigations. His redefinition of failure in the age of biomedicine resulted in the broad dissemination of his cells, medium, and method as well as his long struggle with the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which caused his temporarily failed career.

  6. AHR-related activities in a creosote-adapted population of adult atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, two decades post-EPA superfund status at the Atlantic Wood Site, Portsmouth, VA USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojdylo, Josephine V. [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Vogelbein, Wolfgang [The College of William & Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Bain, Lisa J. [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Rice, Charles D., E-mail: cdrice@clemson.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • AHR-related activities in creosote-adapted adult killifish were examined. • Creosote-adapted adult killifish have elevated intestine CYP1A. • Creosote-adapted adult killifish have elevated liver COX2 mRNA expression. • Most creosote-adapted adult killifish have lesions varying in severity. • Liver lesions in creosote-adapted adult killifish express CYP1A and AHR2 proteins. - Abstract: Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, are adapted to creosote-based PAHs at the US EPA Superfund site known as Atlantic Wood (AW) on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA USA. Subsequent to the discovery of the AW population in the early 1990s, these fish were shown to be recalcitrant to CYP1A induction by PAHs under experimental conditions, and even to the time of this study, killifish embryos collected from the AW site are resistant to developmental deformities typically associated with exposure to PAHs in reference fish. Historically, however, 90 +% of the adult killifish at this site have proliferative hepatic lesions including cancer of varying severity. Several PAHs at this site are known to be ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In this study, AHR-related activities in AW fish collected between 2011 and 2013 were re-examined nearly 2 decades after first discovery. This study shows that CYP1A mRNA expression is three-fold higher in intestines of AW killifish compared to a reference population. Using immunohistochemistry, CYP1A staining in intestines was uniformly positive compared to negative staining in reference fish. Livers of AW killifish were examined by IHC to show that CYP1A and AHR2 protein expression reflect lesions-specific patterns, probably representing differences in intrinsic cellular physiology of the spectrum of proliferative lesions comprising the hepatocarcinogenic process. We also found that COX2 mRNA expression levels were higher in AW fish livers compared to those in the reference population, suggesting a

  7. Modeling the impacts of wood pellet demand on forest dynamics in southeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duden, Anna S.; Verweij, Pita A.; Junginger, H. Martin; Abt, Robert C.; Henderson, Jesse D.; Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Karssenberg, Derek; Verstegen, Judith A.; Faaij, André P.C.; van der Hilst, Floor

    2017-01-01

    The export of wood pellets from the southeastern United States (USA) has grown significantly in recent years, following rising demand from Europe. Increased wood pellet demand could lead to spatially variable changes in timberland management and area in the USA. This study presents an assessment of

  8. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  9. Psyche=singularity: A comparison of Carl Jung's transpersonal psychology and Leonard Susskind's holographic string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Timothy

    In this dissertation I discern what Carl Jung calls the mandala image of the ultimate archetype of unity underlying and structuring cosmos and psyche by pointing out parallels between his transpersonal psychology and Stanford physicist Leonard Susskind's string theory. Despite his atheistic, materialistically reductionist interpretation of it, I demonstrate how Susskind's string theory of holographic information conservation at the event horizons of black holes, and the cosmic horizon of the universe, corroborates the following four topics about which Jung wrote: (1) his near-death experience of the cosmic horizon after a heart attack in 1944; ( 2) his equation relating psychic energy to mass, "Psyche=highest intensity in the smallest space" (1997, 162), which I translate into the equation, Psyche=Singularity; (3) his theory that the mandala, a circle or sphere with a central point, is the symbolic image of the ultimate archetype of unity through the union of opposites, which structures both cosmos and psyche, and which rises spontaneously from the collective unconscious to compensate a conscious mind torn by irreconcilable demands (1989, 334-335, 396-397); and (4) his theory of synchronicity. I argue that Susskind's inside-out black hole model of our Big Bang universe forms a geometrically perfect mandala: a central Singularity encompassed by a two-dimensional sphere which serves as a universal memory bank. Moreover, in precise fulfillment of Jung's theory, Susskind used that mandala to reconcile the notoriously incommensurable paradigms of general relativity and quantum mechanics, providing in the process a mathematically plausible explanation for Jung's near-death experience of his past, present, and future life simultaneously at the cosmic horizon. Finally, Susskind's theory also provides a plausible cosmological model to explain Jung's theory of synchronicity--meaningful coincidences may be tied together by strings at the cosmic horizon, from which they

  10. Machine Learning Takes on Health Care: Leonard D'Avolio's Cyft Employs Big Data to Benefit Patients and Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Leslie

    2018-01-01

    When Leonard D'Avolio (Figure 1) was working on his Ph.D. degree in biomedical informatics, he saw the power of machine learning in transforming multiple industries; health care, however, was not among them. "The reason that Amazon, Netflix, and Google have transformed their industries is because they have embedded learning throughout every aspect of what they do. If we could prove that is possible in health care too, I thought we would have the potential to have a huge impact," he says.

  11. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  12. Anion-π Catalysis of Enolate Chemistry: Rigidified Leonard Turns as a General Motif to Run Reactions on Aromatic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotelle, Yoann; Benz, Sebastian; Avestro, Alyssa-Jennifer; Ward, Thomas R; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2016-03-18

    To integrate anion-π, cation-π, and ion pair-π interactions in catalysis, the fundamental challenge is to run reactions reliably on aromatic surfaces. Addressing a specific question concerning enolate addition to nitroolefins, this study elaborates on Leonard turns to tackle this problem in a general manner. Increasingly refined turns are constructed to position malonate half thioesters as close as possible on π-acidic surfaces. The resulting preorganization of reactive intermediates is shown to support the disfavored addition to enolate acceptors to an absolutely unexpected extent. This decisive impact on anion-π catalysis increases with the rigidity of the turns. The new, rigidified Leonard turns are most effective with weak anion-π interactions, whereas stronger interactions do not require such ideal substrate positioning to operate well. The stunning simplicity of the motif and its surprisingly strong relevance for function should render the introduced approach generally useful. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Finishing of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    1999-01-01

    The primary function of any wood finish (paint, varnish, and stain, for example) is to protect the wood surface, help maintain a certain appearance, and provide a cleanable surface. Although wood can be used both outdoors and indoors without finishing, unfinished wood surfaces exposed to the weather change color, are roughened by photodegradation and surface checking,...

  14. Who's Counting Dead Wood ?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, C. W.; Verkerk, H.; Rondeux, Jacques; Ståhl, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

  15. XII Avatud Ühiskonna Foorumi arutlusring "Euroopa hiilgus ja viletsus - Euroopa Liit 50. Kuidas edasi?" / Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Mark Leonard, Ivan Krastev ; intervjueerinud Andres Kasekamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    Pärnus diskuteerisid 10. oktoobril 2007 Euroopa tuleviku teemadel president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu tegevjuht Mark Leonard ja Sofias paikneva Liberaalstrateegiate Keskuse juht Ivan Krastev. Vestluse moderaator oli Eesti Välispoliitika Instituudi direktor, Avatud Eesti Fondi nõukogu esimees Andres Kasekamp

  16. Teaching Zen’s Ten Oxherding Pictures through Leonard Cohen’s “Ballad of the Absent Mare”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Green

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how to teach Zen’s famous Ten Oxherding Pictures through Leonard Cohen’s song “Ballad of the Absent Mare.” It also explains how instructors can contextualize these pictures within the history of Buddhist visual culture and thereby frame Cohen’s adoption of them as a cowboy ballad motif. The essay begins by describing the metaphor of the ox. It then reviews three theories about the origin of the pictures, contextualizing them within the history of Buddhist visual culture. Finally, it provides a PowerPoint presentation that connects each of the Ten Oxherding Pictures to verses of Cohen’s song and offers comments for instructors’ use in class.

  17. Cobalt Blues The Story of Leonard Grimmett, the Man Behind the First Cobalt-60 Unit in the United States

    CERN Document Server

    Almond, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    For the latter half of the 20th century, cobalt-60 units were the mainstay of radiation treatments for cancer. Cobalt Blues describes the development of the first cobalt-60 unit in the United States and the man behind it, Leonard Grimmett. Conceptually conceived before World War II, it only became possible because of the development of nuclear reactors during the war. Although Grimmett conceived of and published his ideas first, the Canadians built the first units because of the capability of their reactor to produce more suitable cobalt-60 sources. This book tells the story of how Grimmett and others came together at the time that the U S Atomic Energy Agency was pushing the use of radioactivity in medicine. Due to his sudden death, very little information about Grimmett was known until recently, when various documents have come to light, allowing the full story to be told.

  18. Wood waste: A disposal problem or an opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, P.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of wood wastes in North America is reviewed, with a focus on the wood products industry and markets. On the whole, wood mill residues in North America have always been utilized except for a period from the 1940s to the 1970s oil crisis. In the latter period, low cost electric power and hydrocarbon fuels rendered uneconomical the use of wood wastes as fuel. As a response to the problem of disposing these wastes, a number of innovations occurred in that period, including the use of wood chips for manufacturing pulp and particleboard, and the use of sawdust and shavings for manufacturing hardboard and medium density fiberboard. Uses for bark, except as fuel, have not been successfully developed. Since the 1970s, wood waste in the USA is essentially all used for composite board products and fuel. This is also true in eastern Canada, which is close to the wood products markets and which has fairly high oil and gas costs. However, in western Canada, low energy costs and small internal markets have led to a serious wood waste disposal problem. A survey of wood waste supply and demand shows large surpluses in mill residues in western Canada and some remote locations in northern Ontario and Quebec. The Pacific Rim countries are identified as a potential market for western Canadian composite board production. The use of other sources of wood waste (forestry or logging residues, which are costly to collect, and municipal construction waste) is briefly discussed

  19. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Three broad conclusions can be reached from the available literature. First, wood decomposition is largely driven by microbial activity but invertebrates also play a significant role in both temperate and tropical environments. Primary mechanisms include enzymatic digestion (involving both endogenous enzymes and those produced by endo- and ectosymbionts), substrate alteration (tunnelling and fragmentation), biotic interactions and nitrogen fertilization (i.e. promoting nitrogen fixation by endosymbiotic and free-living bacteria). Second, the effects of individual invertebrate taxa or functional groups can be accelerative or inhibitory but the cumulative effect of the entire community is generally to accelerate wood decomposition, at least during the early stages of the process (most studies are limited to the first 2-3 years). Although methodological differences and design limitations preclude meta-analysis, studies aimed at quantifying the contributions of invertebrates to wood decomposition commonly attribute 10-20% of wood loss to these organisms. Finally, some taxa appear to be particularly influential with respect to promoting wood decomposition. These include large wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) and termites (Termitoidae), especially fungus-farming macrotermitines. The presence or absence of these species may be more consequential than species richness and the influence of invertebrates is likely to vary biogeographically. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  1. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  2. Wood's lamp examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  3. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  4. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants ... Learn more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs ...

  5. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......, but the integration of traditional wood craft techniques. The extensive use of self adjusting, load bearing wood-wood joints contributed to ease in production and assembly of a performance based architecture....

  6. Adhesive interactions with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    While the chemistry for the polymerization of wood adhesives has been studied systematically and extensively, the critical aspects of the interaction of adhesives with wood are less clearly understood. General theories of bond formation need to be modified to take into account the porosity of wood and the ability of chemicals to be absorbed into the cell wall....

  7. Soil-wood interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der Annemieke; klein Gunnewiek, Paulien; Boer, de Wietse

    2017-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting fungi may affect soil fungal communities directly underneath decaying wood via their exploratory hyphae. In addition, differences in wood leachates between decaying tree species may influence soil fungal communities. We determined the composition of fungi in 4-yr old decaying logs

  8. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  9. Wood preservative testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  10. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Roger M. Rowell

    2010-01-01

    The wood industry can expand into new sustainable markets with the formation of a new class of composites with the marriage of the wood industry and the plastics industry. The wood component, usually a flour or fiber, is combined with a thermoplastic to form an extrudable, injectable or thermoformable composite that can be used in many non-structural applications....

  11. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions

  12. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland) - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    The Wawel ensemble, including the Royal Castle, the Wawel Cathedral and other monuments, is perched on top of the Wawel hill immediately south of the Cracow Old Town, and is by far the most important collection of buildings in Poland. St. Leonard's Crypt is located under the Wawel Cathedral of St Stanislaus BM and St Wenceslaus M. It was built in the years 1090-1117 and was the western crypt of the pre-existing Romanesque Wawel Cathedral, so-called Hermanowska. Pope John Paul II said his first Mass on the altar of St. Leonard's Crypt on November 2, 1946, one day after his priestly ordination. The interior of the crypt is divided by eight columns into three naves with vaulted ceiling and ended with one apse. The tomb of Bishop Maurus, who died in 1118, is in the middle of the crypt under the floor; an inscription "+ MAVRVS EPC MCXVIII +" indicates the burial place and was made in 1938 after the completion of archaeological works which resulted in the discovery of this tomb. Moreover, the crypt hosts the tombs of six Polish kings and heroes: Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), Jan III Sobieski (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Commander at the Battle of Vienna), Maria Kazimiera (Queen of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and consort to Jan III Sobieski), Józef Poniatowski (Prince of Poland and Marshal of France), Tadeusz Kościuszko (Polish general, revolutionary and a Brigadier General in the American Revolutionary War) and Władysław Sikorski (Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile and Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces). The adjacent six crypts and corridors host the tombs of the other Polish kings, from Sigismund the Old to Augustus II the Strong, their families and several Polish heroes. In May 2015, the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" organised and offered a Training School (TS) on the

  13. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  14. Assessment of Health Behaviors, Health Education Interests, and Injuries among Employees at the General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital, October 2014 - December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Quitting tobacco Self-care Infant care Unplanned pregnancy Unsafe sex Alcohol / drug abuse Depression Family...11%). Injury risk factors included Active Duty military status, lower education level, tobacco use, overuse of alcohol /drugs, and stress...interests, as well as identified modifiable injury risk factors ( alcohol and drugs use, tobacco use, poor sleep, stress). Injury prevention

  15. A Leonard-Sanders-Budiansky-Koiter-Type Nonlinear Shell Theory with a Hierarchy of Transverse-Shearing Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed exposition on a refined nonlinear shell theory suitable for nonlinear buckling analyses of laminated-composite shell structures is presented. This shell theory includes the classical nonlinear shell theory attributed to Leonard, Sanders, Koiter, and Budiansky as an explicit proper subset. This approach is used in order to leverage the exisiting experience base and to make the theory attractive to industry. In addition, the formalism of general tensors is avoided in order to expose the details needed to fully understand and use the theory. The shell theory is based on "small" strains and "moderate" rotations, and no shell-thinness approximations are used. As a result, the strain-displacement relations are exact within the presumptions of "small" strains and "moderate" rotations. The effects of transverse-shearing deformations are included in the theory by using analyst-defined functions to describe the through-the-thickness distributions of transverse-shearing strains. Constitutive equations for laminated-composite shells are derived without using any shell-thinness approximations, and simplified forms and special cases are presented.

  16. Many Roles of Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2014-01-01

    Although wood bonding is one of the oldest applications of adhesives, going back to early recorded history (1), some aspects of wood bonds are still not fully understood. Most books in the general area of adhesives and adhesion do not cover wood bonding. However, a clearer understanding of wood bonding and wood adhesives can lead to improved products. This is important...

  17. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  18. Controversy. The wood war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, O.

    2010-01-01

    The author comments the conflict emerging in France between industries exploiting wood for construction and those exploiting it as a heating material for power generation. The first ones accuse the others to steal their raw material, to pull the prices up, and to destabilize the sector. This conflict takes place notably around sawmill wastes which are used either by wood panel fabricators or by wood pellets producers. Both sectors are claiming they are creating more jobs than the other. The French forest indeed offers good opportunities for both sectors, but other countries which are lacking forest surfaces, are buying wood in France. Several issues are matter of discussion: burning wood seems to go against the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, subsidies awarded to big heater projects. The situation of the wood sector in Austria, Finland and Poland is briefly presented

  19. Chapter 9: Wood Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Karen Abt; Branko Glavonjic; Eugene Lopatin; Warren  Mabee

    2016-01-01

    The availabilty of information on wood energy continues to improve, particularly for commoditized woodfuels.  Wood energy consumption and production vary in the UNECE region because demand is strngly affected by weather and the prices of competing energy sources.  There has been an increase in wood energy in the power-and-heat sector in the EU28 and North American...

  20. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  1. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  2. Wood pellet seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarniala, M.; Puhakka, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

  3. The wood, renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-12-01

    This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  4. Heat sterilization of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  5. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Rodney E. Jacobson; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood-plastic composites” refers to any number of composites that contain wood (of any form) and either thermoset or thermoplastic polymers. Thermosets or thermoset polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins, such as epoxies and phenolics, plastics with which the forest products industry is most familiar (...

  6. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  7. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imponen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  8. How James Wood Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  9. Method of stabilizing wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Jarkovsky, J.

    1973-01-01

    Wood is impregnated with a mixture of a vinyl or an allyl monomer (20 - 90 wt. %) and unsaturated polyester resins. The impregnated wood is then exposed to ionizing radiation at doses of 0.1 to 20 Mrad at a temperature of 60 to 180 degC. (B.S.)

  10. Chemical modification of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    After millions of years of evolution, wood was designed to perform in a wet environment, and nature is programmed to recycle it, in a timely way, back to the basic building blocks of carbon dioxide and water through biological, thermal, aqueous, photochemical, chemical, and mechanical degradation. The properties of wood are, for the most part, a result of the chemistry...

  11. Leonard Horner and an enthusiasm for Loess. [Leicester Studies in the History of Loess Research part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Ian; Kels, Holger

    2018-04-01

    Leonard Horner (1785-1864) made substantial contributions to the study of loess. He made field trips with J.J. Noeggerath and Charles Lyell and published useful material on the loess near Bonn. He was an unappreciated pioneer- he was the first person to direct attention to loess as a material. He pointed out that loess was intrinsically interesting. He studied the material transported by the Rhine, and the alluvial deposits in Egypt, looking for links to loess, and the problem of loess formation. He was born in Edinburgh in 1785 and directed the thoughts of young Charles Darwin towards science when he came to Edinburgh to study medicine. Circumstances placed him in Bonn in the critical years 1831-1833; in this time Charles Lyell married his eldest daughter Mary; and both Lyell and Horner encountered the loess. Lyell made it well known via vol.3 of the Principles of Geology, Horner became a loess enthusiast. In the summer of 1833 Horner & Lyell were in the crater of the Roderberg considering the more than 20 m of loess deposited there. His major paper was published in 1836 (reporting the Roderberg excursion) and he joined Lyell's list of loess investigators in the 5th edition of the Principles published in 1837. He was the last to join that select eleven: Bronn, Leonhard, Boue, Voltz, Steininger, Merian, Rozet, Hibbert, Noeggerath, von Meyer, Horner. Most of these were writing on the geology and landscapes of the Rhine valley, but Horner was drawing attention to the amazing nature of the loess itself, in particular the spectacular disaggregation on contact with water. He also published the first geological map of the Bonn region, including the Roderberg and the Siebengebirge, a region of loess and volcanoes.

  12. Wood adhesives : vital for producing most wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    A main route for the efficient utilization of wood resources is to reduce wood to small pieces and then bond them together (Frihart and Hunt 2010). Although humankind has been bonding wood since early Egyptian civilizations, the quality and quantity of bonded wood products has increased dramatically over the past 100 years with the development of new adhesives and...

  13. Levels of 137Cs and 40K in wood ash-amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Tsutomu; Hess, C.T.

    1994-01-01

    Wood ash is a residual material produced at an annual rate of 1.5-3.0 million tons by wood burning power plants in the USA. Up to 80% of the wood ash generated in northeastern USA is landspread on agricultural soils. Recently, concern has arisen regarding the 137 Cs content of wood ash and levels of 137 Cs of wood ash-amended soils. The 137 Cs originated primarily from above ground nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s. This study examined the total and pH 3, NH 4 OAc extractable levels of 137 Cs and 40 K in three soils incubated in the laboratory with 0, 3 and 9 g of wood ash on a calcium carbonate equivalence basis kg -1 soil. The wood ash contained 137 Cs and 40 K at 3920 and 21'700 pCi kg -1 , respectively. At the regulated wood ash application rate limit, 3 g wood ash (calcium carbonate equivalent basis) kg -1 of soil, there was no statistical difference from the control treatment in both total and soluble 137 Cs and 40 K levels. For one soil, there was an increase in the 137 Cs level when wood ash was amended at 9 g wood ash (calcium carbonate equivalent basis) kg -1 soil. The 137 Cs was strongly bound to the cation exchange sites of the soils with the average fraction soluble in pH 3, NH 4 OAc solution at 4.8% in the mineral soils and 0.9% in the organic soil. Considering the current limits on permitted wood ash application rates to soils, there was no statistically significant effect on the levels of 137 Cs or 40 K found in wood ash-amended soils

  14. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  15. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  16. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  17. Wood wastes: Uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipro, A.

    1993-01-01

    The 1,500 industrial firms manufacturing furniture in the Italian Province of Treviso can generate up to 190,000 tonnes of wood wastes annually. In line with the energy conservation-environmental protection measures contained in Italian Law No. 475/88, this paper indicates convenient uses for these wood wastes - as a raw material for fibreboards or as a fuel to be used in the furniture manufacturing plants themselves and in kilns producing lime. Reference is made to the wood wastes gasification/power generation system being developed by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment)

  18. Influence of large wood on channel morphology and sediment storage in headwater mountain streams, Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra E. Ryan; Erica L. Bishop; J. Michael Daniels

    2014-01-01

    Large fallen wood can have a significant impact on channel form and process in forested mountain streams. In this study, four small channels on the Fraser Experimental Forest near Fraser, Colorado, USA, were surveyed for channel geometries and large wood loading, including the size, source, and characteristics of individual pieces. The study is part of a larger effort...

  19. A Comparison of Four Different Beach Profiling Techniques at St Leonards, Victoria - An Example of a Collaborative Stakeholder Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L.; Miner, A. S.; Wynn, N.; Turner, D.

    2015-12-01

    Many beaches in Australia are under attack from shoreline erosion due rising sea levels and the action of waves. St Leonard's beach, a tourist town on the Victorian coastline, is of concern from this destructive erosion and the threat to the economic stability of the town. The major cause of erosion in this area is related to waves created from strong to gale force north to north-easterly winds. This in turn produces a northerly longshore current along with sediment suspension leading to a negative sediment budget. Ongoing and systematic monitoring of the shoreline movement is important to ensure the coast is understood and effectively managed now and into the future. Coastal land managers and agencies are required to find 'cost-effective' and 'fit-for-purpose' coastal monitoring methodologies which are affordable and efficient. This project forges a collaboration of stakeholders from academia, public sector land manager, local government and the private sector to compare four different methods of obtaining beach profiles. The four methods of obtaining beach profiles used for comparison are: 1. traditional survey method along transects using a total station theodolite, 2. traditional survey method along transects using a builder's grade laser level, 3. a small multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to produce a full 3D digital surface model of the study area, and 4. an experimental stationary device to produce a limited 3D model along a designated transect using terrestrial photogrammetric approach via a small GPS enabled camera. Assessment is made by comparing the method's precision, spatial coverage, expertise and equipment requirements/costs, preparation time, field acquisition time, number of people required in the field, post-acquisition processing time, and applicability for community use. Whilst is must be very clearly stated that all methods proved to be successful, the preliminary results of the "workflow and resourcing" assessment ranked the methods in

  20. Hvem var Leonard?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder Kaj

    2015-01-01

    Bernhard Christensen er interessant i et musikalsk identitetsperspektiv, fordi han forener et virke som kirkemusiker med et virke som komponist af jazzpræget musik til revyer og film og som en banebrydende skikkelse inden for musikpædagogik på grundlag af „rytmisk musik“. Artiklen belyser, hvorda...

  1. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  2. USA folkloristid tutvustavad Eestis afroameerika rahvamuusikat / Andres Roost

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roost, Andres

    2008-01-01

    9. veebruaril tutvustavad USA folkloristid Anna Lomax Wood ja Todd Dunham Harvey Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumi saalis Tartus John A. Lomaxi (1867-1948) ja Alan Lomaxi (1915-2002) kogutud afroameerika folkloori, näidatakse dokumentaalfilmi "Land Where the Blues Began"

  3. Wood fuel and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try and demonstrate the role that the use of Wood as a Fuel can play in our environment. The term ''Wood Fuel'', for the purposes of these proceedings, refers to the use of wood obtained from the forest or the farm. It does not refer to waste wood from for example buildings. The role of wood fuel in the environment can be assessed at many different levels. In this paper three different scales of ''Environment'' and the role of wood fuel in each, will be considered. These three scales are namely the global environment, the local environment, and the National (community) environment. (Author)

  4. Thermophotovoltaics, wood powder and fuel quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, J [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Operational Efficiency; Broman, L; Jarefors, K [Solar Energy Research Center, Borlaenge (Sweden)

    1998-06-01

    PV cells can be used for electricity production based on other heat sources than the sun. If the temperature of the source is around 1500 K it is possible to get reasonably high conversion efficiency from heat radiation to electricity. This is due to recent advances in low-bandgap PV cells and selectively emitting fibrous emissive burners. There are some different biomass fuels capable of producing this temperature in the flame, especially gas and liquid fuels of different kinds. Wood powder is the only solid wood fuel with a sufficiently stable quality and properties for this high temperature combustion. A joint project between SERC, SLU and National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL in Golden, Colorado, USA aims at building a wood powder fuelled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator for cogeneration of heat and electricity. A stable flame temperature of 1500 K has been achieved in a prototype pilot-scale burner that includes feeder and combustion chamber. Furthermore, a setup for measuring TPV cell efficiency for a wide region of black body emitter temperatures and cell irradiation has been constructed and several 0.6 eV GaInAs TPV cells have been investigated. A setup for testing the chain IR emitter - selectively reflecting filter - TPV cell has been designed. In order to limit the region of filter incident angles, which will make the filter act more efficiently, a special geometry of the internally reflecting tube that transmits the radiation is considered 23 refs, 4 figs

  5. Wood plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Bonoan, L.S.; Verceluz, F.P.; Azucena, E.A.

    1976-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve the physical and mechaniproperties of local inferior quality wood species by radiation-induced graft polymerization with plastic monomers. The process involves the following: 1) Preparation of sample; 2) Impregnation of sample with the monomers; 3) Irradiation of the impregnated sample with the use of 20,000 curie Co-60 as gamma-source; 4) Drying of irradiated sample to remove the unpolymerized monomer. Experimentation on different wood species were undertaken and the results given. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the monomers systems MMA, MMA-USP, and styrene-USP are suitable for graft polymerization with the wood species almon, apitong, bagtikan, mayapis, red lauan, and tanguile. This is shown by their maximum conversion value which range from 86% to 96% with the optimum dose range of 1 to 2 Mrads. However, in the application of WPC process, properties that are required in a given wood product must be considered, thus aid in the selection of the monomer system to be used with a particular wood species. Some promising applications of WPC is in the manufacture of picker sticks, shuttles, and bobbins for the textile industry. However, there is a need for a pilot plant scale study so that an economic assessment of the commercial feasibility of this process can be made

  6. Turning wood residues into wood revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.G.; Kravetz, Don

    1996-01-01

    Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP (TM) )is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTP TM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTP TM . The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

  7. Energy from wood - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2000-01-01

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  8. WOOD PROPERTIES AND EFFECT OF WOOD PROPERTIES ON THE WOOD FINISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Malkoçoğlu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood is basic raw material for furniture and joinery industries with wood structures. Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth condition, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Wood properties have been characterized within two groups as natural and manufacturing factors that effects finishing performance. Grow rate, density, knots, moisture content, extractives and juvenile wood are natural characteristics. Grain orientation, texture, drying and performance expectations are manufacturing characteristics. In this review, the effects of natural and manufacturing characteristics are discussed on the surface finishing performance of wood.

  9. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  10. Wood for fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, D

    1986-01-01

    Growing wood for energy could contribute three million tonnes of coal equivalent per year by the end of the century. Research programmes in the UK involved with energy forestry are reported. Three systems of wood energy, modified conventional forestry, single stem timber cropping and short rotation coppicing are being investigated. The short rotation coppicing requires inputs similar to those of agricultural crops and the machinery geared towards agricultural operations is compatible with it. Single stem forestry has a medium rotation period of 20 years. The production of coppice wood fuels is discussed in further detail for different parts of the UK with recommendations for species selection and adaption of existing farming practices. A coppice willow harvester has been developed for harvesting during November - February. Weed control and fertilizer application are also briefly mentioned.

  11. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  12. Methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

    2005-07-15

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  13. Methane from wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S.

    2005-07-01

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  14. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  15. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  16. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...

  17. Power generation from waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, H

    1980-04-18

    Since the energy crisis, power generation from waste wood has become increasingly important. The most profitable way to use waste wood in woodworking plants with an annual production of 100 to 150,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark is by combustion and thermal energy recovery. In plants with an annual production of 10,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark, electric power generation is a suitable application.

  18. Structure and function of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of a living plant. Attempting to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants― conduction of water...

  19. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intent of this article is to demonstrate how wood waste called sawdust or wood flour can be transformed by plastic moulding machine into items of economic value. Wood flour is wood reduced to very fine particle form. It can be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by ...

  20. Status of wood energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    In this address, the potential of wood and wood residues to supply future energy needs is examined. In addition, the possible environmental impact of the use of wood fuels on global climate change is discussed. Technologies for the development of new fuels are described

  1. Strength loss in decayed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Patricia K. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Wood is a durable engineering material when used in an appropriate manner, but it is susceptible to biological decay when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Even before the biological decay of wood becomes visually apparent, the decay can cause the wood to become structurally unsound. The progression of decay to that...

  2. Macrophotographic wood atlas of Annonaceae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Westra, L.I.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a general description of the microscopic wood anatomy of Annonaceae is given. We provide a description of the wood anatomical features of the family and of all subfamilies and tribes, all from material in the Utrecht Wood collection. Hand-lens images can be an important help in

  3. Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Hideo; Hojo, Atsushi; Seki, Kyoushiro; Takashiba, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability

  4. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  5. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  6. Dark Dark Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    2017 student Bachelor film. Synopsis: Young princess Maria has had about enough of her royal life – it’s all lesson, responsibilities and duties on top of each other, every hour of every day. Overwhelmed Maria is swept away on an adventure into the monster-filled dark, dark woods. During 2017...

  7. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O; Ribeiro, R [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1998-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Sweetgum - an American wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe

    1973-01-01

    Sweetgum grows throughout most of the eastern United States and sporadically throughout Mexico and Central America. The wood is moderately heavy, even-textured, and it machines moderately well. It is used for a variety of purposes, with furniture, plywood, containers, and pulp absorbing the most volume. Growth is good, but supplies are slowly diminishing because the...

  9. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Handling wood shavings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-18

    Details of bulk handling equipment suitable for collection and compressing wood waste from commercial joinery works are discussed. The Redler Bin Discharger ensures free flow of chips from storage silo discharge prior to compression into briquettes for use as fuel or processing into chipboard.

  11. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... affected shear strength of wood joints. As temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR resin resulted in the strongest shear strength at all temperatures tested. MF resin responded to temperature changes in a similar ways as the PUR resin. The shear strength of wood joints with EPI resins...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....

  12. Biomass energy from wood chips: Diesel fuel dependence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmons, Dave; Mejia, Cesar Viteri

    2010-01-01

    Most renewable energy sources depend to some extent on use of other, non-renewable sources. In this study we explore use of diesel fuel in producing and transporting woody biomass in the state of New Hampshire, USA. We use two methods to estimate the diesel fuel used in woody biomass production: 1) a calculation based on case studies of diesel consumption in different parts of the wood chip supply chain, and 2) to support extrapolating those results to a regional system, an econometric study of the variation of wood-chip prices with respect to diesel fuel prices. The econometric study relies on an assumption of fixed demand, then assesses variables impacting supply, with a focus on how the price of diesel fuel affects price of biomass supplied. The two methods yield similar results. The econometric study, representing overall regional practices, suggests that a $1.00 per liter increase in diesel fuel price is associated with a $5.59 per Mg increase in the price of wood chips. On an energy basis, the diesel fuel used directly in wood chip production and transportation appears to account for less than 2% of the potential energy in the wood chips. Thus, the dependence of woody biomass energy production on diesel fuel does not appear to be extreme. (author)

  13. Lump wood combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  14. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK -1 , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m -3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. Radioactivity of Wood and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hus, M.; Kosutic, K.; Lulic, S.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear experiments in the atmosphere and nuclear accidents caused global deposition of artificial radionuclides in the soil of Earth's northern hemisphere, the territory of the Republic of Croatia included. Soil contamination by radionuclides resulted in their deposition in plants growing on the contaminated soil as well as in the trees. Large area of the Republic of Croatia is covered with wood, which is exploited in manufacture of industrial wood and for firewood. From approximately 3 million cubic metres of wood exploited annually, nearly one third serves for firewood. In the process of burning a smaller portion of radionuclides deposited in the wood evaporates and goes to atmosphere while a larger portion is retained in the ash. In this paper are presented the results of natural radionuclides 4 0K , 2 32T h and 2 38U as well as of artificial radionuclide 1 37C s content determination in the wood, wood briquette, charcoal and in ash remained after burning the wood, wood briquette and charcoal. The obtained results are discussed from wood radiocontamination aspect and from the aspect of potential environmental radiocontamination by the products from wood burning process. (author)

  16. Radioactivity of wood ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M.

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg -1 , in decreasing order: 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 134 Cs, 235 U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and 210 Pb was hardly detectable. The NH 4 Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  17. Method of stabilizing wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Dedek, V.; Plander, E.

    1975-01-01

    Wood is impregnated with vinyl monomers in a solution of organic solvents and in the presence of a swelling agent. The impregnation mixture contains a diolefinic hydrocarbon and/or a solid chlorinated or bromated compound with the melting point exceeding 30 degC and less than 10 % of an organosilicon compound. Polymerization is effected by ionizing radiation and a subsequent action of temperature in a range of 40 to 150 JegC. (B.S.)

  18. Wood Composite Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  19. Radiographic testing of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Zscherpel, U.; Raedel, C.; Weidemann, G.; Meinel, D.; Goebbels, J.; Ewert, U.; Hasenstab, A.; Buecherl, T.

    2007-01-01

    Wood is an old and established consumption and construction material. It is still the most common material for constructing furniture, roofs, playgrounds and mine supports. In contrast to steel and concrete, wood warns of extreme loads by creaking. Its mechanical stability is more influenced by decay than by peripheral cracks. While external cracks are visible, internal decay by fungus growth is undetectable from outside. This may be a safety problem in supporting structures. The best analysis of the internal structure is provided by computed tomography, but this is also the most complex method, much more so than simple radiographic testing. However, the latter is made inaccurate by scattered radiation resulting from internal moisture. With the image processing options of digital radiographic techniques, the structural information can be separated effectively from noise. In contrast to X-ray and gamma radiography, neutron radiography provides information on the spatial distribution of moisture. In healthy wood, water is conducted in the sapwood while the hardwood is dry. Moisture in hardwood is caused by infestations, e.g. fungus growth. The contribution presents a comparative analysis of the available radiographic methods. (orig.)

  20. Wood fuels utilization in Central Europe - the wood fuels consumption and the targets of utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1999-01-01

    Following subjects are discussed in this presentation: The share of bioenergy of the total energy consumption in EU region; the wood fuels consumption in EU region in 1995; the division of bioenergy utilization (households, wood- based district heating, wood consumption in industry, power generation from wood and residues, biofuels, biogas and sludges); wood fuels consumption in households in EU countries in 1995; wood consumption in France; the additional wood fuel consumption potential in France; Blan bois - wood energy program; French wood energy markets; German wood energy markets; energy consumption in Germany; wood consumption in Bavaria; the wood fuels potential in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption in households in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption for district heating in Bavaria; fuel prices in Bavaria; Environmental regulations in Germany; small boiler markets in Germany; Energy consumption in Austria; small-scale utilization of wood fuels; utilization of wood energy. (Slides, additional information from the author)

  1. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-01-01

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

  2. European wood-fuel trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Vinterbaeck, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

  3. Effects of nutrient enrichment on the decomposition of wood and associated microbial activity in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladislav Gulis; Amy D. Rosemond; Keller Suberkropp; Holly S. Weyers; Jonathan P. Benstead

    2004-01-01

    We determined the effects of nutrient enrichment on wood decomposition rates and microbial activity during a 3-year study in two headwater streams at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, NC, U.S.A. After a 1-year pretreatment period, one of the streams was continuously enriched with inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) for 2 years while the other stream served as a...

  4. 2009 Wood and Fiber Product Seminar : VTT and USDA joint activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Harlin; Minna Vikman

    2010-01-01

    Foward -- The development of high-value wood and fiber products is one of the most important challenges currently facing the forest industry. Traditional pulp and paper products are on a critical path in developed countries with prices and markets decreasing. Finland and the USA have faced the same problem, which is a fundamental reason for Industrial Biomaterials...

  5. Inoculation Expedition of Agar wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, C.S.; Mohd Fajri Osman; Rusli Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation expedition of agar wood is a main field works for researcher in Nuclear Malaysia to prove the real inoculation of agar wood in real jungle. These expeditions was conducted fourth times in the jungles of Malaysia including Gunung Tebu in Terengganu, Murum in Belaga, Sarawak, Kampung Timbang in Kota Belud, Sabah and Nuclear Malaysia itself. This expedition starts from preparation of samples and equipment, transportation into the jungle, searching and recognition of agar wood and lastly, inoculation of the agar wood. Safety aspects precedence set out in the preparation and implementation of this expedition. (author)

  6. The wood energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douard, F.; Oremus, Y.; Garsault-Fabbi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The program law fixing the energy policy (POPE Law of the 13 july 2005) fixes an objective of 50% of growth for the renewable heat. As this renewable heat is today generated by the biomass, it seems necessary to adjust all the efforts on this sector. This document proposes to takes stock on the wood energy in France. It presents the wood fuels, an evaluation of the Wood-Energy Plan decided by the ADEME in 2000, the wood heat networks, and some example of installations. (A.L.B.)

  7. Status and prospects for renewable energy using wood pellets from the southeastern United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Parish, Esther S.

    2017-01-01

    The ongoing debate about costs and benefits of wood-pellet based bioenergy production in the southeastern United States (SE USA) requires an understanding of the science and context influencing market decisions associated with its sustainability. Production of pellets has garnered much attention...... as US exports have grown from negligible amounts in the early 2000s to 4.6 million metric tonnes in 2015. Currently, 98% of these pellet exports are shipped to Europe to displace coal in power plants. We ask, 'How is the production of wood pellets in the SE USA affecting forest systems and the ecosystem...... services they provide?' To address this question, we review current forest conditions and the status of the wood products industry, how pellet production affects ecosystem services and biodiversity, and what methods are in place to monitor changes and protect vulnerable systems. Scientific studies provide...

  8. Corrosion of Fasteners in Wood Treated with Newer Wood Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    This document compiles recent research findings related to corrosion of metals in preservative treated wood into a single report on corrosion of metals in wood. The research was conducted as part of the Research, Technology and Education portion of the National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The...

  9. Survival, growth, wood basic density and wood biomass of seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A performance comparison of seven-year-old individuals of 13 Casuarina species/provenances in terms of survival, growth (diameter, height and volume), wood basic density and wood biomass was undertaken at Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania. The trial was laid out using a randomised complete block design with four ...

  10. Quantifying arthropod contributions to wood decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Ulyshen; Terry Wagner

    2013-01-01

    Termites carry large amounts of soil into dead wood, and this behaviour complicates efforts to measure their contributions to wood decay. A novel method for isolating termite soil by burning the wood is described, and some preliminary results are presented.

  11. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  12. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  13. Aquatic wood -- an insect perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Cranston; Brendan McKie

    2006-01-01

    Immersed wood provides refugia and substrate for a diverse array of macroinvertebrates, and food for a more restricted genuinely xylophagous fauna. Worldwide, xylophages are found across aquatic insect orders, including Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Xylophages often are specialised, feeding on the wood surface or mining deep within. Many feed...

  14. The wood of Merovingian weaponry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tegel, W.; Muigg, B.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, JAN (2016), s. 148-153 ISSN 0305-4403 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * Merovingian weaponry * Mineralised wood * Wood anatomy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2016

  15. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  16. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  17. The sustainable wood production initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert. Deal

    2004-01-01

    To address concerns about sustainable forestry in the region, the Focused Science Delivery Program is sponsoring a three year Sustainable Wood Production Initiative. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's major timber producing regions, and the ability of this region to produce wood on a sustained yield basis is widely recognized. Concerns relating to the...

  18. Composites from wood and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Composites made from thermoplastics and fillers or reinforcements derived from wood or other natural fibers are a dynamic research area encompassing a wide variety of composite materials. For example, as the use of biopolymers grows, wood and other natural fiber sources are being investigated as renewable sources of fillers and reinforcements to modify performance....

  19. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  20. Holistic approach to wood protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    When untreated wood is exposed to adverse outdoor conditions, nature has a series of chemistries to degrade it to its original building blocks of carbon dioxide and water. Fungi, termites, heat, moisture, ultraviolet (UV) energy, and chemicals take their toll on the performance properties of wood. We tend to study each of these degradation chemistries as individual...

  1. Measuring wood specific gravity, correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2010-01-01

    The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester’s variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these...

  2. Public opinion and wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Hitchner; John Schelhas; Teppo Hujala; J. Peter Brosius

    2014-01-01

    As wood-based bioenergy continues to develop around the world, it will utilize forestlands in new ways and will have different effects on a number of stakeholders, including forest landowners, local communities, extant industries, policymakers, investors, and others. As more stakeholders become involved in the wood energy web, and as the general public becomes more...

  3. On Erdos–Wood's conjecture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we prove that infinite number of integers satsify Erdős–Woods conjecture. Moreover, it follows that the number of natural numbers ≤ satisfies Erdős–Woods conjecture with = 2 is at least /(log ) for some positive constant > 2.

  4. The Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    In Sweden, wood fuels are traditionally used in the Swedish forest products industry and for heating of single-family houses. More recently they are also become established as an energy source for district heating and electricity production. Energy policy, especially the energy taxation system, has favoured wood fuels and other biofuels, mainly for environmental reasons. There is now an established commercial market for wood fuels in the district heating sector, which amounts to 45 PJ and is growing 20 per cent annually. Price levels have been stable in current prices for a decade, mainly because of good access to wood fuels. Price levels are dominated by production costs on a market that is largely governed by the buyer. It is expected that the use of wood fuels will increased in Sweden in the future, which will push a further development of this section on the market and bring about technological changes in the area. (Author)

  5. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...... for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition...

  6. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.E. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  7. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  8. Wood power in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.G.; Guessous, L. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    North Carolina (NC) is one of the most forested states, and supports a major wood products industry. The NC Department of Natural Resources sponsored a study by Research Triangle Institute to examine new, productive uses of the State`s wood resources, especially electric power generation by co-firing with coal. This paper summarizes our research of the main factors influencing wood power generation opportunities, i.e., (1) electricity demand; (2) initiative and experience of developers; (3) available fuel resources; (4) incentives for alternate fuels; and (5) power plant technology and economics. The results cover NC forests, short rotation woody crops, existing wood energy facilities, electrical power requirements, and environmental regulations/incentives. Quantitative assessments are based on the interests of government agencies, utilities, electric cooperatives, developers and independent power producers, forest products industries, and the general public. Several specific, new opportunities for wood-to-electricity in the State are identified and described. Comparisons are made with nationwide resources and wood energy operations. Preferred approaches in NC are co-generation in existing or modified boilers and in dedicated wood power plants in forest industry regions. Co-firing is mainly an option for supplementing unreliable primary fuel supplies to existing boilers.

  9. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swithenbank, Jim; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Sharifi, Vida; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 o C and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by

  10. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  11. Wood fuels sources and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, Auke

    2003-01-01

    Biomass energy is an important source of energy in most Asian countries. Households and industries use substantial amounts of fuel wood, charcoal and other biomass energy, such as agricultural residues, dung, leaves and sawmill residues. The main household applications are cooking and heating whereas industrial applications range widely. This paper provides an overview of estimates on the production and trade of biomass fuels in the South-east Asia region. The flows and channels used in the supply of wood fuels in different countries were analysed. This paper may help in identifying policy gaps with regards to the supply and consumption of wood fuels from both forest and non-forest sources. (Author)

  12. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  13. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  14. The challenge of bonding treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    Wood products are quite durable if exposure to moisture is minimized; however, most uses of wood involve considerable exposure to moisture. To preserve the wood, chemicals are used to minimize moisture pickup, to prevent insect attack, and/or to resist microbial growth. The chemicals used as preservatives can interfere with adhesive bonds to wood. Given the many...

  15. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  16. The Carbon Impacts of Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Maureen Puettmann; Adam Taylor; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Wood products have many environmental advantages over nonwood alternatives. Documenting and publicizing these merits helps the future competitiveness of wood when climate change impacts are being considered. The manufacture of wood products requires less fossil fuel than nonwood alternative building materials such as concrete, metals, or plastics. By nature, wood is...

  17. Potential wood protection strategies using physiological requirements of wood degrading fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, M.F.; Etten, B.D. van

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing restrictions in the use of wood preserving biocides a number of potential biocide free wood preserving alternatives are currently assessed. Wood degrading fungi require certain conditions in the wood in order to be able to use wood as a food source. This paper discusses the

  18. USA toetus Eestile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide riigisekretär Condoleezza Rice kinnitas 3. mail 2007 telefonikõnes president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele USA toetust Eestile ning tõsist muret Venemaa käitumise üle oma naaberriigi suhtes. Ilmunud ka: Meie Kodu 9. mai 2007, lk. 2, pealk.: USA riigisekretär Vabariigi Presidendile: Ühendriigid toetavad Eestit

  19. Glemmer USA Afghanistan nu?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016.......Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016....

  20. Bioassays for TSH Receptor Autoantibodies, from FRTL-5 Cells to TSH Receptor-LH/CG Receptor Chimeras: The Contribution of Leonard D. Kohn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Cesidio; Saji, Motoyasu; Bucci, Ines; Napolitano, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery 60 years ago of the "long-acting thyroid stimulator" by Adams and Purves, great progress has been made in the detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) autoantibodies (TRAbs) in Graves' disease. Today, commercial assays are available that can detect TRAbs with high accuracy and provide diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of patients with Graves' disease. The present review focuses on the development of TRAbs bioassays, and particularly on the role that Leonard D. Kohn had in this. Indeed, 30 years ago, the Kohn group developed a bioassay based on the use of FRTL-5 cells that was characterized by high reproducibility, feasibility, and diagnostic accuracy. Using this FRTL-5 bioassay, Kohn and his colleagues were the first to develop monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) against the TSHR. Furthermore, they demonstrated the multifaceted functional nature of TRAbs in patients with Graves' disease, with the identification of stimulating and blocking TRAbs, and even antibodies that activated pathways other than cAMP. After the cloning of the TSHR, the Kohn laboratory constructed human TSHR-rat luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor chimeras. This paved the way to a new bioassay based on the use of non-thyroid cells transfected with the Mc4 chimera. The new Mc4 bioassay is characterized by high diagnostic and prognostic accuracy, greater than for other assays. The availability of a commercial kit based on the Mc4 chimera is spreading the use of this assay worldwide, indicating its benefits for these patients with Graves' disease. This review also describes the main contributions made by other researchers in TSHR molecular biology and TRAbs assay, especially with the development of highly potent moAbs. A comparison of the diagnostic accuracies of the main TRAbs assays, as both immunoassays and bioassays, is also provided.

  1. Women's work... in wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1998-01-01

    Women have opportunities galore in the 1990s in wood products research, education, extension, consulting,manufacturing, marketing, and associations in North America. In the 1980s the same statement could not have been made.

  2. Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood (models)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Rudolf; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk; Zeman, Daniel; Mareček, David

    2017-01-01

    Trained models for UDPipe used to produce our final submission to VarDial 2017 shared task (https://bitbucket.org/hy-crossNLP/vardial2017) and described in a paper by the same authors titled Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood.

  3. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  4. Rethinking wood dust safety standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnasingam, Jega; Wai, Lim Tau; Ramasamy, Geetha; Ioras, Florin; Tadin, Ishak; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Buckinghamshire New University; Centre for Occupational Safety and Health Singapore

    2015-01-01

    The current universal work safety and health standards pertaining to wood dust in factories lack the localisation required. As a study has shown, there is a urgent need to reevaluate the current guidelines and practices.

  5. Life cycle environmental impacts of different construction wood waste and wood packaging waste processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Kaisa; Judl, Jáchym; Myllymaa, Tuuli

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the life cycle environmental impacts of different wood waste processing methods in three impact categories: climate impact, acidification impacts and eutrophication impacts. The wood waste recovery methods examined were the use of wood waste in terrace boards made out of wood composite which replace impregnated terrace boards, incineration of wood waste in a multi-fuel boiler instead of peat and the use of wood waste in the production of particleboard in either Finland or ...

  6. Occurrence patterns of dead wood and wood-dependent lichens in managed boreal forest landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Måns

    2013-01-01

    Dead wood is a key resource for biodiversity, on which thousands of forest organisms are dependent. Because of current forest management, there has been a large-scale change in dead wood amounts and qualities, and consequently, many wood-dependent species are threatened. The general aim of this thesis is to increase our understanding of habitat requirements and occurrence patterns of wood-dependent lichens in managed, boreal forest landscapes. We surveyed dead wood and wood-dependent lichens ...

  7. Effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy W.C. Lee; Zhongli Hong; Douglas R. Phillips; Chung-Yun Hse

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures made from six wood species: southern pine, white oak, southern red oak, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and hickory. Cement/wood ratios varied from 13/1 to 4/1. Wood storage conditions consisted of air-...

  8. Robert Williams Wood: pioneer of invisible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Amit

    2016-03-01

    The Wood's lamp aids in the diagnosis of multiple infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic dermatologic conditions. Although the Wood's lamp has many applications, which have improved both the diagnosis and management of disease, the man credited for its invention is relatively unknown in medicine. Robert Williams Wood, a prominent physicist of the early 20th century, is credited for the invention of the Wood's lamp. Wood was the father of infrared and ultraviolet photography and made significant contributions to other areas in optics and spectroscopy. Wood's work encompassed the formative years of American Physics; he published over 200 original papers over his lifetime. A few years after the invention of the Wood's lamp for ultraviolet photography, physicians in Europe adopted the Wood's lamp for dermatologic applications. Wood's lamp remains popular in clinics globally, given its ease of use and ability to improve diagnostic precision. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo

    This thesis deals with the combustion of wood in pulverised fuel power plants. In this type of boiler, the slowest step in the wood conversion process is char combustion, which is one of the factors that not only determine the degree of fuel burnout, but also affect the heat release profile...... of different aspects relevant to wood combustion, including wood structure and composition, wood pyrolysis, wood char properties and wood char oxidation. The full scale campaign, which is the subject of Chapter 3, included sampling of wood fuel before and after milling and sampling of gas and particles...... at the top of the combustion chamber. The collected samples and data are used to obtain an evaluation of the mills in operation at the power plant, the particle size distribution of the wood fuel, as well as the char conversion attained in the furnace. In Chapter 4 an experimental investigation...

  10. Acoustic and adsorption properties of submerged wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilde, Calvin Patrick

    Wood is a common material for the manufacture of many products. Submerged wood, in particular, is used in niche markets, such as the creation of musical instruments. An initial study performed on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, provided results that showed that the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. This thesis re-examined the submerged wood samples. After allowing the wood to age unabated in a laboratory setting, the wood was retested under the hypothesis that the physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that the acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to sit. The adsorption properties of the submerged wood were examined to show that the submerged wood had a larger accessible area of wood than that of control wood samples. This implied a lower amount of crystalline area within the submerged wood. From the combined adsorption and acoustic data for the submerged wood, relationships between the moisture content and speed of sound were created and combined with previous research to create a proposed model to describe how the speed of sound varies with temperature, moisture content and the moisture content corresponding to complete hydration of sorption sites within the wood.

  11. wood burns down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bukh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available To relax the local authorities and to receive the guests of high rank «with no tie» the so-called «Fisherman's House» was built at the source of Angara-river, near Lake Baikal. Vladimir Ivanov, a young architect, was noticed by his skillful performa nee of exclusive orders and became the author of this house. At the time of ferroconcrete boom the proposal to build a wooden guest house turned out to be unexpectedly to the point and was graciously approved. The economic department was entrusted to select the men good for carpenter's work, and the forestry department was entrusted to provide thick round timber. And the work started. But, as it usually happens, the workers did not take the trouble and made the first eight rims of the current timber with an inappropriate diameter.And when Pavlov insisted on demolishing the construction and replacing the logs by the logs with the necessary diameter, the building work obeyed to his will and was finished suecessfully.The architecture of the house is not the derived action of the saw and the fret-saw. It is a technology of the axe. It is natural, convincing and original. It is no use to look for the local sources in it. It grew up in the area of timber and cold winter. And this clear and efficient action kept the construction from the annoying vulgarity and provided Siberian exotics easily penetrating into one's soul, refined as it may be.One of the eminent guests said with admiration: «Even if Pavlov had created nothing more, he would have justified his professional choice with this single house.» Why not to say it as a good toast. However, this is a suitable case to add: style is an absence of style. It is a taste.After the Fisherman's House Irkutsk architects were attracted by wood. They followed the strictness in wood and, as much as they could, created a couple of successful remakes, until the cylinder logs and ... new

  12. Preferences of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae among Three Commercial Wood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala K. Hapukotuwa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann, are both pests of wood in service in Hawaii and Florida. We conducted a laboratory study using method modified from those described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009 to assess the termite resistance of three commercially available wood species used in regions of the USA where both termite species occur: Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziessii, southern yellow pine, Pinus spp. and redwood, Sequoia sempervirens. A multiple-choice (three-choice assay was used for four weeks (28 days in order to simulate field conditions of food choice and assess termite feeding preferences under 28 °C and 72–80% RH. 400 termites (360 workers: 40 soldiers were released into each test jar. Five replicates and two controls of each wood species were used with each termite species. Termite mortality was recorded at the end of the test; and wood wafers were oven-dried and weighed before and after termite exposure to determine the mass loss due to termite feeding, and rated visually on a 0 (failure to 10 (sound scale. There were significant differences in mean mass loss values among the three wood species and between two termite species. The mean mass loss value for redwood was significantly lower than Douglas fir and southern yellow pine with both termite species. However, C. formosanus showed increased feeding on Douglas fir and southern yellow pine compared to C. gestroi.

  13. Effects of Wood Pollution on Pore-Water Sulfide Levels and Eelgrass Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelem, C.

    2016-02-01

    Historically, sawmills released wood waste onto coastal shorelines throughout the Pacific Northwest of the USA, enriching marine sediments with organic material. The increase in organic carbon boosts the bacterial reduction of sulfate and results in the production of a toxic metabolite, hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide is a phytotoxin and can decrease the growth and survival of eelgrass. This is a critical issue since eelgrass, Zostera marina, forms habitat for many species, stabilizes sediment, and plays a role in nutrient cycling and sediment chemistry. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of wood debris on sediment pore-water hydrogen sulfide concentrations and eelgrass germination. To test the impact of wood inputs on sulfide production and seed germination, we conducted a laboratory mesocosm experiment, adding sawdust to marine sediments and measuring the sulfide levels weekly. We subsequently planted seeds in the mesocosms and measured germination rates. Higher concentrations of sawdust led to higher levels of pore-water hydrogen sulfide and drastically slower eelgrass germination rates. Treatments with greater than 10% wood enrichment developed free sulfide concentrations of 0.815 (± 0.427) mM after 118 days, suggesting sediments with greater than 10% wood pollution may have threateningly high pore-water hydrogen sulfide levels. These results can be used to set thresholds for remediation efforts and guide seed distribution in wood polluted areas.

  14. USA kunstidessant Venemaale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    USA kunstnike näitus "Kolm sajandit ameerika kunsti" Moskvas Pushkini muuseumis. Eksponeeritakse Mark Rothko, Jean-Michel Basguiat', Roy Lichtensteini, Robert Rauschenbergi, Georgia O'Keefe'i, Willem de Kooningi töid

  15. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  16. Refraction and absorption of microwaves in wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij; Čepič, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure. (paper)

  17. The Soldier-Athlete Initiative: Program Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Athletic Trainers Compared to Musculoskeletal Action Teams in Initial Entry Training, Fort Leonard Wood, June 2010 - December 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    of the work-place program participants had returned to work compared to 37% of the clinic-based participants (pɘ.01). Franche et al.64 performed a...presence of a return-to- work coordinator. Subsequently, Franche et al.65 examined the effectiveness of various return-to-work strategies on the...activity, less intake of fruits and vegetables, and greater intake of high-fat foods . An overall measure of risk taking was also higher in these Air

  18. Liquefaction of aspen poplar wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eager, R L; Mathews, J F; Pepper, J M

    1982-01-01

    Dried and green aspen poplar wood suspended in water containing alkali catalysts was converted completely to an oil, water-soluble chemical, and gases by heating for 1 hour in the presence of CO in a rocking batch reactor. Within the ranges of parameters studied: temperature of 593-633 K; nominal reaction times of less than or equal to 1 hour; water-to-wood ratio of 0.5:1-5:1; Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and NaOH catalysts; amount of catalyst 7.0-12.5%; and initial H-CO ratios of 2:1-0:1, the water-to-wood ratio was most important. Oil yields of approximately 50% with a C plus H content of approximately 80% and representing a C recovery of approximately 66% were obtained. The higher heats of combustion were 32.2-36.0 MJ/kg.

  19. Thermopower of beech wood biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, I. A.; Smirnov, B. I.; Orlova, T. S.; Sulkovski, Cz.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Muha, J.

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on measurements of the thermopower S of high-porosity samples of beech wood biocarbon with micron-sized sap pores aligned with the tree growth direction. The measurements have been performed in the temperature range 5-300 K. The samples have been fabricated by pyrolysis of beech wood in an argon flow at different carbonization temperatures ( T carb). The thermopower S has been measured both along and across the sap pores, thus offering a possibility of assessing its anisotropy. The curves S( T carb) have revealed a noticeable increase of S for T carb biocarbons, which suggests that for T carb ˜ 1000°C they undergo a phase transition of the insulator-(at T carb 1000°C) type. The existence of this transition is attested also by the character of the temperature dependences S( T) of beech wood biocarbon samples prepared at T carb above and below 1000°C.

  20. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use......More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  1. Assessment of the wood waste resource and its position in the wood / wood-energy sector - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinard, Ludovic; Deroubaix, Gerard; Roux, Marie-Lise; Levet, Anne-Laure; Quint, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    The first objective of this study is to obtain a better knowledge of the 'wood wastes' issue, to propose a photography of the wood waste sector (productions, trades, consumptions), and then to elaborate different prospective scenarios on the use of wood waste volumes while taking into account possible evolutions on the medium or short term of the regulation and market of the wood/wood energy sector. The considered wastes come from industrial production, from the use of wood-based products, and from the end of life of products potentially containing wood. The authors present bibliographical sources and the adopted methodology, briefly describe the 'wood waste' system with its actors, and then report their assessment of wood wastes. They propose a global assessment as well as detailed assessments with respect to waste origins: wood trade and distribution, industries, craft, households and communities, building sector, public and private tertiary sector, packaging. They also address the collection and management of wood wastes by public services, and present the different types of valorisation (panel fabrication, energy, and others). They discuss exports, and then present different scenarios: a trend-based scenario, and two prospective scenarios with a priority to energetic valorisation or to material valorisation of wood wastes. These scenarios are compared

  2. Wood Protection Research Council: Research Priorities 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A Clausen; Frederick Green III; Grant T. Kirker; Stan T. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes presentations and comments from the inaugural Wood Protection Research Council meeting. Research needs for the wood protection industry were identified and prioritized. Methods for successfully addressing research needs were discussed by industry, academia, and association representatives.

  3. Wood: a construction material for tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Guido

    2017-12-01

    Wood has great potential as a building material, because it is strong and lightweight, environmentally friendly and can be used in prefabricated buildings. However, only changes in building codes will make wood competitive with steel and concrete.

  4. Three Construction Projects with Wood Scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elizabeth

    1977-01-01

    Wood, a natural material, appeals to children of all ages. Wood construction allows children the flexibility of moving parts of their work around until they are satisfied with the arrangement. Three projects are described. (Author/RK)

  5. The environmental assessment of the wood combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, Cristian; Badea, Adrian; Apostol, Tiberiu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analysed the emissions from residential boilers burning wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. Three boilers, selected with respect to age, design, connection to heat storage tank, and type of biofuel, were included in the study. The emissions captured comprised carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), total organic carbons (TOC), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAC) and 33 volatile organic compounds (VOC). We have used the Life Cycle Inventory method in order to identify the main stressors generated by the wood combustion stage. In this purpose, we have analysed one type of old boiler, one type of modern boiler and a multi-fuel boiler, which can burn wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. In this article, we selected only the wood combustion stage because it is the most important according to the emissions produced. (authors)

  6. Photodegradation of wood and depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Photochemical degradation is a key process of the weathering that occurs when wood is exposed outdoors. It is also a major cause of the discoloration of wood in indoor applications. The effects of sunlight on the chemical composition of wood are superficial in nature, but estimates of the depth at which photodegradation occurs in wood vary greatly from 80 microm to as much as 2540 mic rom. Better understanding of the photodegradation of wood through depth profile analysis is desirable because it would allow the development of more effective photo-protective treatments that target the surface layers of wood most susceptible to photodegradation. This paper briefly describes fundamental aspects of photodegradation of wood and reviews progress made in the field of depth profile study on the photodegradation of wood. (author)

  7. Ergonomics and safety in secondary wood processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado Gazo; James D. McGlothlin; Yuehwern, Wiedenbeck, Jan Yih; Yuehwern Yih

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to initiate a pilot program in ergonomics for the secondary wood products industry. Case studies were conducted at three Midwest secondary wood product companies in 2000 and 2001.

  8. Forest industry wood fuel supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The potential for wood fired energy production in the UK is significant. Large scale developments are currently underway which could utilise over 100,000 green tonnes of forest residues. The fuel supply chain is likely to be complicated and there are perceived risks in its organisation and security. This report sets out to address some of these perceived risks and suggest suitable measures to reduce it. Six areas of the fuel supply chain have been studied, namely; Extraction, Comminution, Transport, Assessment and payment of wood fuel; Environmental impact; Nutrient recycling (ash disposal). (author)

  9. Fuel wood symposium; Symposium Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, C.; Wauer, A. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) organised a 'Fuel Wood Symposium' in Freising-Weihenstephan on 17.11.2000. The purpose of this specialist conference was to give an overview of the use of biomass, especially wood, as an source of energy. (orig.) [German] Die Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft richtete am 17.11.2000 in Freising-Weihenstephan das 'Symposium Energieholz' aus. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, einen Ueberblick ueber die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, insbesondere Holz, zu geben. (orig.)

  10. Wood fuelled boiler operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandars, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a management study into the operating costs of wood-fired boilers. Data obtained from existing wood-fired plant has been analysed and interpreted using the principles of machinery management and the science that underlies the key differences between this fuel and any other. A set of budgeting principles has been developed for the key areas of labour requirement, insurance, maintenance and repair and electricity consumption. Other lesser cost centres such as the provision of shelter and the effects of neglect and accidents have also been considered, and a model constructed. (author)

  11. Preparation of coloured wood plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.T.; Filippova, T.G.; Rajchuk, F.Z.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been made into the possibility of using fat, as well as alcohol- and water-soluble dyes for radiation-chemical dying of polymers and plastics filled with wood. The use of fat-soluble azo and anthraquinone dyes permits obtaining intensely colored wood-plastic materials based on methyl methacrylate by way of gamma radiation with doses of up to 3 Mrad. At a dose above 5 Mrad, a marked tarnishing of the dye or a change in color and stains are observed. Dyes in styrene withstand higher radiation doses without any significant destruction

  12. Wood pellets for stoker burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykaenen, S.

    2000-01-01

    The author of this article has had a stoker for several years. Wood chips and sod peat has been used as fuels in the stoker, either separately or mixed. Last winter there occurred problems with the sod peat due to poor quality. Wood pellets, delivered by Vapo Oy were tested in the stoker. The price of the pellets seemed to be a little high 400 FIM/500 kg large sack. If the sack is returned in good condition 50 FIM deposit will be repaid to the customer. However, Vapo Oy informed that the calorific value of wood pellets is three times higher than that of sod peat so it should not be more expensive than sod peat. When testing the wood pellets in the stoker, the silo of the stoker was filled with wood pellets. The adjustments were first left to position used for sod peat. However, after the fire had ignited well, the adjustments had to be decreased. The content of the silo was combusted totally. The combustion of the content of the 400 litter silo took 4 days and 22 hours. Respectively combustion of 400 l silo of good quality sod peat took 2 days. The water temperature with wood pellets remained at 80 deg C, while with sod peat it dropped to 70 deg C. The main disadvantage of peat with small loads is the unhomogenous composition of the peat. The results of this test showed that wood pellets will give better efficiency than peat, especially when using small burner heads. The utilization of them is easier, and the amount of ash formed in combustion is significantly smaller than with peat. Wood pellets are always homogenous and dry if you do not spoil it with unproper storage. Pellets do not require large storages, the storage volume needed being less than a half of the volume needed for sod peat. When using large sacks the amount needed can even be transported at the trunk of a passenger car. Depending on the area to be heated, a large sack is sufficient for heating for 2-3 weeks. Filling of stoker every 2-5 day is not an enormous task

  13. Wood preservatives and pressure-treated wood: considerations for historic-preservation projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Anthony; Stan T. Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wood, an abundant resource throughout most of the world, has been used as a building material for thousands of years. Many historic buildings have been built primarily of wood, and masonry and stone buildings generally have wood elements, both structural and architectural. As a biological material, wood is both remarkably complex and yet quite durable if well...

  14. Wood Properties and Kinds; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. This booklet is concerned largely with the physical composition and…

  15. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Jakub; Florek, Marek; Kwiatek, Wojciech; Lekki, Janusz; Chevallier, Pierre; Zieba, Emil; Mestres, Narcis; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Kuczumow, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, μ-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of μ-Raman and μ-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested

  16. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Florek, Marek [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Kwiatek, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Lekki, Janusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Chevallier, Pierre [LPS, CEN Saclay et LURE, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 209D, F-91405 Orsay (France); Zieba, Emil [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Mestres, Narcis [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB), Campus de la UAB, E-08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Dutkiewicz, E.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kuczumow, Andrzej [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)

    2005-04-28

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, {mu}-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of {mu}-Raman and {mu}-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested.

  17. Selected mechanical properties of modified beech wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Holan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This thesis deals with an examination of mechanical properties of ammonia treated beach wood with a trademark Lignamon. For determination mechanical properties were used procedures especially based on ČSN. From the results is noticeable increased density of wood by 22% in comparison with untreated beach wood, which makes considerable increase of the most mechanical wood properties. Considering failure strength was raised by 32% and modulus of elasticity was raised at average about 46%.

  18. Highlights of the 34th Annual Ralph E. Hopkins at Jackson Hole Seminars (JHS) on February 7-12, 2014, Jackson Hole, WY, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo Donalisio; Schulte, Mary Beth; Miano, Roberto; Gustafson, Diedra; Nogueira, Leticia; Kim, Fernando J

    2014-04-01

    The prestigious Jackson Hole Seminars (JHS) successfully gathered several world leaders in academic urology and urologists in private practice for a unique scientific experience in Wyoming, USA. Unfortunately, this year Dr. Ralph Hopkins' seat was empty but his spirit continue to be the driving force for the meeting's excellence and friendship. The JHS has pioneered the concept of a Critique Panel comprised of previous speakers that would discuss in depth the presentations of the faculty chosen by the scientific board of the JHS. The 2014 JHS featured Dr. Fernando J. Kim, the President of JHS, Dr. Robert Flanigan, the Program Chair, and the Critique Panel that included: Drs. Peter Albertsen, Arthur Burnett, Michael Coburn, Ann Gormley, and Marshal Stoller. The invited speakers were: Drs. Leonard Gomella (1st prize), Olivier Traxer (2nd prize), Jennifer Anger, Anthony Bella, Jim Hu, and Allen Morey. Some of the in depth discussions and topics are highlighted.

  19. Effects of phosphoramides on wood dimensional stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Lin. Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the dimensional stability of phosphoramide-reacted wood, wood was reacted with a mixture which was derived from compounding phosphorus pentoxide and each of 12 amines including alkyl, halophenyl, and phenyl amines in N,N-dimethylformamide. Dimensional stability of such reacted wood was analyzed by antishrink efficiency (ASE) using the water-soak method....

  20. Bioremediation of treated wood with fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2006-01-01

    The authors have developed technologies for fungal bioremediation of waste wood treated with oilborne or metal-based preservatives. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood-decay fungi, obtained through strain selection to obtain preservative-tolerant fungi. This waste management approach provides a product with reduced wood volume and the...

  1. Build Green: Wood Can Last for Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Samuel V. Glass

    2012-01-01

    This report updates and revises information from the 1976 Forest Service publication by Rodney C. DeGroot, “Your Wood Can Last for Centuries.” It explains why wood decays, alerts the homeowner to conditions that can result in decay in buildings, and describes measures to prevent moisture-related damage to wood.

  2. Cone calorimeter tests of wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Kuma Sumathipala

    2013-01-01

    The cone calorimeter is widely used for the determination of the heat release rate (HRR) of building products and other materials. As part of an effort to increase the availability of cone calorimeter data on wood products, the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory and the American Wood Council conducted this study on composite wood products in cooperation with the Composite...

  3. Advances and challenges of wood polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    Wood flour and fiber have been blended with thermoplastic such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polylactic acid and polyvinyl chloride to form wood plastic composites (WPC). WPCs have seen a large growth in the United States in recent years mainly in the residential decking market with the removal of CCA treated wood decking from residential markets. While there are...

  4. The extractives of Pinus pinaster wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; W. E. Hillis; L. S. Lau

    1973-01-01

    The extractives in Pinus pinaster wood grown in South Australia were examined as part of an assessment of the suitability of this wood for manufacture of absorbent tissues from bisulphite pulps. The average petroleum solubility of the wood was 2.0% but the amount and composition of the petroleum extract varied widely depending upon the age of the...

  5. Determination of pectin content of eucalyptus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coetzee, B.; Schols, H.A.; Wolfaardt, F.

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known about the occurrence of pectin in wood and it is speculated that between 10 mg g-1 and 40 mg g-1 of wood consists of pectin. The present study aimed to quantify pectin in eucalyptus wood and to determine the influence of tree species, yield potential of the site, tree age class

  6. Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoyemi Jacob Mayowa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

  7. Mechanical Behaviour of the Wood Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazia FOUCHAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the walls wood masonry behaviour. First, we propose a regulatory validation of the walls wood masonry behaviour subjected to vertical and horizontal loads according to Eurocode 5. Then we present the numerical application on the wall wood supported two floors level.

  8. Characteristics and availability of commercially important woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis B. Miller

    1999-01-01

    Throughout history, the unique characteristics and comparative abundance of wood have made it a natural material for homes and other structures, furniture, tools, vehicles, and decorative objects. Today, for the same reasons, wood is prized for a multitude of uses. All wood is composed of cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, and minor amounts (5% to 10%) of extraneous...

  9. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by .... Stop watch-used to indicate the exact time the mould has remained in the press before wood .... There is abundance of saw dust the source of which is the ... Madison, Wisconsin: Wiley Interscience. Usoro, H. S. ...

  10. Body of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Michon

    2014-12-01

    not only a defrocked friar with the guys or on the street; he donned the silk babouches when he went home too. He dispossessed himself of the Seine that rolled on before his eyes; the small girl who lived on her feet, whom he puts to death in all his books, he hardly saw her; the loveliest girls of his day, the finest too for sure, who wanted him, so that he happened to come – he dispossessed himself of them, whether he came or opted to come no more, which amounted to the same thing; no apples from Norman orchards, no trees deep in the woods, no unlaced Louise Colet, no lilies, no young laughter, no Louise Colet weeping at his door, he kissed it all off, laughed over it and kissed it off, cried about it and kissed it off, he was not there. In fact he had nothing, he was deprived of everything, since it was in his head.

  11. Pelly Crossing wood chip boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-11

    The Pelly wood chip project has demonstrated that wood chips are a successful fuel for space and domestic water heating in a northern climate. Pelly Crossing was chosen as a demonstration site for the following reasons: its extreme temperatures, an abundant local supply of resource material, the high cost of fuel oil heating and a lack of local employment. The major obstacle to the smooth operation of the boiler system was the poor quality of the chip supply. The production of poor quality chips has been caused by inadequate operation and maintenance of the chipper. Dull knives and faulty anvil adjustments produced chips and splinters far in excess of the one centimetre size specified for the system's design. Unanticipated complications have caused costs of the system to be higher than expected by approximately $15,000. The actual cost of the project was approximately $165,000. The first year of the system's operation was expected to accrue $11,600 in heating cost savings. This estimate was impossible to confirm given the system's irregular operation and incremental costs. Consistent operation of the system for a period of at least one year plus the installation of monitoring devices will allow the cost effectiveness to be calculated. The wood chip system's impact on the environment was estimated to be minimal. Wood chip burning was considered cleaner and safer than cordwood burning. 9 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Permian Silicified Wood in Oman

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matysová, Petra; Grygar, Tomáš

    -, č. 15 (2009), s. 14-18 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : silicified wood * Oman * geology Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry www.geologyoman.com/gso/Haj(Nov09).pdf

  13. Wood and concrete polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, K.

    1974-01-01

    There are several ways to prepare and use wood and concrete polymer composites. The most important improvements in the case of concrete polymer composites are obtained for compressive and tensile strengths. The progress in this field in United States and other countries is discussed in this rview. (M.S.)

  14. Adhesive bonding of wood materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Vick

    1999-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood components has played an essential role in the development and growth of the forest products industry and has been a key factor in the efficient utilization of our timber resource. The largest use of adhesives is in the construction industry. By far, the largest amounts of adhesives are used to manufacture building materials, such as plywood,...

  15. Detecting decay in wood components

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Ross; X. Wang; B.K. Brashaw

    2005-01-01

    This chapter presents a summary of the Wood and Timber Condition Assessment Manual. It focuses on current inspection techniques for decay detection and provides guidelines on the use of various non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods in locating and defining areas of deterioration in timber bridge components and other civil structures.

  16. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig histori......, er opdelt i 13 kapitler og består af fire dele: Første del: Slaveriet; anden del: Jim Crow; tredje del. King-årene; fjerde del: Frem mod Obama....

  17. 5000 sustainable workplaces - Wood energy provides work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study made by the Swiss Wood Energy Association on the regional and national added value resulting from large wood-fired installations in Switzerland. The number of workplaces created by these installations is also noted. Wood energy is quoted as not only being a way of using forest wastes but also as being a creator of employment. Large wood-fired heating installations are commented on and efforts to promote this type of energy supply even further are discussed. The study indicates which professions benefit from the use of wood energy and quantifies the number of workplaces per megawatt of installed power that result.

  18. The case for wood-fuelled heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent, Ewan

    2001-01-01

    This article looks at the wood heating industry in the UK and examines the heat market and the growth potential in the domestic, public, agricultural and commercial sectors. The current status of wood-fueled heating technology is considered, along with log and chip boilers, and the use of pellet fuel. The economics of wood-fuelled heating, the higher level of utilisation of wood-fuelled heating by utilities in northern European countries compared with the UK, and the barriers to the exploitation of wood fuelled heating are examined

  19. Wood as a home heating fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, K.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the development of clean-burning technology in three types of wood-burning appliances: catalytic, non-catalytic, and pellet stoves. A recent study by the Washington State Energy Extension Office concluded that in homes that use both electricity and wood, 73 megawatts of electricity/yr were saved by using wood. Since wood-burning stoves can now meet air quality standards, wood could be considered to be a greenhouse-neutral fuel if more trees are planted as they are consumed

  20. Wood pellets : a worldwide fuel commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Aspects of the wood pellet industry were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Details of wood pellets specifications were presented, and the wood pellet manufacturing process was outlined. An overview of research and development activities for wood pellets was presented, and issues concerning quality control were discussed. A chart of the effective calorific value of various fuels was provided. Data for wood pellet mill production in Canada, the United States and the European Union were provided, and various markets for Canadian wood pellets were evaluated. Residential sales as well as Canadian overseas exports were reviewed. Production revenues for British Columbia and Alberta were provided. Wood pellet heat and electricity production were discussed with reference to prefabricated boilers, stoves and fireplaces. Consumption rates, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and fuel ratios for wood pellets and fossil fuels were compared. Price regulating policies for electricity and fossil fuels have prevented the domestic expansion of the wood pellet industry. There are currently no incentives for advanced biomass combustion to enter British Columbia markets, and this has led to the export of wood pellets. It was concluded that climate change mitigation policies will be a driving force behind market expansion for wood pellets. tabs., figs

  1. Baltimaade kunsti turnee USAs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    5. nov.-st USA Lõuna-Carolina osariigis Wellington B. Grey galeriis ja Jenkins Fine Art Center's 13 eesti, läti ja leedu kunstniku näitus, mis hakkab kolme aasta jooksul ringlema Ameerikas. Eksponeeritud fotokunst, video, installatsioon, joonistused. Kuraator Peeter Linnap ja Mari Laanemets peavad ettekande näituse avamisega samal ajal toimuval Fotohariduse Ühingu konverentsil

  2. Mathematical Simulation of Temperature Profiles within Microwave Heated Wood Made for Wood-Based Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; He, X.; Lv, J.; Wu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, H.

    2013-01-01

    High intensive microwave pretreatment is a new method to modify wood for the fabrication of wood-based nano composites. Based on the physical law on heat transfer, a mathematical model to describe the temperature profiles within wood heated by high intensive microwave was established and simulated in this research. The results showed that the temperature profiles within wood were related to microwave heating methods; The temperature inside wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased along the direction of microwave transmission when the unilateral microwave heating was applied, and the temperature difference along the thickness direction of wood was very significant; The temperature with wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased from the wood surface to interior when the bilateral microwave heating was applied. Compared with the unilateral microwave heating, bilateral microwave heating is a better microwave heating method for the more uniform wood microwave pretreatment.

  3. Advantages of the use of energy wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerhae, K.; Aarnio, J.; Maekinen, P.

    2000-01-01

    According to the Regional Forestry Associations it would be possible to develop the harvesting of energy wood by increasing the use of it. The study was made at the areas of 34 regional forestry associations as an inquiry to the executive managers, as well as the persons responsible for timber trade, harvesting or regional affairs. The inquiries studied the use of energy wood and the user of them at the areas of the associations, as well as the amounts of harvesting and the realization of it. Only a third of the associations have large energy wood consuming plants (using more than 500 m 3 energy wood per year). The closest large energy wood consuming plant was in the average 31 km from the office of the association. The average energy wood use of the plant was 20 000 m 3 /a, the variation being 700 - 200 000 m 3 /a. The energy wood purchase range of the plants varied from few kilometers to hundred kilometers, the average being 47 km. Most of the energy wood was harvested from forest regeneration areas. Some of the energy wood is also harvested from young forest maintenance and thinning areas. The estimated harvesting of energy wood in 1999 was 6300 m 3 . A part of the energy wood is used for heating the farms and other small real estates, and a part is used for heating larger buildings like schools, hospitals, factories. The fees to the associations for purchase of energy wood varied significantly. The range was 2.00 - 11.00 FIM/m 3 . One association charged 300 FIM/parcel, and in one association the price depend on the amount of wood acquired from the lot, the unit price being 0.5 FIM/m 3 . It appeared that the associations estimated the use of energy wood to increase. The level in 1999 was 6300 m 3 and it is estimated to increase to 14 300 m 3 in 2005. The associations estimated that the levels can only be achieved if the stumpage price of energy wood may not be 0.0 FIM. Even a marginal price would lead to an increased harvesting of energy wood. The associations

  4. Guantanamo rikub USA seadusi / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2003-01-01

    Kaks USA tsiviilkohut leiavad oma otsuses, et USA valitsus rikub USA-s ja Guantanamo sõjaväebaasis kinnipeetavate nn. vaenlasvõitlejate õigusi. Inimõigusorganisatsioonid avaldavad heameelt kohtute otsuste üle

  5. Wood energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This publication first recalls the main benefits of the use of wood, the first source of renewable energy in France: abundant and local resource, low CO 2 emission, competitiveness, job creation. It comments the relationship between the use of this source of energy and the compliance with air quality standards as they are notably defined by European directives, as the use of wood as heating source is one of the recommended lever to improve air quality. The publication comments emissions generated by this type of heating (mainly in the housing sector, with some critical meteorological periods). Levers for actions are discussed: fleet renewal to promote the best performing equipment, practice improvements (fuel quality, apparatus maintenance). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed: support to individual equipment fleet modernisation, support to R and D, support to the sector, and information and communication

  6. Wood and Sediment Dynamics in River Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, E.; Scott, D.

    2015-12-01

    Large wood along rivers influences entrainment, transport, and storage of mineral sediment and particulate organic matter. We review how wood alters sediment dynamics and explore patterns among volumes of instream wood, sediment storage, and residual pools for dispersed pieces of wood, logjams, and beaver dams. We hypothesized that: volume of sediment per unit area of channel stored in association with wood is inversely proportional to drainage area; the form of sediment storage changes downstream; sediment storage correlates most strongly with wood load; and volume of sediment stored behind beaver dams correlates with pond area. Lack of data from larger drainage areas limits tests of these hypotheses, but analyses suggest a negative correlation between sediment volume and drainage area and a positive correlation between wood and sediment volume. The form of sediment storage in relation to wood changes downstream, with wedges of sediment upstream from jammed steps most prevalent in small, steep channels and more dispersed sediment storage in lower gradient channels. Use of a published relation between sediment volume, channel width, and gradient predicted about half of the variation in sediment stored upstream from jammed steps. Sediment volume correlates well with beaver pond area. Historically more abundant instream wood and beaver populations likely equated to greater sediment storage within river corridors. This review of the existing literature on wood and sediment dynamics highlights the lack of studies on larger rivers.

  7. Management alternatives of energy wood thinning stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkilae, Jani; Siren, Matti; Aeijaelae, Olli

    2007-01-01

    Energy wood thinning has become a feasible treatment alternative of young stands in Finland. Energy wood thinnings have been carried out mainly in stands where precommercial thinning has been neglected and the harvesting conditions for industrial wood thinning are difficult. Despite of its positive effects on harvesting costs and on renewable energy potential, whole-tree harvesting has been constantly criticized for causing growth loss. In this paper, the profitability of energy wood thinning was studied in 20 Scots pine-dominated stands where energy wood thinning was carried out. The growth of the stands after thinning was predicted with the help of Motti-stand simulator. Entire rotation time of the stands was simulated with different management alternatives. The intensity of first thinning and recovery level of logging residues varied between alternatives. In order to attain acceptable harvesting conditions, industrial wood thinning had to be delayed. The effect of energy wood thinning on subsequent stem wood growth was almost the same as in conventional thinning. Whole-tree harvesting for energy proved to be profitable alternative if the stumpage price is around 3EUR m -3 , the interest rate is 3% or 5% and the removal of pulpwood is less than 20 m 3 ha -1 . If the harvestable pulpwood yield is over 20 m 3 ha -1 , integrated harvesting of industrial and energy wood or delayed industrial wood harvesting becomes more profitable. (author)

  8. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir Danon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  9. Examining Young's modulus for wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkalskis, Benjamin S; Freeman, J Reuben; Suhov, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Symmetry considerations, dimensional analysis and simple approximations are used to derive a formula for Young's modulus of a simple anisotropic system, a straight-layer wood bar whose fibre axis makes an angle with respect to the bar's longitudinal axis. Agreement between the derived formula and experiment (carried out in far from ideal conditions) is within 10%. Improvements and extensions are suggested for this undergraduate physics experiment

  10. Blood parasites of wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O.; Knipling, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  11. Discover the benefits of residential wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs

  12. Fluorescing macerals from wood precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, S A; Bensley, D F

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the origin of wood-derived macerals has established the existence of autofluorescent maceral precursors in the secondary xylem of swamp-inhabiting plant species. The optical character and fluorescent properties of microtomed thin-sections of modern woods from the Florida Everglades and Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia are compared to the character and properties of their peatified equivalents from various Everglades and Okefenokee peat horizons and their lignitic equivalents from the Brandon lignite of Vermont and the Trail Ridge lignitic peat from northern Florida. The inherent fluorescence of woody cell walls is believed to be caused by lignin though other cell wall components may contribute. The fluorescence spectra for several wood and cell types had a ..gamma../sub m//sub a//sub x/ of 452 nm and Q value of 0.00. The color as observed in blue light and the spectral geometry as measured in UV light of peatified and lignitic woody cell walls (potential textinites) may change progressively during early coalification. Cell wall-derived maceral material is shown to maintain its fluorescing properties after being converted to a structureless material, perhaps a corpohuminite or humodetrinite precursor. Fluorescing xylem cell contents, such as condensed tannins or essential oils, can maintain the fluorescent character through early coalification. Xylem cell walls and xylem cell contents are shown to provide fluorescing progenitor materials which would not require subsequent infusion with 'lipid' materials to account for their fluorescence as phytoclast material or as macerals in coal. 35 references.

  13. Changes in mass and nutrient content of wood during decomposition in a south Florida mangrove forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L.M.; Smith, T. J.; Fourqurean, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    1 Large pools of dead wood in mangrove forests following disturbances such as hurricanes may influence nutrient fluxes. We hypothesized that decomposition of wood of mangroves from Florida, USA (Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle), and the consequent nutrient dynamics, would depend on species, location in the forest relative to freshwater and marine influences and whether the wood was standing, lying on the sediment surface or buried. 2 Wood disks (8-10 cm diameter, 1 cm thick) from each species were set to decompose at sites along the Shark River, either buried in the sediment, on the soil surface or in the air (above both the soil surface and high tide elevation). 3 A simple exponential model described the decay of wood in the air, and neither species nor site had any effect on the decay coefficient during the first 13 months of decomposition. 4 Over 28 months of decomposition, buried and surface disks decomposed following a two-component model, with labile and refractory components. Avicennia germinans had the largest labile component (18 ?? 2% of dry weight), while Laguncularia racemosa had the lowest (10 ?? 2%). Labile components decayed at rates of 0.37-23.71% month -1, while refractory components decayed at rates of 0.001-0.033% month-1. Disks decomposing on the soil surface had higher decay rates than buried disks, but both were higher than disks in the air. All species had similar decay rates of the labile and refractory components, but A. germinans exhibited faster overall decay because of a higher proportion of labile components. 5 Nitrogen content generally increased in buried and surface disks, but there was little change in N content of disks in the air over the 2-year study. Between 17% and 68% of total phosphorus in wood leached out during the first 2 months of decomposition, with buried disks having the greater losses, P remaining constant or increasing slightly thereafter. 6 Newly deposited wood from living trees was

  14. Competitive outcomes between wood-decaying fungi are altered in burnt wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Mattias; Eriksson, Anna-Maria

    2016-06-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in boreal forests where it creates a wide variety of charred and other types of heat-modified dead wood substrates, yet how these substrates affect fungal community structure and development within wood is poorly understood. We allowed six species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes to compete in pairs in wood-discs that were experimentally burnt before fungal inoculation. The outcomes of interactions in burnt wood differed from those in unburnt control wood for two species:Antrodia sinuosanever lost on burnt wood and won over its competitor in 67% of the trials compared to 40% losses and 20% wins on unburnt wood. In contrast, Ischnoderma benzoinumwon all interactions on unburnt wood compared to 33% on burnt wood. However, the responses differed depending on the identity of the competing species, suggesting an interaction between competitor and substrate type. The observed shift in competitive balance between fungal species probably results from chemical changes in burnt wood, but the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. Nevertheless, the results indicate that forest fires indirectly structure fungal communities by modifying dead wood, and highlight the importance of fire-affected dead wood substrates in boreal forests. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  16. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limited by the availability, strength properties, gluability and so on. A second one is the sandwich structure made from hard faces like thick veneer, thin plywood, particleboard or high density thin fiberboard and cores made from honeycomb paper, very light wood species or foams like the polystyrene one. A third way to produce a light structure is to reduce the core drastically, using predesigned skeletons with special shapes and connections to the faces. The engines for these developments are on the one hand the fast growing market of knockdown furniture and on the other hand the increasing costs for energy and raw materials. Additional factors that make weight saving a primary economical objective for most producers are transportation costs, easier handling and higher acceptance among the end users. Moreover, customers demand more for ergonomical solutions regarding packaging. Many patents were generated by researchers and developers for new one-stage production processes for sandwich panels with wood- and impregnated paper-based facings made from veneers, particles or fibres and a core consisting of expandable foams, particles or embedded hard skeletons. These ideas or prototypes could be integrated in existing continuous pressing lines for wood based panels keeping some of the advantages of the continuous production technique in matters of efficiency. Some of the challenges of the light weight wooden structure are the connection in half or final parts, resistance to

  17. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  18. Adhesives for Achieving Durable Bonds with Acetylated Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Frihart; Rishawn Brandon; James Beecher; Rebecca Ibach

    2017-01-01

    Acetylation of wood imparts moisture durability, decay resistance, and dimensional stability to wood; however, making durable adhesive bonds with acetylated wood can be more difficult than with unmodified wood. The usual explanation is that the acetylated surface has fewer hydroxyl groups, resulting in a harder-to-wet surface and in fewer hydrogen bonds between wood...

  19. Wood Programs. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Robert; And Others

    This courseware evaluation rates the Wood Programs software developed by the Iowa Department of Public Instruction. (These programs--not contained in this document--include understanding board feet, wood characteristics, wood safety drill, wood dimensions, wood moisture, operating the table saw, radial arm, measurement drill, fraction drill, and…

  20. Chapter 02: Basic wood biology—Anatomy for identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    Before the topics of using a hand lens, preparing wood for observation, and understanding the characters used in wood identification can be tackled, a general introduction to the biology of wood must be undertaken. The woods in commercial trade in Central America come almost exclusively from trees, so the discussion of wood biology is restricted to trees here, though...

  1. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m 3 or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m 3 or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  2. Wood production potential in poplar plantations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christersson, Lars [Section of Short Rotation Forestry, VPE, SLU, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    Shortage of oil, large variations in exports from Russia of wood to Europe, plenty of abandoned agriculture land, new ideas about a more intensive silviculture; these circumstances are driving forces in Sweden for planting fast-growing poplar and hybrid aspen clones on suitable land. The advantage of such trees is that the wood can be used for both energy (heat, biofuels, electricity), paper and for construction. Poplar clones bred in the USA and Belgium, and older hybrid aspen clones from Sweden, together with new poplar clones collected and selected for Swedish conditions from British Columbia, Canada, were planted during the 1990s in south and central Sweden. The stem diameters and heights of the trees have been measured during the last 10 years and the woody biomass production above ground has been calculated. MAI for all the plantations is 10-31 m{sup 3} or 3-10 ton DM per hectare with the highest annual woody production of 45 m{sup 3} or 15 ton DM per hectare in some years in a very dense plantation in the most southern part of Sweden. All the plantations have been fenced for at least the first ten years. The damage has been caused by stem canker, insects, leaf rust and by moose after removal of the fences. The possibilities for the use of poplar plantations as energy forest and vegetation filters are discussed. (author)

  3. Ethanol from wood 'can be competitive'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-19

    Estimates by Stones and Webster indicate that the cost of producing ethanol for fuel purposes from wood will be as cheap as any other method and comparable with proven sugarcane and maize technology. In coming to this conclusion, it was assumed that significant advances would be made in the hydrolysis of wood and that saleable by-products would be possible from the lignin and hemicellulose of the feedstock wood.

  4. Forest biomass and wood waste resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Skog; P. Lebow; D.. Dykstra; P.. Miles; B.J. Stokes; R.D. Perlack; M. Buford; J. Barbour; D. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides estimates of forest biomass and wood waste quantities, as well as roadside costs (i.e., supply curves) for each county in the contiguous United States. Roadside price is the price a buyer pays for wood chips at a roadside in the forest, at a processing mill location in the case of mill residue, or at a landfill for urban wood wastes prior to any...

  5. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  6. Southern Woods-Burners: A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.L. Doolittle; M.L. Lightsey

    1979-01-01

    About 40 percent of the South's nearly 60,000 wildfires yearly are set by woods-burners. A survey of 14 problem areas in four southern States found three distinct sets of woods-burners. Most active woods-burners are young, white males whose activities are supported by their peers. An older but less active group have probably retired from active participation but...

  7. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  8. Application of molecular genetic methods for identification of wood-decaying fungi in wood constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bobeková; Michal Tomšovský; Petr Horáček

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate the utilization of molecular biology methods for detection of wood decaying fungi directly from decomposed wood using a commercial DNA extraction kit developed for soil substrates (PowerSoil™ DNA isolation kit). The experiment based on dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans) detection from inoculated wooden pieces under laboratory conditions was followed by field detection of wood-decaying fungi from wood structures on building constructions. Fungal DNA was ide...

  9. Reliable and non-destructive positioning of larvae of wood-destroying beetles in wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, G.; Thiele, H.; Unger, W.

    1980-01-01

    Living larvae of wood-destroying insects (house longhorn beetle, deathwatch) can be determined in wood by both X-ray technique and vibration measurements. For such examinations convenient commercial devices were used and tested under laboratory conditions. The methods complement each other and lead to a rationalization of the tests of wood preservatives against wood-destroying insects. It seems to be promising to apply the test methods also to timber already used for building

  10. Wood-energy - The sector get worried

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier; Signoret, Stephane; Bohlinger, Philippe; Guilhem, Jean; De Santis, Audrey; Sredojevic, Alexandre; Defaye, Serge; Maindrault, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Wood energy is, today and certainly also tomorrow, one of the most important renewable energies in France. However, the wood-energy sector seems to slow down as hydrocarbon prices stay extremely low. This document presents 8 articles, describing the context and the characteristics of this evolution, plus some examples of developments in France. The themes of the articles are: the activity of the wood-energy sector should be reinforced to meet the objectives of the French energy multi-year plan; The 2035 prospective of the wood yield in the French forest will meet the future demand, however this evaluation does not take into consideration the effects of the climatic change; the conversion to biomass of the 'Fort de l'Est' (near Paris) heating system (equipped with a boiling fluidized bed boiler) has enabled the heat network to beat the 50 pc share of renewable energy; wood-energy professionals use the 'quality' lever to challenge their fossil fuel competitors; the city of Orleans is now equipped with an innovative biomass cogeneration plant; the example of wood waste valorization in a French sawmill; the French ONF (Forest Administration) Wood-Energy actor has just inaugurated its largest biomass dryer, in order to develop the domestic market for wood as a fuel; analysis of the technical and economical feasibility of using wood to generate electric power or replacing electric space heating by heat network

  11. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Noce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1 was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic inrelation to income.

  12. Wood energy 2000; Bois energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druette, L [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 44 - Nantes (France); Lacome, T [AFNOR, 75 - Paris (France); Roy, C [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); and others

    2000-07-01

    The deregulation of the Electric Market and the opening of the Green Certificate exchange market force the set up of renewable energies. The wood, which is for most of european countries an important part of renewable fuel, should see the increase of its utilization. This conference on the wood energy deals the main aspects of this energy development. The papers present the wood burning furnaces technology assessment, the wood fuel market and the standardization of the appliances in this domain. Some papers also include the consequences of the big storms of december 1999. (A.L.B.)

  13. The use of new, aqueous chemical wood modifications to improve the durability of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons; George C. Chen

    2017-01-01

    The wood flour used in wood-plastic composites (WPCs) can biologically deteriorate and thus the overall mechanical performance of WPCs decrease when exposed to moisture and fungal decay. Protecting the wood flour by chemical modification can improve the durability of the wood in a nontoxic way so it is not harmful to the environment. WPCs were made with modified wood...

  14. EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

  15. Energy wood. Part 2b: Wood pellets and pellet space-heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives an overview on pellet utilization including all relevant process steps: Potential and properties of saw dust as raw material, pellet production with drying and pelletizing, standardization of wood pellets, storage and handling of pellets, combustion of wood pellets in stoves and boilers and applications for residential heating. In comparison to other wood fuels, wood pellets show several advantages: Low water content and high heating value, high energy density, and homogeneous properties thus enabling stationary combustion conditions. However, quality control is needed to ensure constant properties of the pellets and to avoid the utilization of contaminated raw materials for the pellet production. Typical data of efficiencies and emissions of pellet stoves and boilers are given and a life cycle analysis (LCA) of wood pellets in comparison to log wood and wood chips is described. The LCA shows that wood pellets are advantageous thanks to relatively low emissions. Hence, the utilization of wood pellet is proposed as a complementary technology to the combustion of wood chips and log wood. Finally, typical fuel cost of wood pellets in Switzerland are given and compared with light fuel oil. (author)

  16. Detection of wood failure by image processing method: influence of algorithm, adhesive and wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanying Lin; Sheng He; Feng Fu; Xiping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Wood failure percentage (WFP) is an important index for evaluating the bond strength of plywood. Currently, the method used for detecting WFP is visual inspection, which lacks efficiency. In order to improve it, image processing methods are applied to wood failure detection. The present study used thresholding and K-means clustering algorithms in wood failure detection...

  17. The central role of wood biology in understanding the durability of wood-coating interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2007-01-01

    To design effectively for durability, one must actively and honestly assess the material properties and limitations of each of the components in the design system; wood or wood composite, and the coating. Inasmuch as wood coatings are manufactured to specified tolerances from known materials, we have control of that component of the system. Compared to manmade...

  18. Moisture Performance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted and delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using extracted and delignified wood flour on water sorption properties of wood–plastic composites. Wood flour (WF) extraction was performed with three solvent systems: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW); delignification was conducted using sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. A 24 full-factorial...

  19. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ribera

    Full Text Available The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720 was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium. T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%. Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens

  20. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Javier; Fink, Siegfried; Bas, Maria Del Carmen; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2017-01-01

    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed to T

  1. The Wood Anatomy of Rubiaceae tribes Anthospermeae and Paederieae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Puff, Ch.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed wood anatomical descriptions are given for the genera Anthospermum, Nenax, Phyllis, Carpacoce, Coprosma, Neogaillonia, Crocyllis, Plocama and Spermadictyon, and miscellaneous wood anatomical data on the genera Normandia, Pomax, Opercularia, Leptodermis and Aitchisonia. The wood anatomical

  2. Social Housing: wood prefabrication techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Student housing, a particular and quite significant part of social housing, and innovation in processing and production of industrial building components made of a material (wood not adequately inquired: two fields of research that have been explored for a long time allowing here to share and compare experiences gained thus far. By a selection of samples of wooden student housing in Europe we have documented the performances of this material and we have underlined, at the same time, through what happens abroad, the need of an organic national social housing plan that can meet an unsatisfied demand and boost the construction industry during this particular stage of economic crisis.

  3. Recent developments: USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a National Energy Stategy (NES) for the USA is discussed. On July 26, 1989 President Bush directed of the Secretary of Energy to submit to the President a NES based on the following guidelines: to develop a NES through the year 2030 that could be implemented as son as possible, rather than waiting until the next energy crisis; to formulate the program so that it will create public consensus; build upon market reliance, rather than coercion; and to take a can do approach, capitalizing on US scientific knowledge and common abuse

  4. Manufacturing methods and magnetic characteristics of magnetic wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, H.; Hojo, A.; Osada, H.; Namizaki, Y.; Taniuchi, H.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between wood construction and DC magnetic characteristics for three types of magnetic wood was experimentally investigated. The results show that the magnetic characteristics of each type of magnetic wood are dependent on the magnetic materials, the density of the magnetic material and the construction of the wood. Furthermore, it was determined that the relationship between the fiber direction and the magnetic path direction of the magnetic wood influenced the wood's magnetic characteristics

  5. Structural Evaluation Procedures for Heavy Wood Truss Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Issa, Mohsen

    1998-01-01

    .... An evaluation procedure for wood structures differs from conventional methods used in steel, concrete, and masonry structures because, in wood construction, the allowable stresses used in design...

  6. Thermal Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites Prepared from Hemicellulose-extracted Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Enayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemicellulose of Southern Yellow Pine wood spices was extracted by pressurized hot water at three different temperatures: 140°C, 155°C and 170°C. Compounding with PP (polypropylene was performed by extrusion after preparing wood flour and sieving to determine its mesh size. The ratio of wood to polymer was 50:50 based on oven-dry weight of wood flour. All extraction treatments and control samples were compounded under two sets of conditions, without and with 2% MAPP as coupling agent. Injection molding was used to make tensile test samples (dogbone from the pellets made by extrusion. Thermal properties of wood-plastic composites were studied by TGA and DSC while the thermal stability of pretreated wood flours, PP and MAPP were studied by TGA as well. The greater weight loss of wood materials was an indication that higher treatment temperature increases the extractability of hemicellulose. The removal of hemicellulose by extraction improves thermal stability of wood flour, especially for extraction at 170°C. Wood-plastic composites made from extracted fibers at 170°C showed the highest thermal stability. Coupling agent did not have a significant effect on thermal stability but it improved the degree of crystallinity of the composites.Surface roughness of wood fiber increased after treatment. Extraction of hemicellulose increased the degree of crystallinity but it was not significant except for samples from treated wood flour at 170°C and with MAPP.

  7. Wood decay and the cleanup crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2017-01-01

    Arborists are encouraged to recognize the wood-decay process as an important factor in tree health and public safety. Technical experts who develop training materials to recognize wood-decay processes in living trees are frequently forest pathologists. Much of the history of forest pathology was to support production of sound, high-quality timber. That heritage is...

  8. Scarcity on the market for wood wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, A.

    2004-01-01

    An overview is given of the market for wood wastes in the Netherlands and how this affects the targets to use biomass. Several types of biomass must be imported, not only wood wastes, but also e.g. olive stones and cacao shells [nl

  9. Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shu-Yin

    1992-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the Rosaceae is surveyed and analysed, based on the study of 280 species (c. 500 specimens) belonging to 62 genera from different parts of the world. Eighteen wood anatomical characters have been used for a phenetic and phylogenetic classification. In the phenetic classification,

  10. Least cost supply strategies for wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark.......The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark....

  11. Chapter 6: Fire damage of wood structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Kukay; R.H. White; F. Woeste

    2012-01-01

    Depending on the severity, fire damage can compromise the structural integrity of wood structures such as buildings or residences. Fire damage of wood structures can incorporate several models that address (1) the type, cause, and spread of the fire, (2) the thermal gradients and fire-resistance ratings, and (3) the residual load capacity (Figure 6.1). If there is a...

  12. Business environment in the wood fuels field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitinen, H.; Ranta, T.

    1995-01-01

    In this publication the business environment in the wood fuels sector and the internal and external factors affecting it are studied. It has been considered important to describe both the present situation and future possibilities of the business in order to develop it so that the planned increase in the use of wood fuels can be achieved

  13. Wood energy markets, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Aguilar; Rens Hartkamp; Warren Mabee; Kenneth Skog

    2012-01-01

    To celebrate the 2012 International Year of Sustainable Energy for All, in this chapter we consider in some depth the sustainability of wood energy. To do so, we evaluate the traditional economic, environmental and social dimensions of the sustainability concept. We also address how public policy has influenced wood energy sustainability across the UNECE region.

  14. Chapter 9:Wood Adhesion and Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2013-01-01

    The recorded history of bonding wood dates back at least 3000 years to the Egyptians (Skeist and Miron 1990, River 1994a), and adhesive bonding goes back to early mankind (Keimel 2003). Although wood and paper bonding are the largest applications for adhesives, some of the fundamental aspects leading to good bonds are not fully understood. Better understanding of these...

  15. Potential for Biobased Adhesives in Wood Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2016-01-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest and research on using bio-based materials as wood adhesives; however, they have achieved only limited market acceptance. To better understand this low level of replacement, it is important to understand why adhesives work or fail in moisture durability tests. A holistic model for wood adhesives has been developed that clarifies...

  16. Chapter 16: Soy Proteins as Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Christopher G. Hunt; Michael J. Birkeland

    2014-01-01

    Protein adhesives allowed the development of bonded wood products such as plywood and glulam in the early 20th century. Petrochemical-based adhesives replaced proteins in most wood bonding applications because of lower cost, improved production efficiencies, and enhanced durability. However, several technological and environmental factors have led to a resurgence of...

  17. Peter Koch: wizard of wood use

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Lora

    1978-01-01

    Like his pioneer forefathers, Peter Koch sees opportunity where others see obstacles. And his vision is helping to reshape the wood industry. Since 1963 Koch has directed research on processing southern woods for the U.S. Forest Service's Southern Forest Experiment Station in Pineville, Louisiana. In that time, he has invented six revolutionary machines, developed...

  18. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  19. Chapter 13:Wood/Nonwood Thermoplastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Roger M. Rowell; David Plackett; B. Kristoffer Segerholm

    2013-01-01

    Composites made from wood, other biomass resources and polymers have existed for a long time but the nature of many of these composites has changed in recent decades. Wood-thermoset composites date to the early 1900s. "Thermosets" or thermosetting polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins such as epoxies...

  20. Wood Variety Recognition on Mobile Devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Pavel; Haindl, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 93 (2013), s. 52-52 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : wood recognition * Markov random fields Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/vacha-wood variety recognition on mobile devices.pdf

  1. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial...

  2. Kraft pulping of industrial wood waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz. Ahmed; Masood. Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Most of the approximately 25 to 30 million tons of industrial wood waste generated in the United States per year is burned for energy and/or landfilled. In this study, kraft pulp from industrial wood waste was evaluated and compared with softwood (loblolly pine, Douglas-fir) and hardwood (aspen) pulp. Pulp bleachability was also evaluated. Compared to loblolly pine...

  3. Micromechanical measurement of wood substructure properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann; Troy W. Schmidt; Roderic S. Lakes; Steven M. Cramer

    2002-01-01

    The annual rings of softwoods are visually obvious and represent cylindrical layers of primarily cellulosic material that possess significantly different properties. For simplicity, wood construction products are designed assuming a material homogeneity that does not exist. As rapidly grown plantation trees are used for wood products, fewer rings are contained in an...

  4. Gluebond strength of laser cut wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber

    1985-01-01

    The degree of strength loss when gluing laser cut wood as compared to conventionally sawn wood and the amount of additional surface treatment needed to improve bond quality were assessed under normal furniture plant operating conditions. The strength of laser cut oak glued with polyvinyl acetate adhesive was reduced to 75 percent of sawn joints and gum was reduced 43...

  5. WGDB: Wood Gene Database with search interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Neha; Ginwal, H S

    2014-01-01

    Wood quality can be defined in terms of particular end use with the involvement of several traits. Over the last fifteen years researchers have assessed the wood quality traits in forest trees. The wood quality was categorized as: cell wall biochemical traits, fibre properties include the microfibril angle, density and stiffness in loblolly pine [1]. The user friendly and an open-access database has been developed named Wood Gene Database (WGDB) for describing the wood genes along the information of protein and published research articles. It contains 720 wood genes from species namely Pinus, Deodar, fast growing trees namely Poplar, Eucalyptus. WGDB designed to encompass the majority of publicly accessible genes codes for cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in tree species which are responsive to wood formation and quality. It is an interactive platform for collecting, managing and searching the specific wood genes; it also enables the data mining relate to the genomic information specifically in Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus taeda, Pinus radiata, Cedrus deodara, Cedrus atlantica. For user convenience, this database is cross linked with public databases namely NCBI, EMBL & Dendrome with the search engine Google for making it more informative and provides bioinformatics tools named BLAST,COBALT. The database is freely available on www.wgdb.in.

  6. Waste-wood-derived fillers for plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent English; Craig M. Clemons; Nicole Stark; James P. Schneider

    1996-01-01

    Filled thermoplastic composites are stiffer, stronger, and more dimensionally stable than their unfilled counterparts. Such thermoplastics are usually provided to the end-user as a precompounded, pelletized feedstock. Typical reinforcing fillers are inorganic materials like talc or fiberglass, but materials derived from waste wood, such as wood flour and recycled paper...

  7. Turbulence and Araki-Woods factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasyk, R.; Törnquist, A.; Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2010-01-01

    Using Baire category techniques we prove that Araki-Woods factors are not classifiable by countable structures. As a result, we obtain a far reaching strengthening as well as a new proof of the well-known theorem of Woods that the isomorphism problem for ITPFI factors is not smooth. We derive...

  8. Wood as a sustainable building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk

    2009-01-01

    Few building materials possess the environmental benefits of wood. It is not only the most widely used building material in the United States but also one with characteristics that make it suitable for a wide range of applications. Efficient, durable, and useful wood products produced from trees range from a minimally processed log at a log-home building site to a...

  9. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  10. Wood as a sustainable building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk

    2010-01-01

    Few building materials possess the environmental benefits of wood. It is not only our most widely used building material but also one with characteristics that make it suitable for a wide range of applications. As described in the many chapters of this handbook, efficient, durable, and useful wood products produced from trees can range from a minimally processed log at...

  11. Heating and ignition of small wood cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace L. Fons

    1950-01-01

    The literature provides limited information on the time of ignition of wood under conditions of rapid heating such as occur in forest and structure fires. An investigation was made of ease of ignition as affected by such physical properties of wood as initial temperature, size, and moisture content and by temperature of ambient gas or rate of heating. Temperature-time...

  12. Protecting wood fences for yard and garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. De Groot; W. C. Feist; W. E. Eslyn; L. R. Gjovik

    For maximum protection against wood decay and termites, use posts that have an in-depth preservative treatment, preferably a pressure treatment for below ground use. When selecting posts of naturally decay-resistant woods, choose posts with mostly heartwood. Horizontal rails require more protection from decay than do vertical boards. In regions of high and moderate...

  13. Finishability of CCA pressure-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Ross; Richard Carlson; William Feist; Steven Bussjaeger

    2000-01-01

    Thus, a need arose for the development of surface finishes for CCA-treated wood that could address the special requirements of this substrate and provide protection against the ravages of water, sunlight, mildew, and other aspects of weathering and wear. Initially, this need was not addressed, most wood preserving companies had little expertise in surface finishes and...

  14. Environmental education on wood preservatives and preservative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and use of wood preservatives in Nigeria should address not only the cost and demand functions but also the potential hazards in environmental equations. Forest products specialists are often asked about the perceived risks and environmental costs of treated wood products. Evidently, the civil society is ...

  15. Bacteria in decomposing wood and their interactions with wood-decay fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sarah R; Boddy, Lynne; Weightman, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    The fungal community within dead wood has received considerable study, but far less attention has been paid to bacteria in the same habitat. Bacteria have long been known to inhabit decomposing wood, but much remains underexplored about their identity and ecology. Bacteria within the dead wood environment must interact with wood-decay fungi, but again, very little is known about the form this takes; there are indications of both antagonistic and beneficial interactions within this fungal microbiome. Fungi are hypothesised to play an important role in shaping bacterial communities in wood, and conversely, bacteria may affect wood-decay fungi in a variety of ways. This minireview considers what is currently known about bacteria in wood and their interactions with fungi, and proposes possible associations based on examples from other habitats. It aims to identify key knowledge gaps and pressing questions for future research. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Physiological Effects of Touching Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Ikei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7  ±  1.6 years participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF/HF ratio, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated white oak, marble, tile, and stainless steel were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed, participants touched the materials for 90 s. As a result, tactile stimulation with white oak significantly (1 decreased the oxy-Hb concentration in the left/right prefrontal cortex relative to marble, tile, and stainless steel and (2 increased ln(HF-reflected parasympathetic nervous activity relative to marble and stainless steel. In conclusion, our study revealed that touching wood with the palm calms prefrontal cortex activity and induces parasympathetic nervous activity more than other materials, thereby inducing physiological relaxation.

  17. Wood properties of Populus and Betula in long-term exposure to elevated CO₂ and O₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiainen, Katri; Saranpää, Pekka; Lundqvist, Sven-Olof; Kubiske, Mark E; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2014-06-01

    We studied the interactive effects of elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3 on radial growth and wood properties of four trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) saplings. The material for the study was collected from the Aspen FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) experiment in Rhinelander (WI, USA). Trees had been exposed to four treatments [control, elevated CO2 (560 ppm), elevated O3 (1.5 times ambient) and combined CO2 + O3 ] during growing seasons 1998-2008. Most treatment responses were observed in the early phase of experiment. Our results show that the CO2- and O3-exposed aspen trees displayed a differential balance between efficiency and safety of water transport. Under elevated CO2, radial growth was enhanced and the trees had fewer but hydraulically more efficient larger diameter vessels. In contrast, elevated O3 decreased radial growth and the diameters of vessels and fibres. Clone-specific decrease in wood density and cell wall thickness was observed under elevated CO2 . In birch, the treatments had no major impacts on wood anatomy or wood density. Our study indicates that short-term impact studies conducted with young seedlings may not give a realistic view of long-term ecosystem responses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Introducing wood pellet fuel to the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, R A; Giffard, A

    2001-07-01

    Technical and non-technical issues affecting the introduction of wood pellet-fired heating to the UK were investigated with the aim of helping to establish a wood pellet industry in the UK. The project examined the growth and status of the industry in continental Europe and North America, reviewed relevant UK standards and legislation, identified markets for pellet heating in the UK, organised workshops and seminars to demonstrate pellet burning appliances, carried out a trial pelletisation of a range of biomass fuels, helped to set up demonstration installations of pellet-fired appliances, undertook a promotional campaign for wood pellet fuel and compiled resource directories for pellet fuel and pellet burning appliances in the UK. The work was completed in three phases - review, identification and commercialisation. Project outputs include UK voluntary standards for wood pellet fuel and combustion appliances, and a database of individuals with an interest in wood pellet fuel.

  19. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C.

    1999-01-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  20. Mineralogy of Non-Silicified Fossil Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Mustoe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The best-known and most-studied petrified wood specimens are those that are mineralized with polymorphs of silica: opal-A, opal-C, chalcedony, and quartz. Less familiar are fossil woods preserved with non-silica minerals. This report reviews discoveries of woods mineralized with calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, various iron and copper minerals, manganese oxide, fluorite, barite, natrolite, and smectite clay. Regardless of composition, the processes of mineralization involve the same factors: availability of dissolved elements, pH, Eh, and burial temperature. Permeability of the wood and anatomical features also plays important roles in determining mineralization. When precipitation occurs in several episodes, fossil wood may have complex mineralogy.

  1. Use of nanofillers in wood coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Lawther, John Mark; Sanadi, Anand Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Wood has been used for thousands of years and remains an important material in the construction industry, most often protected with coatings. Development of nanotechnology allows further improvements or new performance properties to be achieved in wood coatings. Increased UV protection...... with nanometal oxides that allow wood texture to remain seen and higher resilience to scratch and abrasion with use of different nanoparticle shapes are some of the applications that are reviewed here. A variety of possible applications together with a high level of improvements, alongside commercial factors...... like a low level of loading, have already established nanoparticles in some areas of wood coatings. This article is a comprehensive scientific review of the published work in the use of nanofillers in wood coatings....

  2. Optimising hydrogen bonding in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2009-01-01

    The chemical bonds of wood are both covalent bonds within the wood polymers and hydrogen bonds within and between the polymers. Both types of bonds are responsible for the coherence, strength and stiffness of the material. The hydrogen bonds are more easily modified by changes in load, moisture...... and temperature distorting the internal bonding state. A problem arises when studying hydrogen bonding in wood since matched wood specimens of the same species will have very different internal bonding states. Thus, possible changes in the bonding state due to some applied treatment such as conditioning...... maintaining 100 % moisture content of the wood. The hypothesis was that this would enable a fast stress relaxation as a result of reorganization of bonds, since moisture plasticizes the material and temperature promotes faster kinetics. Hereby, all past bond distortions caused by various moisture, temperature...

  3. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  4. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  5. Tšarterkool USA-s / Johannes Kiersch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiersch, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    24.-27. mainì 01 toimub Tallinnas EFFE 2001 (European Forum of Freedom in Education) konverents "Haridus tänases kodanikuühiskonnas." Konverentsil esineb ka Witteni Waldorf-pedagoogika Instituudi õppejõud Johannes Kiersch. Lähemalt tema artiklist USA-s populaarsust võitvate tsharterkoolide kohta, mis on riigi- ja erakooli vahevorm

  6. Adaptability to climate change in forestry species: drought effects on growth and wood anatomy of ponderosa pines growing at different competition levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, M. E.; Gyenge, J. E.; Urquiza, M. M.; Varela, S.

    2012-11-01

    More stressful conditions are expected due to climatic change in several regions, including Patagonia, South-America. In this region, there are no studies about the impact of severe drought events on growth and wood characteristics of the most planted forestry species, Pinus ponderosa (Doug. ex-Laws). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of a severe drought event on annual stem growth and functional wood anatomy of pines growing at different plantation densities aiming to understand how management practices can help to increase their adaptability to climate change. Growth magnitude and period, specific hydraulic conductivity, and anatomical traits (early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter, cell-wall thickness, tracheid length and bordered pit dimensions) were measured in the ring 2008-2009, which was formed during drought conditions. This drought event decreased annual stem growth by 30-38% and 58-65% respect to previous mean growth, in open vs. closed stand trees, respectively, indicating a higher sensitivity of the latter, which is opposite to reports from the same species growing in managed native forests in USA. Some wood anatomical variables did differ in more water stressed trees (lower cell wall thickness of early wood cells and higher proportion of small-lumen cells in late wood), which in turn did not affect wood function (hydraulic conductivity and resistance to implosion). Other anatomical variables (tracheid length, pit dimensions, early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter of early wood cells) did not differ between tree sizes and plantation density. The results suggest that severe drought affects differentially the amount but not the function and quality of formed wood in ponderosa pine growing at different competition levels. (Author) 41 refs.

  7. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Solvey Specialty Polymers USA, L.L.C. in Thorofare, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    The site is located at 10 Leonard Lane, in Thorofare (West Deptford Township), New Jersey, in a mostly industrial setting surrounded by a rural residential area. Pennwalt began operations in the 1970s manufacturing fluorocarbons but the operations ceased

  8. How spectroscopy and microspectroscopy of degraded wood contribute to understand fungal wood decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackler, Karin; Schwanninger, Manfred

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance, mid and near infrared, and ultra violet (UV) spectra of wood contain information on its chemistry and composition. When solid wood samples are analysed, information on the molecular structure of the lignocellulose complex of wood e.g. crystallinity of polysaccharides and the orientation of the polymers in wood cell walls can also be gained. UV and infrared spectroscopy allow also for spatially resolved spectroscopy, and state-of-the-art mapping and imaging systems have been able to provide local information on wood chemistry and structure at the level of wood cells (with IR) or cell wall layers (with UV). During the last decades, these methods have also proven useful to follow alterations of the composition, chemistry and physics of the substrate wood after fungi had grown on it as well as changes of the interactions between the wood polymers within the lignocellulose complex caused by decay fungi. This review provides an overview on how molecular spectroscopic methods could contribute to understand these degradation processes and were able to characterise and localise fungal wood decay in its various stages starting from the incipient and early ones even if the major share of research focussed on advanced decay. Practical issues such as requirements in terms of sample preparation and sample form and present examples of optimised data analysis will also be addressed to be able to detect and characterise the generally highly variable microbial degradation processes within their highly variable substrate wood.

  9. Manufacture of wood-pellets doubles. Biowatti Oy started a wood pellet plant in Turenki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantanen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Wood pellets have many advantages compared to other fuels. It is longest processed biofuel with favorable energy content. It is simple to use, transport and store. Heating with wood pellets is cheaper than with light fuel oil, and approximately as cheap as utilization of heavy fuel oil, about 110 FIM/MWh. The taxable price of wood pellets is about 550 FIM/t. Stokers and American iron stoves are equally suitable for combustion of wood pellets. Chip fueled stokers are preferred in Finland, but they are also suitable for the combustion of wood pellets. Wood pellets is an environmentally friendly product, because it does not increase the CO 2 load in the atmosphere, and its sulfur and soot emissions are relatively small. The wood pelletizing plant of Biowatti Oy in Turenki was started in an old sugar mill. The Turenki sugar mill was chosen because the technology of the closed sugar factory was suitable for production of wood pellets nearly as such, and required only by slight modifications. A press, designed for briquetting of sugar beat clippings makes the pellets. The Turenki mill will double the volume of wood pellet manufacture in Finland during the next few years. At the start the annual wood pellet production will be 20 000 tons, but the environmental permit allows the production to be increased to 70 000 tons. At first the mill uses planing machine chips as a raw material in the production. It is the most suitable raw material, because it is already dry (moisture content 8-10%), and all it needs is milling and pelletizing. Another possible raw material is sawdust, which moisture content is higher than with planing machine chips. Most of the wood pellets produced are exported e.g. to Sweden, Denmark and Middle Europe. In Sweden there are over 10 000 single-family houses using wood pellets. Biowatti's largest customer is a power plant located in Stockholm, which combusts annually about 200 000 tons of wood pellets

  10. Upgraded wood residue fuels 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinterbaeck, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Swedish market for upgraded residue fuels, i.e. briquettes, pellets and wood powder, has developed considerably during the nineties. The additional costs for the upgrading processes are regained and create a surplus in other parts of the system, e.g. in the form of higher combustion efficiencies, lower investment costs for burning equipment, lower operation costs and a diminished environmental impact. All these factors put together have resulted in a rapid growth of this part of the energy sector. In 1994 the production was 1.9 TWh, an increase of 37 % compared to the previous year. In the forthcoming heating season 1995/96 the production may reach 4 TWh. 57 refs, 11 figs, 6 tabs

  11. Economic evaluation: wood stave pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rook, M.E.

    The spray of leakage from the wood stave water supply pipeline serving the New England Power Company's (NEPCO) Searsburg hydroelectric development had caused this facility to be dubbed ''The Searsburg Car Wash.'' In July, 1982, excessive leakage from this pipeline prompted NEPCO to perform a technical inspection which would inform the company's decision to replace, repair, or abandon the pipeline. The inspection indicated that a combination of interrelated factors has led to rapid deterioration. The feasibility study, which included a benefit -cost analysis of a times replacement with a continued repair program weighed annually by a risk factor representing the probability of pipeline failure during the replacement period, determined that direct replacement was most advantageous. 4 figures, 1 figures.

  12. Wood-starved and footsore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, T.

    1993-01-01

    Nearly half the people on earth soon may find themselves a little colder and a little hungrier as sources of cheap fuel for cooking and heating begin to disappear. Traditional wood-base fuels such as firewood and charcoal are becoming scarce as populations increase and forest land is converted to other uses. For more than 100 million people, this shortage has reached crisis proportions. In just seven years the world population, now estimated at 5.5 billion, is expected to exceed 6.25 billion. Almost half-including nearly 600 million urban dwellers-may not have enough fuel to heat their homes and feed their families. By 2025, when the world population could reach 10 billion, finding fuel supplies that are reliable and inexpensive will be both a rural and an urban problem. Solutions are being explored in several areas, based on more efficient and more effective tree planting and more energy efficient technologies

  13. Wood chemistry symposium: from muka to lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, M.

    1979-01-01

    The Canadian Wood Chemistry Symposium held during September, 1979, is reviewed. The chemical and physical explanations of delignification were debated. Problems of mechanical pulping include insufficient brightness, yellowing, and low strength relative to energy consumption. A session on chemicals, energy, and food from wood began with criteria for a viable project, which included adequate return on investment, modest capital investment requirements, identified pre-existing markets, and favorable thermodynamic balances. The pulp and paper industry should improve its methods of using bark and wood waste in direct combustion (by pre-drying wastes and improving furnace efficiency) rather than supporting oil-from-wood projects, since using a waste for fuel will free fossil fuels for uses in synthetic fibers and thermoplastics. In the area of food, there are modest successes with cellulose fiber additives to bread and snack food and single cell protein (which, though made from wastes, cannot compete with soy protein). However, making monomeric sugars from wood polysaccharides is not an efficient process, and muka, animal feed supplement from foliage, is successful only in Russia. In Canada it cannot compete with agricultural products. Alpha cellulose is a major wood chemical product. Promising uses include cellulose derived thermoplastics and lignosulphonates for secondary oil recovery. Instead of breaking wood polysaccharides and lignin into monomers and then repolymerizing them, it is possible to use the pre-built polymers; such an approach is illustrated by use of lignin in polyurethane foams, adhesives, and coatings.

  14. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  15. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P; Tullus, H; Uri, V [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  16. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  17. TTÜ ja TÜ osalevad USA armee miljoniprojektides

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    TTÜ ja TÜ liitusid USA-s tegutseva meditsiinitehnoloogia ettevõtete konsortsiumiga. Nii jõuavad juhtivate Eesti kõrgkoolide teadmised USA armeesse, kes konsortsiumi kaudu innovaatilisi tooteid ja teenuseid sisse ostab

  18. Euroopa teadis USA salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    USA endise välisministri Colin Powelli sõnul pole see tema sõpradele Euroopas uudiseks, et USA on viinud vange riikidesse, kus tema seadused ei kehti. USA praeguse välisministri Condoleezza Rice'i sõnul on USA vange üle kuulanud väljaspool USA-d. USA Today kirjeldab Stare Kiejkuty küla Poolas, kus arvatavasti on olnud salavangla

  19. Strong air pollution from old wood stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    According to this article, wood-firing is the major source of suspended dust in Norway. Old stoves emit about six times as much as new stoves. Only seven percent of the wood-firing takes place in modern, clean-burning stoves. In Oslo, where replacement of old stoves has been publicly supported, this fraction is even less. The emission of carbon dioxide from burning wood does not count as climate gas emission since the amount of CO 2 released from a burning tree equals the amount that was fixed in the growing tree, and it would have been released anyhow by the decaying tree if not burned

  20. Environmental assessment of domestic wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labouze, E.; Le Guerin, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In France, more than 6 million families are concerned with the domestic use of wood energy. The wood energy plan of ADEME aims at encouraging the development of wood energy in three sectors: domestic, collective/tertiary, industrial. In that context, ADEME commissioned BIO Intelligence Service a life cycle assessment of collective and industrial heating in order to give objective environmental information and to analyse the strength and weakness of wood heating. Three scenarios were defined according to the origin of wood: firewood, granules and sawmill chips. The study also proposes a comparison to other heating systems: gas, fuel oil and electricity. The life cycle analysis applied to domestic heating consists in quantifying the environmental impacts of the whole linked steps: extraction of fuel, distribution, final use... Every system under study has been divided according to three main stages: - Extraction of raw materials; - Transport of fuels until the place of storage or distribution; - Use (combustion or upstream production of energy in the case of electricity). The environmental impacts are estimated with the following indicators: - Non renewable primary energy balance sheet; - Global warming potential; - Air acidification potential; - Eutrophication potential; - Emissions of toxic metals in air and in soils. The results show that wood heating have the best energy and global warming balance sheets. For air acidification, the combustion stage is pre-dominant regardless of the energy resource. This is mainly due to nitrogen and sulphur oxides airborne emissions. For wood heating, preparation requires fuel consumption which also contributes significantly to nitrogen oxides emissions. The comparison with conventional energy shows that the wood scenarios are well positioned in relation to fuel and electricity for this indicator. Gas appears to be the best heating option for this indicator. The contribution eutrophication is also due to nitrogen oxides airborne

  1. Irradiation effects in wood and cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, K.G.

    1976-01-01

    For cellulosic materials the predominant effect of high energy radiation is depolymerisation and degradation by chain scission, although there is some evidence that crosslinking or cellulose stabilisation can occur under certain conditions. When the cellulose is in the form of a natural product such as wood, where it is intimately associated with other polysaccharides, lignins, resins and gums, the effects of radiation can be significantly modified. Examination of cellulose produced by chemical pulping treatment of wood which had been previously given small doses of radiation, showed significant differences in the extent of cellulose depolymerisation with different wood species. The relevance of this work to the paper pulp industry will also be discussed. (author)

  2. European wood-pastures in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions....... This book examines the diverse expressions of wood-pastures across Europe. It provides a new perspective, using a social-ecological framework to explore social and ecological values, governing institutions, threats and conservation approaches. It explores the major drivers of decline, which are shown...

  3. Supply of Rubber Wood Log in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Noraida, A. W.; Abdul-Rahim, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Issue on shortage of raw material for wood processing solved by discovery of rubber wood log as one of the substitutes the natural log. This paper examines the supply of rubber wood log in Malaysia. We employ ARDL Bound Approach Test and time series data from 1980 to 2010 which represented the whole Malaysia are used to achieve the established objectives. The result shown, in the long run harvested area and wages have 1% and 10% significant level respectively. While in the short run, there wa...

  4. Emissions from wood domestic heating appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, S.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to study emissions from wood domestic heating appliances. This work reviews the available emission factors about pollutants produced in different types of wood domestic heating appliances. The main sources of pollutants are older stoves that in most cases are used as an additional heating appliance. These stoves causes higher emissions than modern appliances. Then, substitution of an old type wood appliance with a modern appliance or boiler or a pellet boilers, would reduce considerably emissions in this sector. The efficiency of this measure is estimated for each pollutant. (author)

  5. Selection and application of exterior stains for wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; William C. Feist

    1999-01-01

    Exterior stains for wood protect the wood surface from sunlight and moisture. Because stains are formulated to penetrate the wood surface, they are not prone to crack or peel as can film-forming finishes, such as paints. This publication describes the properties of stains and wood, methods for applying stains, and the expected service life of stains.

  6. Wood and Other Materials Used to Construct Nonresidential Buildings - Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2014-01-01

    Low-rise nonresidential building construction is an important market in Canada for lumber, engineered wood products, structural wood panels, and nonstructural wood panels. This report examines wood products consumption in 2012 for construction of selected low-rise nonresidential buildings types that have six or fewer stories. Buildings with more than six stories are...

  7. Water repellents and water-repellent preservatives for wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; William C. Feist

    1999-01-01

    Water repellents and water-repellent preservatives increase the durability of wood by enabling the wood to repel liquid water. This report focuses on water-repellent finishes for wood exposed outdoors above ground. The report includes a discussion of the effects of outdoor exposure on wood, the characteristics of water repellent and water-repellent preservative...

  8. Consumer preference study of characteristics of Hawaiian koa wood bowls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C Lowell; Katherine Wilson; Jan Wiedenbeck; Catherine Chan; J. B. Friday; Nicole Evans

    2017-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray), a species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, has ecological, cultural, and economic significance. Its wood is prized globally but today, most woodworkers only use koa wood from dead and dying old-growth trees. The general perception of wood from young-growth koa is that it lacks the color and figure of old-growth wood and is...

  9. Methods for Mitigating the Environmental Risks Associated with Wood Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis Hayward; Stan T. Lebow; Kenneth M. Brooks

    2011-01-01

    As noted in earlier chapters, the treatment of wood is both art and science. Wood is a variable material; treatment results tend to vary with the preservative and wood species and even within boards of the same species. This means that treated wood often contains a range of preservative retentions. Some pieces will have less than the desired retention, while others may...

  10. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements for reconstituted wood boxes are as follows: (1) The walls of boxes must be made of water... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515...

  11. Housing and the wood industry, trends & market conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matt Bumgardner; Al Schuler; K. Koenig

    2011-01-01

    Housing markets continue to have major impacts on the secondary wood industry. So, what are the steps being taken by wood products manufacturers in order to stay viable? As a follow-up to last year's article, "Housing Market's Impact on the Secondary Woodworking Industry" (Wood & Wood Products, July 2010), the focus of this year's study was...

  12. Wood construction codes issues in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer

    2006-01-01

    The current wood construction codes find their origin in the 1935 Wood Handbook: Wood as an Engineering Material published by the USDA Forest Service. Many of the current design recommendations can be traced back to statements from this book. Since this time a series of development both historical and recent has led to a multi-layered system for use of wood products in...

  13. Utilization trend of wood species utilized in furniture industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilization trend of four commonly used wood species and two lesser used wood species that are used for furniture making was examined. The wood species are Mansonia altissima (Mansonia), Khaya ivorensis (Khaya), Cordia millenii (Cordia) and Tectona grandis (Teak) as commonly used wood species; Aningeria ...

  14. Acetylation of wood components and fourier transform infra-red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the reactivity of wood components with acetic anhydride or vinyl acetate was studied. It was found that the reactivity of wood components was virgin wood flour > holocellulose >> a-cellulose. Acetylation of Turkish pine or cedar wood flour with acetic anhydride was significantly improved in the presence of ...

  15. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F.W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  16. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  17. A geographical analysis of the Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Anders; Bohlin, Folke; Hektor, Bo; Hillring, Bengt; Parikka, Matti

    2000-01-01

    The geographical variation in Swedish wood fuel market characteristics for the district heating sector has been studied using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and cross-sectional Tobit analysis. The results indicate that local availability and competition for wood fuels influence the wood fuel consumption at inland heating plants. The factors affecting the decision to use wood fuel at heating plants close to seaports, however, were not captured by the model, suggesting that coastal location reduces dependency on the local wood fuel market. The effects of changes in local wood fuel availability on wood fuel use by an inland heating plant are presented and discussed

  18. Implementation of new technologies in wood industry and their effect in wood products quality

    OpenAIRE

    ELVA ÇAUSHI; PANDELI MARKU

    2014-01-01

    There are about 300 companies producing furniture and about 250 small and medium enterprises (SME) producing sawn timber, which operate in the field of wood industry in Albania. This wood industry production is being challenged by the increasing demand in the domestic market, ranging from kitchen furniture to office and schools furniture, bedroom furniture, doors, windows, and saw timber in different dimensions. The production from the wood industry can fulfill about 80% of the domestic mark...

  19. LCA-based optimization of wood utilization under special consideration of a cascading use of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglmeier, Karin; Steubing, Bernhard; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele; Richter, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Cascading, the use of the same unit of a resource in multiple successional applications, is considered as a viable means to improve the efficiency of resource utilization and to decrease environmental impacts. Wood, as a regrowing but nevertheless limited and increasingly in demand resource, can be used in cascades, thereby increasing the potential efficiency per unit of wood. This study aims to assess the influence of cascading wood utilization on optimizing the overall environmental impact of wood utilization. By combining a material flow model of existing wood applications - both for materials provision and energy production - with an algebraic optimization tool, the effects of the use of wood in cascades can be modelled and quantified based on life cycle impact assessment results for all production processes. To identify the most efficient wood allocation, the effects of a potential substitution of non-wood products were taken into account in a part of the model runs. The considered environmental indicators were global warming potential, particulate matter formation, land occupation and an aggregated single score indicator. We found that optimizing either the overall global warming potential or the value of the single score indicator of the system leads to a simultaneous relative decrease of all other considered environmental impacts. The relative differences between the impacts of the model run with and without the possibility of a cascading use of wood were 7% for global warming potential and the single score indicator, despite cascading only influencing a small part of the overall system, namely wood panel production. Cascading led to savings of up to 14% of the annual primary wood supply of the study area. We conclude that cascading can improve the overall performance of a wood utilization system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical and mechanical properties of bio-composites from wood particles and liquefied wood resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    Compression molded composites were made from wood particles and a liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde co-condensed resin. Based on our previous research, a phenol to wood (P/W) ratio of 2/1 was chosen for this study. The two experimental variables selected were: 1) liquefaction temperature (150o and 180oC) and 2) cooking method (atmospheric and sealed). Panels were...

  1. Future USA development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, J.D.; Biancheria, A.; Leibnitz, D.; O'Reilly, B.D.; Liu, Y.Y.; Labar, M.P.; Gneiting, B.C.

    1979-01-01

    The planning for further development in the USA at this time is a mixture of expectation and guessing. Modeling development is certain to continue, but the target reactor is uncertain. The next plant may or may not use the FFTR driver fuel design. The planning, therefore, emphasizes fundamentals and flexibility. There are many options to be modeled. The FFTF driver fuel performance in FFTF must be evaluated; both the reference and improved designs. A decision to use the FFTR driver design in the large plant will demand predictions on the effects of axial blankets, constant power (rather than decreasing) throughout life, and power changes, behavior beyond breach and design basis transients in large plants. A decision favoring a lower doubling time oxide design adds the effects of higher strength/lower swelling alloys, increased pin diameter, reduced cladding thickness/diameter, increased smeared density, gap versus pellet density, and reduced pin pitch/diameter. A helium bonded carbide design adds concern about increased potential for fuel-cladding-assembly mechanical interactions. And blanket pin performance predictions, either in a homogeneous or a heterogeneous core, add an increasing power history and enhanced assembly interactions. It is possible that the decision will be to choose a first core and retain all options for later cores. The modeling objective, for whatever options are chosen, is to predict the effect of normal and off-normal design conditions on performance limits (i.e., fuel temperature, pin deformation, pin lifetime). Several significant uncertainties in the mechanisms associated with the performance limits remain and will be addressed. These include gap closure, gap conductance and fuel properties at higher burnup, fuel-fission product reactions, retained gas, breach mechanisms, assembly interactions and behavior beyond breach, plus establishing appropriate criteria. The LIFE system, with its elements of 1D and 2D fundamental modeling

  2. Continued growth expected for wood energy despite turbulence of the economic crisis : wood energy markets, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rens Hartkamp; Bengt Hillring; Warren Mabee; Olle Olsson; Kenneth Skog; Henry Spelter; Johan Vinterback; Antje Wahl

    2009-01-01

    The economic crisis has not reduced the demand for wood energy, which is expected to continue to grow. The downturn in sawmill production caused a shortage of raw material supply for wood pellet producers. With decreased demand for pulpwood-quality roundwood for wood and paper products in 2009, some pulpwood is being converted into wood energy. Economies of scale are...

  3. The economic potential of wood pellet production from alternative, low-value wood sources in the southeast of the US

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Junginger, Martin; Faaij, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The global demand for wood pellets used for energy purposes is growing. Therefore, increased amounts of wood pellets are produced from primary forestry products, such as pulp wood. The present analysis demonstrates that substantial amounts of alternative, low-value wood resources are available that

  4. Pepeljajev eesti näitlejatega USA-s

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Sasha Pepeljajevi tantsulavastust "Uksed" etendati USA rahvusvahelisel teatrifestivalil "Arts & Ideas". Vene-Eesti trupi Apparatus lavastus on pühendatud Daniil Harmsi 100. sünniaastapäevale ning põhineb tema töödel

  5. On-line automatic detection of wood pellets in pneumatically conveyed wood dust flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Duo; Yan, Yong; Carter, Robert M.; Gao, Lingjun; Qian, Xiangchen; Lu, Gang

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a piezoelectric transducer based system for on-line automatic detection of wood pellets in wood dust flow in pneumatic conveying pipelines. The piezoelectric transducer senses non-intrusively the collisions between wood pellets and the pipe wall. Wavelet-based denoising is adopted to eliminate environmental noise and recover the collision events. Then the wood pellets are identified by sliding a time window through the denoised signal with a suitable threshold. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory test rig and on an industrial pneumatic conveying pipeline to assess the effectiveness and operability of the system.

  6. Application of molecular genetic methods for identification of wood-decaying fungi in wood constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bobeková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the utilization of molecular biology methods for detection of wood decaying fungi directly from decomposed wood using a commercial DNA extraction kit developed for soil substrates (PowerSoil™ DNA isolation kit. The experiment based on dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans detection from inoculated wooden pieces under laboratory conditions was followed by field detection of wood-decaying fungi from wood structures on building constructions. Fungal DNA was identified using the PCR–based methods including species-specific PCR and sequencing of amplified ITS region of ribosomal DNA.

  7. Technology and distribution of pellets. Experience about the European network on wood pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    Wood pellets might become the most important alternative to fossil fuels in the near future. As a bio-fuel it has the following characteristics: heat value, min 4.7 kWh/kg; ash fraction less than 1.0 vol. %; humidity less than 10 vol. %; diameter (rod shaped) min 6 mm and volumetric weight about 650 kg/m 3 . About 2.1 t pellets substitute 1000 l fuel oil. Sweden and Austria have more than 15 year experience in using wood pellets, followed by Germany. They are an environmentally friendly alternative for private houses, for district heating plants and especially suitable for densely built-up and inhabited areas. Having high energy density they can be transported to the areas with high energy requirements. Among their advantages are: low humidity, easy transport and storage, can be produced by renewable raw materials and provide new local jobs, fit for renewable energy systems with closed cycle. Disadvantages include: relatively more expensive for private houses compared to oil and gas and necessity of two times larger storage space than oil. Wood pellets are produced by all kind of paper waste and wood wastes from industry. They are especially suitable for small boiler plants and the oil burner can be replaced by a pellet burner in the same boiler. The leading producer of wood pellets is Sweden, of pellet stoves - USA. Pellet stoves, pellet burners and pellet boilers both for private houses and for heating plants are manufactured also in Sweden, Denmark,Finland, Germany, Austria and Ireland

  8. Common wood decay fungi found in the Caribbean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean. Lodge

    2016-01-01

    There are hundreds of wood-decay fungi in the Caribbean Basin, but relatively few of these are likely to grow on manmade structures built of wood or wood-composites. The wood-decay fungi of greatest concern are those that cause brown-rot, and especially brown-rot fungi that are resistant to copper-based wood preservatives. Some fungi that grow in the Caribbean and...

  9. 2015 OLC Lidar DEM: Big Wood, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Big Wood 2015 study area. This study area is located in...

  10. Wood biomass gasification in the world today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolikj, Ognjen; Perishikj, Radovan; Mikulikj, Jurica

    1999-01-01

    Today gasification technology of different kinds represents a more and more interesting option of the production of energy forms. The article describes a biomass gasification plant (waste wood) Sydkraft, Vernamo from Sweden. (Author)

  11. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-30

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs.

  12. Effects of Wood Ash on Soil Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla

    ), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni), is a major environmental concern. This work is part of the project ASHBACK (www.ashback.dk) which addresses the potentials and possible problems in re-distributing wood ash to the forest. The aim of this thesis was to determine the effects of biomass ash application...... in a Norway spruce forest where different amounts of wood ash were spread on the soil to study the effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, bioaccumulation of metals in sporocarps, and microbial communities. Laboratory microcosm experiments were run in parallel to the field studies, to compare the effects...... of wood ash with factorial additions of lime and Cd to disentangle the pH and Cd effects of wood ash amendments using community trait distributions. Barley yield, P content, and Cd content were not affected by biomass ashes. Some arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species were reduced when biomass ashes...

  13. Moisture-driven fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2011-01-01

    Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood and with the crac......Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood...... process, suggesting that sealing the ends of timber logs while in the green moisture state could considerably reduce the development of end-cracks. The initial moisture content and the shrinkage properties of the wood varied markedly from pith to bark. The importance of taking material inhomogeneities...... into account when modelling crack propagation in solid wood is emphasized. © 2011 Taylor & Francis....

  14. Cold shock on the wood fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queyrel, A.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the wood fuel industry represents one of the pillars of the European energy plan, and in particular of the French energy policy, as it fulfills both objectives of development of renewable energy sources and CO 2 balance. The wood fuel industry supplies 6% of the French energy consumption and has permitted to save more than 9 million tons of petroleum equivalent. However, the conclusions of the European project CARBOSOL stress on the strong health impacts of wood-fueled combustion systems, in particular in the case of domestic individual systems and appliances. The combustion of biomass (fireplaces and agriculture) is responsible for 50 to 70% of the winter carbon pollution in Europe. The situation of collective or industrial wood-fueled facilities is different since pollution control solutions can be more easily implemented. (J.S.)

  15. PHYSICAL ANALYSIS OF QUALITY WOOD Melia azedarach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. da Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest species, in general, present a slow growth, which results and profits can manifest themselves in the long run, it becomes necessary the study and discovery of new species that may provide raw materials and return on invested capital more immediate, being that the Melia azedarach wood is a potential option. In the absence of information about, the objective of this paper is to determine its physical properties: basic density and shrinkage of the Melia azedarach species in the Itapeva-SP region. The data obtained in this study allow to classify wood Melia azedarach as wood of average density and good dimensional stability. Feature that makes it ideal for its use in furniture industry. The low amount of research related to quality of this wood prevents the commercial use of it to achieve its full potential harnessing its effectively, and essential investments in this field.

  16. Manufacture, delivery and marketing of wood pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtanen, T.

    2001-01-01

    Wood pellet is a cheap fuel, the use of which can easily bee automated. Pellet heating can be carried out with a stoker or a pellet burner, which can be mounted to oil and solid fuels boiler or to solid fuel boilers. Vapo Oy delivers wood pellet to farms and detached houses via Agrimarket stores. Vapo Oy delivers pellets to large real estates, municipalities, industry, greenhouses and power plants directly as bulk. The pellets are delivered either by trailers or lorries equipped with fan-operated unloaders. The use of wood pellets is a suitable fuel especially for real estates, the boiler output of which is 20 - 1000 kW. Vapo Oy manufactures wood pellets of cutter chips, grinding dust and sawdust. The raw material for Ilomantsi pellet plant is purchased from the province of North Karelia. The capacity of pelletizing plant is 45 000 t of pellets per year, half of which is exported mainly to Sweden and Denmark

  17. Gamma radiation a help to archeological woods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balibar, F.

    1981-01-01

    Waterlogged archeological wood falls into dust once extracted from the water. In order to prevent this destruction several processes have been thought up. In France, the Grenoble Nuclear Study Centre has developed a method of consolidation by resin impregnation and gamma irradiation. The object is first immersed in a vessel containing liquid resin which spreads throughout the wood thereby driving off the water. During the second stage of the treatment, the impregnated objects are irradiated by gamma radiation emitted by a rectangular grid of cobalt 60, so as to polymerize the resin inside the wood. The irradiated objects are Gallo-Roman statuettes discovered during digs at the sources of the river Seine. The wood consolidated right through to the core then becomes sufficiently solid for the restorer to work on the surface of these objects [fr

  18. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs

  19. Transparent wood for functional and structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Yang, Xuan; Berglund, Lars

    2017-12-01

    Optically transparent wood combines mechanical performance with optical functionalities is an emerging candidate for applications in smart buildings and structural optics and photonics. The present review summarizes transparent wood preparation methods, optical and mechanical performance, and functionalization routes, and discusses potential applications. The various challenges are discussed for the purpose of improved performance, scaled-up production and realization of advanced applications. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'.

  20. Wood durability and stability without toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; Rebecca E. Ibach; Thomas Nilsson

    2010-01-01

    Part of a sustainable future for wood products depends on extending the lifetime of wood used in adverse environments. For some products such as the daily news paper, the average life of the products is one day. For packaging, the products average life time may be as few days to a few weeks. For pallets and wooden containers, the lifetime may be several months. For...

  1. Wood versus quality of the air?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, A.

    2015-01-01

    CITEPA has estimated at 875000 tonnes the releases of fine particles in France in 2014. Wood heating is responsible for 1/3 of the release of PM10 particles (particles with a diameter lower than 10 μm) and for half of the release of PM2.5 particles. PM2.5 particles are particles whose diameter is lower than 2.5 μm, they are more dangerous than PM10 particles because they enter the lungs more deeply. In 2012 the World Health Organisation acknowledged fine particles as responsible for lung cancers. The other contributors are industry (20 to 30%) and transport (16%). The uncertainties on the figures are important and can reach 50% as the estimations are based on extrapolations but wood heating appears to be the major polluter. The solution is to promote the installation of new wood heating systems that release far less particles. Open fireplaces and closed fireplaces installed before 2002 release respectively 97 and 91 kg of fine particles a year while closed fireplaces installed after 2007 release only 8 kg a year and the latest closed systems only 3 kg a year. In some mountainous regions like Haute-Savoie where wood heating is a tradition, local authorities give financial helps to individuals to install efficient systems. Community wood heating and industrial wood boilers have been equipped with efficient filters since the first Grenelle law on the environment took effect and their releases of fine particles have dropped sharply. (A.C.)

  2. Radiation processing of wood-plastic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.

    1992-01-01

    There are three main types of radiation-processed composite material derived from plastics and fibrous natural polymers. The first are the monomer-impregnated, radiation-treated wood-plastic composites (WPC). They became a commercial success in the early 1970s. More recently, work has focused on improving the WPCs by creating in them interpenetrating network (IPN) systems by the use of appropriate multifunctional oligomers and monomers. The main kinetic features of radiation-initiated chain polymerization remain applicable even in impregnated wood. The second type are the plastics filled or reinforced with dispersed wood fiber or other cellulosics (WFRP). In their case, radiation processing offers a new opportunity to apply radiation-reactive adhesion promoters between wood or cellulosic fibers and the thermoplastic matrices. The third type are the laminar composites made by electron beam coating of wood-based agglomerate sheets and boards. This chapter reviews the industrial applications and the radiation processing of the three types of the wood-plastic composites and indicates future trends. (orig.)

  3. Neoglacial fluctuations of Deming Glacier, Mt. Baker, Washington USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, G.; Menounos, B.; Scott, K.; Clague, J. J.; Tucker, D.; Riedel, J.; Davis, P.

    2007-12-01

    Deming Glacier flows from the upper west slopes of Mt. Baker, a stratovolcano in the Cascade Range of Washington, USA. The north and south lateral moraines of Deming Glacier are composed of at least four tills separated by layers of detrital wood and sheared stumps in growth position. The stratigraphy records fluctuations of the glacier during the Holocene. The outer ten rings of an in situ stump from the middle wood layer, which is about 40 m below the north lateral moraine crest and 1.2 km downvalley from the present glacier terminus, yielded an age of 1750 ± 50~~ 14C yr BP [1810-1550 cal yr BP]. The stump revealed at least 300 rings and thus records a period of landscape stability and relatively restricted glaciation for several hundred years prior to ca. 1750 14C yr BP . Samples from the lowest wood layer also have been submitted for radiocarbon dating. Outer rings of detrital wood samples collected from two wood mats exposed in the south lateral moraine, 2.3 km downvalley of the glacier terminus, returned radiocarbon ages of 1600 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [1550- 1410 cal yr BP] and 430 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [AD 1420-1620]. These data indicate that Deming Glacier advanced over a vegetated moraine sometime after 1810 cal yr BP to a position less extensive that it achieved at the peak of the Little Ice Age. The glacier then receded before it began its final and most extensive Holocene advance after AD 1420. The older advance is correlative with the 'First Millennium AD' advance, recently recognized throughout western North America. The younger advance coincides with an advance of Mt. Baker's Easton Glacier [AD 1430-1630], and advances of many alpine glaciers elsewhere in western North America. Our data suggest that glaciers on Mt. Baker fluctuated in a similar manner to alpine glaciers in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and in other mountain ranges of northwest North America during Neoglaciation.

  4. Nordkorea kan endelig ramme USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2017-01-01

    Nordkoreas evne til at nå USA baner vej for en forhandlet løsning, fordi præsident Trump ikke har andre alternativer. Krig vil koste over en million døde, og Kina er imod effektive sanktioner. Det nødvendige pres for at få USA til forhandlingsbordet er nu på plads.......Nordkoreas evne til at nå USA baner vej for en forhandlet løsning, fordi præsident Trump ikke har andre alternativer. Krig vil koste over en million døde, og Kina er imod effektive sanktioner. Det nødvendige pres for at få USA til forhandlingsbordet er nu på plads....

  5. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  6. FrogwatchUSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Frogs and toads are perhaps the most approachable and available of all our wildlife. In many, if not most places, they are abundant. In wetter parts of the East, almost anyone outside on a warm rainy night in spring will hear their dream-like calls, bellows, trills and snores. Even in the deserts of the Southwest, a nocturnal trip after a summer monsoon will yield toads moving across the roads toward a cacophonous orgy of mating and calling in the roadside ditches and desert pools. Birds share with frogs and toads this same sense of presence in our daily lives. But the difference is that birds are like the attractive neighbor who just never gives you the time of day, while frogs are more like the troglodyte who appears regularly to chat, philosophize, and have a beer. Uninvited, frogs appear in our water gardens, toads are on our stoops in the morning, we catch them when we are kids, raise their babies in the aquarium, and feel sorry when we find we have run them over with the lawnmower. When concerns about declining populations of amphibians reached the mass media, the Secretaries' office became involved. In addition to using traditional research mechanisms to investigate the problem, the Secretary also wanted to involve the public directly. The combination of high public appeal and the relative ease with which frog calls can be learned made a large-scale monitoring program for frogs and toads possible. What emerged was a program called Frogwatch USA, modeled after a successful Canadian program with a similar name. A web site was created (www.frogwatch.org) that presented potential frogwatchers with directions and a way to register their site online as well as enter their data. Observers chose where to count frogs depending on what they felt was important. For some it was their backyard, others chose vulnerable wetlands in their neighborhoods, or spots on local refuges and parks. Initially funded at $8,000 a year and then after two years increased to

  7. USA pelgab Hiina tehnoloogialuuret / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Hiina Ameerika-vastasest majandusluurest. USA luureameti andmetel on USA-s loodud üle kolme tuhande Hiina firma, kelle ülesandeks on tööstusliku või sõjalise tehnoloogia hankimine. Vt. samas: Hiina firmad ostavad üha suuremaid USA ettevõtteid

  8. An assessment of management practices of wood and wood-related wastes in the urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that yard waste{sup 1} accounts for approximately 16% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream (US EPA, 1994). Until recently, specific data and related information on this component of the (MSW) stream has been limited. The purposes of this study, phase two of the three-phase assessment of urban wood waste issues, are to assess and describe current alternatives to landfills for urban wood waste management; provide guidance on the management of urban wood waste to organizations that produce or manage wood waste; and clarify state regulatory and policy positions affecting these organizations. For this study, urban wood waste is defined as solid waste generated by tree and landscape maintenance services (public and private). Urban wood waste includes the following materials: unchipped mixed wood, unchipped logs, and unchipped tops and brush; clearing and grubbing waste; fall leaves and grass clippings; and chips and whole stumps. Construction and demolition debris and consumer-generated yard waste are not included in this study. Generators of urban wood waste include various organizations; municipal, county, and commercial tree care divisions; nurseries, orchards, and golf courses; municipal park and recreation departments; and electric and telephone utility power line maintenance, excavator and land clearance, and landscape organizations. (1) US EPA defines yard waste as ''yard trimmings'' which includes ''grass, leaves and tree brush trimmings from residential, institutional, and commercial sources.''

  9. Long term durability of wood-plastic composites made with chemically modified wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons

    2017-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) have slower moisture sorption than solid wood, but over time moisture can impact the strength, stiffness, and decay of the composite. These changes will become increasingly important if WPCs are used in more challenging environments such as in ground-contact applications. There are several options for mitigating the moisture sorption of...

  10. Creation of Wood Dust during Wood Processing: Size Analysis, Dust Separation, and Occupational Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mračková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical separators and fabric filters are being used to remove airborne fine particles generated during the processing and handling of wood. Such particles might have a harmful effect on employee health, not only in small- but also in large-scale wood processing facilities. The amount of wood dust and its dispersion conditions vary according to geometric boundary conditions. Thus, the dispersion conditions could be changed by changing the linear size of the particles. Moreover, the smaller the particles are, the more harmful they can be. It is necessary to become familiar with properties, from a health point of view, of wood dust generated from processing. Wood dust has to be sucked away from the processing area. The fractional separation efficiency of wood dust can be improved using exhaust and filtering devices. Filtration efficiency depends on moisture content, particle size, and device performance. Because of the carcinogenicity of wood dust, the concentration of wood dust in air has to be monitored regularly. Based on the results hereof, a conclusion can be made that both mechanical separators of types SEA and SEB as well as the fabric filters with FINET PES 1 textile are suitable for the separation of wet saw dust from all types of wooden waste produced within the process.

  11. Decay resistance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao

    2014-01-01

    The moisture and decay resistance of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF) was investigated. Three different extractions were preformed: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW). Delignification (DL) was performed using a sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. All WPCs specimens were made with 50% by...

  12. Wood-plastic composites utilizing wood flours derived from fast- growing trees common to the midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several non- or under-utilized hardwood trees common to the Midwestern states. Wood flour (WF) derived from fast-growing Midwest trees (Osage orange, Black Locust and Red Mulberry) were evaluated as a source of bio-based fiber reinforcements. Wood plastic composites (WPC) of high density p...

  13. Properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted and delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    The water sorption and mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) made of extracted and delignified wood flour (WF) has been investigated. WF was prepared by extraction with the solvent systems toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW), and its delignification was conducted by means of sodium chlorite/acetic acid (AA) solution. A 2 4...

  14. Surface characterization of weathered wood-plastic composites produced from modified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Fabiyi; Armando G. McDonald; Nicole M. Stark

    2007-01-01

    The effects of weathering on the surface properties of wood-plastic composites (WPC) were examined. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) based WPCs made from modified wood flour (untreated, extractives free, and holocellulose (delignified) fibers) were subjected to accelerated (xenon-arc) weathering. Colorimetry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to...

  15. Weathering methods for preservative treated wood and their applicability for fire retarded wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voss, A.

    1999-01-01

    preservative treated wood. The aim of the presentation is to inform you about current testing methods and to discuss their applicability to test fire retarded wood in outdoor use. Assuming that fire retardants will only be used in out of ground contact, only those methods are mentioned, which fit

  16. Development of wood decay in wound-initiated discolored wood of eastern red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Shortle; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Logs of eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana L., with well-developed bands of light-colored wood ("included sapwood") within heartwood can be unsuitable for sawn wood products. This finding is in contrast to published information that the "included sapwood" is (1) a heartwood anomaly rather than sapwood and (2) its occurrence...

  17. Wood evidence : proper collection, documentation, and storage of wood evidence from a crime scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2006-01-01

    Wood can be found at crime scenes in many forms: as a murder weapon, as material used to hide a body, or as trace evidence from forced entry or vandalism. In the course of my work at the Forest Products Laboratory, Center for Wood Anatomy Research, I have been part of several forensic investigations that were adversely affected by inappropriate procedures used to...

  18. Chapter 6: Above Ground Deterioration of Wood and Wood-Based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Kirker; Jerrold Winandy

    2014-01-01

    Wood as a material has unique properties that make it ideal for above ground exposure in a wide range of structural and non-strucutral applications. However, no material is without limitations. Wood is a bio-polymer which is subject to degradative processes, both abiotic and biotic. This chapter is a general summary of the abiotic and biotic factors that impact service...

  19. DNA Damage among Wood Workers Assessed with the Comet Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta; Hopf, Nancy B.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to wood dust, a human carcinogen, is common in wood-related industries, and millions of workers are occupationally exposed to wood dust worldwide. The comet assay is a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for determining DNA damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the DNA damage associated with occupational exposure to wood dust using the comet assay (peripheral blood samples) among nonsmoking wood workers (n = 31, furniture and construction workers) and controls (n = 19). DNA damage was greater in the group exposed to composite wood products compared to the group exposed to natural woods and controls (P < 0.001). No difference in DNA damage was observed between workers exposed to natural woods and controls (P = 0.13). Duration of exposure and current dust concentrations had no effect on DNA damage. In future studies, workers’ exposures should include cumulative dust concentrations and exposures originating from the binders used in composite wood products. PMID:27398027

  20. Wood energy barometer. 43 million toe produced in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The use of wood in the form of energy contributes in fighting global warming since, unlike fossil energies, the carbon dioxide emitted by its combustion is reabsorbed by the forests. These environmental and energetic advantages explain why the European Union large wood countries are preparing programmes to develop both wood energy technologies and wood energy consumption; This document takes stock or gives information on the breakdown of valorization of wood energy origin primary energy, the gross electricity generation from wood energy in the 15 european union countries and Poland, the primary energy from wood energy, the comparative between different wood energy fuel prices in Europe, the number of direct and indirect job created in different sectors, the wood energy sector industrialists and a comparison between current trend and white paper objectives. (A.L.B.)

  1. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration

  2. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BLACK WOOD (EBONY AS A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengky Satria Yoresta

    2015-01-01

    ed. USA.  Duggal SK. 2008. Building Materials – 3rd ed. New Age International (P Ltd, New Delhi. Kim NT, Matsumura J & Oda K. 2011. Effect of growing site on the fundamental wood properties of natural hybrid clones of Acacia in Vietnam. Wood Science 57: 87–93. Lempang M & Muhammad A. 2008. Anatomical Structure, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Kumea Batu Wood. Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan. Vol.26(2: 138-147 (In Indonesian Martawijaya A., Kartasujana I, Mandang YI, Prawira SA, & Kadir K. 2005. Atlas Kayu Indonesia, Jilid II. Departemen Kehutanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, Bogor. PKKI (Peraturan Konstruksi Kayu Indonesia. 1961. PKKI NI – 5 1961. Direktorat Jenderal Cipta Karya Departemen Pekerjaan Umum, Bandung. Wanneng PX, Ozarska B, & Daian MS. 2014. Physical Properties Of Tectona Grandis Grown In Laos. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 26(3: 389–396 Winandy JE. 1994. Wood Properties. Hal 549-561 dalam Arntzen, Charles J., (Editor Encyclopedia of Agricultural Science. Vol. 4. October 1994. Academic Press, Orlando. Wood Handbook. 2010. Wood as Engineering Material. Forest Product Laboratory. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Madison. Yancey CW. et al. 1998. A Summary of the Structural Performance of Single Family Wood Framed Housing, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

  3. Furniture wood wastes: Experimental property characterisation and burning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatano, Fabio; Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected 'raw' and primarily 'engineered' ('composite') wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in 'engineered' wood wastes as compared with 'raw' wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of 'engineered' wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg -1 for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg -1 for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in 'engineered' wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with 'raw' wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in 'engineered' wood burning tests as compared with 'raw' wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM 1 fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

  4. Scheffersomyces cryptocercus: a new xylose-fermenting yeast associated with the gut of wood roaches and new combinations in the Sugiyamaella yeast clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Hector; Frank, Robert; Blackwell, Meredith

    2013-01-01

    The gut of wood-feeding insects is a microhabitat for a specialized community of microbes, including bacteria and several groups of eukaryotes such as nematodes, parabasalids and fungi. The characterization of gut yeast communities from a variety of insects has shown that certain yeasts often are associated with the insects. The gut of wood-feeding insects is rich in ascomycete yeasts and in particular xylose-fermenting (X-F) and assimilating yeasts have been consistently present in the gut of lignicolous insects. The objective of this study was the characterization of the yeast flora from the gut of the wood roach Cryptocercus sp. (Blattodea: Cryptocercidae). Five wood roaches were collected along the Appalachian Trail near the border between Tennessee and North Carolina, USA. We isolated 18 yeast strains from the wood roaches identified as Sugiyamaella paludigena and Sugiyamaella lignohabitans, xylose-assimilating yeasts, and Scheffersomyces cryptocercus (NRRL Y-48824(T) = CBS 12658) a new species of X-F yeast. The presence of X-F and certain non X-F yeasts in the gut of the subsocial wood roach Cryptocercus sp. extends the previous findings of associations between certain ascomycete yeasts and lignicolous insects. New combinations were made for 13 asexual members of the Sugiyamaella clade.

  5. Temperature effects on wood anatomy, wood density, photosynthesis and biomass partitioning of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D S; Montagu, K D; Conroy, J P

    2007-02-01

    Wood density, a gross measure of wood mass relative to wood volume, is important in our understanding of stem volume growth, carbon sequestration and leaf water supply. Disproportionate changes in the ratio of wood mass to volume may occur at the level of the whole stem or the individual cell. In general, there is a positive relationship between temperature and wood density of eucalypts, although this relationship has broken down in recent years with wood density decreasing as global temperatures have risen. To determine the anatomical causes of the effects of temperature on wood density, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden seedlings were grown in controlled-environment cabinets at constant temperatures from 10 to 35 degrees C. The 20% increase in wood density of E. grandis seedlings grown at the higher temperatures was variously related to a 40% reduction in lumen area of xylem vessels, a 10% reduction in the lumen area of fiber cells and a 10% increase in fiber cell wall thickness. The changes in cell wall characteristics could be considered analogous to changes in carbon supply. Lumen area of fiber cells declined because of reduced fiber cell expansion and increased fiber cell wall thickening. Fiber cell wall thickness was positively related to canopy CO2 assimilation rate (Ac), which increased 26-fold because of a 24-fold increase in leaf area and a doubling in leaf CO2 assimilation rate from minima at 10 and 35 degrees C to maxima at 25 and 30 degrees C. Increased Ac increased seedling volume, biomass and wood density; but increased wood density was also related to a shift in partitioning of seedling biomass from roots to stems as temperature increased.

  6. Wood energy in Switzerland - fillet steaks and sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the increasing use of wood energy to help meet Switzerland's energy needs. The increasing interest in wood-fired systems in comparison with fossil fuels is commented on. The article presents figures on energy carriers and the shares of the energy supply they meet as well as the development of wood-fired systems between 1991 and 2003. The influence of Swiss regional identities on the market for wood heating systems is discussed, as are difficulties resulting from stop-and-go governmental promotional funding. The importance of wood-fired energy systems for local authorities with difficulties in selling wood from their communal forestry departments is also discussed

  7. Wood anatomy of tribe Detarieae and comparison with tribe Caesalpinieae (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.

  8. Wood-Based Nanotechnologies toward Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Li, Tian; Li, Yiju; Zhang, Ying; Gong, Amy; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Emily; Luo, Wei; Hu, Liangbing

    2018-01-01

    With over 30% global land coverage, the forest is one of nature's most generous gifts to human beings, providing shelters and materials for all living beings. Apart from being sustainable, renewable, and biodegradable, wood and its derivative materials are also extremely fascinating from a materials aspect, with numerous advantages including porous and hierarchical structure, excellent mechanical performance, and versatile chemistry. Here, strategies for designing novel wood-based materials via advanced nanotechnologies are summarized, including both the controllable bottom-up assembly from the highly crystalline nanocellulose building block and the more efficient top-down approaches directly from wood. Beyond material design, recent advances regarding the sustainable applications of these novel wood-based materials are also presented, focusing on areas that are traditionally dominated by man-made nonrenewable materials such as plastic, glass, and metals, as well as more advanced applications in the areas of energy storage, wastewater treatment and solar-steam-assisted desalination. With all recent progress pertaining to materials' design and sustainable applications presented, a vision for the future engineering of wood-based materials to promote continuous and healthy progress toward true sustainability is outlined. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Physiological Effects of Touching Coated Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Ikei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the physiological effects of touching wood with various coating with the palm of the hand on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Participants were 18 female university students (mean age, 21.7 ± 1.6 years. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin concentrations were measured in the left and right prefrontal cortices using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate were used as indicators of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflects parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF/HF ratio, which reflects sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated, oil-finished, vitreous-finished, urethane-finished, and mirror-finished white oak wood were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed for 60 s, participants touched the stimuli with their palm for 90 s each. The results indicated that tactile stimulation with uncoated wood calmed prefrontal cortex activity (vs. urethane finish and mirror finish, increased parasympathetic nervous activity (vs. vitreous finish, urethane finish, and mirror finish, and decreased heart rate (vs. mirror finish, demonstrating a physiological relaxation effect. Further, tactile stimulation with oil- and vitreous-finished wood calmed left prefrontal cortex activity and decreased heart rate relative to mirror-finished wood.

  10. Optimization of wood plastic composite decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravivarman, S.; Venkatesh, G. S.; Karmarkar, A.; Shivkumar N., D.; Abhilash R., M.

    2018-04-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) is a new class of natural fibre based composite material that contains plastic matrix reinforced with wood fibres or wood flour. In the present work, Wood Plastic Composite was prepared with 70-wt% of wood flour reinforced in polypropylene matrix. Mechanical characterization of the composite was done by carrying out laboratory tests such as tensile test and flexural test as per the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Computer Aided Design (CAD) model of the laboratory test specimen (tensile test) was created and explicit finite element analysis was carried out on the finite element model in non-linear Explicit FE code LS - DYNA. The piecewise linear plasticity (MAT 24) material model was identified as a suitable model in LS-DYNA material library, describing the material behavior of the developed composite. The composite structures for decking application in construction industry were then optimized for cross sectional area and distance between two successive supports (span length) by carrying out various numerical experiments in LS-DYNA. The optimized WPC deck (Elliptical channel-2 E10) has 45% reduced weight than the baseline model (solid cross-section) considered in this study with the load carrying capacity meeting acceptance criterion (allowable deflection & stress) for outdoor decking application.

  11. Physiological Effects of Touching Coated Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2017-07-13

    This study examined the physiological effects of touching wood with various coating with the palm of the hand on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Participants were 18 female university students (mean age, 21.7 ± 1.6 years). As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin concentrations were measured in the left and right prefrontal cortices using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate were used as indicators of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF) component of HRV, which reflects parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF)/HF ratio, which reflects sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated, oil-finished, vitreous-finished, urethane-finished, and mirror-finished white oak wood were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed for 60 s, participants touched the stimuli with their palm for 90 s each. The results indicated that tactile stimulation with uncoated wood calmed prefrontal cortex activity (vs. urethane finish and mirror finish), increased parasympathetic nervous activity (vs. vitreous finish, urethane finish, and mirror finish), and decreased heart rate (vs. mirror finish), demonstrating a physiological relaxation effect. Further, tactile stimulation with oil- and vitreous-finished wood calmed left prefrontal cortex activity and decreased heart rate relative to mirror-finished wood.

  12. P.E.I. wood fuel survey, 1990-91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    In 1991 a wood fuel survey of 450 randomly selected households, representing 1% of the total number of households in Prince Edward Island, was conducted. The survey indicated that 49.8% of the households burned wood, up from 42.1% of households in the 1988-1989 survey. The wood burning households consumed an average of 4.92 cords of wood, consistent with the 4.90 cords in the 1989 survey. The total residential wood consumption was estimated at ca 100,377 cords, an increase from the 89,000 cords used in 1988-89. Wood cutters represented 23.4% of respondents, with buyers representing 25.4% of respondents. The wood burning appliances used by the respondents were: airtight wood stove 39.9%, wood furnace 22.5%, kitchen wood stove 15.7%, combined wood/oil furnace 8.9%, Franklin/non-airtight 4.4%, Kemac unit 4.4%, fireplace insert 3.1%, and open fireplace 1%. The most frequent response among rural wood users cited price as an advantage of wood fuel, while the most frequent response of urban users cited the quality of the heat. 9 figs., 47 tabs

  13. How to quantify conduits in wood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Alexander; Klepsch, Matthias; Karimi, Zohreh; Jansen, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Vessels and tracheids represent the most important xylem cells with respect to long distance water transport in plants. Wood anatomical studies frequently provide several quantitative details of these cells, such as vessel diameter, vessel density, vessel element length, and tracheid length, while important information on the three dimensional structure of the hydraulic network is not considered. This paper aims to provide an overview of various techniques, although there is no standard protocol to quantify conduits due to high anatomical variation and a wide range of techniques available. Despite recent progress in image analysis programs and automated methods for measuring cell dimensions, density, and spatial distribution, various characters remain time-consuming and tedious. Quantification of vessels and tracheids is not only important to better understand functional adaptations of tracheary elements to environment parameters, but will also be essential for linking wood anatomy with other fields such as wood development, xylem physiology, palaeobotany, and dendrochronology.

  14. Wood flow problems in the Swedish forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Dick [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this paper we give an overview of the wood-flow in Sweden including a description of organization and planning. Based on that, we will describe a number of applications or problem areas in the wood-flow chain that are currently considered by the Swedish forest companies to be important and potential in order to improve overall operations. We have focused on applications which are short term planning or operative planning. We do not give any final results as much of the development is currently ongoing or is still in a planning phase. Instead we describe what kind of models and decision support systems that could be applied in order to improve co-operation within and integration of the wood-flow chain 13 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  15. Wood energy and air quality. Synthetic report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This report presents and comments some reference data about the current and prospective (2010, 2020) pollutant emissions through wood combustion as a source of energy. It indicates and compares greenhouse gas emissions by the different sources for household, collective and industrial heating (fuel, gas, electricity, pellets, logs, grinds, wood wastes), gives an overview of atmospheric emissions due to biomass combustion. It compares emissions due to wood combustion with respect to the activity sectors and to combustion equipment. It highlights the challenges of the development of the household sector in terms of improvement and renewal of the quality of the burning equipment. It comments the implemented policies which notably aim at reducing the emission of particles, and at defining quality labels

  16. Study of radiation-destroyed wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimentov, A.S.; Shakhanova, R.K.; Stepanova, I.N.; Vysotskaya, I.F.

    1986-01-01

    The change in carbohydrate composition of aspen wood exposed to electron beam radiation (0.5 MeV, dose rates of 0-0.56 MGy) is studied. It has been found that the water-soluble polysaccharide content grows from 0.47 up to 8.54 %, and that of the non-hydrolyzed polysaccharides decreases from 49.4 down to 36.1 %. The polysaccharide total content of aspen wood goes down from 61.28 to 56.82 % with the radiation dose increasing. Consequently, the xylose, arabinose, and ramnose percentage of wood hydrolyzates increases correspondingly from 11.9 up to 15.44, from 0.66 up to 0.90, and from 0.21 up to 0.38

  17. Fuel-wood from undermanaged woodland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landen, R A

    1995-11-22

    This report examines the potential for the utilisation of currently undermanaged woodland for supply of wood fuel. The potential markets for wood fuel are identified, along with their requirements in terms of fuel specification. Woodland resources currently receiving little or no management are identified, concentrating on broadleaves in lowland Britain. The nature of these resources is discussed, and opportunities/constraints for their management reviewed. Machinery suitable for these woodland areas is discussed, and the application of this equipment into practical systems is examined in some detail. These themes are developed in two case studies, resulting in a discussion of findings and a range of conclusions. It is believed that potential exists to extract chipped wood fuel form existing unmanaged woodland areas from Pound 25/gt upwards, including standing value and contractor profit. (Author)

  18. Nigerian Wood Waste: A Potential Resource for Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    methods these vast amount of wood residues are often discarded ... contradict sustainable solid waste management which entails various .... waste through the production of steam in boiler super-heater .... Wood Fuels Handbook. AIEL: Italian.

  19. USE OF CANDEIA’S (Eremanthus erythropappus WASTE WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus is a native forest species with multiple uses and specially utilized as essential oils source. The use of the candeia´s waste wood after oil extraction for particle panels production becomes a viable alternative, avoiding environmental problems and increasing the availability of these products in the consuming market. This work verified the viability of producing wood-cement panels using waste wood generated after the extraction of candeia’s oil, in association with pinus and eucalipto woods. The experiment was installed according to a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The treatments were arranged according to a factorial 2 x 3 scheme (two wooden species and three replacement percentages of the woods by candeia’s waste. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of candeia waste wood, after oil extraction, in association with pinus and eucalipto wood for manufacturing wood-cement panels.

  20. physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    were performed to assess the energy characteristics of the collected wood .... Methods. Wood processing activities were physically observed for. 6 days/wk at the sawmills for 15weeks. ..... [10] Oladeji, J T “Fuel characterization of briquettes.

  1. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2600 Wood's fluorescent lamp. (a) Identification. A Wood's fluorescent lamp is a device intended for medical purposes to detect...

  2. Unpalatable plants facilitate tree sapling survival in wooded pastures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.; Ouden, den J.; Müller-Schärer, H.

    2006-01-01

    Summary 1. In endangered wooded pasture ecosystems established tree saplings are frequently found in spatial association with protective structures, suggesting nurse effects. This associational resistance is thought to be a driving force behind tree regeneration in wooded pastures. Experimental

  3. PRESERVATIVE LEACHING FROM WEATHERED CCA-TREATED WOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disposal of discarded CCA-treated wood in landfills raises concerns with respect to leaching of preservative compounds. When unweathered CCA-treated wood is leached using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), arsenic concentrations exceed the toxicity characteris...

  4. WOOD STOVE EMISSIONS: PARTICLE SIZE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes wood stove particle size and chemical composition data gathered to date. [NOTE: In 1995, EPA estimated that residential wood combustion (RWC), including fireplaces, accounted for a significant fraction of national particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter...

  5. The Statistics of wood assays for preservative retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Scott W. Conklin

    2011-01-01

    This paper covers general statistical concepts that apply to interpreting wood assay retention values. In particular, since wood assays are typically obtained from a single composited sample, the statistical aspects, including advantages and disadvantages, of simple compositing are covered.

  6. Wood anatomy of Argyroxiphium (Asteraceae): adaptive radiation and ecological correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlquist, S.

    1997-01-01

    Wood anatomy shows close correlation with ecology: A. kauense, A. sandwicense (stem), and A. virescens, which occur in dry localities, show xeromorphic wood patterns. The most mesomorphic woods are those of the bog species A. grayanum and root wood of A. sandwicense. The wood of A. caliginis is xeromorphic, despite the bog habitat of the species, a fact explainable if A. caliginis is a recent entrant into the bog habitat Libriform wall thickness appears correlated with habit. Quantitative features of stem woods of Argyroxiphium are comparable to woods ranging from desert to moist montane forest areas in California. The similarities to woods from each Californian habitat are correlative to the relative moisture availability of the respective Hawaiian habitats of the Argyroxiphium species. (author)

  7. Woods and Camping Safety for the Whole Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Woods and Camping Safety for the Whole Family KidsHealth / For Parents / Woods ... products before hiking that will act as a barrier against the oils of the plants. Any area ...

  8. A Survey of Wood Protection Chemicals, Tree Killers and Sprayers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemicals used in wood protection (preservation) within Makurdi metropolis. A purposive, non-random sampling was undertaken in Makurdi metropolis to identify wood protection chemicals/tree-killers available in agrochemical stores, ...

  9. Fatigue testing of wood-concrete composite beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Currently, wood-concrete composite structural members are usually applied in building structures. There are a relatively small number (in the low 100s) of known bridge applications involving wood-concrete composites. A problem with using these novel ...

  10. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  11. RESISTANCE TO THE ATTACK OF DRY-WOOD TERMITES (Cryptotermes brevis) OF SIX WOOD SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves; José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    The dry wood termites are one of the largest causes of damages in wood used in Brazil. This work analyzed the attackof the Cryptotermes brevis in six commercials wood species in the north of the Rio de Janeiro and south of the Espírito Santo. The testobserved the number of holes, the percentage of died individuals and the damage of the pieces. When compared to the Pinus sp(reference), the species with less susceptibility to the attack were Cedrela fissilis, Cariocar brasiliense and Goupia gla...

  12. Firing with wood chips in heating and cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofman, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    The document was produced for use as detailed teaching material aimed at spreading information on the use of wood chips as fuel for heating and cogeneration plants. It includes information and articles on wood fuels generally, combustion values, chopping machines, suppliers, occupational health hazards connected with the handling of wood chips, measuring amounts, the selection of types, prices, ash, environmental aspects and information on the establishment of a wood-chip fired district heating plant. (AB)

  13. Surfaces foliated by planar geodesics: a model forcurved wood design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Surfaces foliated by planar geodesics are a natural model for surfaces made from wood strips. We outline how to construct all solutions, and produce non-trivial examples, such as a wood-strip Klein bottle......Surfaces foliated by planar geodesics are a natural model for surfaces made from wood strips. We outline how to construct all solutions, and produce non-trivial examples, such as a wood-strip Klein bottle...

  14. Criterion 6, indicator 28 : total and per capita consumption of wood and wood products in round wood equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard; Rebecca Westby; Kenneth E. Skog

    2010-01-01

    Total consumption of wood and paper products and fuelwood, in roundwood equivalents, increased between 1965 and 1988 from 13.2 to 18.9 billion cubic feet. Since 1988, it has been about 20 billion cubic feet per year. Total per capita consumption increased between 1965 and 1987, from 68 to 83 ft3 per year. Since 1987 through 2006, per capita...

  15. Wood and Wood-Based Materials as Sensors—A Review of the Piezoelectric Effect in Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Jiangming Kan; Xiping Wang; Julie Blankenburg; Janet I. Stockhausen; Roy F. Pellerin

    2012-01-01

    A variety of techniques have been investigated for use in assessing the physical and mechanical properties of wood products and structures. Ultrasound, transverse vibration, and stress-wave based methods are all techniques that have shown promise for many nondestructive evaluation applications. These techniques and others rely on the use of measurement systems to...

  16. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Ora, M.

    2011-07-01

    This thesis deals with the combustion of wood in pulverised fuel power plants. In this type of boiler, the slowest step in the wood conversion process is char combustion, which is one of the factors that not only determine the degree of fuel burnout, but also affect the heat release profile in the boiler and thereby the overall operation and efficiency of the plant. Chapter 1 consists of an introduction to thermal conversion of biomass fuels as well as a description of a Danish power plant where a measuring campaign was carried out as part of this project. Chapter 2 is a brief literature review of different aspects relevant to wood combustion, including wood structure and composition, wood pyrolysis, wood char properties and wood char oxidation. The full scale campaign, which is the subject of Chapter 3, included sampling of wood fuel before and after milling and sampling of gas and particles at the top of the combustion chamber. The collected samples and data are used to obtain an evaluation of the mills in operation at the power plant, the particle size distribution of the wood fuel, as well as the char conversion attained in the furnace. In Chapter 4 an experimental investigation on the relation between pyrolysis of wood in boiler-like conditions and wood char properties is presented. Chars from pine and beech wood were produced by fast pyrolysis in an entrained flow reactor and by slow pyrolysis in a thermogravimetric analyser. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on char yield and morphology was investigated. The applied pyrolysis temperature varied in the range 673-1673 K for slow pyrolysis and 1073-1573 K for fast pyrolysis. The chars were oxidised in a thermogravimetric analyser and the mass loss data were used to determine char oxidation reactivity. Char yield from fast pyrolysis (104-105 K/s) was as low as 1-6% on a dry ash free basis, whereas it was about 15-17% for slow pyrolysis (10-20 K/min); char yield decreased as

  17. STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION MODEL FOR THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE SCENARIO (SHEDS-WOOD), VERSION 2 MODEL SAS CODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of young children contacting arsenic and chromium residues while playing on and around Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) treated wood playground structures and decks. Although CCA registrants voluntarily canceled treated wood for resi...

  18. Influence of wood defects on some mechanical properties of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of slope of wood grain, knot, split, ingrowth and sapwood on some mechanical wood properties of Pterygota macrocarpa (Kyere) and Piptadeniastrum africanum (Dahoma) have been studied, using structural size specimens and a 60 tonne structural wood testing machine. The study on the two tropical hardwoods ...

  19. Micromechanical modelling of mechanical behaviour and strength of wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Qing, Hai

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the micromechanical theoretical and numerical models of wood is presented. Different methods of analysis of the effects of wood microstructures at different scale levels on the mechanical behaviour, deformation and strength of wood are discussed and compared. Micromechanical models...

  20. 7 CFR 2902.42 - Wood and concrete sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wood and concrete sealers. 2902.42 Section 2902.42... Items § 2902.42 Wood and concrete sealers. (a) Definition. (1) Products that are penetrating liquids formulated to protect wood and/or concrete, including masonry and fiber cement siding, from damage caused by...

  1. Global Wood Pellet Industry and Trade Study 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thrän, D.; Peetz, D.; Schaubach, K.; Mai-Moulin, T.; Junginger, H.M.; Lamers, P.; Visser, L.

    2017-01-01

    The report Global Wood Pellet Industry Market published in 2011 has always been the most downloaded document of IEA Bioenergy Task 40. We have decided to update the report and bring new insights on market trends and trade of the global wood pellets. The global wood pellet market has increased

  2. Insect-mediated nitrogen dynamics in decomposing wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen

    2015-01-01

    1.Wood decomposition is characterised by complex and poorly understood nitrogen (N) dynamics with unclear implications for forest nutrient cycling and productivity.Wood-dwelling microbes have developed unique strategies for coping with the N limitations imposed by their substrate, including the translocation of N into wood by cord-forming fungi and the fixation of...

  3. Harvested wood products : basis for future methodological development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog

    2003-01-01

    The IPCC Guidelines (IPCC 1997) provide an outline of how harvested wood could be treated in national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. This section shows the relation of that outline to the approaches and estimation methods to be presented in this Appendix. Wood and paper products are referred to as harvested wood products (HWP). It does not include carbon in...

  4. Environmental Degradation of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Fasteners in Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the durability of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) nails in treated wood. The FRP nails were exposed to four conditions: (1) accelerated weathering, consisting of exposure to ultraviolet light and condensation; (2) 100% relative humidity (RH); (3) being driven into untreated wood and exposed to 100% RH; and (4) being driven into wood treated with...

  5. Structural condition assessment of in-service wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw; Xiping Wang

    2006-01-01

    Wood is used extensively for both interior and exterior applications in the construction of a variety of structures (residential, agricultural, commercial, government, religious). The deterioration of an in-service wood member may result from a variety of causes during the life of a structure. It is important, therefore, to periodically assess the condition of wood...

  6. Still rethinking the value of high wood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjavaara, Markku; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2012-01-01

    In a previous paper, we questioned the traditional interpretation of the advantages and disadvantages of high wood density (Functional Ecology 24: 701-705). Niklas and Spatz (American Journal of Botany 97: 1587-1594) challenged the biomechanical relevance of studying properties of dry wood, including dry wood density, and stated that we erred in our claims regarding scaling. We first present the full derivation of our previous claims regarding scaling. We then examine how the fresh modulus of rupture and the elastic modulus scale with dry wood density and compare these scaling relationships with those for dry mechanical properties, using almost exactly the same data set analyzed by Niklas and Spatz. The derivation shows that given our assumptions that the modulus of rupture and elastic modulus are both proportional to wood density, the resistance to bending is inversely proportional to wood density and strength is inversely proportional with the square root of wood density, exactly as we previously claimed. The analyses show that the elastic modulus of fresh wood scales proportionally with wood density (exponent 1.05, 95% CI 0.90-1.11) but that the modulus of rupture of fresh wood does not, scaling instead with the 1.25 power of wood density (CI 1.18-1.31). The deviation from proportional scaling for modulus of rupture is so small that our central conclusion remains correct: for a given construction cost, trees with lower wood density have higher strength and higher resistance to bending.

  7. 75 FR 79019 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ...)] Multilayered Wood Flooring From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... imports from China of multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings 4409.10, 4409.29, 4412.31... multilayered wood flooring. The following companies are members of the CAHP: Anderson Hardwood Floors, LLC...

  8. The potential of wood-based composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Shupe; Cheng Piao; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Wood-based composite utility poles are receiving increasing attention in the North American pole market. This interest is being driven by many increasing factors such as increasing: (1) disposal costs of solid wood poles, (2) liability and environmental concerns with traditional means of disposal of solid wood poles, (3) cost and concerns of long-term...

  9. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation from...

  10. Understanding extractive bleed : wood extractives: distribution, properties, and classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Burke; Norm Slavik; Tony Bonura; Dennis Connelly; Tom Faris; Arnie Nebelsick; Brent Stuart; Sam Williams; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Color, odor, and natural durability of heartwood are characteristics imparted by a class of chemicals in wood known collectively extractives. Wood is converted by the tree from sapwood to heartwood by the deposition of extractives, typically many years after the growth ring undergoing this change was formed by the tree. Extractives are thus not a part of the wood...

  11. Innovations in Wood Protection in the age of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen

    2014-01-01

    Advances in wood protection based on nanotechnology are being developed to improve resistance of wood products to biodeterioration, reduce environmental impacts from chemical leaching and resist UV degradation of in-service wood. A number of different approaches have been explored. First, the nanometals zinc oxide and copper oxide were evaluated as preservative...

  12. Theoretical modeling and experimental analyses of laminated wood composite poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Vijaya Gopu; Chung Y. Hse

    2005-01-01

    Wood laminated composite poles consist of trapezoid-shaped wood strips bonded with synthetic resin. The thick-walled hollow poles had adequate strength and stiffness properties and were a promising substitute for solid wood poles. It was necessary to develop theoretical models to facilitate the manufacture and future installation and maintenance of this novel...

  13. Chapter 23: Corrosion of Metals in Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2014-01-01

    The corrosion of metals in contact with wood has been studied for over 80 years, and in most situations wood is not corrosive [1]. Recently, however, the durability of fasteners in preservative--treated wood has become a concern. Changes in legislation and certification in the United States, the European Union, and Australasia have restricted the use of chromated...

  14. Chapter 08: Comments on, and additional information for, wood identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    This manual has described the theory of identification (Chapter 1), the botanical basis of wood structure (Chapter 2), the use of a hand lens (Chapter 3), how to use cutting tools to prepare wood for observation with a lens (Chapter 4), and the characters used in hand lens wood identification (Chapter 5) before leading you through an identification key (Chapter 6) and...

  15. PRESTO: online calculation of carbon in harvested wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coeli M. Hoover; Sarah J. Beukema; Donald C.E. Robinson; Katherine M. Kellock; Diana A. Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Carbon stored in harvested wood products is recognized under international carbon accounting protocols, and some crediting systems may permit the inclusion of harvested wood products when calculating carbon sequestration. For managers and landowners, however, estimating carbon stored in harvested wood products may be difficult. PRESTO (PRoduct EStimation Tool Online)...

  16. Supply and demand for wood: a worldwide perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally. Duncan

    1998-01-01

    In a unique effort to compare and contrast differing views on future supply and demand for wood, a study found that demand for wood will increase, but there is no evidence of a crisis at the world scale. Opportunities to increase wood production, however, are limited and trade-offs among competing uses of forests are inevitable. A complex of factors determine supply...

  17. Supply and demand of timber for wood turning in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric H. Wharton; Robert L., Jr. Nevel; Douglas S. Powell; Douglas S. Powell

    1987-01-01

    An analytical report on the volume of wood used by the wood-turning industry in Maine, and the volume of timber from the state's timberlands that may be suitable for turnstock. Findings are based on the third forest resource survey of Maine timberlands, and an industry canvass of primary manufacturing mills using wood from Maine timberlands, both conducted in 1982...

  18. Advanced wood- and bio-composites : enhanced performance and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy

    2006-01-01

    Use of wood-based-composites technology to create value-added commodities and traditional construction materials is generally accepted worldwide. Engineered wood- and lignocellulosic-composite technologies allow users to add considerable value to a diverse number of wood- and lignocellulosic feedstocks including small-diameter timber, fast plantation-grown timber,...

  19. Engineering economic assessment of residential wood heating in NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We provide insight into the recent resurgence in residential wood heating in New York by: (i) examining the lifetime costs of outdoor wood hydronic heaters (OWHHs) and other whole-house residential wood heat devices,(ii) comparing these lifetime costs with those of competing tech...

  20. Characterizing phenolformaldehyde adhesive cure chemistry within the wood cell wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood using phenol-formaldehyde remains the industrial standard in wood product bond durability. Not only does this adhesive infiltrate the cell wall, it also is believed to form primary bonds with wood cell wall polymers, particularly guaiacyl lignin. However, the mechanism by which phenol-formaldehyde adhesive intergrally interacts and bonds to...

  1. A new method of determining moisture gradient in wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai

    2008-01-01

    Moisture gradient in wood and wood composites is one of most important factors that affects both physical stability and mechanical performance. This paper describes a method for measuring moisture gradient in lumber and engineering wood composites as it varies across material thickness. This innovative method employs a collimated radiation beam (x rays or [gamma] rays...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for the construction, care, and use of the common types of portable wood ladders, in order to insure... density wood shall not be used. (ii) [Reserved] (2) [Reserved] (c) Construction requirements. (1... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable wood ladders. 1910.25 Section 1910.25 Labor...

  3. Biomass is beginning to threaten the wood-processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.; Sobinkovic, B.

    2004-01-01

    In this issue an exploitation of biomass in Slovak Republic is analysed. Some new projects of constructing of the stoke-holds for biomass processing are published. The grants for biomass are ascending the prices of wood raw material, which is thus becoming less accessible for the wood-processors. An excessive wood export threatens the domestic processors

  4. Cement bonded wood wool boards from podocarpus spp. for low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sound insulation in walls, ceilings and floors, roofs, sound barriers and thermal insulation. Further research is required to investigate the use of different wood species and different mineral binders. Keywords: podocarpus spp, wood-wool, wood-cement composites. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  5. 21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Preservatives for wood. 178.3800 Section 178.3800... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3800 Preservatives for wood. Preservatives may be safely used... to accomplish the technical effect of protecting the wood from decay, mildew, and water absorption...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood products...

  7. 75 FR 44251 - Wood Oils and Gums, and Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0441; FRL-8829-8 Wood Oils and Gums, and... integrated use in tank mixes with chemical fungicides. The Wood Oils and Gums Registration Review Case no longer contains any other wood oils or gums with active ingredients with registered products except for...

  8. The wood anatomy of Gardenieae, Ixoreae and Mussaendeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, Jifke

    1972-01-01

    The tribe Gardenieae in the restricted delimitation proposed by Bremekamp and Verdcourt is wood anatomically homogeneous. The genera of the Ixoreae studied by me also agree with each other in wood structure. Within the tribe Mussaendeae in the delimitation accepted by Schumann the wood anatomy shows

  9. Charring does not affect wood infestation by subterranean termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Peterson; P.D. Gerard; T.L. Wagner

    2007-01-01

    Fire is an important part of forest ecosystems, as is the insect fauna. Changes in wood brought aboutby fire may alter the ability of termites to use the wood, interrupting the decay cycle of woody debris.The ability of termites to find, infest, and feed upon wood after it had been charred was evaluated in

  10. Tolerance of Serpula lacrymans to copper-based wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol A. Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in certain temperate regions of the world, namely northern Europe, Japan, and Australia. Previously, copper-based wood preservatives were commonly used for pressure treatment of wood for building construction, but some decay fungi are known to be copper tolerant. In...

  11. Wood-hoopoes: are Phoeniculus purpureus niloticus (Neumann ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Green Wood-hoopoe Phoeniculus purpureus (Miller 1784) is represented in all savanna regions of Africa, and has long been the subject of debate (Turner 2014). In addition, birds referred to as the Violet Wood-hoopoe (damarensis and granti) and. Black-billed Wood-hoopoe (somaliensis) appear very closely related to ...

  12. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine...

  13. Profitability of wood harvesting enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penttinen, M. email: markku.penttinen@metla.fi; Mikkola, J. email: jarmo.mikkola@metla.fi; Rummukainen, A. email: arto.rummukainen@metla.fi

    2009-07-01

    The forest machine business is about 50 years old. The rapid technical development of machinery increased productivity up to the end of last century. In 2007, the total value of round and energy wood harvesting and silvicultural work operated by forest machine enterprises exceeded 570 mill. euro. According to the materials of the Vehicle Administration Finland and Statistics Finland there are about 1 600 active harvesting enterprises in the personal and business taxation system. Beside this, there are according to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry about 1 300 farmers who do harvesting as side business. About 1 000 enterprises working in June 2007 were studied with their retrospective economic analyses from 2001. The data includes all enterprises that had supplied closing of the accounts data. One-machine entrepreneurs represent more than a third of the number of enterprises, but only 13 percent of the turnover. Enterprises with seven or more machines represent less than ten percent of the number, but over twenty percent of the turnover. Enterprises are largest in eastern and northern Finland, where the average number of machines per enterprise exceeds three. Small enterprises are mostly singleowner business enterprises with a median turnover of 125 000 euros per annum. Partnerships and limited enterprises have double the median turnover of single-owner businesss. Limited companies turn over a median of 450 000 euro/y, representing 67 percent of total turnover. Median net profit varied between 6 and 10 percent of turnover in 2001-2007, but only between 2 and 4 percent where the wage adjustment is deducted from the profit. The wage adjustment is estimated as if the owners of single-owner businesses earn an operator's salary. Profit was highest in 2002 and lowest 2006. In the smallest enterprise class with a turnover of less than 75 000 euro/y, profit was lowest and negative in 2006 and 2007. The variation in profits between enterprises was also biggest in

  14. DØ Collaboration at FNAL, USA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. DØ Collaboration at FNAL, USA. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 62 Issue 3 March 2004 pp 561-563 Experimental Particle Physics. Search for narrow-width t t ¯ resonances in p p ¯ collisons at ( s ) = 1.8 TeV · Supriya Jain DØ Collaboration at FNAL, ...

  15. Dyslexia Laws in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and…

  16. USA panustab keskkonda / Jeffrey Goldstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    USA uus energiapoliitika kava näeb ette bensiini tarbimise vähendamist järgneva 10 aasta jooksul 20%, mis omakorda vähendab ameeriklaste autodest eralduva süsihappegaasi heitmete kasvu ning vähendab sõltuvust naftast

  17. USA asekaitseminister seisab Eesti eest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eestis visiidil viibiv USA asekaitseminister poliitika alal Michele Flournoy ütles, et pooldab koostöökohtade otsimist Moskvaga, kuid on kindlal seisukohal, et Venemaa ei tohi end siin piirkonnas kehtestada. Flournoy tunnustas Eesti panust Afganistani ning samuti liitlassuhetesse laiemalt

  18. Avian metapneumovirus in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States of America (USA), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys; no outbreaks have been reported in commercial chicken flocks. Typical clinical signs of the disease in turkey poults include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, tracheal rale...

  19. Wood energy x 2 - Scenario for the development of wood energy use in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This study for the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscapes (SAEFL) and the Swiss wood-energy association (Holzenergie Schweiz) presents the results of a scenario-study that examined if, and under what conditions, doubling the use of wood energy in Switzerland could help reach carbon dioxide reduction targets. Two scenarios are presented that are based on high and low rates of growth for the number of automatic wood-chipping or pellets-fired installations. For both scenarios, figures are presented on the amount of wood used and the heating energy generated. The political and financial prerequisites for the scenarios are discussed and other boundary conditions are defined. The report draws conclusions from the study of the two scenarios and summarises the political action deemed necessary

  20. Factors effecting paint performance on wood siding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Hunt; R. Sam Williams; Mark Knaebe; Peter Sotos; Steven Lacher

    2009-01-01

    Several different studies are compared to assess the effectiveness of commercial water repellent preservatives (WRP’s) in the late 1990’s on vertical and horizontal siding. Besides WRP, variables included wood species, exposure location (Wisconsin or Mississippi), and solid color stain vs. primer + paint. Data on substrate checking and paint flaking are presented....