WorldWideScience

Sample records for leon resort st

  1. Hotel Online Marketing: The Bugibba Hotel, Radisson Blu Resort Malta, St. Julian's, Preluna Hotel & SPA

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh Quynh, Mai

    2013-01-01

    The thesis covers the study of online marketing theory, a very popular trend of marketing nowadays, especially Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and Google Adwords Campaign in the analyses of the online marketing practices of three hotels from different areas and standards in Malta, namely The Bugibba Hotel, Preluna Hotel & SPA and Radisson Blu Resort Malta, St. Julian’s. From the analyses, the thesis aims at suggesting Preluna Hotel & SPA optimal online marketing practices and answering t...

  2. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MHRL

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research. (A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone). ©Sierra Leone Journal .... was used to. She seemed to have had a change of mind after ingesting.

  3. Bãile Herculane Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Baile Herculane is a balneary resort located in Caraş-Severin County, in South-Western Romania and is located 41 km to the Northwest of the city of Drobeta Turnu Severin, Mehedinti County. Resort Baile Herculane is documentary attested since 153 a.d. and is an attraction for its healing power of water. The Romans will be arriving in Dacia were impressed with the power of exceptional quality healing waters of the Cernei Vally, therefore, have made an important point of attraction here. In those times you keep bathrooms, statues, coins, culverts, signs of gratitude to the gods that were cured with water. The aqueducts, baths and hot springs from the time of the Romans. The beauty of the places where the resort Baile Herculane cannot be described in words, you have to go to see with your eyes

  4. African Journals Online: Sierra Leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research. The Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research publishes papers in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Pharmaceutical ...

  5. Brazilian Resorts: an overall performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Bonfato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article is about resort’s operations in Brazil. The main goal was to identify the financial key performance indicators, so that it could contribute to a better comprehension about how the resorts area acts in Brazil. To achieve this goal, this study took researches which generated numbers and indicators that could establish a comparison between 2013 and 2014. The main sources were token from all resorts from the Associação Brasileira de Resorts - Resorts Brasil, as well as an interview with a renowned area professional. Other sources were token by the most important resorts books. There are actually 49 resorts which are part of the Brazilian Resorts Association-ABR/Resorts Brasil. This institution allowed the access to all its database, in which the associated resorts give numerical informations about its own performance. The resorts studied in this article were divided and studied in four big groups. The results showed that the national resorts market keeps increasing its statistics and improving its internal management processes and sales distribution. Revenues increased 6.34% in the main analysed indicator during the years of 2013 and 2014. It was also observed that beach and all inclusive resorts tend to have better results.

  6. Bãile Tusnad Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The village is situated in the central-eastern Romania (Harghita county, Olt River in extreme southern part of Ciuc Depression, altitude 656m, 32 km south of Miercurea Ciuc. Quay Malnas- Tusnad of Olt, the air highly ozoned, the peace, the comfort and treatment of with mineral waters Tusnad Bath have made of a fine resort and an ideal place for holidays in any season. City has a subalpine climate, of mountain valley, with cool summers (July average temperature is 17.5 ° C and cold winters (average temperature in January is -7 ° C. Moderate rainfall (between 600 and 700 mm annually. Mountains shield against the wind.

  7. THE BALNEOCLIMATIC RESORT STÂNA DE VALE - PAST, PRESENT, PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai VLAICU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stâna de Vale balneoclimatic resort, located in the Apuseni Mountains, is very little valorised. The special natural setting, with the picturesque landscapes, the tourist trails of various difficulty degrees, the oligomineral waters, the numerous waterfalls, the fresh air intensely ionized, without pollutants and allergens, generated by the deciduous and coniferous forests, the exciting-soliciting bioclimate etc. recommend Stâna de Vale as a resort having a remarkable touristic potential, but very little harnessed and this is why it is necessary to identify solutions for its tourist valorisation. This paper highlights the periods of development and of decline of this resort which used to be emblematic for the Apuseni Mountains and for Bihor County and in the end, it suggests some simple solutions to revitalize the resort.

  8. Snow management practices in French ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandre, Pierre; Francois, Hugues; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Winter tourism plays a fundamental role in the economy of French mountain regions but also in other countries such as Austria, USA or Canada. Ski operators originally developed grooming methods to provide comfortable and safe skiing conditions. The interannual variability of snow conditions and the competition with international destinations and alternative tourism activities encouraged ski resorts to mitigate their dependency to weather conditions through snowmaking facilities. However some regions may not be able to produce machine made snow due to inadequate conditions and low altitude resorts are still negatively impacted by low snow seasons. In the meantime, even though the operations of high altitude resorts do not show any dependency to the snow conditions they invest in snowmaking facilities. Such developments of snowmaking facilities may be related to a confused and contradictory perception of climate change resulting in individualistic evolutions of snowmaking facilities, also depending on ski resorts main features such as their altitude and size. Concurrently with the expansion of snowmaking facilities, a large range of indicators have been used to discuss the vulnerability of ski resorts such as the so-called "100 days rule" which was widely used with specific thresholds (i.e. minimum snow depth, dates) and constraints (i.e. snowmaking capacity). The present study aims to provide a detailed description of snow management practices and major priorities in French ski resorts with respect to their characteristics. We set up a survey in autumn 2014, collecting data from 56 French ski operators. We identify the priorities of ski operators and describe their snowmaking and grooming practices and facilities. The operators also provided their perception of the ski resort vulnerability to snow and economic challenges which we could compare with the actual snow conditions and ski lift tickets sales during the period from 2001 to 2012.

  9. Reading Comprehension Instruction Practices in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersbach, S.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this study an attempt was made to give insight in the way reading comprehension is taught in Sierra Leone. Attention was paid to the didactical strategies and the materials used during reading comprehension instruction. Methodology: Primary school teachers in Sierra Leone (N=43) were

  10. Regional trade market analysis: resort marketing approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Bojanic; Rodney B. Warnick

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the value of geographic segmentation for a regional ski resort in New England. Customers from different user groups were surveyed along with a list of inquiries and a purchased list, and grouped according to their area of origin. An ANOVA was performed to determine if there were differences in attitudes and trip behaviors between the segments. It...

  11. Balneotherapy in the Boghiş Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gáspár Boróka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Băile Boghiş resort in Sălaj county is situated in the Barcău depression, at 15 km distance from Şimleu Silvaniei, in a sedative-indifferent climate of hills, at an altitude of 300 m, without excessive temperatures, with a mean annual rainfall of 650 mm. The first evidence of the climate and thermal mineral waters of the resort dates back to the 18th century. The Nuşfalău-Boghiş thermal mineral water reservoir is confined to deep permeable aquiferous layers that correspond to the altered zone of crystalline basement and sedimentary formations of Miocene and Pliocene age. It is an all-season spa and climatic resort; the bicarbonate, sodium, sulfur, iodine hypotonic hyperthermal mineral springs (with a total mineralization of 1016.2-1432.8 mg/l come from hydrogeological wells, producing over 1900 m3/day waters with a temperature of 40-42˚C. The spa has 2 outdoor pools (in summer time, bathtubs (in the process of being rehabilitated and an indoor pool. The peat mud from Stoboru (Cuzăplac commune is another therapeutic factor used in the resort. Therapeutic indications are related to the following disorders: osteoarticular system diseases, abarticular and degenerative rheumatic diseases, posttraumatic, peripheral neurological, gynecological, endocrine, nutrition and metabolic disorders, treated by external use (pool or bathtubs, while cooled water is used for crenotherapy. A specific feature is that thermal water, which has a temperature of 40-42˚C, can be used without being successively cooled or heated in pools or bathtubs, which allows to maintain its initial qualities. This paper includes early and recent data on a resort that is progressing from a local level to the national circuit, having an important extension potential.

  12. Assessing Tourist Resorts Surrounding Metropolitans Applying SWOT- AHP Models Case study: Malaga Resort

    OpenAIRE

    A. Movahed; S. Amanpoor; R. Zarei

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionToday, the urban concept is not understandable without resorts in different forms and the results of urban development and environmental problems have made the development ad existence of resorts unavoidable.Ahvaz is one of the metropolitan cities. For the reason of its pollution, oil-dependent industries, hot and humid weather, having a long hot and dusty season, the citizens have been encouraged to travel to other areas with better climate. Therefore, it is ne...

  13. International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, Quantum Biology Symposium No. 24. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Application of Fundamental Theory to Problems of Biology and Pharmacology, Held at Ponce de Leon Resort, St. Augustine, Florida on March 1-7, 1997. Volume 65, No. 6, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    significant QSAR analysis. ACKNOWLEDGMENT G. L. Estiü is a member of the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas de la Repüblica...Mexico Centro de Investigaciones Teoricas Avenida 10 de Mayo s/n Cuautitlan Izcalli, Mexico 54740 Mexico Phone: 5-623-20-37 Fax: 5-623-20-33...Institute de Fisica CPX 66318 Säo Paulo 05315-970 Brazil Phone: 55-11-818-6983 Fax: 55-11-818-6831 EMail: canuto@if.usp.br CRISTIÄN CÄRDENAS

  14. MEDICAL TOURISM IN VATRA DORNEI RESORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina D. CRUCEANU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Both at national and international level,medical tourism in general and the therapeutic in particular tend to be more and more often prescribed and utilized as an extremely efficient alternative therapeutic practice in treating various medical affections with almost the same positive results as the ones obtained after therapies/treatments under medication,but with fewer financial resources.Vatra Dornei resort owns a great diversity regarding both natural therapeutic factors(climateric,mineral,hydromineral,pedologic therapeutic factors,moffettes,aerosols,etc. and the spectrum of affections treated(from simple anaemia to complex disease of the locomotory,muscular system,etc.. Practiced since the 19th century,medical tourism (which turned Vatra Dornei resort into a “Meca of recovering” has represented and continues to represent at present an important attraction factor for the tourists who choose to spend their holidays for recovering and maintaining health state.

  15. 39 CFR 777.27 - Last resort housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Last resort housing. 777.27 Section 777.27 Postal... ACQUISITION POLICIES Uniform Relocation Assistance § 777.27 Last resort housing. (a) Basic Determination to Provide Last Resort Housing. A displaced person cannot be required to move from his or her dwelling unless...

  16. Leon Knopoff (1926-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul; Jackson, David; Gilbert, Freeman

    2011-06-01

    Leon Knopoff died at his home in Sherman Oaks, Calif., on 20 January 2011 at the age of 85. A man of wide-ranging talents, he had the rare distinction of being simultaneously a professor of physics, a professor of geophysics, and a research musicologist at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). As an undergraduate he studied electrical engineering and obtained his Ph.D. in physics and mathematics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in 1949. He was recruited to the Institute of Geophysics (now the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics) at UCLA in 1950 by Louis Slichter, where he became a professor of geophysics in 1957 and of geophysics and physics in 1961. He became a research musicologist in the UCLA Institute of Ethnomusicology soon after it was formed in 1960. Other appointments included faculty positions at Miami University in Ohio (1948-1950) and Caltech (1962-1963) and visiting appointments at Cambridge, Karlsruhe, Harvard, Santiago, Trieste, and Venice.

  17. The Special Court for Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this article is the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the extent to which it can be said that the Special Court has already challenged, or will, in the future, challenge the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. In this regard, an analysis is undertaken of the Special Court......'s Statute, Rules of Procedure and Evidence and practice to date, in order to determine its treatment of gender-based crimes and whether it can be said that the Special Court for Sierra Leone challenges the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. Udgivelsesdato: december 2004...

  18. Ski Resort Real Estate: Does Supply prevent Appreciation?

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Wheaton

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the behavior of ski resort property in a major New England market over the last 25 years. A constructed property price series reveals that nominal prices are quite volatile and only slightly higher today than in 1980. These ?uctuations and trends are investigated with a time series VAR model. The ?ndings indicate that (1) natural snowfall is crucial to business;(2) regional annual business is central to individual resort demand and hence price appreciation; and (3) resort ...

  19. A plea for unity, by Leon Lederman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-03-15

    Last November saw the 30th anniversary of the discovery of the antiproton using the Bevatron at the University of California's Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (then called the Radiation Laboratory). Fermilab Director Leon Lederman was in sparkling form at the banquet, where in his inimitable way he made an impassioned plea for scientific unity in these difficult times.

  20. A plea for unity, by Leon Lederman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Last November saw the 30th anniversary of the discovery of the antiproton using the Bevatron at the University of California's Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (then called the Radiation Laboratory). Fermilab Director Leon Lederman was in sparkling form at the banquet, where in his inimitable way he made an impassioned plea for scientific unity in these difficult times

  1. Explaining Violence in Sierra Leone's Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explaining the violence of civil war is never a simple task for the scholar. In the case of the Sierra Leone, paradoxically, the task has in some ways been rendered more difficult by the sheer variety of compelling scholarship on the question. This paper seeks to identify the most useful of the explanations offered thus far, and ...

  2. Rebellion and Agrarian Tensions in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.; Richards, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the extent to which customary governance in Sierra Leone can be held responsible for an increasingly unstable two-class agrarian society. A case is made for regarding the civil war (1991–2002) as being an eruption of long-term, entrenched agrarian tensions exacerbated by chiefly

  3. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research (SLJBR) publishes papers in all ... An original article should give sufficient detail of experimental procedures for .... For references cited in a paper which has been accepted for publication but not ...

  4. Rice genetic resources in postwar Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakanda, R.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    This research presents the effect of the 10-year long civil war in Sierra Leone on rice genetic resources, using farmers and their seed systems in three selected districts as reference points. The war disrupted all forms of production and development in the country and like other sectors of the

  5. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research publishes papers in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biotechnology in relation to Medicine, ...

  6. Obituary: Leon Van Speybroeck, 1935-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey Dale

    2003-12-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck, a master designer of X-ray telescope mirrors and the telescope scientist for the Chandra X-ray Observatory, died in Newton, Massachusetts, on 25 December 2002, shortly after learning that he had metastatic melanoma. Leon was born on 27 August 1935 in Wichita, Kansas. His father, Paul, was Assistant Treasurer and head of the accounting department at Beech Aircraft, and his mother, Anna Florence (Utley), was a homemaker. Both parents died in 1996. Leon's younger sister, Saundra, is a nurse and his younger brother, John, is a surgeon. Leon received a BS in 1957 and a PhD in 1965, both in physics, from MIT. His PhD thesis, ``Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering at High Momentum Transfer," was carried out under the supervision of Henry Kendall and Jerome Friedman. Leon spent two more years at MIT as a research associate. In 1967, he was hired by American Science and Engineering (AS&E) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and joined the X-ray astronomy group led by Riccardo Giacconi, who received the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics for contributions to astrophysics that led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources. Leon soon became involved in the design and construction of high-resolution, grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes, starting with the Apollo Telescope Mount flown on NASA's Skylab from 1973 to 1974. A series of high-resolution X-ray images of the solar corona led to dramatic changes in ideas about the solar corona, with new emphasis on magnetic dynamo processes. When the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory morphed into the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in 1973, Leon, with Giacconi and other senior X-ray astronomers from AS&E, joined the CfA and formed the high-energy astrophysics division. Leon guided the design and development of the X-ray mirrors on NASA's Einstein Observatory, which was flown from 1978 to 1981 as the first cosmic X-ray observatory with an imaging telescope. Along the way, he

  7. Emergent Behavior of Coupled Barrier Island - Resort Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. E.; Werner, B. T.

    2004-12-01

    Barrier islands are attractive sites for resorts. Natural barrier islands experience beach erosion and island overwash during storms, beach accretion and dune building during inter-storm periods, and migration up the continental shelf as sea level rises. Beach replenishment, artificial dune building, seawalls, jetties and groins have been somewhat effective in protecting resorts against erosion and overwash during storms, but it is unknown how the coupled system will respond to long-term sea level rise. We investigate coupled barrier island - resort systems using an agent-based model with three components: natural barrier islands divided into a series of alongshore cells; resorts controlled by markets for tourism and hotel purchases; and coupling via storm damage to resorts and resort protection by government agents. Modeled barrier islands change by beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms. In the resort hotel market, developer agents build hotels and hotel owning agents purchase them using predictions of future revenue and property appreciation, with the goal of maximizing discounted utility. In the tourism market, hotel owning agents set room rental prices to maximize profit and tourist agents choose vacation destinations maximizing a utility based on beach width, price and word-of-mouth. Government agents build seawalls, groins and jetties, and widen the beach and build up dunes by adding sand to protect resorts from storms, enhance beach quality, and maximize resort revenue. Results indicate that barrier islands and resorts evolve in a coupled manner to resort size saturation, with resorts protected against small-to-intermediate-scale storms under fairly stable sea level. Under extended, rapidly rising sea level, protection measures enhance the effect of large storms, leading to emergent behavior in the form of limit cycles or barrier submergence

  8. Exploring the Constraint Profile of Winter Sports Resort Tourist Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Vassiliadis, Chris A; Bellou, Victoria; Andronikidis, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Many studies have confirmed the importance of market segmentation both theoretically and empirically. Surprisingly though, no study has so far addressed the issue from the perspective of leisure constraints. Since different consumers face different barriers, we look at participation in leisure activities as an outcome of the negotiation process that winter sports resort tourists go through, to balance between related motives and constraints. This empirical study reports the findings on the applicability of constraining factors in segmenting the tourists who visit winter sports resorts. Utilizing data from 1,391 tourists of winter sports resorts in Greece, five segments were formed based on their constraint, demographic, and behavioral profile. Our findings indicate that such segmentation sheds light on factors that could potentially limit the full utilization of the market. To maximize utilization, we suggest customizing marketing to the profile of each distinct winter sports resort tourist segment that emerged.

  9. Exploring the Constraint Profile of Winter Sports Resort Tourist Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Vassiliadis, Chris A.; Bellou, Victoria; Andronikidis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have confirmed the importance of market segmentation both theoretically and empirically. Surprisingly though, no study has so far addressed the issue from the perspective of leisure constraints. Since different consumers face different barriers, we look at participation in leisure activities as an outcome of the negotiation process that winter sports resort tourists go through, to balance between related motives and constraints. This empirical study reports the findings on the applicability of constraining factors in segmenting the tourists who visit winter sports resorts. Utilizing data from 1,391 tourists of winter sports resorts in Greece, five segments were formed based on their constraint, demographic, and behavioral profile. Our findings indicate that such segmentation sheds light on factors that could potentially limit the full utilization of the market. To maximize utilization, we suggest customizing marketing to the profile of each distinct winter sports resort tourist segment that emerged. PMID:29708114

  10. Bioclimatological rating of cities and resorts in South Africa according to the Climate Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, S.

    2000-10-01

    The climatic conditions of 31 cities and resorts in South Africa have been examined with regard to the thermal perception of people. The evaluation of the thermal conditions is based on the human energy balance calculations, which have been specified for the detection of hot or cold discomfort of people walking outdoors in spite of adapted clothing. Hot days and cold days are defined depending on the extent and duration of thermal discomfort. Cities are rated according to the Climate Index (CI), which is defined in terms of the monthly frequency of hot or cold days. The most pleasant conditions in the annual average can be found along the coastal belt (Port St. Johns, Richards Bay, St. Lucia), the most unpleasant ones in the mediterranean region around Cape Town, the Karoo and the eastern lowveld.

  11. [Leon Daraszkiewicz and his monograph on hebephrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowski, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Leon Daraszkiewicz (1866-1931) was a Polish psychiatrist, a pupil and co-worker of E. Kraepelin and V. Tsiz on the University of Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia), the author of highly regarded monograph on hebephrenia (1891). In his work on the basis of over 20 case histories, he described a natural history of hebephrenia and his own views on its aetiology and prognosis. Hebephrenia as described by Daraszkiewicz, served as a clinical model for the Kraepelinian concept of dementia praecox. In the article, the life and career of Daraszkiewicz is covered, with particular emphasis on the role of his doctoral dissertation on hebephrenia in the history of the concept of schizophrenia.

  12. The Mathematical Works of Leon Battista Alberti

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Kim; Wassell, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    Leon Battista Alberti was an outstanding polymath of the fifteenth century, alongside Piero della Francesca and before Leonardo da Vinci. While his contributions to architecture and the visual arts are well known and available in good English editions, and much of his literary and social writings are also available in English, his mathematical works are not well represented in readily available, accessible English editions have remained accessible only to specialists. The four treatises included here - Ludi matematici, De Componendis Cifris, Elementi di pittura and De lunularum quadratura - ar

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning at motels, hotels, and resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Lindell K; Deru, Kayla

    2007-07-01

    Each year, more than 200 people in the United States die from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Poisoning has occurred at motels, hotels, and resorts. Congressional mandate requires smoke alarms in all guest rooms; however, smoke alarms do not detect CO. Data on patients poisoned at hotels, motels, and resorts were evaluated at a hyperbaric medicine service. In 2005, legal databases and online news databanks were searched to discover additional incidents. Only victims evaluated in hospitals or declared dead at the scene were included. Cases of intentional poisoning and poisoning from fires were excluded. Between 1989 and 2004, 68 incidents of CO poisoning occurring at hotels, motels, and resorts were identified, resulting in 772 accidentally poisoned: 711 guests, 41 employees or owners, and 20 rescue personnel. Of those poisoned, 27 died, 66 had confirmed sequelae, and 6 had sequelae resulting in a jury verdict. Lodging-operated, faulty room heating caused 45 incidents, pool/spa boilers 16, CO entrained from outdoors 5, and unreported sources caused 2 incidents. Public verdicts have averaged $4.8 million per incident (range, $1 million to $17.5 million). Poisoning occurred at hotels of all classes. Despite these incidents, most properties did not install CO alarms, and requirements for CO alarms at hotels, motels, and resorts are rare. Guests of motels, hotels, and resorts remain at risk for injury or death from CO poisoning. Measures to prevent CO poisoning of guests and employees of the lodging industry should be evaluated.

  14. Mining in Castille and Leon. La mineria en Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Coal mining is the principal activity of the regions in which the reserves are located and an irreplaceable source of short-term profit and employment. In Leon and Palencia are found the only recoverable reserves of bituminous coal and anthracite which can contribute to Spain's energy requirements from now until such time as new energy sources put an end to current energy shortages. 5 figs.

  15. Projected treatment capacity needs in sierra leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard A; MacDonald, Emily; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; Nygård, Karin; Vold, Line; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2015-01-30

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa requires immediate and sustained input from the international community in order to curb transmission. The CDC has produced a model that indicates that to end the outbreak by pushing the reproductive number below one, 25% of the patients must be placed in an Ebola Treatment Unit (ETC) and 45% must be isolated in community settings in which risk of disease transmission is reduced and safe burials are provided. In order to provide firmer targets for the international response in Sierra Leone, we estimated the national and international personnel and treatment capacity that may be required to reach these percentages. We developed a compartmental SEIR model that was fitted to WHO data and local data allowing the reproductive number to change every 8 weeks to forecast the progression of the EVD epidemic in Sierra Leone. We used the previously estimated 2.5x correction factor estimated by the CDC to correct for underreporting. Number of personnel required to provide treatment for the predicted number of cases was estimated using UNMEER and UN OCHA requests for resources required to meet the CDC target of 70% isolation. As of today (2014-12-04), we estimate that there are 810 (95% CI=646 to 973) EVD active cases in treatment, with an additional 3751 (95% CI=2778 to 4723) EVD cases unreported and untreated. To reach the CDC targets today, we need 1140 (95% CI=894 to 1387) cases in ETCs and 2052 (95% CI=1608 to 2496) at home or in a community setting with a reduced risk for disease transmission. In 28 days (2015-01-01), we will need 1309 (95% CI=804 to 1814) EVD cases in ETCs and 2356 (95% CI=1447 to 3266) EVD cases at reduced risk of transmission. If the current transmission rate is not reduced, up to 3183 personnel in total will be required in 56 days (2015-01-29) to operate ETCs according to our model. The current outbreak will require massive input from the international community in order to curb the

  16. The Assessment of Hotel Services in Poiana Brasov Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltescu C.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a holiday destination is determined by the features of the existing accommodation offer. The quality of hotel services provided influence the attracted customer segment, the satisfaction degree of consumption, the loyalty degree for the accommodation unit and destination, and also the economic-financial performance of the company. This article analyzes the opinions of tourists staying in Poiana Braşov resort regarding their consumption experience in one of the most representative hotels of the resort. The results obtained show customers’ expectations, satisfaction degree after consumption and future ways for adapting and improving hotel services.

  17. Assessing unmet anaesthesia need in Sierra Leone: a secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, Connaught Hospital Freetown, Sierra Leone. 3. Department of .... need, is a key part of planning for increasing surgical capacity. Limitations. As noted by Groen et al24 this data .... Emergency and surgery services of ...

  18. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    university hospital in southern Sierra Leone, a total of 66 (4.71±2.52) victims reported having been bitten by snakes in 11 ... social, economic, psychological and health impacts of snakebite ..... Epidemiological profile of snakebite cases from.

  19. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone ... disability associated with venomous snakebites result in lasting .... 1Mean ± Standard Error. 95% Confidence Limit. Community. Self. Reported.

  20. British Military Intervention into Sierra Leone: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberson, Walter G

    2007-01-01

    .... The successful British intervention led to the defeat of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) and final peace accords, restored order to a failed state, and allowed the democratic restoration of the government of Sierra Leone...

  1. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zackary Suleiman

    A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone ... Case Study ... Peri-operative management of patients with significant cardio-respiratory disease ... contribute to patient safety by preventing any.

  2. Biodiversity of seagrass bed in Balanan Resort - Baluran National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soedarti, T.; Hariyanto, S.; Wedayanti, A.; Rahmawati, A. D.; Safitri, D. P.; Alificia, R. I.; Suwono

    2017-09-01

    Seagrass beds are flowering plants that live on the seabed. Seagrass provides a habitat for diverse flora and fauna, spawning ground, nursery ground, raising ground, and feeding ground. Balanan Resort - Baluran National Park has many beaches, such as Kajang Beach, Si Banjir Beach, Kakapa Beach, and Serondo Beach. This study was aimed to determine species composition, seagrass dominated, and the diversity index of seagrass and substrate in Resort Balanan - Baluran National Park. This research was carried out in Kajang Beach, Sibanjir Beach, Kakapa Beach, and Sirondo Beach from August to September 2015 using belt transect method, each transect consists of 15 plots (19 transects = 285 plots) and using the frame of 1x1 m. This research found seven genera and ten species : Cymodoce (C rotundata and C. serrulata), Syringodium (S. isoelifolium), Thallassodendron (T. ciliatum), Enhalus (E. acoroides) , Halodule (H. univernis and H. pinifolia), Halophila (H. ovalis and H. decipiens), and Thalassia (T. hemprichii). The diversity index of seagrass bed was moderate [H'=1.90] in Balanan Resort. The substrate of seagrass bed was mud, gravel, sand, clay sand and rubble in Balanan Resort. The dominance index was near zero [C = 0.194], that means no dominant species.

  3. Multifunction laser systems in clinical and resort practice

    OpenAIRE

    Zabulonov, Yuriy; Vladimirov, Alexander; Chukhraiev, Nikolay; Elmehsenawi, Yousry; Zukow, Walery

    2016-01-01

    SHUPYKNATIONALMEDICALACADEMY OF POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION UKRAINIANSOCIETY OFPHYSICAL AND REHABILITATION MEDICINE RADOM UNIVERSITY Yuriy Zabulonov, Alexander Vladimirov, Nikolay Chukhraiev, Yousry Elmehsenawi, Walery Zukow MULTIFUNCTION LASER SYSTEMS IN CLINICAL AND RESORT PRACTICE Edited by Yuriy Zabulonov, Alexander Vladimirov, Nikolay Chukhraiev, Yousry Elmehsenawi, Walery Zukow ...

  4. Explaining Antagonism to the Owners of Foxwoods Casino Resort

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Hauteserre, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Conflictual relations between the owners of Foxwoods Casino and Resort, who are American Indians, and the white residents of Ledyard and nearby Preston and North Stonington townships in southeastern Connecticut are long-standing. They have flared up on numerous occasions and especially since 1982 when the Mashantucket Pequots considered building a…

  5. 76 FR 40322 - Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort Parking Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... fleet. Also, the location of the current maintenance shop impedes traffic flow and removes potential... new Sunrise Vehicle Maintenance Shop on the north side of the Sunrise parking lot. DATES: Comments... increasing parking capacity and improving traffic flow in at Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort. Parking capacity...

  6. Assessment of the economic risk for the ski resorts of changes in snow cover duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sokratov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter tourism that is intensively developed in the Russian Federation in recent years strongly depends on the snow availability and properties in the region. Climate changes exert significant influence on the functioning of mountain ski resorts, especially if they are located in areas with relatively high air temperatures in winter season. At the present time, a snowy cluster of mountain ski resorts is intensively progressing in vicinity of Krasnaya Polyana. This region in the West Caucasus (Russia is characterized by relatively warm climate conditions. The snow cover thickness (of 1% insurance in area of the Aibga mountain range may reach 8.1 m. But the snow cover thickness is not the only characteristic of the mountain skiing attractiveness. According to the Swiss standards a mountain ski resort can be considered reliable if during seven seasons of ten ones the snow cover with minimal thickness of 30–50 cm exists for a time not shorter than 100 days during a period from 1st December till 15th April.According to the forecast, during future decades the calculated amount of solid precipitation should reduce by 25–30% in mountain regions on the south macro-slope of the Great Caucasus. As the calculations show, by 2041–2050 the maximal decade thickness of snow cover will decrease by 29–35% while a number of days with snow – by 35–40%. If this is the case, artificial snow will be needed in addition to the natural one. But, under warm climate conditions using of plants for artificial snow production will require a certain perfecting of the nowadays technologies, and very likely, with use of chemicals. That is why a shadowing of existing mountain ski routes by means of the tree planting along them could be ecologically more promising. As for the mountain ski resorts of the West Caucasus, we should mention a possible weakening of the avalanche activity as a potential positive effect of the climate warming predicted by models.

  7. CAN A SMALL WINTER RESORT BE MANAGED AND MARKETED LIKE A LARGE ONE: A CASE OF BULGARIAN SKI RESORT BANSKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Shabanski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world today there are about 80 countries which practice various winter sports. Regardless of the wide geographical range demand in terms of existing infrastructure is highly concentrated in a few regions of the world. To be competitive ski resorts have to deliver good experiences and excellent value to tourists. Current community officials and destination managers of the Bulgarian ski resort of Bansko believe that the main weakness of this ski centre is the extensive waiting at the bottom gondola station and advocates expansion of the ski runs and lift capacity. The aim of the article is to research the strengths and weaknesses of the resort in regional and world context and to prove that further expansion will not forge a strong emotional connection with visitors and thus will not bring success in destination markets. The methodology used in this article follows three steps: 1 Literature review on the nature of the ski market in the world, as well as factors contributing to effective destination management; 2 International, national and regional data analysis of existing secondary data on winter sports market and 3 Qualitative study carried out with a purposive sample of key informants. The SWOT analysis based on the results of the qualitative study show that touristic shareholders in Bansko should apply an appropriate strategy for small winter resorts by offering a unique product that speaks to the world instead of trying to promote universal broad product for the mass market.

  8. Solicitant -exciting plain bioclimate / Amara Balneoclimateric Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Spa and balneotherapy is one of studying medicine and therapy and apply natural factors intherapy: natural mineral water springs and lakes mineralized, therapeuticmineral mud and peat, gas emanations and climate zones,orlocalities developed intosources respective treatment , the spa resort climate.Resources are the mineral spa and climatic treatment ,whose physicochemical properties meet the needs of prevention and health maintenance, strengthening and restoration of health, work capacity and physical and mental comfort of the individual.Climatic is a form of treatment, well-run, have fewer side effects than chemo therapeutictreatment and prolonged effects, because the way treatment is as close to normal activity in a relaxing environment.Bioclimate turn-applicant is characterized by general biological effects resulting from theapplication marked the central nervous system and autonomic and endocrine activity. Bioclimatic conditions, demanding aplain exciting resorts are located in northeasternbalneoclimatice Baragan, on the shores of salt lakes: Amara, Lacul Sarat.

  9. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume X.- Castilla-Leon (a): Leon, Zamora and Salamanca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Leon, Zamora and Salamanca of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author) 41 refs

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP AT THE RESORT BUSINESS ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Mendela

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The term “entrepreneurship” is exceedingly widespread in the western management. Its essence is to provide the employee, who has a perspective idea with the possibility to use the company's resources for its implementation, thereby realizing one’s business opportunities. It can be viewed as an activity of the enterprise to achieve goals on the basis of the use of business opportunities. The partnership in the innovative activity is crucial for the effectiveness of its implementation. The partnership does not imply complete equality: professional partnership is characterized by the fact that senior ex official partners receive greater rewards and are less involved in the current work than younger counterparts. The scientific approaches concerned in developing and realization of business conception are particularly relevant in terms of overcoming the economic crisis, effective development and specialization of regional tourist and recreational complexes. The advantages of the entrepreneurship over traditional ways of tourism and recreational activities’ organization are singled out. The principles of behavior of market participants on the market of resort services are defined. The peculiarities of service enterprises are distinguished. The process of stimulating development of company entrepreneurship at resort business enterprise is considered. Based on factors of external and internal environment of business activity, differences that characterize entrepreneurship in tourism and recreation industry, trends of development, achievements of economics it was found that resort business development will stimulate entrepreneurship within the enterprise. Management system, economic indicators of business activity effectiveness, quality of service, integration, clustering, coenterprising and entrepreneurship provide realization of enterprising conception. Key words: Entrepreneurship, intellectual product, innovative idea, intracapital, social

  11. Markkinointisuunnitelma digitaaliseen markkinointiin Case Baan Lee Beach Resort & Sauna

    OpenAIRE

    Lähteenmäki, Essi

    2017-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on kehittää Baan Lee Beach Resort & Saunan digitaalista markkinointia markkinointisuunnitelman avulla. Yritys on aloittamassa liiketoimintaansa erittäin kilpailulla alalla, jossa digitaalinen markkinointi on tärkeä osa kilpailussa menestymistä ja se on otettava huomioon yrityksen markkinointistrategian tärkeänä osana. Markkinointisuunnitelmalla pyritään takaamaan markkinointistrategian mukainen toiminta. Markkinointisuunnitelmassa kuvataan yrityksen nykyti...

  12. Land degradation at the Stara Planina ski resort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, Ratko; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Radić, Boris; Nikić, Zoran; Vasiljević, Nevena

    2012-03-01

    The environmental impacts of ski resorts in the Balkan region are great and can lead to landscape degradation and loss of land functionality. In this study, we present an example of the negative effects of human activities at the Stara Planina ski resort in southeastern Serbia. The objective of this study is detailed analysis of the characteristics of environmental impacts at the Stara Planina. The management of the ski area and ski slope development caused severe degradation of topsoil and native vegetation. The morphological characteristics of the area, lithological properties of the exposed material and climate conditions resulted in various geomorphic impacts, including rills, deep gullies, solifluctions and debris from rock weathering. Significant changes in land usage altered hydrological conditions, resulting in more frequent torrential floods in the downstream sections of the Zubska River and increased the sediment yield. Environmental impacts were analyzed in the immediate and wider zones of the ski resort in accordance with the specific topography and visual exposure. The restoration and erosion control measures have stopped degradation processes and helped to rehabilitate the appearance and functions of the landscape. The results show the importance of considering lithological (the type and characteristics of minerals present) and hydrological (precipitation, water storage capacity of soil, runoff) factors under the conditions of significant changes in land usage. The results of this investigation can contribute to the improvement of planning processes and the implementation of development projects in ski areas.

  13. 78 FR 23135 - Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals; Parker, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals; Parker, AZ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the....). RPM Racing Enterprises is sponsoring the Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals, which is...

  14. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-07-08

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  15. Evaluation of energy economics of solar resorts on the Red Sea in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modet, Georgei

    2011-10-28

    This thesis investigates the energy performance of resorts in Egypt. The expansive tourism development results in higher demands of energy whilst increasing the burden on the country's economy. The objective is to evaluate solar resorts versus the conventional design in terms of energy, economic and environmental performances. An energy audit is conducted among five stars resorts in Sharm el Sheikh. A self developed evaluation model using environmental life cycle costing is used to evaluate the conventional resort versus the solar resort concept. The thesis concludes with the discussion of the results and recommendations for encouraging the use of renewable energy in the hotel sector in Egypt.

  16. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MHRL

    This prospective, descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital,. Ilorin, to .... in the study, age under 15 years, American Society of .... well-being to the anaesthetist, while 30.8% felt he ... Journal of Asian Scientific Research. 3:775-85. Chew ST ... a qualitative research synthesis.

  17. Disneyland resort's environmentality'' program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohel, M.E. (Disneyland, Anaheim, CA (United States))

    Today at Disneyland Resort more than 12,000 Cast Members (employees) have pledged to think and act environmentally. The Environmental Affairs Department and the environmentality logo were established about 2-1/2 years ago to promote environmental awareness throughout the company. In 1993, a new campaign stressing recycling took place. Cast members were asked to pledge to recycle plastic containers. The goal was to raise their awareness of various grades of recyclable plastic. In turn, they received a T-shirt made from 50% recycled plastic (from The Walt Disney Company) and 50% virgin plastic.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus, Nuevo Leon State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitvich, Bradley J; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Contreras-Cordero, Juan F; Loroño-Pino, María A; Marlenee, Nicole L; Díaz, Francisco J; González-Rojas, José I; Obregón-Martínez, Nelson; Chiu-García, Jorge A; Black, William C; Beaty, Barry J

    2004-07-01

    West Nile virus RNA was detected in brain tissue from a horse that died in June 2003 in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the premembrane and envelope genes showed that the virus was most closely related to West Nile virus isolates collected in Texas in 2002.

  19. Indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding in Sierra Leone | Abdul ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to document and preserve valuable indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding and production under traditional cattle production system in Sierra Leone. Data were collected from thirty (30) cattle farms from three locations: Gbindi (16 farms), Sackelereh (7 farms), and Flamansa (7 farms) in ...

  20. Interview met Leon Deben: van tegenstellingen leer je het meeste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepen, A.; Huisman, C.

    2008-01-01

    Wat in de jaren zeventig begonnen is als Sociologie van bouwen en wonen is uitgegroeid tot Stadssociologie. Leon Deben heeft het medeopgebouwd. Hij nam onlangs afscheid van de universiteit met een rede over de openbare ruimte. "Het centrale bestuur van de stad is druk met de waan van de dag en dan

  1. Young Women's Political Participation in Post-War Sierra Leone ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The end of the civil war in Sierra Leone in 2002 was facilitated in many ways by women through women's pro-democracy movements. These movements will continue to be pivotal in the gradual strengthening of democratic governance structures. Irrespective of the immense barriers that they face, women of all ages have ...

  2. Last Research Board Meeting for Leon Van Hove

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Leon Van Hove chaired the meeting for the last time, the end of the year being also the end of his term as Research Director General. The place was as usual the 6th floor conference room at the Main Building. The photo shows Sergio Fubini, Claude Bovet, Erwin Gabathuler, Volker Soergel, Leslie Camilleri, Jurg May, Mike Crowley-Milling

  3. Leon Cooper's Perspective on Teaching Science: An Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Klassen, Stephen; McMillan, Barbara; Metz, Don

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this paper portray the perspective of Professor Leon Cooper, a theoretical physicist, Nobel laureate, active researcher, and physics textbook author, on teaching science and on the nature of science (NOS). The views presented emerged from an interview prepared by the authors and responded to in writing by Professor Cooper. Based on…

  4. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    recommendations to the health sector of Sierra Leone for it prevention. This retrospective .... pressure. 27% of the population is exposed to 3 to. 5 of these risk factors. According to .... Many studies have identified foot ulcer as the most common ...

  5. Military Interventions in Sierra Leone: Lessons from a Failed State

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Larry J; Reese, Timothy R

    2008-01-01

    This study by Larry J. Woods and Colonel Timothy R. Reese analyzes the massive turmoil afflicting the nation of Sierra Leone, 1993-2002, and the efforts by a variety of outside forces to bring lasting stability to that small country...

  6. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjälkander O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Owolabi Bjälkander,1 Laurel Bangura,2 Bailah Leigh,3 Vanja Berggren,1 Staffan Bergström,1 Lars Almroth11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Inter Africa Committee, Sierra Leone; 3Department of Community Health, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra LeoneAbstract: Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM in the world, and yet little is known about the health consequences of the practice.Purpose: To explore whether and what kind of FGM-related health complications girls and women in Sierra Leone experience, and to elucidate their health care-seeking behaviors.Patients and methods: A feasibility study was conducted to test and refine questionnaires and methods used for this study. Thereafter, a cross-section of girls and women (n = 258 attending antenatal care and Well Women Clinics in Bo Town, Bo District, in the southern region and in Makeni Town, Bombali District, in the northern region of Sierra Leone were randomly selected. Participants answered interview-administrated pretested structured questionnaires with open-ended-questions, administrated by trained female personnel.Results: All respondents had undergone FGM, most between 10 and 14 years of age. Complications were reported by 218 respondents (84.5%, the most common ones being excessive bleeding, delay in or incomplete healing, and tenderness. Fever was significantly more often reported by girls who had undergone FGM before 10 years of age compared with those who had undergone the procedure later. Out of those who reported complications, 187 (85.8% sought treatment, with 89 of them visiting a traditional healer, 75 a Sowei (traditional circumciser, and 16 a health professional.Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of FGM and the proportion of medical complications show that FGM is a matter for public health concern in Sierra Leone. Girls who

  7. Lender of last resort in a monetary union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gylfi Magnússon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of optimal currency areas was developed during the 1960’s and 1970’s. At that time the international financial system was very different from the current system, banking systems were smaller and the flow of funds across borders limited. Developments in the Eurozone in recent years have shown that when the theory was developed and the decision made to adopt the euro some of the drawbacks of a common currency were not foreseen and important issues were not addressed. This includes the role of a common central bank as a lender of last resort to national governments. In addition, few foresaw how many closely linked financial systems could create problems that are unsolvable without the cooperation of several governments. An adequate framework for dealing with such problems was thus not put in place. The possibility that macro-economic shocks could originate in the financial system was mainly ignored. During the current crisis it has been necessary to address all these issues. It took four years to find a politically viable solution. This involves the redefinition of the role of the European Central Bank, making it a lender of last resort to national governments. This policy change buys time to deal with many fundamental imbalances within the Eurozone but does not in and of itself solve the underlying problems. The delay in implementing this policy was however very costly.

  8. Lassa fever in post-conflict sierra leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G Shaffer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever (LF, an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV, is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002 ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease.Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects.Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to develop more effective and/or supplemental treatments for

  9. Development prospects of resort townsin the Republic of Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avetisyan Narek Avetisovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the resort towns and their diversification in Armenia are discussed in the context of sustainable development. Armenia doesn’t currently stand out among the tourist destinations of the world, despite its historical and cultural heritage and natural resources. In this article the town Jermuk is described, which is located in Vayots Dzor region of Armenia. Health centers and other infrastructures of Armenian resorts were built in the period of the Soviet Union; they were restored in recent times. The main development trends of Jermuk should follow the upgrade of already built resorts (their leading examples at the European level, at the same time creating more active environment in order to meet the requirements of local population and visitors, taking into account the surrounding natural landscape and its features. One of the important issues, which should be taken into account, is the problem of seasonality (the city has no money to give for the opportunity to diversify the tourism offer in winter, and the economy with the only activity (thermal function.Within a few years, Jermuk has rediscovered its perspectives and expresses the desire to acquire its place in the international market of spa tourism at a future date. Thus, the question of assessing the historical and cultural heritage is now one of the most pressing problems of the city, which is on the eve of important decisions on the future direction of resuming recovery services. For the revival and development of Jermuk in the medium and long term, and in order to identify urban and architectural interventions, we should note some important issues:Updating the thermal functions of the city: This area of Jermuk still attracts a large clientele in summer, mainly from Yerevan, the Armenian diaspora and from the former Soviet republics (mainly from Russia. At the same time, the increase in the tourist attraction level requires upgrading public-safety and recreational

  10. MAIN FEATURES OF BALNEOLOGICAL AND MUD RESORTS NETWORK OF THE BLACK SEA COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Молодецький, А. Е.; Пишна, Г. О.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the article is the characteristics of geographical (natural and socio-economic) prerequisites for the development of coastal resorts of Black Sea region countries, with emphasis on balneological and mud-bath of recreational resources systems. Six European and Asian countries – Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania have a diverse and significant resort and recreational resources of the Black Sea coast. However, for many decades the Black Sea resorts of thes...

  11. Practical application of wastewater reuse in tourist resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antakyali, D; Krampe, J; Steinmetz, H

    2008-01-01

    A medium-scale membrane bioreactor was tested in a large tourist resort on the south-western coast of Turkey with the treated wastewater subsequently being used for irrigational purposes. The wastewater treatment system was designed to eliminate carbonaceous and nitrogenous substances. Treatment efficiency was monitored by means of regular chemical and microbiological analyses. Information was collected on water use at different locations of the hotel. Specific values based on the number of guests were determined. Wastewater streams from kitchen, laundry and rooms were analysed to investigate the various contribution from these points. The social acceptance of the guests concerning the on-site wastewater treatment and reuse in the hotel was analysed using a questionnaire. The investigations indicated that the treated wastewater provides the required chemical and hygienic conditions to satisfy requirement for its reuse in irrigation. The acceptance by guests was encouraging for such applications. IWA Publishing 2008.

  12. Modelización lineal de un sistema masa-resorte real

    OpenAIRE

    Matar, Maricel; Parodi, Miguel A.; Repetto, Carlos E.; Roatta, Analía

    2017-01-01

    De acuerdo al modelo enseñado en los cursos introductorios universitarios, la frecuencia de las oscilaciones libres de un sistema masa-resorte vertical, en el caso de fuerzas disipativas y masa del resorte despreciables, puede calcularse simplemente como la raíz cuadrada de la relación entre la gravedad del lugar y el estiramiento producido por el cuerpo sujeto al resorte. Sin embargo, cuando se utiliza un resorte real, las frecuencias medidas difieren en forma notable por debajo de las previ...

  13. In-stream nutrient uptake kinetics along stream size and development gradients in a rapidly developing mountain resort watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, T.; McGlynn, B.; McNamarra, R.; Gardner, K.

    2012-04-01

    Land use / land cover (LULC) change including mountain resort development often lead to increased nutrient loading to streams, however the potential influence on stream ecosystem nutrient uptake kinetics and transport remain poorly understood. Given the deleterious impacts elevated nutrient loading can have on aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative to improve understanding of nutrient retention capacities across stream scales and watershed development intensities. We performed seventeen nutrient addition experiments on six streams across the West Fork Gallatin Watershed, Montana, USA, to quantify nitrogen (N) uptake kinetics and retention dynamics across stream sizes (1st to 4th order) and along a mountain resort development gradient. We observed that stream N uptake kinetics and spiraling parameters varied across streams of different development intensity and scale. In more developed watersheds we observed a fertilization affect, however, none of the streams exhibited saturation with respect to N. Additionally, we observed that elevated loading led to increased biomass and retentive capacities in developed streams that helped maintain export at low levels during baseflow. Our results indicate that LULC can enhance in-stream uptake of limiting nutrients and highlight the value of characterizing uptake kinetic curves from ambient to saturation.

  14. Good laboratory practices guarantee biosafety in the Sierra Leone-China friendship biosafety laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qin; Zhou, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Du, Hai-Jun; Nie, Kai; Song, Jing-Dong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wen-Wen; Guo, Jian-Qiang; Wei, He-Jiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yan-Hai; Wu, Jiang; Kamara, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Background The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa between 2014 and 2015 was the largest EDV epidemic since the identification of Ebola virus (EBOV) in 1976, and the countries most strongly affected were Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. Findings The Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab), a fixed Biosafety Level 3 laboratory in the capital city of Sierra Leone, was established by the Chinese government and has been active in EBOV ...

  15. Hydrographic and chemical observations in the Sierra Leone River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koske, P.H.; Weiler, K.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrographic and chemical observations in the Sierra Leone River estuary are reported, a West-African river in the tropics. Because of the typical change between rainy season in the sommer months and dry season in winter time the research work has been adapted to these semi-annual changes. The collected data and results are given and discussed under this aspect of the seasonal fluctuations. (orig.) [de

  16. Seroprevalence of Ebola virus infection in Bombali District, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadege Goumkwa Mafopa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey of anti-Ebola Zaire virus nucleoprotein IgG prevalence was carried out among Ebola virus disease survivors and their Community Contacts in Bombali District, Sierra Leone. Our data suggest that the specie of Ebola virus (Zaire responsible of the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa may cause mild or asymptomatic infection in a proportion of cases, possibly due to an efficient immune response.

  17. Global solar radiation in Sierra Leone (West Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaquoi, J.G.M.

    1987-09-01

    A correlation equation of the Angstrom type has been developed to predict the monthly average daily global solar irradiation incident on a horizontal surface in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Measurements of the global insolation have been compared with those predicted using the equation. A good agreement (greater than 95% in most cases) was observed between the measured values and the predicted ones. (author). 15 refs, 2 tabs

  18. Reducing CO2 emissions in Sierra Leone and Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.

    1991-01-01

    With soring population growth rates and minimal economic growth, the nations of Africa are afflicted with innumerable problems. Why then should Africa's developing countries worry about CO 2 emissions? First, because agricultural activities form the backbone of most African economies; thus, these nations may be particularly vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. Second, acting to reduce carbon emissions will bring about more efficient energy use. All of Africa could benefit from the improved use of energy. Finally, the accumulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere is a global problem with individual solutions; in order to reduce international emissions, all countries, including those in Africa, must contribute. Typical of many African countries, Ghana and Sierra Leone have among the lowest levels of energy demand per capita across the globe. primary energy demand per capita in these two West African nations equals about one quarter of the world's average and about one twentieth of the US average. This work summarizes the results of two long-term energy use and carbon emissions scenarios for Sierra Leone and Ghana. In the high emissions (HE) scenario for 2025, policy changes focused on galvanizing economic growth lead to significant increases in energy use and carbon emissions in Ghana and Sierra Leone between 1985 and 2025. In the low emissions (LE) scenario, the implementation of policies aimed specifically at curtailing CO 2 emissions significantly limits the increase in carbon in both nations by 2025

  19. RTEMS SMP and MTAPI for Efficient Multi-Core Space Applications on LEON3/LEON4 Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederman, Daniel; Hellstrom, Daniel; Sherrill, Joel; Bloom, Gedare; Patte, Mathieu; Zulianello, Marco

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the final result of an European Space Agency (ESA) activity aimed at improving the software support for LEON processors used in SMP configurations. One of the benefits of using a multicore system in a SMP configuration is that in many instances it is possible to better utilize the available processing resources by load balancing between cores. This however comes with the cost of having to synchronize operations between cores, leading to increased complexity. While in an AMP system one can use multiple instances of operating systems that are only uni-processor capable, a SMP system requires the operating system to be written to support multicore systems. In this activity we have improved and extended the SMP support of the RTEMS real-time operating system and ensured that it fully supports the multicore capable LEON processors. The targeted hardware in the activity has been the GR712RC, a dual-core core LEON3FT processor, and the functional prototype of ESA's Next Generation Multiprocessor (NGMP), a quad core LEON4 processor. The final version of the NGMP is now available as a product under the name GR740. An implementation of the Multicore Task Management API (MTAPI) has been developed as part of this activity to aid in the parallelization of applications for RTEMS SMP. It allows for simplified development of parallel applications using the task-based programming model. An existing space application, the Gaia Video Processing Unit, has been ported to RTEMS SMP using the MTAPI implementation to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of multicore processors for space payload software. The activity is funded by ESA under contract 4000108560/13/NL/JK. Gedare Bloom is supported in part by NSF CNS-0934725.

  20. Symposium on mine safety in Castille and Leon. Jornadas de debate sobre seguridad minera en Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Although the Integral Plan for Mine Safety (PISM), sponsored and organised by the Advisory Council for Industry, Energy and Work of Castille and Leon does not provide a permanent solution, its second stage will still be implemented. The Integral refers to the various aspects in the complete cycle of mine safety including inspection of installations and work done, safety training, analysis of accidents, study of occupational diseases, setting up of bodies responsible for safety within a firm, rescue teams, etc.

  1. Snow reliability in ski resorts considering artificial snowmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstätter, M.; Formayer, H.; Haas, P.

    2009-04-01

    Snow reliability is the key factor to make skiing on slopes possible and to ensure added value in winter tourism. In this context snow reliability is defined by the duration of a snowpack on the ski runs of at least 50 mm snow water equivalent (SWE), within the main season (Dec-Mar). Furthermore the snowpack should form every winter and be existent early enough in season. In our work we investigate the snow reliability of six Austrian ski resorts. Because nearly all Austrian resorts rely on artificial snowmaking it is of big importance to consider man made snow in the snowpack accumulation and ablation in addition to natural snow. For each study region observed weather data including temperature, precipitation and snow height are used. In addition we differentiate up to three elevations on each site (valley, intermediate, mountain top), being aware of the typical local winter inversion height. Time periods suitable for artificial snow production, for several temperature threshold (-6,-4 or -1 degree Celsius) are calculated on an hourly base. Depending on the actual snowpack height, man made snow can be added in the model with different defined capacities, considering different technologies or the usage of additives. To simulate natural snowpack accumulation and ablation we a simple snow model, based on daily precipitation and temperature. This snow model is optimized at each site separately through certain parameterization factors. Based on the local observations and the monthly climate change signals from the climate model REMO-UBA, we generate long term time series of temperature and precipitation, using the weather generator LARS. Thereby we are not only able to simulate the snow reliability under current, but also under future climate conditions. Our results show significant changes in snow reliability, like an increase of days with insufficient snow heights, especially at mid and low altitudes under natural snow conditions. Artificial snowmaking can partly

  2. Projections of climate potential for a touristic resort in Mallorca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual Pou, Arnau; Homar Santaner, Victor; Romero March, Romualdo; Alonso Oroza, Sergio; Ramis Noguera, Climent

    2010-05-01

    Platja de Palma, in the Island of Mallorca, is one of the most popular touristic areas in the Mediterranean with more than 8 million tourist-nights spent per year. Socioeconomic activities undertaken in Platja de Palma are very closely linked with its climate. Therefore, optimization of residential and tourism opportunities in the medium term should necessarily take into account the close interdependence between the evolution of the main atmospheric parameters and the sea, sun and sand tourism (S3), the main tourist model exploited in the area and heavily dependent on the climate. We used the Climate Index for Tourism (CIT, Freitas et al. 2008) to estimate the satisfaction of the S3 tourist in terms of the environmental conditions of the day. The CIT integrates thermal aspects, aesthetic and physical parameters, and derive a measure of perceived satisfaction for the average tourists in terms of three thresholds: unacceptable conditions, acceptable, and ideal. In the first place, we analyzed the evolution of the CIT using data from the proximity weather station in Palma airport for the period 1973-2008. Then, the impact of climate change on the tourism potential of the resort was assessed by calculating the CIT for future climate scenarios. We used regional climate simulation results from the European project ENSEMBLES and for the period 2001-2050. In order to compute the CIT index, daily series of temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, cloudiness and wind near surface are necessary. Model output series are calibrated using observations from Palma airport. In addition, future CIT series are also calibrated using values directly derived from observations. The analysis of the observed period reveals an increase in the number of days per year of acceptable conditions for S3 tourism since 1973 but a decrease in the frequency of ideal conditions, mainly during summer and autumn. Also, ideal conditions in Platja de Palma have increased in frequency during spring

  3. Quality of customer service: perceptions from guests in all-inclusive resorts in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel L. Frater

    2007-01-01

    With data collected from guests in all-inclusive resorts in Jamaica, West Indies, the purposes of this study were to: (1) delineate unique dimensions of customer service perceptions among guests and (2) report the finding of a study that measured guests' perceptions of the quality of customer service in all-inclusive resorts. The study asked the following research...

  4. ‘Sochi’ resort development and functioning in 1935–1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Ivantsov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the history of ‘Sochi’ rest home establishment and functioning. Later ‘Sochi’ was turned into resort and was included into Sochi group of resorts, first under the supervision of USSR Central Executive Committee and in 1938 it passed into jurisdiction of USSR Council of People's Commissars – USSR Council of Ministers.

  5. Energy audit data for a resort island in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reyasudin Basir Khan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The data consists of actual generation-side auditing including the distribution of loads, seasonal load profiles, and types of loads as well as an analysis of local development planning of a resort island in the South China Sea. The data has been used to propose an optimal combination of hybrid renewable energy systems that able to mitigate the diesel fuel dependency on the island. The resort island selected is Tioman, as it represents the typical energy requirements of many resort islands in the South China Sea. The data presented are related to the research article “Optimal Combination of Solar, Wind, Micro-Hydro and Diesel Systems based on Actual Seasonal Load Profiles for a Resort Island in the South China Sea” [1]. Keywords: Tioman, South China Sea, Load profile, Renewable energy, Resort Island, Energy audit

  6. Study of Mistletoe in Joben Resort Forest Mount Rinjani Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuni Dwi Fikriani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mistletoes are one group of hemiparasite plants, including the Lorantaceae family that have potential as medicinal. These hemiparasite plants can attack flowering plant (Magnoliophyta and non-floweing plant (Pinophyta, especially on the main stems, branches and twigs. The objective of this research is to identify the species of mistletoe and its hosts, make identification key, descriptions, and to make a distribution map of mistletoe in Joben Resort forest south of Mount Rinjani Lombok. This study is descriptive explorative research with three kinds of collecting sample methods i.e exploration, continous strip sampling, and delenation method. The research found five species of mistletoes are included in three genera i.e Amyema cuernosensis, Amyema enneantha, Amyema tristis, Macrosolen retusus and Scurrula artropurpurea. These five kinds of mistletoe are associated with 23 hosts species of plants, 18 genera from 13 families. The most favorite host of these mistletoes is Ficus septica, and the most agresive mistletoe is Scurrula artropurpurea. The important finding of the research is finding new species or new record of mistletoes. The benefit of these new record or new species is providing new material of new medicinal for treating some diseases such as various cancers.

  7. Biological properties of mud extracts derived from various spa resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilioti, Eliana; Vargiami, Margarita; Letsiou, Sophia; Gardikis, Konstantinos; Sygouni, Varvara; Koutsoukos, Petros; Chinou, Ioanna; Kassi, Eva; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2017-08-01

    Spa resorts are known for thousands of years for their healing properties and have been empirically used for the treatment of many inflammatory conditions. Mud is one of the most often used natural materials for preventive, healing and cosmetic reasons and although it has been used since the antiquity, little light has been shed on its physical, chemical and biological properties. In this study we examined the effect of mud extracts on the expression of adhesion molecules (CAMs) by endothelial cells as well as their effects on monocyte adhesion to activated endothelial cells. Most of mud extracts inhibited the expression of VCAM-1 by endothelial cells and reduced monocyte adhesion to activated endothelial cells, indicating a potent anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, the mud extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity; however, most of them appeared inactive against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. One of the mud extracts (showing the best stabilization features) increased significantly the expression of genes involved in cell protection, longevity and hydration of human keratinocytes, such as, collagen 6A1, forkhead box O3, sirtuin-1, superoxide dismutase 1 and aquaporin-3. The present study reveals that mud exerts important beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory and anti-aging activity as well as moisturizing effects, implicating important cosmeceutical applications.

  8. Modelo resorte-paríicula para telas hiperlasticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL GARCÍA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un modelo computacional para la simulación de telas hiperelásticas. El modelo propuesto tiene un enfoque multi−partículas y simula la interacción de un material textil con un objeto deformante. La tela está representada por mallas rectangulares compuestas por resortes, este hecho permite al modelo comportarse ortotrópicamente y en consecuencia es posible simular sus propiedades en ambos sentidos. Las relaciones constitutivas del material preservan las capacidades hiperelásticas naturales de la tela. En el modelo desarrollado aquí, inicialmente la tela se encuentra en su estado natural no deformado. Luego se le da una deformación inicial que garantice el no contacto o intersección con el objeto deformante. Finalmente, la tela deformada es liberada, en consecuencia ella comienza a moverse iterativamente hacia a una posición de equilibrio. La posición final de equilibrio es alcanzada cuando las fuerzas internas son balanceadas por las fuerzas externas de contacto causadas por el objeto. Esto se logra cuando el criterio de parada ha sido satisfecho.

  9. Curriculum Diversification Re-examined--A Case Study of Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cream A. H.

    This paper deals with a case study of secondary curriculum diversification as a vocationalization strategy in Sierra Leone. It explores diversification issues from four crucial standpoints that are distinct but highly interrelated. First, diversification is dealt with as a policy that was adopted and actively pursued by Sierra Leone for over a…

  10. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  11. Approaches to recreational landscape scaling of mountain resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaia, Nina; Slepih, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    In the mountain resorts (MR) the climate and the landscape are natural medical resources which are very sensitive to anthropogenic influences [EGU2011-6740-3; EGU2012-6103]. Positive experience of the climatic and landscape treatment at the MR of the North Caucasus allowed us to establish fundamental interrelation between the quality of recreational landscapes (RL), climatic conditions and the efficiency of medical rehabilitation of people at the MR on the basis of rational use of natural medical resources. There have been registered the following bioclimatic distinctions and physiological responses with the recipients suffering from high disadaptation according to the results of the complex route medical and geophysical studies on the urban and park landscapes. We have defined hot discomfort at the open space of urban territory when the weather is extremely hot and anticyclone - the thermal balance (TB) is higher than +840 W/sq.m, extreme risk of solar erythema burn - UVI - higher than 11, the low content of natural anions - lower than 260 ion/cm3, high coefficient of ions unipolarity (CIU) - 2.16 and a high temperature of the underlying surface (asphalt) 46.40C. At the same time in the resort park of vegetable association Bétula péndula (50 years) TB was significantly lower - +480 W/sq.m, there was no risk of erythema burn (UVI 4), an optimum level of natural anions was 840 ion/cm3 and the value of CIU was 0.98, grass and soil temperature was + 290C and there was a favourable background of evaporating metabolites. At such favourable bioclimatic change the patients have been registered to have the voltage reduction of the vegetative index (from 640 to 380; N-150), the increase in efficiency of neurohumoral regulation (from 0.12 to 0.34; N 0,50), the decrease in spectrum excitability of brain activity in the range of waves: delta 0 … 0.4Hz by 16%, the increase in work activity of the brain in the range of waves: thetra 4 … 8 Hz, alpha 8 … 13 Hz. beta 13

  12. Implementation of Safeguards and Non-Proliferation in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sierra Leone under the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements (CSAs) has enacted the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (NSRP) Act 2012 and has given numerous powers to the Authority to implement the above mentioned act fully. The NSRP Act 2012 established the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Authority which among other things to regulate, control and supervise the acquisition, importation, exportation, use, transportation and disposal of radioactive sources and devices emitting Ionizing Radiation. The Authority is bounded by law to cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the application of Safeguards Agreement and any protocol thereto between Sierra Leone and the International Atomic Energy Agency including conducting inspections and providing any assistance or information required by designated IAEA inspectors in the fulfillment of their responsibilities pursuant to Section 5, Subsection 2, Article xvi of the NSRP Act 2012. The Authority is also granted powers to adopt all necessary measures including a system of licensing to control the export, re-export, transit and transhipment of any nuclear material, equipment or technology in order to protect the safety and security of Sierra Leone. The Regulatory Authority has established departments for the control of nuclear materials: One of which is The Regulatory Control Department; responsible for Inspections, Authorization and Enforcement actions for all radiation sources and nuclear materials. The Authority has been conducting inspections regularly on various facilities ranging from medical radiation generating equipment to industrial radiography sources. The methodology to be used is the issuance of the standard IAEA checklist which is consistent with the Regulatory Authority’s documents for inspection of sources and is in line with the General Safety Requirements(GSR)Part III. The expected outcomes would be increasing training of regulatory authority’s staff, the procurement of

  13. REMEDIATION OF LEON WATER FLOOD, BUTLER COUNTY, KANSAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.L. Korphage; Kelly Kindscher; Bruce G. Langhus

    2001-11-26

    The Leon Water Flood site has undergone one season of soil amendments and growth of specialized plants meant to colonize and accelerate the remediation of the salt-impacted site. The researchers characterized the impacted soil as to chemistry, added soil amendments, and planted several species of seedlings, and seeded the scarred areas. After the first growing season, the surface soil was again characterized and groundcover was also characterized. While plant growth was quite meager across the area, soil chemistry did improve over most of the two scars.

  14. Novel Retinal Lesion in Ebola Survivors, Sierra Leone, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Paul J; Scott, Janet T; Baxter, Julia M; Parkes, Craig K; Dwivedi, Rahul; Czanner, Gabriela; Vandy, Matthew J; Momorie, Fayiah; Fornah, Alimamy D; Komba, Patrick; Richards, Jade; Sahr, Foday; Beare, Nicholas A V; Semple, Malcolm G

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a case-control study in Freetown, Sierra Leone, to investigate ocular signs in Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors. A total of 82 EVD survivors with ocular symptoms and 105 controls from asymptomatic civilian and military personnel and symptomatic eye clinic attendees underwent ophthalmic examination, including widefield retinal imaging. Snellen visual acuity was Ebola virus, permitting cataract surgery. A novel retinal lesion following the anatomic distribution of the optic nerve axons occurred in 14.6% (97.5% CI 7.1%-25.6%) of EVD survivors and no controls, suggesting neuronal transmission as a route of ocular entry.

  15. Nuevo Leon during the Independence of Texas, 1835-1836

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel González Quiroga

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The new-born Mexican Republic suffered one of its strongest shocks in 1836, during the Texas War. The impact of this conflict in the neighbouring state of Nuevo Leon is the main subject of this work, which also describes the situation of Mexico and its army, as well as the state's reaction towards the centralist shift — Texas' main argument  for splitting from Mexico. The study of the separation of Texas, widely reviewed in Mexican historiography, is enriched through the viewpoint of one of the most affected states.

  16. [Health resorts in Styria, Charinthia and Istria once (1897) and today (2007).].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischinger, Ales; Fischinger, Janez; Fischinger, Dusa; Skrobonja, Ante

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine which health resorts existed in 1897 in Istria, Carinthia and Styria region, how many of them are still in use today and how the spas and their offer were represented in the past and how they are represented today. The study is based on the textbook Balneotherapie II (Bibliothek des Arztes 1900) by prof. dr. Julius Glax. The second source of our study is based on the currently available presentation of the health resorts from the internet. The textbook Balneotherapie was intended for the post graduate education of physicians and general practitioners, so they could advise the patient on further treatment in an appropriate health resort. In the chapter Balneographie the author represented 1200 health resorts all over the world. From the book we have chosen the following regions: Istria, Carinthia and Styria which used to be three parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today they are divided in to three neighboring states: Croatia (Istria), Slovenia (Istria, Carinthia, Styria) and Austria (Carinthia, Styria). Within these regions Glax presented 22 health resorts, 19 of them are still working today. Barbarabad/Barbara bath (Carinthia, Austria) does not exist either as a resort or as a city. Rimske toplice (Römerbad/Roman baths) and Rimski vrelec (Römerquelle/ Roman springs) in Styria region do not function as health resorts any more. Nowadays we make a difference between spa and health resorts. Spa resorts offer numerous forms of recreation for better well being. Health resorts offer health services, as well as neglected, but various forms of alternative treatments and recreation. Each spa and health resort is represented in brochures and on the World Wide Web individually. Tradition is usually not mentioned, it is neglected but the exception is Opatija (Abbazia) which past is usually presented in the brochures. The museum of medical tourism was opened in November 2007 in Opatija where you can admire the development of Opatija

  17. Tennet as a last resort for small-scale consumers in a liberalized energy market. Some juridical considerations on the choice of the supplier of las resort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Het Lam, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    According to the current plans, from 1 January 2004 Dutch small consumers (households) will be able to choose their own supplier of electricity. In this free market, the situation might occur that suppliers, due to financial problems, will no longer be able to fulfill their (contractual) obligations. In order to protect small consumers against the negative consequences which result from this, the Dutch legislator decided to change the 1998 Electricity Act in order to designate a supplier of last resort. This article analyses the different proposals for such a supplier of last resort as discussed during the parliamentary debate and will come to a conclusion about the (juridical) grounds of the final choice to designate TenneT as supplier of last resort [nl

  18. Health-resort fee and a stay in a health-resort hospital – comments based on the general interpretation of the Minister of Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wantoch-Rekowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents the argumentation of the Minister of Finance included in the general interpretation of 3 October 2014 concerning the interpretation of Article 17 paragraph 2 clause 2 of the Act on Local Taxes and Fees. It was explained what was understood by the term “hospital” before 3 October 2014 and what changed in this subject after the general interpretation of the Minister of Finance was issued. It was emphasized that now the health-resort fee should not be charged from legal persons staying in health resort hospitals.

  19. WASH activities at two Ebola treatment units in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Mallow

    Full Text Available The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD in West Africa was the largest in history. Starting in September 2014, International Medical Corps (IMC operated five Ebola treatment units (ETUs in Sierra Leone and Liberia. This paper explores how future infectious disease outbreak facilities in resource-limited settings can be planned, organized, and managed by analyzing data collected on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH and infection prevention control (IPC protocols.We conducted a retrospective cohort study by analyzing WASH/IPC activity data routinely recorded on paper forms or white boards at ETUs during the outbreak and later merged into a database from two IMC-run ETUs in Sierra Leone between December 2014 and December 2015.The IMC WASH/IPC database contains data from over 369 days. Our results highlight parameters key to designing and maintaining an ETU. High concentration chlorine solution usage was highly correlated with both daily patient occupancy and high-risk zone staff entries; low concentration chlorine usage was less well explained by these measures. There is high demand for laundering and disinfecting of personal protective equipment (PPE on a daily basis and approximately 1 (0-4 piece of PPE is damaged each day.Lack of standardization in the type and format of data collected at ETUs made constructing the WASH/IPC database difficult. However, the data presented here may help inform humanitarian response operations in future epidemics.

  20. Laryngologist Leon Zamenhof--brother of Dr. Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincewicz, Andrzej; Sulkowska, Mariola; Musiatowicz, Marcin; Sulkowski, Stanislaw

    2009-06-01

    To reconstruct the biography of the Polish otorhinolaryngologist Leon Zamenhof (1875-1934), a brother of Ludwik Zamenhof, who is famous for invention of the international language Esperanto. Biographical information was collected from pre-World War II resources. Zamenhof developed several important new forms of treatment to help the hearing impaired. Zamenhof was especially interested in the education of deaf children and the therapy necessary to facilitate their integration into society. His significant achievements were a phonetic method of therapy for the hearing impaired and an automatic device for ear insufflation that was considered indispensable in the management of pyorrhea. In addition, Zamenhof initiated various forms of social support among physicians within the medical community of Warsaw, Poland; made health care available to children with hearing impairments; and organized a Jewish school for deaf children. Zamenhof tried to change public attitudes toward deafness, working to promote the integration of the deaf into wider society. He also translated Polish literature into Esperanto. With similar aims to his brother Ludwik, Leon Zamenhof strived to enhance and broaden communication among people who could not hear and to persuade people to change their attitudes about deafness.

  1. Home birth and hospital birth trends in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Abdirahman, Hafsa A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Jimmy, David Henry; Malanoski, Anthony P; Sundufu, Abu James; Stenger, David A

    2012-06-01

    As of April 2010, all maternity care at government healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone is provided at no cost to patients. In late 2010, we conducted a community health census of 18 sections of the city of Bo (selected via randomized cluster sampling from 68 total sections). Among the 3421 women with a history of pregnancy who participated in the study, older women most often reported having a history of both home and hospital deliveries, while younger women showed a preference for hospital births. The proportion of lastborn children delivered at a healthcare facility increased from 71.8% of offspring 10-14 years old to 81.1% of those one to nine years old and 87.3% of infants born after April 2010. These findings suggest that the new maternal healthcare initiative has accelerated an existing trend toward a preference for healthcare facility births, at least in some urban parts of Sierra Leone. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Regional plan throughout sectional bioenergy of Castilla y Leon (PBCYL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R.; Ayuste, R.; Diez, S.; Munoz, M. (Ente Regional de la Energia de Castilla y Leon, Leon (Spain))

    2009-07-01

    The Bioenergy Action Plan of Castilla y Leon (BAPCyL) is a tool of the Regional Government to set up measures for supporting the bioenergy sector. The plan has been elaborated by experts in energy, agriculture, woodlands, residues and economy from the Junta de castilla y Leon (the region government). The BAPCyL designers for 2020, according to European Union: Mobilize local biomass (1.600 ktep). Reach an electrical power of 260 MWe. provide heating for 250.000 people. Substitution of 10% of fossil fuels used in transport. It proposes a strategy with 50 measures and 100 specific actions, from the raw material to the final consumer: Resources: Plan of Mobilization Wood to increase the offer of the resource. Regional Energy crops Program. Complete the use of biogas from dumps. Improve the management of farmer, agricultures and agroofood residues. Inventory all organic residues available. Boost the associations of biomass producers. Users: Planning big projects. Biomass boilers for public buildings. RTDI in equipment, technology and process. Cross measures: Advising for SMEes and professional training. Biomass handbooks. Promotional campaigns. Standardization of biofuels. Regional Observatory for the bioenergy. (orig.)

  3. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume X.- Castilla-Leon (a): Leon, Zamora and Salamanca; Base de datos de propiedades edafologicas de los suelos espanoles. volumen X. Castilla-Leon (a): Leon, Zamora y Salamanca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Leon, Zamora and Salamanca of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author)

  4. Energy audit data for a resort island in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir Khan, M Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2016-03-01

    The data consists of actual generation-side auditing including the distribution of loads, seasonal load profiles, and types of loads as well as an analysis of local development planning of a resort island in the South China Sea. The data has been used to propose an optimal combination of hybrid renewable energy systems that able to mitigate the diesel fuel dependency on the island. The resort island selected is Tioman, as it represents the typical energy requirements of many resort islands in the South China Sea. The data presented are related to the research article "Optimal Combination of Solar, Wind, Micro-Hydro and Diesel Systems based on Actual Seasonal Load Profiles for a Resort Island in the South China Sea" [1].

  5. Energy audit data for a resort island in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir Khan, M. Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2015-01-01

    The data consists of actual generation-side auditing including the distribution of loads, seasonal load profiles, and types of loads as well as an analysis of local development planning of a resort island in the South China Sea. The data has been used to propose an optimal combination of hybrid renewable energy systems that able to mitigate the diesel fuel dependency on the island. The resort island selected is Tioman, as it represents the typical energy requirements of many resort islands in the South China Sea. The data presented are related to the research article “Optimal Combination of Solar, Wind, Micro-Hydro and Diesel Systems based on Actual Seasonal Load Profiles for a Resort Island in the South China Sea” [1]. PMID:26900590

  6. A local scale assessment of the climate change sensitivity of snow in Pyrenean ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesado, Cristina; Pons, Marc; Vilella, Marc; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    The Pyrenees host one of the largest ski area in Europe after the Alps that encompasses the mountain area of the south of France, the north of Spain and the small country of Andorra. In this region, winter tourism is one of the main source of income and driving force of local development on these mountain communities. However, this activity was identified as one of the most vulnerable to a future climate change due to the projected decrease of natural snow and snowmaking capacity. However, within the same ski resorts different areas showed to have a very different vulnerability within the same resort based on the geographic features of the area and the technical management of the slopes. Different areas inside a same ski resort could have very different vulnerability to future climate change based on aspect, steepness or elevation. Furthermore, the technical management of ski resorts, such as snowmaking and grooming were identified to have a significant impact on the response of the snowpack in a warmer climate. In this line, two different ski resorts were deeply analyzed taken into account both local geographical features as well as the effect of the technical management of the runs. Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the main areas of the resort based on the geographic features (elevation, aspect and steepness) and identify the main representative areas with different local features. Snow energy and mass balance was simulated in the different representative areas using the Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM) assuming different magnitudes of climate warming (increases of 2°C and 4°C in the mean winter temperature) both in natural conditions and assuming technical management of the slopes. Theses first results showed the different sensitivity and vulnerability to climate changes based on the local geography of the resort and the management of the ski runs, showing the importance to include these variables when analyzing the local vulnerability

  7. Seasonality as a Factor of Resort Treatment Efficiency of Patients with Cerebral Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr N. Bitsadze

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article, basing on the results of examination of 369 patients with cerebrovascular disorders considers the features of seasonality impact on the cerebral haemodynamics correction and climatic balneotherapy efficiency in the course of subtropical balneotherapy resort treatment. The findings indicate the necessity to differentiate the approaches to patients with cerebrovascular disorders referral to resort treatment and climatic balneotherapy procedures prescription, considering both cerebral ischemia stage and seasonality.

  8. PENGEMBANGAN PROGRAM EKOWISATA DI RESORT MANDALAWANGI TAMAN NASIONAL GUNUNG GEDE PANGRANGO KABUPATEN CIANJUR JAWA BARAT

    OpenAIRE

    Iyat Sudrajat; Tutut Sunarminto; TB Unu Nitibaskara

    2017-01-01

    Development of Ecotourism Program at Mandalawangi Resort of Mount Gede Pangrango National Park (TNGGP) is done by optimizing the supply of tourist collaborated with tourist demand. Tourism resource most interesting at Resort Mandalawangi namely Puncak Gunung Gede - Pangrango then others are rare animals such as Leopards java (Panthera pardus) is the key species and Javan Gibbon (Hylobates Molloch) as a flagship species, as well as waterfalls, crater, Blue Lake, and Gayonggong Swamp. Social an...

  9. The Economic Performance and Size of Firms: the Case of Russian Health Resort Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda Victorovna Pakhomova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows how external and internal macro-economic factors (the reduction of real income of the population, the depreciation of the local currency to the US dollar in 2014 -2015, the promotion of Crimea as a direction for health and resort services for Russian citizens impact on the financial and economic indicators of health and resort organizations in Russia during 2012–2015. The calculations based on a variety of Federal Service of State Statistics data demonstrate the positive dynamics of the development of regional markets of health and resort services, due to the regional markets of health and resort services of Krasnodar, Stavropol and Altai regions and due to the inclusion of the Federal District of Crimea within the Russian macroeconomic indicators. The econometric model based on a sample of 272 organizations proves the hypothesis about the more beneficial impact of the changes in macroeconomic factors for large health and resort organizations (with a total annual revenue of 400 million roubles compared with smaller organizations. It is expressed in the growth of sales profitability and annual revenue. The calculations have shown that the organization size as an independent variable in a sample of data related to 2014–2015, increased its positive influence on the dependent variable of annual revenue growth comparing to sampling for 2012–2013. The tough financial constraints in the country trigger the discussion of new opportunities and tools for the development of market conditions, which will stimulate the demand for investment in material and technical base renewal and innovations from the side of large health and resort organizations. In addition to improving the transport accessibility of federal resort regions and measures for promoting and improving the quality of the general health and resort infrastructure, there are discussions to create a favorable competitive environment, improve the public procurement system

  10. Waterborne Outbreak of Norwalk-Like Virus Gastroenteritis at a Tourist Resort, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Boccia, Della; Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio; Cotter, Benvon; Rizzo, Caterina; Russo, Teresa; Buttinelli, Gabriele; Caprioli, Alfredo; Marziano, Maria Luisa; Ruggeri, Franco Maria

    2002-01-01

    In July 2000, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred at a tourist resort in the Gulf of Taranto in southern Italy. Illness in 344 people, 69 of whom were staff members, met the case definition. Norwalk-like virus (NLV) was found in 22 of 28 stool specimens tested. The source of illness was likely contaminated drinking water, as environmental inspection identified a breakdown in the resort water system and tap water samples were contaminated with fecal bacteria. Attack rates were increased (5...

  11. Resort-oriented tourism development and local tourism networks – a case study from northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Kulusjärvi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In tourism studies, it has been widely recognized that resort-oriented tourism development creates challenges for regional development, mainly due to its enclave nature and lack of regional economic linkages. However, there have been relatively few studies on the destination-scale cooperative networks, although, they are vital in increasing the positive regional economic impacts of tourism development. This paper is an empirical qualitative study exploring the connections between resort-oriented tourism development and tourism business cooperation in the case study area of the Ruka-Kuusamo tourism destination in Northeast Finland. The interest is on how the local cooperative networks of the Ruka tourist resort are spatially constructed within the Ruka-Kuusamo tourism destination. The research data consists of semi-structured interviews conducted for ten tourism actors located in the Ruka resort. The results show that the businesses located in the Ruka resort cooperate at the regional scale mainly in marketing, while their partners in production cooperation are located mostly within the resort, particularly in its very core area. The resort appears to function as a basis for spatial identification for tourism actors, which, in turn, affects entrepreneurs’ motivation to cooperate at the local and regional scale. Tourism entrepreneurs operating in the very core of the resort perceive the area as the principal area for their operations, and therefore, they do not particularly engage with the surrounding areas and businesses or with other actors located there. Thus, for smaller enterprises outside the core, it can be difficult to benefit from the resort’s core’s growth via network relations. This contributes mainly to the development of the core areas alone, creates challenges for sustainable regional economic development in the destination region, and hinders the resort’s tourism growth in the long run.

  12. Resorts, second home owners and distance: a case study in northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Kauppila

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors for the site selection of a second home is the space-time dimension. For example, the popularity of second home tourism in the hinterland of population centres is based on the short distance between second homes and the permanent residence of second home owners. In the case of peripheral resorts, however, the main reason for a large number of second homes is the attractiveness of the area associated with a high level of touristic elements. The study examines the municipalities of residence of the second home owners in four large resorts – Levi, Ruka, Saariselkä and Ylläs – in northern Finland. After analysing the geographical distribution of the owners with maps and diagrams the aim of the paper is to present a distance model for the resorts located in a northern periphery from the viewpoint of the regions of destination. Generally speaking, the model resembles a U-letter. In this respect, the resorts have three zones – day trip, weekend and vacation – and each of them has their own characteristics based on accessibility and regional structure, the number and structure of population (potential owners and land ownership. In the planning context, the proposed model can be utilised as a tool for the marketing of resorts as a second home environment as well as for analysing and comparing the overall attractiveness of resorts.

  13. [Industrial waste as indicator of population size: possible utilization in mountain resort tourist stations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, F; Rey, S; Zmirou, D

    1998-09-01

    Epidemiological studies, conducted in touristic resorts, often face the difficulty of assessing the size of the referent population. Recently, some population size indicators, have been tested. Among them, the amount of municipal waste seems to be easy and readily accessible. The purpose of the study is to describe how this indicator can be used in touristic mountain resorts. Four touristic resorts were chosen in Isère departement (France): Alpe d'Huez, Deux Alpes, Chamrousse, plateau du Vercors. The evolution of municipal waste over several years was used to compute an individual output level for residents and for tourists. This waste indicator was compared with data on tourists reservations in hotels in the resorts. We found a good fit during touristic seasons in three resorts (Spearman test). For the last one (Chamrousse), the correlation rate was low. We think that the type of tourism is different in this resort with many non residents. This indicator is reliable but needs further validation by sample surveys across several sites and several types of lodging. We propose to estimate the size of the referent population, based on an individual output of 1 kg per person and per day for residents and 0.5 kg per person per day for tourists.

  14. Archeological Testing at Fort St. Leon (16PL35), Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    Bend which is nebulous at best. 3. Test excavations downriver from the American fort (BHT 12, 13, 14, 15) (Figure 24b) encountered disturbed strata...unidentifiable 3 Unit 1, 2.07-1.82 m Plastron fragments (pond slider turtle ) 3 Unit 1, 2.02-1.82 m Plastron and carapace fragments (pond slider turtle ) 2 Unit...trench walls less than 1 m below the surface. The same is true for the pond slider turtle bones from Units 1 and 2. 160 . . . .. . . . . . . o Nutria

  15. H08021: NOS Hydrographic Survey , St. Marks Lighthouse to Port Leon, Florida, 1952-12-09

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. H08020: NOS Hydrographic Survey , St. Marks Lighthouse to Port Leon, Florida, 1952-12-02

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  17. H08022: NOS Hydrographic Survey , St. Marks Lighthouse to Port Leon, Florida, 1952-12-08

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. Development of a Pediatric Ebola Predictive Score, Sierra Leone1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Kevin; Naveed, Asad; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohamed Boie; Baion, David E.; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia; Williamson, Elizabeth; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2018-01-01

    We compared children who were positive for Ebola virus disease (EVD) with those who were negative to derive a pediatric EVD predictor (PEP) score. We collected data on all children <13 years of age admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in Sierra Leone during August 2014–March 2015 and performed multivariable logistic regression. Among 1,054 children, 309 (29%) were EVD positive and 697 (66%) EVD negative, with 48 (5%) missing. Contact history, conjunctivitis, and age were the strongest positive predictors for EVD. The PEP score had an area under receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.80. A PEP score of 7/10 was 92% specific and 44% sensitive; 3/10 was 30% specific, 94% sensitive. The PEP score could correctly classify 79%–90% of children and could be used to facilitate triage into risk categories, depending on the sensitivity or specificity required. PMID:29350145

  19. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  20. Ravenscar Computational Model compliant AADL Simulation on LEON2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Varona-Gómez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available AADL has been proposed for designing and analyzing SW and HW architectures for real-time mission-critical embedded systems. Although the Behavioral Annex improves its simulation semantics, AADL is a language for analyzing architectures and not for simulating them. AADS-T is an AADL simulation tool that supports the performance analysis of the AADL specification throughout the refinement process from the initial system architecture until the complete, detailed application and execution platform are developed. In this way, AADS-T enables the verification of the initial timing constraints during the complete design process. In this paper we focus on the compatibility of AADS-T with the Ravenscar Computational Model (RCM as part of the TASTE toolset. Its flexibility enables AADS-T to support different processors. In this work we have focused on performing the simulation on a LEON2 processor.

  1. Knowledge of breast cancer in women in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHEE Shepherd

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has been described as one of the life-threatening diseases affecting women and is a major problem in women’s health issues. The unrecorded number of cases of breast lumps and breast cancer observed in women in Sierra Leone prompted the researcher to organize a “Breast Week” during which 1 200 women were educated on breast cancer and the importance of breast health. This research is a follow up of the “Breast Week” which was organized in Freetown, Sierra Leone The specific objective of this study was to assess whether the knowledge and teachings given to the women who participated in this project was fully understood. A sample size of 120 women (10% who participated in the “Breast Week” was obtained through systematic sampling. A quantitative approach was adopted and a structured interview schedule guided the data collection process. The data were processed through use of SPSS and Microsoft Excel. Texts from open ended questions were categorized and frequency counts were applied to the data. It was found that the majority (96.6% of the women had some knowledge of breast cancer. They linked breast cancer to the signs and symptoms associated with it and were able to describe the disease as one that kills women if not promptly detected and/or treated appropriately. Findings indicate that the majority of the women are aware of the dangers of the disease and had knowledge of someone who had died of breast cancer (59.2%. An assessment of the effectiveness of knowledge on breast cancer showed that these women could identify breast cancer as a disease that affects women and may cause death if not detected on time.

  2. A proposal for a worldwide definition of health resort medicine, balneology, medical hydrology and climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bender, Tamas; Cantista, Pedro; Karagülle, Zeki

    2010-09-01

    Health Resort Medicine, Balneology, Medical Hydrology and Climatology are not fully recognised as independent medical specialties at a global international level. Analysing the reasons, we can identify both external (from outside the field) and internal (from inside the field) factors. External arguments include, e.g. the lack of scientific evidence, the fact that Balneotherapy and Climatotherapy is not used in all countries, and the fact that Health Resort Medicine, Balneology, Medical Hydrology and Climatology focus only on single methods and do not have a comprehensive concept. Implicit barriers are the lack of international accepted terms in the field, the restriction of being allowed to practice the activities only in specific settings, and the trend to use Balneotherapy mainly for wellness concepts. Especially the implicit barriers should be subject to intense discussions among scientists and specialists. This paper suggests one option to tackle the problem of implicit barriers by making a proposal for a structure and description of the medical field, and to provide some commonly acceptable descriptions of content and terminology. The medical area can be defined as "medicine in health resorts" (or "health resort medicine"). Health resort medicine includes "all medical activities originated and derived in health resorts based on scientific evidence aiming at health promotion, prevention, therapy and rehabilitation". Core elements of health resort interventions in health resorts are balneotherapy, hydrotherapy, and climatotherapy. Health resort medicine can be used for health promotion, prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. The use of natural mineral waters, gases and peloids in many countries is called balneotherapy, but other (equivalent) terms exist. Substances used for balneotherapy are medical mineral waters, medical peloids, and natural gases (bathing, drinking, inhalation, etc.). The use of plain water (tap water) for therapy is called hydrotherapy

  3. Rebuilding after emergency: Revamping agricultural research in Sierra Leone after civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo; Workneh, Sindu; Rhodes, Edward; Sutherland, John

    2009-01-01

    "The civil war in Sierra Leone, caused by a mix of political, social, and economic factors, had a huge impact on the overall economy in general and on the performance of the agricultural sector in particular. The agricultural research system of Sierra Leone was severely affected by the civil war. Research infrastructure was destroyed, laboratories were damaged and abandoned, and well-trained researchers and scientists fled from the country. With the cessation of hostilities in 2002, the gover...

  4. Evaluation Environmental Indicators: A Case Study of Public and Private Resorts in Lagos state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funmilola Ajani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has a major impact on natural and built environments, also on the wellbeing and culture of host populations. These effects can be positive or negative, depending on how tourism is developed and managed. This study aimed at evaluating the environmental quality and management of Whispering Palms Resort (private establishment and Suntan Beach Resort (Government-owned. We use direct observation of the environment, structured questionnaires to the tourists as well as laboratory analysis of soil and water sample from the two sites for Total Coliform Count and Total Aerobic Count. Results show that Whispering Palms Resort is of higher quality with 70.9% while Suntan Beach had 47.4%. Facilities and services assessment shows that Whispering Palms Resort was rated high with 61.8%, and Suntan Beach Resort had 47.4%. Furthermore, the mean Total Aerobic Count and Total Coliform count obtained from soil and water sample exceeded USEPA standard for recreational waters, which should not exceed 500cell/100ml. We recommend that proper monitoring should be carried out on a regular basis to ensure clean and safe environment.

  5. Health Resorts and Multi-Textured Perceptions of International Health Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Majeed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Health and medical tourism is considered one of the fastest growing segments of the tourism industry. Recently, research on health resorts has been gaining academic attention in tandem with the positive contribution of the health and medical segments to the tourism industry. The purpose of this study is to better conceptualize how the behavioral intentions of health tourists are shaped in the emerging context of the health resort. This study illuminates the likely perceptions of prospective tourists about the attractions of health resorts, and endeavors to examine the response of health tourists using data from 359 international health tourists/travelers, comprising of Thai, Indian, and Chinese nationalities. The study also uses the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM technique in order to analyze the responses of international tourists gathered at two international airports in China. The present study shows that tourists’ expectations and their behavioral intentions are generally associated indicators of perceived health resort attractions. Expectations play a significant mediating role, while culture impacts the overall phenomenon of proposed associations in a moderating way. Moreover, sustainable tourism attractions also play a significant role in shaping Thai travelers’ behavioral responses, while medical facilities and risk levels are considered significant in determining Indian and Chinese travelers’ behaviors. By developing theoretical and empirical grounds, this study offers implications for further research and development in health resorts and other niches of health tourism.

  6. Health resorts as a social enterprise in Ukraine’s economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliia Kleban

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern economic development is highly dependent on sustainable community development. In Ukraine, the tourism sector is one of the driving forces of economic development. The main aim of the paper is to study health recovery tourism in Ukraine, on the case of creating social enterprises in a health resort network. The paper is oriented on the managerial and value creation issues. The aim is to describe the business idea of a health resort (Lviv region of Ukraine as an innovative economic agent with social goals and value added to the local community in general and on the example of three existing spas. Taking into consideration the amount of tourists in Lviv region and the key indicators of small businesses in the sector, the social enterprise is an alternative to the for-profit entities. The study findings suggest that starting the social enterprise in health resort services may become a good practice for the local development strategies. The health resort social enterprise may add value to the Lviv region by supporting the employment of local population and social value provision to groups of the society. The main contribution of the paper is in applying the social entrepreneurship model in the sector of health resort services. As the current political and social issues and problems in Ukraine are concerned, the non-profit entity project has potential for implementation.

  7. Online community marketing of ski resorts : an in-depth best practice study of aspen/snowmass and breckenridge ski resort

    OpenAIRE

    Kráľ, Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Online brand community is a novel phenomenon that carries a number of benefits, but lack of clarity in antecedents of its effectiveness as a marketing alternative. Aspen/Snowmass and Breckenridge Ski Resort are two leading players in the ski industry, and this paper analyzes their activity in-depth in order to bring clarity by extracting implications on best practice. For the purpose, a tailor-made methodology is constructed. It consists of combining two analytical frameworks, interviews with...

  8. Pharmacoeconomic efficacy of complex medical and climatic treatment of atopic asthma in Teberda resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkenova Z.T.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available 120 patients with atopic asthma have been divided into two groups: the control group (60 patients - has been treated with budesonide and formoterol combination (Cymbicort Turbuhaler in individual doses; the main group (60 patients additionally has being taken a course of climatic therapy in Teberda resort for 21 days. Common pharmacoeconomic analysis has been carried out with study of «expenses-efficiency» balance. Statistic results have been processed with Statistica 6,0 program. Complex of medical and climatic treatment of atopic asthma in Teberda resort promoted twice reduction of Cymbicort Turbuhaler dosage in 63,33% of patients while holding asthma control. Main group patients significantly rarely asked for stationary, out-patient or emergency aid; so it helped to reduce yearly expenses for 1 patient treatment to 51, 69%. Complex medical and climatic treatment of atopic asthma in Teberda resort allows to reduce pharmacoeconomic expenses significantly and to improve disease course

  9. A proposal for a worldwide definition of health resort medicine, balneology, medical hydrology and climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bender, Tamas; Cantista, Pedro; Karagülle, Zeki

    2010-09-01

    Health Resort Medicine, Balneology, Medical Hydrology and Climatology are not fully recognised as independent medical specialties at a global international level. Analysing the reasons, we can identify both external (from outside the field) and internal (from inside the field) factors. External arguments include, e.g. the lack of scientific evidence, the fact that Balneotherapy and Climatotherapy is not used in all countries, and the fact that Health Resort Medicine, Balneology, Medical Hydrology and Climatology focus only on single methods and do not have a comprehensive concept. Implicit barriers are the lack of international accepted terms in the field, the restriction of being allowed to practice the activities only in specific settings, and the trend to use Balneotherapy mainly for wellness concepts. Especially the implicit barriers should be subject to intense discussions among scientists and specialists. This paper suggests one option to tackle the problem of implicit barriers by making a proposal for a structure and description of the medical field, and to provide some commonly acceptable descriptions of content and terminology. The medical area can be defined as “medicine in health resorts” (or “health resort medicine”). Health resort medicine includes “all medical activities originated and derived in health resorts based on scientific evidence aiming at health promotion, prevention, therapy and rehabilitation”. Core elements of health resort interventions in health resorts are balneotherapy, hydrotherapy, and climatotherapy. Health resort medicine can be used for health promotion, prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. The use of natural mineral waters, gases and peloids in many countries is called balneotherapy, but other (equivalent) terms exist. Substances used for balneotherapy are medical mineral waters, medical peloids, and natural gases (bathing, drinking, inhalation, etc.). The use of plain water (tap water) for therapy is called

  10. Estimation of Seasonal Efficiency of Sochi Resort Climate Therapy by Means of Psychologic Testing of Patients with Cardiometabolic Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Irina N. Sorochinskaya; Andrei V. Chernyshev

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major reasons for population mortality in majority of countries, including Russia. Metabolic syndrome is considered to be one of the main pathologic states, leading to enhancement of atherogenesis, ischemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. Physical methods, including resort treatment play great role in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment. Climate therapy depends on resort climate and season and is a major component of resort treatment. Psycholog...

  11. FACTORS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE MARKET OF HEALTH RESORT OF THE CRIMEAN FEDERAL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Oborin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Crimea was a part of the Russian Federation as the certain federal district not so long ago and is the most important center of development of tourist and recreational activity and resort business. Historically this territory has the huge natural medical potential and well developed network of the sanatorium organizations specializing on treatment of various profiles of diseases. Modernization of health resort of the region is the main objective of further development of all district. Sanatorium activity is branch of economy for all territory and promotes active development of other types of economic activity. 

  12. A biomass energy flow chart for Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoo-Gottfried, K.; Hall, D.O.

    1999-01-01

    Terrestrial above-ground biomass production and utilisation in Sierra Leone was analysed for the years 1984/5 to 1990/1. The total production of biomass energy was estimated at an annual average of 131 PJ (39% from agriculture, 51% from forestry and 10% from livestock). Of the 117 PJ produced from agricultural and forestry operations, 37 PJ was harvested as firewood and burnt (10.9 GJ or 0.72 t wood per capita per year, supplying 80% of the country's energy), 12 PJ was harvested for food, 66 PJ was unutilised crop and forestry residues, 3 PJ was harvested crop residues for use directly as fuel, and 2 PJ was harvested and used for industrial purposes and not for fuel. Livestock produced wastes with an energy content of 13 PJ of which only 0.1 PJ was collected and used for fuel. Thus 54 PJ (41%) of the 131 PJ of biomass energy produced annually was actually utilised while 49 PJ remained as unused agricultural residues and dung, and a further 27 PJ was unused forestry residues. The total amount of biomass (fuelwood, residues and dung) used directly to provide energy, mostly in households, was estimated at 40 PJ (11.8 GJ per capita per year of 0.79 t fuelwood equivalent). Direct biomass energy utilisation in agroindustry (0.4 PJ) was negligible in comparison. Two assessments of Sierra Leone's biomass standing stock and MAI (mean annual increment) were examined in order to assess the sustainability of various biomass use scenarios. Large differences were found between the MAI of the two assessments, making it difficult to predict sustainability of biomass production and use. The estimation of total standing stock varied between 227 and 366 Mt and the estimation of MAI varied between 15 and 70 Mt. Analysis of the availability and use of the biomass resource is crucial if biomass energy is to be used on a sustainable basis. A software package has been developed and is available to draft biomass flow charts but further work is needed to incorporate social and economic

  13. Comprehensive outreach, prevention education, and skin cancer screening for Utah ski resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varedi, Amir; Secrest, Aaron M; Harding, Garrett; Maness, Lori; Branson, Donna; Smith, Kristi; Hull, Christopher M

    2018-02-15

    Outdoor recreation can lead to substantial sun exposure. Employees of outdoor recreation establishments with extended time outdoors have amplified cumulative exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and an increased risk of skin cancer. The "Sun Safe on the Slopes" program was created by Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah and the Utah Cancer Action Network to address increased UV exposure and skin cancer risk with free skin cancer screenings, outreach, and prevention education to local ski resorts. Herein, we describe the processes and barriers to implementation of a ski resort skin screening and education program and our 5-year report of the experience and screening data. Nine free skin cancer screenings were held at Utah ski resorts between 2011 and 2016, resulting in the presumptive diagnosis of 38 skin cancers (9.6%) in 394 participants. Behavioral data collected from participants indicates suboptimal sun safety practices, including underuse of sunscreen and protective clothing. Ski resort employees who experience sun exposure during peak hours at high altitudes and UV reflection from the snow are at an increased risk of skin cancer. These data indicate a need for emphasis on sun safety education and screening and can serve as a model for future endeavors.

  14. 78 FR 69363 - Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, California, Heavenly Mountain Resort Epic Discovery Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, California, Heavenly Mountain Resort Epic Discovery Project AGENCY: Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, Forest Service, USDA...: The Epic Discovery Project is intended to enhance summer activities in response to the USDA Forest...

  15. Evaluation of the environmental and social sustainability policy of a mass tourism resort: A narrative account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Swart

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The recordation of the life stories of individuals residing in the community of Ledig, who have been dependent on the Sun City Resort situated in the Pilanesberg area in the North West Province of South Africa for their quality of life for more than 20 years, provided the basis for the evaluation of the environmental and social sustainability of this micro-cosmos on a multidisciplinary level. This study focused on the hermeneutical arch of narrative theory within the framework of human geography and sustainability science. The natural environment was evaluated for the role it plays in the sustainability of the livelihoods of the Ledig community members as well as the institutional life of the Sun City Resort. The results of this study suggested that the environmental policy for the Sun City Resort, formalised in 2004, has been guiding the Sun City Resort to contribute positively to the sustainability of the area. The study also demonstrated that a focus on the next generation of potential employees and the environmental education of all the communities were crucial to ensure the resilience of the social and ecological capacity of the area.

  16. Crisis management and lender of last resort in the European banking market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Marinč, M.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss some key issues related to supervisory arrangements in the Euro-system countries. In particular, we address the lender of last resort (LOLR) structure and the related crisis management framework. We focus on the responsibilities and powers of individual countries (and national central

  17. Crisis management and lender of last resort in the European banking market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Marinč, M.; Alessandrini, P.; Fratianni, M.; Zazzaro, A.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss some key issues related to supervisory arrangements in the Euro-system countries. In particular, we address the lender of last resort (LOLR) structure and the related crisis management framework. We focus on the responsibilities and powers of individual countries (and national central

  18. [Metabolic syndrome prevalence in teenagers of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Villareal, Velia Margarita; López Alvarenga, Juan C; Bastarrachea, Raúl A; Rizo-Baeza, María Mercedes; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (SM) and its components in teenagers from the metropolitan area of Monterrey Nuevo Leon, Mexico (AMM). A transversal research involving 254 teenage students from 10 to 19 years old. To research investigated their personal characteristics, anthropometrics measures, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol HDL. The SM definition was adapted from the one suggested by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII). The SM prevalence was 9.4 % (IC95%: 5.8 to 13.0), there was not a difference between the sexes. The prevalence among each SM component was: 24.4% for high triglycerides, 20.1% for abdominal obesity, 19.0% for cholesterol of lipoproteins of a high density (HDL-c) low, 11.4 % for high glucose and for high blood pressure (9.1% diastolic and 5.9% systolic). The prevalent SM phenotypes were corporal mass (IMC) (OR = 4.93, IC95%: 2.26, 10.73) and the IMC interaction of the teenager with a family history of obesity (OR = 1.37, IC95%: 1.0, 1.87). It was observed that those with a family history of diabetes type 2 only experienced a marginal effect. The SM prevalence in teenagers from AMM is high it was an alarming situation if it continues into adulthood. The existence of obesity in relatives of the first and second grade, altogether with teenager IMC are important prediction factors of SM.

  19. A Self-Assessment of the Effectiveness to Control Radiation Sources in Sierra Leone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bun-Tejan, Umaru Remilekun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    There is an urgent need to effectively control sources of ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiation pose serious occupational, public health, and environmental consequences, if not properly controlled. The government of Sierra Leone knows the importance of controlling these sources of ionizing radiation and of establishing an independent Nuclear Safety Infrastructure. Sierra Leone has no nuclear facilities but, it is rapidly developing its infrastructure in order to obtain nuclear technology. However, the regulatory effectiveness in controlling radiation risk is essential for the International Atomic Energy Agency to allow the transfer of nuclear technology. For this reason, this study will evaluate the status of the regulatory authority in Sierra Leone to control radiation risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review mission to Sierra Leone found that the RPBA did not give sufficient enforcement powers to the Board Secretariat. The research evaluated the status of the regulatory authority of Sierra Leone. The status of the regulatory authority was evaluated against several parameters including management systems, regulatory processes, authorization, inspection, and enforcement. The ability to effectively control ionizing radiation sources depends on the status of the regulatory body. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service Report on Sierra Leone led us to infer that there is a need for the regulatory authority to rapidly improve its ability to control ionizing radiation sources in the country. The findings however, revealed that the overall strengths of the regulatory body in Sierra Leone slightly outnumber the weaknesses. Management systems have a ratio of 0.85:1 of strengths to weaknesses. This ratio makes management systems the weakest parameter evaluated. Thus there is need for stronger collaboration between management staff. The Regulatory processes have a ratio of 1.3:1, authorizations have a ratio of 4.3:1, inspections have ratio of 2

  20. A Self-Assessment of the Effectiveness to Control Radiation Sources in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bun-Tejan, Umaru Remilekun; Lee, Byung Soo

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to effectively control sources of ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiation pose serious occupational, public health, and environmental consequences, if not properly controlled. The government of Sierra Leone knows the importance of controlling these sources of ionizing radiation and of establishing an independent Nuclear Safety Infrastructure. Sierra Leone has no nuclear facilities but, it is rapidly developing its infrastructure in order to obtain nuclear technology. However, the regulatory effectiveness in controlling radiation risk is essential for the International Atomic Energy Agency to allow the transfer of nuclear technology. For this reason, this study will evaluate the status of the regulatory authority in Sierra Leone to control radiation risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review mission to Sierra Leone found that the RPBA did not give sufficient enforcement powers to the Board Secretariat. The research evaluated the status of the regulatory authority of Sierra Leone. The status of the regulatory authority was evaluated against several parameters including management systems, regulatory processes, authorization, inspection, and enforcement. The ability to effectively control ionizing radiation sources depends on the status of the regulatory body. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service Report on Sierra Leone led us to infer that there is a need for the regulatory authority to rapidly improve its ability to control ionizing radiation sources in the country. The findings however, revealed that the overall strengths of the regulatory body in Sierra Leone slightly outnumber the weaknesses. Management systems have a ratio of 0.85:1 of strengths to weaknesses. This ratio makes management systems the weakest parameter evaluated. Thus there is need for stronger collaboration between management staff. The Regulatory processes have a ratio of 1.3:1, authorizations have a ratio of 4.3:1, inspections have ratio of 2

  1. The Legal Regulation of Health-Resort Treatment of Employees Under the Legislation of Subjects of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anufrieva A. V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the rules for health-resort treatment of employees established at the level of subjects of the Russian Federation, determines the place of these rules in the system of current legal regulation of health-resort treatment and also it evaluates their significance in the social security of employees

  2. [The topical problems of pediatric balneotherapy and the spa and health resort-based treatment of the children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumov, A N; Khan, M A

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to the topical problems of pediatric balneotherapy with special reference to the organization of the spa and health resort-based treatment of the children in the Russian Federation. The main issues discussed by the authors include the current state of health resort care for the children, the problem of statutory regulation of the activities of the children's spa and health resort facilities, the approaches to increasing the availability of the spa and health resort-based treatment for the children at the enhanced risk of the development of chronic diseases, disabilities, and tuberculosis. Also considered are the problems of the development of the regulatory framework for the medical rehabilitation of the children based at the spa and health resort facilities. The principal goals to be sought in climatotherapy, physiotherapy, balneotherapy, and pelotherapy in the pediatric context are outlined along with the further prospects for the development of the main areas of pediatric balneology.

  3. Estimation of Seasonal Efficiency of Sochi Resort Climate Therapy by Means of Psychologic Testing of Patients with Cardiometabolic Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N. Sorochinskaya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are major reasons for population mortality in majority of countries, including Russia. Metabolic syndrome is considered to be one of the main pathologic states, leading to enhancement of atherogenesis, ischemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. Physical methods, including resort treatment play great role in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment. Climate therapy depends on resort climate and season and is a major component of resort treatment. Psychological testing showed that combined resort treatment, using climate therapy of patients with stable effort angina at Sochi Health-resort is more efficient in autumn and of patients with metabolic syndrome in summer. The findings have been confirmed by clinic-functional indicators.

  4. Evaluation of the Leon3 soft-core processor within a Xilinx radiation-hardened field-programmable gate array.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Learn, Mark Walter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the work done to evaluate the performance of the Leon3 soft-core processor in a radiation environment while instantiated in a radiation-hardened static random-access memory based field-programmable gate array. This evaluation will look at the differences between two soft-core processors: the open-source Leon3 core and the fault-tolerant Leon3 core. Radiation testing of these two cores was conducted at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron facility and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The results of these tests are included within the report along with designs intended to improve the mitigation of the open-source Leon3. The test setup used for evaluating both versions of the Leon3 is also included within this document.

  5. St. Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    The population of St Lucia was 123,000 in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2%. The infant mortality rate stands at 22.2/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 70.3 years for males and 74.9 years for females. The literacy rate is 78%. St Lucia's labor force is allocated as follows: agriculture, 36.6%; industry and commerce, 20.1%; and services, 18.1%. The gross national product (GNP) was US$146 million in 1985, with an annual growth rate of 3% and a per capita GNP of $1071. St Lucia is a parliamentary democracy modeled on the British Westminster system. The island is divided into 16 parishes and 1 urban area (the capital, Castries). St Lucia is currently a politically stable country, although the high level of youth unemployment is a cause for concern. Ongoing stability may depend on the government's ability to provide services such as jobs and housing. The economy has evolved from a monocrop sugar plantation type to a diversified economy based on agriculture, industry, and tourism. Agriculture, dominated by the banana industry, is characterized by the participation of a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises. Industry is being encouraged through the provision of incentives such as tax rebates. The government is attempting to maintain a sound investment climate through a tripartite dialogue with the private sector and trade unions. Overall economic policy is predicated on the attraction of sound investments, by both local and foreign entities, to accelerate the rate of economic growth, solve the unemployment problem, and generate a solid balance-of-payments position.

  6. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz T Paweska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD cases.The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14% tested positive for Ebola virus RNA.The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens.

  7. South African Ebola diagnostic response in Sierra Leone: A modular high biosafety field laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paweska, Janusz T; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Meier, Gunther H; le Roux, Chantel; Conteh, Ousman S; Kemp, Alan; Fourie, Cardia; Naidoo, Prabha; Naicker, Serisha; Ohaebosim, Phumza; Storm, Nadia; Hellferscee, Orienka; Ming Sun, Lisa K; Mogodi, Busisiwe; Prabdial-Sing, Nishi; du Plessis, Desiree; Greyling, Deidre; Loubser, Shayne; Goosen, Mark; McCulloch, Stewart D; Scott, Terence P; Moerdyk, Alexandra; Dlamini, Wesley; Konneh, Kelfala; Kamara, Idrissa L; Sowa, Dauda; Sorie, Samuel; Kargbo, Brima; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-06-01

    In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL) near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone. Furthermore, the NICD set out to establish local capacity amongst Sierra Leonean nationals in all aspects of the FEDL functions from the outset. This led to the successful hand-over of the FEDL to the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation in March 2015. Between 25 August 2014 and 22 June 2016, the laboratory tested 11,250 specimens mostly from the Western Urban and Western Rural regions of Sierra Leone, of which 2,379 (21.14%) tested positive for Ebola virus RNA. The bio-safety standards and the portability of the SA FEDL, offered a cost-effective and practical alternative for the rapid deployment of a field-operated high biocontainment facility. The SA FEDL teams demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to train the national staff in the course of formidable disease outbreak and accomplished their full integration into all operational and diagnostic aspects of the laboratory. This initiative contributed to the international efforts in bringing the EVD outbreak under control in Sierra Leone, as well as capacitating local African scientists and technologists to respond to diagnostic needs that might be required in future outbreaks of highly contagious pathogens.

  8. Peter St. John | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John Photo of Peter St. John Peter St. John Researcher III-Chemical Engineering Peter.StJohn @nrel.gov | 303-384-7969 Orcid ID http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7928-3722 Education Peter St. John received his engineering from the University of California at Santa Barbara in 2015. During his Ph.D., St. John applied

  9. Data from renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reyasudin Basir Khan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea were conducted that involves the collection and analysis of meteorological and topographic data. The meteorological data was used to assess the PV, wind and hydropower system potentials on the islands. Furthermore, the reconnaissance study for hydro-potentials were conducted through topographic maps in order to determine the potential sites suitable for development of run-of-river hydropower generation. The stream data was collected for 14 islands in the South China Sea with a total of 51 investigated sites. The data from this study are related to the research article “Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea” published in Energy (Khan et al., 2015 [1]. Keywords: South China Sea, Solar radiation,wind speed, rainfall, microhydropower, PV system, Wind energy generation system

  10. The influence of guides on alcohol consumption among young tourists at a nightlife resort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutenges, Sébastien; Jæger, Mads Meier; Hesse, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess how participation in party activities with guides affects alcohol consumption among young tourists at an international nightlife resort. Methods: Prospective survey of 112 Danish tourists in Sunny Beach, Bulgaria, who were asked about their drinking...... and activities with guides on three separate nights out. Results: Participation in party activities with guides such as drinking games and Pub Crawls, were associated with heavily increased drinking compared with nights out without guides, but not in a dose-response type relationship. Conclusion: Participating...... in party activities with guides increases drinking among young tourists who are already drinking large amounts of alcohol during their vacation. Further studies are needed to measure, describe and change the role played by guides at nightlife resorts....

  11. The European central bank and the us federal reserve as lender of last resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herr Hansjörg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Without a lender of last resort financial stability is not possible and systemic financial crises get out of control. During and after the Great Recession the US Federal Reserve System (Fed and the European Central Bank (ECB took on the role of lender of last resort in a comprehensive way. The Fed stabilised the financial system, including the shadow banking system. However, the chance to fundamentally restructure the financial system was not used. The ECB was confronted with sovereign debt crises and an incomplete integration of the European Monetary Union (EMU. It followed a kind of “muddling through” to keep the Euro area together. In the EMU not only a fundamental restructuring of the financial system is needed but also a deeper economic and political integration. The Fed and the ECB both were the most important institutions to avoid repetition of the 1930s.

  12. Data from renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir Khan, M Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea were conducted that involves the collection and analysis of meteorological and topographic data. The meteorological data was used to assess the PV, wind and hydropower system potentials on the islands. Furthermore, the reconnaissance study for hydro-potentials were conducted through topographic maps in order to determine the potential sites suitable for development of run-of-river hydropower generation. The stream data was collected for 14 islands in the South China Sea with a total of 51 investigated sites. The data from this study are related to the research article "Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea" published in Energy (Khan et al., 2015) [1].

  13. IMPLEMENTASI CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MARKETING PADA GRAND MIRAGE RESORT AND THALASSO BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Triyuni1

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui implementasi customer relationship marketing pada Grand Mirage Resort and Thalasso Bali. Penelitian ini merupakan analisis deskritif kualitatif yang dilakukan melalui pengkategorian. Data disajikan berdasarkan kategori lalu dilaksanakan komparasi data, kemudian penarikan simpulan. Bedasarkan hasil penelitian menunjukkan implementasi customer relationship marketing pada Grand Mirage Resort and Thalasso Bali yaitu menggunakan tiga konsep customer relationship marketing yang terdiri dari attraction, retention, dan enhancement. Attraction merupakan daya tarik andalan yang berupa program-program seperti All Inclusive dan Guest Daily Activities, selain itu penampilan karyawan yang menerapkan pelayanan prima melalui self friendliness, attitude dan attention. Retention merupakan sikap perusahaan untuk menjalankan hubungan dengan pelanggan yang bernilai guna, adapun program yang diterapkan adalah loyalty program repeater guest. Enhancement merupakan kemitraan yang dijalin untuk memperoleh posisi berkelanjutan di pasar dengan menjaga komunikasi dengan tamu, adanya kedekatan dengan para tamu, menumbuhkan hubungan jangka panjang serta dapat menanggulangi keluhan dari tamu.

  14. Data from renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir Khan, M. Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea were conducted that involves the collection and analysis of meteorological and topographic data. The meteorological data was used to assess the PV, wind and hydropower system potentials on the islands. Furthermore, the reconnaissance study for hydro-potentials were conducted through topographic maps in order to determine the potential sites suitable for development of run-of-river hydropower generation. The stream data was collected for 14 islands in the South China Sea with a total of 51 investigated sites. The data from this study are related to the research article “Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea” published in Energy (Khan et al., 2015) [1]. PMID:26779562

  15. Grandes projetos turísticos na savana brasileira: O Modelo Disney no Rio Quente Resorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ycarim Melgaço Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la implantación de un gran proyecto turístico en la sabana brasileña, el Río Quente Resorts, basado en las estrategias del Modelo Disney. En ese sentido, el artículo narra acerca de la Disneyficación, resaltando la temática, la teatralización en el mundo de los negocios, el consumo colectivo y los nolugares. El Río Quente Resorts introduce los más sofisticados equipos de diversión y entretenimiento en una región donde se encuentra el manantial hidrotermal más importante del país, pero desprecia la sostenibilidad ambiental. Así, toda esa mega-estructura podrá acarrear daños irreversibles al ecosistema.

  16. Identification of relevant ICF categories for indication, intervention planning and evaluation of health resort programs: a Delphi exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, E.; Weigl, M.; Schuh, A.; Stucki, G.

    2006-01-01

    Health resort programs have a long tradition, mainly in European countries and Japan. They rely on local resources and the physical environment, physical medicine interventions and traditional medicine to optimise functioning and health. Arguably because of the long tradition, there is only a limited number of high-quality studies that examine the effectiveness of health resort programs. Specific challenges to the evaluation of health resort programs are to randomise the holistic approach with a varying number of specific interventions but also the reliance on the effect of the physical environment. Reference standards for the planning and reporting of health resort studies would be highly beneficial. With the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF), we now have such a standard that allows us to describe body functions and structures, activities and participation and interaction with environmental factors. A major challenge when applying the ICF in practice is its length. Therefore, the objective of this project was to identify the ICF categories most relevant for health resort programs. We conducted a consensus-building, three-round, e-mail survey using the Delphi technique. Based on the consensus of the experts, it was possible to come up with an ICF Core Set that can serve as reference standards for the indication, intervention planning and evaluation of health resort programs. This preliminary ICF Core Set should be tested in different regions and in subsets of health resort visitors with varying conditions.

  17. Environmental variables associated with vacationers' sun protection at warm weather resorts in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Peter A.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Beck, Larry; Liu, Xia; Abbott, Allison; Eye, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vacationing at sunny, warm weather locations is a risk factor for excessive solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and skin cancer. Objectives: This study examined the association of environmental variables related to UV levels with vacationers' sun protection. Methods: Vacationers at 41 summer resorts in 17 states and 1 Canadian Province were interviewed (n=3531) and observed (N=4347) during 2012 and 2013. Clothing coverage, sunglasses, and shade use were observed. Use of sunscreen and sunburns were self-reported. Environmental information was recorded by research staff or acquired from ground stations and the weather service. Results: Temperature was positively associated with sun protection behaviors; however clothing coverage was negatively associated with temperature. Cloud cover was negatively associated with sun protection, with the exception of clothing coverage which was positively associated with it. Elevation showed a mixed pattern of associations with vacationer's sun protection. Latitude of a resort was negatively associated with most sun protection behaviors, such that sun protection increased at more southerly resorts. Similarly, the farther south a vacationer traveled to the resort, the less sun protection they employed. The UV index showed a weak, positive relationship with some sun protection behaviors even when controlling for temperature. Conclusions: Vacationers appeared aware that UV is higher at southern latitudes and may learn UV is intense when living in southern regions. However, many used temperature, an unreliable cue, to judge UV intensity and seemed to adjust clothing for warmth not UV protection. Efforts are needed to help individuals make more accurate sun safety decisions. - Highlights: • Vacationers poorly monitor and protect against environmental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). • On cloudy days vacationers fail to protect against UVR. • Temperature is erroneously used by vacationers as a marker for UVR

  18. Structural Development of Health Resort Staff in the Republic of Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Yuryevna Tsekhla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research is the laws and mechanisms of development of employment in various sectors of the labor market of the Republic of Crimea. The article investigates the regional staffing structure in the development of economic activities of the Republic of Crimea, in particular, the health resort institution to identify priorities for the implementation of employment policies in the region. The main hypothesis of the study: a mismatch of basic parameters of transformation of the labor market in the Republic of Crimea and the educational system produces dysfunctionality of their interaction, causes conflict between the needs and requirements of the labor market and the training level, particularly in the health resort institution, as well as dysfunctionality of formal qualifications of graduates. The methodological basis of the research is a systematic approach to the study of the labor market in the Republic of Crimea and the utilization of statistical methods for analyzing the labor market. In the study, the dynamics of socio-economic development of the Crimean region was analyzed. The labor market conditions in the Crimean region were investigated, which revealed the main causes of imbalances in the labor market development. The analysis of the training of medical students in institutions of higher education was held. Groups of factors affecting the staffing structure in the region were determined. Analysis of the causes of the labor market imbalances in Crimea showed that the existing imbalance was caused by both objective and subjective reasons. Priority lines in employment policy in the health resort institution have been proposed. Their implementation will help to stabilize the situation with the medical staff, including the health resort institution; to improve human resources personnel, capable to provide a high level of service to recreants; to promote problem solving in the development of the Republic of Crimea in the

  19. Job Satisfaction in the Hospitality Industry Focus: Greece Case Study: Porto Carras Grand Resort

    OpenAIRE

    Salpisti, Elisavet

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the notion of Job Satisfaction in the Hospitality Industry. The organisational single-case study has been chosen as a research method, with research taking place in Porto Carras Grand Resort in Northern Greece. The purpose of this research has been to demonstrate the importance of employee job satisfaction in the hospitality industry in particular, since the quality of its services is greatly subject to the 'human chemistry' between employees and customers. Job...

  20. Penggunaan Information Technology (IT) Terintegrasi Untuk Meningkatkan Kepuasan Konsumen Di Dhyana Pura Beach Resort, Bali

    OpenAIRE

    Junaedi, I Wayan Ruspendi

    2015-01-01

    Dhyana Pura Beach Resort Bali is company which run on hotel service company. Remembering the competitions with any hotel now days to attract the tourist to stay at hotel, so it needs an effective promotion and excellent Service. That's why the hotel management need to make a good service excellent and correctly to competed at market, through Integrated System Information Management. This research has main problems, i.e. how the effect of technology information and to deliver the Customer Sati...

  1. Environmental variables associated with vacationers' sun protection at warm weather resorts in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Peter A., E-mail: westone47@gmail.com [School of Communication, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J. [Klein Buendel, Inc., 1667 Cole Boulevard, Suite 225, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Scott, Michael D. [Mikonics, Inc., 40 B Old Road South, Santa Fe, NM 87540 (United States); Beck, Larry [L. Robert Payne School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, San Diego State University, Room PSFA 445, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Liu, Xia [Klein Buendel, Inc., 1667 Cole Boulevard, Suite 225, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Abbott, Allison [School of Communication, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Eye, Rachel [Klein Buendel, Inc., 1667 Cole Boulevard, Suite 225, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Background: Vacationing at sunny, warm weather locations is a risk factor for excessive solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and skin cancer. Objectives: This study examined the association of environmental variables related to UV levels with vacationers' sun protection. Methods: Vacationers at 41 summer resorts in 17 states and 1 Canadian Province were interviewed (n=3531) and observed (N=4347) during 2012 and 2013. Clothing coverage, sunglasses, and shade use were observed. Use of sunscreen and sunburns were self-reported. Environmental information was recorded by research staff or acquired from ground stations and the weather service. Results: Temperature was positively associated with sun protection behaviors; however clothing coverage was negatively associated with temperature. Cloud cover was negatively associated with sun protection, with the exception of clothing coverage which was positively associated with it. Elevation showed a mixed pattern of associations with vacationer's sun protection. Latitude of a resort was negatively associated with most sun protection behaviors, such that sun protection increased at more southerly resorts. Similarly, the farther south a vacationer traveled to the resort, the less sun protection they employed. The UV index showed a weak, positive relationship with some sun protection behaviors even when controlling for temperature. Conclusions: Vacationers appeared aware that UV is higher at southern latitudes and may learn UV is intense when living in southern regions. However, many used temperature, an unreliable cue, to judge UV intensity and seemed to adjust clothing for warmth not UV protection. Efforts are needed to help individuals make more accurate sun safety decisions. - Highlights: • Vacationers poorly monitor and protect against environmental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). • On cloudy days vacationers fail to protect against UVR. • Temperature is erroneously used by vacationers as a marker for UVR

  2. PENGEMBANGAN PROGRAM EKOWISATA DI RESORT MANDALAWANGI TAMAN NASIONAL GUNUNG GEDE PANGRANGO KABUPATEN CIANJUR JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyat Sudrajat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of Ecotourism Program at Mandalawangi Resort of Mount Gede Pangrango National Park (TNGGP is done by optimizing the supply of tourist collaborated with tourist demand. Tourism resource most interesting at Resort Mandalawangi namely Puncak Gunung Gede - Pangrango then others are rare animals such as Leopards java (Panthera pardus is the key species and Javan Gibbon (Hylobates Molloch as a flagship species, as well as waterfalls, crater, Blue Lake, and Gayonggong Swamp. Social and cultural potential of a pattern of community life Sundanese-oriented agriculture as well as the existence of the mythical legend of the kingdom in TNGGP. Visitors dominant male, student status with the last education of SMP / MTs, 16-20-year-old, from Bekasi to have the motivation tends to settle for pleasure. Assess visitors tend not to know that TNGGP have ecotourism program that School Visit, Visit to School, Conservation Camp, Local Content Filling Material Environmental Education / Nature Conservation and Environmental Education for Teachers, Farmers, and the Young Generation. The concept of program development of ecotourism in Resort Mandalawangi using the theme "TNGGP, Cultured Conservation Area". This concept will focus on the utilization of resources and nature taking into consideration the safety of visitors as well as integrate with shades of Sundanese culture around tourism area Cibodas. Another aspect that needs to be developed to support the promotion of ecotourism programs, establish Sundanese cultural nuances and supporting infrastructure at KWC, strengthening human resources ecotourism program managers. Keywords: development, ecotourism, potential, program, TNGGP

  3. Explaining Perceived Impacts of All-Inclusive Resorts through Community Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah ERUL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antalya, with its high percentage of all-inclusive resorts (hereafter abbreviated AIR, is a prime tourist destination in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationships‖ between‖ residents’‖ attitudes‖ about‖ their‖ attachment to their local community and attitudes about AIR impacts. A survey was conducted in four key districts in Antalya (based on the concentration of AIRs in the areas: the Antalya city center, Kemer, Serik and Manavgat, yielding a robust sample (n = 660. Exploratory factor analysis of the Perceptions of All-Inclusive Resorts Scale revealed four unique factors (e.g., three focused on negative impacts and one on positive impacts. The study adopted the Community Attachment (CA Scale and Perceptions of All-Inclusive Resorts (PAIR as conceptual frameworks.‖The‖study’s‖findings‖demonstrated‖that‖highly‖ attached residents tend to perceive negative impacts of AIR. Findings provide empirical support for the employment of the community attachment framework within studies concerning AIR perceptions. Implications are described and directions for future research are discussed.

  4. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research - Vol 5, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Two Artemisinin-Based Combinations in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria among Children Under ... The Use of Mobile Electronic Devices for Public Health Data Collection and Syndromic Surveillance at the Republic Of Sierra Leone Armed Forces · EMAIL FREE ...

  5. Criminologia, Antropologia e Medicina Legal. Um personagem central: Leonídio Ribeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Gutman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Apresentação da trajetória de Leonídio Ribeiro, em especial a sua abordagem do homossexualismo como representativa das concepções fundantes do campo da criminologia nas primeiras décadas do século XX no Brasil.

  6. Child mental health in Sierra Leone : A survey and exploratory qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoder, H.N.C.; Tol, W.A.; Reis, R.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study complements the growing amount of research on the psychosocial impact of war on children in Sierra Leone by examining local perceptions of child mental health, formal and informal care systems, help-seeking behaviour and stigma. Methods The study combined: (1) a nationwide

  7. Binational Teacher Development: Teacher Ambassador Exchange Program, New Mexico, USA and Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, Mary Jean

    The report describes the rationale for and history of an exchange program for Nuevo Leon (Mexico) and New Mexico bilingual education teachers. The program evolved from the need to help Spanish-speaking students maintain their own language and culture while in the United States. New Mexico's state policy concerning language-minority children and…

  8. Training for Innovation: Capacity-Building in Agricultural Research in Post-War Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Bebeley, Jenneh F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI) used training and development to build capacity for innovation in agricultural research following the country's civil war which ended in 2002. The Institute's training for innovation addressed different agricultural product value chains (APVCs) within the framework of…

  9. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  10. The Role of Religion During and After the Civil War in Sierra Leone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Civil wars in Africa are renowned for their strong religious elements, with religion being used for different purposes and in different capacities. Sierra Leone's civil war (1991-2002), known also as the “rebel war,” had significant religious dimensions. The warring factions used religion for their gain. Beyond that, Muslim and ...

  11. Socio-Ecological Factors Affecting Pregnant Women's Anemia Status in Freetown, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna; Drolet, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sierra Leone has high maternal mortality. Socio-ecological factors are considered contributing factors to this high mortality. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 4% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. Purpose: The current study explores socio-ecological contributing factors to the anemia…

  12. Looming Over the Nation, Uneasy with the Folks: Locating Mike de Leon in Philippine Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick F. Campos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article draws on filmic, popular, and scholarly references in order to trace how Mike de Leon and his films have been regarded, since his landmark entrance into Philippine cinema as director, up to the present. Specifically, it locates De Leon within the subtly shifting discourse of nationalist film scholarship and historicizing, and discusses how he and his films are written about, identified, associated or networked with other filmmakers and films, or utilized in discourses about the Philippines, Philippine cinema, or Philippine culture.The article locates De Leon as (1 an insider of Philippine cinema history, (2 an outsider of the commercial film industry, and (3 a hero of the mythic Golden Age of the National Cinema. It also maps out his filmography within the nationalist agenda; appraises what filmmakers, commentators, and scholars have articulated about his films; and analyzes the thematic and stylistic trajectories of his later works. Finally, it discusses how De Leon is being written into today’s discourse of Philippine cinema.

  13. Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclure, Richard; Denov, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In post-war contexts, education is widely regarded as essential not only for civic reconciliation, but also as a key force for gender equity. In Sierra Leone, however, despite enhanced educational opportunities for girls, much of the emphasis on post-war educational reconstruction is unlikely to rectify gender inequities that remain entrenched…

  14. Genotypic anomaly in ebola virus strains circulating in magazine wharf Area, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Smits (Saskia); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); P. Pertile; C. Cancedda; K. Dierberg; I. Wurie; A. Kamara; D. Kargbo; S.L. Caddy; A. Arias; L. Thorne; J. Lu; U. Jah; I. Goodfellow; M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe Magazine Wharf area, Freetown, Sierra Leone was a focus of ongoing Ebola virus transmission from late June 2015. Viral genomes linked to this area contain a series of 13 T to C substitutions in a 150 base pair intergenic region downstream of viral protein 40 open reading frame,

  15. commercial drinking water quality and safety in bo city, sierra leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research ... These include 6 water sources and the production facilities for 10 brands of machine-filled factory-produced water sachets as well as the 10 sources and finished samples for ... Workers at all of these facilities were also interviewed about their knowledge and practices.

  16. Exact solutions for the (2+1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempielli system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Y H; Zheng, C L

    2008-01-01

    The object reduction approach is applied to the (2+1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempielli system using a special conditional similarity reduction. Abundant exact solutions of this system, including the hyperboloid function solutions, the trigonometric function solutions and a rational function solution, are obtained

  17. Developmental Differences in Motor Task Integration: A Test of Pascual-Leone's Theory of Constructive Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, John I.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the ability of Pascual-Leone's Theory of Constructive Operators to predict the minimum age or maturational level at which integration of a motor task could be achieved. Subjects were 114 elementary school children ranging in age from 5 to 12. (Author/MP)

  18. The Violence of Peace and the Role of Education: Insights from Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Mario; Higgins, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Research on peacebuilding has mushroomed over the last decade and there is a growing interest in the role of education in supporting peacebuilding processes. This paper engages with these debates, UN peacebuilding activities and the location of education initiatives therein, through a case study of Sierra Leone. In the first part, we explore the…

  19. School Persistence in the Wake of War: Wartime Experiences, Reintegration Supports, and Dropout in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students' risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively associated…

  20. Learning Curve Characteristics for Caesarean Section Among Associate Clinicians : A Prospective Study from Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalewijn, B.P.; van Duinen, A.; Koroma, A. P.; Rijken, M. J.; Elhassein, M.; Bolkan, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In response to the high maternal mortality ratio, Sierra Leone has adopted an associate clinician postgraduate surgical task-sharing training programme. Little is known about learning curve characteristics for caesarean sections among associate clinicians. The aim of this study is to

  1. Converts to human rights? Popular debate about war and justice in rural central Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archibald, S.; Richards, P.

    2002-01-01

    Internationally, war in Sierra Leone (1991-2002) is regarded as an instance of violent conflict driven by economic factors (attempts to control the mining of alluvial diamonds). Fieldwork (2000-01) in rural areas recovering from war suggests a very different picture. War victims and combatants from

  2. Management of rice seed during insurgency : a case study in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokuwa, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Technography, Oryza glaberrima, Oryza sativa, farmer hybrids, sub-optimal agriculture, farmer adaptive management, plant genetic resources, peace and extreme (wartime) conditions, local seed channels, selection for robustness, Sierra Leone, West Africa.

  3. Empowering Women through Education: Evidence from Sierra Leone. NBER Working Paper No. 18016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Naci H.; Cannonier, Colin

    2012-01-01

    We use data from Sierra Leone where a substantial education program provided increased access to education for primary-school age children but did not benefit children who were older. We exploit the variation in access to the program generated by date of birth and the variation in resources between various districts of the country. We find that…

  4. Scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone: A prospective cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Sarah; Begum, Hashina; Friedman, Howard S; James, Chris D

    2017-12-01

    Family planning is commonly regarded as a highly cost-effective health intervention with wider social and economic benefits. Yet use of family planning services in Sierra Leone is currently low and 25.0% of married women have an unmet need for contraception. This study aims to estimate the costs and benefits of scaling up family planning in Sierra Leone. Using the OneHealth Tool, two scenarios of scaling up family planning coverage to currently married women in Sierra Leone over 2013-2035 were assessed and compared to a 'no-change' counterfactual. Our costing included direct costs of drugs, supplies and personnel time, programme costs and a share of health facility overhead costs. To monetise the benefits, we projected the cost savings of the government providing five essential social services - primary education, child immunisation, malaria prevention, maternal health services and improved drinking water - in the scale-up scenarios compared to the counterfactual. The total population, estimated at 6.1 million in 2013, is projected to reach 8.3 million by 2035 in the high scenario compared to a counterfactual of 9.6 million. We estimate that by 2035, there will be 1400 fewer maternal deaths and 700 fewer infant deaths in the high scenario compared to the counterfactual. Our modelling suggests that total costs of the family planning programme in Sierra Leone will increase from US$4.2 million in 2013 to US$10.6 million a year by 2035 in the high scenario. For every dollar spent on family planning, Sierra Leone is estimated to save US$2.10 in expenditure on the five selected social sector services over the period. There is a strong investment case for scaling up family planning services in Sierra Leone. The ambitious scale-up scenarios have historical precedent in other sub-Saharan African countries, but the extent to which they will be achieved depends on a commitment from both the government and donors to strengthening Sierra Leone's health system post-Ebola.

  5. ["Podmoskovie"--health resort institution of the Federal Drug Control Service of the Russian Federation celebrates the 20th anniversary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar', I V; Minaev, D Iu; Nasretdinov, I N; Petukhov, A E

    2014-12-01

    The article is dedicated to the 20th anniversary of the Federal government health resort institution of the Federal Drug Control Service of the Russian Federation (FGI "Health resort "Podmoskovie" of the Federal Drug Control Service of the Russian Federation). In this health resort were developed treatment programs for patients with abnormalities of the cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive systems; methods of ultrasonic, laser and magnetic therapy, atmospheric hypoxic, herbal medicine, speleotherapy are employed. Widely used natural healing factors of Ruza district of the Moscow region such as climate therapy, treatment with mineral water group of X type of Smolensk from own wells and balneo-mudtherapy. Over the past 20 years 70 000 patients received an appropriate treatment in this health resort.

  6. Heavy metal levels in dune sands from Matanzas urban resorts and Varadero beach (Cuba): Assessment of contamination and ecological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O; Denis Alpízar, Otoniel

    2015-12-30

    Concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in dune sands from six urban and suburban Matanzas (Cuba) resorts and Varadero beach were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Ranges of metal contents in dune sands show a strong variation across the studied locations (in mg/kg(-1)): 20-2964 for Cr, 17-183 for Ni, 17-51 for Cu, 18-88 for Zn and 5-29 for Pb. The values of contamination factors and contamination degrees how that two of the studied Matanzas's resorts (Judio and Chirry) are strongly polluted. The comparison with Sediment Quality Guidelines shows that dune sands from Judio resort represent a serious risk for humans, due to polluted Cr and Ni levels, while sands from the rest of the studied resorts, including Varadero beach, do not represent any risk for public use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Macroeconomic costs of the unmet burden of surgical disease in Sierra Leone: a retrospective economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Caris E; Quaife, Matthew; Kamara, Thaim B; Lavy, Christopher B D; Leather, Andy J M; Bolkan, Håkon A

    2018-03-14

    The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery estimated that low/middle-income countries will lose an estimated cumulative loss of US$12.3 trillion from gross domestic product (GDP) due to the unmet burden of surgical disease. However, no country-specific data currently exist. We aimed to estimate the costs to the Sierra Leone economy from death and disability which may have been averted by surgical care. We used estimates of total, met and unmet need from two main sources-a cluster randomised, cross-sectional, countrywide survey and a retrospective, nationwide study on surgery in Sierra Leone. We calculated estimated disability-adjusted life years from morbidity and mortality for the estimated unmet burden and modelled the likely economic impact using three different methods-gross national income per capita, lifetime earnings foregone and value of a statistical life. In 2012, estimated, discounted lifetime losses to the Sierra Leone economy from the unmet burden of surgical disease was between US$1.1 and US$3.8 billion, depending on the economic method used. These lifetime losses equate to between 23% and 100% of the annual GDP for Sierra Leone. 80% of economic losses were due to mortality. The incremental losses averted by scale up of surgical provision to the Lancet Commission target of 80% were calculated to be between US$360 million and US$2.9 billion. There is a large economic loss from the unmet need for surgical care in Sierra Leone. There is an immediate need for massive investment to counteract ongoing economic losses. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Penanganan Pengembangan Karir Karyawan Berdasarkan Pengalaman Kerja di Food And Beverage Service Nirwana Gardens Resort Bintan-lagoi

    OpenAIRE

    Januardi, Repi; Sulistyani, Andri

    2017-01-01

    The aims of study are determine (1) Handling employee career development based on work experience at food and beverage service Nirwana Gardens Resort Bintan Lagoi; (2) Efforts to improve employee career development in food and beverage service of Nirwana Gardens Resort Bintan-Lagoi.The design of this research is qualitative. The subjects of this research are the key informants, the Human Resourcess Manager Department and the additional informants are Assistant Outlet Manager and Employee of f...

  9. [Certain medico-economic prerequisites for the integration of spa and resort facilities into the system of compulsory health insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artem'eva, G B; Gekht, I A

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of spa and resort facilities in the system of compulsory health insurance is of primary importance for the improvement of medical aid provided to the population. The application of the methods for the calculation of differential expenditures on the spa and resort-based treatment and estimation of their dependence on a variety of factors may facilitate the more rational use of the available resources of compulsory health insurance.

  10. SAFARI digital processing unit: performance analysis of the SpaceWire links in case of a LEON3-FT based CPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusi, Giovanni; Liu, Scige J.; Di Giorgio, Anna M.; Galli, Emanuele; Pezzuto, Stefano; Farina, Maria; Spinoglio, Luigi

    2014-08-01

    SAFARI (SpicA FAR infrared Instrument) is a far-infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for the SPICA mission. The Digital Processing Unit (DPU) of the instrument implements the functions of controlling the overall instrument and implementing the science data compression and packing. The DPU design is based on the use of a LEON family processor. In SAFARI, all instrument components are connected to the central DPU via SpaceWire links. On these links science data, housekeeping and commands flows are in some cases multiplexed, therefore the interface control shall be able to cope with variable throughput needs. The effective data transfer workload can be an issue for the overall system performances and becomes a critical parameter for the on-board software design, both at application layer level and at lower, and more HW related, levels. To analyze the system behavior in presence of the expected SAFARI demanding science data flow, we carried out a series of performance tests using the standard GR-CPCI-UT699 LEON3-FT Development Board, provided by Aeroflex/Gaisler, connected to the emulator of the SAFARI science data links, in a point-to-point topology. Two different communication protocols have been used in the tests, the ECSS-E-ST-50-52C RMAP protocol and an internally defined one, the SAFARI internal data handling protocol. An incremental approach has been adopted to measure the system performances at different levels of the communication protocol complexity. In all cases the performance has been evaluated by measuring the CPU workload and the bus latencies. The tests have been executed initially in a custom low level execution environment and finally using the Real- Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems (RTEMS), which has been selected as the operating system to be used onboard SAFARI. The preliminary results of the carried out performance analysis confirmed the possibility of using a LEON3 CPU processor in the SAFARI DPU, but pointed out, in agreement

  11. [The toxic complications of hydrogen sulfide-based balneotherapy in the spa and health resort practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodasevich, L S

    2015-01-01

    The present literature review was designed to consider the toxic complications of hydrogen sulfide-based balneotherapy encountered in the spa and health resort practice that should actually be regarded as hydrogen sulfide intoxication taking into consideration that their severity depends on the route through which the toxicant enters the body, its concentration in the therapeutic bath, and the overall duration of balneotherapy. Although such complications rarely occur in everyday practice, they may constitute a threat to the patient's health which implies the necessity of adequate measures for their prevention.

  12. Liderança em Resorts: um estudo dos estilos praticados no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    GIULIANI, Thaís de Almeida; OLIVA, Eduardo de Camargo

    2014-01-01

    O segmento da Hotelaria é profundamente afetado pelo comportamento de seus líderes e suas características pessoais, e especialmente, pela maneira como influenciam seus seguidores a alcancarem este resultado. Sendo assim, o presente artigo tem como objetivo geral identificar e analisar os estilos de liderança praticados nos resorts do Brasil. Buscou ainda mapear no grupo de gestores, quais possuem o estilo de liderança transacional e transformacional pela opinião dos próprios gestores e de ...

  13. Physical rehabilitation in complex therapy of the ureter stones patients in the Truskavets health resort area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shologon R.P.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of rehabilitation measures is considered in complex therapy with the use of differentiated methods of medical physical education for patients with stones of ureter. Under a supervision there was 143 patients. 93 patients were made basic group, 50 patients - control. From them 51 (56 % are men and 42 (54% are women. Age of patients made from 20 to 60 years. A sanatorium-resort rehabilitation is recommended with the use of the differentiated methods of medical gymnastics. Application of method improved the indexes of the functional state of buds and overhead urinary ways. Frequency of advancement and output of concrements is also megascopic.

  14. An Employer of Last Resort Scheme which Resembles a Free Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    MUSGRAVE, Ralph S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. The idea that government should act as employer of last resort (ELR) is an old one. That idea is often referred to nowadays as “job guarantee”. Many ELR schemes to date have been confined to the public sector. There is no good reason for that limitation: i.e. the private sector should use ELR labour as well.  A second common characteristic of ELR schemes has been that (like the WPA in the US in the 1930s) they involve specially set up projects or schemes as distinct from subsidising...

  15. Effects of mountain resort development - a case study in Vermont USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J.; Wemple, B.

    2012-04-01

    The mountainous landscape of northern New England, USA, faces intense development pressure from recreational and tourism use. In 2000 we began a paired-watershed study in northern Vermont to examine the effects of alpine resort development on stream flow and water quality. To our knowledge this is the only gaged watershed study at a mountain resort. The adjacent paired watersheds have similar topography, relief, geology and forest type, and differ primarily in land use. Ranch Brook watershed (9.6 km2) is the undeveloped, nearly 100% forested control basin. West Branch watershed (11.7 km2) is the developed basin, encompassing a pre-existing alpine ski resort and state highway, with approximately 17% of the basin occupied by ski trails and impervious surfaces. Measurements during 2000-2003 showed suspended sediment yield was >2.5 times greater and concentrations of nitrate and chloride were significantly elevated at West Branch. From 2004 through 2007 the resort expanded with more ski trails, roads, parking areas, and vacation home development and now has 24% cleared land, with storm sewers draining lower developed areas of the alpine watershed. For the 11-year period of study, water yield in the developed basin exceeded that in the control by an average of nearly 21%. The higher runoff at West Branch occurred primarily as result of higher sustained base flow, driven by a more prolonged snowmelt period, and greater runoff during small events. The annual flow differential had a strong positive correlation to maximum snow water equivalent, suggesting that differences in snow accumulation may explain the flow differential. We are investigating whether these differences are a direct consequence of management activities and resulting vegetation shifts and land clearing on snow capture. Several of the highest peak flows in both watersheds have occurred in the last 2 years of the 11-yr study. Our analysis is aimed at determining whether absolute peak flows have increased

  16. Quality improvement in emergency service delivery: Assessment of knowledge and skills amongst emergency nurses at Connaught Hospital, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedda Bøe Nyhus

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study has identified key aspects of emergency nursing speciality training to be developed through theoretical and skill-based education provided by the nursing schools and hospital clinical facilities in Sierra Leone.

  17. Nobel Prize winning physicist to speak at Rensselaer Nov. 20 Leon Lederman to discuss pre college science education

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Leon Lederman, Nobel Prize-winner, will offer some radical ideas for improving pre-college science education when he delivers the annual Robert Resnick Lecture at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's Russell Sage Laboratory (1/2 page).

  18. Recomendaciones de Liderazgo para los Dueños de Pymes Familiares Exportadoras y no Exportadoras en Nuevo Leon

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Eloisa Treviño Ayala; Paula Villalpando Cadena; David Fernando Lozano Treviño; Jose Nicolas Barragan Codina

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this document is to state the importance that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) exporting and non-exporting have, as well as family businesses in Mexico´s economy and specifically in the state of Nuevo Leon. It establishes certain family SMEs, exporting and non-exporting, characteristics to take into consideration by Nuevo Leon leaders that seek success under the determinant of profits. It also locates qualities, from our stand point, classic and contemporaries, re...

  19. Estudio de enriquecimiento nutricional de dos especies de Leones marinos (Otaria flavescens y Zalophus californianus) en Aquanatura (Benidorm)

    OpenAIRE

    Llorens García, Inés

    2016-01-01

    El enriquecimiento ambiental es un método de reducir el estrés y los comportamientos inadecuados de animales en cautiverio, ayudando a su vez a aumentar el bienestar de estos. En este trabajo se pretende realizar un estudio de enriquecimiento nutricional de dos leones marinos de California (Zalophus Californianus) y dos leones marinos de la Patagonia (Otaria flavescens). Así, se ha estudiado el comportamiento de los cuatro individuos sobre un dispensador de alimento nuevo para ellos, midiendo...

  20. Landsat-Derived Estimates of Mangrove Extents in the Sierra Leone Coastal Landscape Complex during 1990-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Pinki; Trzaska, Sylwia; de Sherbinin, Alex

    2017-12-21

    This study provides the first assessment of decadal changes in mangrove extents in Sierra Leone. While significant advances have been made in mangrove mapping using remote sensing, no study has documented long-term changes in mangrove extents in Sierra Leone-one of the most vulnerable countries in West Africa. Such understanding is critical for devising regional management strategies that can support local livelihoods. We utilize multi-date Landsat data and cloud computational techniques to quantify spatiotemporal changes in land cover, with focus on mangrove ecosystems, for 1990-2016 along the coast of Sierra Leone. We specifically focus on four estuaries-Scarcies, Sierra Leone, Yawri Bay, and Sherbro. We relied on the k-means approach for an unsupervised classification, and validated the classified map from 2016 using ground truth data collected from Sentinel-2 and high-resolution images and during field research (accuracy: 95%). Our findings indicate that the Scarcies river estuary witnessed the greatest mangrove loss since 1990 (45%), while the Sierra Leone river estuary experienced mangrove gain over the last 26 years (22%). Overall, the Sierra Leone coast lost 25% of its mangroves between 1990 and 2016, with the lowest coverage in 2000, during the period of civil war (1991-2002). However, natural mangrove dynamics, as supported by field observations, indicate the potential for regeneration and sustainability under carefully constructed management strategies.

  1. The Organizational Improvements of Catering in the Case of the Radisson Blu Resort Restaurant in Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bogdanović

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the catering industry is providing food and beverages services. The food and beverages department provides the food and beverages in the hotel industry, with its restaurant being the most visible part where the food and beverages supply and demand takes place. The researching of this organizational segment is important because it contributes to the understanding and improvement of the organizational efficacy of the food and beverage department, in particular the restaurant units of the catering organizations. The aim of this paper is to explore the organization of work within the food and beverage department in the Hotel Radisson Blu Resort in Split. The proposed research evolves around the problems of the organization of work of a specific restaurant Fig & Leaf located in the Radisson Blue Resort Split Hotel. The research was conducted by means of questionnaire that included all the employees of the restaurant (N=20. Certain problem areas have been identified in the restaurant’s organization of work: a a sub-optimal number of employees; b multiple chain of commands; c problems of sub-optimal organizational structures in the work of the restaurant; d problems regarding certain aspects of the organizational culture of the restaurant relating to team work, participatory decision-making, inter-personal trust. For the diagnosed problems in the organization of the restaurant organizational solutions were offered aimed at improving management. This way of solving the organizational sub-optimality can be generally applied within the restaurant business.

  2. Decision-Aiding Evaluation of Public Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles in Cities and Resorts of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Palevičius

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the National Communication Development of 2014–2022 Program and Guidelines of the Development of the Public Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure confirmed by the Government of the Republic of Lithuania, it is planned that, until the year of 2025, among newly registered vehicles, electric ones should make at least 10%. Analysis of the trend of electric vehicles makes evident that the target does not have a real chance to be achieved without targeted efforts. In order to improve the infrastructure of electric vehicles in major cities and resorts of Lithuania, we have carried out a comparative analysis of public infrastructure for electric vehicles in 18 Lithuanian cities and resorts. For the quantitative analysis, we proposed eight criteria describing such an infrastructure. As perception of the infrastructure by owners of electric cars depends on complex factors, we used multiple criteria evaluation methods (MCDM for evaluation of the current state of its development by four such methods: EDAS, SAW, TOPSIS, and PROMETHEE II. Based on the evaluation results, prominent and lagging factors were understood, and proposals for effective development of public infrastructure of electric vehicles were proposed for improvement of the infrastructure.

  3. Fairmont Hotels and Resorts : hospitality, tradition, environmental stewardship and energy savings go hand in hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinault, K. [Fairmont Hotels and Resorts, Toronto, ON (Canada). Design and Construction

    2003-06-01

    Headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, Fairmont Hotels and Resorts Inc. operates 81 world-class luxury hotels and resorts in Canada, United States, Mexico, Bermuda, Barbados and the United Arab Emirates. In 1990, Fairmont Hotels launched a green program for all its Canadian hotels as part of its commitment to become a world leader in establishing environmental practices for the hotel industry. Fairmont's policies for energy efficiency, water conservation, purchasing and waste minimization have won international awards. The energy efficiency measures benefit both the company and society through savings in operating costs and reducing carbon dioxide emissions, thereby helping Canada meets its international obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. Electricity makes up the greatest part of the hotel chain's huge energy bills, costing more than $29 million annually. The remainder of the energy bill consists of natural gas, propane, water, steam and kitchen fuel costs. Many of Fairmont's hotels are historic properties whose physical layout present greater challenges than retrofitting new construction. The retrofits so far have included improvements in lighting fixtures, laundry facilities, HVAC systems, parking garages and boiler rooms. Since 1998, energy retrofits at Fairmont hotels across Canada have resulted in substantial energy savings. 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Deep aquifers: last resort water resources in case of major pollution crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesny, M.; Comte, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of a reflection dealing with the possibility to insure sufficient drinking water supply in case of major crisis, the Ministry of the Environment undertook an inventory of the aquiferous systems on the whole French (continental) territory. In case of a generalized surface water and groundwater contamination, these aquifers could provide substitution water, qualified as 'a last resorted water' because of its temporary - fast definitive - protection statute. A scale of value relative to the protection level was created, which enables the researchers to identify three levels of protection and to draw up a 1/1,500,000 scale map of France, on which the limits of 98 phreatic water-tables, identified as protected, have been reported. The great majority of the aquifers corresponds to confined waters. A statistical analysis on the existence of protected resources reveals that 16 departments out of 96 have got protected resources on the whole territory, and that 22 others haven't got any that are registered at national scale. Otherwise, 61 towns out of 103 which count more that 50,000 inhabitants have got protected resources, which correspond to 61 % of the urban population. In a second time, the cases of the urban centres of Paris and Lyon will be looked into more in detail, stating precisely the protected resources which could be mobilized and the existing collecting equipments which could possibility be integrated in a device used as a last resort. (authors). 3 figs

  5. Dynamics of forest populations in the mountain resort region of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Slepykh, Olga; Slepykh, Viktor; Povolotskaya, Nina

    2017-04-01

    Prehistoric formula of forest species composition of the resort region Caucasian Mineralnye Vody (RR CMV) in the North Caucasus is 6Q3Cb1Fe [1]. According to it, undisturbed forests of the region consisted of the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and the durmast (Quercus cerris L.) by 60%, the European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) by 30% and the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) only by 10%. At present the formula of forest composition of the region is 5Fe3Cb2Q, according to it, the rate of oak-groves (the most valuable to resort landscape gardening) has reduced to 20%, and the ash-tree, though the rate of the hornbeam has not changed, increased up to 50%. Forest breeding populations in the RR CMV are referred to natural medical resources as they have high rehabilitation and climate-regulating properties, the change in forest breeding populations influences the conditions of the resort climate-landscape-therapy. The researches conducted in the perfect oak wood of vegetative origin in Beshtaugorsky Forestry Area (BFA) of the RR CMV have shown the reduction of the pedunculate oak in the tree-stand composition during 1984-2014 from 10 to 8 units in the composition: the European ash (1 unit) and the crataegus monogyna (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.), the checker tree (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz), the common pear (Pyrus communis L.) have appeared [2]. The rate of the pedunculate oak decreased from 10 units to 9 in the perfect planting of the pedunculate oak of the artificial origin (Mashuk section of the forestry of BFA of the RR CMV) during 1986-2016. Among accompanying breeds there was the English field maple (Acer campestre L.), the Chinese elm in singular (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.), the single-seed hawthorn. The reliable regrowth (4C3Fe3Ac+Q+Cm+Pc+Up) in number of 3,9 thousand pieces/hectare defines the perspective of complete replacement of the oak crop in the future on planting with dominance of the hornbeam and the involvement of the ash-tree and the English

  6. [Adverse reactions to mosquito bites in scholars from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique López, María Amelia; González Díaz, Sandra N; Arias Cruz, Alfredo; Sedó Mejía, Giovanni A; Canseco Villarreal, José Ignacio; Gómez Retamoza, Ernesto Antonio; Padrón López, Olga Magdalena; Cruz Moreno, Miguel Angel; Cisneros Salazar, Guillermo Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Allergic reactions to insect bites are a global problem, the true incidence and prevalence of morbidity from adverse reactions to mosquito bites are unknown. To describe the adverse reactions to mosquito bites in school-age children of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. A cross-sectional descriptive study was made via a randomized application of questionnaires to children from public elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. A total of 11 public schools randomly selected were included in the study. One thousand questionnaires were submitted, of which 506 fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 55% were females. Seventy-six percent referred adverse reactions to mosquito bites, itching (75%) and rash (72%) being the most frequent ones, in the last 12 months. Adverse reactions to mosquito bites occur frequently. Early detection is important to establish a prompt treatment.

  7. Innovation diffusion and development in a Third World setting: the cooperative movement in Sierra Leone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.A. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus); Schneider, R.; Harvey, M.E.; Riddell, J.B.

    1979-09-01

    The interface between innovation diffusion and economic development and social change in Third World settings is investigated. The paper first presents a conceptual framework linking diffusion processes and development and then exemplifies a portion of that framework by examining the diffusion of agricultural cooperatives in Sierra Leone from 1948 through 1967. Attention is then turned to elements of the historical development of a cooperative movement in Sierra Leone which are important for understanding the processes underlying that diffusion. The temporal and spatial patterns of diffusion are discussed and the statistical analyses that assess (1) which variables provide a basis for distinguishing political units with cooperatives from those without, and (2) which variables account for the differences in the time at which cooperatives were established are examined. The findings are integrated with the theory presented. 41 references.

  8. Chemical control trials against Phytophthora capsici (Leon on pepper cultivations in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pussemier, L.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical control trials against Phytophthora capsici (Leon on pepper cultivations in Morocco. Pepper protection trials against collar and root rot have been undertaken under laboratory and culture conditions using Aliette (80 % of phosethylaluminium and Ridomil M 58 (10 % of metalaxyl associated to 48 % of maneb. It has been proved that, contrary to Ridomil M 58, Aliette does not protect the hostplant when the Phytophthora capsici (Leon zoospores are used as inoculum. But both fongicides are active when inoculating with a mycelian suspension. Trials undertaken under plastic glasshouses confirmed the laboratory results both with an artificial inoculation and with a natural one on contaminated soil. Only Ridomil M 58 provides satisfactory protection during the first weeks after the treatment. When disease propagation conditions are particularly favorable (permanent presence of an active inoculum source, the protection given by repeated Ridomil M 58 applications gradually disappears after a few weeks.

  9. Measuring work engagement among community health workers in Sierra Leone: Validating the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Vallières, Frédérique; McAuliffe, Eilish; Hyland, Philip; Galligan, Marie; Ghee, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the concept of volunteer work engagement in a sample of 334 community health workers in Bonthe District, Sierra Leone. Structural equation modelling was used to validate both the 9-item and the 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9 and UWES-17, respectively). Results assessing the UWES-17 invalidated the three-factor structure within this cohort of community health workers, as high correlations were found between latent factors. Findings for the validity of the UWE...

  10. Distance, accessibility and costs. Decision-making during childbirth in rural Sierra Leone: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Treacy

    Full Text Available Sierra Leone has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world. Efforts to reduce maternal mortality have included initiatives to encourage more women to deliver at health facilities. Despite the introduction of the free health care initiative for pregnant women, many women still continue to deliver at home, with few having access to a skilled birth attendant. In addition, inequalities between rural and urban areas in accessing and utilising health facilities persist. Further insight into how and why women make decisions around childbirth will help guide future plans and initiatives in improving maternal health in Sierra Leone. The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions and decision-making processes of women and their communities during childbirth in rural Sierra Leone.Data were collected through seven focus group discussions and 22 in-depth interviews with recently pregnant women and their community members in two rural villages. Data were analysed using systematic text condensation. Findings revealed that decision-making processes during childbirth are dynamic, intricate and need to be understood within the broader social context that they take place. Factors such as distance and lack of transport, perceived negative behaviour of hospital staff, direct and indirect financial obstacles, as well as the position of women in society all interact and influence how and what decisions are made.Pregnant women face multiple interacting vulnerabilities that influence their healthcare-seeking decisions during pregnancy and childbirth. Future initiatives to improve access and utilisation of safe healthcare services for pregnant women need to be based on adequate knowledge of structural constraints and health inequities that affect women in rural Sierra Leone.

  11. Improving access to surgery in a developing country: experience from a surgical collaboration in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Adam L; Kamara, Thaim B; Groen, Reinou S; Fadlu-Deen, Betsy D; Doah, Kisito S; Kingham, T Peter

    2010-01-01

    Although surgery is increasingly recognized as an essential component of primary health care, there has been little documentation of surgical programs in low- and middle-income countries. Surgeons OverSeas (SOS) is a New York-based organization with a mission to save lives in developing countries by improving surgical care. This article highlights the surgical program in Sierra Leone as a possible model to improve access to surgery. An SOS team conducted a needs assessment of surgical capacity in Sierra Leone in February 2008. Interventions were then developed and programs were implemented. A follow-up assessment was conducted in December 2009, which included interviews of key Sierra Leone hospital personnel and a review of operating room log books. Based on an initial needs assessment, a program was developed that included training, salary support, and the provision of surgical supplies and equipment. Two 3-day workshops were conducted for a total of 44 health workers, salary support given to over 100 staff, and 2 containers of supplies and equipment were donated. Access to surgery, as measured by the number of major operations at Connaught Hospital, increased from 460 cases in 2007 to 768 cases in 2009. The SOS program in Sierra Leone highlights a method for improving access to surgery that incorporates an initial needs assessment with minimal external support and local staff collaboration. The program functions as a catalyst by providing training, salary support, and supplies. The beneficial results of the program can then be used to advocate for additional resources for surgery from policy makers. This model could be beneficial in other resource-poor countries in which improved access to surgery is desired. Copyright 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Geoheritage value of the UNESCO site at Leon Viejo and Momotombo volcano, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Navarro, Martha; Espinoza, Eveling; Delgado, Hugo

    2017-04-01

    The Momotombo volcano has a special place in the history of Nicaragua. It is perfectly visible from the Capital, Managua, and from the major city of Leon. The old capital "Leon Viejo", founded in 1524 was abandoned in 1610, after a series of earthquakes and some major eruptions from Momotombo. The site was subsequently covered by Momotombo ash. A major geothermal power plant stands at the base of the volcano. Momotombo had been dormant for a hundred years, but had maintained high fumarole temperatures (900°C), indicating magma had been close to the surface for decades. In recent years, seismic activity has increased around the volcano. In December 2015, after a short ash eruption phase the volcano erupted lava, then a string of Vulcanian explosions. The volcano is now in a phase of small Vulcanian explosions and degassing. The Leon Viejo World Heritage site is at risk to mainly ash fall from the volcano, but the abandonment of the old city was primarily due to earthquakes. Additional risks come from high rainfall during hurricanes. There is an obvious link between the cultural site (inscribed under UNESCO cultural criteria) and the geological environment. First, the reactivation of Momotombo volcano makes it more important to revise the hazard of the site. At the same time, Leon Viejo can provide a portal for outreach related to the volcano and for geological risk in general. To maximise this, we provide a geosite inventory of the main features of Momotombo, and it's environs, that can be used as the first base for such studies. The volcano was visited by many adventure tourists before the 2015/2016 eruption, but is out of bounds at present. Alternative routes, around the volcano could be made, to adapt to the new situation and to show to visitors more of the geodiversity of this fascinating volcano-tectonic and cultural area.

  13. MODE OF PRODUCTION ANS EDUCATION: QUESTIONS ON THE MODE OF LIFE: A CONTRIBUTION OF LEON TROTSKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celi Zulke Taffarel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The text addresses the importance of consideration of the contribution of Leon Trotsky - when you look at the issue of mode of life resulting from the general production of existence - to think clearly articulate an educational proposal for the construction of socialist history project. The need to think the human based on the question of cultural activists, on the fight for a policy of cultural formation.

  14. Understanding the Morphology in the Form of Business Expansion: Perspective of Small Tourism Firm in Coastal Resort Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hakimi Mohd Hussain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Resort morphology literature can be traced back since 1930s and most cases referring to the coast of Europe and United State. In 1970s, it begins to give emphasis on aspects such as land use pattern, infrastructure, Central Business District, Recreational Business District and impact studies. The literature expands to the aspects of socioeconomic, hotel development and resort lifecycle in the 1980s. Later in 1990s, it was extended to politic and investment, tourist behavior, transportation, Tourism Business District and environmental management. Following 2000s, the discussion move into change in land use intensity and restructuring resort strategies. All these aspects are still relevant in the existing literature today. However, it was argued that existing issue  from these literatures cannot escape from too much emphasis on the physical aspects. Limited study given to the aspect of non-physical than theoretical components of space management for physical and strategic planning purposes. For example, the aspects of business expansion and entrepreneur growth, and as to how this is able to influence resort morphology. The Small tourism firm manages to sustain their present from generation to generation with increasing skills relevant to financial, personal attitude, business resources and networking, and abilities in terms of operational, managerial and strategic. Therefore, the characteristic of resort morphology should be seen in a different context in which the competitiveness and survivability of these small tourism firms is vital to explore.

  15. [The development of the system of medical rehabilitation based at the Russian health resort facilities: investment prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povazhnaya, E L; Gusakova, E V; Moiseenko, S V

    2018-05-21

    The present work is devoted to the prospects for attracting investments for the maintenance and development of the medical rehabilitation practices based at the Russian health resort facilities. The article describes the prerequisites for the enhancement of the investment attractiveness of the development of the system of medical rehabilitation in the said institutions including the formulation and strengthening of the legal and regulatory framework, the capacity for the organization of the second and third stages of medical rehabilitation in the existing spa and health resort facilities, the attraction of the funds of compulsory medical insurance as an additional source of the financial support. The main legal documents regulating the organization and provision of medical rehabilitation based at the spa and health resort facilities are presented. The results of the implementation of the investment concept of the development of medical rehabilitation in the framework of the system of health resort treatment as exemplified by the experience of JSC «The group of companies «Medsi» are discussed. It is shown that the development of medical rehabilitation based at the spa and health resort facilities greatly contributes to the significant expansion of the potential customer base and promotes the further growth of business scale.

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESORT LIFE CYCLE AND RESIDENTS' PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE--A Case Study of Putuo Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-zhong; LU Lin; ZHANG Guang-sheng; LU Song; XUAN Guo-fu

    2004-01-01

    The change in residents' perception and attitude and resort life cycle are the basic problems in the course of resort evolution. This thesis sets up the dynamic model of residents'perception and attitude, analyzes the linkage between residents' perception and attitude and the influential factors of resort life cycle, and finally, with a case study of Putuo Mountain, preliminarily discusses the relationship between resort life cycle and residents'perception and attitude. The research findings show that, although within development stage of life cycle, Putuo Mountain has already presented some signs of mature stage. The on-the-spot survey also indicates that, the local residents'positive perception is stronger than their negative perception. But compared with residents in some other coastal resorts such as Haikou and Sanya, negative perception of residents in Putuo Mountain is more evident, as the result of the smaller tourism carrying capacity in Putuo Mountain. There are some influential factors that have great impact on tourism carrying capacity in Putuo Mountain: tourist-resident number ratio, residents' benefit-cost ratio and characteristics of tourism resources. And the less influential factors are residents' demographic character, tourist behavioral character and cultural differences between local residents and tourists. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to adjust the structure of tourism product for the purpose of expanding tourism carrying capacity, lowering its pressure, lessening residents' environmental cost and enhancing their positive perception, which is the most essential prerequisite for the maturation of life cycle in Putuo Mountain.

  17. Good laboratory practices guarantee biosafety in the Sierra Leone-China friendship biosafety laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Zhou, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Du, Hai-Jun; Nie, Kai; Song, Jing-Dong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wen-Wen; Guo, Jian-Qiang; Wei, He-Jiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yan-Hai; Wu, Jiang; Kamara, Gerard; Kamara, Idrissa; Wei, Qiang; Liang, Mi-Fang; Wu, Gui-Zhen; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-06-23

    The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa between 2014 and 2015 was the largest EDV epidemic since the identification of Ebola virus (EBOV) in 1976, and the countries most strongly affected were Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. The Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab), a fixed Biosafety Level 3 laboratory in the capital city of Sierra Leone, was established by the Chinese government and has been active in EBOV detection since 11 March 2015. Complete management and program documents were created for the SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab, and it was divided into four zones (the green, yellow, brown, and red zones) based on the risk assessment. Different types of safe and appropriate personnel protection equipment (PPE) are used in different zones of the laboratory, and it fully meets the Biosafety Level 3 laboratory standards of the World Health Organization. Good preparedness, comprehensive risk assessment and operation documents, appropriate PPE, effective monitoring and intensive training, together with well-designed and reasonable laboratory sectioning are essential for guaranteeing biosafety.

  18. Experiences of providing prosthetic and orthotic services in Sierra Leone--the local staff's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Lina; Ahlström, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    In Sierra Leone, West Africa, there are many people with disabilities in need of rehabilitation services after a long civil war. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of prosthetic and orthotic service delivery in Sierra Leone from the local staff's perspective. Fifteen prosthetic and orthotic technicians working at all the rehabilitation centres providing prosthetic and orthotic services in Sierra Leone were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and subjected to latent content analysis. One main theme emerged: sense of inability to deliver high-quality prosthetic and orthotic services. This main theme was generated from eight sub-themes: Desire for professional development; appraisals of work satisfaction and norms; patients neglected by family; limited access to the prosthetic and orthotic services available; problems with materials and machines; low public awareness concerning disabilities; marginalisation in society and low priority on the part of government. The findings illustrated traditional beliefs about the causes of disability and that the public's attitude needs to change to include and value people with disabilities. Support from international organisations was considered necessary as well as educating more prosthetic and orthotic staff to a higher level.

  19. Mental health care during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, Stania; Walder, Anna; Duncan, Jennifer; Kabbedijk, Antoinet; Hughes, Peter; Muana, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Reported levels of mental health and psychosocial problems rose during the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone. As part of the emergency response, existing plans to create mental health units within the existing hospital framework were brought forward. A nurse-led mental health and psychosocial support service, with an inpatient liaison service and an outpatient clinic, was set up at the largest government hospital in the country. One mental health nurse trained general nurses in psychological first aid, case identification and referral pathways. Health-care staff attended mental well-being workshops on coping with stigma and stress. Mental health service provision in Sierra Leone is poor, with one specialist psychiatric hospital to serve the population of 7 million. From March 2015 to February 2016, 143 patients were seen at the clinic; 20 had survived or had relatives affected by Ebola virus disease. Half the patients (71) had mild distress or depression, anxiety disorders and grief or social problems, while 30 patients presented with psychosis requiring medication. Fourteen non-specialist nurses received mental health awareness training. Over 100 physicians, nurses and auxiliary staff participated in well-being workshops. A nurse-led approach within a non-specialist setting was a successful model for delivering mental health and psychosocial support services during the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone. Strong leadership and partnerships were essential for establishing a successful service. Lack of affordable psychotropic medications, limited human resources and weak social welfare structures remain challenges.

  20. Possible paths towards sustainable tourism development in a high-mountain resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Arcuset

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This text starts from the teachings stemming from an evaluation of the tourist practices in the light of sustainable tourism principles, realized in 2004 within the framework of a national network piloted by the French Agency of Touristic Engineering (today ODIT France, for the ski resort of Valloire, first-generation resort in the Maurienne, which development and modernization in the 2000s kept pace with a vast real estate program. The article investigates the stakes and difficulties of the implementation of sustainable development in Valloire, asks the question of the "cultural revolution" which the actors should achieve to change the model of economic development, and suggest some tracks to reach there. The local approach of "sustainable tourism", indeed, seems for the moment rather to aim - as in many other high mountain ski resorts - towards a more environmental management of the basic urban functions than a real questioning of a tourist model based upon the triptych development of the ski slopes, securizing of the snow resource and touristic real estate programs.Ce texte part des enseignements issus d’une évaluation des pratiques touristiques à l’aune des principes du tourisme durable, réalisée en 2004 dans le cadre d’un réseau national piloté par l’Agence Française d’Ingénierie Touristique (aujourd’hui ODIT France, pour la station de Valloire, station de première génération de Maurienne dont le développement et la modernisation dans les années 2000 sont allés de pair avec un vaste programme immobilier. L’article explore les enjeux et les difficultés de la mise en œuvre du développement durable à Valloire, pose la question de la « révolution culturelle » que les acteurs devraient accomplir pour changer de modèle de développement économique, et suggère quelques pistes pour y parvenir. L’approche locale du « tourisme durable », en effet, semble pour l’heure plutôt tendre – comme dans bien

  1. Transforming Mature Tourism Resorts into Sustainable Tourism Destinations through Participatory Integrated Approaches: The Case of Puerto de la Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafin Corral

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transforming mature tourism resorts has evolved toward a greater involvement of public authorities and away from the mere renovation of public spaces. Authorities today are required to lead the reorganization of tourism activities through the development of co-operative networks between all stakeholders involved. In this paper, a participatory integrated approach has been designed and implemented in collaboration with Spanish authorities and the tourism sector to propose a strategy to achieve the renovation of tourism resorts. This methodology was applied to Puerto de la Cruz, the oldest tourism destination in the Canary Islands and a clear paradigm of a consolidated resort. The objective is to define and implement policies to transform Puerto de la Cruz into a more sustainable tourism destination.

  2. TARGET2 Imbalances and the ECB as Lender of Last Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Purificato

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the issue of the dynamics of the TARGET2 system balances during the sovereign debt crisis, when some countries registered a decisive inflow of the central bank liquidity and others showed an outflow. The dynamics in the TARGET2 are here explained as being due to a fall in the level of confidence in the capacity of the Economic and Monetary Union to survive, rather than to disparities in the level of competitiveness among countries of the Eurozone. This crisis of confidence has to be considered as the consequence of the implicit refusal of the European institutions to create a mechanism working as lender of last resort for the euro area member States; indeed, only when the ECB took this responsibility by launching the Outright Monetary Transactions clear signs of improvement were observed in the sovereign debt crisis.

  3. Solec Spa – worldwide unique properties of Polish health resort in the service of rural medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek L Grabowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Solec Spa is health resort in south-eastern Poland. Its unique balneorehabilitation significance worldwide is determined by chloride-iodine-sodium water with a high content of hydrogen sulphide. This water, classified as highly mineralized sodium-chloride (seltzer sulphide, bromide, iodide, boron water, contains naturally approximately 0.9 g/l divalent sulphur compounds, which is the highest concentration noted among the mineral waters of the world. The effectiveness of the Solec waters is proven in: inflammatory and autoimmunological locomotor system diseases, degenerative joint disorders (osteoarthritis, post-traumatic and post-operative orthopedic diseases, skin diseases and allergic disorders. One of the main indications for balneotherapy in Solec Spa and Busko Spa is chronic brucellosis.

  4. HOSPITALITY ENGLISH FOR SPA THERAPISTS IN BANYAN TREE HOTELS AND RESORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnasari Nugraheni

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is a preliminary study of research and design for hospitality English for SPA therapist in Banyan Tree Hotels and Resorts at Bintan Island. The purpose of this study is to help the English teacher to provide a successful English training since a good English proficiency used in the hospitality industry is obliged, especially for an-international-five-star-hotel-brand. The nature of the study is qualitative using R&D approach. Since this is only a preliminary study, need analysis becomes the primary focus. The data were collected through interview and observation. The participants were people who are working in SPA department in Banyan Tree Bintan, such as SPA trainer, SPA therapist, and SPA manager.

  5. A preliminary study of an eastern Mediterranean coastal ecosystem: Summer Resorts and Benthic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. REIZOPOULOU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether coastal benthic communities are affected by tourist activities along the coast, which persist for a limited time period. The analysis of benthic macrofauna is based on the ecological parameters (quantitative analyses as well as on the ecological identity of the species (qualitative analyses. Microbial contamination and some population statistics are correlated with ecological parameters. The disturbance of benthic communities in the vicinity of summer resorts is summarized by a reduction in species number and dominance of opportunistic species characteristic of disturbed and polluted environments. It is found that community diversity and evenness of distribution decrease with the deterioration of water quality, expressed as grade of microbial contamination, which implies that benthic community is also a significant element in assessing the quality of coastal waters. The above parameters were statistically negatively correlated with the number of tourists.

  6. El único hotel asociado con summit hotels & resorts en Colombia - Hotel Bogotá Plaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Rojas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Es importante conocer acerca de la historia del Hotel Bogotá Plaza. Este es el primer hotel del norte de Bogotá. La misión del hotel es permanecer en el corazón de los huéspedes y visitantes, al satisfacer sus deseos con amor, calidez, amabilidad, seguridad y servicio de excelente calidad. Desde 1996 el Bogotá Plaza Hotel ha pertenecido a Summit Hotels & Resorts. Esta es una firma que proporciona al hotel un sistema de reservas por Internet, esta alianza ha generado que el hotel sea reconocido en muchos países del mundo. Summit además se ha establecido como una organización líder en ventas, mercadeo y reservas hoteleras del mundo. Es importante asociarse con compañías destacadas así como lo hizo el Hotel Bogotá Plaza.

  7. SPA AND CLIMATIC RESORTS (CENTERS AS RESOURCES OF PROGRAM OF SPORT RECREATION IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Nikolić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration of the civilized man is the improvement of work which aim is to achieve as big as possible effect of productivity and as small as possible participation of labour. The result of this process, which cannot be avoided, is some kind of fatigue that has hypocinaesiological characteristics in regard to demands of modern work process. The most effective way to fight against fatigue is to have an active holiday that is meaningfully programmed, led and carried out through movement of tourists, with the addition of natural factors, among which climate and healing waters are particularly important. These very resources characterize the tourist potential of Serbia and Montenegro with lots of available facilities at 1000 m height above the sea level and spa centers with springs and a complete offer physio-prophylactic procedures and following facilities for sport recreation. The implementation of programmed active holidays in to the corpus of tourist offer of Serbia and Montenegro represents prospective of development of tourism and tourist economy with effects of multiple importance as for participants, so for the level of tourist consumption. That will definitely influence the lengthening of tourist season as the primary goal of every catering establishment. Surveys show that the affection and viewpoints of potential tourists are especially directed towards engaging sport games and activities on and in the water, as part of the elementary tourist offer in spas and climatic resorts and their available facilities. Recommendationsand postulates of program of sport recreation, which are presented through four charts, are the basis of marketing strategy of appearance on tourist market with permanent education of management personnel and further research of potential market expanding. The publication and distribution of advertising materials are especially important, both at the market in our country and at the foreign market, where the abundance

  8. A Model of System and Strategic Financial Analysis of the Crimean Health Resorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Anatolyevich Malyshenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research is the system of strategically focused financial analysis regarding an assessment of the financial condition of the enterprise. The hypothesis of the study is to assume the possibility of developing the financial and strategic model of the comprehensive assessment of the financial condition taking into account the integrated impact of environmental factors (general for the most Crimean health resorts. The methodology of the work is based on the most general principles of system analysis. The basic method of the research is the matrix method as the most common one for the system analysis. The graphical and statistical methods are also used. The result of the work is the comprehensive method of financial analysis developed as a model based on the matrix relation between the original visual profile of the internal environment and the dynamic type of external environment. The difference of the visual model of financial state from the existing graphic methods consists in fixing of the new strategic types of financial state on the basis of financial stability in visually grouped areas of financial coefficients in theme groups (configurationsprofiles with certain combinations of the forms and sizes. The new analytical instrument of «frigate model» can be applied in all analytical activities of the health resorts departments related to the analytical assessment of financial state. The advantage of «frigate model» in comparison with a classical method of the forming of the types of financial condition is that the proposed model allows to allocate more differentiated types and in addition, to identify the stages of enterprise life cycle based on the relative indicators of the analysis of financial state (objects-coefficients, and not just on the financial management. Through this, the consistency of interaction between the financial analysis and management is achieved.

  9. Sewage treatment processes: The methodology for the resort communities; Tecnologias de Depuracion: la metodologia de seleccion para poblaciones turisticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves de la Vega, G.; Kovacs, Z. [AQUA/PLAN, S.A. (Spain)

    1995-06-01

    The selection of adequate sewage treatment processes for resort communities has to be based upon a detailed knowledge of the characteristics of sewerage discharges. In order to define a methodology, the most representative variables such as climatology, seasonal variation, required treatment efficiency, sewage characteristics and availability of land, are identified. A wide range of available treatment processes is defined and the relationship between variables and priority criteria is analysed. Finally, a decision-diagram allowing the selection of the most adequate treatment process in each particular case is presented. The methodology is applied to mountain resort communities. (Author)

  10. St. John's Wort (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The herb St. John's Wort is believed to be helpful in relieving mild to moderate depression, but should only be taken under a physician's supervision. St. John's Wort may clash with other medications or ...

  11. 78 FR 4164 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Point Molate Resort and Casino for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Point Molate Resort and Casino for the Guidiville Band of the Pomo Indians, Contra Costa County... Impact Statement (EIS) for the BIA Federal action of approving the fee-to- trust transfer and casino...

  12. Assessment of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb levels in beach and dune sands from Havana resorts, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O

    2015-11-15

    Concentrations of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in beach and dune sands from thirteen Havana (Cuba) resorts were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Determined mean metal contents (in mg·kg(-1)) in beach sand samples were 28±12 for Ni, 35±12 for Cu, 31±11 for Zn and 6.0±1.8 for Pb, while for dune sands were 30±15, 38±22, 37±15 and 6.8±2.9, respectively. Metal-to-iron normalization shows moderately severe and severe enrichment by Cu. The comparison with sediment quality guidelines shows that dune sands from various resorts must be considered as heavily polluted by Cu and Ni. Almost in every resort, the Ni and Cu contents exceed their corresponding TEL values and, in some resorts, the Ni PEL value. The comparison with a Havana topsoil study indicates the possible Ni and Cu natural origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Territorial identity and landscape. Evolution morphology of nuclei in Castilla y Leon; Identidad territorial y paisaje. Evolucion morfologica de los nucleos en Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes Pedrosa, J.

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims to study the physical and socioeconomic transformations of rural settlements belonging to the Spanish region of Castile and Leon, throughout the second half of the 20th century. The evolution of urban form is analyzed, using a geographical information system (GIS) and calculating several shape metrics, and is then related to historical demographical data. The results are meant to show the effects of functional specialization, caused by the integration of rural regions in global economic hierarchies, on settlement structures and patterns. Gradual loss of the traditional features of Castilian villages, such as urban compactness and integration in the landscape, due to the disappearance or neglect of vernacular architecture and the construction of new industrial infrastructures, poses a risk for future place-based development policies. It is deemed necessary to preserve local identity and avoid destruction or degradation of the traditional heritage for revitalizing these territories. (Author)

  14. PROSNOW - Provision of a prediction system allowing for management and optimization of snow in Alpine ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Samuel; Ghislain, Dubois

    2017-04-01

    Snow on the ground is a critical resource for mountain regions to sustain river flow, to provide freshwater input to ecosystems and to support winter tourism, in particular in ski resorts. The level of activity, employment, turnover and profit of hundreds of ski resorts in the European Alps primarily depends on meteorological conditions, in particular natural snowfall but also increasingly conditions favourable for snowmaking (production of machine made snow, also referred to as technical snow). Ski resorts highly depend on appropriate conditions for snowmaking (mainly the availability of cold water, as well as sub-freezing temperature with sufficiently low humidity conditions). However, beyond the time scale of weather forecasts (a few days), managers of ski resorts have to rely on various and scattered sources of information, hampering their ability to cope with highly variable meteorological conditions. Improved anticipation capabilities at all time scales, spanning from "weather forecast" (up to 5 days typically) to "climate prediction" at the seasonal scale (up to several months) holds significant potential to increase the resilience of socio-economic stakeholders and supports their real-time adaptation potential. To address this issue, the recently funded (2017-2020) H2020 PROSNOW project will build a demonstrator of a meteorological and climate prediction and snow management system from one week to several months ahead, specifically tailored to the needs of the ski industry. PROSNOW will apply state-of-the-art knowledge relevant to the predictability of atmospheric and snow conditions, and investigate and document the added value of such services. The project proposes an Alpine-wide system (including ski resorts located in France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria and Italy). It will join and link providers of weather forecasts and climate predictions at the seasonal scale, research institutions specializing in snowpack modelling, a relevant ensemble of at least

  15. Correction methods of medicinal properties of mineral waters in Pyatigorsk resort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reps, Valentina; Potapov, Evgeniy; Abramtsova, Anna; Kotova, Margarita

    2016-04-01

    Mineral Water (MW) of Pyatigorsk deposit (PD) is united in five genetic groups (operational stocks of 2809,8 m3/day): carbonic and hydrosulphuric, carbonic, carbonic chloride-hydrocarbonate sodium (salt and alkaline), radonic low carbonate, nitrogen-carbonic terms. A variety of MW types is explained by peculiarities of geological structure and hydrogeological conditions of PD. Here on the sites of the development of deep semi-ring splits there are overflows and a mixture of various complexes. Unloading of deep water strikes happens not only on the earth surface in the form of springs but also at the depth in its edging crumbling rocks of Palaeocene and quarternary deposits. As a result of mixture processes of water and its subsequent metamorphization, various types of mineral water of this deposit are formed. Pyatigorsk resort is in a special protected ecologo-resort region which mode allows to keep stability of structure and ecological purity of MW. Nevertheless, MW variability, compositional differences and MW mineralization determining the level of its biological effect demand studying of action mechanisms of both natural MW, and possibility of its modification for range expansion of rehabilitation action. There have been examined biological effects of the course drinking reception In experiment on 80 rats males of the Wistar line biological effects of the course drinking reception of two MW types: "Krasnoarmeyskaya new" (MW1) of sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium structure with the raised contents of iron (3-5 mg/dm3), mineralization of 5,0-5,2 g/dm3, CO2 of 1,3-2,2 g/dm3, daily flow of 10-86 m3/day, temperature from 14 to 370C on the mouth of the well and spring №2 (MW2) low sulphate, low carbonate sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium, mineralization of 5,0 g/l, CO2 of 0,7 g/dm3, H2 of S 0,01 g/dm3. There has been shown an ability of the drinking course MW1 to influence on endocrine and metabolic continium - cortisol level increased

  16. Specific weather biotrop factors in the mountain resorts of North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, Natalia; Chalaya, Elena; Povolotckaia, Nina; Senik, Irina; Slepykh, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Key aspects of weather therapeutic action in the mountain resorts of the Northern Caucasus (RNC) are formed under the combined influence of global, regional and local atmospheric processes, picturesque landscape, vegetation which create specificity and attraction of the weather regime for the interests of resort rehabilitation, recreation and tourism practically during the whole year. They include high purity of surface atmosphere (background level of aerosols for the countryside, the transparency of the atmosphere 0.780 -0.890); natural hypo barium and hypoxia (5-10%); increased natural aeroionization (N+=400-1000 ion/cm3; N- = 600-1200 ion/cm3; KUI = 0.8 -1.0); the softness of temperature rate (± 600 W/m ); regime of solar radiation favourable for heliotherapy. Pathogenic effects in the mountains can occur both in front atmospheric processes and in conditions of relatively favorable weather. For example, in a stable anti-cyclonic air mass with the sunny weather, foehn effects can happen that are accompanied by excessively low air humidity (lower than 20-30%), the air temperature rises in the afternoon (in winter until 15- 20°C, in summer - up to 25-35°C). The situation can be worsened by ozone intrusion (O3) with the increase of its concentration by 20 ppb or more, temperature stratification change, formation of pollution accumulation conditions in the gorges and valleys where the resort towns are located. We can observe: the increase in the concentration of aerosol pollution from 1.78 to 4 and even up to 8-10 particles/cm (particle diameter is 500-1000 nm); the rise in mass concentration of submicron aerosol up to 75 mkg/m3 and the gas pollution (CO, COx, O3) of the surface atmosphere. Against this backdrop the effects of rapid changes in the chemical composition of natural ions due to the formation of positive nitrogen ions (often with a prevalence of positive over negative air ions) can be sometimes developed. In such situations people suffering from

  17. Neuroendocrine-Immune Support of Diuretic Effect of Balneotherapy on Truskavets Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.S. Lukovych

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify concomitant changes in parameters of neuroendocrine-immune complex and colon microbiocenosis, which accompany diuretic effect of balneotherapy on Truskavets resort. Results. The study included 22 male patients with chronic pyelonephritis associated with cholecystitis, it is found that 10–12-day course of balneotherapy (drinking bioactive water Naftusia, ozokerit applications, mineral baths increases daily urine output by 28 % (p  0.05, in a greater degree due to increased PSD HF than LF. The basal level of plasma cortisol decreased by 20 % (p < 0.01, testosterone — by 15 % (p = 0.01, whereas levels of triiodothyronine increases by 4 % (p < 0.05 and especially calcitonin activity — by 92 % (p < 0.001, calculated by urinary excretion of phosphates and calcium. Leukocytic adaptation index of Popovich increases by 46 % (p < 0.02. As for the parameters of neutrophil phagocytic function, an increase of reduced killing index of Staphy­lococcus aureus by 19 % (p < 0.001 and Escherichia coli by 18 % (p < 0.01 was stated in the absence of changes in initially normal phagocytic index. Microbial count in relation to Staphylococcus aureus is normal, and intensity of phagocytosis of Escherichia coli, initially increased by 15 %, reduced by 8 % (p < 0.05. Regarding immunity parameters, it was revealed a significant increase in the blood of CD16+ lymphocytes only (+17 %, p < 0.01 in the absence of changes in levels of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T-lymphocytes and CD19+ B-lymphocytes. Neither serum Ig G, M, A or circulating immune complexes levels change significantly. Immunotropic effect is accompanied by a reduction of dysbiosis manifestations: Bifidumbacter content increases by 19 % (p < 0.02, Lactobacter — by 20 % (p < 0.05, and Escherichia coli — by 48 % (p < 0.01, while the part of strains with reduced enzymatic properties is decreased by 47 % (p < 0.001, with hemolytic properties — by 77 % (p < 0.01. Conclusion

  18. Clinical illness and outcomes in patients with Ebola in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieffelin, John S; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Goba, Augustine; Gbakie, Michael; Gire, Stephen K; Colubri, Andres; Sealfon, Rachel S G; Kanneh, Lansana; Moigboi, Alex; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohammed; Moses, Lina M; Brown, Bethany L; Andersen, Kristian G; Winnicki, Sarah; Schaffner, Stephen F; Park, Daniel J; Yozwiak, Nathan L; Jiang, Pan-Pan; Kargbo, David; Jalloh, Simbirie; Fonnie, Mbalu; Sinnah, Vandi; French, Issa; Kovoma, Alice; Kamara, Fatima K; Tucker, Veronica; Konuwa, Edwin; Sellu, Josephine; Mustapha, Ibrahim; Foday, Momoh; Yillah, Mohamed; Kanneh, Franklyn; Saffa, Sidiki; Massally, James L B; Boisen, Matt L; Branco, Luis M; Vandi, Mohamed A; Grant, Donald S; Happi, Christian; Gevao, Sahr M; Fletcher, Thomas E; Fowler, Robert A; Bausch, Daniel G; Sabeti, Pardis C; Khan, S Humarr; Garry, Robert F

    2014-11-27

    Limited clinical and laboratory data are available on patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). The Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone, which had an existing infrastructure for research regarding viral hemorrhagic fever, has received and cared for patients with EVD since the beginning of the outbreak in Sierra Leone in May 2014. We reviewed available epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory records of patients in whom EVD was diagnosed between May 25 and June 18, 2014. We used quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays to assess the load of Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire species) in a subgroup of patients. Of 106 patients in whom EVD was diagnosed, 87 had a known outcome, and 44 had detailed clinical information available. The incubation period was estimated to be 6 to 12 days, and the case fatality rate was 74%. Common findings at presentation included fever (in 89% of the patients), headache (in 80%), weakness (in 66%), dizziness (in 60%), diarrhea (in 51%), abdominal pain (in 40%), and vomiting (in 34%). Clinical and laboratory factors at presentation that were associated with a fatal outcome included fever, weakness, dizziness, diarrhea, and elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine. Exploratory analyses indicated that patients under the age of 21 years had a lower case fatality rate than those over the age of 45 years (57% vs. 94%, P=0.03), and patients presenting with fewer than 100,000 EBOV copies per milliliter had a lower case fatality rate than those with 10 million EBOV copies per milliliter or more (33% vs. 94%, P=0.003). Bleeding occurred in only 1 patient. The incubation period and case fatality rate among patients with EVD in Sierra Leone are similar to those observed elsewhere in the 2014 outbreak and in previous outbreaks. Although bleeding was an infrequent finding, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal manifestations were common. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and

  19. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-García, C.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2014-07-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. 232Th-series, 238U-series, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg-1) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. 238U and 234U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to 210Pb activities. Results were verified by 137Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High 238U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento - Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) 234U/overflow="scroll">238U and 238U/overflow="scroll">226Ra in sediments have values between 0.9-1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. 232Th/overflow="scroll">238U, 228Ra/overflow="scroll">226Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  20. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Méndez-García, C.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, CIMAV, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109, Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Renteria-Villalobos, M. [Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecología Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Periferico Francisco R. Almada Km 1, 31410, Chihuahua (Mexico); García-Tenorio, R. [Applied Nuclear Physics Group, University of Seville, ETS Arquitectura, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. ²³²Th-series, ²³⁸U-series, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg⁻¹) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. ²³⁸U and ²³⁴U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to ²¹⁰Pb activities. Results were verified by ¹³⁷Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High ²³⁸U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento – Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) ²³⁴U/²³⁸U and ²³⁸U/²²⁶Ra in sediments have values between 0.9–1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. ²³²Th/²³⁸U, ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs.

  1. Retention of health workers in rural Sierra Leone: findings from life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurie, Haja R; Samai, Mohamed; Witter, Sophie

    2016-02-01

    Sierra Leone has faced a shortage and maldistribution of staff in its post-conflict period. This long-standing challenge is now exacerbated by the systemic shock and damage wrought by Ebola. This study aimed to investigate the importance of different motivation factors in rural areas in Sierra Leone and thus to contribute to better decisions on financial and non-financial incentive packages, here and in similar contexts. This article is based on participatory life histories, conducted in 2013 with 23 health workers (doctors, nurses, midwives and Community Health Officers) in four regions of Sierra Leone who had worked in the sector since 2000. Although the interviews covered a wide range of themes, here we present findings on motivating and demotivating factors for staff, especially those in rural areas, based on thematic analysis of transcripts. Rural health workers face particular challenges, some of which stem from the difficult terrain, which add to common disadvantages of rural living (poor social amenities, etc.). Poor working conditions, emotional and financial costs of separation from families, limited access to training, longer working hours (due to staff shortages) and the inability to earn from other sources make working in rural areas less attractive. Moreover, rules on rotation which should protect staff from being left too long in rural areas are not reported to be respected. By contrast, poor management had more resonance in urban areas, with reports of poor delegation, favouritism and a lack of autonomy for staff. Tensions within the team over unclear roles and absenteeism are also significant demotivating factors in general. This study provides important policy-focused insights into motivation of health workers and can contribute towards building a resilient and responsive health system, incorporating the priorities and needs of health workers. Their voices and experiences should be taken into account as the post-Ebola landscape is shaped.

  2. Uranium series isotopes concentration in sediments at San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs, Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méndez-García, C.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of the radioisotopes concentrations were determined in sediments near the surface and core samples extracted from two reservoirs located in an arid region close to Chihuahua City, Mexico. At San Marcos reservoir one core was studied, while from Luis L. Leon reservoir one core from the entrance and another one close to the wall were investigated. 232 Th-series, 238 U-series, 40 K and 137 Cs activity concentrations (AC, Bq kg −1 ) were determined by gamma spectrometry with a high purity Ge detector. 238 U and 234 U ACs were obtained by liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry with a surface barrier detector. Dating of core sediments was performed applying CRS method to 210 Pb activities. Results were verified by 137 Cs AC. Resulting activity concentrations were compared among corresponding surface and core sediments. High 238 U-series AC values were found in sediments from San Marcos reservoir, because this site is located close to the Victorino uranium deposit. Low AC values found in Luis L. Leon reservoir suggest that the uranium present in the source of the Sacramento – Chuviscar Rivers is not transported up to the Conchos River. Activity ratios (AR) 234 U/ 238 U and 238 U/ 226 Ra in sediments have values between 0.9–1.2, showing a behavior close to radioactive equilibrium in the entire basin. 232 Th/ 238 U, 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ARs are witnesses of the different geological origin of sediments from San Marcos and Luis L. Leon reservoirs

  3. Medical Officers in Sierra Leone: Surgical Training Opportunities, Challenges and Aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Lucy; Leather, Andrew; George, Peter Matthew; Kamara, Thaim Bay

    2018-02-05

    The critical shortage of human resources for healthcare falls most heavily on sub-Saharan nations such as Sierra Leone, where such workforce deficits have grave impacts on its burden of surgical disease. An important aspect in retention and development of the workforce is training. This study focuses on postgraduate surgical training (formal and short course) and perceptions of opportunities, challenges and aspirations, in a country where more than half of surgical procedures are performed by medical officers. The study presents findings from 12 in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with medical officers by the primary investigator in Sierra Leone between April and June 2017. Each interview was transcribed alongside an introspective reflexive journal to acknowledge and account for researcher biases. Two interviewees had accessed postgraduate surgical training and 10 (83%) had accessed short course surgically relevant training. The number of short courses accessed grew higher the more recently the medical officers had graduated. Supervision, short length and international standards were the most appreciated aspects of short training courses. Some medical officers perceived the formal postgraduate surgical training programme to be ill-equipped, doubting its credibility. This demotivated some from applying. Training is an essential aspect of developing an adequate surgical workforce. Faith must be restored in the capabilities of Sierra Leone's Ministry of Health and Sanitation to provide adequate and sustainable training. This study advocates for the use of short courses to restore this faith and the expansion of postgraduate surgical training to the districts through developing a regional teaching complex to provide short courses and eventually formal postgraduate training in the future. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE JURIST AND ECONOMIST GHEORGHE N. LEON IN THE EVOLUTION OF FINANCIAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Carmen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The economical-financial problems have always constituted a challenge far all the decisional factors at the state level and not only, thus the financial sciences which also aim to regulate the relationships to create, assign and use the financial funds of the state and of the public institutions, destined to satisfy the social-economical needs of the society recorded a great doctrinal interest. Thus, a series of jurists and economists had understand the necessity and opportunity of knowledge in the domain of financial science, of the financial law, taking into consideration the fact that the difficulties which they have met at those times obliged them to take the responsibility to make every simple citizen and every person with political or administrative responsibility by the state understand the problems of public administration. In approaching the given subject I have chosen to use some of the methods of scientific research, respectively: the historical method (financial science being presented succinct through the process of its evolution along the years, interpretation methods and a combination of quality and quantity approach, namely the method of analyzing archive documents and the studies of professor Gheorghe N. Leon. In these contexts have asserted and developed himself in the university and political environment, Gheorghe N. Leon, having a rich activity of intellectual creation, approaching in his works the complex aspects of the science of financial law. Thus, starting with the rules and principles of this domain, Gheorghe N. Leon had realized a veritable incursion in the history of finances and in the theory of taxation, public and budgetary credit. Analyzing a part of his scientific works, we can affirm that a personality with such a complex structure, like Gheorghe N. Leon is hard to define, but surely, through the prism of his works and through his long-lasting and rich scientific activity, his name can be mentioned among the

  5. Maternal health, war, and religious tradition: authoritative knowledge in Pujehun District, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambai, A; MacCormack, C

    1996-06-01

    In Sierra Leone constraints to ideal maternal health require a primary health care approach that includes collaboration with traditional midwives. They are authoritative figures embedded within local political structures and a powerful women's religion. The local causes of maternal risk are described, including civil war and refugee camp life. Traditional midwives provide vital services in the camp, are respected for their social status, and learn additional skills. Biomedical and traditional systems of authoritative knowledge, based on different kinds of legitimacy to heal, are in a complementary relationship.

  6. The Ebola virus disease outbreak and the mineral sectors of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra; Menzie, William D.

    2015-01-01

    The mineral sector plays a key role in the economies of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The onset of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in early 2014, together with changes in mineral market conditions, raised questions regarding the status of mining operations and of mineral development and exploration projects in all three countries. Mineral projects were the underpinnings of World Bank short-term forecasts of increases in gross domestic product (GDP) for all three countries and were expected to be the basis of future economic growth. The significant delay or cancellation of these projects could result in a major economic setback for all three countries.

  7. Detection of a typhus group Rickettsia in Amblyomma ticks in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Sanchez, Aaron; Bouyer, Donald H; Alcantara-Rodriguez, Virginia; Mafra, Claudio; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; Whitworth, Ted; Popov, Vsevolod L; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Walker, David H

    2005-12-01

    The state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico has had outbreaks of typhus group rickettsiosis, most recently recognized in 1997. Evaluation of the sera of 345 patients with a dengue-like illness revealed that 25.5% had antibodies reactive with typhus group rickettsiae and 16% had antibodies to Rickettsia parkeri. Rickettsiae were detected by PCR and shell-vial isolations in the field-collected Amblyomma ticks. Molecular characterization by DNA sequence analysis of the gltA, ompB, and 17-kDa gene identified the organisms to be R. prowazekii.

  8. Characterization of the dengue outbreak in Nuevo Leon state, Mexico, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc-Galindo, D; Gloria-Herrera, U; Rincón-Herrera, U; Ramos-Jiménez, J; Garcia-Luna, S; Arellanos-Soto, D; Mendoza-Tavera, N; Tavitas-Aguilar, I; Garcia-Garcia, E; Galindo-Galindo, E; Villarreal-Perez, J; Fernandez-Salas, I; Santiago, G A; Muñoz-Jordan, J; Rivas-Estilla, A M

    2015-04-01

    We studied serotypes circulating dengue virus (DENV) cases, entomological Breteau index, rain-fall index and epidemiology of groups affected during the 2010 outbreak in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. From 2,271 positive cases, 94% were dengue classic and 6% dengue hemorrhagic fever; DENV1 was mainly isolated (99%) (Central-American lineage of American-African-genotype). We found correlation between two environmental phenomena (Increment of rainfall and vector-indexes) (p ≤ 0.05) with epidemiological, clinical and risk of DENV-1 ongoing transmission.

  9. Review: Leon N. Cooper's Science and Human Experience: Values, Culture, and the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Gary S

    2015-01-01

    Why are we reviewing a book written by someone who shared in the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physics for work on superconductivity? Because shortly after winning the prize, Leon N. Cooper transitioned into brain research-specifically, the biological basis of memory. He became director of the Brown University Institute for Brain and Neural Systems, whose interdisciplinary program allowed him to integrate research on the brain, physics, and even philosophy. His new book tackles a diverse spectrum of topics and questions, including these: Does science have limits? Where does order come from? Can we understand consciousness?

  10. Post acquisition business synergies of a foreign affiliate. Case study of companies in Nuevo Leon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cabeza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article will explain the importance of creating synergies after having acquired foreign affiliates. Interviews were conducted to executives of four of the most important manufacturing companies in Nuevo Leon, which have been involved in the international acquisition process of foreign affiliates. Also presented are 10 areas where synergies may be obtained after having acquired a foreign affiliate, in accordance with (Marin and Ketelhohn, 2008 economies of size at corporate headquarters, greater opportunities for professional development, corporate image, interdivisional transactions, vertical integration, economies of scale and/or scope, coordination of skills, learning center, leverage of intangible assets and unleashing of skills.

  11. DMA Controller for LEON3 SoC:s Using AMBA

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Emelie

    2013-01-01

    A DMA Controller can offload a processor tremendously. A memory copy operation can be initiated by the processor and while the processor executes others tasks the memory copy can be fulfilled by the DMA Controller. An implementation of a DMA Controller for use in LEON3 SoC:s has been made during this master thesis. Problems that occurred while designing a controller of this type concerned AMBA buses, data transfers, alignment and interrupt handling. The DMA Controller supports AMBA and is att...

  12. La razón y el absurdo en la obra de Leon Battista Alberti

    OpenAIRE

    Sverlij, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Uno de los rasgos más destacados de la producción de Leon Battista Alberti (1404- 1472) es la formulación de dos visiones del mundo simultáneas y contradictorias. El “paradigma de la razón”, que nutre sus tratados sobre la pintura, la escultura y la arquitectura se contradice e interactúa con el “paradigma de lo absurdo”, que da entidad a sus trabajos literarios, fundamentalmente su narración latina, Momus sive de Principe, y sus Intercenales. Si en Momus y las Intercenales predomina el carác...

  13. Recomendaciones de Liderazgo para los Dueños de Pymes Familiares Exportadoras y no Exportadoras en Nuevo Leon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eloisa Treviño Ayala

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this document is to state the importance that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs exporting and non-exporting have, as well as family businesses in Mexico´s economy and specifically in the state of Nuevo Leon. It establishes certain family SMEs, exporting and non-exporting, characteristics to take into consideration by Nuevo Leon leaders that seek success under the determinant of profits. It also locates qualities, from our stand point, classic and contemporaries, recommended for managers and administrators of this type of companies.

  14. Degradation of landscape in Serbian ski resorts-aspects of scale and transfer of impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ratko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts in Serbian ski resorts (Kopaonik, Zlatibor, Stara planina, Divčibare are very strong, leading to degradation of unique mountain landscape, and functionality losses. Processes of urbanization, construction or improvement works, cause hard degradation of topsoil and native vegetation. The logging, large excavation activities, erosion, noise and water pollution constantly impact the habitats of all animal and plant species residing in small areas. The process leads to severe fragmentation of the remaining old-growth forests, endangering future subsistence. Consequences of mismanagement in ski areas are noticeable in downstream sections of river beds, causing floods and bed-load deposition, with high concentration of pollutants, in reservoirs for water supply. Legal nature-protection standards are weakly implemented in regional ski areas. Effective protection of landscape in Serbian ski-areas is based on careful considerations of impact assessment at all levels of planning (spatial and urban planning and designing activities, which enables application of restoration concept, in accordance with general goals of environmental protection (preserving biodiversity, CO2 sequestration, attenuation of effects of global climate changes.

  15. The Experience Economy in Thai Hotels and Resort Clusters: The Role of Authentic Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanan Apivantanaporn

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although hotels and other tourist institutions in Thailand have been making some sporadic attempts to incorporate specifically Thai food and beverage (F&B elements into their overall product offering, this has rarely been attempted in a thoughtful and systematic manner. This is despite the importance of F&B in determining overall levels of customer satisfaction and the recent importance attached to incorporating ‘Thainess’ into the hotel and tourism industry nationwide. It is, therefore, rather surprising that little if any sustained effort has been made to define authenticity with respect to Thai food (bearing in mind also regional variations or to incorporate certificates of quality to establishments providing such authentic dishes. This paper draws on qualitative research and personal observation undertaken in a wide range of Thai hotels with a view to identifying emergent value-adding clusters in the domestic hospitality sector. It describes and categorizes the uses of Thai F&B currently and identifies shortcomings in industry vision, which leads to recommendations for both hotel and resort managers and also to those responsible for national level tourism development efforts. The paper also recognizes the problematic nature of the concepts of ‘authenticity’ in this context and attempts to reconcile differing conceptions.

  16. Resort loan securities as a source of investing the hospitality industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Yu. Baranova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to prove the possibility of attracting funds of population and corporate organizations to invest into hospitality industry. Methods the basis of the study was the methods of logical and structural analysis the dialectical method which determined the main regularities of financial relations development in hospitality industry. Results basing on the study of formation and use of financial resources of organizations we have revealed the following at the present stage attention is paid to the functioning and investment of the hospitality industry in accordance with federal and regional target programs measures are proposed for the effective financing from the budget and resources of various funds the creation of tourist and recreational clusters is proposed but the savings of the population and corporate entities are not attracted as sources of investment in hospitality industry. Scientific novelty the measures are proposed aimed at involving the financial resources of the population and organizations through corporate bonds by the creation of a resort consortium to promote investment in hospitality industry. Practical significance the proposed recommendations will contribute to enhance the financing of hospitality industry due to the source which is currently not being used. nbsp

  17. Conflict-Triggered Top-Down Control: Default Mode, Last Resort, or No Such Thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    The conflict monitoring account posits that globally high levels of conflict trigger engagement of top-down control; however, recent findings point to the mercurial nature of top-down control in high conflict contexts. The current study examined the potential moderating effect of associative learning on conflict-triggered top-down control engagement by testing the Associations as Antagonists to Top-Down Control (AATC) hypothesis. In 4 experiments, list-wide proportion congruence was manipulated, and conflict-triggered top-down control engagement was examined by comparing interference for 50% congruent items across mostly congruent (low conflict) and mostly incongruent (high conflict) lists. Despite the fact that global levels of conflict were varied identically across experiments, evidence of conflict-triggered top-down control engagement was selective to those experiments in which responses could not be predicted on the majority of trials via simple associative learning, consistent with the AATC hypothesis. In a fifth experiment, older adults showed no evidence of top-down control engagement under conditions in which young adults did, a finding that refined the interpretation of the patterns observed in the prior experiments. Collectively, these findings suggest that top-down control engagement in high conflict contexts is neither the default mode nor an unused (or non-existent) strategy. Top-down control is best characterized as a last resort that is engaged when reliance on one’s environment, and in particular associative responding, is unproductive for achieving task goals. PMID:24274385

  18. Party package travel: alcohol use and related problems in a holiday resort: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinholdt Tine

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People travelling abroad tend to increase their use of alcohol and other drugs. In the present study we describe organized party activities in connection with young tourists' drinking, and the differences between young people travelling with and without organized party activities. Methods We conducted ethnographic observations and a cross-sectional survey in Sunny Beach, Bulgaria. Results The behaviour of the guides from two travel agencies strongly promoted heavy drinking, but discouraged illicit drug use. Even after controlling for several potential confounders, young people who travelled with such "party package travel agencies" were more likely to drink 12 or more units when going out. In univariate analyses, they were also more likely to get into fights, but were not more likely to seek medical assistance or medical assistance for an accident or an alcohol-related problem. After controlling for confounders, the association between type of travel agency and getting into fights was no longer significant. Short-term consequences of drinking in the holiday resort did not differ between party package travellers and ordinary package travellers. Conclusion There may be a small impact of party package travels on young people's drinking. Strategies could be developed used to minimise the harm associated with both party package travel and other kinds of travel where heavy substance use is likely to occur.

  19. Analysis of Urban Expansion of the Resort City of Al Ain Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, S.; Al Shuwaihi, A.

    2009-12-01

    The urban growth of AL Ain city has been investigated using remote sensing data for three different dates, 1972, 1990 and 2000. We used three Landsat images together with socio-economic data in a post-classification analysis to map the spatial dynamics of land use/cover changes and identify the urbanization process in Al Ain resort city, United Arab Emirates. Land use/cover statistics, extracted from Landsat Multi-spectral Scanner (MSS). Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM +) images for 1972. 1990 and 2000 respectively, revealed that the built-up area has expanded by about 170.53km2. The city was found to have a tendency for major expansion in four different directions: along the Abu Dhabi highway, along Dubai highway, Myziad direction and Hafeet recreational area. Expansion in any direction was found to be governed by the availability of road network, suitability for construction, utilities, economic activities, geographical constraints, and legal factors (boundary with Sultanate of Oman). The road network in particular has influenced the spatial patterns and structure of urban development, so that the expansion of the built-up areas has assumed an accretive as well as linear growth along the major roads. The research concludes that the development is based on conservation of agricultural areas (oases) and reclamation of the desert for farming and agricultural activities. The integration of remote sensing and GIS was found to be effective in monitoring LULC changes and providing valuable information necessary for planning and research.

  20. Post-crisis Belarus: Marxism and the lender of last resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bell

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing literature has examined the predictions and proscriptions of Karl Marx in response to the 2008 global financial crisis. However, the suggestions put forth by the Marxist-leaning literature never took hold and state-level banking and finance policies have remained largely unchanged. While many criticisms of Marxism exist, this paper examines Belarus, a ‘neo-communist’ or ‘market-socialist’ state, to provide a new perspective on the continuation of capitalism in the United States and Europe. In the case of Belarus, the International Monetary Fund and the Eurasian Economic Community's Anti-Crisis Fund provided both the critical liquidity needed to temporarily quell the effects of the financial crisis. Their demands meant that Belarus agreed to speed its move away from the Soviet-era finance and banking policies and more towards its western capitalist neighbors. Its failure to implement these policies further hurt its recovery. Examining Belarus' path to and out of its financial crisis makes apparent that the role of the international lender of last resort (LOLR. The LOLR acts as a key element in protecting states embroiled in the financial crisis from facing the possibility of making the difficult policy changes put forth by the Marxist literature. By ignoring its promises under the loan conditions from its LOLRs, Belarus moved further from the recovery promised by the Marxist suggestions.

  1. Party package travel: alcohol use and related problems in a holiday resort: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien; Schliewe, Sanna; Reinholdt, Tine

    2008-10-07

    People travelling abroad tend to increase their use of alcohol and other drugs. In the present study we describe organized party activities in connection with young tourists' drinking, and the differences between young people travelling with and without organized party activities. We conducted ethnographic observations and a cross-sectional survey in Sunny Beach, Bulgaria. The behaviour of the guides from two travel agencies strongly promoted heavy drinking, but discouraged illicit drug use. Even after controlling for several potential confounders, young people who travelled with such "party package travel agencies" were more likely to drink 12 or more units when going out. In univariate analyses, they were also more likely to get into fights, but were not more likely to seek medical assistance or medical assistance for an accident or an alcohol-related problem. After controlling for confounders, the association between type of travel agency and getting into fights was no longer significant. Short-term consequences of drinking in the holiday resort did not differ between party package travellers and ordinary package travellers. There may be a small impact of party package travels on young people's drinking. Strategies could be developed used to minimise the harm associated with both party package travel and other kinds of travel where heavy substance use is likely to occur.

  2. Respiratory and ocular symptoms among employees of a hotel indoor waterpark resort--Ohio, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-06

    During January--March 2007, the Warren County Combined Health District (WCCHD) received 665 reports of respiratory and eye irritation from patrons and lifeguards at a hotel indoor waterpark resort in Ohio. Tests revealed normal water chemistry and air chlorine concentrations, and exposure to airborne trichloramine in the waterpark was suspected as the cause of the symptoms. Because of the number of symptom reports and WCCHD's limited ability to measure trichloramine, the district requested an investigation by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). This report describes the results of that investigation, which revealed that trichloramine concentrations in the waterpark ranged from below the limit of detection to 1.06 mg/m3, and some concentrations were at levels that have been reported to cause irritation symptoms (>/=0.5 mg/m3). Lifeguards reported significantly more work-related symptoms (e.g., cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and eye irritation) than unexposed hotel employees. Lifeguards also reported significantly more eye irritation and cough on days when hotel occupancy was high versus low. Insufficient air movement and distribution likely led to accumulation of trichloramine and exacerbation of symptoms. Based on recommendations to increase air movement and distribution at pool deck level, hotel management modified the ventilation system extensively, and subsequently no new cases were reported to WCCHD. The results of this investigation emphasize the importance of appropriate design and monitoring of ventilation and water systems in preventing illness in indoor waterparks.

  3. Resorting the NIST undulator using simulated annealing for field error reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denbeaux, Greg; Johnson, Lewis E.; Madey, John M.J.

    2000-01-01

    We have used a simulated annealing algorithm to sort the samarium cobalt blocks and vanadium permendur poles in the hybrid NIST undulator to optimize the spectrum of the emitted light. While simulated annealing has proven highly effective in sorting of the SmCo blocks in pure REC undulators, the reliance on magnetically 'soft' poles operating near saturation to concentrate the flux in hybrid undulators introduces a pair of additional variables - the permeability and saturation induction of the poles - which limit the utility of the assumption of superposition on which most simulated annealing codes rely. Detailed magnetic measurements clearly demonstrated the failure of the superposition principle due to random variations in the permeability in the 'unsorted' NIST undulator. To deal with the issue, we measured both the magnetization of the REC blocks and the permeability of the NIST's integrated vanadium permendur poles, and implemented a sorting criteria which minimized the pole-to-pole variations in permeability to satisfy the criteria for realization of superposition on a nearest-neighbor basis. Though still imperfect, the computed spectrum of the radiation from the re-sorted and annealed NIST undulator is significantly superior to that of the original, unsorted device

  4. [The spa-health resort and touristic-recreational facilities of the region: the methodological aspects of their development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilina, V M; Kolesnikova, N V; Kolesnikov, N G

    2016-01-01

    The correction and optimization of the motor activity of the patients are currently the main priorities of all rehabilitative and recreational activities based at the spa and health resort facilities. The forms of such activities include walking tours and excursion trips. In other words, the excursion potential is one of the very important attributes of the recreational recourses. Under the current conditions characterized by the rapid socio-economic changes, the studies concerning the structural and functional transformation of spa and health resorts, recreational and tourist facilities acquire special importance, both from the humanitarian and economic points of view. The results of these studies may greatly contribute to the organization and the further development of rehabilitative and recreational activities based at the spa and health resort facilities, recreational and tourist centers taking into consideration their evolution. The objective of the present article is to analyze the structure and functions of the recreation and tourist centres as well as the modes of their cooperation with the spa and health resort facilities. In other words, these structures and their functions are both the object and the subject of the present study. The methodology of the study is based on the logical analysis of the development of the recreational and tourist systems in the framework of the evolutionary approach. (1) the notions of «tourist destination» and «recreation» have been substantiated; (2) the results of the studies carried out at the Institute of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism and the Petrozavodsk State University have been used to elaborate the affiliate international Master Degree program «Project management in the tourism industry». The main emphasis in this program is placed on the necessity and methods of the improvement of recreational activities and more efficacious utilization of the climatic factors and the health resort infrastructure as

  5. Crossing physical simulations of snow conditions and a geographic model of ski area to assess ski resorts vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Hugues; Spandre, Pierre; Morin, Samuel; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Lejeune, Yves

    2016-04-01

    In order to face climate change, meteorological variability and the recurrent lack of natural snow on the ground, ski resorts adaptation often rely on technical responses. Indeed, since the occurrence of episodes with insufficient snowfalls in the early 1990's, snowmaking has become an ordinary practice of snow management, comparable to grooming, and contributes to optimise the operation of ski resorts. It also participates to the growth of investments and is associated with significant operating costs, and thus represents a new source of vulnerability. The assessment of the actual effects of snowmaking and of snow management practices in general is a real concern for the future of the ski industry. The principal model use to simulate snow conditions in resorts, Ski Sim, has also been moving this way. Its developers introduced an artificial input of snow on ski area to complete natural snowfalls and considered different organisations of ski lifts (lower and upper zones). However the use of a degree-day model prevents them to consider the specific properties of artificial snow and the impact of grooming on the snowpack. A first proof of concept in the French Alps has shown the feasibility and the interest to cross the geographic model of ski areas and the output of the physically-based reanalysis of snow conditions SAFRAN - Crocus (François et al., CRST 2014). Since these initial developments, several ways have been explored to refine our model. A new model of ski areas has been developed. Our representation is now based on gravity derived from a DEM and ski lift localisation. A survey about snow management practices also allowed us to define criteria in order to model snowmaking areas given ski areas properties and tourism infrastructures localisation. We also suggest to revisit the assessment of ski resort viability based on the "one hundred days rule" based on natural snow depth only. Indeed, the impact of snow management must be considered so as to propose

  6. Public service obligation in liberalized electricity markets. Who is the provider of last resort?; Jiyuka jidai ni okeru kokyo service gimu. Dare ga last resort kyokyusha to naru k

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, M. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Electric power is an asset indispensable to the modern society, and it is needed to secure the universal service. The universal service has been secured by obliging the existing electric utilities operators to supply electric power. However, since the systematical reform in the electric utility business extends down to the liberalization in the retailing sector, it becomes impossible to oblige electric power supply service to supply the same as conventionally. Even under these circumstances, to continuously secure the universal service, a method is considered for obliging special suppliers (last resort suppliers) to supply electric power to users who are unable to be supplied from anyone. This paper studies who should be the last resort supplier using mainly samples from the U.S. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Control of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: vaccine development and our Ebola project in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Since December 2013, West Africa has experienced the worst Ebola virus outbreak in recorded history. Of the 28,639 cases reported to the World Health Organization as of March 2016, nearly half (14,124) occurred in Sierra Leone. With a case fatality rate of approximately 40%, this outbreak has claimed the lives of 11,316 individuals. No FDA-approved vaccines or drugs are available to prevent or treat Ebola virus infection. Experimental vaccines and therapies are being developed; however, their safety and efficacy are still being evaluated. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop control measures to prevent or limit future Ebola virus outbreaks.Previously, we developed a replication-defective Ebola virus that lacks the coding region for the essential viral transcription activator VP30 (Ebola ΔVP30 virus). Here, we evaluated the vaccine efficacy of Ebola ΔVP30 virus in a non-human primate model and describe our collaborative Ebola project in Sierra Leone.

  8. Assessing biodiversity in Nuevo Leon, Mexico: Are nature reserves the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, C.; Wright, R.G.; Scott, J.M.; Strand, Espen

    2004-01-01

    The Mexican state of Nuevo Leon, located in the northeastern portion of the country, currently has 26 state and three federal nature reserves covering approximately 4.5% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons not necessarily related to conservation purposes. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity proposed 12 new terrestrial reserves for Nuevo Leon. The new reserves, if established, would increase the proportion of protected lands in the state to almost 24% of the state's land area. We compiled a Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis using digital thematic maps of physical and ecological features to examine how well the existing and proposed reserves incorporated the major biological and physical features of the state. The existing reserves are located primarily in regions with elevations > 1,000-1,500 m, on less productive soils, and are dominated by pine and oak forest cover types. As a result, the state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately under represented in the current reserve system. The new reserves would expand the protection of biophysical resources throughout the state. However, the inclusion of important resources in the low elevation coastal lands would still be limited.

  9. Treatment Seeking and Ebola Community Care Centers in Sierra Leone: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Simone E; O'Reilly, Marion; Frith-Powell, Jack; Umar Kargbo, Alpha; Byrne, Daniel; Niederberger, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Ebola Treatment Units were able to provide only 60% of necessary treatment beds in Sierra Leone. As a result, the Government of Sierra Leone decided to construct Community Care Centers. These were intended to increase treatment-seeking behavior and reduce the community-level spread of Ebola by facilitating access to care closer to communities. Through qualitative data collection in 3 districts, this study seeks to understand the perceived impact that proximity to such Centers had on treatment-seeking behavior. Feedback from community members and Community Health Volunteers indicates that proximity to treatment reduced fears, especially those arising from the use of ambulances, lack of familiarity with medical Centers, and loss of contact with family members taken for treatment. Participants report that having a Center close to their home enables them to walk to treatment and witness survivors being discharged. Living close to Centers also enables communities to be involved in their design and daily operation, helping to build trust in them as acceptable treatment facilities. Further research is required to understand the appropriate design, operation, and epidemiological impact of Centers. Further investigation should incorporate the effect of an outbreak's severity and the stage (duration) of the outbreak on potential acceptance of Centers.

  10. Training peers to treat Ebola centre workers with anxiety and depression in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Samantha; Hunter, Elaine Catherine Margaret; Cole, Charles L; Evans, Lauren Jayne; Greenberg, Neil; Rubin, G James; Beck, Alison

    2018-03-01

    Following the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, the UK Department for International Development funded South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) to develop a psychological intervention that ex-Ebola Treatment Centre (ETC) staff could be trained to deliver to their peers to improve mental health in Sierra Leone. The two key aims were to assess the feasibility of training a national team to deliver a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based group intervention, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the overall intervention within this population. UK clinicians travelled to Sierra Leone to train a small team of ex-ETC staff in a three-phased CBT-based intervention. Standardised clinical measures, as well as bespoke measures, were applied with participants through the intervention to assess changes in mental health symptomology, and the effectiveness of the intervention. The results found improvements across all factors of mental health in the bespoke measure from phase 1 to phase 3. Additionally, the majority of standardised clinical measures showed improvements between phase 2 and the start of phase 3, and pre- and post-phase 3. Overall, the findings suggest that it is possible to train staff from ETCs to deliver effective CBT interventions to peers. The implications of these results are discussed, including suggestions for future research and clinical intervention implementation within this population. The limitations of this research are also addressed.

  11. Factors Underlying Ebola Virus Infection Among Health Workers, Kenema, Sierra Leone, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senga, Mikiko; Pringle, Kimberly; Ramsay, Andrew; Brett-Major, David M; Fowler, Robert A; French, Issa; Vandi, Mohamed; Sellu, Josephine; Pratt, Christian; Saidu, Josephine; Shindo, Nahoko; Bausch, Daniel G

    2016-08-15

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) in health workers (HWs) has been a major challenge during the 2014-2015 outbreak. We examined factors associated with Ebola virus exposure and mortality in HWs in Kenema District, Sierra Leone. We analyzed data from the Sierra Leone National Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Database, contact tracing records, Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) staff and Ebola Treatment Unit (ETU) rosters, and burial logs. From May 2014 through January 2015, 600 cases of EVD originated in Kenema District, including 92 (15%) HWs, 66 (72%) of whom worked at KGH. Among KGH medical staff and international volunteers, 18 of 62 (29%) who worked in the ETU developed EVD, compared with 48 of 83 (58%) who worked elsewhere in the hospital. Thirteen percent of HWs with EVD reported contact with EVD patients, while 27% reported contact with other infected HWs. The number of HW EVD cases at KGH declined roughly 1 month after implementation of a new triage system at KGH and the opening of a second ETU within the district. The case fatality ratio for HWs and non-HWs with EVD was 69% and 74%, respectively. The cluster of HW EVD cases in Kenema District is one of the largest ever reported. Most HWs with EVD had potential virus exposure both inside and outside of hospitals. Prevention measures for HWs must address a spectrum of infection risks in both formal and informal care settings as well as in the community. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  12. Technical efficiency of primary health units in Kailahun and Kenema districts of Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of the study reported in this paper were to (i estimate the technical efficiency of samples of community health centres (CHCs, community health posts (CHPs and maternal and child health posts (MCHPs in Kailahun and Kenema districts of Sierra Leone, (ii estimate the output increases needed to make inefficient MCHPs, CHCs and CHPs efficient, and (iii explore strategies for increasing technical efficiency of these institutions. Methods This study applies the data envelopment analysis (DEA approach to analyse technical efficiency of random samples of 36 MCHPs, 22 CHCs and 21 CHPs using input and output data for 2008. Results The findings indicate that 77.8% of the MCHPs, 59.1% of the CHCs and 66.7% of the CHPs were variable returns to scale technically inefficient. The average variable returns to scale technical efficiency was 68.2% (SD = 27.2 among the MCHPs, 69.2% (SD = 33.2 among the CHCs and 59% (SD = 34.7 among the CHPs. Conclusion This study reveals significant technical inefficiencies in the use of health system resources among peripheral health units in Kailahun and Kenema districts of Sierra Leone. There is need to strengthen national and district health information systems to routinely track the quantities and prices of resources injected into the health care systems and health service outcomes (indicators of coverage, quality and health status to facilitate regular efficiency analyses.

  13. [Effects of reforestation on tree pollen sensitization in inhabitants of Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Gómez, Samuel; González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Amaro-Vivian, Laura Elizabeth; Pérez-Vanzzini, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Mujica, José Julio; Yong-Rodríguez, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has implications for health, ecology and society. Urban green areas are a key element in the planning of cities, promoting citizen interaction with the environment, as well as health. Lack of planning and design of these areas as well as the selection of ornamental trees can be a trigger of pollen allergy in the surrounding population. Reforestation is among the programs implemented by the government that have an impact on allergy. Environmental reforestation programs do not take into account the allergenic potential of some species. In the last 4 years, the government of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, has planted nearly 18,000 Quercus species trees, in addition to an unknown number of Fraxinus species trees that are listed as tree species with high pollen production. To identify changes in tree pollen sensitization, based on environmental reforestation programs. A retrospective and descriptive study was done in which positive skin prick tests to pollen from trees in the interval of 2010-2014 were analyzed, correlating between tree species used for reforestation and increased sensitivity to the former. A statistically significant increase in pollen sensitization to species with which Nuevo Leon was reforested was found, along with a decrease in sensitization to the species that were not reforested. Reforestation contributes to some extent to the change in the pattern of positive skin tests and may result in more frequent exacerbations of respiratory diseases. It is an activity that should always be regulated and assisted by experts in the according field.

  14. Study of the Wall Paintings of the Cenador Del Leon in the Real Alcazar of Seville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robador, Maria Dolores; Mancera, Inmaculada; Perez-Maqueda, Rafael; Albardonedo, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    The paintings on the walls of the Cenador del Leon located in the gardens of the Real Alcazar in Seville next to the Pabellon de Carlos V in the Jardin Ingles area have been studied. The components of the wall paintings cross-sections, which were prepared using small samples taken from the walls of Cenador del Leon, were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The cross-sections of the collected samples indicated that the paint layer is well adhered to the preparation layer without any discontinuity, and only one carbonation layer exists at the top of the sequence of layers. These data suggest that the paint was applied on a fresco surface, and therefore, the adopted technique was fresco. Based on the different elements detected by EDX analysis of the cross-sections, the detected pigments included iron oxides accompanied by clay minerals (or earths) in the red pink, golden yellow and yellow colours, blue smelt for the blue colour and basic copper chloride (atacamite) for the green colour. In one sample, the particles were composed of Ba and S from barium sulphate and Ti and O from rutile titanium oxide due to a modern pigment.

  15. The return of the property question in the development of Alpine tourist resorts in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Clivaz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution demonstrates how the issues and current problems regarding real estate management in Swiss Alpine tourist resorts emerge, for an important part, from the inconsistencies of the Federal land management system set in place at the end of the 1970s, system based on zoning scheme and excluding virtually any estate instrument, including the capital-gain levy. In these very favourable conditions for landowners, who also see land ownership strengthened by its introduction in the Federal Constitution at the end of the 1960s, the "growth coalitions" structuring the local power in many tourist towns usually planned oversized building areas (and often badly located which have facilitated the development of second homes industry to the detriment of productive estate home industry. Faced with the failure of planning and zoning to limit these trends whose negative effects on the development of tourism seriously begin to be felt in the 1990s, we encounter, now in recent years, the post-eradication of the real estate question in discussions concerning the development of tourist resorts particularly in implementing real estate instruments, such as quota systems, moratoriums or taxes, intervening so much more directly than only zoning on land and real estate owners, contingency arrangements initially excluded from spatial planning policy.Cette contribution montre dans quelle mesure les enjeux et les problèmes actuels en matière de gestion foncière et immobilière dans les stations touristiques des Alpes suisses découlent pour une part importante des incohérences du régime fédéral de l’aménagement du territoire mis en place à la fin des années 1970, régime fondé sur le zonage et excluant quasiment tout instrument foncier, notamment le prélèvement de la plus-value. Dans ces conditions très favorables aux propriétaires fonciers, qui voient par ailleurs la garantie de la propriété foncière encore renforcée par son inscription

  16. Resorting to the Federal Constitutional Court against the atomic energy act consequences of events in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2011-01-01

    When the CDU/CSU-FDP coalition, which had won the federal elections, prepared the amendment to the Atomic Energy Act as announced in the election campaign, i.e. extend the operating life of nuclear power plants in Germany, the political opposition considered resorting to the Federal Constitutional Court. Several legal opinions were commissioned by federal states and other opposition groups with the intention, above all, to obtain confirmation of the need for consent to any plant life extension. Private persons filed complaints for unconstitutionality against the amendment to the Atomic Energy Act. Several federal states followed suit by filing proceedings for judicial review of the constitutionality of the amendment because of the missing consent of the Federal Council, and more than 210 Members of Parliament of SPD and Alliance 90/the Greens filed for judicial review of constitutionality listing as violations of the Constitution the missing approval by the Federal Council, insufficient safety standards, and the reduction of safety requirements. The Federal Constitutional Court has not yet continued proceedings by requesting comments mainly from the federal government, the federal states, and the nuclear power plant operators. What consequences, if any, are drawn from the events in Japan after the earthquake and the tsunami of March 11, 2011 for the operation of German nuclear power plants and worldwide cannot yet be assessed. In Germany, the anti-nuclear debate was triggered immediately in the absence of any exact knowledge of technical safety events and causes at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. International reactions in politics or by competent authorities turned out to be less pointed than in Germany. (orig.)

  17. The Biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon; Central electrica de biogas de bioenergia de Nuevo Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Saldana M, Jaime L [Sistemas de Energia Internacional S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon represents, in all the national territory, the first experience on the advantage of biogas emitted by the sanitary landfills for the generation of electrical energy. Therefore, one of the specific objectives of this paper is the one of diffusion and reproduction of the same one in other cities of Mexico and Latin America. The project is framed within the world-wide policies on the control of emissions for the reduction of the greenhouse effect gases (GEG) and its impact in the global climatic change. The gas emitted by the trash sanitary landfills, commonly known as biogas, is a gas mixture derived from the decomposition of the organic matter of the municipal trash by microorganisms in anaerobic conditions. Biogas generated in the sanitary landfills has a methane content of 55% and a 35% of carbon dioxide. The balance 10% is made up of water steam, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen sulfur and other gases in minimum amounts. [Spanish] La Central Electrica de Biogas de Bioenergia de Nuevo Leon representa, en todo el territorio nacional, la primera experiencia sobre el aprovechamiento del biogas emitido por los rellenos sanitarios para la generacion de energia electrica. Por esta razon, uno de los objetivos especificos de este trabajo es la de difusion y reproduccion del mismo en otras ciudades de Mexico y Latinoamerica. El proyecto esta enmarcado dentro de las politicas mundiales sobre el control de emisiones para la reduccion de los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y su impacto en el cambio climatico global. El gas emitido por la basura dispuesta en los rellenos sanitarios, comunmente conocido como biogas, es una mezcla de gases derivado de la descompensacion de la materia organica de la basura municipal por microorganismos en condiciones anaerobias. El biogas generado en los rellenos sanitarios tiene un contenido de metano del 55% y un 35% de bioxido de carbono. El 10% restante se compone de vapor

  18. Learning Styles and Attitudes toward Online Education in Four Universities in the State of Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez de Monarrez, Patricia; Korniejczuk, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to find the relation-ship between the predominant learning styles among university online students and their attitude toward online education. Data were collected from 385 students enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs from four universities in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Significant effects of…

  19. [The contribution of the Russian Research Centre of Medical Rehabilitation and Balneotherapeutics to the development of the health resort business in this country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povazhnaia, E A; Bobrovnitskiĭ, I P

    2013-01-01

    The definition of the notion of health resort business is proposed in the context of the legislation pertinent to the natural therapeutic resources, health and recreational localities, spa and resort facilities currently in force in this country. The main landmark events in the history of the Russian Research Centre of Rehabilitative Medicine and Balneotherapeutics are highlighted, its role in the development of balneotherapeutic science and health resort business is described. The major achievements of the Centre in the investigations of therapeutic properties of natural physical factors (climate, mineral waters, peloids, etc.), their action on the human organism, the possibilities of their application for the treatment and prevention of various pathological conditions in and outside health resort facilities are presented. The contribution of the specialists of the Centre to the search for and discovery of new resort resources is emphasized. Community needs in balneotheraputic treatment are estimated, scientific basis for its organization, principles and normatives of health resort business are discussed along with the problems of sanitary control and protection. The activities of the Centre as an organizer of the unique system of rehabilitative and balneotherapeutic aid to the population are overviewed. Scientifically substantiated indications and contraindications for the spa and resort-based treatment of various diseases are proposed in conjunction with the methods for the application of physiotherapeutic factors. The tasks currently facing the Centre and prospects for its future research activities in the fields of rehabilitative medicine and balneotherapeutics are discussed.

  20. MODELING AND STRUCTURING OF ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM RESORT SPHERE BASED ON ELEMENTS OF NEURAL NETWORK THEORY: THE METHODOLOGICAL BASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena R. Timirualeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the methodology of modeling andstructuring of business networks theory. Accounting ofenvironmental factors mega-, macro- and mesolevels, theinternal state of the managed system and the error management command execution by control system implemented inthis. The proposed methodology can improve the quality of enterprise management of resort complex through a moreflexible response to changes in the parameters of the internaland external environments.

  1. Habitat Dan Perilaku Kangkareng Perut-putih (Anthracoceros Albirostris Convexus Temm. 1832) Di Resort Rowobendo Tn Alas Purwo

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Salvionita BR; Hernowo, Jarwadi Budi

    2016-01-01

    Oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) is one of hornbill spesies (Bucerotidae) that protected in Indonesia based on Goverment Regulation No. 7/1999. The habitat of oriental pied hornbillin Resort Rowobendo Alas Purwo National Park (APNP) are natural forest and mixed forest plantation. The characteristic of the bird feeding site is a fruiting tree with a thick meat with the shaped is an oval, thin rind, soft, and contain more water and has sweet taste. The characteristic for the b...

  2. HABITAT DAN PERILAKU KANGKARENG PERUT-PUTIH (Anthracoceros albirostris convexus Temm. 1832) DI RESORT ROWOBENDO TN ALAS PURWO

    OpenAIRE

    Salvionita BR Tarigan; Jarwadi Budi Hernowo

    2017-01-01

    Oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) is one of hornbill spesies (Bucerotidae) that protected in Indonesia based on Goverment Regulation No. 7/1999. The habitat of oriental pied hornbillin Resort Rowobendo Alas Purwo National Park (APNP) are natural forest and mixed forest plantation. The characteristic of the bird feeding site is a fruiting tree with a thick meat with the shaped is an oval, thin rind, soft, and contain more water and has sweet taste. The characteristic for the b...

  3. Job Satisfaction Levels of Employees in Hotel Establisments: A Research on Employees in Resort and City Hotel Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbeyi Pelit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available No matter in which sector they function, the job satisfaction of the employees at desired level has the utmost importance for the employees’ performance and organizational efficiency. In this respect, applications and studies related to defining job satisfaction and the factors affecting job satisfaction also have importance for establishments to provide data sources to perfrom their functions in the long term. For this reason, establishments should revise their employees’ job satisfaction levels at times. Especially the issue is much more significant for labour-intensive hotel establishments. In this context, to determine the job satisfaction levels of the city and resort employees in hotel establishments ,this research is carried on 1854 employees employed at 114 five-star hotels in city and resort areas of Turkey using “Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale” to collect data. It is concluded that the employees whose job satisfaction is measured by questionnaires are not satisfied with such issues as the wage, making their own decisions, company policies and promotion opportunities. In the further analyses performed (independent-samples t test and ANOVA, it is found out that the job satisfaction level of the employees working in resort hotel establishments is higher than the employees working in the ciy hotel establishments. In addition this, it is found out that there are some differences between the job satisfaction level and education level of the employees.

  4. Dr Jekels' health resort in Bystra near Bielsko: the first treatment centre which adopted psychoanalysis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembińska, Edyta; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-29

    The paper sets out to present the history of a health resort and hydrotherapy centre in Bystra near Bielsko from 1898 to 1912. At that time Dr Ludwik Jekels, one of the Polish psychoanalysis forerunners, was the owner of the centre. Initially, Dr Jekels was very enthusiastic about climatic treatment and hydrotherapy, until 1905 when he got interested in psychoanalysis. Shortly afterwards he became its staunch supporter and adopted it as a curative procedure in his health resort. That was the first documented case of psychoanalysis use in Poland. This paper presents the development of the therapeutic centre in Bystra and the characteristic of typical patients receiving treatment there. It also briefly reports on medical histories of the conditions of patients who received psychoanalytic treatment. The paper also focuses on another significant area of Dr Jekels'contact with Sigmund Freud ranging from an accidental meeting in Vienna around 1898, through the summer of 1910 when Jekels looked after Freud's daughters in his spa, to 1912 which saw Jekels'receiving psychoanalytic treatment from Freud. It also presents a detailed analysis of hypotheses why Jekels decided to sell the health resort and move to Vienna. Finally, the significance of Jekels'currently underrated therapeutic work for the development of the Polish psychoanalysis is reiterated.

  5. Landscape Potential Analysis for Ecotourism Destination in the Resort Ii Salak Mountain, Halimun-Salak National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoarto, A.; Gunawan, A.; Nurazizah, G. R.

    2017-10-01

    The Resort II Salak Mountain has variety of landscape potential for created as ecotourism destination, especially the potential of the waterfall (curug) and sulphur crater (Kawah Ratu). The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the potential resources of the landscape to be created as ecotourism destination, Resort II Salak Mountain. This research was conducted through two phases: 1) identification of the attractions location that have potential resources for ecotourism destination, and 2) analysis of the level of potential resource of the landscape in each location using Analysis of Tourist Attraction Operational Destination (ATAOD). The study showed Resort II Salak Mountain has many ecotourism objects which have been used for ecotourism activities, such as hot spring baths, Curug Cigamea, Curug Ngumpet, Curug Seribu, Curug Pangeran, Curug Muara, Curug Cihurang, Kawah Ratu, camping ground, Curug Kondang and Curug Alami. The location of all waterfalls -curug, spread widely in the core zone for ecotourism. In the other hand, camping ground is located in the business zone, while Kawah Ratu is located in the natural forest, which is included in the buffer zone of Halimun-Salak National Park (HSNP). The result showed that the ecotourism objects with the highest potential value are Kawah Ratu, Curug Seribu, Curug Muara, Curug Kondang and Curug Ngumpet.

  6. Potential Exposure to Ebola Virus from Body Fluids due to Ambulance Compartment Permeability in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Megan L; Nguyen, Duong T; Idriss, Barrie; Bennett, Sarah; Dunn, Angela; Martin, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Prehospital care, including patient transport, is integral in the patient care process during the Ebola response. Transporting ill persons from the community to Ebola care facilities can stop community spread. Vehicles used for patient transport in infectious disease outbreaks should be evaluated for adequate infection prevention and control. An ambulance driver in Sierra Leone attributed his Ebola infection to exposure to body fluids that leaked from the patient compartment to the driver cabin of the ambulance. A convenience sample of 14 vehicles used to transport patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola in Sierra Leone were assessed. The walls separating the patient compartment and driver cabin in these vehicles were evaluated for structural integrity and potential pathways for body fluid leakage. Ambulance drivers and other staff were asked to describe their cleaning and decontamination practices. Ambulance construction and design standards from the National Fire Protection Association, US General Services Administration, and European Committee on Standardization (CEN) were reviewed. Many vehicles used by ambulance staff in Sierra Leone were not traditional ambulances, but were pick-up trucks or sport-utility vehicles that had been assembled or modified for patient transport. The wall separating the patient compartment and driver cabin in many vehicles did not have a waterproof seal around the edges. Staff responsible for cleaning and disinfection did not thoroughly clean bulk body fluids with disposable towels before disinfection of the patient compartment. Pressure from chlorine sprayers used in the decontamination process may have pushed body fluids from the patient compartment into the driver cabin through gaps around the wall. Ambulance design standards do not require a waterproof seal between the patient compartment and driver cabin. Sealing the wall by tightening or replacing existing bolts is recommended, followed by caulking of all seams with a

  7. Surveys in 1961 on St. Thomas & St. Croix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Thorkel; Licht, Kjeld de Fine

    Registration of towns and buildings erected during the Danish reign of the Caribbean Isles of St. Thomas, St. Jan and St. Croix 1671-1917 (now belonging to the USA under the name of Virgin Islands)....

  8. Untreated urban waste contaminates Indian river sediments with resistance genes to last resort antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Nachiket P; Pal, Chandan; Gaikwad, Swapnil S; Jonsson, Viktor; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-11-01

    waste can contribute to an overall increase of the abundance and diversity of ARGs in the environment, including those conferring resistance to last-resort antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Global health business: the production and performativity of statistics in Sierra Leone and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Susan L

    2012-01-01

    The global push for health statistics and electronic digital health information systems is about more than tracking health incidence and prevalence. It is also experienced on the ground as means to develop and maintain particular norms of health business, knowledge, and decision- and profit-making that are not innocent. Statistics make possible audit and accountability logics that undergird the management of health at a distance and that are increasingly necessary to the business of health. Health statistics are inextricable from their social milieus, yet as business artifacts they operate as if they are freely formed, objectively originated, and accurate. This article explicates health statistics as cultural forms and shows how they have been produced and performed in two very different countries: Sierra Leone and Germany. In both familiar and surprising ways, this article shows how statistics and their pursuit organize and discipline human behavior, constitute subject positions, and reify existing relations of power.

  10. Generalized symmetries of an 𝓝 = 1 supersymmetric Boiti-Leon-Manna-Pempinelli system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Yong; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Liang, Zu-Feng; Lou, Sen-Yue

    2015-05-01

    The formal series symmetry approach (FSSA), a quite powerful and straightforward method to establish infinitely many generalized symmetries of classical integrable systems, has been successfully extended in the supersymmetric framework to explore series of infinitely many generalized symmetries for supersymmetric systems. Taking the 𝒩 = 1 supersymmetric Boiti-Leon-Manna-Pempinelli system as a concrete example, it is shown that the application of the extended FSSA to this supersymmetric system leads to a set of infinitely many generalized symmetries with an arbitrary function f (t). Some interesting special cases of symmetry algebras are presented, including a limit case f (t) = 1 related to the commutativity of higher order generalized symmetries. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275123, 11175092, 11475052, and 11435005), the Shanghai Knowledge Service Platform for Trustworthy Internet of Things, China (Grant No. ZF1213), and the Talent Fund and K CWong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  11. Education Programs in Post-Conflict Environments: a Review from Liberia, Sierra Leone, and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Barrios-Tao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Education should be considered as one of the mechanisms for governments and nations to succeed in a post-conflict process. The purpose of this Review Article is twofold: to explain the importance of education in a post-conflict setting, and to describe a few strategies that post-conflict societies have implemented. In terms of research design, a multiple case study approach has been implemented. The paper reviews a unique topic with specific reference to education plans implemented in post-conflict societies such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, and South Africa. Each of them has experienced violent conflicts and has used education as a tool to succeed in their post-conflict process. In sum, there are several educational programs that involve children, young people, survivors, parents, teachers, and local communities as well as curriculums focused on teaching of cultural values and technical skills to improve the quality of life in a post-conflict setting.

  12. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Sierra Leone, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $1.1 million of Agency support received, Sierra Leone ranks 70th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. Almost equal shares of the assistance during the past ten years have been provided in the form of equipment (40%) and expert services (37%), while the share of the training component was 23%. The best part of the resources was provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (96%), the remaining 4% was made available through assistance in kind. During the past ten years, project activities - and disbursements - have concentrated exclusively on three major areas: nuclear medicine (52%), general atomic energy development (25%) and agriculture (23%)

  13. Evaluation of the benefits and risks of introducing Ebola community care centers, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Adam J; Camacho, Anton; Checchi, Francesco; Waldman, Ron; Grais, Rebecca F; Cabrol, Jean-Clement; Briand, Sylvie; Baguelin, Marc; Flasche, Stefan; Funk, Sebastian; Edmunds, W John

    2015-03-01

    In some parts of western Africa, Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) have reached capacity. Unless capacity is rapidly scaled up, the chance to avoid a generalized Ebola epidemic will soon diminish. The World Health Organization and partners are considering additional Ebola patient care options, including community care centers (CCCs), small, lightly staffed units that could be used to isolate patients outside the home and get them into care sooner than otherwise possible. Using a transmission model, we evaluated the benefits and risks of introducing CCCs into Sierra Leone's Western Area, where most ETCs are at capacity. We found that use of CCCs could lead to a decline in cases, even if virus transmission occurs between CCC patients and the community. However, to prevent CCC amplification of the epidemic, the risk of Ebola virus-negative persons being exposed to virus within CCCs would have to be offset by a reduction in community transmission resulting from CCC use.

  14. Pesticide residues in orange fruit from citrus orchards in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Jacobo, Angela; Alcantar-Rosales, Victor Manuel; Alonso-Segura, Diana; Heras-Ramírez, Maria; Elizarragaz-De La Rosa, Dalau; Lugo-Melchor, Ofelia; Gaspar-Ramirez, Octavio

    2017-09-01

    Some international organisations established maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food to protect human health. Mexico lacks regulations in this matter, affecting national and international trade from agroindustry. The aim of this study was to diagnose pesticide residues in oranges from Nuevo Leon, México, in citrus orchards. In May 2014, 100 orange fruit samples were taken randomly from orchards and subjected to analysis for 93 pesticides at residual level by GC/QQQ-MS and LCQ-TOF-MS. Results showed the presence of 15 pesticide residues in the samples. The comparison of the residual levels of pesticides found in orange samples among the MRLs allowed by USA, EU and Japanese regulations demonstrated that all samples were below MRLs issued by USA and Japan. Some orange samples were above MRLs issued by the EU. This provides a basis to establish strategies in order to satisfy International Standards to protect human health and encourage Food Safety in Mexico.

  15. The life and work of Leon Henkin essays on his contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Sain, Ildikó; Alonso, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This is a comprehensive book on the life and works of Leon Henkin (1921–2006), an extraordinary scientist and excellent teacher whose writings became influential right from the beginning of his career with his doctoral thesis on “The completeness of formal systems” under the direction of Alonzo Church. Upon the invitation of Alfred Tarski, Henkin joined the Group in Logic and the Methodology of Science in the Department of Mathematics at the University of California Berkeley in 1953. He stayed with the group until his retirement in 1991. This edited volume includes both foundational material and a logic perspective. Algebraic logic, model theory, type theory, completeness theorems, philosophical and foundational studies are among the topics covered, as well as mathematical education. The work discusses Henkin’s intellectual development, his relation to his predecessors and contemporaries, and his impact on the recent development of mathematical logic. It offers a valuable reference work for researcher...

  16. Territorial identity and landscape. Evolution morphology of nuclei in Castilla y Leon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Pedrosa, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to study the physical and socioeconomic transformations of rural settlements belonging to the Spanish region of Castile and Leon, throughout the second half of the 20th century. The evolution of urban form is analyzed, using a geographical information system (GIS) and calculating several shape metrics, and is then related to historical demographical data. The results are meant to show the effects of functional specialization, caused by the integration of rural regions in global economic hierarchies, on settlement structures and patterns. Gradual loss of the traditional features of Castilian villages, such as urban compactness and integration in the landscape, due to the disappearance or neglect of vernacular architecture and the construction of new industrial infrastructures, poses a risk for future place-based development policies. It is deemed necessary to preserve local identity and avoid destruction or degradation of the traditional heritage for revitalizing these territories. (Author)

  17. Crop-Specific EU Aid and Smallholder Food Security in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Saravia-Matus

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the viability of promoting crop-specific programs as a mean to improve smallholder net farm income and food security. The case study explores the relevance of European Union Stabilisation of Export Earnings (STABEX funds in supporting Sierra Leone’s agricultural development agenda. By analysing the drivers of food security for a number of targeted smallholders in the two most important agricultural zones of Sierra Leone, it is possible to compare the suitability of crop-specific support (in rice, cocoa and coffee versus general aid programs (public infrastructure, on and off farm diversification opportunities, sustainable practices, access to productive assets, etc.. The results indicate that crop diversification strategies are widespread and closely related to risk minimisation and enhanced food security among smallholders. Similarly, crop-specific programs mainly focusing on commercialisation tend to overlook important constraints associated to self-consumption and productivity.

  18. EL UTILITARISMO DE JEREMY BENTHAM ¿FUNDAMENTO DE LA TEORÍA DE LEON WALRAS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída-Sofía Rivera-Sotelo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto cuestiona el utilitarismo de Jeremy Bentham como fundamento de la teoría marginalista walrasiana. La problemática se aborda a través de un análisis comparativo del pensamiento de Jeremy Bentham y de Leon Walras en tres áreas centrales: sus visiones de la sociedad y el objetivo social, sus aproximaciones teóricas y metodológicas en relación directa con sus respectivas teorías de la sociedad, y el lugar del principio de utilidad en el marco de las teorías generales de sociedad. El escrito contribuye a un debate vigente sobre los fundamentos filosóficos de la teoría de la elección racional y a deshomogenizar el pensamiento de los padres del marginalismo.

  19. Cosmogenic helium and volatile-rich fluid in Sierra leone alluvial diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConville, P.; Reynolds, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Pursuant to the discovery elsewhere of cosmogenic 10 Be in alluvial diamond fragments from Zaire, noble gas measurements were made on two identical splits of a finely powdered, harshly acid-washed sample derived from selected (for clarity) fragments of a single alluvial diamond from Sierra Leone (sample LJA → L4 and L5). Essentially identical results were obtained for both splits. Isotopic ratios for Ar, Kr, and Xe were atmospheric and their elemental abundances were high relative to published data, owing to shock implantation in the crushing as verified in a supplementary experiment. No neon was detected above blank level. 3 He was exceptionally abundant, 4 He exceptionally depleted, possibly from the acid wash, and the ratio 3 He/ 4 He almost unprecedentedly high at an R/R a value of 246 ± 16. The results support the hypothesis that excess 3 He in diamonds is cosmogenic, although a cosmic-ray exposure of 5, 35, or (impossibly) 152 Ma for cyclic gardening of the sample to a maximum depth of 0, 4.6 m, or 20 m, respectively, is required. Troublesome for the cosmogenic hypothesis is a sample from very deep in the Finsch mine, South Africa, found by Zadnik et al (1987) to have an R/R a value of 1,000. This paper includes histograms of noble gas data published prior to mid-1988 for diamonds of known provenance. The Sierra Leone diamond studied in the supplementary experiment belongs to a distinct population of 40* Ar-rich diamonds consisting mostly of cubic diamonds for Zaire

  20. Context matters: community characteristics and mental health among war-affected youth in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Brennan, Robert T

    2014-03-01

    Worldwide, over one billion children and adolescents live in war-affected settings. At present, only limited research has investigated linkages between disrupted social ecology and adverse mental health outcomes among war-affected youth. In this study, we examine three community-level characteristics - social disorder and collective efficacy within the community, as reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma as reported by youth - in relation to externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms among male and female former child soldiers in postconflict Sierra Leone. A total of 243 former child soldiers (30% female, mean age at baseline: 16.6 years) and their primary caregivers participated in interviews in 2004 and 2008, as part of a larger prospective cohort study of war-affected youth in Sierra Leone. Two-point growth models were estimated to examine the relationship between community-level characteristics and externalizing and internalizing outcomes across the time points. Both social disorder within the community, reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma, reported by youth, positively covaried with youths' externalizing and internalizing scores - indicating that higher levels of each at baseline and follow-up were associated with higher levels of mental health problems at both time points (p mental health outcomes was nonsignificant (p > .05). This study offers a rare glimpse into the role that the postconflict social context plays in shaping the mental health among former child soldiers. Results indicate that both social disorder and perceived stigma within the community demonstrate an important relationship to externalizing and internalizing problems among adolescent ex-combatants. Moreover, these relationships persisted over a 4-year period of follow-up. These results underscore the importance of the postconflict social environment and the need to develop postconflict interventions that address community-level processes in addition to the needs

  1. Effects of Reforestation on Tree Pollen Sensitization in Inhabitants of Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Palma-Gómez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate change has implications for health, ecology and society. Urban green areas are a key element in the planning of citie, promoting citizen interaction with the environment, as well as health. Lack of planning and design of these areas as well as the selection of ornamental trees can be a trigger of pollen allergy in the surrounding population. Reforestation is among the programs implemented by the government that have an impact on allergy. Environmental reforestation programs do not take into account the allergenic potential of some spe- cies. In the last 4 years, the government of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, has planted nearly 18,000 Quercus species trees, in addition to an unknown number of Fraxinus species trees that are listed as tree species with high pollen production. Objective: To identify changes in tree pollen sensitization, based on environmental reforestation programs. Material and method: A retrospective and descriptive study was done in which positive skin prick tests to pollen from trees in the interval of 2010-2014 were analyzed, correlating between tree species used for reforestation and increased sensitivity to the former. Results: A statistically signi cant increase in pollen sensitization to species with which Nuevo Leon was reforested was found, along with a decrease in sensitization to the species that were not reforested. Conclusion: Reforestation contributes to some extent to the change in the pattern of positive skin tests and may result in more frequent exac- erbations of respiratory diseases. It is an activity that should always be regulated and assisted by experts in the according eld.

  2. Herbal medicine use among hypertensive patients attending public and private health facilities in Freetown Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter Bai; Kamara, Halimatu; Bah, Abdulai Jawo; Steel, Amie; Wardle, Jon

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence, determinants and pattern of herbal medicine use among hypertensive patients in Freetown. We conducted a cross-sectional study among hypertensive patients attending public and private health facilities in Freetown, Sierra Leone between August and October 2016. We analyzed the data using SPSS version 24. We used Chi-square, Fisher exact two-tailed test and regression analysis for data analysis. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Out of 260 study participants, over half (n = 148, 56.9%) reported using herbal medicine for the treatment of hypertension alone or together with comorbid condition(s). The most commonly used herbal medicine among users were honey (n = 89, 33.3%), moringa (n = 80, 30.0%) and garlic (n = 73, 27.3%). No significant difference existed between users and non-users of herbal medicine with regards to socio-demographic and health-related factors. The majority (n = 241, 92.7%) of respondents considered herbal medicine beneficial if it was recommended by a healthcare provider yet 85.1% (n = 126) did not disclose their herbal medicine use to their health care provider. There is a high use of herbal medicines among hypertensive patients in Freetown, Sierra Leone. It is essential for healthcare providers to take heed of the findings of this study and routinely ask their patients about their herbal medicine use status. Such practice will provide the opportunity to discuss the benefits and risks of herbal medicine use with the aim of maximizing patient desired therapeutic outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Glikman : maadeafääri süüdistust ei pruugi tulla / Leon Glikman ; interv. Kärt Anvelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Glikman, Leon, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu vandeadvokaat Leon Glikmaniga, kelle büroo kaitseb maadevahetusega seotud kriminaalasjas kahtlustatavaid Toomas Annust ja Andres Sarrit. Intervjuu sissejuhatus puudutab tööandjate keskliidu oktoobris 2007 koostatud pöördumist peaministri poole

  4. Understanding the Causes of Civil Wars in Post-Colonial Sub-Saharan Africa. Case study: Sierra Leone and the Role of women in the Search for Peace

    OpenAIRE

    Sesay, Adama

    2013-01-01

    It is widely understood or assumed among scholars like Thomas Weiss, that civil wars in Africa are mainly wars for natural resources. This statement needs careful evaluation, and it is for this reason that this study will use Weiss`s theories on the causes of wars in sub-Sahara Africa as a background for understanding the Sierra Leone conflict. In addition, as the title implies, this paper further aims to investigate the war in Sierra Leone and most...

  5. Snowmaking in ski resorts: spatial decision support for management of snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubier, Jean-Christophe; Kanevski, Mikhail; Doctor, Marut; Schumacher, Michael; Timonin, Vadim

    2010-05-01

    Since the early 2000s, the question of snowmaking that ensures activity in ski areas is controversial, because solutions to face climate change and sustainable development seem to be opposed to the economical needs of winter tourism. Actually, according to the Advisory Body on Climate Change (OCCC), we can expect an average rise of the limit of 0 degrees to 360 m in 2050. The application of the rule of 100 days (30 cm of snow for 100 days) shows that 1 ° increase in temperature reduced by 20% the number of viable skiing areas. Snowmaking seems thus to be a solution for continuing an optimal economical usage of the ski resorts. The usage of machine-made snow raises environmental issues which can no longer be denied. [Badre et al.2009] However, these issues should not be disconnected from local economic specificities of the high mountain valleys, where the ski economy is critical. This paper presents a study at the economic-environmental interface. The aim is to develop a tool for managing the production of artificial snow, with the goal to: • Reduce production costs and improve profit margins of companies operating ski areas; • Reduce environmental impacts by an optimized snow production "just in time". In this way, water and energy needs will be reduced. The problem of managing the snow is a highly complex problem: it cannot be solved analytically. Indeed, changes in height of snow are subject to intakes of snow (natural or manufactured) associated with changing weather conditions and the impact of skiers. Therefore, the work presented in this paper has chosen a probabilistic approach in a simulation using neural networks to predict and to manage snow height. We do this in two points: • We measure snowpack heights with radars mounted on grooming machines; • We produce a snow cover prediction in relation with weather prediction using a neuron network. This neural approach thus deals with the spatial prediction of snow cover [Kanevski et al., 2009] The

  6. 黄山风景区水生态承载力分析%Analysis of water ecology capacity in Huangshan Resort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 章锦河; 杨兴柱

    2009-01-01

    文章以BODs为纳污水体的水质影响因子,计算出黄山风景区4条主要纳污水体逍遥溪、丞相源、莲花沟和丹霞溪的丰、平、枯水期的日平均纳污量和年纳污量,得出其水生态承载力总体上较弱,且存在时间与空间分布不均的特征.据此,从浓度控制与总量控制相结合的角度,建立了"水量-水质-水生态系统"阈值模型,提出通过降低用水标准、提高出水指标、进行中水回用、采用节水设备,以缓解黄山风景区水生态承载压力.%In the 21st century, controls on contamination emission have transformed from the simple concentration control to the combination with concentration and total amount control. But tourism research on water ecological carrying capacity remains concentrated on the concentration control. Water is one of the most important environmental factors in Huangshan resort. Adding water supply can meet the need of an increasing number of visi-tors. However, concomitant wastewater put tremendous pressure on water ecological car-rying capacity. Taking BOD5 as an influencing factor of water quality, the paper calculates daily average and annual capacities in Xiaoyaoxi, Chengxiangyuan, Lianhuagou and Danxi-axi water bodies during high-flow period, normal water period and low-flow period. Theconclusions are: (1) In general, under the premise of sewage discharge up to standard in the Huangshan resort, four major pollutant-holding water bodies can carry sewage dis-charge from now to 2010. However, after 2010, these four water bodies cannot satisfy sewage discharge the need of and the carrying capacity is saturated. (2) The spatial distri-bution is uneven in the water ecological carrying capacity. Xiaoyaoxi and Chengxiangyuan have relatively high waste load allocations than Lianhuagou and Danxiaxi. But the sites a-round Xiaoyaoxi and Danxiaxi have greater water demand, which lead to supersaturation of water ecological carrying capacity in the middle

  7. St. Croix trap study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains detailed information about the catch from 600 trap stations around St. Croix. Data fields include species caught, size data, trap location...

  8. Store Type and Demographic Influence on the Availability and Price of Healthful Foods, Leon County, Florida, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Angela F.; Lee, Jung Sun; Rigby, Samantha; Kurtz, Hilda; Johnson, Mary Ann; Betterley, Connie; Park, Sohyun

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The availability of healthful foods varies by neighborhood. We examined the availability and price of more healthful foods by store type, neighborhood income level, and racial composition in a community with high rates of diet-related illness and death. Methods We used the modified Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores to conduct this cross-sectional study in 2008. We surveyed 73 stores (29% supermarkets, 11% grocery stores, and 60% convenience stores) in Leon County, F...

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Syphilis Infections Among Military Personnel in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    sponses (n=10). 3.5. Factors Associated with Syphilis Status Syphilis seropositivity was increased by older age , HIV in- fection and the...multiple sexual partnerships in the same week and HIV testing outside of military facilities (pɘ.05). Increasing age , positive HIV status and rural...population (15-49 years of age ) of Sierra Leone, and the estimated syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% to 5.2% based on regional studies. We examined the

  10. Interface between the biophysical environment in informal settlements and poverty in developing countries : the case for Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, William Lewis

    2005-01-01

    The socio-economic problems of developing countries, especially Sub-Saharan African cities are the result of rapid growth, increasing poverty, unequal distribution of resources, civil conflicts and poor governance. These problems have been exacerbated by perennial incidence of civil wars. In Sierra Leone, eleven years of protracted civil war has exacerbated the problems of rural-urban migration, increased poverty, dislocation of urban governance, severe unemployment and lost in...

  11. A study of natural recovery in an aquatic ecosystem affected by mining: the Rodrigatos stream (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacal, M.; Herrero, T.; Rodriguez, V.; Alberruche, E.; Vadillo, L.

    2009-01-01

    This work takes place into the Bierzo Region, located in northeast of the province of Leon (Spain). In this area numerous open-pit and underground coal mines exist. Some of them are still in activity but almost have been abandoned. In any case, mining implies the presence of coal adits, spoil dumps, tailing dams, and coal-washing plants at the river bank. Most of them persist when mining have finished. (Author)

  12. High resolution biostratigraphy of Oligo-Miocene Leon and Chama Formations: An integrated approach for sequence stratigraphy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittelli, R.; Rull, V. (Maraven S.A., Caracas (Venezuela))

    1993-02-01

    Based on foraminiferal and palynological high resolution studies, a set of Sequence Boundaries (SB) and Maximum Flooding Surfaces (MSF) were identified for the Venezuelan Northwestern Andean Foothills Leon and Chama formations. Changes in abundance patterns of forminifera palynomorphs, in faunal/floral composition and distribution, together with quantitative studies of particulate organic matter allowed picking SB 30, 21 and 15.5 (very low values of fossil abundance and faunal discontinuities, recognized by a rapid stratigraphic change in biofacies and faunal assemblage and the associated mineralogical contents) and MFS 18.5, 16, and 15 (abundant fossils). The Leon Formation represents coastal plain and swamp deposits with some minor fluctuations in the seawater level. The top of the Leon Formation shaly unit is bounded by SB 30, according to Hag B.U. et al (version 1992), marked by a decrease in fossil abundance. An increase in faunal/floral content close to the top of the section coincides with the MFS 18.5. The upper part of the formation is marked by a sandy unit with SB 16.5, characterized again by a decrease in fossil abundance at its top. The Chama Formation was deposited in a transitional environment, with minor seawater level fluctuations. Climate type was tropical humid, with seasonal precipitations, except at the Early Miocene arid or semiarid phase. Mangrove and rain forest vegetation dominated throughout the Early to Middle Miocene. MFS 16 was picked on the basis of a high abundance of microforams and glauconite.

  13. Population mobility reductions associated with travel restrictions during the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone: use of mobile phone data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, Corey M; Wesolowski, Amy; Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Tatem, Andrew J; Wetter, Erik; Lu, Xin; Power, Daniel; Weidman-Grunewald, Elaine; Ramos, Sergio; Moritz, Simon; Buckee, Caroline O; Bengtsson, Linus

    2018-06-26

    Travel restrictions were implementeded on an unprecedented scale in 2015 in Sierra Leone to contain and eliminate Ebola virus disease. However, the impact of epidemic travel restrictions on mobility itself remains difficult to measure with traditional methods. New 'big data' approaches using mobile phone data can provide, in near real-time, the type of information needed to guide and evaluate control measures. We analysed anonymous mobile phone call detail records (CDRs) from a leading operator in Sierra Leone between 20 March and 1 July in 2015. We used an anomaly detection algorithm to assess changes in travel during a national 'stay at home' lockdown from 27 to 29 March. To measure the magnitude of these changes and to assess effect modification by region and historical Ebola burden, we performed a time series analysis and a crossover analysis. Routinely collected mobile phone data revealed a dramatic reduction in human mobility during a 3-day lockdown in Sierra Leone. The number of individuals relocating between chiefdoms decreased by 31% within 15 km, by 46% for 15-30 km and by 76% for distances greater than 30 km. This effect was highly heterogeneous in space, with higher impact in regions with higher Ebola incidence. Travel quickly returned to normal patterns after the restrictions were lifted. The effects of travel restrictions on mobility can be large, targeted and measurable in near real-time. With appropriate anonymization protocols, mobile phone data should play a central role in guiding and monitoring interventions for epidemic containment.

  14. Spatial Analysis of the Effects of the Anomalous Winter of 2014/15 on 157 Ski Resorts Located in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahbahani, K. M.; Pidwirny, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The winter of 2014/2015 was one of the warmest in recent history for many locations in western North America. The cause of this climate irregularity was the development of extremely warm ocean surface waters (The Blob) over much of the eastern North Pacific Ocean. During this winter season, many ski resorts in western Canada and the United States either did not open or were forced to close their ski season early. Here, we examine climate data from 157 ski resorts to develop a picture of where the effected locations were in western North America. Using the climate database software ClimateBC and ClimateNA, high quality downscaled historical data was generated for the winter season (December, January, and February) for the variables mean temperature, snowfall, and rainfall. Values for winter of 2014/15 were statistically compared to the 30-year normal period from 1981-2010. Z-scores were calculated for 2014/15 relative to the selected 30-year normal period. These Z-score values were then mapped using ArcGIS. From the mean winter temperature map, it is apparent that abnormally warm temperatures influenced many ski resorts in California, Nevada, western Oregon, Washington, Arizona, Utah, southern Idaho, and parts of southern British Columbia. The winter snowfall map shows anomalous below normal conditions only at two resorts in south-central British Columbia and a single above normal situation at one site in central Colorado. The winter rainfall map displays that many ski resorts in New Mexico, Arizona, southern Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, western Washington, and southwestern British Columbia experienced exceptional above normal winter season rainfalls. It is highly likely that the next Blob will be forecasted many months in advance of its occurrence. The results of this study have identified which ski resorts could be climatically influenced by such an event. This information may help reduce potential financial losses to ski resorts and their associated

  15. Municipal solid waste generation rates and its management at Yusmarg forest ecosystem, a tourist resort in Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rouf Ahmad; Nazir, Rumisa; Ashraf, Samia; Ali, Mudasir; Bandh, Suhaib A; Kamili, Azra N

    2014-02-01

    The present study was carried out at Yusmarg, a forest ecosystem and tourist resort, in the Kashmir valley during 2012 with the objectives of determining the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates per capita and on a daily basis, and assessing the existing MSW system. It was estimated that daily generation of MSW at Yusmarg by tourists, as well as residents, was 107.74 kg; on average, the MSW generated at each site was about 36.48 kg/day. The per capita generation of MSW was highest (0.97 kg/person/day) at site 1 followed by 0.288 kg/person/day at site 2 and 0.201 kg/person/day at site 3, with an average per capita MSW generation rate of 0.484 kg/person/day. Manual segregation of the collected wastes showed that it comprised some recyclable, combustible, compostable and inert materials. Among the different waste categories, 56% of waste was recyclable materials, 29% was compostable wastes, 9% was combustible wastes and 6% was inert materials. The present study infers that MSW management in Yusmarg was inappropriate, and infrastructure, skilled manpower and a proper scientific disposal mechanism is lacking in the area. In order to conserve the forest wealth of the area there is a great need to focus on the solid waste problem of the tourist resort.

  16. Upper limb training using Wii Sports Resort for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a randomized, single-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsiu-Ching; Ada, Louise; Lee, Hsin-Min

    2014-10-01

    To investigate whether Wii Sports Resort training is effective and if any benefits are maintained. Randomized, single-blind trial. Sixty-two hemiplegic children with cerebral palsy (6-13 years). Experimental group undertook six weeks of home-based Wii Sports Resort training plus usual therapy, while the control group received usual therapy. Outcomes were coordination, strength, hand function, and carers' perception of hand function, measured at baseline, six, and 12 weeks by a blinded assessor. There was a trend of mean difference (MD) for the experimental group to have more grip strength by six (MD 4.0 N, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.8 to 8.8, p = 0.10) and 12 (MD 4.1 N, 95% CI -2.1 to 10.3, p = 0.19) weeks, and to have a higher quantity of hand function according to carers' perception by six (MD 4.5 N, 95% CI -0.7 to 9.7, p = 0.09) and strengthened by 12 (MD 6.4, 95% CI 0.6 to 12.3, p = 0.03) weeks than the control group. There was no difference between groups in coordination and hand function by six or 12 weeks. Wii training did not improve coordination, strength, or hand function. Beyond the intervention, carers perceived that the children used their hands more. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Operators’ Improvisation in Complex Technological Systems: The Last Resort to Averting an Assured Disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkati, N.

    2016-01-01

    normal function” of tightly coupled technological systems is to operate on the boundary to loss of control. That is, people are involved in a dynamic and continuous interaction with failure and hazard (Rasmussen, 1989). Thus, “touching the boundary to loss of control is necessary (e.g., for dynamic “speed-accuracy” trade-offs)” (Rasmussen, Pejtersen, & Goodstein, 1994). This is a rapidly changing environment, and in order to survive it, the system should be able to respond in a safe and effective manner. Occasionally, it may require an improvised response from the operator(s), but it should certainly be coordinated and in concert with others’ activities and stay within the boundaries of acceptable work performance (Rasmussen, 1989). Otherwise, it would be just noise in the control of the system and could lead to errors. It must also be able to flexibly reconfigure and synchronize all of its system elements to address the threatening issues. The brining the four nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daini plant to the cold shut down, after the Tōhoku earthquake, tsunami and station black out of March 11, 2011, was nothing short of a miracle. The heroic act of a dedicated group of human operators, who went out of their way and by encountering multiple sources of hazard and harm, taking personal risk, and by relying on their ingenuity, teamwork, and dedication despite all odds, brought all four reactors to cold shutdown and consequently averted the second assured nuclear disaster in Fukushima prefecture with serious implications for travelling fallouts to Tokyo and its subsequent evacuation. The Superintendent of the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station, Mr. Naohiro Masuda, and his operators resorted to improvisation to save the day after experiencing station black out; and their improvised acts are too numerous to mention. Nevertheless, the most memorable noteworthy ones include, “flexibly applying EOPs” and “Temporary cable of 9 km length was laid by about 200

  18. Diamonds, a resource curse? The case of Kono District in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sigismond Ayodele

    Using an actor-oriented approach to political ecology integrated with theory on the social production of scale, this dissertation examines the extent to which diamond exploitation constitutes a resource curse in Sierra Leone, with Kono District as a case-study. It uses social survey methods and remote sensing analysis of Landsat images to (1) evaluate the role of Sierra Leone's diamonds in economic development from a historical lens, (2) examine the extent to which a weak regulatory state apparatus makes a rich diamond endowment more of a curse than a blessing, (3) determine whether geographically diffuse and remotely-located diamonds are more a liability than an asset, and (4) assess whether environmental conditions are worse in diamond than in non-diamond chiefdoms. Results of the study showed that the contribution of diamonds to national economic growth declined precipitously following the politicization of diamonds and growing informalization of mining under the leadership of Siaka Stevens. Growing disenchantment combined with grievances over access to diamond resources and rights, culminating in a civil war fuelled by conflict diamonds. Findings indicated that actors capitalized on a weak regulatory state to fulfill their agendas. Illicit diamond exploitation was mainly driven by corruption, economic constraints and perverse economic incentives. Preferential land allocation to industrial mining following World Bank Group-directed national mining policy reforms and the weakness of the state in ensuring companies' adherence to mining clauses precipitated corporation-community conflicts. Study findings showed that the resource curse was acute on diggers who received less than 1 a day unlike their South American counterparts who made at least 7 daily. Results from the study demonstrate that the spatiality of diamonds also contributed to the resource curse. Illicit diamond mining was more acute in remotely located mining sites than in extractive sites closer to

  19. The quality of free antenatal and delivery services in Northern Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroma, Manso M; Kamara, Samuel S; Bangura, Evelyn A; Kamara, Mohamed A; Lokossou, Virgil; Keita, Namoudou

    2017-07-12

    The number of maternal deaths in sub-Saharan Africa continues to be overwhelmingly high. In West Africa, Sierra Leone leads the list, with the highest maternal mortality ratio. In 2010, financial barriers were removed as an incentive for more women to use available antenatal, delivery and postnatal services. Few published studies have examined the quality of free antenatal services and access to emergency obstetric care in Sierra Leone. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 in all 97 peripheral health facilities and three hospitals in Bombali District, Northern Region. One hundred antenatal care providers were interviewed, 276 observations were made and 486 pregnant women were interviewed. We assessed the adequacy of antenatal and delivery services provided using national standards. The distance was calculated between each facility providing delivery services and the nearest comprehensive emergency obstetric care (CEOC) facility, and the proportion of facilities in a chiefdom within 15 km of each CEOC facility was also calculated. A thematic map was developed to show inequities. The quality of services was poor. Based on national standards, only 27% of women were examined, 2% were screened on their first antenatal visit and 47% received interventions as recommended. Although 94% of facilities provided delivery services, a minority had delivery rooms (40%), delivery kits (42%) or portable water (46%). Skilled attendants supervised 35% of deliveries, and in only 35% of these were processes adequately documented. None of the five basic emergency obstetric care facilities were fully compliant with national standards, and the central and northernmost parts of the district had the least access to comprehensive emergency obstetric care. The health sector needs to monitor the quality of antenatal interventions in addition to measuring coverage. The quality of delivery services is compromised by poor infrastructure, inadequate skilled staff, stock-outs of

  20. The Year Without a Ski Season: An Analysis of the Winter of 2015 for Three Ski Resorts in Western Canada Using Historical and Simulation Model Forecasted Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidwirny, M. J.; Goode, J. D.; Pedersen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The winter of 2015 will go down as "the year without a ski season" for many ski resorts located close to the west coast of Canada and the USA. During this winter season, a large area of the eastern North Pacific Ocean had extremely high sea surface temperatures. These high sea surface temperatures influenced weather patterns on the west coast of North America producing very mild temperatures inland. Further, in alpine environments precipitation that normally arrives in the form of snow instead fell as rain. This research examines the climate characteristics of the winter of 2015 in greater detail for three ski resorts in British Columbia, Canada: Mount Washington, Cypress Mountain and Hemlock Valley. For these resorts, historical (1901 to 2013) and IPCC AR5 climate model forecasted climate data (RCP8.5 for 2025, 2055, and 2085) was generated for the variable winter degree days climate database ClimateBC. A value for winter degree days climate data at nearby meteorological stations for comparative analysis. For all three resorts, the winter of 2015 proved to be warmer than any individual year in the period 1901 to 2013. Interpolations involving the multi-model ensemble forecast means suggest that the climate associated with winter of 2015 will become the average normal for these resorts in only 35 to 45 years under the RCP8.5 emission scenario.

  1. Impact of Climate Change on Natural Snow Reliability, Snowmaking Capacities, and Wind Conditions of Ski Resorts in Northeast Turkey: A Dynamical Downscaling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Cenk Demiroglu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many ski resorts worldwide are going through deteriorating snow cover conditions due to anthropogenic warming trends. As the natural and the artificially supported, i.e., technical, snow reliability of ski resorts diminish, the industry approaches a deadlock. For this reason, impact assessment studies have become vital for understanding vulnerability of ski tourism. This study considers three resorts at one of the rapidly emerging ski destinations, Northeast Turkey, for snow reliability analyses. Initially one global circulation model is dynamically downscaled by using the regional climate model RegCM4.4 for 1971–2000 and 2021–2050 periods along the RCP4.5 greenhouse gas concentration pathway. Next, the projected climate outputs are converted into indicators of natural snow reliability, snowmaking capacity, and wind conditions. The results show an overall decline in the frequencies of naturally snow reliable days and snowmaking capacities between the two periods. Despite the decrease, only the lower altitudes of one ski resort would face the risk of losing natural snow reliability and snowmaking could still compensate for forming the base layer before the critical New Year’s week. On the other hand, adverse high wind conditions improve as to reduce the number of lift closure days at all resorts. Overall, this particular region seems to be relatively resilient against climate change.

  2. Wetlands and ski resorts in the French Alps: main issues and innovative ideas for the preservation of wetlands in ski areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucherand, S.; Evette, A.; François, H.; Paccard, P.; Perretier, C.; Wlerick, L.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation is a synthesis of a symposium held last October in Cemagref, Grenoble with contributions from scientists as well as lift operators, NGO's, and administrations. In the context of global change, ski resorts must rethink their development models. The diversification of the touristic offer is encouraged and the specificity of the mountain territory is at the heart of a sustainable development. In this context, the preservation of interesting and fragile habitats such as wetlands is topical. Wetlands have many recognized functions: flooding reduction, water remediation, fertilization, biodiversity conservation… In mountain areas, wetlands are small and scattered. They are of special interest in particular for their role in biodiversity conservation and for their cultural and recreational benefits. However, in ski areas, wetlands can interact with the ski activity. Indeed, wetlands can speed up snow melting in spring and they often occupy ledges, which are strategic positions for the establishment of ski resort's facilities. The development of ski resorts can lead to the destruction or the deterioration of wetlands because of hydrologic interferences, fill in, pollution, etc. However, a few judicious steps can be taken to reduce or suppress these negative effects. In the Alps, geographical and administrative tools have been developed to help the decisions of ski-resort's administrators. Meetings between lift-operators, administrators of protected areas scientists and NGO's have also proved efficient when done at an early stage of a project, as shown by the example of the ski-resort "Les Saisies".

  3. An Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Customer Retention in Tourism Resort Industry: A Case Study of Lingnan Impression Park, Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The customer retention is an important factor in today’s increasingly tourism competitive markets which should be concerned seriously. At present, many academic customer retention researches mostly focused on the business market research in the hotel industry. In view of the tourism resort, especially the urban cultural themes attraction, analyzing the influencing factors of customer retention in such resort has its special significance. The aim of this study is to empirically explore the relationship among the cultural attractive, attraction operation, promotion strategy and tourist costs on customer retention in the urban cultural themes attraction. A quantitative research method was adopted to collect empirical data from the case study of Lingnan Impression Park, Guangzhou, China and the analysis of the influencing factors base on the integrated research approach for the urban cultural themes resort. The results indicate what extent these individual factors can have an impact on customer retention is beneficial for the resort marketing practices and several strategies are suggested about improving the degree of the customer retention to the urban cultural themes resorts in China.

  4. Nise da Silveira, Fernando Diniz e Leon Hirszman: política, sociedade e arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Melo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda o processo de construção do filme Imagens do Inconsciente, mais especificamente do episódio Em Busca do Espaço Cotidiano, sobre Fernando Diniz e sua produção pictórica. O encontro entre a psiquiatra Nise da Silveira e o cineasta Leon Hirszman está marcado pela não dissociação de política, sociedade e arte. O trabalho terapêutico e de reabilitação psicossocial desenvolvido por Nise da Silveira tem como característica o estabelecimento de importantes conexões com o campo das artes, possibilitando o diálogo com toda a sociedade. Esse trabalho de transformação cultural e de mentalidades fez com que fosse questionada a exclusão social dos chamados doentes mentais e transformada a política de assistência no campo da saúde mental no Brasil.

  5. Measuring work engagement among community health workers in Sierra Leone: Validating the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Vallières

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the concept of volunteer work engagement in a sample of 334 community health workers in Bonthe District, Sierra Leone. Structural equation modelling was used to validate both the 9-item and the 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9 and UWES-17, respectively. Results assessing the UWES-17 invalidated the three-factor structure within this cohort of community health workers, as high correlations were found between latent factors. Findings for the validity of the UWES-9 were largely consistent with those of the UWES-17. Model fit for the UWES-9 were generally equivalent for the one-factor, three-factor, and bifactor solutions, however the three-factor model was once again rejected due to high factor correlations. Based on these results, the current sample provides evidence that work engagement is best represented as a unidimensional construct in this context. Findings are considered alongside previous research to offer support for the utilization of the shortened UWES-9 in this context, as it appears to provide a good representation of work engagement and possess a parsimonious unidimensional scoring scheme.

  6. The etiology of Ebola virus disease-like illnesses in Ebola virusnegative patients from Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Gang; Chen, Wei-Wei; Li, Lei; Ji, Dong; Ji, Ying-Jie; Li, Chen; Gao, Xu-Dong; Wang, Li-Fu; Zhao, Min; Duan, Xue-Zhang; Duan, Hui-Juan

    2016-05-10

    During the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, less than half of EVD-suspected cases were laboratory tested as Ebola virus (EBOV)-negative, but disease identity remained unknown. In this study we investigated the etiology of EVD-like illnesses in EBOV-negative cases. From November 13, 2014 to March 16, 2015, EVD-suspected patients were admitted to Jui Government Hospital and assessed for EBOV infection by real-time PCR. Of 278 EBOV negative patients, 223 (80.21%), 142 (51.08%), 123 (44.24%), 114 (41.01%), 59 (21.22%), 35 (12.59%), and 12 (4.32%) reported fever, headache, joint pain, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhage, respectively. Furthermore, 121 (43.52%), 44 (15.83%), 36 (12.95%), 33 (11.87%), 23 (8.27%), 10 (3.60%) patients were diagnosed as infection with malaria, HIV, Lassa fever, tuberculosis, yellow fever, and pneumonia, respectively. No significant differences in clinical features and symptoms were found between non-EVD and EVD patients. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to explore the etiology of EVD-like illnesses in uninfected patients in Sierra Leone, highlighting the importance of accurate diagnosis to EVD confirmation.

  7. Short Report: Serological Evidence of Under-Reported Dengue Circulation in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime M de Araújo Lobo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is thought to have emerged from a sylvatic cycle in Africa but has since become adapted to an urban-centric transmission cycle. These urban areas include villages in West Africa where DENV is not often routinely considered for patients presenting with febrile illnesses, as other endemic diseases (malaria, Lassa fever, e.g. present with similar non-specific symptoms. Thus, dengue is likely under diagnosed in the region. These plaque reduction neutralization test-50 (PRNT50 screening results of patients presenting with fevers of unknown origin (FUO at a clinic in Kenema, Sierra Leone indicate that all four serotypes of DENV likely circulate in areas surrounding Kenema. Using a more conservative PRNT80 cut-off value, our results still indicate the presence of antibody to all four serotypes in the region. Identifying alternate etiologies of FUOs in this region will assist clinicians in plan-of-care decisions as well as follow-up priorities. This is particularly relevant given the Ebola outbreak in the region, where diagnosis has a range of downstream effects ranging from correct allocation of medical resources, appropriate isolation of patients, and ultimately, a better informed public health sector.

  8. Traffic related deaths in Nuevo Leon, Mexico: causes and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola-Rissa, Carlos; Santos-Guzmán, Jesús; Esquivel-Guzmán, Adol; Mock, Charles N

    2008-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on mortality due to motor vehicle accidents was studied. During the first semester of 2003, a sample of 243 fatality victims of traffic-related accidents and their blood alcohol levels were analyzed in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The age-adjusted mortality rate for traffic accidents was 8.9/100000 pop. (13.2 for males and 3.21 for females, per 100000). Fatal accidents were more common in the Metropolitan Area (MA). Fatalities were four times greater in males and the mean age was 34.7+/-18.2 years. Blood alcohol was detected in almost half of the victims who were drivers of the vehicles; the other cases of fatalities may be associated with road/car condition, weather and other factors. Alcohol intoxication levels were primarily associated with male drivers ages 16 to 45 (p=0.029); levels increased with age. In females, alcohol played a lesser role, affecting mostly ages 31 to 45 y (p=0.055).

  9. [Prevalence of hymenoptera sting allergy in veterinary medicine students from Monterey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Cruz, Alfredo; Monsiváis Toscano, Gina; Gallardo Martínez, Gabriela; González Díaz, Sandra Nora; Galindo Rodríguez, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    The reported prevalence of allergic systemic reactions to hymenoptera venom occur in up to 3.3% and large local reactions occur in 17% in the general population. To investigate the prevalence of hymenoptera sting allergy in a group of veterinary medicine students from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A transverse and observational study was done with 64 students of veterinary medicine. We conducted a questionnaire about the students' history of insect allergy and atopy. Skin test with allergenic extracts of bee and ant were practiced to all subjects. We performed aeroallergen skin prick test to the subjets with suspected atopy. Students age ranged from 17 to 25 years (mean 20.2) and 37 were males. Twenty students (31.3%) had clinical history of atopy and positive skin tests to aeroallergens. On the other hand, 5 students (7.8%), including 2 atopic, had suffered large local reactions, but none of them had suffered systemic reactions. Bee and ant skin tests were positive in 15.6% and 31.3% of the students respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of hymenoptera allergy between atopic and non atopic subjects (p < 0.05). Further, the frequency of atopy in subjects with positive skin tests for bee and ant was 50%. The prevalence of large local reactions and hymenoptera sensitization found in this group was similar to that found in other epidemiologic studies.

  10. Diamonds and development: A critical analysis of stereotypes about mineworkers in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo D’Angelo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the Sierra Leone’s diamond mines have been the focus of an intense debate among analysts and experts of the development. Two main interrelated issues have been at stake in this debate: first, to understand the economic and political reasons that had supported the civil war from 1991 to 2002 and, second, to understand how to convert a potential “conflict commodity” in a resource for peace and prosperity. In this paper, I intend to highlight some recurring stereotypes of this debate. In particular, I will focus on a constellation of representations that depict the artisanal miners either as workers poorly organized and prone to irrational economic behavior, or as workers subjected to forms of exploitation akin to slavery. Based on fieldwork conducted in the diamond mining areas of Sierra Leone (2007-2011, this article intends to analyze the main forms of working organization and distribution of earnings among the miners. By challenging some stereotypes characterizing the development discourse, my aim is to show the cultural complexity and the historical density of the practices through which the miners face the risks and uncertainties of their job.

  11. Hiperplasia linfoide de íleon terminal, presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Fajardo Ochoa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un adolescente masculino de 16 años de edad que acudió a la consulta por dolor abdominal recurrente, localizado en la fosa ilíaca derecha, el cual había recibido tratamiento sintomático con antiespasmódicos y antiparasitarios sin lograr mejoría del dolor, por lo que fue remitido a la consulta de Gastroenterología donde se le realizaron exámenes complementarios que evidenciaron la existencia de una patología en el íleon terminal, se remitió al Instituto de Gastroenterología, donde se le realizó una colonoscopia y se le diagnosticó una hiperplasia linfoide severa de Ileon terminal que con el tratamiento higiénico dietético, se logró disminuir la frecuencia y la intensidad del dolor, sin embargo en las colonoscopías evolutivas se observó un incremento en la intensidad y la extensión de la hiperplasia por lo que se le indicaron exámenes endoscópicos e histológicos cada seis meses, llama la atención que a pesar de la severidad del cuadro, nunca se ha observado ningún episodio de sangrado digestivo que es la forma de presentación más frecuente de esta entidad

  12. Morphological characterization of lentil (lens culinaris medik.) landraces from castilla y leon, spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, K.; Arif, M.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of plant genetic resources has a significant impact on their possible future use in lentil breeding programs and also, in the activity of germplasm collections. In this work we have characterized 27 lentil landraces from the region of Castilla and Leon (plateau in Northern Spain), existing among them two different morphological groups according to the characteristics of the seeds (Macrosperma and Microsperma). Fifteen morpho-agronomical characters were measured for data collection. A principal components analysis allowed the definition of the 5 factors which explain 83.7% of the cumulative variance. The first factor explains 25.3% of total variation and it is related to seed production. We performed a cluster analysis obtaining 5 groups, each one defined by the average values of the employed characters. 37.0% of landraces were included in group 5, characterized by a high mean of the harvest index (38.4) and also a high mean value (74.4) for the number of pods. To study the seeds we used a correspondence analysis 6 dimensions which explained the 80.9% of the variance were chosen. Two cluster analysis were carried out using the coordinates of the aforementioned analysis. The aim of this work was to study the morphological variability of these populations and to discover the relationship among them. (author)

  13. Genotypic differences in yield formation, phosphorus utilization and nitrogen fixation by cowpeas in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amara, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Available phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (NP) generally occur in very low amounts in soils of the tropics and subtropics. Under such conditions, most crops would require the addition of N and P fertilizer. This is not possible for small-scale farmers who cannot afford or have limited access to fertilizers, and therefore depend on low-input cropping systems. The selection of cultivars adapted to low soil nutrient conditions would sustain the production levels of subsistence farmers. Experiments were therefore conducted over a five-year period to identify cowpea cultivars with high phosphorus use efficiency and nitrogen fixation. Two of such cultivars-IT86D-1010 and IT86D-719 have been identified. Root morphological characteristics such as root length, root fineness and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae are responsible for high P uptake and use efficiency. Multilocational testing of the cultivars showed that they cannot do well in areas with low rainfall. They have been distributed to farmers through the extension services for large scale production in southern Sierra Leone. (author). 28 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  14. Sequelae and Other Conditions in Ebola Virus Disease Survivors, Sierra Leone, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hamish; Vandy, Alren O; Stretch, Rebecca; Otieno, David; Prajapati, Mukesh; Calderon, Mauricio; Vandi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    We rapidly assessed the health of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Kenema, Sierra Leone, by reviewing medical charts of all patients attending the Survivor Clinic of Kenema Government Hospital. Data were abstracted on signs and symptoms at every attendance. As of November 2015, a total of 621 attendances by 115 survivors with laboratory-confirmed EVD were made to the Survivor Clinic. Most (60.9%) survivors were women. Survivors' median age was 28 years (range 0.25-70 years). Survivors attended the clinic a median of 5 times (range 1-21 times) each, and the median time from EVD discharge to attendance was 261 days (range 4-504 days). The most commonly reported signs and symptoms among the 621 attendances were headache (63.1%), fever (61.7%), and myalgia (43.3%). Because health needs of EVD survivors are complex, rapid chart reviews at survivor clinics should be repeated regularly to assess the extent of illness and prioritize service delivery.

  15. Genotypic differences in yield formation, phosphorus utilization and nitrogen fixation by cowpeas in Sierra Leone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amara, D S [Sierra Leone Univ., Njala Univ. College, Freetown (Sierra Leone). Dept. of Soil Science; Suale, D S [Institute of Agricultural Research, Freetown (Sierra Leone)

    1996-07-01

    Available phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (NP) generally occur in very low amounts in soils of the tropics and subtropics. Under such conditions, most crops would require the addition of N and P fertilizer. This is not possible for small-scale farmers who cannot afford or have limited access to fertilizers, and therefore depend on low-input cropping systems. The selection of cultivars adapted to low soil nutrient conditions would sustain the production levels of subsistence farmers. Experiments were therefore conducted over a five-year period to identify cowpea cultivars with high phosphorus use efficiency and nitrogen fixation. Two of such cultivars-IT86D-1010 and IT86D-719 have been identified. Root morphological characteristics such as root length, root fineness and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae are responsible for high P uptake and use efficiency. Multilocational testing of the cultivars showed that they cannot do well in areas with low rainfall. They have been distributed to farmers through the extension services for large scale production in southern Sierra Leone. (author). 28 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs.

  16. Non-adherence to standard treatment guidelines in a rural paediatric hospital in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruycker, M; Van den Bergh, R; Dahmane, A; Khogali, M; Schiavetti, B; Nzomukunda, Y; Alders, P; Allaouna, M; Cloquet, C; Enarson, D A; Satyarayanan, S; Magbity, E; Zachariah, R

    2013-06-21

    A rural paediatric hospital in Bo, Sierra Leone. To assess the level of adherence to standard treatment guidelines among clinicians prescribing treatment for children admitted with a diagnosis of malaria and/or lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), and determine the association between (non) adherence and hospital outcomes, given that non-rational use of medicines is a serious global problem. Secondary analysis of routine programme data. Data were collected for 865 children admitted with an entry diagnosis of malaria and 690 children with LRTI during the period January to April 2011; some patients were classified in both categories. Non-adherence to guidelines comprised use of non-standard drug regimens, dosage variations, non-standard frequency of administration and treatment duration. Cumulative non-adherence to guidelines for LRTI cases was 86%. For malaria, this involved 12% of patients. Potentially harmful non-adherence was significantly associated with an unfavourable hospital outcome, both for malaria and for LRTI cases. Overall non-adherence to standard treatment guidelines by clinicians in a routine hospital setting is very high and influences hospital outcomes. This study advocates for the implementation of routine measures to monitor and improve rational drug use and the quality of clinical care in such hospitals.

  17. Synoptic patterns associated with wildfires caused by lightning in Castile and Leon, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. García-Ortega

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian Peninsula presents the highest number of wildfires in Europe. In the NW of Spain in particular, wildfires are the natural risk with the greatest economic impact in this region. Wildfires caused by lightning are closely related to the triggering of convective phenomena. The prediction of thunderstorms is a very complex task because these weather events have a local character and are highly dependent on mesoscale atmospheric conditions. The development of convective storms is directly linked to the existence of a synoptic environment favoring convection. The aim of this study is to classify the atmospheric patterns that provide favorable environments for the occurrence of wildfires caused by lightning in the region of Castile and Leon, Spain. The database used for the study contains 376 wildfire days from the period 1987–2006. NCEP data reanalysis has been used. The atmospheric fields used to characterise each day were: geopotential heights and temperatures at 500 hPa and 850 hPa, relative humidity and the horizontal wind at 850 hPa. A Principal Component Analysis in T-mode followed by a Cluster Analysis resulted in a classification of wildfire days into five clusters. The characteristics of these clusters were analysed and described, focusing particularly on the study of those wildfire days in which more than one wildfire was detected. In these cases the main feature observed was the intensification of the disturbance typical of the cluster to which the wildfire belongs.

  18. Using evidence to strengthen accountability for health financing in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebbie, Sowo A; Le Voir, Rosanna; Tom-Kargbo, Joanna; Yilla, Mohamed Drissa; Kamara, Abu Bakarr; Nam, Sara L

    2016-12-01

    In 2012, the government of Sierra Leone cut the national budget allocation to the health sector. Civil society organizations planned a nationwide health budget advocacy campaign, coinciding with the 2012 general elections, to hold future leaders to account on financing for women's and children's health. As part of the campaign, Evidence for Action produced district health budget tracking scorecards. The scorecards presented Ministry of Finance data on the allocation and disbursement of health funds in each district. The data were communicated using simple, non-technical language so that citizens could understand the key messages and take action. A total of 5600 scorecards were shared at district electoral forums attended by political candidates, community members, and health activists. Since the election, the proportion of the total government budget allocated to health increased from 7.4% in 2012 to 11.2% in 2014. However, transforming politicians' commitments and pledges into implementation has been challenging, confirming that accountability is a long-term process. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Updated comparison of groundwater flow model results and isotopic data in the Leon Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Garcia, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    Northwest of Mexico City, the study area is located in the State of Guanajuato. Leon Valley has covered with groundwater its demand of water, estimated in 20.6 cubic meters per second. The constant increase of population and economic activities in the region, mainly in cities and automobile factories, has also a constant growth in water needs. Related extraction rate has produced an average decrease of approximately 1.0 m per year over the past two decades. This suggests that the present management of the groundwater should be checked. Management of groundwater in the study area involves the possibility of producing environmental impacts by extraction. This vital resource under stress becomes necessary studying its hydrogeological functioning to achieve scientific management of groundwater in the Valley. This research was based on the analysis and integration of existing information and the field generated by the authors. On the base of updated concepts like the geological structure of the area, the hydraulic parameters and the composition of deuterium-delta and delta-oxygen -18, this research has new results. This information has been fully analyzed by applying a groundwater flow model with particle tracking: the result has also a similar result in terms of travel time and paths derived from isotopic data.

  20. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XI.- Castilla-Leon (b): Palencia, Valladolid and Avila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Palencia. Valladolid and Avila of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author) 41 refs

  1. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XII.- Castilla-Leon (c): Burgos, Soria and Segovia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Burgos, Soria and Segovia of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author) 36 refs

  2. Restaurant-based intervention to facilitate healthy eating choices and the identification of allergenic foods at a family-oriented resort and a campground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarro, Lucia; Aceves-Martins, Magaly; Tiñena, Yolanda; Parisi, Joan Lluís; Blasi, Xavier; Giralt, Montse; Llauradó, Elisabet; Solà, Rosa

    2017-05-05

    Restaurant-based interventions can be an enjoyable way to encourage healthier eating choices by all members of a family. Thus, the principal aims of this study were a) to promote healthy diets by increasing healthy food offerings and b) to increase the number of foods offered specifically as gluten-free and lactose-free and to inform patrons by including nutritional and allergen information that complies with Regulation 1169/2011 regarding the food served in restaurants, takeaways and snack bars. A restaurant-based intervention was implemented at 16 food establishments at 2 resorts (the Cambrils Park Resort and Camping Sangulí, Spain, from 2014 to 2015) based on the following 4 components: 1) providing nutritional and allergen analyses of the offered dishes, 2) increasing the number of healthy food choices, 3) identifying menu items associated with allergies and intolerance, and 4) training staff on healthy eating and allergens. Customer satisfaction regarding food aspects was assessed using surveys (10-point scale). Both resorts significantly increased their offerings of healthy dishes (28.6% to 44.7%; P = 0.003) and desserts with fruit (20% to 51.3%; P = 0.013), thus obtaining the Spanish Government's Mediterranean Diet certification. Additionally, both resorts obtained Catalan Celiac Association certification. Moreover, both resorts significantly increased their percentages of gluten-free dishes (2.1% to 50.5%; P restaurant-based intervention expanded the number of healthy and allergen-free foods offered in a family-oriented holiday resort environment to encourage healthy food choices, resulting in increased customer satisfaction.

  3. O software de gestão hoteleira em resorts: o caso do Complexo Bávaro do Grupo Iberostar

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreiro, Sofia Borges

    2010-01-01

    No capítulo I aborda-se a estratégia hoteleira adoptada por hotéis para que se compreenda a perspectiva e visão de uma adequada e estratégica gestão hoteleira. Para isso, é necessário distinguir dois diferentes tipos de hotéis existentes no mercado hoteleiro, nomeadamente os hotéis de cidade e hotéis de resort. A partir das respectivas caracterizações e enquadramentos em ambientes distintos, percebe-se agora as necessidades específicas de cada um para uma aplicação de software apropriada e ad...

  4. THE ROLE OF PHYTOTHERAPY IN OPTIMIZATION OF REHABILITATION AT A HEALTH RESORT IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC TONSILLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Kondrat’eva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors present results of a treatment with complex of physical methods and phyto drug Tonsilgon N (Althaeae officinalis L., Chamomilla recutita, Equisetum arvense L., Juglans regia L., Achillea millefolium L., Quercus robur, Taraxacum officinale of 35 children with chronic tonsillitis at a health resort. Clinical, immunological effectiveness and safety was estimated. Inclusion of the drug in treatment scheme resulted in decrease of morbidity with acute respiratory infections and rate of exacerbations of tonsillitis. Phyto drug has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating activity manifested in increase of level of humoral factors in nasal secretion and cytoprotective effect related to positive changes in functional state of epithelium of nasal mucous membrane in children with chronic tonsillitis.Key words: children, chronic tonsillitis, rehabilitation, phytotherapy.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:58-63

  5. Party package travels impact on alcohol use and related problems in a holiday resort - a mixed methods study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien; Schliewe, Sanna

    2008-01-01

    Background People travelling abroad tend to increase their use of alcohol and other drugs. In the present study we describe organized party activities in connection with young tourists' drinking, and the differences between young people travelling with and without organized party activities...... travelled with such "party package travel agencies" were more likely to drink 12 or more units when going out. In univariate analyses, they were also more likely to get into fights, but were not more likely to seek medical assistance or medical assistance for an accident or an alcohol-related problem. After...... controlling for confounders, the association between type of travel agency and getting into fights was no longer significant. Short-term consequences of drinking in the holiday resort did not differ between party package travellers and ordinary package travellers. Conclusions There may be a small impact...

  6. Critical Factors Influencing Viability of Wave Energy Converters in Off-Grid Luxury Resorts and Small Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksel Botne Sandberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines technical and non-technical factors that are critical to the viability of commercialization of wave energy converters in off-grid luxury resorts and small utilities. Critical factors are found by investigating Levelized Cost of Energy, and using the tools PESTEL and Porter’s five competitive forces. Identified factors are then applied on three business cases to investigate their impact on viability. The results show that one of the main challenges facing off-grid commercialization is the few wave energy converter units installed per location, negating the economy of scale that large wave energy farms count on to achieve competitive cost levels. In addition, factors like current cost of energy, available wave resources, distance from shore, infrastructure, supply chain logistics, and electricity demand are found to be deciding factors for viability. Despite these challenges, it is found that there are potentially viable off-grid business cases for commercialization of wave energy converters.

  7. Thermal and mineral resource exploitation in Angaco department, province of San Juan, Argentina, as therapeutic and recreational resort area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, M.; Martinez Iillanes, S.; Luccato, M; Herrera, C.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the development of the Guayaupa thermal and mineral spring water intended as therapeutic and recreational resort area is presented. This area is located on the western piedmont of the Pie de Palo range, Department of Angaco, province of San Juan. From the analysis of the information related to geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, location, accessibility and climate aspects and also to the processing of the Landsat Tms satellite images to evaluate the geomorphologic and flora features an ordered diagnosis of the organization internal reality and its relation with the environment (FODA analysis) is presented. Internal strengths and weaknesses and the external factors that generate both opportunities and/or hazards were identified to define strategy guidelines that meet the legal and environmental standards in force. Results obtained from the strategic planning process conclude the availability and convenience of the project.(author)

  8. St. Anselm and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gillian R.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the educational principles and methods of the medieval philosopher and theologian, St. Anselm. Educational practices of medieval monastic schools, town schools, private tutors, and pastoral teaching are discussed. Available from: Taylor & Francis Ltd., P.O. Box 9137, Church Street Station, New York, N.Y. 10049. (Author/DB)

  9. Air and wet bulb temperature lapse rates and their impact on snowmaking in a Pyrenean ski resort

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Navarro-Serrano, F.; Azorín-Molina, C.; Sánchez-Navarrete, P.; Alonso-González, E.; Rico, I.; Morán-Tejeda, E.; Buisan, S.; Revuelto, J.; Pons, M.; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    A set of 17 air temperature and relative humidity sensors were used to analyze the temporal variability of surface air temperature (Tair), wet bulb temperature (Twb), and daily snowmaking hours (SM, number of hours per day with Twb identical temporal fluctuations. The Twb exhibited average lapse rates that were slightly steeper (- 5.2 °C/km) than those observed for Tair (- 4.9 °C/km). The less steep lapse rates and most thermal inversions were observed in December. Days having less (more) steep Tair and Twb lapse rates were observed under low (high) wind speeds and high (low) relative humidity and air pressure. The temporal dynamics of the SM lapse rates was more complex, as this involved consideration of the average Tair in the ski resort, in addition to the driving factors of the spatio-temporal variability of Twb. Thus, on a number of cold (warm) days, snowmaking was feasible at all elevations at the ski resort, independently of the slopes of the lapse rates. The SM exhibited an average daily lapse rate of 8.2 h/km, with a progressive trend of increase from December to March. Weather types over the Iberian Peninsula tightly control the driving factors of the Tair, Twb, and SM lapse rates (wind speed, relative humidity, and Tair), so the slopes of the lapse rates and the frequency of inversions in relation to elevation for the three variables are very dependent on the occurrence of specific weather types. The less steep lapse rates occurred associated with advections from the southeast, although low lapse rates also occurred during advections from the east and south, and under anticyclonic conditions. The steepest Tair and Twb lapse rates were observed during north and northwest advections, while the steepest rates for SM were observed during days of cyclonic circulation and advections from the northeast.

  10. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  11. Relationships of daily mortality and hospital admissions to air pollution in Castilla-Leon, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pablo, F.; Lopez, A.; Rivas Soriano, L.; Tomas, C. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)]. E-mail: fpd123@usal.es; Diego, L.; Gonzalez, M. [Instituto Regional de Salud Publica, SACYL Castilla-Leon (Spain); Barrueco, M. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    We examined the possible relationships between pollutant concentrations and mortality at seven different locations of Castilla-Leon, Spain, and the relationships between such concentration levels and emergency admissions (morbidity) at four hospitals in the region, taking into account the possible masking effect of other atmospheric variables. The study was based on daily mortality and morbidity data from 1995 to 1997 (ICD-9 codes: 390-459 cardiovascular; 460-519 respiratory; 520-579 digestive causes); moreover, data for meteorological variables (air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, atmospheric pressure and wind velocity) and air pollution data (SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, NO, NO{sub 2} and CO) were used. A minimum set of weather and pollutant predictors was selected using forward inclusion stepwise linear regression methods and these were used to produce a multivariate model of the different causes of mortality and morbidity. For the whole period, the mortality attributable to cardiovascular causes had an incidence higher than the mortality due to respiratory and digestive causes. The frequency distributions corresponding to the different diseases as classified by ages revealed that the population older than 69 is the most affected, the proportion of cardiovascular disease related deaths in this age sector being 7-fold higher than for the rest of the groups. Mortality and morbidity due to respiratory and cardiovascular-related diseases showed a high correlation coefficient with temperature, solar radiation and ozone, and in general significant correlations were also seen with SO{sub 2}. [Spanish] Se analizan las posibles relaciones existentes entre la mortalidad de la poblacion, el numero de admisiones hospitalarias (morbilidad) y los niveles de concentracion de contaminantes medidos en siete localidades y cuatro hospitales de Castilla-Leon, Espana, respectivamente, teniendo en cuenta el posible efecto de enmascaramiento que ejercen las variables

  12. Successful Control of Ebola Virus Disease: Analysis of Service Based Data from Rural Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokuge, Kamalini; Caleo, Grazia; Greig, Jane; Duncombe, Jennifer; McWilliam, Nicholas; Squire, James; Lamin, Manjo; Veltus, Emily; Wolz, Anja; Kobinger, Gary; de la Vega, Marc-Antoine; Gbabai, Osman; Nabieu, Sao; Lamin, Mohammed; Kremer, Ronald; Danis, Kostas; Banks, Emily; Glass, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    The scale and geographical distribution of the current outbreak in West Africa raised doubts as to the effectiveness of established methods of control. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) was first detected in Sierra Leone in May 2014 in Kailahun district. Despite high case numbers elsewhere in the country, transmission was eliminated in the district by December 2014. We describe interventions underpinning successful EVD control in Kailahun and implications for EVD control in other areas. Internal service data and published reports from response agencies were analysed to describe the structure and type of response activities, EVD case numbers and epidemic characteristics. This included daily national situation reports and District-level data and reports of the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) patient data and internal epidemiological reports. We used EVD case definitions provided by the World Health Organisation over the course of the outbreak. Characteristics assessed included level of response activities and epidemiological features such as reported exposure (funeral-related or not), time interval between onset of illness and admission to the EVD Management Centre (EMC), work-related exposures (health worker or not) and mortality. We compared these characteristics between two time periods--June to July (the early period of response), and August to December (when coverage and quality of response had improved). A stochastic model was used to predict case numbers per generation with different numbers of beds and a varying percentage of community cases detected. There were 652 probable/confirmed EVD cases from June-December 2014 in Kailahun. An EMC providing patient care opened in June. By August 2014 an integrated detection, treatment, and prevention strategy was in place across the district catchment zone. From June-July to August-December 2014 surveillance and contact tracing staff increased from 1.0 to 8.8 per confirmed

  13. Successful Control of Ebola Virus Disease: Analysis of Service Based Data from Rural Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalini Lokuge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The scale and geographical distribution of the current outbreak in West Africa raised doubts as to the effectiveness of established methods of control. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD was first detected in Sierra Leone in May 2014 in Kailahun district. Despite high case numbers elsewhere in the country, transmission was eliminated in the district by December 2014. We describe interventions underpinning successful EVD control in Kailahun and implications for EVD control in other areas.Internal service data and published reports from response agencies were analysed to describe the structure and type of response activities, EVD case numbers and epidemic characteristics. This included daily national situation reports and District-level data and reports of the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF patient data and internal epidemiological reports. We used EVD case definitions provided by the World Health Organisation over the course of the outbreak. Characteristics assessed included level of response activities and epidemiological features such as reported exposure (funeral-related or not, time interval between onset of illness and admission to the EVD Management Centre (EMC, work-related exposures (health worker or not and mortality. We compared these characteristics between two time periods--June to July (the early period of response, and August to December (when coverage and quality of response had improved. A stochastic model was used to predict case numbers per generation with different numbers of beds and a varying percentage of community cases detected.There were 652 probable/confirmed EVD cases from June-December 2014 in Kailahun. An EMC providing patient care opened in June. By August 2014 an integrated detection, treatment, and prevention strategy was in place across the district catchment zone. From June-July to August-December 2014 surveillance and contact tracing staff increased from 1.0 to 8.8 per

  14. Factors Associated with HIV Prevalence and HIV Testing in Sierra Leone: Findings from the 2008 Demographic Health Survey.

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    Nataliya Brima

    Full Text Available The Sierra Leone Demographic Health Survey 2008 found an HIV prevalence of 1.5%. This study investigates associations with HIV infection and HIV testing.Households were selected using stratified multi-stage sampling. In all selected households women aged 15-49 were eligible. In every second household men aged 15-59 were also eligible. Participants were asked to consent for anonymous HIV testing. All participants interviewed and tested were analysed. Multiple logistic regression identified associations with HIV infection, undiagnosed infection and with ever having a voluntary HIV test among sexually active participants.Of 7495 invited 86% (6,475 agreed to an interview and HIV test. Among 96 HIV positive participants, 78% had never taken a voluntary HIV test so were unaware of their serostatus, and 86% were sexually active in the last 12 months among whom 96% did not use a condom at last intercourse. 11% of all participants had previously voluntarily tested. Among women who had tested, 60% did so in antenatal care. We found that those living in an urban area, and those previously married, were more likely to be HIV infected. Voluntary HIV testing was more common in those aged 25-44, living in an urban area, females, having secondary or higher education, having first sexual intercourse at age 17 years or older, and using condoms at last sex. Although 82% of men and 69% of women had heard of HIV, only 35% and 29% respectively had heard of antiretroviral therapy.The HIV prevalence in Sierra Leone has been stable. HIV testing, however, is uncommon and most infected individuals are unaware of their serostatus. This could allow the epidemic to escalate as individuals with undiagnosed infection are unlikely to change their behaviour or access treatment. Improving knowledge and increasing testing need to remain central to HIV prevention interventions in Sierra Leone.

  15. Alteration mineral mapping for iron prospecting using ETM+ data, Tonkolili iron field, northern Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansaray, Lamin R.; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Ma, Zhimin

    2013-10-01

    The Tonkolili iron field in northern Sierra Leone has the largest known iron ore deposit in Africa. It occurs in a greenstone belt in an Achaean granitic basement. This study focused mainly on mapping areas with iron-oxide and hydroxyl bearing minerals, and identifying potential areas for haematite mineralization and banded iron formations (BIFs) in Tonkolili. The predominant mineral assemblage at the surface (laterite duricrust) of this iron field is haematitegoethite- limonite ±magnetite. The mineralization occurs in quartzitic banded ironstones, layered amphibolites, granites, schists and hornblendites. In this study, Crosta techniques were applied on Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data to enhance areas with alteration minerals and target potential areas of haematite and BIF units in the Tonkolili iron field. Synthetic analysis shows that alteration zones mapped herein are consistent with the already discovered magnetite BIFs in Tonkolili. Based on the overlaps of the simplified geological map and the remote sensing-based alteration mineral maps obtained in this study, three new haematite prospects were inferred within, and one new haematite prospect was inferred outside the tenement boundary of the Tonkolili exploration license. As the primary iron mineral in Tonkolili is magnetite, the study concludes that, these haematite prospects could also be underlain by magnetite BIFs. This study also concludes that, the application of Crosta techniques on ETM+ data is effective not only in mapping iron-oxide and hydroxyl alterations but can also provide a basis for inferring areas of potential iron resources in Algoma-type banded iron formations (BIFs), such as those in the Tonkolili field.

  16. The Potential of Women’s Organization for Rural Development in Sierra Leone

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    Theresa Tenneh Dick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are among the preferred outlets women use both to voice societal prejudices against them and to showcase their potential for rural/community development. There is an increasing advocacy for gender equality, women’s empowerment and the integration of women folks into the socio-economic, political and cultural fabrics of society. Girl-child education and women-based capacity building programs such as micro-finance, entrepreneurship, political activism, etc. have surfaced prominently on these women’s empowerment efforts. In this study, a questionnaire-driven survey is conducted in two districts in southern Sierra Leone. The survey covers 36 influential women in 36 town-level communities in the country. The study analyzes the personal and organization characteristics of the women in relation to social perceptions and rural/community development. A large percent of the women surveyed are educated, married and belong to social organizations. In addition to other social/development organizations, women’s organizations are also present in each of the surveyed communities. Most of the women organizations are local in nature and operate entirely on funds raised from within the local communities. This display of organizational ability of the surveyed rural women shows a significant perceptional shift towards recognizing women folks as productive counterparts in our societies. This trend also psychologically strengthens the women community to take on tangible responsibilities that were ones meant for men only. The analysis also shows that rural women hold managerial and other administrative positions in the organizations which are strongly oriented towards various forms of rural/community development. This is a significant positive deviation from the traditional perception which has unduly confined the women folks to the backyard for centuries now. This trend not only has the potential of benefiting the millions more women languishing in

  17. Where there is no psychiatrist: A mental health programme in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Alonso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. For most low- and middle-income countries, mental health remains a neglected area, despite the recognised burden associated with neuropsychiatric conditions and the inextricable link to other public health priorities. Objectives. To describe the results of a free outpatient mental health programme delivered by non-specialist health workers in Makeni, Sierra Leone between July 2008 and May 2012.  Methods. A nurse and two counsellors completed an 8-week training course focused on the identification and management of seven priority conditions: psychosis, bipolar disorder, depression, mental disorders due to medical conditions, developmental and behavioural disorders, alcohol and drug use disorders, and dementia. The World Health Organization recommendations on basic mental healthcare packages were followed to establish treatment for each condition.  Results. A total of 549 patients was assessed and diagnosed as suffering from psychotic disorders (n=295, 53.7%, manic episodes (n=69, 12.5%, depressive episodes (n=53, 9.6%, drug use disorders (n=182, 33.1%, dementia (n=30, 5.4%, mental disorders due to medical conditions (n=39, 7.1%, and developmental disorders (n=46, 8.3%. Of these, 417 patients received pharmacological therapy and 70.7% were rated as much or very much improved. Of those who could not be offered medication, 93.4% dropped out of the programme after the first visit.  Conclusions. The identification and treatment of mental disorders must be considered an urgent public health priority in low- and middle-income countries. Trained primary health workers can deliver safe and effective treatment for mental disorders as a feasible alternative to ease the scarcity of mental health specialists in developing countries.

  18. Community involvement in constructing village health buildings in Uganda and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M

    1995-11-01

    Three public health projects in Uganda and Sierra Leone are used to illustrate a new approach to construction of health buildings in villages. Emphasis is placed on community involvement. The health projects were comprehensive and relied on health education, employment of local village health workers, and establishment of village health committees. The objective of community involvement was described as encouragement of people to change their own diets and living conditions. This approach to primary health care is considered to be a strong basis for sustainable social development. Each of the three communities initiated the building projects slightly differently. There was a range of structures: traditional meeting halls, simple rooms with imported materials and a pit latrine, new buildings combining local and imported materials and labor, new nontraditional buildings, rehabilitated existing nontraditional buildings with imported labor and materials, and temporary mobile clinics. Community involvement was at different levels. All three projects were the result of a combined effort of national governments or mission hospitals, nongovernmental organizations, and the host community. The following should be considered before beginning construction: a suitable site, appropriate staff accommodation, the likely motivation of the host community, seasonality, local materials available, availability of skilled labor, and design. A plan of work during construction should include a building design, site supervision, transportation of local and non-local materials, unskilled labor, and skilled labor. Village health committees with or without government help would be responsible for maintenance of buildings after construction. A key feature of this approach is the assessment of the community's ability and capacity to contribute.

  19. Effects of Large-Scale Acquisition on Food Insecurity in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesis Tambang Yengoh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent phenomenon of large-scale acquisition of land for a variety of investment purposes has raised deep concerns over the food security, livelihood and socio-economic development of communities in many regions of the developing world. This study set out to investigate the food security outcomes of land acquisitions in northern Sierra Leone. Using a mixture of quantitative and qualitative research methods, the study measures the severity of food insecurity and hunger, compares the situation of food security before and after the onset of operations of a land investing company, analyzes the food security implications of producing own food versus depending on wage labour for household food needs, and evaluates initiatives put in place by the land investing company to mitigate its food insecurity footprint. Results show an increase in the severity of food insecurity and hunger. Household income from agricultural production has fallen. Employment by the land investing company is limited in terms of the number of people it employs relative to the population of communities in which it operates. Also, wages from employment by the company cannot meet the staple food needs of its employees. The programme that has been put in place by the company to mitigate its food insecurity footprint is failing because of a host of reasons that relate to organization and power relations. In conclusion, rural people are better off producing their own food than depending on the corporate structure of land investment companies. Governments should provide an enabling framework to accommodate this food security need, both in land investment operations that are ongoing and in those that are yet to operate.

  20. Reductions in inpatient mortality following interventions to improve emergency hospital care in Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The demand for high quality hospital care for children in low resource countries is not being met. This paper describes a number of strategies to improve emergency care at a children's hospital and evaluates the impact of these on inpatient mortality. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of improving emergency care is estimated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A team of local and international staff developed a plan to improve emergency care for children arriving at The Ola During Children's Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone. Following focus group discussions, five priority areas were identified to improve emergency care; staff training, hospital layout, staff allocation, medical equipment, and medical record keeping. A team of international volunteers worked with local staff for six months to design and implement improvements in these five priority areas. The improvements were evaluated collectively rather than individually. Before the intervention, the inpatient mortality rate was 12.4%. After the intervention this improved to 5.9%. The relative risk of dying was 47% (95% CI 0.369-0.607 lower after the intervention. The estimated number of lives saved in the first two months after the intervention was 103. The total cost of the intervention was USD 29 714, the estimated cost per death averted was USD 148. There are two main limitation of the study. Firstly, the brevity of the study and secondly, the assumed homogeneity of the clinical cases that presented to the hospital before and after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstarted a signficant reductuion in inpatient mortality rate after an intervention to improve emergency hospital care If the findings of this paper could be reproduced in a larger more rigorous study, improving the quality of care in hospitals would be a very cost effective strategy to save children's lives in low resource settings.

  1. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

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    Maria Alessandra eUmilta'

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors were tested in order to assess participants’ ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing

  2. Radiological data on building stones from a Spanish region. Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.; Neves, L. [Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Dept. Ciencias da Terra; Pereira, D.; Peinado, M.; Armenteros, I. [Salamanca Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Geologia

    2013-07-01

    As construction and building material, natural stone has a great potential to promote the commercial activities of certain European regions. Such is the case of Castilla y Leon in Spain, where many different rocks, ranging from sedimentary to metamorphic and igneous, are commercialized for building purposes. However, to be able to compete in a market subject to an economic crisis, highly exacerbated in the construction sector, and to compete with the lower prices offered by emerging countries, the issue would be to make the Spanish offer more attractive. Here we propose a complete characterization of rocks regarding their radiological properties, which are related to their mineralogy and geochemistry. Rocks emit natural radioactivity, and the presence of Rn and its decay products in dwellings has become an important issue in North America and Europe owing to its relationship with the carcinogenic effects of this gas. Although most of the studied rocks comply with the I parameter proposed in the European Norm 112 for Radiological Protection (accepted value I ≤ 1; average for sedimentary rock: I = 0.22, SD 0.14; average for metamorphic rocks: I = 0.70, SD 0.48; average for igneous rock: I = 0.86, SD 0.22), the inclusion of a proper radiological characterization in the list of characteristics would guarantee quality and safety in their use in comparison with products lacking this information. Some natural stones have been demonized for the potential exhalation of natural radioactivity, and the different parameters used should be addressed in a more systematic way.

  3. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umiltà, Maria Allessandra; Wood, Rachel; Loffredo, Francesca; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors) were tested in order to assess participants' ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing in later life.

  4. Diversity of inland valleys and opportunities for agricultural development in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Ronald Dossou-Yovo

    Full Text Available Inland valleys are becoming increasingly important agricultural production areas for rural households in sub-Saharan Africa due to their relative high and secure water availability and soil fertility. In addition, inland valleys are important as water buffer and biodiversity hot spots and they provide local communities with forest, forage, and fishing resources. As different inland-valley ecosystem functions may conflict with agricultural objectives, indiscriminate development should be avoided. This study aims to analyze the diversity of inland valleys in Sierra Leone and to develop guidelines for more precise interventions. Land use, biophysical and socio-economic data were analyzed on 257 inland valleys using spatial and multivariate techniques. Five cluster groups of inland valleys were identified: (i semi-permanently flooded with high soil organic carbon (4.2% and moderate available phosphorus (10.2 ppm, mostly under natural vegetation; (ii semi-permanently flooded with low soil organic carbon (1.5% and very low available phosphorus (3.1 ppm, abandoned by farmers; (iii seasonally flooded with moderate soil organic carbon (3.1% and low available phosphorus (8.3 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced without fertilizer application for household consumption and market; (iv well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.8% and moderate available phosphorus (10.0 ppm, used for rainfed rice and off-season vegetables produced with fertilizer application for household consumption and market; and (v well drained with moderate soil organic carbon (3.6% and moderate available phosphorus (11 ppm, used for household consumption without fertilizer application. Soil organic carbon, available phosphorus, hydrological regime, physical accessibility and market opportunity were the major factors affecting agricultural intensification of inland valleys. Opening up the areas in which inland valleys occur through improved roads and

  5. A behavioral intervention for war-affected youth in Sierra Leone: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M; Brennan, Robert T; Weisz, John R; Hansen, Nathan B

    2014-12-01

    Youth in war-affected regions are at risk for poor psychological, social, and educational outcomes. Effective interventions are needed to improve mental health, social behavior, and school functioning. This randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of a 10-session cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based group mental health intervention for multisymptomatic war-affected youth (aged 15-24 years) in Sierra Leone. War-affected youth identified by elevated distress and impairment via community screening were randomized (stratified by sex and age) to the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI) (n = 222) or to a control condition (n = 214). After treatment, youth were again randomized and offered an education subsidy immediately (n = 220) or waitlisted (n = 216). Emotion regulation, psychological distress, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, functional impairment, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed at pre- and postintervention and at 6-month follow-up. For youth in school, enrollment, attendance, and classroom performance were assessed after 8 months. Linear mixed-effects regressions evaluated outcomes. The YRI showed significant postintervention effects on emotion regulation, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social support, and reduced functional impairment, and significant follow-up effects on school enrollment, school attendance, and classroom behavior. In contrast, education subsidy was associated with better attendance but had no effect on mental health or functioning, school retention, or classroom behavior. Interactions between education subsidy and YRI were not significant. YRI produced acute improvements in mental health and functioning as well as longer-term effects on school engagement and behavior, suggesting potential to prepare war-affected youth for educational and other opportunities. Clinical trial registration information-Trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI); http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT

  6. [Western area surge for controlling Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Sierra Leone and evaluation of its effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Wenyi; Chen, Zeliang; Chang, Guohui; Tian, Shuguang; Yang, Ruifu; Liu, Chao

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the Western Area Surge (WAS) program in the Ebola outbreak of Sierra Leone, and to analyze its implementing effect. The subject of this study was 3,813 laboratory confirmed Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) cases reported in Sierra Leone from November 19, 2014 through January 27, 2015, a period before and after the implementation of the WAS program. To analyze and make conclusions according to the working experience of China Mobile Laboratory Reponses Team in the fight of Ebola outbreak, using WHO published EHF case definition to make diagnosis and compare the number of bed numbers, confirmed EHF cases, samples tested, and positive rates before and after implementation of WAS program. From the implementation of WAS program on 17th December 2014 to half a month later, the total numbers of Ebola holding and treatment centers increased from 640 to 960, six additional laboratories were established. On January, 2015, another two laboratories from America and The Netherlands were established. The numbers of samples tested one month before and after WAS program were 7,891 and 9,783, respectively, with an increase of 24.0 percent, while the positive rate of Ebola virus decreased from 22.2% (1,752/7,891) to 11.0% (1,077/9,783). The positive rate of blood samples decreased from 39.6% (248/626) in the month before WAS program to 27.4% (131/478) (χ2=17.93, P<0.001) in the mother after WAS program, the positive rate of blood samples 22.7% (103/454) to 10% (62/609) (χ2=31.03, P<0.001), accordingly. After 3 weeks of WAS program, in addition to Western Area, another four hotspots in Sierra Leone had also reported a significant decrease of the numbers of confirmed EVD cases. Forty-two days after implementation of WAS program, the daily number of laboratory confirmed EHF cases decreased from 63 to 10. WAS program played a vital role in controlling the EHF outbreak rapidly in Sierra Leone. It could also provide guidance for the control similar large infectious diseases

  7. [Molecular detection of hepatitis E virus in pig livers destined for human consumption in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú-Martínez, Marco Antonio; Roig-Sagués, Artur Xavier; Cedillo-Rosales, Sibilina; Zamora-Ávila, Diana Elisa; Avalos-Ramírez, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    Molecular detection of HEV in pig livers destined for human consumption in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 87 livers were collected from pigs slaughtered in TIF and 40 livers from butchers. A 212 pb fragment of HEV ORF2 gene was amplified by semi-nested RT-PCR. 19.54% (17) of tif's and 22.5% (9) of butcher's livers were positive for HEV. Sequencing of the amplified products showed a 94%-95% homology with the sequences reported for genotype 3. Our results indicate that HEV is circulating in swine herds in the state, constituting a probable source of contamination of pig meat products.

  8. Effectiveness of spinosad and temephos for the control of mosquito larvae at a tire dump in Allende, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Robledo, Argentina A; Martínez-Perales, Juan F; Rodríguez-Castro, Violeta A; Quiroz-Martínez, Humberto

    2011-12-01

    The effectiveness of spinosad and temephos for the control of mosquito larvae was evaluated in a tire dump in Allende, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Three groups of 12 to 17 tires located in tree shade were utilized for this study. After the larvicides were applied, samples were collected weekly from 7 randomly chosen tires. The data showed a significant difference between the larvicides and control. Under the conditions of the present study, the effectiveness of spinosad against mosquito larvae was similar to that of temephos, both being effective for up to 91 days postapplication. In addition, spinosad allowed the establishment of the mosquito predator Toxorhynchites sp.

  9. A new generalized algebra method and its application in the (2 + 1) dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yujie; Liu Shutian; Zhang Hongqing

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, some types of general solutions of a first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation with six degree are given and a new generalized algebra method is presented to find more exact solutions of nonlinear differential equations. As an application of the method and the solutions of this equation, we choose the (2 + 1) dimensional Boiti Leon Pempinelli equation to illustrate the validity and advantages of the method. As a consequence, more new types and general solutions are found which include rational solutions and irrational solutions and so on. The new method can also be applied to other nonlinear differential equations in mathematical physics

  10. Evaluating the use of cell phone messaging for community Ebola syndromic surveillance in high risked settings in Southern Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kangbai; Mohamed, Koroma

    2015-09-01

    Most underdeveloped countries do not meet core disease outbreak surveillance because of the lack of human resources, laboratory and infrastructural facilities. The use of cell phone technology for disease outbreak syndromic surveillance is a new phenomenon in Sierra Leone despite its successes in other developing countries like Sri Lanka. In this study we set to evaluate the effectiveness of using cell phone technology for Ebola hemorrhagic fever syndromic surveillance in a high risked community in Sierra Leone. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using cell phone messaging (text and calls) for community Ebola hemorrhagic fever syndromic surveillance in high risked community in southern Sierra Leone. All cell phone syndromic surveillance data used for this study was reported as cell phone alert messages-texts and voice calls; by the Moyamba District Health Management Team for both Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect and mortalities. We conducted a longitudinal data analysis of the monthly cumulative confirmed Ebola hemorrhagic fever cases and mortalities collected by both the traditional sentinel and community cell phone syndromic surveillance from August 2014 to October 2014. A total of 129 and 49 Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect and confirmed cases respectively were recorded using the community Ebola syndromic surveillance cell phone alert system by the Moyamba District Health Management Team in October 2014. The average number of Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspects and confirmed cases for October 2014 were 4.16 (Std.dev 3.76) and 1.58 (Std.dev 1.43) respectively. Thirty-four percent (n=76) of the community Ebola syndromic surveillance cell phone alerts that were followed-up within 24 hours reported Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect cases while 65.92% (n=147) reported mortality. Our study suggests some form of underreporting by the traditional sentinel Ebola hemorrhagic fever disease surveillance system in Moyamba District southern Sierra Leone for August

  11. Gestión del agua subterránea en el Barrio Cerro Los Leones de Tandil (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Corina Iris; Jacinto, Guillermina; Ruiz de Galarreta, Alejandro; Banda Noriega, Roxana

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se describen y analizan los actores y modos de explotación y uso involucrados en la gestión del recurso hídrico subterráneo en un barrio periférico de Tandil -Cerro Los Leones- (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina), que carece de servicios de agua potable y cloacas. Estudios previos demostraron contaminación química y bacteriológica del agua que pone en riesgo la salud de la población. Se caracterizan los modos de uso y explotación del agua, señalando importantes deficiencias...

  12. Modeling the 2014 Ebola Virus Epidemic - Agent-Based Simulations, Temporal Analysis and Future Predictions for Liberia and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siettos, Constantinos; Anastassopoulou, Cleo; Russo, Lucia; Grigoras, Christos; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-03-09

    We developed an agent-based model to investigate the epidemic dynamics of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Liberia and Sierra Leone from May 27 to December 21, 2014. The dynamics of the agent-based simulator evolve on small-world transmission networks of sizes equal to the population of each country, with adjustable densities to account for the effects of public health intervention policies and individual behavioral responses to the evolving epidemic. Based on time series of the official case counts from the World Health Organization (WHO), we provide estimates for key epidemiological variables by employing the so-called Equation-Free approach. The underlying transmission networks were characterized by rather random structures in the two countries with densities decreasing by ~19% from the early (May 27-early August) to the last period (mid October-December 21). Our estimates for the values of key epidemiological variables, such as the mean time to death, recovery and the case fatality rate, are very close to the ones reported by the WHO Ebola response team during the early period of the epidemic (until September 14) that were calculated based on clinical data. Specifically, regarding the effective reproductive number Re, our analysis suggests that until mid October, Re was above 2.3 in both countries; from mid October to December 21, Re dropped well below unity in Liberia, indicating a saturation of the epidemic, while in Sierra Leone it was around 1.9, indicating an ongoing epidemic. Accordingly, a ten-week projection from December 21 estimated that the epidemic will fade out in Liberia in early March; in contrast, our results flashed a note of caution for Sierra Leone since the cumulative number of cases could reach as high as 18,000, and the number of deaths might exceed 5,000, by early March 2015. However, by processing the reported data of the very last period (December 21, 2014-January 18, 2015), we obtained more optimistic estimates indicative of a remission of

  13. Una Nueva aproximación al De re aedificatoria de Leon Battista Alberti: los conocimientos constructivos y sus fuentes.

    OpenAIRE

    Onecha Pérez, Ana Belen

    2012-01-01

    El De re aedificatoria, segundo tratado conocido de arquitectura en la historia y escrito entre 1443 y 1452 por Leon Battista Alberti, es uno de los textos arquitectónicos más estudiados. La época histórica a la que pertenece, el renacimiento; los lazos que lo ligan a épocas pasadas esplendorosas; la teoría expuesta sobre las proporciones, derivada de los estándares greco-romanos; y el interés por el personaje que lo escribió, han sido los grandes enfoques a través de las cuale...

  14. St Paul fracture zone intratransform ridge basalts (Equatorial Atlantic): Insight within the mantle source diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemond, C.; Brunelli, D.; Maia, M.; Prigent, S.; Sichel, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    The St Paul Transform System offsets by 630 km the Equatorial Mid Atlantic Ridge at 1° N. It consists of four Major faults separating three intra transform ridge axes. Volcanic glassy samples were collected inside two intratransform ridge (ITR) segments during the COLMEIA cruise (Maia et al ; 2016) and samples from the third ITR available from a previous cruise ST PAUL (Hékinian et al. 2000). Major, trace elements and Hf, Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes were determined on selected hand picked glass chips. Few glassy samples recovered and analysed from abyssal hill samples open a time window of about 4.5 million years in the chemistry of the northern ITR. Results show that all samples are basaltic in composition but trace elements display contrasting images for the three ITR. The northern ITR samples are all light REE and highly incompatible enriched and are E-MORB; the central ITR samples display rather flat REE pattern with a level on enrichment of the HREE higher than the other two ITR and are T-MORB. Southern ITR samples are more heterogeneous N-MORB to T-MORB with a lower level of HREE. Isotopes reveal that the ITRs sample distinct mantle sources. In various isotope plans, the northern ITR samples plot together with published results from the MAR directly north of the St Paul F.Z. Therefore they exhibit some flavor of the Sierra Leone hotspot interacting with the MAR at 1.7°N. Central and southern ITR samples have very distinct composition from the northern ITR but resemble each other. However, for identical 206Pb/204Pb ratios, central ITR has slightly but significantly higher 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb, also higher 143Nd/144Nd for a given 87Sr/86Sr. Southern ITR is in chemical continuity of the MAR southward. So that central ITR samples display a rather specific composition. Off axis samples corresponding to the activity of the northern ITR up to 4.6 m.y. show that the hotspot contribution was even bigger on the spreading axis than today and might be fading with

  15. Utilization of respondent-driven sampling among a population of child workers in the diamond-mining sector of Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørkhaug, I; Hatløy, A

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of respondent driven sampling (RDS) in a study conducted in Kono District, Sierra Leone. RDS was used to identify children, under the age of 18 years old, working in the diamond sector of Sierra Leone. This includes children working directly as diamond miners as well as children working in the informal sector connected to the diamond field. The article seeks to postulate that RDS is a suitable method for a rapid approach to a population that is unidentified in size and demonstrate how RDS can reach a study population within a limited period.

  16. Oliver St John Gogarty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R W

    1997-01-01

    Oliver St John Gogarty--Otolaryngologist to fashionable Edwardian Dublin--was a distinguished poet and a Senator in the fledgling Irish Free State after its establishment in 1922. He numbered amongst his acquaintances the poet William Butler Yeats, the novelist James Joyce and a host of political and literary persona who helped to shape modern Ireland. He was satirised as 'stately plump Buck Mulligan' in Joyce's novel Ulysses.

  17. ST Safety What's on?

    CERN Document Server

    Jacot, C

    2001-01-01

    Du premier coup de pioche jusqu'à la mise en place de la tente abritant le buffet offert lors de la cérémonie d'achèvement d'un projet, la division ST est sur les rangs et apporte son savoir faire. Ces projets nombreux et pluridisciplinaires sont étudiés, se réalisent, s'exploitent et font l'objet de maintenance jusqu'à leur démantèlement. Durant leurs cycles de vie, la division ST avance les compétences professionnelles spécifiques à chaque corps de métiers incluant le recours à de nombreux contrats avec des entreprises extérieures pour réaliser les travaux sur les sites du CERN. Pour en conserver la maîtrise, la division ST applique une gestion de projet, une assurance de la qualité et s'attache tout particulièrement à la sécurité, à la réglementation, à la prévention des risques et la gestion de ceux-ci. Sous la supervision du DSO, un ensemble de procédures et de démarches a été développé afin de faciliter les tâches du maître d'ouvrage et des entreprises contractantes, c...

  18. Roegneria alashanica Keng: a species with the StStStYStY genome constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard R-C; Jensen, Kevin B

    2017-06-01

    The genome constitution of tetraploid Roegneria alashanica Keng has been in question for a long time. Most scientific studies have suggested that R. alashanica had two versions of the St genome, St 1 St 2 , similar to that of Pseudoroegneria elytrigioides (C. Yen & J.L. Yang) B.R. Lu. A study, however, concluded that R. alashanica had the StY genome formula typical for tetraploid species of Roegneria. For the present study, R. alashanica, Elymus longearistatus (Bioss.) Tzvelev (StY genomes), Pseudoroegneria strigosa (M. Bieb.) Á. Löve (St), Pseudoroegneria libanoctica (Hackel) D.R. Dewey (St), and Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) Á. Löve (St) were screened for the Y-genome specific marker B14(F+R) 269 . All E. longearistatus plants expressed intense bands specific to the Y genome. Only 6 of 10 R. alashanica plants exhibited relatively faint bands for the STS marker. Previously, the genome in species of Pseudoroegneria exhibiting such faint Y-genome specific marker was designated as St Y . Based on these results, R. alashanica lacks the Y genome in E. longearistatus but likely possess two remotely related St genomes, St and St Y . According to its genome constitution, R. alashanica should be classified in the genus Pseudoroenera and given the new name Pseudoroegneria alashanica (Keng) R.R.-C. Wang and K.B. Jensen.

  19. The Influence of Resettlement of the Capital of Probolinggo Regency Toward Service Quality of Police Record (SKCK (Study in Probolinggo Resort Police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda Puspitasari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of resettlement of the capital of Probolinggo Regency toward service quality of Police Record (SKCK in Probolinggo Resort Police. Probolinggo Resort Police (Polres is one government agencies that experiencing resettlement of the location from Probolinggo City to Kraksaan district. It is expected that by this resettlement, public service processes would become ‘better and in high quality’. The study used quantitative research method with explanatory approach to test the hypothesis that has been set. Dependent variable in this study are resettlement of the capital of regency (X with the variables: affordability, recoverability and replicability. While the dependent variable in this study are the service quality of Police Record (SKCK (Y with the indicators: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. The study used multiple linear regression method of analysis. The study revealed that the resettlement of the capital of regency variable (X which consist of three variables such as affordability (X1, recoverability (X2 and replicability variable (X3 influence significantly toward service quality of the Police Record (SKCK in Probolinggo Resort Police (Polres. Keywords: The Resettlement, The Capital of Regency, Service Quality, Police Record (SKCK, Probolinggo Resort Police.

  20. [The development of the medical information system for the improvement of the quality of work of the Crimean spa and health resorts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhov, V V; Grigor'ev, P E; Mizin, V I; Andriiashek, Iu I; Gol'dberg, D L; Olenchuk, A V

    2016-01-01

    The Crimea has the enormous potential for the health promotion activities. However, neither the profile of these activities nor the demand for the socio-medical services is clearly defined for the majority of the local spa and health resort facilities. The possibilities of modern information technology are not used in the full measure either. The objective of the present work was to elaborate the new medical information system and demonstrate its effectiveness. In addition, the article describes the main advantages of the system for the optimization of healthcare in the Crimean spa and health resort facilities. We reviewed and analyzed various literature publications, legal framework, standards, regulations, guidelines, and questionnaire survey data obtain at 50 spa and health resort facilities of the Crimea. The results of the assessment indicate the necessity of the systematic approach to the analysis of the quality of medical care and the process of its further development. Statistical and mathematical methods were used to elaborate the medical information system for the optimization of the activities of the Crimean spa and health resorts. The distinctive features of the proposed information system are modularity and the possibility of flexible adjustment to the conditions of individual settings, one-step data loading with the subsequent multiple application for the formulation of documents, automated filling of records in compliance with the medical standards, and taking into consideration the possible changes in or amendments to the form of the documents. The data obtained in the course of project implementation were used for the first time in the Republic of Crimea to design, substantiate, and recommend for the practical application the algorithm for the comprehensive estimation of the results of treatment of the patients based at the spa and health resort facilities with due regard for the specific regional conditions.

  1. Survivors' perceptions of public health messages during an Ebola crisis in Liberia and Sierra Leone: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtle, Patricia; De Clerck, Veronique; Plummer, Virginia

    2017-12-01

    The outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was the largest epidemic of Ebola ever recorded. The healthcare workforce was diminished and exhausted as the region emerged from civil war. Few qualitative, descriptive studies have been conducted to date that concentrate on the voices of Ebola survivors and their perceptions of health messages. In this study, we employed an interpretive, qualitative design to explore participant experiences. Twenty five survivors who had recovered from Ebola were recruited from three villages in Liberia and Sierra Leone in August 2015. Data were collected using semistructured interviews. Data analysis revealed four themes: (i) degrees of mistrust; (ii) messages conflicting with life and culture; (iii) seeing is believing; and (iv) recovery inspires hope. The findings were explored in the context of the relevant literature. The themes highlight the need to develop culturally-appropriate messages, underpinned by a sound understanding of the community and a willingness to work with the culture and trusted leaders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. HIV/AIDS practice patterns, knowledge, and educational needs among Hispanic clinicians in Texas, USA, and Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J L; Licea Serrato, J de D; Jimenez, R; Grimes, R M

    1998-07-01

    Hispanic clinicians in Texas, United States of America, and in the neighboring state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, were surveyed to determine their educational needs in the area of HIV/AIDS. Two-thirds of the 74 Texan and 22% of the 104 Mexican physicians queried had seen at least one HIV/AIDS patient in the previous year. The majority of the respondents were primary care physicians who: 1) were in private practice; 2) saw more than 1,000 patients per year; 3) had been out of training for more than 10 years; 4) provided some HIV prevention education to patients based on their perceived risk of infection; 5) rated their own knowledge of HIV/AIDS as average but rated their knowledge of treatments for the disease below average; 6) received most of their information about HIV/AIDS from journals rather than formal continuing education programs; 7) thought Hispanic patients had special needs with regard to HIV/AIDS care; and 8) were willing to attend education programs to improve their HIV/AIDS management skills. The greatest barriers to caring for HIV patients were lack of clinical knowledge and fear of infection. These results point to a need for a large-scale training program to improve the HIV/AIDS management skills of Hispanic clinicians in Texas and Nuevo Leon.

  3. HIV/AIDS practice patterns, knowledge, and educational needs among Hispanic clinicians in Texas, USA, and Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez J. Louis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Hispanic clinicians in Texas, United States of America, and in the neighboring state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, were surveyed to determine their educational needs in the area of HIV/AIDS. Two-thirds of the 74 Texan and 22% of the 104 Mexican physicians queried had seen at least one HIV/AIDS patient in the previous year. The majority of the respondents were primary care physicians who: 1 were in private practice; 2 saw more than 1 000 patients per year; 3 had been out of training for more than 10 years; 4 provided some HIV prevention education to patients based on their perceived risk of infection; 5 rated their own knowledge of HIV/AIDS as average but rated their knowledge of treatments for the disease below average; 6 received most of their information about HIV/AIDS from journals rather than formal continuing education programs; 7 thought Hispanic patients had special needs with regard to HIV/AIDS care; and 8 were willing to attend education programs to improve their HIV/AIDS management skills. The greatest barriers to caring for HIV patients were lack of clinical knowledge and fear of infection. These results point to a need for a large-scale training program to improve the HIV/AIDS management skills of Hispanic clinicians in Texas and Nuevo Leon.

  4. Getting the 'blues': the existence, diffusion and influence of pornography on young peoples' sexual health in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    While substantial research has examined the effects of pornography on young people in developed societies, existing studies fall short in addressing how sexually-explicit material affects young people in developing countries. The importance of such knowledge increases as the globalising effects of technology expand young peoples' access and exposure to pornography. During the summer of 2012, a study was undertaken in Sierra Leone examining factors affecting young peoples' sexual and reproductive health. The research assessed the influence of HIV knowledge, communication about sex, civil war and contraception myths on sexual behaviours, while remaining open to unanticipated factors. During data collection, respondents identified pornography, also called blues, as an influential factor, detailing its newfound accessibility driven by improved access to information and communication technologies in the country. Respondents also addressed several presumed ways in which pornography impacts young peoples' decisions about sexual health. The following study examines perceived effects of young peoples' exposure to pornography based on existing literature. It then outlines the findings of research conducted in Sierra Leone, drawing on primary data from the respondents and relevant published literature and concludes with proposals for addressing its negative effects.

  5. Knowledge Attitude And Practice Of Street Food Vendors In Selected Schools Within Bo City Southern Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T. Lamin-Boima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the lack of knowledge attitude and practices of street food vendors in Bo the Southern Province of Sierra Leone. A cross sectional study conducted among eighty-seven respondents vendors in forty-four in Bo City. Data was collected using a structured and semi structured questionnaire. The collected data is analysed using a simple descriptive statistics with the help Excel Microsoft ware. A statistical significance was found in relation to knowledge. Attitude towards food safety was negative self-reported practices by Street Food Vendors were statistically significant with low hygiene standards while predisposing factors showed relatively low personal hygiene poor environmental sanitation and low food safety practice. The realize consequences are utmost health risks of consuming street foods as food contamination has caused food borne diseases and outbreaks. It is recommended that standard training be provided for these vendors by the Bo City Council in collaboration with Njala University. It is essential that poor people in a developing country such as Sierra Leone be allowed to earn their livelihood by means of an easy-to-enter business such as street food vending when hygiene standards are sustained.

  6. Spectral and Spatial UV Sky Radiance Measurements at a Seaside Resort Under Clear Sky and Slightly Overcast Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Henner; Stick, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Spatial measurements of the diffusely scattered sky radiance at a seaside resort under clear sky and slightly overcast conditions have been used to calculate the sky radiance distribution across the upper hemisphere. The measurements were done in the summer season when solar UV radiation is highest. The selected wavelengths were 307, 350 and 550 nm representing the UVB, UVA and VIS band. Absolute values of radiance differ considerably between the wavelengths. Normalizing the measured values by use of direct solar radiance made the spatial distributions of unequal sky radiance comparable. The results convey a spatial impression of the different distributions of the radiance at the three wavelengths. Relative scattered radiance intensity is one order of magnitude greater in UVB than in VIS, whereas in UVA lies roughly in between. Under slightly overcast conditions scattered radiance is increased at all three wavelengths by about one order of magnitude. These measurements taken at the seaside underline the importance of diffuse scattered radiance. The effect of shading parts of the sky can be estimated from the distribution of sky radiance. This knowledge might be useful for sun seekers and in the treatment of people staying at the seaside for therapeutic purposes. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  7. Environmental effect of resort centres on the distribution of aquatic insect fauna in Ethiope River, Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edore Edwin Ito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess water quality and diversity of aquatic insects relative to effluents discharge from resort centres in Ethiope River. Methods: Water samples collected from three study stations were analyzed using APHA methods while the kick sampling techniques were used for collection of aquatic insects. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis at significance level of 0.05. Results: Among the study stations, water temperature varied from 20 °C to 34 °C with a mean temperature of (26.17 ± 2.37 °C, while pH was recorded from 5.57 ± 0.18 to 5.94 ± 0.21. Statistically, water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and conductivity were significantly different (P 0.05 in the stations. Conclusions: Significant relationships were recorded between water quality parameters and occurrence of Neoperla spio, Caenis horaria, Baetis and Chironomus species. The observed changes in aquatic insect composition were principally due to alteration in water quality. The weak correlation between aquatic insects and water quality can be attributed to functional adaptations to environmental changes. Aquatic insects have been proved to be good bioindicator of pollution and long-term monitoring of the aquatic insects is necessary for water quality evaluation in Ethiope River.

  8. HABITAT DAN PERILAKU KANGKARENG PERUT-PUTIH (Anthracoceros albirostris convexus Temm. 1832 DI RESORT ROWOBENDO TN ALAS PURWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvionita BR Tarigan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris is one of hornbill spesies (Bucerotidae that protected in Indonesia based on Goverment Regulation No. 7/1999. The habitat of oriental pied hornbillin Resort Rowobendo Alas Purwo National Park (APNP are natural forest and mixed forest plantation. The characteristic of the bird feeding site is a fruiting tree with a thick meat with the shaped is an oval, thin rind, soft, and contain more water and has sweet taste. The characteristic for the birdresting site is a tree with dense leaf, horizontal withstrong enough branch to withstand oriental pied hornbill. The tree height is about 10-26 m and the diameters  about 29-71 cm. The nesting site characteristic the bird is a tree with diameters about ≥ 50 cm and the height is about ≥10 m. The tree has a hole, main branch that is large and fairly flat with the height of the nest from the ground level of 12-30 m. Behavior of oriental pied hornbill observed are eating, resting, calling, flying and nesting. Keywords: APNP, behavior, habitat, oriental pied hornbill

  9. POPULASI DAN KEANEKARAGAMAN MESOFAUNA SERASAH DAN TANAH AKIBAT PERUBAHAN TUTUPAN LAHAN HUTAN DI RESORT PEMERIHAN TAMAN NASIONAL BUKIT BARISAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frendika Mahendra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study about abundance and diversity of soil and litter mesofauna to the effect of forest cover change that occurred in the Pemerihan Resort, Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. This research was compiled in a completely randomized design (CRD and there were four different lands, which were: (1 primary forest, (2 coffee plantation, (3 corn field, and (4 grassland. The observation of mesofauna was taken in soil and litter from four different lands cover. The variable of observation were mesofauna abundance and diversity index, soil chemical properties (pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, P available, and exchanged potassium, and soil physics properties (bulk density, soil temperature, humidity, and porosity. Data were analyzed using F test and further test using least significant differences (LSD at 5%. The results showed that the different of lands cover affect the diversity index of litter mesofauna, the abundance of litter and soil mesofauna, yet did not affect the diversity index of mesofauna underground. However, the abundance and diversity index of soil and litter mesofauna in the primary forest was higher than the other lands.

  10. An analysis of Richard Prince's "Lake Resort Nurse": using an image to expose and critically reflect on stereotypes in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Vicki C

    2012-01-01

    Our interactions with images, created and viewed within contexts, are a significant means through which we construct and interpret our values and beliefs. Nurses' efforts at monitoring images to encourage accurate portrayals of nurses' work have had little influence on the way nurses are represented or the inherent ability of images to shape perceptions of nurses' work. One explanation for this lack of influence is that viewers do not closely attend to the ways in which we make meaning of everyday images. This inattention creates passive viewers, vulnerable to and more likely to internalize messages (G. Dines & J. Humez, 2011). Misunderstandings about nursing leave nurses vulnerable to contexts and influence the outcomes of at least 2 issues, the nursing shortage and the provision of quality care. Prince, in his painting "Lake Resort Nurse," utilizes the artistic strategies of expressionism, appropriation, and reflexivity to expose stereotypes and provides an opportunity for reflection on the potential impact these stereotypes have on the profession. He provides a means through which we can recognize that images are significant contributors to how understandings of nursing and nurses are shaped. New understandings of nursing, gained through reflection and dialog, subsequently influences perceptions of the value of nurses' work and their contribution to health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bookshelf (Scientific Highlights in Memory of Leon Van Hove, Edited by F. Nicodemi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Gaume, Luis

    1994-01-01

    This book collects the contributions for a meeting in October 1991 in Naples under the auspices of the Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici to commemorate the life and scientific achievements of Leon Van Hove, distinguished theorist and CERN Research Director General from 1976-80, who died in 1990. The articles span Van Hove's scientific contributions and his involvement in European scientific policy and education. His early scientific work, with contributions to mathematics, statistical mechanics and neutron physics, is covered by A. Messiah and L. Michel, with an appraisal by A. Martin. Among Van Hove's best known research papers is his analysis of neutron scattering data to explore the structure of dense systems and magnetic materials in terms of pair correlation functions. This and its later applications are reviewed by A. Messiah, who also collects some interesting memorabilia from the years they spent together at Princeton, where Van Hove also had a fruitful collaboration with G. Placzek. L. Michel undertakes the task of explaining in its full generality the predictions of Van Hove singularities in the phonon dispersion relation for periodic systems. The functional relation between the frequency and wave vector characterizing elastic waves in crystals plays a central role in the explanation of their thermodynamic, acoustic and optical properties. The existence of these singularities was a consequence of applying a beautiful mathematical theory of M. Morse to physics. Van Hove derived his results by showing that they were inevitable consequences of the global topology of the first Brillouin zone of the periodic lattice. This pioneer work used powerful global analysis techniques to unravel concrete physical properties. For this impressive body of achievement, together with his study of low dimensional phase transitions and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, he was awarded the prestigious Danny Heinemann Prize of the American Physical Society

  12. Clinical presentations and outcomes of patients with Ebola virus disease in Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ying-Jie; Duan, Xue-Zhang; Gao, Xu-Dong; Li, Lei; Li, Chen; Ji, Dong; Li, Wen-Gang; Wang, Li-Fu; Meng, Yu-Hua; Yang, Xiao; Ling, Bin-Fang; Song, Xue-Ai; Gu, Mei-Lei; Jiang, Tao; Koroma, She-Ku M; Bangalie, James; Duan, Hui-Juan

    2016-11-03

    Clinical and laboratory data were collected and analysed from patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Jui Government Hospital in Freetown, Sierra Leone, where patients with EVD were received and/or treated from October 1, 2014 to March 21, 2015 during the West Africa EVD outbreak. The study admitted 285 patients with confirmed EVD and followed them up till the endpoint (recovery or death). EVD was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR assays detecting blood Ebola virus (EBOV). Among the 285 lab-confirmed EVD cases in Jui Government Hospital, 146 recovered and 139 died, with an overall survival rate of 51.23 %. Patients under the age of 6 years had a lower survival rate (37.50 %). Most non-survivors (79.86 %) died within 7 days after admission and the mean hospitalization time for non-survivors was 5.56 ± 6.11 days. More than half survivors (63.69 %) turned blood EBOV negative within 3 weeks after admission and the mean hospitalization time for survivors was 20.38 ± 7.58 days. High blood viral load (≥10 6 copies/ml) was found to be predictive of the non-survival outcome as indicated by the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The probability of patients' survival was less than 15 % when blood viral load was greater than 10 6 copies/ml. Multivariate analyses showed that blood viral load (P = 0.005), confusion (P = 0.010), abdominal pain (P = 0.003), conjunctivitis (P = 0.035), and vomiting (P = 0.004) were factors independently associated with the outcomes of EVD patients. Most death occurred within 1 week after admission, and patients at the age of 6 or younger had a lower survival rate. Most surviving patients turned blood EBOV negative within 1-4 weeks after admission. Factors such as high blood viral load, confusion, abdominal pain, vomiting and conjunctivitis were associated with poor prognosis for EVD patients.

  13. Maintaining effective mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis through in-process monitoring in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodges Mary H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2007 Sierra Leone has conducted mass drug administration (MDA for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF implemented by unpaid community health volunteers (CHVs. Other health campaigns such as Mother and Child Health Weeks (MCHW pay for services to be implemented at community level and these persons are then known as community health workers (CHWs. In 2010, the LF MDA in the 12 districts of the Southern, Northern and Eastern Provinces un-expectantly coincided with universal distribution of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLITNs during the MCHW. In-process monitoring of LF MDA was performed to ensure effective coverage was attained in hard to reach sites (HTR in both urban and rural locations where vulnerable populations reside. Methods Independent monitors interviewed individuals eligible for LF MDA and tallied those who recalled having taken ivermectin and albendazole, calculated program coverage and reported results daily by phone. Monitoring of coverage in HTR sites in the 4 most rapidly urbanizing towns was performed after 4 weeks of LF MDA and again after 8 weeks throughout all 12 districts. End process monitoring was performed in randomly selected HTR sites not previously sampled throughout all 12 districts and compared to coverage calculated from the pre-MDA census and reported treatments. Results Only one town had reached effective program coverage (≥80% after 4 weeks following which CHWs were recruited for LF MDA in all district headquarter towns. After 8 weeks only 4 of 12 districts had reached effective coverage so LF MDA was extended for a further month in all districts. By 12 weeks effective program coverage had been reached in all districts except Port Loko and there was no significant difference between those interviewed in communities versus households or by sex. Effective epidemiological coverage (≥65% was reported in all districts and overall was significantly higher in males versus

  14. Willingness to pay for health insurance in the informal sector of Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre-Bonet, Mireia; Kamara, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this project is to study the willingness to pay (WTP) for health insurance (HI) of individuals working in the informal sector in Sierra Leone, using a purposely-designed survey of a representative sample of this sector. We elicit the WTP using the Double-Bounded Dichotomous Choice with Follow Up method. We also examine the factors that are positively and negatively associated with the likelihood of the respondents to answer affirmatively to joining a HI scheme and to paying three different possible premiums, to join the HI scheme. We additionally analyze the individual and household characteristics associated with the maximum amount the household is willing to pay to join the HI scheme. The results indicate that the average WTP for the HI is 20,237.16 SLL (3.6 USD) per adult but it ranges from about 14,000 SLL (2.5 USD) to about 35,000 SLL (6.2 USD) depending on region, occupation, household and respondent characteristics. The analysis of the maximum WTP indicates that living outside the Western region and working in farming instead of petty trade are associated with a decrease in the maximum premium respondents are WTP for the HI scheme. Instead, the maximum WTP is positively associated to being a driver or a biker; having secondary or tertiary education (as opposed to not having any); the number of pregnant women in the household; having a TV; and, having paid for the last medical requirement. In summary, the various analyses show that a premium for the HI package could be set at approximately 20,000 SLL (3.54 USD) but also that establishing a single premium for all individuals in the informal sector could be risky. The efficient functioning of a HI scheme relies on covering as much of the population as possible, in order to spread risks and make the scheme viable. The impact of the various population characteristics raises the issue of how to rate premiums. In other words, setting a premium that may be too high for a big proportion of the

  15. Willingness to pay for health insurance in the informal sector of Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre-Bonet, Mireia; Kamara, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this project is to study the willingness to pay (WTP) for health insurance (HI) of individuals working in the informal sector in Sierra Leone, using a purposely-designed survey of a representative sample of this sector. Methods We elicit the WTP using the Double-Bounded Dichotomous Choice with Follow Up method. We also examine the factors that are positively and negatively associated with the likelihood of the respondents to answer affirmatively to joining a HI scheme and to paying three different possible premiums, to join the HI scheme. We additionally analyze the individual and household characteristics associated with the maximum amount the household is willing to pay to join the HI scheme. Results The results indicate that the average WTP for the HI is 20,237.16 SLL (3.6 USD) per adult but it ranges from about 14,000 SLL (2.5 USD) to about 35,000 SLL (6.2 USD) depending on region, occupation, household and respondent characteristics. The analysis of the maximum WTP indicates that living outside the Western region and working in farming instead of petty trade are associated with a decrease in the maximum premium respondents are WTP for the HI scheme. Instead, the maximum WTP is positively associated to being a driver or a biker; having secondary or tertiary education (as opposed to not having any); the number of pregnant women in the household; having a TV; and, having paid for the last medical requirement. Conclusions In summary, the various analyses show that a premium for the HI package could be set at approximately 20,000 SLL (3.54 USD) but also that establishing a single premium for all individuals in the informal sector could be risky. The efficient functioning of a HI scheme relies on covering as much of the population as possible, in order to spread risks and make the scheme viable. The impact of the various population characteristics raises the issue of how to rate premiums. In other words, setting a premium that may be too

  16. ZEITGEI ST IN SWIMSUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar GÖKLÜBERK ÖZLÜ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Swimming is unnatural activity for human beings. Unlike most of all other animals, we are not born with an instinct for swimming. However, ancient peoples who settled a long seacoasts, lakeshores, and riverfronts had to learn to swim for gathering food and for simple survival. From this necessity, recreational swimming would have developed, both as an activity for individuals and as a group social practice. In many ancien t civilizations, communal swimming and, later, bathing rituals were an integral part of society. By the nineteenth century, a growing middle class in Europe and America began to enjoy vacation time at beaches and resorts with the convenience and efficiency of the expanding network of railroads. “Taking the waters” at a seashore meant wading out into the shallows buoyed by a floating canopy to prevent sunburn and to shield against prying eyes. Not until the mid - 1800s did special forms of attire develop for p ublic bathing. Even then, bathing costumes still closely resembled street clothing. But, such outfits were terrible weight burdens in wet, and drownings were common for the unwary. So, as more and more people began to request bathing costumes from their dressmakers, fashion styling diverged from daytime modes. Clothing for swimming, bathing, and seaside wear has been an important and influential area of fashionable dress since the late nineteenth century. The evolution of swimming and bathing costumes has been closely associated with trends in mainstream fashion and advancements in textile technology, but has also reflected broader societal attitudes about personal hygiene, body exposure, and modesty, and wheth er or not it was appropriate for women to participate in active sports. In this study, aimed to examine changes in model and material of swimsuits from the introduction to the end of twenties . Trial data obtained by the document analysis clothes illustr ations, pictures and photographs and the material (fabric

  17. When free healthcare is not free. Corruption and mistrust in Sierra Leone's primary healthcare system immediately prior to the Ebola outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Pieternella; Lodge, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Sierra Leone is one of three countries recently affected by Ebola. In debates surrounding the circumstances that contributed to the initial failure to contain the outbreak, the word 'trust' is often used: In December 2014, WHO director Margret Chan used 'lack of trust in governments'; The Lancet's Editor-in-Chief, wrote how Ebola has exposed the '… breakdown of trust between communities and their governments.' This article explores the lack of trust in public healthcare providers in Sierra Leone, predating the Ebola outbreak, apparently linked to widespread petty corruption in primary healthcare facilities. It compares four NGO-supported accountability interventions targeting Sierra Leone's primary health sector. Field research was conducted in Kailahun, Kono and Tonkolili Districts, based on interviews with health workers and focus group discussions with primary healthcare users. Field research showed that in most clinics, women and children entitled to free care routinely paid for health services. A lack of accountability in Sierra Leone's health sector appears pervasive at all levels. Petty corruption is rife. Understaffing leads to charging for free care in order to pay clinic-based 'volunteers' who function as vaccinators, health workers and birth attendants. Accountability interventions were found to have little impact on healthworker (mis)behaviour. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Rapid assessment of knowledge, attitudes, practices, and risk perception related to the prevention and control of Ebola virus disease in three communities of Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai; Shi, Guo-Qing; Tu, Wen-Xiao; Zheng, Can-Jun; Lai, Xue-Hui; Li, Xin-Xu; Wei, Qiang; Li, Mei; Deng, Li-Quan; Huo, Xiang; Chen, Ming-Quan; Xu, Feng; Ye, Long-Jie; Bai, Xi-Chen; Chen, Tong-Nian; Yin, Shao-Hua; Samba, Thomas T; Liang, Xiao-Feng

    2016-06-06

    The recent outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Sierra Leone has been characterized by the World Health Organization as one of the most challenging EVD outbreaks to date. The first confirmed case in Sierra Leone was a young woman who was admitted to a government hospital in Kenema following a miscarriage on 24 May 2014. On 5 January 2015, intensified training for an EVD response project was initiated at the medical university of Sierra Leone in Jui. To understand the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and perceived risk of EVD among the public, especially after this training, a rapid assessment was conducted from 10 to 16 March 2015. Interviews were conducted with 466 participants based on questionnaires that were distributed from 10 to 16 March 2015 by cluster sampling in three adjacent communities, namely Jui, Grafton, and Kossoh Town, in the Western Area Rural District of Sierra Leone. It was found that knowledge about EVD was comprehensive and high. Positive attitude towards prevention was found to be satisfactory. Nearly all participants knew the reporting phone number 117 and had reported some change in behavior since learning about Ebola. More than half (62 %) of the participants had a history of travelling to urban areas, which increases the risk of infection. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that community and occupation were variables associated with perceived risk of EVD. Our study showed that community level social mobilization and community engagement were an effective strategy in the special context.

  19. The role of remnant trees in carbon sequestration, vegetation structure and tree diversity of early succession regrowing fallows in eastern Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuni Sanchez, Aida; Lindsell, Jeremy A.

    2017-01-01

    Remnant tree presence affects forest recovery after slash-and-burn agriculture. However, little is known about its effect on above-ground carbon stocks, especially in Africa. We focused our study on Sierra Leone, part of the Upper Guinean forests, an important centre of endemism threatened...

  20. Improving mapping for Ebola response through mobilising a local community with self-owned smartphones: Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone, January 2015.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nic Lochlainn, Laura M; Gayton, Ivan; Theocharopoulos, Georgios; Edwards, Robin; Danis, Kostas; Kremer, Ronald; Kleijer, Karline; Tejan, Sumaila M; Sankoh, Mohamed; Jimissa, Augustin; Greig, Jane; Caleo, Grazia

    2018-01-01

    During the 2014-16 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, the Magburaka Ebola Management Centre (EMC) operated by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone, identified that available district maps lacked up-to-date village information to facilitate timely implementation of EVD

  1. Situation Report--Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua & New Guinea, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti, Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in fourteen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua and New Guines, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti (French Polynesia), and Tonga. Information is provided under two…

  2. Communication from ST Group

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    In order to prepare the organization of the Open Days, please note that FM Group will not able to take into account either specific requests for waste collection from 2nd to 6th of April, either removal or PC transport requests between the 31st and the 11th of March. We kindly ask you to plan the collection of any type of waste and the urgent transport of office furniture or PC before the 31st of March. Waste collection requests shall be formulated contacting FM Support at 77777 or at the email address mailto:Fm.Support@cern.ch; removal of office furniture or PC transport requests must be made using the EDH ‘Transport request’ form selecting the "Removals" or the "PC transport" category from the drop-down menu. For any question concerning the waste sorting, please consult the following web address: http://dechets-waste.web.cern.ch/dechets-waste/. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. TS/FM Group

  3. Restaurant-based intervention to facilitate healthy eating choices and the identification of allergenic foods at a family-oriented resort and a campground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tarro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restaurant-based interventions can be an enjoyable way to encourage healthier eating choices by all members of a family. Thus, the principal aims of this study were a to promote healthy diets by increasing healthy food offerings and b to increase the number of foods offered specifically as gluten-free and lactose-free and to inform patrons by including nutritional and allergen information that complies with Regulation 1169/2011 regarding the food served in restaurants, takeaways and snack bars. Methods A restaurant-based intervention was implemented at 16 food establishments at 2 resorts (the Cambrils Park Resort and Camping Sangulí, Spain, from 2014 to 2015 based on the following 4 components: 1 providing nutritional and allergen analyses of the offered dishes, 2 increasing the number of healthy food choices, 3 identifying menu items associated with allergies and intolerance, and 4 training staff on healthy eating and allergens. Customer satisfaction regarding food aspects was assessed using surveys (10-point scale. Results Both resorts significantly increased their offerings of healthy dishes (28.6% to 44.7%; P = 0.003 and desserts with fruit (20% to 51.3%; P = 0.013, thus obtaining the Spanish Government’s Mediterranean Diet certification. Additionally, both resorts obtained Catalan Celiac Association certification. Moreover, both resorts significantly increased their percentages of gluten-free dishes (2.1% to 50.5%; P < 0.001 and lactose-free dishes (5.5% to 37.5%; P < 0.001 after the intervention. Customer satisfaction increased (mean ± standard deviation from 6.9 ± 1.6 to 8.5 ± 1.5 (P < 0.001. Conclusion This restaurant-based intervention expanded the number of healthy and allergen-free foods offered in a family-oriented holiday resort environment to encourage healthy food choices, resulting in increased customer satisfaction.

  4. Estimating the future number of cases in the Ebola epidemic--Liberia and Sierra Leone, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Martin I; Atkins, Charisma Y; Santibanez, Scott; Knust, Barbara; Petersen, Brett W; Ervin, Elizabeth D; Nichol, Stuart T; Damon, Inger K; Washington, Michael L

    2014-09-26

    The first cases of the current West African epidemic of Ebola virus disease (hereafter referred to as Ebola) were reported on March 22, 2014, with a report of 49 cases in Guinea. By August 31, 2014, a total of 3,685 probable, confirmed, and suspected cases in West Africa had been reported. To aid in planning for additional disease-control efforts, CDC constructed a modeling tool called EbolaResponse to provide estimates of the potential number of future cases. If trends continue without scale-up of effective interventions, by September 30, 2014, Sierra Leone and Liberia will have a total of approximately 8,000 Ebola cases. A potential underreporting correction factor of 2.5 also was calculated. Using this correction factor, the model estimates that approximately 21,000 total cases will have occurred in Liberia and Sierra Leone by September 30, 2014. Reported cases in Liberia are doubling every 15-20 days, and those in Sierra Leone are doubling every 30-40 days. The EbolaResponse modeling tool also was used to estimate how control and prevention interventions can slow and eventually stop the epidemic. In a hypothetical scenario, the epidemic begins to decrease and eventually end if approximately 70% of persons with Ebola are in medical care facilities or Ebola treatment units (ETUs) or, when these settings are at capacity, in a non-ETU setting such that there is a reduced risk for disease transmission (including safe burial when needed). In another hypothetical scenario, every 30-day delay in increasing the percentage of patients in ETUs to 70% was associated with an approximate tripling in the number of daily cases that occur at the peak of the epidemic (however, the epidemic still eventually ends). Officials have developed a plan to rapidly increase ETU capacities and also are developing innovative methods that can be quickly scaled up to isolate patients in non-ETU settings in a way that can help disrupt Ebola transmission in communities. The U.S. government and

  5. Psychosocial support and resilience building among health workers in Sierra Leone: interrelations between coping skills, stress levels, and interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesel, Linda; Waller, Kathryn; Dowden, Justine; Fotso, Jean Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, a shortage of properly trained, supervised, motivated and equitably distributed health workers often hinder the delivery of lifesaving interventions. Various health workforce bottlenecks can be addressed by tackling well-being and interpersonal relationships of health workers with their colleagues and clients. This paper uses data from the Helping Health Workers Cope (HHWC) project in a rural district of Sierra Leone to achieve three objectives. First, we describe the effect of counseling and psychosocial training on coping skills, stress levels, and provider-provider and provider-client relationships. Second, we examine whether a change in coping skills is associated with a change in relationships. Finally, we qualitatively identify key ways through which the uptake of coping skills is linked to a change in relationships. The HHWC project was implemented from February 2012 to June 2013 in Kono district in the Eastern province of Sierra Leone, with the neighboring district of Tonkolili selected as the control site. The evaluation followed a mixed-methods approach, which included a quantitative survey, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with health workers and clients. Mean values of the variables of interest were compared across sub-populations, and correlation analyses were performed between changes in coping skills, stress levels, and changes in relationships. Overall, the results demonstrate that the HHWC intervention had a positive effect on coping skills, stress levels and provider-provider and provider-client relationships. Furthermore, associations were observed between changes in coping skills and changes in relationships as well as changes in stress management skills and changes in relationships. Psychosocial education can have major impacts on health worker well-being and the quality of health care delivery. Integrating psychosocial counseling and training interventions into health worker pre-service and

  6. Geographical Distribution of Intestinal Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis and Preventive Chemotherapy Strategies in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroma, Joseph B.; Peterson, Jen; Gbakima, Aiah A.; Nylander, Francis E.; Sahr, Foday; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Zhang, Yaobi; Hodges, Mary H.

    2010-01-01

    Background A national baseline mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) was performed in Sierra Leone. The aim was to provide necessary tools for the Ministry of Health and Sanitation to plan the intervention strategies in the national integrated control program on neglected tropical diseases according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for preventative chemotherapy (PCT) and for future monitoring and evaluation. Methodology/Principal Findings 53 primary schools were randomly selected through a two-staged random sampling throughout the country. Approximately one hundred children aged 5–16 years of age were systematically selected from each school and their stool samples examined in a field laboratory. A total of 5,651 samples were examined. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression models using model-based geostatistics. Spatial analysis predicted that S. mansoni infection was positively associated with population density and elevation and that there was a large cluster of high risk of S. mansoni infection (prevalence >70%) in the north and most of the eastern areas of the country, in line with the observed prevalence in Kono (63.8–78.3%), Koinadugu (21.6–82.1%), Kailahun (43.5–52.6%), Kenema (6.1–68.9%) and Tonkolili (0–57.3%). Hookworm infection was negatively associated with population density and land surface temperature, and was high across Sierra Leone with a large cluster of high infection risk (prevalence >70%) in the north-eastern part of the country. Remarkably low prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides (7.2%) and Trichuris trichiura (3.3%) was recorded when compared with results published in the 1990s. Conclusions/Significance Results justify PCT for schistosomiasis for school age children and at-risk adults every year in high-risk communities in five districts and every two years in moderate-risk communities in one more district. The high prevalence of STH, particularly hookworm, coupled

  7. Was Pharmacy Their Preferred Choice? Assessing Pharmacy Students’ Motivation to Study Pharmacy, Attitudes and Future Career Intentions in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bai James

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of skilled pharmaceutical workforce in the African region, and this is partly due to a limited number of prospective students entering the profession. An understanding of the factors that influence the choice of pharmacy as a career is needed to attract highly motivated and skilled individuals into the profession. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess pharmacy students’ motivation to study pharmacy, their attitude and future career intentions in Sierra Leone. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of undergraduate pharmacy students enrolled at the College of Medicine, and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone (COMAHS – USL was carried out between May and June 2015. Descriptive statistics, as well as chi-square and Fisher exact two-tailed tests were used to analyze the data. Results: Close to a quarter (24.3% of pharmacy students surveyed chose pharmacy as their preferred major. The choice of pharmacy as a preferred major was common among first-year students, (p=0.001, those who were married (p<0.001 and have had pharmacy practice experience (p<0.001. Motivation for choosing pharmacy was assessed based on three domains (education, personal and career-related factors.Students cited a subject teacher at school ̸ College (66.7% as the most education-related influence, while friends and family members (61.1% was the major personal-related factor. Also, students considered the desire for self-employment in a healthcare related job (27.8%, and excellent career opportunities (27.8% as the major career-related factors that influenced their choice of pharmacy as a preferred major. Medicine was the first choice of study among the majority (95% of students that chose pharmacy as a second choice when seeking admission into the university. Pharmacy students demonstrated a positive attitude toward the profession, and considered drug manufacturing (47.3% and hospital pharmacy (43

  8. Geographical distribution of intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis and preventive chemotherapy strategies in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroma, Joseph B; Peterson, Jen; Gbakima, Aiah A; Nylander, Francis E; Sahr, Foday; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Zhang, Yaobi; Hodges, Mary H

    2010-11-23

    A national baseline mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) was performed in Sierra Leone. The aim was to provide necessary tools for the Ministry of Health and Sanitation to plan the intervention strategies in the national integrated control program on neglected tropical diseases according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for preventative chemotherapy (PCT) and for future monitoring and evaluation. 53 primary schools were randomly selected through a two-staged random sampling throughout the country. Approximately one hundred children aged 5-16 years of age were systematically selected from each school and their stool samples examined in a field laboratory. A total of 5,651 samples were examined. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression models using model-based geostatistics. Spatial analysis predicted that S. mansoni infection was positively associated with population density and elevation and that there was a large cluster of high risk of S. mansoni infection (prevalence >70%) in the north and most of the eastern areas of the country, in line with the observed prevalence in Kono (63.8-78.3%), Koinadugu (21.6-82.1%), Kailahun (43.5-52.6%), Kenema (6.1-68.9%) and Tonkolili (0-57.3%). Hookworm infection was negatively associated with population density and land surface temperature, and was high across Sierra Leone with a large cluster of high infection risk (prevalence >70%) in the north-eastern part of the country. Remarkably low prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides (7.2%) and Trichuris trichiura (3.3%) was recorded when compared with results published in the 1990s. Results justify PCT for schistosomiasis for school age children and at-risk adults every year in high-risk communities in five districts and every two years in moderate-risk communities in one more district. The high prevalence of STH, particularly hookworm, coupled with widespread anemia according to a national report in Sierra Leone, suggests

  9. Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?; Pode Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) predar Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) em coqueiro?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Jose W. da S.; Domingos, Cleiton A.; Gondim Junior, Manoel G.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia. Area de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: mguedes@depa.ufrpe.br; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: gjmoraes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field. (author)

  10. The influence of regional urbanization and abnormal weather conditions on the processes of human climatic adaptation on mountain resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonova, M.; Golitsyn, G.; Senik, I.; Safronov, A.; Babyakin, A.; Efimenko, N.; Povolotskaya, N.; Topuriya, D.; Chalaya, E.

    2012-04-01

    This work is a further development in the study of weather pathogenic index (WPI) and negative influence of urbanization processes on the state of people's health with adaptation disorder. This problem is socially significant. According to the data of the WHO, in the world there are from 20 to 45% of healthy people and from 40 to 80% of people with chronic diseases who suffer from the raised meteosensitivity. As a result of our researches of meteosensitivity of people during their short-duration on mountain resorts there were used negative adaptive reactions (NAR) under 26 routine tests, stress-reactions under L.H. Garkavi's hemogram, vegetative indices, tests of neuro-vascular reactivity, signs of imbalance of vegetative and neurohumoral regulation according to the data of biorhythm fractal analysis and sudden aggravations of diseases (SAD) as an indicator of negative climatic and urbanization influence. In 2010-2011 the Caucasian mountain resorts were having long periods of climatic anomalies, strengthening of anthropogenic emissions and forest fires when record-breaking high waves of NAR and SAD were noticed. There have also been specified indices ranks of weather pathogenicity from results of comparison of health characteristics with indicators of synoptico-dynamic processes according to Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF); air ionization N+, N-, N+/N- spectra of aerosol particles (the size from 500 to 20000 nanometers) and concentrations of chemically active gases (O3, NO, NO2, ), volatile phytoorganic substances in the surface atmosphere, bactericidal characteristics of vegetation by criterion χ2 (not above 0,05). It has allowed us to develop new physiological optimum borders, norm and pessimum, to classify emergency ecologo-weather situations, to develop a new techniques of their forecasting and prevention of meteopathic reactions with meteosensitive patients (Method of treatment and the early (emergency) and planned prevention meteopatic reactions

  11. Artificial snowmaking and potential water conflicts in mountain resorts. The case of Avoriaz (Haute-Savoie, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnier, E.; Reynard, E.

    2012-04-01

    The practice of artificial snowmaking is recent (1990s), and may use large volumes of water. In the French Alps, the total consumption is on average 20 Mm3 per year (Miquel, 2003), which corresponds to the annual consumption of drinking water for a city of more than 300,000 inhabitants such as Nice (France). Moreover, snowmaking does not represent the only use of water in winter sport resorts. The available water resource is used for drinking water, artificial snowmaking and leisure activities (swimming pools, golf spas). One can speak in this context of a multifunctionality of the resource. Of particular concern is the winter season when streams reach their lowest level (from December to April). These activities require that water is drawn from resources created at other times of the year. Water for snowmaking production is pumped from drinking water reservoirs, rivers, groundwater tables, artificial hydropower reservoirs, as well as from hill water reservoirs, specifically built for storing water for snow production, themselves supplied from surface water capture. In Avoriaz (Haute-Savoie, France) the risk of shortages is important. The reason is that the resort is supplied by a unique lake or hillside reservoir (Lake 1730), which satisfies two particularly high-consuming water uses (the water supply for production of snow and drinking water). On a finer scale, namely that of a single day in January 2011, considerable volumes are drawn off in the space of a few hours (10,114 m3 on 24 January), while pumping for drinking water spreads out over several months. Intensity of use for the production of snow can trigger water scarcity and water conflicts with other uses such as drinking water. Good management of the resource is, therefore, especially important. However, no legislation specific to artificial snowmaking has been established. Even if, at present, there is no situation involving shortages and conflicting uses at Avoriaz, the situation needs to be monitored

  12. Shifting Scarcities? The Energy Intensity of Water Supply Alternatives in the Mass Tourist Resort of Benidorm, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyerim Yoon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The energy intensity of water—‘energy (electricity-for-water’—is calculated for Benidorm, a mass tourism resort in the Spanish Mediterranean coast, where the urban water cycle has evolved in response to a series of episodes of water stress. The analysis is based on primary data compiled from various actors involved in the urban water cycle encompassing water extraction, end uses, and wastewater treatment, including tertiary treatment. The results provide one of the first analyses of the relations between energy and water in a mass tourist center, which may be of potential interest for other tourist areas. It is estimated that a total of 109 GWh/year of electricity is required to operate the water cycle of Benidorm. About 4% of total energy use in Benidorm is dedicated to extracting, transporting, and treating water. The most energy-intensive stage is represented by end uses, which accounts for 20% of the total energy use in Benidorm when the energy required for water pumping and hot water use is considered. Additionally, energy intensity for water extraction was estimated for normal, wet, and two dry year scenarios. In comparison with the normal scenario, energy intensity is six times larger when desalinated water is incorporated during a dry year, whereas the emergency interbasin water transfer resulted in a more moderate increase in energy intensity. While treated wastewater and emergency water transfers appear to be a more convenient solution in energy terms, the strong impulse given to desalination in Spain is forcing local water authorities towards the use of a resource that is much more energy intensive, although, on the other hand, much less dependent on the vagaries of climate. In light of recent technological and managerial developments, the Benidorm case illuminates the challenges appearing in the analysis of the water-energy nexus, especially the fact that scarcity may be transferred from water to energy.

  13. Food allergy, a summary of eight cases in the UK criminal and civil courts: effective last resort for vulnerable consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowland, M Hazel; Walker, Michael J

    2015-08-15

    Food allergy has a forensic context. The authors describe eight cases in the UK courts involving fatalities, personal injury or criminal non-compliance with food law from mainly 'grey' literature sources. The potentially severe consequences for people with food allergy of contraventions of labelling law have led to enforcement action up to criminal prosecution for what might otherwise be regarded as 'trivial' non-compliance. The authors suggest there should be central collation of such cases. Non-compliances should be followed up in a more rapid and robust manner. Evidence of fraud in the catering supply chain supports recent calls for zero tolerance of food fraud. Businesses must guard against gaps in allergen management, for which there are readily available sources of training and guidance, but also against fraudulent substitution in the supply chain, about which training and guidance should be developed. New allergen labelling legislation and case law appear to place responsibility on food businesses even for the forensically problematic area of allergen cross-contamination. The courts can be an effective last resort for vulnerable consumers; however, there is evidence of knowledge and skill gaps in both the investigation and prosecution of potentially serious incidents of food allergen mismanagement and mislabelling. Thorough investigation of food allergy deaths is required with a tenacious and skilled approach, including early realisation that samples of the food and/or stomach contents from a post mortem examination should be retained and analysed. The supply chain must be rigorously examined to find out where adulteration or contamination with the fatal allergen occurred. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. ACHP | News | St. Elizabeths Programmatic Agreement Signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search skip specific nav links Home arrow News arrow St. Elizabeths Programmatic Agreement Signed St redevelopment of the St. Elizabeths West Campus, which is part of the St. Elizabeths National Historic Landmark this project, due to the historic significance of the NHL. GSA's client for the St. Elizabeths

  15. Short-term forecasting of the chloride content in the mineral waters of the Ustroń Health Resort using SARIMA and Holt-Winters models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowska Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ustroń S.A. Health Resort (southern Poland uses iodide-bromide mineral waters taken from Middle and Upper Devonian limestones and dolomites with a mineralisation range of 110-130 g/dm3 for curative purposes. Two boreholes - U-3 and U3-A drilled in the early 1970s were exploited. The aim of this paper is to estimate changes in mineral water quality of the Ustroń Health Resort by taking into consideration chloride content in the water from the U-3 borehole. The data has included the results of monthly analyses of chlorides from 2005 to 2015 during the tests carried out by the Mining Department of the Health Resort. The triple exponential smoothing (ETS function and the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA method of modelling time series were used for the calculations. The ability to properly forecast mineral water quality can result in a good status of the exploitation borehole and a limited number of failures in the exploitation system. Because of the good management of health resorts, it is possible to acquire more satisfied customers. The main goal of the article involves the real-time forecast accuracy, obtained results show that the proposed methods are effective for such situations. Presented methods made it possible to obtain a 24-month point and interval forecast. The results of these analyses indicate that the chloride content is forecast to be in the range of 72 to 83 g/l from 2015 to 2017. While comparing the two methods of analysis, a narrower range of forecast values and, therefore, greater accuracy were obtained for the ETS function. The good performance of the ETS model highlights its utility compared with complicated physically based numerical models.

  16. Clinical Features of and Risk Factors for Fatal Ebola Virus Disease, Moyamba District, Sierra Leone, December 2014-February 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaskjold, Yngvar Lunde; Bolkan, Håkon Angell; Krogh, Kurt Østhuus; Jongopi, James; Lundeby, Karen Marie; Mellesmo, Sindre; Garcés, Pedro San José; Jøsendal, Ola; Øpstad, Åsmund; Svensen, Erling; Fuentes, Luis Matias Zabala; Kamara, Alfred Sandy; Riera, Melchor; Arranz, Javier; Roberts, David P; Stamper, Paul D; Austin, Paula; Moosa, Alfredo J; Marke, Dennis; Hassan, Shoaib; Eide, Geir Egil; Berg, Åse; Blomberg, Bjørn

    2016-09-01

    The 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa infected >28,000 people, including >11,000 who died, and disrupted social life in the region. We retrospectively studied clinical signs and symptoms and risk factors for fatal outcome among 31 Ebola virus-positive patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Center in Moyamba District, Sierra Leone. We found a higher rate of bleeding manifestations than reported elsewhere during the outbreak. Significant predictors for death were shorter time from symptom onset to admission, male sex, high viral load on initial laboratory testing, severe pain, diarrhea, bloody feces, and development of other bleeding manifestations during hospitalization. These risk factors for death could be used to identify patients in need of more intensive medical support. The lack of fever in as many as one third of EVD cases may have implications for temperature-screening practices and case definitions.

  17. El utilitarismo de Jeremy Bentham ¿fundamento de la teoría de Leon Walras?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera-Sotelo Aída-Sofía

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto cuestiona el utilitarismo de Jeremy Bentham como fundamento de la teoría marginalista walrasiana. La problemática se aborda a través de un análisis comparativo del pensamiento de Jeremy Bentham y de Leon Walras en tres áreas centrales: sus visiones de la sociedad y el objetivo social, sus aproximaciones teóricas y metodológicas en relación directa con sus respectivas teorías de la sociedad, y el lugar del principio de utilidad en el marco de las teorías generales de sociedad. El escrito contribuye a un debate vigente sobre los fundamentos filosóficos
    de la teoría de la elección racional y a deshomogenizar el pensamiento de los padres del marginalismo.

  18. Fundamentos teoricos de la creacion de un modelo de adquisicion corporativa internacional: Caso de las principales empresas de Nuevo Leon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabeza, L.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance to propose a success Model in the international corporate acquisitions consists of offering to the important Mexican firms the factors that will allow having greater success with the international investments. In this research we selected four of the most important firms of Nuevo Leon that have important experience with international acquisitions and present them the questionnaire that was designed to validate the variables of the Model. In this paper we present the theories that give the theoretical foundations to the variables of the proposed Model that consist of 6 variables or key success factors that need to be considered for an international acquisitions, which are: Country Knowledge, Industry Knowledge, Customer relationship, Supplier relationship, Technology and Market.

  19. Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Jose W. da S.; Domingos, Cleiton A.; Gondim Junior, Manoel G.C.; Moraes, Gilberto J. de

    2009-01-01

    Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field. (author)

  20. The hateful patient revisited: Relevance for 21st century medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strous, Rael D; Ulman, Anne-Marie; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-10-01

    While the practice of medicine has changed over the years, including technological advances, access to medical information, and the narrowing of socio-economic and educational gaps between the clinician and his/her patients, the importance of the doctor-patient relationship has not diminished over time. This can be a very rewarding interaction. However, many physicians experience a great deal of anger, inadequacy and frustration, and much of the actual practice of medicine may become a burden rather than a source of satisfaction. Physicians may encounter a subset of patients who engender strong negative feelings, despair and even downright malice. An understanding of the "hateful patient" can therefore be very informative to the physician. Several categories of such patients may be described, and sensitivity to the phenomenon will lead to improved physician well-being, less self-destructive patient behavior and a lower risk of litigation. Several factors may assist the 21st century physician in managing the "hateful patient" in an empathic manner and in making some sense of why the patient has resorted to negative response patterns. Ultimately, a failure to consider these issues will result in poorer medical care and, no less important, reduced satisfaction of both patients and doctors. The intention of this article is to revisit the concept and to place it in the context of contemporary medical practice.

  1. Health workers' experiences of coping with the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone's health system: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Joanna; Wurie, Haja; Witter, Sophie

    2018-04-05

    The 2014 Ebola Virus Disease epidemic evolved in alarming ways in Sierra Leone spreading to all districts. The country struggled to control it against a backdrop of a health system that was already over-burdened. Health workers play an important role during epidemics but there is limited research on how they cope during health epidemics in fragile states. This paper explores the challenges faced by health workers and their coping strategies during the Ebola outbreak in four districts - Bonthe, Kenema, Koinadugu and Western Area - of Sierra Leone. We used a qualitative study design: key informant interviews (n = 19) with members of the District Health Management Teams and local councils, health facility managers and international partners; and in depth interviews with health workers (n = 25) working in public health facilities and international health workers involved with the treatment of Ebola patients. There were several important coping strategies including those that drew upon existing mechanisms: being sustained by religion, a sense of serving their country and community, and peer and family support. Externally derived strategies included: training which built health worker confidence in providing care; provision of equipment to do their job safely; a social media platform which helped health workers deal with challenges; workshops that provided ways to deal with the stigma associated with being a health worker; and the risk allowance, which motivated staff to work in facilities and provided an additional income source. Supportive supervision, peer support networks and better use of communication technology should be pursued, alongside a programme for rebuilding trusting relations with community structures. The challenge is building these mechanisms into routine systems, pre-empting shocks, rather than waiting to respond belatedly to crises.

  2. Lassa hemorrhagic fever in a late term pregnancy from northern sierra leone with a positive maternal outcome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangura James J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lassa fever (LF is a devastating viral disease prevalent in West Africa. Efforts to take on this public health crisis have been hindered by lack of infrastructure and rapid field deployable diagnosis in areas where the disease is prevalent. Recent capacity building at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward (KGH LFW in Sierra Leone has lead to a major turning point in the diagnosis, treatment and study of LF. Herein we present the first comprehensive rapid diagnosis and real time characterization of an acute hemorrhagic LF case at KGH LFW. This case report focuses on a third trimester pregnant Sierra Leonean woman from the historically non-endemic Northern district of Tonkolili who survived the illness despite fetal demise. Employed in this study were newly developed recombinant LASV Antigen Rapid Test cassettes and dipstick lateral flow immunoassays (LFI that enabled the diagnosis of LF within twenty minutes of sample collection. Deregulation of overall homeostasis, significant hepatic and renal system involvement, and immunity profiles were extensively characterized during the course of hospitalization. Rapid diagnosis, prompt treatment with a full course of intravenous (IV ribavirin, IV fluids management, and real time monitoring of clinical parameters resulted in a positive maternal outcome despite admission to the LFW seven days post onset of symptoms, fetal demise, and a natural still birth delivery. These studies solidify the growing rapid diagnostic, treatment, and surveillance capabilities at the KGH LF Laboratory, and the potential to significantly improve the current high mortality rate caused by LF. As a result of the growing capacity, we were also able to isolate Lassa virus (LASV RNA from the patient and perform Sanger sequencing where we found significant genetic divergence from commonly circulating Sierra Leonean strains, showing potential for the discovery of a newly emerged LASV strain with expanded geographic

  3. Persistent Organic Pollutants and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soil from the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta-García, Sandra Teresa; Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles Catalina; Carrizalez-Yáñez, Leticia; Varela-Silva, José Antonio; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia Guadalupe; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge Luis; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE), and four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, and lead) in outdoor surface soils (50 samples) collected from the metropolitan area of Monterrey in Mexico. Total PBDEs levels ranged from 1.80 to 127 µg/kg, with mean total PBDEs level of 14.2 ± 21.5 µg/kg (geometric mean ± standard deviation). For PCBs, the mean total level in the studied soils was 23.5 ± 20.2 µg/kg (range 4.0-65.5 µg/kg). An important finding in our study was that all soil samples (100%) had detectable levels of the metabolite p,p'-DDE. Moreover, the mean total DDT level (∑p'p-DDT and p'p-DDE) was approximately 132 ± 175 µg/kg. The mean levels for arsenic, cadmium, and lead in soil were 5.30 ± 1.35 (range 1.55-7.85) mg/kg, 2.20 ± 1.20 (range 0.65-6.40) mg/kg, and 455 ± 204 (range 224-1230) mg/kg, respectively. Our study has several limitations, the most notable of which is the small sample of soils evaluated. However, this screening study provided concentration data for the occurrence of POPs and four heavy metals in soil from the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and taking into consideration that soil is an important pathway of exposure for people, a biomonitoring program for the surveillance of the general population in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon is deemed necessary.

  4. Mapping deforestation and urban expansion in Freetown, Sierra Leone, from pre- to post-war economic recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansaray, Lamin R; Huang, Jingfeng; Kamara, Alimamy A

    2016-08-01

    Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone has experienced vast land-cover changes over the past three decades. In Sierra Leone, however, availability of updated land-cover data is still a problem even for environmental managers. This study was therefore, conducted to provide up-to-date land-cover data for Freetown. Multi-temporal Landsat data at 1986, 2001, and 2015 were obtained, and a maximum likelihood supervised classification was employed. Eight land-cover classes or categories were recognized as follows: water, wetland, built-up, dense forest, sparse forest, grassland, barren, and mangrove. Land-cover changes were mapped via post-classification change detection. The persistence, gain, and loss of each land-cover class, and selected land conversions were also quantified. An overall classification accuracy of 87.3 % and a Kappa statistic of 0.85 were obtained for the 2015 map. From 1986 to 2015, water, built-up, grassland, and barren had net gains, whereas forests, wetlands, and mangrove had net loses. Conversion analyses among forests, grassland, and built-up show that built-up had targeted grassland and avoided forests. This study also revealed that, the overall land-cover change at 2001-2015 was higher (28.5 %) than that recorded at 1986-2001 (20.9 %). This is attributable to the population increase in Freetown and the high economic growth and infrastructural development recorded countrywide after the civil war. In view of the rapid land-cover change and its associated environmental impacts, this study recommends the enactment of policies that would strike a balance between urbanization and environmental sustainability in Freetown.

  5. Prioritizing Surgical Care on National Health Agendas: A Qualitative Case Study of Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J Dare

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the social and political factors that influence priority setting for different health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, yet these factors are integral to understanding how national health agendas are established. We investigated factors that facilitate or prevent surgical care from being prioritized in LMICs.We undertook country case studies in Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone, using a qualitative process-tracing method. We conducted 74 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders involved in health agenda setting and surgical care in these countries. Interviews were triangulated with published academic literature, country reports, national health plans, and policies. Data were analyzed using a conceptual framework based on four components (actor power, ideas, political contexts, issue characteristics to assess national factors influencing priority for surgery. Political priority for surgical care in the three countries varies. Priority was highest in Papua New Guinea, where surgical care is firmly embedded within national health plans and receives significant domestic and international resources, and much lower in Uganda and Sierra Leone. Factors influencing whether surgical care was prioritized were the degree of sustained and effective domestic advocacy by the local surgical community, the national political and economic environment in which health policy setting occurs, and the influence of international actors, particularly donors, on national agenda setting. The results from Papua New Guinea show that a strong surgical community can generate priority from the ground up, even where other factors are unfavorable.National health agenda setting is a complex social and political process. To embed surgical care within national health policy, sustained advocacy efforts, effective framing of the problem and solutions, and country-specific data are required. Political, technical, and financial

  6. Prioritizing Surgical Care on National Health Agendas: A Qualitative Case Study of Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Anna J; Lee, Katherine C; Bleicher, Josh; Elobu, Alex E; Kamara, Thaim B; Liko, Osborne; Luboga, Samuel; Danlop, Akule; Kune, Gabriel; Hagander, Lars; Leather, Andrew J M; Yamey, Gavin

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the social and political factors that influence priority setting for different health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet these factors are integral to understanding how national health agendas are established. We investigated factors that facilitate or prevent surgical care from being prioritized in LMICs. We undertook country case studies in Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone, using a qualitative process-tracing method. We conducted 74 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders involved in health agenda setting and surgical care in these countries. Interviews were triangulated with published academic literature, country reports, national health plans, and policies. Data were analyzed using a conceptual framework based on four components (actor power, ideas, political contexts, issue characteristics) to assess national factors influencing priority for surgery. Political priority for surgical care in the three countries varies. Priority was highest in Papua New Guinea, where surgical care is firmly embedded within national health plans and receives significant domestic and international resources, and much lower in Uganda and Sierra Leone. Factors influencing whether surgical care was prioritized were the degree of sustained and effective domestic advocacy by the local surgical community, the national political and economic environment in which health policy setting occurs, and the influence of international actors, particularly donors, on national agenda setting. The results from Papua New Guinea show that a strong surgical community can generate priority from the ground up, even where other factors are unfavorable. National health agenda setting is a complex social and political process. To embed surgical care within national health policy, sustained advocacy efforts, effective framing of the problem and solutions, and country-specific data are required. Political, technical, and financial support from

  7. Combined spatial prediction of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sierra Leone: a tool for integrated disease control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H Hodges

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A national mapping of Schistosoma haematobium was conducted in Sierra Leone before the mass drug administration (MDA with praziquantel. Together with the separate mapping of S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths, the national control programme was able to plan the MDA strategies according to the World Health Organization guidelines for preventive chemotherapy for these diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 52 sites/schools were selected according to prior knowledge of S. haematobium endemicity taking into account a good spatial coverage within each district, and a total of 2293 children aged 9-14 years were examined. Spatial analysis showed that S. haematobium is heterogeneously distributed in the country with significant spatial clustering in the central and eastern regions of the country, most prevalent in Bo (24.6% and 8.79 eggs/10 ml, Koinadugu (20.4% and 3.53 eggs/10 ml and Kono (25.3% and 7.91 eggs/10 ml districts. By combining this map with the previously reported maps on intestinal schistosomiasis using a simple probabilistic model, the combined schistosomiasis prevalence map highlights the presence of high-risk communities in an extensive area in the northeastern half of the country. By further combining the hookworm prevalence map, the at-risk population of school-age children requiring integrated schistosomiasis/soil-transmitted helminth treatment regimens according to the coendemicity was estimated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first comprehensive national mapping of urogenital schistosomiasis in Sierra Leone was conducted. Using a new method for calculating the combined prevalence of schistosomiasis using estimates from two separate surveys, we provided a robust coendemicity mapping for overall urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. We also produced a coendemicity map of schistosomiasis and hookworm. These coendemicity maps can be used to guide the decision making for MDA strategies in combination

  8. Combined spatial prediction of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sierra Leone: a tool for integrated disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Mary H; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Paye, Jusufu; Koroma, Joseph B; Sonnie, Mustapha; Clements, Archie; Zhang, Yaobi

    2012-01-01

    A national mapping of Schistosoma haematobium was conducted in Sierra Leone before the mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel. Together with the separate mapping of S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths, the national control programme was able to plan the MDA strategies according to the World Health Organization guidelines for preventive chemotherapy for these diseases. A total of 52 sites/schools were selected according to prior knowledge of S. haematobium endemicity taking into account a good spatial coverage within each district, and a total of 2293 children aged 9-14 years were examined. Spatial analysis showed that S. haematobium is heterogeneously distributed in the country with significant spatial clustering in the central and eastern regions of the country, most prevalent in Bo (24.6% and 8.79 eggs/10 ml), Koinadugu (20.4% and 3.53 eggs/10 ml) and Kono (25.3% and 7.91 eggs/10 ml) districts. By combining this map with the previously reported maps on intestinal schistosomiasis using a simple probabilistic model, the combined schistosomiasis prevalence map highlights the presence of high-risk communities in an extensive area in the northeastern half of the country. By further combining the hookworm prevalence map, the at-risk population of school-age children requiring integrated schistosomiasis/soil-transmitted helminth treatment regimens according to the coendemicity was estimated. The first comprehensive national mapping of urogenital schistosomiasis in Sierra Leone was conducted. Using a new method for calculating the combined prevalence of schistosomiasis using estimates from two separate surveys, we provided a robust coendemicity mapping for overall urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. We also produced a coendemicity map of schistosomiasis and hookworm. These coendemicity maps can be used to guide the decision making for MDA strategies in combination with the local knowledge and programme needs.

  9. Microbiological and Chemical Quality of Packaged Sachet Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Michael B; Williams, Ashley R; Jalloh, Mohamed F; Saquee, George; Bain, Robert E S; Bartram, Jamie K

    2015-01-01

    Packaged drinking water (PW) sold in bottles and plastic bags/sachets is widely consumed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and many urban users in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) rely on packaged sachet water (PSW) as their primary source of water for consumption. However, few rigorous studies have investigated PSW quality in SSA, and none have compared PSW to stored household water for consumption (HWC). A clearer understanding of PSW quality in the context of alternative sources is needed to inform policy and regulation. As elsewhere in SSA, PSW is widely consumed in Sierra Leone, but government oversight is nearly nonexistent. This study examined the microbiological and chemical quality of a representative sample of PSW products in Freetown, Sierra Leone at packaged water manufacturing facilities (PWMFs) and at points of sale (POSs). Samples of HWC were also analyzed for comparison. The study did not find evidence of serious chemical contamination among the parameters studied. However, 19% of 45 PSW products sampled at the PWMF contained detectable Escherichia coli (EC), although only two samples exceeded 10 CFU/100 mL. Concentrations of total coliforms (TC) in PSW (but not EC) increased along the supply chain. Samples of HWC from 60 households in Freetown were significantly more likely to contain EC and TC than PSW at the point of production (p<0.01), and had significantly higher concentrations of both bacterial indicators (p<0.01). These results highlight the need for additional PSW regulation and surveillance, while demonstrating the need to prioritize the safety of HWC. At present, PSW may be the least unsafe option for many households.

  10. An exploration of the political economy dynamics shaping health worker incentives in three districts in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Maria Paola; Witter, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    The need for evidence-based practice calls for research focussing not only on the effectiveness of interventions and their translation into policies, but also on implementation processes and the factors influencing them, in particular for complex health system policies. In this paper, we use the lens of one of the health system's 'building blocks', human resources for health (HRH), to examine the implementation of official policies on HRH incentives and the emergence of informal practices in three districts of Sierra Leone. Our mixed-methods research draws mostly from 18 key informant interviews at district level. Data are organised using a political economy framework which focuses on the dynamic interactions between structure (context, historical legacies, institutions) and agency (actors, agendas, power relations) to show how these elements affect the HRH incentive practices in each district. It appears that the official policies are re-shaped both by implementation challenges and by informal practices emerging at local level as the result of the district-level dynamics and negotiations between District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) and nongovernmental organisations (NGOs). Emerging informal practices take the form of selective supervision, salary supplementations and per diems paid to health workers, and aim to ensure a better fit between the actors' agendas and the incentive package. Importantly, the negotiations which shape such practices are characterised by a substantial asymmetry of power between DHMTs and NGOs. In conclusion, our findings reveal the influence of NGOs on the HRH incentive package and highlight the need to empower DHMTs to limit the discrepancy between policies defined at central level and practices in the districts, and to reduce inequalities in health worker remuneration across districts. For Sierra Leone, these findings are now more relevant than ever as new players enter the stage at district level, as part of the Ebola response and

  11. Prioritizing Surgical Care on National Health Agendas: A Qualitative Case Study of Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Anna J.; Lee, Katherine C.; Bleicher, Josh; Elobu, Alex E.; Kamara, Thaim B.; Liko, Osborne; Luboga, Samuel; Danlop, Akule; Kune, Gabriel; Hagander, Lars; Leather, Andrew J. M.; Yamey, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the social and political factors that influence priority setting for different health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet these factors are integral to understanding how national health agendas are established. We investigated factors that facilitate or prevent surgical care from being prioritized in LMICs. Methods and Findings We undertook country case studies in Papua New Guinea, Uganda, and Sierra Leone, using a qualitative process-tracing method. We conducted 74 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders involved in health agenda setting and surgical care in these countries. Interviews were triangulated with published academic literature, country reports, national health plans, and policies. Data were analyzed using a conceptual framework based on four components (actor power, ideas, political contexts, issue characteristics) to assess national factors influencing priority for surgery. Political priority for surgical care in the three countries varies. Priority was highest in Papua New Guinea, where surgical care is firmly embedded within national health plans and receives significant domestic and international resources, and much lower in Uganda and Sierra Leone. Factors influencing whether surgical care was prioritized were the degree of sustained and effective domestic advocacy by the local surgical community, the national political and economic environment in which health policy setting occurs, and the influence of international actors, particularly donors, on national agenda setting. The results from Papua New Guinea show that a strong surgical community can generate priority from the ground up, even where other factors are unfavorable. Conclusions National health agenda setting is a complex social and political process. To embed surgical care within national health policy, sustained advocacy efforts, effective framing of the problem and solutions, and country-specific data are required. Political

  12. Elliptic and solitary wave solutions for Bogoyavlenskii equations system, couple Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equations system and Time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa M.A. Khater

    Full Text Available In this article and for the first time, we introduce and describe Khater method which is a new technique for solving nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs.. We apply this method for each of the following models Bogoyavlenskii equation, couple Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli system and Time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation. Khater method is very powerful, Effective, felicitous and fabulous method to get exact and solitary wave solution of (PDEs.. Not only just like that but it considers too one of the general methods for solving that kind of equations since it involves some methods as we will see in our discuss of the results. We make a comparison between the results of this new method and another method. Keywords: Bogoyavlenskii equations system, Couple Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equations system, Time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation, Khater method, Traveling wave solutions, Solitary wave solutions

  13. Teknisk Ståbi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teknisk Ståbi er de bygningsprojekterendes og entreprenørers håndbog. Den dækker matematik, fysik, statestik, laster og sikkerhed samt beggematerialerne: beton, stål, træ, murværk, letbeton, glas og endelig fundering. Denne udgave er en næsten totalrevision, baseret på de nye Eurocodes, der afløs...

  14. Macro and Micro-Nutrient Contents of 18 Medicinal Plants used Traditionally to Alleviate Diabetes in Nuevo Leon, Northeast of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, R.; Rodriguez, H. G.; Kumari, C. A.; Sarkar, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    Although several medicinal plants has been documented to alleviate diabetes in Nuevo Leon, Northeast of Mexico, no systematic study has been undertaken to determine the efficacy of these plant species. The present study was undertaken to determine micronutrients (Cu, Fe and Zn) and macro-nutrients (K, Mg and P), C, N and C/N and to select plants with high macro and micronutrient contents for high efficacy in 18 medicinal plants collected from botanical gardens of Forest Science Faculty, UANL, Mexico used in Nuevo Leon in Northeast of Mexico, at the experimental station of Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon. Following standard protocols, carbon and nitrogen were determined using a CHN analyzer (Perkin Elmer, model 2400). Mineral contents were using the wet digestion technique (Cherney, 2000). The present study indicated the presence of large variation in the contents of several macro and micronutrients among these 18 species of medicinal plants utilized traditionally to control diabetes and other diseases in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Among these species containing high nitrogen content (%) are Moringa oleifera (6.25), Melia azadirachta (5.85), Marrubium vulgare (4.56) and Phoradendron villosum (4.9). The C/N values ranged from 8 to 30. The species having high C/N were Agave macroculmis (30), Arbutus xalapensis (26) and Rhus virens (22). The species Melia azadirachta, Marrubium vulgare, Buddleja cordata, Tecoma stans, Hedeoma palmeri, Phoradendron villosum, Opuntia ficus-indica, Arbutus xalapensis exhibited large variations in the contents of macro and micronutrients which, could be considered to be used effectively for the control of diabetes. Few species viz. Marrubium vulgare, Buddleja cordata, Tecoma stans, Hedeoma palmeri, Phoradendron villosum, Opuntia ficus-indica and Arbutus xalapensis on the basis of high nutrient content with respect to C, N, C/N, Cu, Fe, Zn, K, P and Mg are selected and recommended to control diabetes. (author)

  15. How do health workers experience and cope with shocks? Learning from four fragile and conflict-affected health systems in Uganda, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe and Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Witter, Sophie; Wurie, Haja; Chandiwana, Pamela; Namakula, Justine; So, Sovannarith; Alonso-Garbayo, Alvaro; Ssengooba, Freddie; Raven, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    This article is grounded in a research programme which set out to understand how to rebuild health systems post-conflict. Four countries were studied – Uganda, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe, and Cambodia – which were at different distances from conflict and crisis, as well as each having a unique conflict story. During the research process, the Ebola epidemic broke out in West Africa. Zimbabwe has continued to face a profound economic crisis. Within our research on health worker incentives, we captu...

  16. Facilitating War-Affected Young Mothers¡¯ Reintegration: Lessons from a Participatory Action Research Study in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Worthen; Grace Onyango; Mike Wessells; Angela Veale; Susan McKay

    2013-01-01

    Young women and girls formerly associated with armed forces and armed groups face multiple challenges. Many become pregnant or have children while they are associated and face stigma and marginalization upon reintegration into civilian communities. This article describes a multi-year participatory action research study that took place in twenty communities in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and northern Uganda from 2006 ¨C 2009 and included more than 650 young mother participants. We find that this co...

  17. Improving mapping for Ebola response through mobilising a local community with self-owned smartphones: Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone, January 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Nic Lochlainn, Laura M.; Gayton, Ivan; Theocharopoulos, Georgios; Edwards, Robin; Danis, Kostas; Kremer, Ronald; Kleijer, Karline; Tejan, Sumaila M.; Sankoh, Mohamed; Jimissa, Augustin; Greig, Jane; Caleo, Grazia

    2018-01-01

    Background During the 2014–16 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, the Magburaka Ebola Management Centre (EMC) operated by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone, identified that available district maps lacked up-to-date village information to facilitate timely implementation of EVD control strategies. In January 2015, we undertook a survey in chiefdoms within the MSF EMC catchment area to collect mapping and village data. We explore the feasibility and cost to mobi...

  18. Exploring the Knowledge and Perception of Generic Medicines among Final Year Undergraduate Medical, Pharmacy, and Nursing Students in Sierra Leone: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bai James

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most low-income nations have national medicine policy that emphasized the use of generic medicines in the public health sector. However, the use of generics is often debatable as there are concerns over its efficacy, quality, and safety compared to their branded counterparts. This study was conducted to compare the knowledge and perception of generic medicines among final year undergraduate medical, pharmacy, and nursing students in Sierra Leone. We conducted a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study among these students at the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences University of Sierra Leone. Out of the 62 students, only two (2/62, 3.2% knew about the acceptable bioequivalence limit. At least half of respondents in all three groups agreed that all generics are therapeutically equivalent to their innovator brand. At least half of the medicine (21/42, 50% and nursing (6/9, 66.6% students, compared to pharmacy students (5/11, 45.5%, believed that higher safety standards are required for proprietary medicines than for generic medicines. Most of them agreed that they need more information on the safety, quality, and efficacy aspects of generics (59/62, 95.2%. All three groups of healthcare students, despite variations in their responses, demonstrated a deficiency in knowledge and misconception regarding generic medicines. Training on issues surrounding generic drugs in healthcare training institutions is highly needed among future healthcare providers in Sierra Leone.

  19. [Establishment of Quality Control System of Nucleic Acid Detection for Ebola Virus in Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Nie, Kai; Wang, Huanyu; Du, Haijun; Song, Jingdong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wenwen; Guo, Jianqiang; Wei, Hejiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yanhai; Wu, Jiang; Gerald, Bangura; Kamara, Idrissa Laybohr; Liang, Mifang; Wu, Guizhen; Dong, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    The quality control process throughout the Ebola virus nucleic acid detection in Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab) was described in detail, in order to comprehensively display the scientific, rigorous, accurate and efficient practice in detection of Ebola virus of first batch detection team in SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab. Firstly, the key points of laboratory quality control system was described, including the managements and organizing, quality control documents and information management, instrument, reagents and supplies, assessment, facilities design and space allocation, laboratory maintenance and biosecurity. Secondly, the application of quality control methods in the whole process of the Ebola virus detection, including before the test, during the test and after the test, was analyzed. The excellent and professional laboratory staffs, the implementation of humanized management are the cornerstone of the success; High-level biological safety protection is the premise for effective quality control and completion of Ebola virus detection tasks. And professional logistics is prerequisite for launching the laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus. The establishment and running of SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab has landmark significance for the friendship between Sierra Leone and China, and the lab becomes the most important base for Ebola virus laboratory testing in Sierra Leone.

  20. Potential human health risk by 234,238U and 210Po due to consumption of fish from the "Luis L. Leon" reservoir (Northern Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Porres, M. Y.; Rodríguez-Villa, M. A.; Herrera-Peraza, E.; Cabral-Lares, M.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2014-07-01

    The Conchos River is one of the most important in northern Mexico and the main surface waterway in the arid state of Chihuahua. The Luis L. Leon dam produces the Luis L. Leon Reservoir, which is the last major reservoir before the Conchos River enters the Rio Grande at the Texas-Chihuahua border. Activity concentrations (AC) of 234,238U and 210Po in fillet and liver of three stocked fish species (Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus), as well as in water from the Luis L. Leon reservoir were determined. 238U and 234U ACs in fillet samples showed values of 0.007-0.014 and 0.01-0.02 Bq kg-1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Liver samples for Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus species, present 210Po AC of 1.16-3.26 0.70-1.13 and 0.93-1.37 Bqṡkg-1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) for fish tissues respect to their concentrations in water was determined. Lepomis cyanellus species showed the highest BAF for total uranium in fillet, with value 1.5. The annual effective dose for uranium in adults by fish consumption in this work ranged from 4.46×10-3 to 3.68×10-2 μSvṡyear-1. The difference in concentrations of uranium in fillet among the studied species is likely primarily due to their differences in diet and habitat.

  1. COMPARISON OF RESORT SIGN SYSTEM BASED ON EFFECTIVENESS IN VISUAL COMMUNICATION DESIGN GOAL (Case Study: Kuta Beach Bali-Indonesia and Haeundae Beach Busan-Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listia Natadjaja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As we know there are many resorts in Indonesia especially in Bali. Each resort needs a sign system for information and safety. We need a field study from other countries to compare our sign system condition%2C so we can get some description of how to create an effective sign system and what we should do to make a better environment. This case study represents two famous beaches in two countries which are Kuta Beach in Bali–Indonesia and Haeundae Beach in Busan-Korea. Through a study of another sign system%2C hopefully we can create an effective sign system that meets the Visual Communication Design Goal. Each area has a unique character%2C so a sign system can be developed by looking at the environment and local culture to reach a global understanding. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Seperti yang kita ketahui ada begitu banyak tempat rekreasi di Indonesia utamanya di Bali. Tiap-tiap tempat rekreasi memerlukan sistem tanda untuk informasi dan keselamatan. Diperlukan suatu studi lapangan untuk membandingkan kondisi sistem tanda antar negara%2C sehingga didapatkan beberapa gambaran bagaimana menciptakan suatu sistem tanda yang efektif dan apa yang perlu dilakukan untuk membuat lingkungan yang lebih baik. Studi kasus yang diambil mewakili dua tempat rekreasi yaitu pantai yang terkenal di masing-masing negara yaitu pantai Kuta Bali-Indonesia dan pantai Haeundae di Busan-Korea. Dengan mempelajari sistem tanda yang berbeda%2C diharapkan dapat diciptakan suatu sistem tanda yang efektif untuk mencapai tujuan desain komunikasi visual. Tiap-tiap lokasi memiliki karakter yang unik%2C jadi sistem tanda dapat dikembangkan dengan melihat lingkungan dan budaya lokal untuk mencapai pengertian secara global. resort%2C sign system%2C effective%2C visual communication design goal.

  2. INVENTARISASI KEANEKARAGAMAN ANGGREK (Orchidaceae DI HUTAN RESORT WAY KANAN BALAI AMAN NASIONAL WAY KAMBAS SEBAGAI SUMBER INFORMASI DALAM MELESTARIKAN PLASMA NUTFAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Agustin Hening Widowati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  Orchid is one of the plants that have different characteristics in each species and its habitat. Orchids (Orchidaceae or nation is a group that is protected by Government Regulations  Number. 7 Th.1999. It is necessary to look at the type of data collections and save it, and look at the characteristics of tropical forests in the Resort Way Kanan. This research aims to inventory orchid the found in Forest Resort of Way Kanan. This research was conducted in December 2014 until January 2015, using purposive sampling method and using techniques Line transeck, cut the line following the path of the Post traking Right Way to the SRS (Sumatran Rhino Sanctuary, in this research using 4 stations between stations within 2km. The results of this study were obtained 23 species of orchids with 9 genera and 14 species include: the genus Dendrobium, Dendrobium creatceum, Dendrobium crumenatum, genus Grammatophyllum, Grammatophyllum scriptum BL, Agrostophyllum genus, the genus Cymbidium, Cymbidium chloranthum, Cymbidium hartinahianum, Calanthe genus, the genus Bulbophyllum, Arachnis sp, Angraecum didieri, Ascocentrum miniatum, Ascocentrum aureum, Coelogyne foerstermanni, golden shower Oncidium, Phalaenopsis amabilis, Spathoglottis sp. Having analyzed the data obtained it has a value equal to 46% of species density and relative density of 88.36% with a diversity index value of 1.3, based on the criteria of the Shannon-Wienner in Fachrul abundant species diversity can be expressed with the criteria being. The results of this study compiled into resources in conserving germplasm in the form of books and banner summary information, because there are some orchids are found in Forest Resort Way Kanan Balai Way Kambas National Park in Government Regulations  Number. 7 Th.1999 is a protected species of orchids. Orchid is a protected plant species, therefore it is necessary for us to maintain and preserve it.

  3. ACRR fission product release tests: ST-1 and ST-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Stockman, H.W.; Reil, K.O.; Grimley, A.J.; Camp, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments (ST-1 and ST-2) have been performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) to obtain time-resolved data on the release of fission products from irradiated fuels under light water reactor (LWR) severe accident conditions. Both experiments were conducted in a highly reducing environment at maximum fuel temperatures of greater than 2400 K. These experiments were designed specifically to investigate the effect of increased total pressure on fission product release; ST-1 was performed at approximately 0.16 MPa and ST-2 was run at 1.9 MPa, whereas other parameters were matched as closely as possible. Release rate data were measured for Cs, I, Ba, Sr, Eu, Te, and U. The release rates were higher than predicted by existing codes for Ba, Sr, Eu, and U. Te release was very low, but Te did not appear to be sequestered by the zircaloy cladding; it was evenly distributed in the fuel. In addition, in posttest analysis a unique fuel morphology (fuel swelling) was observed which may have enhanced fission product release, especially in the high pressure test (ST-2). These data are compared with analytical results from the CORSOR correlation and the VICTORIA computer model

  4. [Immediate and late results of rehabilitation at the climatic health resorts on the southern coast of the Crimea with sunlight- and meteorolabile patients with chronic bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvionenko, I I; Sidorova, L D; Logvinenko, A S

    1988-01-01

    A study of the social, socioeconomic and economic indices of rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive and nonobstructive bronchitis has shown that one should take account of a degree of expression of heliometeolability when selecting patients with chronic bronchitis residing in West Siberia for climatic treatment in the Crimean South Coast. It has been shown that rehabilitation in the Crimean South Coast health resort area is advisable for heliometeostable patients and patients with mild and marked degrees of heliometeolability. Patients with chronic bronchitis should not be sent to the Crimea in winter and late autumn as the rehabilitation effect in this period is lowered.

  5. [The psychological security in the framework of the system of factors responsible for the effectiveness of spa and health resort-based rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnyanskaya, T M; Tylets, V G

    The present work was designed to address the problem of ensuring the psychological security in the framework of organization of the rehabilitative treatment based at the spa and health resort facilities. We undertook the questionnaire study for which 650 subjects were recruited among those attending spa and health resort facilities of the cities of Essentuki and Kislovodsk. The participants were asked to estimate the level of their personal security and the quality of the provided means for the rehabilitative treatment and general health improvement. It was found that as many as 43% of the respondents reported the moderate level of psychological security whereas about 30% of them estimated the level of their psychological security as low. Overall, the attitude toward the available means for health improvement and rehabilitation proved extremely variable. The factorial analysis has demonstrated the highly subjective opinions of the responders as regards the provided services categorized in terms of therapeutic (mineral water, preformed physical factors, peloid and dietary therapy), health improvement (herbal medicine, therapeutic physical training, therapy, bioclimatic therapy), and recreational (animation, excursion and touristic activities) factors. The value of these factors was perceived differently by the vacationers with different feelings of psychological security. Those reporting the high level of psychological security demonstrated the positive attitude toward all factors and circumstances available for the general improvement of the health status whereas the holidaymakers reporting the moderate level of personal psychological security exhibited the non-equivalent attitude toward the provided services; namely, they highly estimated the available therapeutic factors but either underestimated the value of the constituent components of the health improving and recreational factors or demonstrated the very selective attitude toward their assessment. Generally

  6. The link between the West African Ebola outbreak and health systems in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoman, Haitham; Karafillakis, Emilie; Rawaf, Salman

    2017-01-04

    An Ebola outbreak started in December 2013 in Guinea and spread to Liberia and Sierra Leone in 2014. The health systems in place in the three countries lacked the infrastructure and the preparation to respond to the outbreak quickly and the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared a public health emergency of international concern on August 8 2014. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of health systems' organisation and performance on the West African Ebola outbreak in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone and lessons learned. The WHO health system building blocks were used to evaluate the performance of the health systems in these countries. A systematic review of articles published from inception until July 2015 was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. Electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Global Health, and the Cochrane library were searched for relevant literature. Grey literature was also searched through Google Scholar and Scopus. Articles were exported and selected based on a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was then extracted into a spreadsheet and a descriptive analysis was performed. Each study was critically appraised using the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool. The review was supplemented with expert interviews where participants were identified from reference lists and using the snowball method. Thirteen articles were included in the study and six experts from different organisations were interviewed. Findings were analysed based on the WHO health system building blocks. Shortage of health workforce had an important effect on the control of Ebola but also suffered the most from the outbreak. This was followed by information and research, medical products and technologies, health financing and leadership and governance. Poor surveillance and lack of proper communication also contributed to the outbreak. Lack of available funds jeopardised payments and purchase of essential resources and medicines. Leadership and

  7. Improved mapping strategy to better inform policy on the control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are endemic in Sierra Leone confirmed by national mapping in 2008. To better inform planning of preventive chemotherapy strategy, another survey was conducted before mass drug administration (MDA) in seven districts according to the mapping results or local knowledge. Fifty-nine chiefdoms and one school in every chiefdom were selected. Thirty school children aged 9-14 years from each school (total: 1760) were examined by parasitological methods for infection with Schistosoma mansoni and STHs. Results The overall prevalence of S. mansoni was 40.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 37.9-42.5%), particularly in Kailahun (63.3%), Kenema (46.7%), Koinadugu (41.9%) and Kono (71.7%). The results demonstrated the focal distribution of S. mansoni in Bo, Tonkolili and Bombali districts with prevalence ranging from 0.0-63.3%, 3.3-90.0% and 0.0-67.9% respectively. The arithmetic mean intensity of S. mansoni infection was 95.4 epg (95% CI: 61.4-129.5 epg), Heavy mean intensity of infection was found in Kailahun (120.2 epg), Kenema (104.5 epg), Koinadugu (112.3 epg) and Kono (250.3 epg). Heavy or moderate infection with S. mansoni occurred in 20.7% of children examined. Hookworm prevalence was moderate: 31.2% (95% CI: 29.1-33.4%), but high in Bo (50.0%) and Tonkolili (56.7%). Hookworm intensity of infection was light with a mean epg of 53.0 (95% CI: 38.4-67.7 epg). Prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides (1.5%, 17.8 epg) and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%, 20.3 epg) was low. Conclusions The prediction by previous spatial analysis that S. mansoni was highly endemic across north-eastern Sierra Leone was confirmed with a significant proportion of children heavily or moderately infected. The distribution of S. mansoni in Bo, Tonkolili and Bombali districts ranged widely, highlighting the importance of considering the nature of focal transmission in national mapping exercises. These results were used to refine the

  8. Access to artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) and other anti-malarials: national policy and markets in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuasi, John H; Diap, Graciela; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Karikari, Patrick; Boakye, Isaac; Jambai, Amara; Lahai, Wani Kumba; Louie, Karly S; Kiechel, Jean-Rene

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains the leading burden of disease in post-conflict Sierra Leone. To overcome the challenge of anti-malarial drug resistance and improve effective treatment, Sierra Leone adopted artemisinin-combination therapy artesunate-amodiaquine (AS+AQ) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Other national policy anti-malarials include artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as an alternative to AS+AQ, quinine and artemether for treatment of complicated malaria; and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp). This study was conducted to evaluate access to national policy recommended anti-malarials. A cross-sectional survey of 127 medicine outlets (public, private and NGO) was conducted in urban and rural areas. The availability on the day of the survey, median prices, and affordability policy and available non-policy anti-malarials were calculated. Anti-malarials were stocked in 79% of all outlets surveyed. AS+AQ was widely available in public medicine outlets; AL was only available in the private and NGO sectors. Quinine was available in nearly two-thirds of public and NGO outlets and over one-third of private outlets. SP was widely available in all outlets. Non-policy anti-malarials were predominantly available in the private outlets. AS+AQ in the public sector was widely offered for free. Among the anti-malarials sold at a cost, the same median price of a course of AS+AQ (US$1.56), quinine tablets (US$0.63), were found in both the public and private sectors. Quinine injection had a median cost of US$0.31 in the public sector and US$0.47 in the private sector, while SP had a median cost of US$0.31 in the public sector compared to US$ 0.63 in the private sector. Non-policy anti-malarials were more affordable than first-line AS+AQ in all sectors. A course of AS+AQ was affordable at nearly two days' worth of wages in both the public and private sectors.

  9. Improved mapping strategy to better inform policy on the control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Mary; Dada, Nsa; Wamsley, Anna; Paye, Jusufu; Nyorkor, Emanuel; Sonnie, Mustapha; Barnish, Guy; Bockarie, Moses; Zhang, Yaobi

    2011-06-06

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are endemic in Sierra Leone confirmed by national mapping in 2008. To better inform planning of preventive chemotherapy strategy, another survey was conducted before mass drug administration (MDA) in seven districts according to the mapping results or local knowledge. Fifty-nine chiefdoms and one school in every chiefdom were selected. Thirty school children aged 9-14 years from each school (total: 1760) were examined by parasitological methods for infection with Schistosoma mansoni and STHs. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni was 40.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 37.9-42.5%), particularly in Kailahun (63.3%), Kenema (46.7%), Koinadugu (41.9%) and Kono (71.7%). The results demonstrated the focal distribution of S. mansoni in Bo, Tonkolili and Bombali districts with prevalence ranging from 0.0-63.3%, 3.3-90.0% and 0.0-67.9% respectively. The arithmetic mean intensity of S. mansoni infection was 95.4 epg (95% CI: 61.4-129.5 epg), Heavy mean intensity of infection was found in Kailahun (120.2 epg), Kenema (104.5 epg), Koinadugu (112.3 epg) and Kono (250.3 epg). Heavy or moderate infection with S. mansoni occurred in 20.7% of children examined. Hookworm prevalence was moderate: 31.2% (95% CI: 29.1-33.4%), but high in Bo (50.0%) and Tonkolili (56.7%). Hookworm intensity of infection was light with a mean epg of 53.0 (95% CI: 38.4-67.7 epg). Prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides (1.5%, 17.8 epg) and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%, 20.3 epg) was low. The prediction by previous spatial analysis that S. mansoni was highly endemic across north-eastern Sierra Leone was confirmed with a significant proportion of children heavily or moderately infected. The distribution of S. mansoni in Bo, Tonkolili and Bombali districts ranged widely, highlighting the importance of considering the nature of focal transmission in national mapping exercises. These results were used to refine the MDA for schistosomiasis control

  10. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XII.- Castilla-Leon (c): Burgos, Soria and Segovia; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. Volumen XII.- Castilla-Leon (c): Burgos, Soria y Segovia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Burgos, Soria and Segovia of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author)

  11. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volumen XI.- Castilla-Leon (b): Palencia, Valladolid and Avila; Base de Datos de propiedades edafologicas de los suelos espanoles. Volumen XI. Castilla-Leon (b): Palencia, Valladolid y Avila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled form the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Palencia. Valladolid and Avila of the Comunidad Autonoma de Castilla-Leon. (Author)

  12. The Effects of Management Information System toward Decision Making in Food and Beverage Service Department in X Resorts and Hotels Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Gita Subakti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In an organization, decision making hold an important role. That is why a decision made by managers should be a final decision that should be done by their subordinates or those who are related with the organization. In the effort to increase the quality of management information system, a research was held in X Resorts and Hotels Bandung to analyze management information system in the relation to decision making especially in Food and Beverage Service Department and recommendation of how to handle the problem occurred. From the questioner with data analyzing technique of spearman rank gained correlation result 0,84, with determination coefficient 71% which means the management information system has 71% level of influence to decision making, meanwhile the rest of the result (29% shows other factors, which also were related with the decision making other than management information system. To solve with the problem, it is recommended that X Resorts and Hotels decrease the level of information product error in management information used and fasten the delivery of provided information.

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Snow Patterns in Swiss Ski Resorts to Shifts in Temperature, Precipitation and Humidity Under Condition of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, B.; Goyette, S.; Beniston, M.

    2008-12-01

    The value of snow as a resource has considerably increased in Swiss mountain regions, in particular in the context of winter tourism. In the perspective of a warming climate, it is thus important to quantify the potential changes in snow amount and duration that could have large repercussions on the economy of ski resorts. Because of the fine spatial variability of snow, the use of a Surface Energy Balance Model (SEBM) is adequate to simulate local snow cover evolution. A perturbation method has been developed to generate plausible future meteorological input data required for SEBM simulations in order to assess the changes in snow cover patterns. Current and future snow depths have also been simulated within the ski areas themselves. The results show a large decrease of the snow depths and duration, even at high elevation in a warmer climate and emphasize the sensitivity of snow to topographical characteristics of the resorts. The study highlights the fact that not only the altitude of a domain but also its exposure, localization inland and slope gradients need to be taken into account when evaluating current and future snow depths. This method enables a precise assessment of the snow pattern over a small area.

  14. Hope in the midst of Death: Charismatic Spirituality, Healing Evangelists and the Ebola Crises in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangura, Joseph Bosco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola crises that crippled West Africa from December 2013 onwards is a watershed moment in the history of those nations. The crises profoundly impacted the regions inadequate healthcare, obstructed the potential for socioeconomic development, and challenged long held traditional and religious beliefs. As Ebola began to take its toll by depleting human life, the world could not stand idly by and observe as poor post-war nations were overwhelmed by a colossal health catastrophe. By the time Ebola was contained, this obnoxious monster had taken an estimated 11,300 lives in the three worst affected countries in the region. But while medical practitioners were at the forefront of the battle, healing evangelists drawing inspiration from their understanding of Scripture, African culture and Charismatic spirituality, also provided responses that proved essential in the fight against Ebola. This article reviews the responses proffered by healing evangelists and discuss how the overall Charismatic spirituality inspired hope in the midst of the Ebola crises in Sierra Leone.

  15. "Optics 4 every1", the hands-on optics outreach program of the Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera-González, Perla M.; Sánchez-Guerrero, Guillermo E.

    2016-09-01

    The Fisica Pato2 (Physics 4 every1) outreach group started as a need of hands-on activities and active Science demonstrations in the education for kids, teenagers and basic education teachers in Nuevo Leffon maintaining a main objective of spread the word about the importance of Optics and Photonics; for accomplish this objective, since November 2013 several outreach events are organized every year by the group. The program Optics 4 every1 is supported by the Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas of the Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon and the International Society for Optics and Photonics and consist in quick hands-on activities and Optics demonstrations designed for teach basic optical phenomena related with light and its application in everyday life. During 2015, with the purpose of celebrate the International Year of Light 2015, the outreach group was involved in 13 different events and reached more than 8,000 people. The present work explains the activities done and the outcome obtained with this program.

  16. Interferon Gamma-Based Detection of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in the Border States of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Eyal; Alatorre-Izaguirre, Gabriela; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Moreno-Treviño, Maria Guadalupe; Garcialuna-Martinez, Javier; Gonzalez-Salazar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Nearly one-third of the world's population is infected with latent tuberculosis (LTBI). Tuberculosis (TB) rates in the border states are higher than national rates in both the US and Mexico, with the border accounting for 30% of total registered TB cases in both countries. However, LTBI rates in the general population in Mexican border states are unknown. In this region, LTBI is diagnosed using the tuberculin skin test (TST). New methods of detection more specific than TST have been developed, although there is currently no gold standard for LTBI detection. Our objective is to demonstrate utility of the Quantiferon TB gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test compared with the TST to detect LTBI among border populations. This is an observational, cross-sectional study carried out in border areas of the states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico. Participants (n = 210) provided a TST and blood sample for the QFT-GIT. Kappa coefficients assessed the agreement between TST and QFT-GIT. Participant characteristics were compared using Fisher exact tests. Thirty-eight percent of participants were diagnosed with LTBI by QFT-GIT. The proportion of LTBI detected using QFT-GIT was almost double [38% (79/210)] that found by TST [19% (39/210)] (P < 0.001). Concordance between TST and QFT-GIT was low (kappa = 0.37). We recommend further studies utilizing the QFT-GIT test to detect LTBI among border populations.

  17. Geo-social and health disparities among persons with disabilities living in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon and Dallas, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Silviya P; Small, Eusebius; Campillo, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    In low and high income countries alike, disability exacerbates social, economic, and health disparities, in spite of their differences. This study seeks to identify factors that predict the circumstances people with disabilities face, including poverty. A cross-sectional study design was employed using census track level data for the cities of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, and Dallas, Texas, from Mexico 2010 and USA 2000 census data collections. Two methods, spatial autocorrelation and geographically weighted regression were used to identify spatial patterns of disability and to explore the relation between disability and context-specific socio-demographic factors. Results indicated that people with disabilities living below the poverty line experience high segregation levels in the semi-central zones of Dallas. In Monterrey, people with disabilities clustered in central areas of the city. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) from both data analyses reported high goodness of fit (R ≥ 0.8 for Dallas data and R ≥ 0.7 for Monterrey data, respectively) and predictability of disability prevalence when social disadvantage factors such as unemployment, housing insecurity, household living conditions, and lack of education were present. The divergent and sometimes conflicting trends in practices and policies addressing disability in low and high income environments renders a reexamination of the framework of disability. An understanding of local characteristics joins a grounded socio-cultural understanding of the various contexts that shape location-based social networks and political decisions in providing such an analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Airborne pollen of Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus in the metropolitan area of Monterrey Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Estrada, Alejandra; Alvarado-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Torres-Cepeda, Teresa Elizabeth; Foroughbakhch-Pournavab, Rahim; Hernández-Piñero, Jorge Luis

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere over the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, was analyzed throughout a year from March 2003-February 2004, focused on the genus Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus owing to their interest as etiological pollinosis agents in diverse regions of the world. A 7-day Hirst type volumetric spore and pollen trap was located on a building roof of the city at 15 m from ground level for continuous sampling. The total quantity of pollen recorded for the study period was 21,083 grains/m(3), corresponding to 49.75 % of the taxa of interest. February and March were the months with higher pollen amounts in the air with 7,525 and 2,781 grains/m(3), respectively, and amounted to 49 % of total year through pollen. Fraxinus was the genus which contributed to the largest amount of pollen with 28 % of total grains (5,935 grains/m(3)) followed by Cupressus with 13 % (2,742 grains/ m(3)). Celtis, Pinus and Carya contributed with 5.3 % , 2.7 % , and 0.6 % of total pollen, respectively. These results indicate that Fraxinus and Cupressus are present in the area in sufficient quantity to indicate likely involvement in the origin of allergic disorders in the human population.

  19. Image guided radiotherapy with the Cone Beam CT kV (ElektaTM): Experience of the Leon Berard Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pommier, P.; Gassa, F.; Lafay, F.; Claude, L.

    2009-01-01

    Image guide radiotherapy with the Cone Beam CT kV (C.B.C.T.-kV) developed by Elekta has been implemented at the centre Leon Berard in November 2006. The treatment procedure is presented and detailed for prostate cancer I.G.R.T. and non small cell lung cancer (N.S.C.L.C.) stereotactic radiotherapy (S.R.T.). C.B.C.T.-kV is routinely used for S.R.T., selected paediatric cancers, all prostate carcinomas, primitive brain tumours and head and neck cancers that do not require nodes irradiation. Thirty-five to 40 patients are treated within a daily 11-hours period. The general procedure for 3-dimensional images acquisition and their analysis is described. The C.B.C.T.-kV permitted to identify about 10% of prostate cancer patients for whom a positioning with bone-based 2-dimensional images only would have led to an unacceptable dose distribution for at least one session. S.R.T. is now used routinely for inoperable N.S.C.L.C.. The easiness of implementing C.B.C.T.-kV imaging and its expected medical benefit should lead to a rapid diffusion of this technology that is also submitted to prospective and multi centric medico-economical evaluations. (authors)

  20. Gestión del agua subterránea en el Barrio Cerro Los Leones de Tandil (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Iris Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen y analizan los actores y modos de explotación y uso involucrados en la gestión del recurso hídrico subterráneo en un barrio periférico de Tandil -Cerro Los Leones- (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, que carece de servicios de agua potable y cloacas. Estudios previos demostraron contaminación química y bacteriológica del agua que pone en riesgo la salud de la población. Se caracterizan los modos de uso y explotación del agua, señalando importantes defi ciencias en el diseño, construcción y mantenimiento de perforaciones y sistemas de disposición de efl uentes. Ante la necesidad y el desafío de la gestión integrada del recurso, se plantean linea mientos tendientes a su sustentabilidad, referidos a la planifi cación del uso, el abastecimiento de agua potable, el diseño de perforaciones y la educación ambiental.

  1. Practices of traditional birth attendants in Sierra Leone and perceptions by mothers and health professionals familiar with their care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorwie, Florence M; Pacquiao, Dula F

    2014-01-01

    Describe practices of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in assisting women in childbirth and the perceptions of TBAs by mothers and health professionals familiar with their work. Qualitative design using focus groups conducted in urban and rural settings in Sierra Leone. Separate audiotaped focus groups conducted for each group of participants lasting between 45 and 90 minutes. Purposive sample of 20 TBAs, 20 mothers, and 10 health professionals who met the following criteria: (a) at least 18 years of age, (b) TBAs currently practicing, (c) mothers who delivered at least one child assisted by a TBA, and (d) health professionals currently practicing in the hospital and familiar with TBA practices. TBAs are valued by mothers, health professionals, and the community because they provide accessible and affordable care to mothers who may otherwise have no access to health services. TBAs need training, supervision, and resources for effective referral of mothers. Systemic problems in the health care system create enormous barriers to effective care for mothers and children independent of TBA practices that contribute to high maternal and infant mortality rates. The study findings have implications on broad public policy in improving maternal and child health in the country.

  2. Survey and visual detection of Zaire ebolavirus in clinical samples targeting the nucleoprotein gene in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV can lead to severe hemorrhagic fever with a high risk of death in humans and other primates. To guide treatment and prevent spread of the viral infection, a rapid and sensitive detection method is required for clinical samples. Here, we described and evaluated a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP method to detect Zaire ebolavirus using the nucleoprotein gene (NP as a target sequence. Two different techniques were used, a calcein/Mn2+ complex chromogenic method and real-time turbidity monitoring. The RT-LAMP assay detected the NP target sequence with a limit of 4.56 copies/μL within 45 min under 61°C, a similar even or increase in sensitivity than that of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Additionally, all pseudoviral particles or non- Zaire EBOV genomes were negative for LAMP detection, indicating that the assay was highly specific for EBOV. To appraise the availability of the RT-LAMP method for use in clinical diagnosis of EBOV, of 417 blood or swab samples collected from patients with clinically suspected infections in Sierra Leone, 307 were identified for RT-LAMP-based surveillance of EBOV. Therefore, the highly specific and sensitive RT-LAMP method allows the rapid detection of EBOV, and is a suitable tool for clinical screening, diagnosis, and primary quarantine purposes.

  3. Calidad e integracion exitosa de la cadena automotriz de las PYMES en el estado de Nuevo Leon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Blanco Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises in the automotive industry in Mexico play an increasingly important role in the development of national industry, contributing to 2.6% of GDP and represent 11.5% of the manufacturing sector. However, in a recent study of TBM Consulting found that only 20% of auto parts manufacturers in Mexico have the potential to become world-class suppliers of the automotive industry, 40% are in the process of improvement and the remaining 40%, still doing things the traditional way. According to this analysis, including the difficulties faced by SMEs are unable to comply with the requirements of quality products, poor marketing, lack of refinancing, lack of efficient management techniques, among others. In this research is to analyze the problems of SMEs in the automotive sector in the State of Nuevo León and whether having a system implementation of 5S's is looking to integrate the methodologies needed to be innovative, strengthen intercompany and to adopt the ABC costing accounting system, allowing them to have a better quality and successful integration in the automotive supply chain in Nuevo Leon.

  4. Edible wild mushroom tourism as a source of income and employment in rural areas. The case of Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frutos Madrazo, P. de; Martinez Pena, F.; Esteban Laleona, S.

    2012-11-01

    Edible wild mushroom picking is becoming an important source of income in rural areas. The wide range of activities which add value to mycological production (initial sale, transformation, marketing, etc.) include those related to tourism which can attract visitors to mushroom producing areas, leading to so-called mycological tourism. To date, no research exists quantifying the importance thereof in rural areas endowed with such resources. The present research provides the first model to estimate this activity contribution to the economy of rural areas in the region of Castilla y Leon. The main finding to emerge evidences a close link between influx of visitors, who come principally to pick, and mycological productivity in the region. Based on this relation, we estimate four key variables to determine the impact which said activity has on the regional economy as a whole: the number of overnight stays and trips made by mycological tourists, as well as associated expenditure and employment created. Findings underscore the importance of this activity in the regional tourism industry and point to its significance as a major market niche, particularly during the hotel low season. The need for public administrators to implement a related management policy is also inferred. (Author) 35 refs.

  5. Predictors of sustainability for community-managed handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Rural water supply sustainability has remained an enduring policy challenge in sub-Saharan Africa for decades. Drawing on the largest data set assembled on rural water points in sub-Saharan Africa to date, this paper employs logistic regression analyses to identify operational, technical, institutional, financial, and environmental predictors of functionality for over 25 000 community-managed handpumps in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Uganda. Risk factors significantly associated with nonfunctionality across all three countries were (a) system age, (b) distance from district/county capital, and (c) absence of user fee collection. In at least one of the three countries, other variables found to have significant multivariable adjusted associations with functionality status included well type, handpump type, funding organization, implementing organization, spare parts proximity, availability of a handpump mechanic, regular servicing, regular water committee meetings, women in key water committee positions, rainfall season, and perceived water quality. While the findings reinforce views that a multifaceted range of conditions is critical for the sustainability of community-managed handpumps, they also demonstrate that these factors remain absent from a high proportion of cases. Governments and development partners must significantly strengthen postconstruction support for operation and maintenance systems, and greater efforts are needed to test and evaluate alternative models for managing handpump water supplies.

  6. Risky sexual behaviour among women: Does economic empowerment matter? Case of Gabon, Mozambique, Sierra-Leone and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odimegwu, Clifford O; De Wet, Nicole; Banda, Pamela C

    2016-12-01

    The link between economic empowerment and high risky sexual behaviour has been debated by different scholars in various settings. However, no consistently clear connection between poverty and lack of education has been found regarding engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Also, not much research has been done to examine the strength of these relationships for adolescents and women. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between female economic empowerment and risky sexual behaviour in Africa. Using the latest Demographic and Health Surveys Data (DHS 2011-2014) from Gabon, Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Zambia, univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done on women aged 15 to 49 to examine the patterns of and differences in the association between women's economic empowerment and risky sexual behaviour. The findings both at community and individual level indicate that empowered women (higher education and wealth household) and adolescents aged 15 to 19 are highly significantly associated with engagement in high risky behaviour. The result of this study stresses the need to look further than individual factors in the quest to resolve risky sexual behaviour in Africa. The interrelations between female economic empowerment and engagement in risky sexual behaviour are more complicated and less straightforward than usually presumed.

  7. The role of international organizations in aid: A case study of a teacher education programme in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banya, Kingsley

    1988-12-01

    By the early 1970s, the Sierra Leone government realized that the educational system was not meeting the developmental needs of the country. In an attempt to reverse the increasing trend of migration to urban areas, to improve rural productivity and the quality of rural life, and to counteract other deleterious effects of this system, in 1974 the government collaborated with Unesco, UNDP and the African Development Bank in launching the Bunumbu project to train primary school teachers for rural areas. This linked a training college with 20 pilot schools and the local community. This paper critically examines the role played by each of the international organizations in executing the project. It gives examples of resources wasted in supplying inappropriate equipment and expensive building materials, and argues strongly for more consideration of local conditions, and for the involvement of local training agencies and local labour, in any similar future plans. The paper concludes with a discussion of who really benefits from international aid and resolves that both recipients and donors should abandon grandiose schemes.

  8. Herrens röst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2015-01-01

    Om språket är gränsen mellan djur och människor, vad innebär det när hundar talar? I filmen Upp pratar de animerade hundarna, men med sin husses röst. Lilian Munk Rösing ser filmen i sällskap av bland andra Jacques Lacan, Slavoj Žižek och Renata Salecl och finner en röst utan kropp, en kropp besj...

  9. St. Louis FUSRAP Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlin, J.; Williams, D.; Mueller, D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learned from fours years' experience conducting Remedial Investigation and Remedial Action activities at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Many FUSRAP sites are experiencing challenges conducting Remedial Actions within forecasted volume and budget estimates. The St. Louis FUSRAP lessons learned provide insight to options for cost effective remediation at FUSRAP sites. The lessons learned are focused on project planning (budget and schedule), investigation, design, and construction

  10. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.

    1982-08-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  11. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.; Fong, W.; Snetsinger, K.G.; Ferry, G.V.; Hayes, D.M.

    1982-09-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Analysis of samples show that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  12. Methylphenidatinduceret ST-elevations-myokardieinfarkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth; Ruwald, Anne-Christine Huth; Tønder, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Adult attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) is increasingly diagnosed and treated with methylphenidate. We present the case of an 20 year-old man, who was diagnosed with ADHD and suffered a ST elevation acute myocardial infarction due to coronary vasospasm related to an overdose...

  13. 1st quarterly report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The present report describes the activities carried out in the 1st quarter of 1977 at the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung in Karlsruhe or on its behalf in the framework of the fast breeder project (PSB). The problems and main results of the partial projects fuel rod development, materials testing, reactor physics, reactor safety and reactor technology are presented. (RW) [de

  14. Simple stålrammebygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellum, J.C.; Buhelt, M.

    Ved en simpel stålrammebygning forstås i anvisningen en lukket, fritliggende bygning i én etage, hvor tagkonstruktionen ud over egenlast kun er påvirket af naturlaster, dvs. sne og vind. Dimensioneringen af de bærende konstruktioner gennemføres ved at benytte publikationens omfattende tabeldata o...

  15. Simple stålrammebygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellum, J.C.

    Anvisningen gennemgår dimensioneringen og bringer detaljerede konstruktionstegninger til simple stålrammebygninger, dvs. lukkede, fritliggende bygninger i én etage, hvor tagkonstruktionen ud over egenlast kun er påvirket af naturlaster, dvs. sne og vind. Dimensioneringen sker ved at udfylde et di...

  16. St. John's Wort (Hypericum Perforatum) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) Tuesday, 01 May 2018 ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to St. John’s Wort may increase the risk for birth ...

  17. Impact of the Mass Drug Administration for malaria in response to the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aregawi, Maru; Smith, Samuel J; Sillah-Kanu, Musa; Seppeh, John; Kamara, Anitta R Y; Williams, Ryan O; Aponte, John J; Bosman, Andrea; Alonso, Pedro

    2016-09-20

    As emergency response to the Ebola epidemic, the Government of Sierra Leone and its partners implemented a large-scale Mass Drug Administration (MDA) with artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) covering >2.7 million people in the districts hardest hit by Ebola during December 2014-January 2015. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) evaluated the impact of the MDA on malaria morbidity at health facilities and the number of Ebola alerts received at District Ebola Command Centres. The coverage of the two rounds of MDA with ASAQ was estimated by relating the number anti-malarial medicines distributed to the estimated resident population. Segmented time-series analysis was applied to weekly data collected from 49 primary health units (PHUs) and 11 hospitals performing malaria parasitological testing during the study period, to evaluate trends of malaria cases and Ebola alerts during the post-MDA weeks compared to the pre-MDA weeks in MDA- and non-MDA-cheifdoms. After two rounds of the MDA, the number of suspected cases tested with rapid diagnostic test (RDT) decreased significantly by 43 % (95 % CI 38-48 %) at week 1 and remained low at week 2 and 3 post-first MDA and at week 1 and 3 post-second MDA; RDT positive cases decreased significantly by 47 % (41-52 %) at week 1 post-first and remained lower throughout all post-MDA weeks; and the RDT test positivity rate (TPR) declined by 35 % (32-38 %) at week 2 and stayed low throughout all post-MDA weeks. The total malaria (clinical + confirmed) cases decreased significantly by 45 % (39-52 %) at week 1 and were lower at week 2 and 3 post-first MDA; and week 1 post-second MDA. The proportion of confirmed malaria cases (out of all-outpatients) fell by 33 % (29-38 %) at week 1 post-first MDA and were lower during all post-MDA weeks. On the contrary, the non-malaria outpatient cases (cases due to other health conditions) either remained unchanged or fluctuated insignificantly

  18. No Evidence for Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission in Big Cities Affected by Conflict Related Rural-Urban Migration in Sierra Leone and Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Sesay, Santigie; Moore, Marnijina G.; Ansumana, Rashid; Narh, Charles A.; Kollie, Karsor; Rebollo, Maria P.; Koudou, Benjamin G.; Koroma, Joseph B.; Bolay, Fatorma K.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In West Africa, the principal vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF) are Anopheles species with Culex species playing only a minor role in transmission, if any. Being a predominantly rural disease, the question remains whether conflict-related migration of rural populations into urban areas would be sufficient for active transmission of the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined LF transmission in urban areas in post-conflict Sierra Leone and Liberia that experienced significant rural-urban migration. Mosquitoes from Freetown and Monrovia, were analyzed for infection with Wuchereria bancrofti. We also undertook a transmission assessment survey (TAS) in Bo and Pujehun districts in Sierra Leone. The majority of the mosquitoes collected were Culex species, while Anopheles species were present in low numbers. The mosquitoes were analyzed in pools, with a maximum of 20 mosquitoes per pool. In both countries, a total of 1731 An. gambiae and 14342 Culex were analyzed for W. bancrofti, using the PCR. Two pools of Culex mosquitoes and 1 pool of An. gambiae were found infected from one community in Freetown. Pool screening analysis indicated a maximum likelihood of infection of 0.004 (95% CI of 0.00012–0.021) and 0.015 (95% CI of 0.0018–0.052) for the An. gambiae and Culex respectively. The results indicate that An. gambiae is present in low numbers, with a microfilaria prevalence breaking threshold value not sufficient to maintain transmission. The results of the TAS in Bo and Pujehun also indicated an antigen prevalence of 0.19% and 0.67% in children, respectively. This is well below the recommended 2% level for stopping MDA in Anopheles transmission areas, according to WHO guidelines. Conclusions We found no evidence for active transmission of LF in cities, where internally displaced persons from rural areas lived for many years during the more than 10 years conflict in Sierra Leone and Liberia. PMID:24516686

  19. El Palacio de los Leones de la Alhambra: ¿Madrasa, zāwiya y tumba de Muḥammad V? Estudio para un debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Souza, Juan Carlos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows a new interpretation of the function of the famous Court of Lions in the Alhambra of Granada, built in the 1360's by Muḥammad V. The study of the contemporary architecture in the Maghreb (Fez, Sale, Tlemcen, etc., the close relations between Muḥammad V of Granada and the neighbouring Islamic countries, his own knowledge of the architecture produced under the Marinid dynasty during his Moroccan exile in Fez from 1359 to 1362, etc., makes us reconsider the Palace of the Lions as a royal madrasa-zāwiya, where its founder could even have been buried in 1391. Moreover, this hypothesis would clearly explain the numerous anomalies the Palace of Lions presents.Este trabajo presenta una lectura novedosa sobre la funcionalidad del celebérrimo Patio de los Leones de la Alhambra de Granada, construido en la década de los sesenta del siglo XIV por Muḥammad V. El estudio de la arquitectura coetánea del Magreb (Fez, Salé, Tremecén, etc., las intensas relaciones existentes entre Muḥammad V y los países islámicos vecinos, el propio conocimiento de Muḥammad V de la arquitectura meriní durante su exilio marroquí en Fez entre 1359 y 1362, etc., nos han hecho interpretar el Palacio de los Leones como una madrasa-zāwiya real, donde su fundador incluso pudo ser enterrado en 1391. Esta hipótesis, además, explicaría las numerosas anomalías que presenta el Palacio de los Leones.

  20. Spot Støjbergs støj

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2015-01-01

    Inger Støjberg er placeret på en af de mest profilerede poster i Løkkes regering. Spørger du hende om fortiden, taler hun om fremtiden. Spørger du hende om fremtiden, taler hun om fortiden. Ergo: Hun taler udenom, og hun er god til det. Hun er så god, at det skader demokratiet. Lær at spotte hend...

  1. Fears and Misperceptions of the Ebola Response System during the 2014-2015 Outbreak in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thespina Yamanis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Future infectious disease epidemics are likely to disproportionately affect countries with weak health systems, exacerbating global vulnerability. To decrease the severity of epidemics in these settings, lessons can be drawn from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. There is a dearth of literature on public perceptions of the public health response system that required citizens to report and treat Ebola cases. Epidemiological reports suggested that there were delays in diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of our study was to explore the barriers preventing Sierra Leoneans from trusting and using the Ebola response system during the height of the outbreak.Using an experienced ethnographer, we conducted 30 semi-structured in-depth interviews in public spaces in Ebola-affected areas. Participants were at least age 18, spoke Krio, and reported no contact in the recent 21 days with an Ebola-infected person. We used inductive coding and noted emergent themes.Most participants feared that calling the national hotline for someone they believed had Ebola would result in that person's death. Many stated that if they developed a fever they would assume it was not Ebola and self-medicate. Some thought the chlorine sprayed by ambulance workers was toxic. Although most knew there was a laboratory test for Ebola, some erroneously assumed the ubiquitous thermometers were the test and most did not understand the need to re-test in the presence of Ebola symptoms.Fears and misperceptions, related to lack of trust in the response system, may have delayed care-seeking during the Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone. Protocols for future outbreak responses should incorporate dynamic, qualitative research to understand and address people's perceptions. Strategies that enhance trust in the response system, such as community mobilization, may be particularly effective.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Herbal Medicine Use among Women Seeking Care for Infertility in Freetown, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taidy-Leigh, Lexina; Bah, Abdulai Jawo; Kanu, Joseph Sam; Kangbai, Jia Bainga; Sevalie, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    In resource-poor countries where access to infertility care is limited, women may turn to traditional medicine to achieve motherhood. It is unknown whether Sierra Leonean women with such condition use herbal medicine. This study investigates the prevalence and factors associated with herbal medicine use among women seeking care for infertility. This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted among women seeking care for infertility at various clinics within Freetown, Sierra Leone. Data analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression. Out of the 167 women that participated, 36.5% used herbal medicine for infertility treatment. Women with no formal (AOR 4.03, CL: 1.38–11.76, p = 0.011), primary education (AOR: 6.23, CL: 2.02–19.23, p = 0.001) and those that visited a traditional medicine practitioner (AOR: 20.05, CL: 2.10–192.28, p = 0.009) as well as women suffering from other reproductive health problems (AOR: 2.57, CL: 1.13–5.83, p = 0.024) were more likely to use herbal medicines. Friends and family (n = 57, 96.7%) were the main influencers of herbal medicine use. Only (n = 12) 19.7% of users disclosed their status to their healthcare provider. Over half (n = 32, 52.5%) could not remember the name of the herb they used. Luffa acutangula (n = 29, 100%) was the herbal medicinal plant users could recall. Herbal medicine use among women seeking care for infertility in Freetown is common. Healthcare providers should be aware of the potential dyadic use of herbal and allopathic medicines by their patients and be knowledgeable about commonly used herbal remedies as well as being proactive in communicating the potential risks and benefits associated with their use. PMID:29849738

  3. Spoiled breast milk and bad water; local understandings of diarrhea causes and prevention in rural Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Shannon A; George, Asha S; Yumkella, Fatu; Diaz, Theresa

    2013-12-13

    Globally, diarrhea remains a leading killer of young children. In Sierra Leone, one in seven children die before their fifth birthday and diarrhea is a leading cause. Studies that emphasize the demand-side of health interventions -- how caregivers understand causation and prevention of diarrhea -- have been neglected in research and programming. We undertook applied qualitative research including 68 in-depth interviews and 36 focus group discussions with mothers, fathers and older female caretakers to examine the causes and prevention of childhood diarrhea in villages near and far from health facilities across four rural districts. Verbal consent was obtained. Respondents reported multiple, co-existing descriptions of causation including: contaminated water and difficulties accessing clean water; exposure to an unclean environment and poor food hygiene; contaminated breast milk due to sexual intercourse, overheated breast milk or bodily maternal conditions such as menstruation or pregnancy; and dietary imbalances and curses. Respondents rarely discussed the role of open defecation or the importance of handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhea. Categorizing behaviors as beneficial, harmful, non-existent or benign enables tailored programmatic recommendations. For example, respondents recognized the value of clean water and we correspondingly recommend interventions that reinforce consumption of and access to clean water. Second, respondents report denying "contaminated" breast milk to breastfeeding children. This is a harmful practice that merits attention. Third, the role of open defecation and poor hygiene in causing diarrhea is less understood and warrants introduction or clarification. Finally, the role of exposed feet or curses in causing diarrhea is relatively benign and does not necessitate programmatic attention. Further research supportive of communication and social mobilization strategies building on these findings is required to ensure that improved

  4. Energy justice for all? Rethinking Sustainable Development Goal 7 through struggles over traditional energy practices in Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Paul; Horst, Greg van der; Healy, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    With Sustainable Development Goal 7, the United Nations has declared its ambition to ensure access to modern energy for all by 2030. Aside from broad appeals to differentiated responsibilities and 'greener' technologies, however, the goal leaves significant procedural questions unaddressed. This paper argues that the basic orientation of this approach is problematic, undermining possibilities for progress toward energy justice and equitable development. First, in framing the issue of global energy distribution in broad techno-managerial terms it obscures how particular geographies of energy poverty have been shaped by critical political economic influences. Second, in privileging modern forms of energy and focusing on an end state of universal adoption, over a broader goal of eliminating energy poverty, the approach of SDG7 presents tangible hazards to many of those it seeks to benefit. Using a case study of Sierra Leonean rural cooking energy policy, we demonstrate how the underlying mentality of SDG7 feeds into existing discourses that marginalise producers and users of 'traditional' energy sources, threatening important livelihoods. With such evidence, we argue that for justice in energy policy to be realised holistically, there is a need to question how our knowledge of energy ‘problems’ have emerged to avoid epistemologically autarchic policy positions. - Highlights: • Examination of the justice issues within the text of Sustainable Development Goal 7. • Investigates how fuelwood is entangled with energy justice issues in Sierra Leone. • Argues energy solutions need to shift away from simple technological fixes. • Energy policy needs to be built on a range of energy knowledges and experiences.

  5. Nosocomial transmission of Ebola virus disease on pediatric and maternity wards: Bombali and Tonkolili, Sierra Leone, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Angela C; Walker, Tiffany A; Redd, John; Sugerman, David; McFadden, Jevon; Singh, Tushar; Jasperse, Joseph; Kamara, Brima Osaio; Sesay, Tom; McAuley, James; Kilmarx, Peter H

    2016-03-01

    In the largest Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in history, nosocomial transmission of EVD increased spread of the disease. We report on 2 instances in Sierra Leone where patients unknowingly infected with EVD were admitted to a general hospital ward (1 pediatric ward and 1 maternity ward), exposing health care workers, caregivers, and other patients to EVD. Both patients died on the general wards, and were later confirmed as being infected with EVD. We initiated contact tracing and assessed risk factors for secondary infections to guide containment recommendations. We reviewed medical records to establish the index patients' symptom onset. Health care workers, patients, and caregivers were interviewed to determine exposures and personal protective equipment (PPE) use. Contacts were monitored daily for EVD symptoms. Those who experienced EVD symptoms were isolated and tested. Eighty-two contacts were identified: 64 health care workers, 7 caregivers, 4 patients, 4 newborns, and 3 children of patients. Seven contacts became symptomatic and tested positive for EVD: 2 health care workers (1 nurse and 1 hospital cleaner), 2 caregivers, 2 newborns, and 1 patient. The infected nurse placed an intravenous catheter in the pediatric index patient with only short gloves PPE and the hospital cleaner cleaned the operating room of the maternity ward index patient wearing short gloves PPE. The maternity ward index patient's caregiver and newborn were exposed to her body fluids. The infected patient and her newborn shared the ward and latrine with the maternity ward index patient. Hospital staff members did not use adequate PPE. Caregivers were not offered PPE. Delayed recognition of EVD and inadequate PPE likely led to exposures and secondary infections. Earlier recognition of EVD and adequate PPE might have reduced direct contact with body fluids. Limiting nonhealth-care worker contact, improving access to PPE, and enhancing screening methods for pregnant women, children

  6. Byzantine Taurica in the Second Half of the 11th Century and New Seal of Leon Aliates from Cherson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Alekseenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available he discovery of a valuable and important sphragistic source in Cherson – the seal of Strategos and Patrikios Leon Aliates, known by the inscription of 1059, brings us back to the old problems of the development of the administrative system of the Crimean region. Basing the research on the other data as well, today we can confidently state that the presence of the imperial administration in Taurica in the second half of the 11th century does not only decrease, but even expands and reinforces. This is associated, firstly, with Sougdea joining Cherson, and, secondly, with the creation of Cherson katepanate and making Sougdea an independent theme. The seal of vetarch Nicephorus Alan, catepan of Cherson and Khazaria, proves the existence of a new military administrative district in Taurica in the second half of the 11th – at the turn of the 11th / 12th centuries. This fact makes it necessary not only to look in a new way at the history of the region during the collapse of the feudal system, but also in a certain sense to reestimate the role and significance of Cherson in Byzantine politics and diplomacy of that time. The appearance of the katepanate in Taurica, which included not only the traditional regions around Cherson, but also the vast Khazar lands of the Steppe and Northeast Crimea in the sphere of its jurisdiction, was caused by the need to increase the military force of borderlands in the face of an ever-increasing threat from the nomads of the north. For the same reason, Sougdea becomes an independent theme, designed to control the East-Crimean region, the Azov Sea and the Caucasian coast of Ponta. It is possible that a similar situation could apply to Bosporus. The finds of the seals of Russian princes and governors of Tmutarakan in the very area of Bosporus and Sougdea serve as indirect evidence in favor of this fact.

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Herbal Medicine Use among Women Seeking Care for Infertility in Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter Bai; Taidy-Leigh, Lexina; Bah, Abdulai Jawo; Kanu, Joseph Sam; Kangbai, Jia Bainga; Sevalie, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    In resource-poor countries where access to infertility care is limited, women may turn to traditional medicine to achieve motherhood. It is unknown whether Sierra Leonean women with such condition use herbal medicine. This study investigates the prevalence and factors associated with herbal medicine use among women seeking care for infertility. This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted among women seeking care for infertility at various clinics within Freetown, Sierra Leone. Data analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression. Out of the 167 women that participated, 36.5% used herbal medicine for infertility treatment. Women with no formal (AOR 4.03, CL: 1.38-11.76, p = 0.011), primary education (AOR: 6.23, CL: 2.02-19.23, p = 0.001) and those that visited a traditional medicine practitioner (AOR: 20.05, CL: 2.10-192.28, p = 0.009) as well as women suffering from other reproductive health problems (AOR: 2.57, CL: 1.13-5.83, p = 0.024) were more likely to use herbal medicines. Friends and family ( n = 57, 96.7%) were the main influencers of herbal medicine use. Only ( n = 12) 19.7% of users disclosed their status to their healthcare provider. Over half ( n = 32, 52.5%) could not remember the name of the herb they used . Luffa acutangula ( n = 29, 100%) was the herbal medicinal plant users could recall. Herbal medicine use among women seeking care for infertility in Freetown is common. Healthcare providers should be aware of the potential dyadic use of herbal and allopathic medicines by their patients and be knowledgeable about commonly used herbal remedies as well as being proactive in communicating the potential risks and benefits associated with their use.

  8. Analysis of the Nuevo Leon magnetic anomaly and its possible relation to the Cerro Prieto magmatic-hydrothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.E.; Wilt, M.J.; Corrigan, D.J.

    1982-10-01

    The broad dipolar magnetic anomaly whose positive peak is centered near Ejido Nuevo Leon, some 5 km east of the Cerro Prieto I Power Plant, has long been suspected to have a genetic relationship to the thermal source of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system. This suspicion was reinforced after several deep geothermal wells, drilled to depths of 3 to 3.5 km over the anomaly, intersected an apparent dike-sill complex consisting mainly of diabase but with minor rhyodacite. A detailed fit of the observed magnetic field to a computer model indicates that the source may be approximated by a tabular block 4 by 6 km in area, 3.7 km in depth, 2.3 km thick, and dipping slightly to the north. Mafic dike chips from one well, NL-1, were analyzed by means of electron microprobe analyses which showed tham to contain a titanomagnetite that is paramagnetic at in-situ temperature conditions. As the dike mineralogy does not account for the magnetic anomaly, the magnetic source is believed to be a deeper, magnetite-rich assemblage of peridotite-gabbro plutons. the suite of igneous rocks was probably passively emplaced at a shallow depth in response to crustal extension and thinning brought on by strike-slip faulting. The bottom of the magnetic source body, at an estimated depth of 6 km, is presumed to be at or near that of the Curie isotherm (575/sup 0/C) for magnetite, the principal ferromagnetic mineral in peridotitic-gabbroic rocks. The geological model derived from the magnetic study is generally supported by other geophysical data. In particular, earthquake data suggest dike injection is occurring at depths of 6 to 11 km in an area beneath the magnetic source. Thus, it is possible that heat for the geothermal field is being maintained by continuing crustal extension and magmatic activity.

  9. Coordination and relationships between organisations during the civil-military international response against Ebola in Sierra Leone: an observational discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, Colleen; Cox, A T; Horne, S

    2016-06-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) crisis in West Africa began in March 2014. At the beginning of the outbreak, no one could have predicted just how far-reaching its effects would be. The EVD epidemic proved to be a unique and unusual humanitarian and public health crisis. It caused worldwide fear that impeded the rapid response required to contain it early. The situation in Sierra Leone (SL) forced the formation of a unique series of civil-military interagency relationships to be formed in order to halt the epidemic. Civil-military cooperation in humanitarian situations is not unique to this crisis; however, the slow response, the unusual nature of the battle itself and the uncertainty of the framework required to fight this deadly virus created a situation that forced civilian and military organisations to form distinct, cooperative relationships. The unique nature of the Ebola virus necessitated a steering away from normal civil-military relationships and standard pillar responses. National and international non-governmental organisations (NGOs), Department for International Development (DFID) and the SL and UK militaries were required to disable this deadly virus (as of 7 November 2015, SL was declared EVD free). This paper draws on personal experiences and preliminary distillation of information gathered in formal interviews. It discusses some of the interesting features of the interagency relationships, particularly between the military, the UK's DFID, international organisations, NGOs and departments of the SL government. The focus is on how these relationships were key to achieving a coordinated solution to EVD in SL both on the ground and within the larger organisational structure. It also discusses how these relationships needed to rapidly evolve and change along with the epidemiological curve. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Improving outcomes for caregivers through treatment of young people affected by war: a randomized controlled trial in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Ryan K; Salhi, Carmel; Hann, Katrina; Kellie, Jim; Kamara, Alimamy; Salomon, Joshua A; Kim, Jane J; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2015-12-01

    To measure the benefits to household caregivers of a psychotherapeutic intervention for adolescents and young adults living in a war-affected area. Between July 2012 and July 2013, we carried out a randomized controlled trial of the Youth Readiness Intervention--a cognitive-behavioural intervention for war-affected young people who exhibit depressive and anxiety symptoms and conduct problems--in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Overall, 436 participants aged 15-24 years were randomized to receive the intervention (n = 222) or care as usual (n = 214). Household caregivers for the participants in the intervention arm (n = 101) or control arm (n = 103) were interviewed during a baseline survey and again, if available (n = 155), 12 weeks later in a follow-up survey. We used a burden assessment scale to evaluate the burden of care placed on caregivers in terms of emotional distress and functional impairment. The caregivers' mental health--i.e. internalizing, externalizing and prosocial behaviour--was evaluated using the Oxford Measure of Psychosocial Adjustment. Difference-in-differences multiple regression analyses were used, within an intention-to-treat framework, to estimate the treatment effects. Compared with the caregivers of participants of the control group, the caregivers of participants of the intervention group reported greater reductions in emotional distress (scale difference: 0.252; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.026-0.4782) and greater improvements in prosocial behaviour (scale difference: 0.249; 95% CI: 0.012-0.486) between the two surveys. A psychotherapeutic intervention for war-affected young people can improve the mental health of their caregivers.

  11. A Participatory Modeling Application of a Distributed Hydrologic Model in Nuevo Leon, Mexico for the 2010 Hurricane Alex Flood Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baish, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.; Payan, J. G.; Robles-Morua, A.; Basile, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    A distributed hydrologic model can help bring consensus among diverse stakeholders in regional flood planning by producing quantifiable sets of alternative futures. This value is acute in areas with high uncertainties in hydrologic conditions and sparse observations. In this study, we conduct an application of the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) in the Santa Catarina basin of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, where Hurricane Alex in July 2010 led to catastrophic flooding of the capital city of Monterrey. Distributed model simulations utilize best-available information on the regional topography, land cover, and soils obtained from Mexican government agencies or analysis of remotely-sensed imagery from MODIS and ASTER. Furthermore, we developed meteorological forcing for the flood event based on multiple data sources, including three local gauge networks, satellite-based estimates from TRMM and PERSIANN, and the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). Remotely-sensed data allowed us to quantify rainfall distributions in the upland, rural portions of the Santa Catarina that are sparsely populated and ungauged. Rural areas had significant contributions to the flood event and as a result were considered by stakeholders for flood control measures, including new reservoirs and upland vegetation management. Participatory modeling workshops with the stakeholders revealed a disconnect between urban and rural populations in regard to understanding the hydrologic conditions of the flood event and the effectiveness of existing and potential flood control measures. Despite these challenges, the use of the distributed flood forecasts developed within this participatory framework facilitated building consensus among diverse stakeholders and exploring alternative futures in the basin.

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Herbal Medicine Use among Women Seeking Care for Infertility in Freetown, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bai James

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In resource-poor countries where access to infertility care is limited, women may turn to traditional medicine to achieve motherhood. It is unknown whether Sierra Leonean women with such condition use herbal medicine. This study investigates the prevalence and factors associated with herbal medicine use among women seeking care for infertility. This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted among women seeking care for infertility at various clinics within Freetown, Sierra Leone. Data analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression. Out of the 167 women that participated, 36.5% used herbal medicine for infertility treatment. Women with no formal (AOR 4.03, CL: 1.38–11.76, p=0.011, primary education (AOR: 6.23, CL: 2.02–19.23, p=0.001 and those that visited a traditional medicine practitioner (AOR: 20.05, CL: 2.10–192.28, p=0.009 as well as women suffering from other reproductive health problems (AOR: 2.57, CL: 1.13–5.83, p=0.024 were more likely to use herbal medicines. Friends and family (n=57, 96.7% were the main influencers of herbal medicine use. Only (n=12 19.7% of users disclosed their status to their healthcare provider. Over half (n=32, 52.5% could not remember the name of the herb they used. Luffa acutangula (n=29, 100% was the herbal medicinal plant users could recall. Herbal medicine use among women seeking care for infertility in Freetown is common. Healthcare providers should be aware of the potential dyadic use of herbal and allopathic medicines by their patients and be knowledgeable about commonly used herbal remedies as well as being proactive in communicating the potential risks and benefits associated with their use.

  13. Clinical features and risk factors for adverse outcome in Ebola virus disease in Moyamba District Sierra Leone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaskjold, Yngvar Lunde [Haukeland Univ. Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Bolkan, Hakon Angell [St. Olav Hospital, Trondheim (Norway); Krogh, Kurt Østhuus [St. Olav Hospital, Trondheim (Norway); Jongopi, James [Moyamba District Hospital (Sierra Leone); Berg, Ase [Stavanger Univ. Hospital, Stavanger (Norway); Lundeby, Karen Marie [Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Mellesmo, Sindre [St. Olav Hospital, Trondheim (Norway); Garces, Pedro San José [Medicos del Mundo, Madrid (Spain); Josendal, Ola [Haukeland Univ. Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Opstad, Asmund [Haraldsplass Diaconal Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Svensen, Erling [Haukeland Univ. Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Zabala, Matias [Medicos del Mundo, Madrid (Spain); Kamara, Alfred Sandy [Moyamba District Hospital (Sierra Leone); Riera, Melchor [Medicos del Mundo, Madrid (Spain); Arranz, Javier [Medicos del Mundo, Madrid (Spain); Stamper, Paul D. [MRIGlobal, Frederick, MD (United States); Austin, Paula [Moyamba District Hospital (Sierra Leone); Moosa, Alfredo J. [Moyamba District Hospital (Sierra Leone); Marke, Dennis [Moyamba District Hospital (Sierra Leone); Hassan, Shoaib [World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva (Switzerland); Blomberg, Bjorn [Haukeland Univ. Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Univ. of Bergen (Norway)

    2016-05-01

    BACKGROUND The current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa has attacked 24000 people, killed more than 10000 and disrupted social life. METHODS We studied retrospectively the clinical presentation and risk factors for fatal outcome in EVD among all patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Center in Moyamba District, Sierra Leone. RESULTS Among a total of 88 admitted patients, eighty-two were tested by PCR and 31 (38%) were positive for Ebola virus. Ninety percent reported previous contact with EVD patients and 35% had participated in burials of EVD suspect deceased. No healthworkers were admitted. The most common symptoms on admission were weakness (97%), diarrhea (68%), fever (62%), loss of appetite (62%), vomiting (58%), pain in muscles (62%) and joints (55%), headache (55%), abdominal pain (45%) and conjunctivitis (42%). On admission, bleeding was present in one-third (11/31), while more than half (17/31) bled during the hospital stay. Fifty-eight percent (18/31) died, most within 4-11 days of onset. Significant predictors for fatal outcome were shorter time from onset to admission (P=0.02), high initial viral load (P<0.001), bleeding (P=0.004), and severe pain (P=0.001). The only two patients with hiccups died. CONCLUSIONS Bleeding was more common in our cohort than reported elsewhere during this epidemic, and predicted poor prognosis. Severe pain was common, particularly in fatal cases, and calls for improved and safe palliation, for instance with transdermal opiates. The lack of fever in one third of EBV cases may have implications for screening procedures and case definitions.

  14. Team Danmarks støttekoncept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    Evaluering af Team Danmarks støttekoncept 2005-2008 med omfattende analyser af Team Danmarks virke, dets støttekoncept og de samarbejdsrelationer med specialforbund, udøvere, politisk valgte ledere, trænere mv., som udmøntningen af støttekonceptet forudsætter. Herunder analyse af...

  15. [The spa and resort-based health-promoting treatment of the vehicle drivers suffering from duodenal ulcer disease: the effectiveness and safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El'garov, A A; Kalmykova, M A; El'garova, R M; Betuganova, L V; El'garov, M A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and the safety of the spa and resort-based health-promoting treatment of the vehicle drivers (VD) presenting with duodenal ulcer disease. A total of 67 men suffering from duodenal ulcer disease (DUD) were allocated to two groups. The patients of group 1 (n = 35) were given the courses of balneotherapy that included bromine-iodine mineral baths with a temperature of 36-37 degrees C (8-9 procedures 10-15 min long each every second day) in combination with 8-9 peloid applications to the epigastric region (temperature 38-40 degrees C for 10-15 min every second day). The patients of group 2 (n = 32) were given the similar courses of therapy that included nitric thermal mineral baths with a temperature of 36-37 degrees C (8-9 procedures 10-15 min long each every second day) in combination with 8-9 peloid applications to the epigastric region (38-40 degrees C for 10-15 min every second day). The effectiveness and safety of these balenotherapeutic procedures for the treatment of duodenal ulcer disease in the subjects of the study and control (n = 47) groups were evaluated based on the results of the routine clinical and endoscopic examination, psychological and psychophysiological tests, and the comparative analysis of medical aid appeal-ability and disability cases during twelve months. Dynamics of clinical and instrumental characteristics (subjective, objective, clinical, endoscopic, psychophysiological) suggested the improvement of the health status in 88.6% and 84.4% of the drivers with duodenum ulcer in the two study groups respectively. Some of the patients comprising group 1 showed significant negative dynamics of the operative reaction system while the patients of group 2 demonstrated the marked improvement of the professionally significant functions and properties (PSF&P). The comparative analysis of medical aid appealability, disability cases, frequency of relapses and complications revealed the favorable clinical course of duodenal

  16. Carrying capacity and tourism planning. case study at Praia Brava- Itajai, in face to the settlement of Canto da Brava Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Van de Meene Ruschmann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism presumes cultural authenticity, social inclusion, conservation of natural resources and service quality. Those are major issues standing for economical viability in the long run. This article analyzes carrying capacity in Praia Brava, Itajai/SC, evaluating environmental comfort for dwellers as well as for users of the beach building future scenarios as Canto da Brava resort is settled. Tourism carrying capacity is tied to methods of identification and evaluation of environmental indicators. In this case, Cifuentes Method was chosen because it integrates physical, biotical and infra structural factors, through assessment of physical, real and effective carrying capacity. Quantitative results have been considered analyzing impacts and tolerable limits of change taking into account users perception.

  17. Population data of 24 STRs in Mexican-Mestizo population from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Northeast, Mexico) based on Powerplex(®) Fusion and GlobalFiler(®) kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-González, Benito; Aguilar-Velázquez, José Alonso; Chávez-Briones, María de Lourdes; Delgado-Chavarría, Juan Ramón; Alfaro-Lopez, Elizabeth; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor

    2016-03-01

    The STR loci included into new commercial human identification kits compels geneticists estimating forensic parameters for interpretation purposes in forensic casework. Therefore, we studied for the first time in Mexico the GlobalFiler(®) and Powerplex(®) Fusion systems in 326 and 682 unrelated individuals, respectively. These individuals are resident of the Monterrey City of the Nuevo Leon state (Northeast, Mexico). Population data from 23 autosomal STRs and the Y-STR locus DYS391 are reported and compared against available STR data from American ethnic groups and the unique Mexican population studied with Powerplex(®) Fusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estudio mediante mecánica de fluidos computacional del efecto de la estenosis en el íleon provocada por la enfermedad de Crohn.

    OpenAIRE

    Abril López, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    La enfermedad de Crohn es una enfermedad crónica que causa la inflamación de cualquier parte del sistema gastrointestinal, producido por el ataque al sistema inmunitario. En concreto, la parte que más suele afectarse es la parte inferior del intestino delgado (íleon) que es donde se va a centrar el estudio. Esta enfermedad de Crohn afecta al cuerpo humano inflamando el revestimiento de la parte afectada en el intestino delgado provocando una hinchazón de la pared. Si esta hinchazón (zona de l...

  19. In the midst of a 'perfect storm': Unpacking the causes and consequences of Ebola-related stigma for children orphaned by Ebola in Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denis-Ramirez, Elise; Holmegaard Sørensen, Katrine; Skovdal, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The West African Ebola virus epidemic resulted in the deaths of more than 11,000 people and caused significant social disruption. Little is known about how the world's worst Ebola outbreak has affected the thousands of children left orphaned as their parents or caregivers succumbed to the virus....... Given the infectious nature of Ebola, and numerous anecdotal accounts of stigmatisation, we set out to examine children's social representations of peers orphaned by Ebola, unpacking the causes and consequences of Ebola-related stigma. The study was conducted in 2015 in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Data...

  20. 76 FR 44531 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St... proposes to establish a temporary safety zone on the waters of Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida during the Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display on Saturday, November 19, 2011...