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Sample records for lentivirus vector stocks

  1. Mechanism of reduction in titers from lentivirus vectors carrying large inserts in the 3'LTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinati, Fabrizia; Arumugam, Paritha; Higashimoto, Tomoyasu; Perumbeti, Anil; Mitts, Kyle; Xia, Ping; Malik, Punam

    2009-09-01

    Self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviruses flanked by the 1.2-kb chicken hypersensitive site-4 (cHS4) insulator element provide consistent, improved expression of transgenes, but have significantly lower titers. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Lengthening the lentiviral (LV) vector transgene cassette by an additional 1.2 kb by an internal cassette caused no further reduction in titers. However, when cHS4 sequences or inert DNA spacers of increasing size were placed in the 3'-long terminal repeat (LTR), infectious titers decreased proportional to the length of the insert. The stage of vector life cycle affected by vectors carrying the large cHS4 3'LTR insert was compared to a control vector: there was no increase in read-through transcription with insertion of the 1.2-kb cHS4 in the 3'LTR. Equal amount of full-length viral mRNA was produced in packaging cells and viral assembly/packaging was unaffected, resulting in comparable amounts of intact vector particles produced by either vectors. However, LV vectors carrying cHS4 in the 3'LTR were inefficiently processed following target-cell entry, with reduced reverse transcription and integration efficiency, and hence lower transduction titers. Therefore, vectors with large insertions in the 3'LTR are transcribed and packaged efficiently, but the LTR insert hinders viral-RNA (vRNA) processing and transduction of target cells. These studies have important implications in design of integrating vectors.

  2. Development of a replication-competent lentivirus assay for dendritic cell-targeting lentiviral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C Farley

    Full Text Available It is a current regulatory requirement to demonstrate absence of detectable replication-competent lentivirus (RCL in lentiviral vector products prior to use in clinical trials. Immune Design previously described an HIV-1-based integration-deficient lentiviral vector for use in cancer immunotherapy (VP02. VP02 is enveloped with E1001, a modified Sindbis virus glycoprotein which targets dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN expressed on dendritic cells in vivo. Vector enveloped with E1001 does not transduce T-cell lines used in standard HIV-1-based RCL assays, making current RCL testing formats unsuitable for testing VP02. We therefore developed a novel assay to test for RCL in clinical lots of VP02. This assay, which utilizes a murine leukemia positive control virus and a 293F cell line expressing the E1001 receptor DC-SIGN, meets a series of evaluation criteria defined in collaboration with US regulatory authorities and demonstrates the ability of the assay format to amplify and detect a hypothetical RCL derived from VP02 vector components. This assay was qualified and used to test six independent GMP production lots of VP02, in which no RCL was detected. We propose that the evaluation criteria used to rationally design this novel method should be considered when developing an RCL assay for any lentiviral vector.

  3. Simplified lentivirus vector production in protein-free media using polyethylenimine-mediated transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Hitoshi; Kutner, Robert H; Bazan, Nicolas G; Reiser, Jakob

    2009-05-01

    During the past 12 years, lentiviral vectors have emerged as valuable tools for transgene delivery because of their ability to transduce nondividing cells and their capacity to sustain long-term transgene expression. Despite significant progress, the production of high-titer high-quality lentiviral vectors is cumbersome and costly. The most commonly used method to produce lentiviral vectors involves transient transfection using calcium phosphate (CaP)-mediated precipitation of plasmid DNAs. However, inconsistencies in pH can cause significant batch-to-batch variations in lentiviral vector titers, making this method unreliable. This study describes optimized protocols for lentiviral vector production based on polyethylenimine (PEI)-mediated transfection, resulting in more consistent lentiviral vector stocks. To achieve this goal, simple production methods for high-titer lentiviral vector production involving transfection of HEK 293T cells immediately after plating were developed. Importantly, high titers were obtained with cell culture media lacking serum or other protein additives altogether. As a consequence, large-scale lentiviral vector stocks can now be generated with fewer batch-to-batch variations and at reduced costs and with less labor compared to the standard protocols.

  4. [Construction and clinical application of lentivirus-AQP4 expressing vector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhang-yuan; Ye, Jing; Guan, Yun-qian; Zhang, Yu; You, Xiao-fan; An, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Shu-yan; Li, Cun-jiang

    2010-01-19

    To construct the human aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expressing vector and detect anti-AQP4 antibody in serum of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). RNA was extracted from human glioblastoma and AQP4 cDNA obtained through RT-PCR.The fragment was cloned into the lentiviral expressing vector (iDUET101) and transformed into competent strain Hb101 for later amplification; plasmids were extracted from the amplified positive-bacteria-colony, sequenced and transfected into HEK-293T cells. Expression of AQP4 was identified by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence assay. And anti-AQP4 antibody in human serum was tested. The sequence of target fragment matched with that of human AQP4 fragment sequences (NM_001650) completely. The constructed AQP4 fragment transfected in HEK-293T cell was tested by immunofluorescent examination and it exhibited obvious fluorescence located in cell membrane. Western blot test was positive. And the fragment was about 34 KD. Cellular immunofluorescence examination showed 11 examples of 12 NMO patient serums (91.7%) were positive, 4 in 34 multiple sclerosis (11.8%) positive and negative in all 50 serum samples of healthy controls. The HEK-293T cell transfected with lentivirus-AQP4 vector can express stably. And the expressed fragment may be applied in clinical examination.

  5. Mechanism of Reduction in Titers From Lentivirus Vectors Carrying Large Inserts in the 3′LTR

    OpenAIRE

    Urbinati, Fabrizia; Arumugam, Paritha; Higashimoto, Tomoyasu; Perumbeti, Anil; Mitts, Kyle; Xia, Ping; Malik, Punam

    2009-01-01

    Self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviruses flanked by the 1.2-kb chicken hypersensitive site-4 (cHS4) insulator element provide consistent, improved expression of transgenes, but have significantly lower titers. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Lengthening the lentiviral (LV) vector transgene cassette by an additional 1.2 kb by an internal cassette caused no further reduction in titers. However, when cHS4 sequences or inert DNA spacers of increasing size were placed in the 3′-long ter...

  6. Development of an equine-tropic replication-competent lentivirus assay for equine infectious anemia virus-based lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Daniel C; Bannister, Richard; Leroux-Carlucci, Marie A; Evans, Nerys E; Miskin, James E; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A

    2012-10-01

    The release of lentiviral vectors for clinical use requires the testing of vector material, production cells, and, if applicable, ex vivo-transduced cells for the presence of replication-competent lentivirus (RCL). Vectors derived from the nonprimate lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) have been directly administered to patients in several clinical trials, with no toxicity observed to date. Because EIAV does not replicate in human cells, and because putative RCLs derived from vector components within human vector production cells would most likely be human cell-tropic, we previously developed an RCL assay using amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) as a surrogate positive control and human cells as RCL amplification/indicator cells. Here we report an additional RCL assay that tests for the presence of theoretical "equine-tropic" RCLs. This approach provides further assurance of safety by detecting putative RCLs with an equine cell-specific tropism that might not be efficiently amplified by the human cell-based RCL assay. We tested the ability of accessory gene-deficient EIAV mutant viruses to replicate in a highly permissive equine cell line to direct our choice of a suitable EIAV-derived positive control. In addition, we report for the first time the mathematical rationale for use of the Poisson distribution to calculate minimal infectious dose of positive control virus and for use in monitoring assay positive/spike control failures in accumulating data sets. No RCLs have been detected in Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant RCL assays to date, further demonstrating that RCL formation is highly unlikely in contemporary minimal lentiviral vector systems.

  7. Hybrid Lentivirus-transposon Vectors With a Random Integration Profile in Human Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas H; Moldt, Brian; Mátés, Lajos

    2009-01-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors have a significantly safer insertion profile, but efficient delivery into relevant cell/tissue types is a limitation. In an attempt to combine the favorable features of the two vector systems we established a novel hybrid vector technology based on SB transposase...... directs efficient transposon mobilization from DNA circles in vector-transduced cells. Both transfected plasmid DNA and transduced IDLVs can serve as the source of active transposase. Most important, we demonstrate that the SB transposase overrides the natural lentiviral integration pathway and directs...... vector integration less frequently toward transcriptional units, resulting in a random genomic integration profile. The novel hybrid vector system combines the attractive features of efficient gene delivery by viral transduction and a safer genomic integration profile by DNA transposition....

  8. Development of a lentivirus vector-based assay for non-destructive monitoring of cell fusion activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Neshati

    Full Text Available Cell-to-cell fusion can be quantified by endowing acceptor and donor cells with latent reporter genes/proteins and activators of these genes/proteins, respectively. One way to accomplish this goal is by using a bipartite lentivirus vector (LV-based cell fusion assay system in which the cellular fusion partners are transduced with a flippase-activatable Photinus pyralis luciferase (PpLuc expression unit (acceptor cells or with a recombinant gene encoding FLPeNLS+, a nuclear-targeted and molecularly evolved version of flippase (donor cells. Fusion of both cell populations will lead to the FLPe-dependent generation of a functional PpLuc gene. PpLuc activity is typically measured in cell lysates, precluding consecutive analysis of one cell culture. Therefore, in this study the PpLuc-coding sequence was replaced by that of Gaussia princeps luciferase (GpLuc, a secretory protein allowing repeated analysis of the same cell culture. In myotubes the spread of FLPeNLS+ may be limited due to its nuclear localization signal (NLS causing low signal outputs. To test this hypothesis, myoblasts were transduced with LVs encoding either FLPeNLS+ or an NLS-less version of FLPe (FLPeNLS- and subsequently co-cultured in different ratios with myoblasts containing the FLPe-activatable GpLuc expression cassette. At different times after induction of cell-to-cell fusion the GpLuc activity in the culture medium was determined. FLPeNLS+ and FLPeNLS- both activated the latent GpLuc gene but when the percentage of FLPe-expressing myoblasts was limiting, FLPeNLS+ generally yielded slightly higher signals than FLPeNLS- while at low acceptor-to-donor cell ratios FLPeNLS- was usually superior. The ability of FLPeNLS+ to spread through myofibers and to induce reporter gene expression is thus not limited by its NLS. However, at high FLPe concentrations the presence of the NLS negatively affected reporter gene expression. In summary, a rapid and simple chemiluminescence assay for

  9. Comparison of vector autoregressive (VAR) and vector error correction models (VECM) for index of ASEAN stock price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharsono, Agus; Aziza, Auliya; Pramesti, Wara

    2017-12-01

    Capital markets can be an indicator of the development of a country's economy. The presence of capital markets also encourages investors to trade; therefore investors need information and knowledge of which shares are better. One way of making decisions for short-term investments is the need for modeling to forecast stock prices in the period to come. Issue of stock market-stock integration ASEAN is very important. The problem is that ASEAN does not have much time to implement one market in the economy, so it would be very interesting if there is evidence whether the capital market in the ASEAN region, especially the countries of Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand deserve to be integrated or still segmented. Furthermore, it should also be known and proven What kind of integration is happening: what A capital market affects only the market Other capital, or a capital market only Influenced by other capital markets, or a Capital market as well as affecting as well Influenced by other capital markets in one ASEAN region. In this study, it will compare forecasting of Indonesian share price (IHSG) with neighboring countries (ASEAN) including developed and developing countries such as Malaysia (KLSE), Singapore (SGE), Thailand (SETI), Philippines (PSE) to find out which stock country the most superior and influential. These countries are the founders of ASEAN and share price index owners who have close relations with Indonesia in terms of trade, especially exports and imports. Stock price modeling in this research is using multivariate time series analysis that is VAR (Vector Autoregressive) and VECM (Vector Error Correction Modeling). VAR and VECM models not only predict more than one variable but also can see the interrelations between variables with each other. If the assumption of white noise is not met in the VAR modeling, then the cause can be assumed that there is an outlier. With this modeling will be able to know the pattern of relationship

  10. Immobilized Lentivirus Vector on Chondroitin Sulfate-Hyaluronate Acid-Silk Fibroin Hybrid Scaffold for Tissue-Engineered Ligament-Bone Junction

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    Liguo Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a fibrocartilage layer between graft and bone remains the leading cause of graft failure after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction. The objective of this study was to develop a gene-modified silk cable-reinforced chondroitin sulfate-hyaluronate acid-silk fibroin (CHS hybrid scaffold for reconstructing the fibrocartilage layer. The scaffold was fabricated by lyophilizing the CHS mixture with braided silk cables. The scanning electronic microscopy (SEM showed that microporous CHS sponges were formed around silk cables. Each end of scaffold was modified with lentiviral-mediated transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3 gene. The cells on scaffold were transfected by bonded lentivirus. In vitro culture demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs on scaffolds proliferated vigorously and produced abundant collagen. The transcription levels of cartilage-specific genes also increased with culture time. After 2 weeks, the MSCs were distributed uniformly throughout scaffold. Deposited collagen was also found to increase. The chondral differentiation of MSCs was verified by expressions of collagen II and TGF-β3 genes in mRNA and protein level. Histology also confirmed the production of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM components. The results demonstrated that gene-modified silk cable-reinforced CHS scaffold was capable of supporting cell proliferation and differentiation to reconstruct the cartilage layer of interface.

  11. Lentivirus vector driven by polybiquitin C promoter without woodchuck posttranscriptional regulatory element and central polypurine tract generates low level and short-lived reporter gene expression.

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    Ngai, Siew Ching; Rosli, Rozita; Nordin, Norshariza; Veerakumarasivam, Abhi; Abdullah, Syahril

    2012-05-01

    Lentivirus (LV) encoding woodchuck posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE) and central polypurine tract (cPPT) driven by CMV promoter have been proven to act synergistically to increase both transduction efficiency and gene expression. However, the inclusion of WPRE and cPPT in a lentiviral construct may pose safety risks when administered to human. A simple lentiviral construct driven by an alternative promoter with proven extended duration of gene expression without the two regulatory elements would be free from the risks. In a non-viral gene delivery context, gene expression driven by human polybiquitin C (UbC) promoter resulted in higher and more persistent expression in mouse as compared to cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. In this study, we measured the efficiency and persistency of green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene expression in cells transduced with LV driven by UbC (LV/UbC/GFP) devoid of the WPRE and cPPT in comparison to the established LV construct encoding WPRE and cPPT, driven by CMV promoter (LV/CMV/GFP). However, we found that LV/UbC/GFP was inferior to LV/CMV/GFP in many aspects: (i) the titer of virus produced; (ii) the levels of reporter gene expression when MOI value was standardized; and (iii) the transduction efficiency in different cell types. The duration of reporter gene expression in selected cell lines was also determined. While the GFP expression in cells transduced with LV/CMV/GFP persisted throughout the experimental period of 14 days, expression in cells transduced with LV/UbC/GFP declined by day 2 post-transduction. In summary, the LV driven by the UbC promoter without the WPRE and cPPT does not exhibit enhanced or durable transgene expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hybrid lentivirus-phiC31-int-NLS vector allows site-specific recombination in murine and human cells but induces DNA damage.

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    Nicolas Grandchamp

    Full Text Available Gene transfer allows transient or permanent genetic modifications of cells for experimental or therapeutic purposes. Gene delivery by HIV-derived lentiviral vector (LV is highly effective but the risk of insertional mutagenesis is important and the random/uncontrollable integration of the DNA vector can deregulate the cell transcriptional activity. Non Integrative Lentiviral Vectors (NILVs solve this issue in non-dividing cells, but they do not allow long term expression in dividing cells. In this context, obtaining stable expression while avoiding the problems inherent to unpredictable DNA vector integration requires the ability to control the integration site. One possibility is to use the integrase of phage phiC31 (phiC31-int which catalyzes efficient site-specific recombination between the attP site in the phage genome and the chromosomal attB site of its Streptomyces host. Previous studies showed that phiC31-int is active in many eukaryotic cells, such as murine or human cells, and directs the integration of a DNA substrate into pseudo attP sites (pattP which are homologous to the native attP site. In this study, we combined the efficiency of NILV for gene delivery and the specificity of phiC31-int for DNA substrate integration to engineer a hybrid tool for gene transfer with the aim of allowing long term expression in dividing and non-dividing cells preventing genotoxicity. We demonstrated the feasibility to target NILV integration in human and murine pattP sites with a dual NILV vectors system: one which delivers phiC31-int, the other which constitute the substrate containing an attB site in its DNA sequence. These promising results are however alleviated by the occurrence of significant DNA damages. Further improvements are thus required to prevent chromosomal rearrangements for a therapeutic use of the system. However, its use as a tool for experimental applications such as transgenesis is already applicable.

  13. Multiple-output support vector regression with a firefly algorithm for interval-valued stock price index forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Tao; Bao, Yukun; Hu, Zhongyi

    2014-01-01

    Highly accurate interval forecasting of a stock price index is fundamental to successfully making a profit when making investment decisions, by providing a range of values rather than a point estimate. In this study, we investigate the possibility of forecasting an interval-valued stock price index series over short and long horizons using multi-output support vector regression (MSVR). Furthermore, this study proposes a firefly algorithm (FA)-based approach, built on the established MSVR, for...

  14. Generation and analysis of lentivirus expressing a 2A peptide-linked bicistronic fluorescent construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, David; Lansford, Rusty

    2014-12-01

    This weeklong protocol for making and testing lentivirus has been used in the Advanced Topics in Molecular Neuroscience (ATMN) lecture and laboratory course at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) for nearly a decade. Lentiviruses are derived from HIV-1 and are ideal vehicles for the delivery of multiple genes of interest into target cells. In this protocol, 2A peptide-linked sequences are used to create a bicistronic lentiviral construct containing a ubiquitous promoter (chick β actin with a cytomegalovirus [CMV] early enhancer) driving dual expression of two fluorescent proteins (FP): H2B-Cerulean (a nuclear-localized blue FP) and Dendra2 (a photoactivatable green FP that converts to red after exposure to UV light). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the bicistronic insert is followed by subcloning into a lentiviral vector and transfection into a packaging cell line. The resulting viral supernatants can be used to prepare concentrated stocks and infect cells for imaging via epifluorescent and confocal microscopy. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Visualization of transfer of a fluorescently-labeled membrane raft protein to T cells using lentivirus

    OpenAIRE

    Byrum, Jennifer; Rodgers, William

    2005-01-01

    Lentivirus vector systems have been developed for the safe delivery of foreign genes to target tissues. However, the use of these systems for delivering specific proteins to target cells has been largely unexplored. To test this concept, the lentivirus expression plasmid pLenti was utilized to overexpress in producer cells a YFP-fusion protein that is specifically targeted to glycolipid-enriched membrane rafts, which is the site of virus assembly. Our data show that virus generated in produce...

  16. Challenges of up-scaling lentivirus production and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Alexandra; Donnelley, Martin; McIntyre, Chantelle; Parsons, David

    2016-12-20

    Lentiviruses are becoming an increasingly popular choice of gene transfer vehicle for use in the treatment of a variety of genetic and acquired human diseases. As research progresses from basic studies into pre-clinical and clinical phases, there is a growing demand for large volumes of high purity, concentrated vector, and accordingly, the means to produce such quantities. Unlike other viral vectors, lentiviruses are difficult to produce using stable cell lines, therefore transient transfection of adherent cell lines is conventionally used, and this method has proven challenging to up-scale. Furthermore, with the required increases in the volume of vector needed for larger animal and human use, comes the need for more efficient and sophisticated supernatant purification and concentration techniques. This review presents the challenges of up-scaling lentivirus production and processing approaches, novel systems for overcoming these issues, and the quality assessments recommended for producing a clinical grade lentiviral gene therapy product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunization against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses

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    Beatriz Amorena

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multisystemic disease caused by Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV in sheep and goats leads to production losses, to the detriment of animal health and welfare. This, together with the lack of treatments, has triggered interest in exploring different strategies of immunization to control the widely spread SRLV infection and, also, to provide a useful model for HIV vaccines. These strategies involve inactivated whole virus, subunit vaccines, DNA encoding viral proteins in the presence or absence of plasmids encoding immunological adjuvants and naturally or artificially attenuated viruses. In this review, we revisit, comprehensively, the immunization strategies against SRLV and analyze this double edged tool individually, as it may contribute to either controlling or enhancing virus replication and/or disease.

  18. Regional Public Stock Reductions in Spain: Estimations from a Multiregional Spatial Vector Autorregressive Model

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    Miguel A Márquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the impact of public investment on regional economic growth requires consideration of the spatio-temporal dynamics among the state variables of each region.  Recent austerity policies in Spain that feature temporary decreases in the accumulation of regional public capital should thus be evaluated in terms of their impact on the economy as a whole, on specific regions together with the spillovers effects from one region to the rest of the regional system.  Applying a multiregional integrated specification to model interdependencies across regions, our results indicate that, while global decreases in public investment have a homogenously negative effect on the output of all the regions, the Spanish regions portray heterogeneous responses from localized public capital stock reductions over the simulation period considered.

  19. DYNAMICS OF MUTUAL FUNDS IN RELATION TO STOCK MARKET: A VECTOR AUTOREGRESSIVE CAUSALITY ANALYSIS

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    Md. Shahadath Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, primary and secondary mutual fund markets behave in a completely different way, where initial public offering (IPO investors of mutual funds earn more than 250 percent rerun, whereas secondary market investors cannot even manage to cover the opportunity cost of their investment. There are few other abnormalities present in this market – unlike everywhere in the world, most of the mutual funds are closed-end (92 percent and closed-end mutual funds are barred to issue bonus or right shares. A total of 714 day’s observations, from January 2008 to December 2010, of four variables– DSE (Dhaka Stock Exchange general index return, DSE general index turnover, mutual funds’ return and mutual funds’ turnover– are utilized. Stationarity of the variables are tested with Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF unit root test and found that variables are in different order of integration. Long-term equilibrium relationships among the variables are tested with Johansen cointegration and it is found that DSE general index return and mutual funds’ return are cointegrated. Toda-Yamamoto (TY version of granger non-causality test is employed and bidirectional causality is found moving from DSE (Dhaka Stock Exchange general index turnover to DSE general index return, whereas unidirectional causality is found moving from mutual fund’s return to DSE general index return, mutual funds’ return to mutual funds turnover, and DSE general index turnover to mutual funds turnover. This finding helps to conclude that equity shares’ demand drives the mutual funds demand but even higher demand of mutual funds fails to raise its own price unless underlying value of the mutual funds changes.

  20. Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeriis, Morten; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This article revisits the concept of vectors, which, in Kress and van Leeuwen’s Reading Images (2006), plays a crucial role in distinguishing between ‘narrative’, action-oriented processes and ‘conceptual’, state-oriented processes. The use of this concept in image analysis has usually focused...... on the most salient vectors, and this works well, but many images contain a plethora of vectors, which makes their structure quite different from the linguistic transitivity structures with which Kress and van Leeuwen have compared ‘narrative’ images. It can also be asked whether facial expression vectors...... should be taken into account in discussing ‘reactions’, which Kress and van Leeuwen link only to eyeline vectors. Finally, the question can be raised as to whether actions are always realized by vectors. Drawing on a re-reading of Rudolf Arnheim’s account of vectors, these issues are outlined...

  1. Rev Variation during Persistent Lentivirus Infection

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    Karin S. Dorman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of lentiviruses to continually evolve and escape immune control is the central impediment in developing an effective vaccine for HIV-1 and other lentiviruses. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV is considered a useful model for immune control of lentivirus infection. Virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL and broadly neutralizing antibody effectively control EIAV replication during inapparent stages of disease, but after years of low-level replication, the virus is still able to produce evasion genotypes that lead to late re-emergence of disease. There is a high rate of genetic variation in the EIAV surface envelope glycoprotein (SU and in the region of the transmembrane protein (TM overlapped by the major exon of Rev. This review examines genetic and phenotypic variation in Rev during EIAV disease and a possible role for Rev in immune evasion and virus persistence.

  2. A primitive endogenous lentivirus in a colugo: insights into the early evolution of lentiviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guan-Zhu; Worobey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Lentiviruses infect a wide range of mammal species. Much remains unknown about their deep history and host distribution. Here, we report the discovery of an endogenous lentivirus within the genome of the Sunda flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus) (which we designate "Galeopterus variegatus endogenous lentivirus" [GvaELV]). We estimate the GvaELV genome invasion to have occurred more than 14 Ma, supporting an ancient origin of the lentivirus clade and an ancient lentiviral infection in colugo. Phylogenetic analyses show that GvaELV is a sister group of all previously known lentiviruses. The GvaELV genome appears to possess some primitive genomic features of a lentivirus, encoding not only a trans-activator of transcription (tat) gene but also two additional putative accessory genes that share no discernible similarity with other lentiviral accessory genes. The discovery of GvaELV provides novel insights into the prehistory and host distribution of lentivirus. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeriis, Morten; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This article revisits the concept of vectors, which, in Kress and van Leeuwen’s Reading Images (2006), plays a crucial role in distinguishing between ‘narrative’, action-oriented processes and ‘conceptual’, state-oriented processes. The use of this concept in image analysis has usually focused...... should be taken into account in discussing ‘reactions’, which Kress and van Leeuwen link only to eyeline vectors. Finally, the question can be raised as to whether actions are always realized by vectors. Drawing on a re-reading of Rudolf Arnheim’s account of vectors, these issues are outlined...

  4. Time-varying coefficient vector autoregressions model based on dynamic correlation with an application to crude oil and stock markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fengbin; Qiao, Han; Wang, Shouyang; Lai, Kin Keung; Li, Yuze

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new time-varying coefficient vector autoregressions (VAR) model, in which the coefficient is a linear function of dynamic lagged correlation. The proposed model allows for flexibility in choices of dynamic correlation models (e.g. dynamic conditional correlation generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) models, Markov-switching GARCH models and multivariate stochastic volatility models), which indicates that it can describe many types of time-varying causal effects. Time-varying causal relations between West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and the US Standard and Poor's 500 (S&P 500) stock markets are examined by the proposed model. The empirical results show that their causal relations evolve with time and display complex characters. Both positive and negative causal effects of the WTI on the S&P 500 in the subperiods have been found and confirmed by the traditional VAR models. Similar results have been obtained in the causal effects of S&P 500 on WTI. In addition, the proposed model outperforms the traditional VAR model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of exogenetic enhanced green fluorescent protein in rat endocranium through lentivirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Qiang; Li, Li; Zhang, Zhaolong; Wu, Yina; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to investigate whether exogenetic green fluorescent protein is able to express in the endocranium of rats, and to establish a method for further study in exogenetic gene knock-in or gene overexpression. Forty female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 4 groups with 10 in each: low and high dose groups, treated with 10% and 100% EGFP-lentivirus, respectively; negative control group, treated with virus enhancer; sham group, treated with normal saline. Seven days later, half rats' brain tissues were perfusion fixed and fresh brain tissues were obtained from the rest after euthanasia in each group. Immunohistochemical analysis, Western blotting and RT-PCR were respectively performed to detect the site where EGFP expressed and its levels. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that EGFP was successfully expressed in brain tissue of those rats infected with EGFP-lentivirus. Both Western blotting and RT-PCR showed that EGFP was expressed after treatment with EGFP-lentivirus, and the expression level increased with the dosage of the vector. Exogenetic EGFP gene can express in brain tissue of the rat, which laid a solid foundation for future studies in exogenetic gene knock in or gene overexpression.

  6. Immune evasion strategies of the primate lentiviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D T; Desrosiers, R C

    2001-10-01

    Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) make vigorous virus-specific antibody and cellular immune responses. Despite these responses, virus replication continues at all stages of infection and ultimately leads to immunological collapse, onset of opportunistic infections and death of infected hosts. Thus, the strategies by which HIV and SIV evade antiviral immune surveillance are fundamental to understanding lentiviral pathogenesis and crucial for our ability to develop effective strategies. It has become increasingly clear that the primate lentiviruses have evolved multiple and complementary mechanisms to circumvent host immune responses. Here we review these mechanisms of immune evasion considering contributions from both human and non-human primate systems.

  7. Parallel germline infiltration of a lentivirus in two Malagasy lemurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Gilbert

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses normally infect the somatic cells of their host and are transmitted horizontally, i.e., in an exogenous way. Occasionally, however, some retroviruses can also infect and integrate into the genome of germ cells, which may allow for their vertical inheritance and fixation in a given species; a process known as endogenization. Lentiviruses, a group of mammalian retroviruses that includes HIV, are known to infect primates, ruminants, horses, and cats. Unlike many other retroviruses, these viruses have not been demonstrably successful at germline infiltration. Here, we report on the discovery of endogenous lentiviral insertions in seven species of Malagasy lemurs from two different genera -- Cheirogaleus and Microcebus. Combining molecular clock analyses and cross-species screening of orthologous insertions, we show that the presence of this endogenous lentivirus in six species of Microcebus is the result of one endogenization event that occurred about 4.2 million years ago. In addition, we demonstrate that this lentivirus independently infiltrated the germline of Cheirogaleus and that the two endogenization events occurred quasi-simultaneously. Using multiple proviral copies, we derive and characterize an apparently full length and intact consensus for this lentivirus. These results provide evidence that lentiviruses have repeatedly infiltrated the germline of prosimian species and that primates have been exposed to lentiviruses for a much longer time than what can be inferred based on sequence comparison of circulating lentiviruses. The study sets the stage for an unprecedented opportunity to reconstruct an ancestral primate lentivirus and thereby advance our knowledge of host-virus interactions.

  8. Viral load and clinical disease enhancement associated with a lentivirus cytotoxic T lymphocyte vaccine regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Robert H.; Leib, Steven R.; Littke, Matt H.; Wagner, Bettina; Horohov, David W.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2009-01-01

    Effective DNA-based vaccines against lentiviruses will likely induce CTL against conserved viral proteins. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infects horses worldwide, and serves as a useful model for lentiviral immune control. Although attenuated live EIAV vaccines have induced protective immune responses, DNA-based vaccines have not. In particular, DNA-based vaccines have had limited success in inducing CTL responses against intracellular pathogens in the horse. We hypothesized that priming with a codon-optimized plasmid encoding EIAV Gag p15/p26 with co-administration of a plasmid encoding an equine IL-2/IgG fusion protein as a molecular adjuvant, followed by boosting with a vaccinia vector expressing Gag p15/p26, would induce protective Gag-specific CTL responses. Although the regimen induced Gag-specific CTL in four of seven vaccinated horses, CTL were not detected until after the vaccinia boost, and protective effects were not observed in EIAV challenged vaccinates. Unexpectedly, vaccinates had significantly higher viral loads and more severe clinical disease, associated with the presence of vaccine-induced CTL. It was concluded that 1.) further optimization of the timing and route of DNA immunization was needed for efficient CTL priming in vivo, 2.) co-administration of the IL-2/IgG plasmid did not enhance CTL priming by the Gag p15/p26 plasmid, 3.) vaccinia vectors are useful for lentivirus-specific CTL induction in the horse, 4.) Gag-specific CTL alone are either insufficient or a more robust Gag-specific CTL response is needed to limit EIAV viremia and clinical disease, and 5.) CTL-inducing vaccines lacking envelope immunogens can result in lentiviral disease enhancement. Although the mechanisms for enhancement associated with this vaccine regimen remain to be elucidated, these results have important implications for development of lentivirus T cell vaccines. PMID:19368787

  9. Highly efficient generation of transgenic sheep by lentivirus accompanying the alteration of methylation status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low efficiency of gene transfer and silence of transgene expression are the critical factors hampering the development of transgenic livestock. Recently, transfer of recombinant lentivirus has been demonstrated to be an efficient transgene delivery method in various animals. However, the lentiviral transgenesis and the methylation status of transgene in sheep have not been well addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: EGFP transgenic sheep were generated by injecting recombinant lentivirus into zygotes. Of the 13 lambs born, 8 carried the EGFP transgene, and its chromosomal integration was identified in all tested tissues. Western blotting showed that GFP was expressed in all transgenic founders and their various tissues. Analysis of CpG methylation status of CMV promoter by bisulfate sequencing unraveled remarkable variation of methylation levels in transgenic sheep. The average methylation levels ranged from 37.6% to 79.1% in the transgenic individuals and 34.7% to 83% in the tested tissues. Correlative analysis of methylation status with GFP expression revealed that the GFP expression level was inversely correlated with methylation density. The similar phenomenon was also observed in tested tissues. Transgene integration determined by Southern blotting presented multiple integrants ranging from 2 to 6 copies in the genome of transgenic sheep. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Injection of lentiviral transgene into zygotes could be a promising efficient gene delivery system to generate transgenic sheep and achieved widespread transgene expression. The promoter of integrants transferred by lentiviral vector was subjected to dramatic alteration of methylation status and the transgene expression level was inversely correlative with promoter methylation density. Our work illustrated for the first time that generation of transgenic sheep by injecting recombinant lentivirus into zygote could be an efficient tool to improve sheep performance by

  10. Manufacture of Third-Generation Lentivirus for Preclinical Use, with Process Development Considerations for Translation to Good Manufacturing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gándara, Carolina; Affleck, Valerie; Stoll, Elizabeth Ann

    2018-02-01

    Lentiviral vectors are used in laboratories around the world for in vivo and ex vivo delivery of gene therapies, and increasingly clinical investigation as well as preclinical applications. The third-generation lentiviral vector system has many advantages, including high packaging capacity, stable gene expression in both dividing and post-mitotic cells, and low immunogenicity in the recipient organism. Yet, the manufacture of these vectors is challenging, especially at high titers required for direct use in vivo, and further challenges are presented by the process of translating preclinical gene therapies toward manufacture of products for clinical investigation. The goals of this paper are to report the protocol for manufacturing high-titer third-generation lentivirus for preclinical testing and to provide detailed information on considerations for translating preclinical viral vector manufacture toward scaled-up platforms and processes in order to make gene therapies under Good Manufacturing Practice that are suitable for clinical trials.

  11. Lentivirus-mediated shRNA interference targeting SLUG inhibits lung cancer growth and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-Peng; Wang, Ming-Zhao; Luo, Yi-Ren; Shen, Yi; Wei, Zhao-Xia

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is a deadly cancer, whose kills more people worldwide than any other malignancy. SLUG (SNAI2, Snail2) is involved in the epithelial mesenchymal transition in physiological and in pathological contexts and is implicated in the development and progression of lung cancer. We constructed a lentivirus vector with SLUG shRNA (LV-shSLUG). LV-shSLUG and a control lentivirus were infected into the non-small cell lung cancer cell A549 and real-time PCR, Western blot and IHC were applied to assess expression of the SLUG gene. Cell proliferation and migration were detected using MTT and clony formation methods. Real-time PCR, Western Blot and IHC results confirmed down-regulation of SLUG expression by its shRNA by about 80%~90% at both the mRNA and protein levels. Knockdown of SLUG significantly suppressed lung cancer cell proliferation. Furthermore, knockdown of SLUG significantly inhibited lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Finally, knockdown of SLUG induced the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of E-cadherin. These results indicate that SLUG is a newly identified gene associated with lung cancer growth and metastasis. SLUG may serve as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of lung cancer in the future.

  12. CXCR4 Is Required by a Nonprimate Lentivirus: Heterologous Expression of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Human, Rodent, and Feline Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschla, Eric M.; Looney, David J.

    1998-01-01

    A heterologous feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) expression system permitted high-level expression of FIV proteins and efficient production of infectious FIV in human cells. These results identify the FIV U3 element as the sole restriction to the productive phase of replication in nonfeline cells. Heterologous FIV expression in a variety of human cell lines resulted in profuse syncytial lysis that was FIV env specific, CD4 independent, and restricted to cells that express CXCR4, the coreceptor for T-cell-line-adapted strains of human immunodeficiency virus. Stable expression of human CXCR4 in CXCR4-negative human and rodent cell lines resulted in extensive FIV Env-mediated, CXCR4-dependent cell fusion and infection. In feline cells, stable overexpression of human CXCR4 resulted in increased FIV infectivity and marked syncytium formation during FIV replication or after infection with FIV Env-expressing vectors. The use of CXCR4 is a fundamental feature of lentivirus biology independent of CD4 and a shared cellular link to infection and cytopathicity for distantly related lentiviruses that cause AIDS. Their conserved use implicates chemokine receptors as primordial lentivirus receptors. PMID:9658135

  13. Oligopeptide-based enzyme immunoassay for ovine lentivirus antibody detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Kwang, J; Torres, J V

    1994-01-01

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) is a lentivirus which causes a progressive disease in sheep. Immunodominant epitopes have been identified in the envelope gp40 glycoprotein. Synthetic peptides representing these regions are able to detect the presence of OPPV antibodies in 96% of infected sheep.

  14. Construction of lentiviral shRNA expression vector targeting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA oligo was cloned into lentiviral expression vector, and then polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analyses were conducted to verify the constructs. The verified vectors were co-transfected into 293FT cells that could produce lentiviral. shRNA lentiviruses from the selected constructs were propagated and ...

  15. Detection of Replication Competent Lentivirus Using a qPCR Assay for VSV-G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Skrdlant

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviral vectors are a common tool used to introduce new and corrected genes into cell therapy products for treatment of human diseases. Although lentiviral vectors are ideal for delivery and stable integration of genes of interest into the host cell genome, they potentially pose risks to human health, such as integration-mediated transformation and generation of a replication competent lentivirus (RCL capable of infecting non-target cells. In consideration of the latter risk, all cell-based products modified by lentiviral vectors and intended for patient use must be tested for RCL prior to treatment of the patient. Current Food and Drug Administration (FDA guidelines recommend use of cell-based assays to this end, which can take up to 6 weeks for results. However, qPCR-based assays are a quick alternative for rapid assessment of RCL in products intended for fresh infusion. We describe here the development and qualification of a qPCR assay based on detection of envelope gene sequences (vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein [VSV-G] for RCL in accordance with Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE guidelines. Our results demonstrate the sensitivity, linearity, specificity, and reproducibility of detection of VSV-G sequences, with a low false-positive rate. These procedures are currently being used in our phase 1 clinical investigations.

  16. Endogenous lentivirus in Malayan colugo (Galeopterus variegatus), a close relative of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hron, Tomáš; Fábryová, Helena; Pačes, Jan; Elleder, Daniel

    2014-10-04

    A significant fraction of mammalian genomes is composed of endogenous retroviral (ERV) sequences that are formed by germline infiltration of various retroviruses. In contrast to other retroviral genera, lentiviruses only rarely form ERV copies. We performed a computational search aimed at identification of novel endogenous lentiviruses in vertebrate genomes. Using the in silico strategy, we have screened 104 publicly available vertebrate genomes for the presence of endogenous lentivirus sequences. In addition to the previously described cases, the search revealed the presence of endogenous lentivirus in the genome of Malayan colugo (Galeopterus variegatus). At least three complete copies of this virus, denoted ELVgv, were detected in the colugo genome, and approximately one hundred solo LTR sequences. The assembled consensus sequence of ELVgv had typical lentivirus genome organization including three predicted accessory genes. Phylogenetic analysis placed this virus as a distinct subgroup within the lentivirus genus. The time of insertion into the dermopteran lineage was estimated to be more than thirteen million years ago. We report the discovery of the first endogenous lentivirus in the mammalian order Dermoptera, which is a taxon close to the Primates. Lentiviruses have infiltrated the mammalian germline several times across millions of years. The colugo virus described here represents possibly the oldest documented endogenization event and its discovery can lead to new insights into lentivirus evolution. This is also the first report of an endogenous lentivirus in an Asian mammal, indicating a long-term presence of this retrovirus family in Asian continent.

  17. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago S. de Souza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV. The second group (milk group was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR. All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate.

  18. Anti-tetherin activities in Vpu-expressing primate lentiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haworth Kevin G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anti-viral activity of the cellular restriction factor, BST-2/tetherin, was first observed as an ability to block the release of Vpu-minus HIV-1 from the surface of infected cells. However, tetherin restriction is also counteracted by primate lentiviruses that do not express a Vpu protein, where anti-tetherin functions are provided by either the Env protein (HIV-2, SIVtan or the Nef protein (SIVsm/mac and SIVagm. Within the primate lentiviruses, Vpu is also present in the genomes of SIVcpz and certain SIVsyk viruses. We asked whether, in these viruses, anti-tetherin activity was always a property of Vpu, or if it had selectively evolved in HIV-1 to perform this function. Results We found that despite the close relatedness of HIV-1 and SIVcpz, the chimpanzee viruses use Nef instead of Vpu to counteract tetherin. Furthermore, SIVcpz Nef proteins had activity against chimpanzee but not human tetherin. This specificity mapped to a short sequence that is present in the cytoplasmic tail of primate but not human tetherins, and this also accounts for the specificity of SIVsm/mac Nef for primate but not human tetherins. In contrast, Vpu proteins from four diverse members of the SIVsyk lineage all displayed an anti-tetherin activity that was active against macaque tetherin. Interestingly, Vpu from a SIVgsn isolate was also found to have activity against human tetherin. Conclusions Primate lentiviruses show a high degree of flexibility in their use of anti-tetherin factors, indicating a strong selective pressure to counteract tetherin restriction. The identification of an activity against human tetherin in SIVgsn Vpu suggests that the presence of Vpu in the ancestral SIVmus/mon/gsn virus believed to have contributed the 3' half of the HIV-1 genome may have played a role in the evolution of viruses that could counteract human tetherin and infect humans.

  19. Reduced lentivirus susceptibility in sheep with TMEM154 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Michael P; Clawson, Michael L; Chitko-Mckown, Carol G; Leymaster, Kreg A; Smith, Timothy P L; Harhay, Gregory P; White, Stephen N; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Mousel, Michelle R; Lewis, Gregory S; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S; Keen, James E; Laegreid, William W

    2012-01-01

    Visna/Maedi, or ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) as it is known in the United States, is an incurable slow-acting disease of sheep caused by persistent lentivirus infection. This disease affects multiple tissues, including those of the respiratory and central nervous systems. Our aim was to identify ovine genetic risk factors for lentivirus infection. Sixty-nine matched pairs of infected cases and uninfected controls were identified among 736 naturally exposed sheep older than five years of age. These pairs were used in a genome-wide association study with 50,614 markers. A single SNP was identified in the ovine transmembrane protein (TMEM154) that exceeded genome-wide significance (unadjusted p-value 3×10(-9)). Sanger sequencing of the ovine TMEM154 coding region identified six missense and two frameshift deletion mutations in the predicted signal peptide and extracellular domain. Two TMEM154 haplotypes encoding glutamate (E) at position 35 were associated with infection while a third haplotype with lysine (K) at position 35 was not. Haplotypes encoding full-length E35 isoforms were analyzed together as genetic risk factors in a multi-breed, matched case-control design, with 61 pairs of 4-year-old ewes. The odds of infection for ewes with one copy of a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele were 28 times greater than the odds for those without (p-valuesheep from Nebraska, Idaho, and Iowa, the relative risk of infection was 2.85 times greater for sheep with a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele (p-valuesheep were homozygous for TMEM154 deletion mutations and remained uninfected despite a lifetime of significant exposure. Together, these findings indicate that TMEM154 may play a central role in ovine lentivirus infection and removing sheep with the most susceptible genotypes may help eradicate OPP and protect flocks from reinfection.

  20. The origin of lentivirus research: Maedi-visna virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormar, Halldor

    2013-01-01

    Maedi and visna are contagious sheep diseases which were introduced into Iceland in 1933 by imported sheep of Karakul breed. Maedi, a slowly progressing pneumonia, and the central nervous system disease visna were shown to be transmissible in sheep and most likely caused by a virus. In 1957, visna virus was isolated in tissue culture from sheep brain and maedi virus was isolated the following year from sheep lungs. Both viruses showed similar cytopathic effect in tissue culture. Electron microscope studies of ultrathin sections from visna virus infected cells demonstrated spherical particles, 70-100 nm in diameter, which were formed by budding from the cell membrane. Later studies showed identical particles in maedi virus infected cultures. These, and several other comparative studies, strongly indicated that maedi and visna were caused by strains of the same virus, later named maedi-visna virus (MVV). Comparative studies in tissue culture suggested that MVV was related to RNA tumor viruses of animals, the oncornaviruses. This was later supported by the finding that MVV is an RNA virus. A few months after reverse transcriptase was demonstrated in oncornaviruses, the enzyme was also found in MVV virions. Thus, MVV was classified as a retrovirus together with the oncornaviruses. However, MVV is not oncogenic in vivo or in vitro and was in 1975 placed in a subgroup of retroviruses named lentiviruses, which cause cytopathic effect in vitro and slowly progressing inflammatory disease in animals, but are nononcogenic. In the early 1980s, the causative agent of AIDS was found to be a non-oncogenic retrovirus and was classified as a lentivirus. Thus, HIV became the first human lentivirus.

  1. Stock Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data inform the public of the most recent stock status for all stocks (FSSI and non-FSSI) in the fishery management unit contained in a fishery managment plan....

  2. Reduced lentivirus susceptibility in sheep with TMEM154 mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Heaton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visna/Maedi, or ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP as it is known in the United States, is an incurable slow-acting disease of sheep caused by persistent lentivirus infection. This disease affects multiple tissues, including those of the respiratory and central nervous systems. Our aim was to identify ovine genetic risk factors for lentivirus infection. Sixty-nine matched pairs of infected cases and uninfected controls were identified among 736 naturally exposed sheep older than five years of age. These pairs were used in a genome-wide association study with 50,614 markers. A single SNP was identified in the ovine transmembrane protein (TMEM154 that exceeded genome-wide significance (unadjusted p-value 3×10(-9. Sanger sequencing of the ovine TMEM154 coding region identified six missense and two frameshift deletion mutations in the predicted signal peptide and extracellular domain. Two TMEM154 haplotypes encoding glutamate (E at position 35 were associated with infection while a third haplotype with lysine (K at position 35 was not. Haplotypes encoding full-length E35 isoforms were analyzed together as genetic risk factors in a multi-breed, matched case-control design, with 61 pairs of 4-year-old ewes. The odds of infection for ewes with one copy of a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele were 28 times greater than the odds for those without (p-value<0.0001, 95% CI 5-1,100. In a combined analysis of nine cohorts with 2,705 sheep from Nebraska, Idaho, and Iowa, the relative risk of infection was 2.85 times greater for sheep with a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele (p-value<0.0001, 95% CI 2.36-3.43. Although rare, some sheep were homozygous for TMEM154 deletion mutations and remained uninfected despite a lifetime of significant exposure. Together, these findings indicate that TMEM154 may play a central role in ovine lentivirus infection and removing sheep with the most susceptible genotypes may help eradicate OPP and protect flocks from reinfection.

  3. Targeted knockout of TNF-α by injection of lentivirus-mediated siRNA into the subacromial bursa for the treatment of subacromial bursitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Quan; Wei, Xianzhao; Xu, Jie; Chen, Qi; Song, Shuang; Lu, Zhe; Wang, Zimin

    2015-09-01

    Subacromial bursitis (SAB) is the major source of pain in rotator cuff disease. Although multiple investigations have provided support for the role of inflammatory cytokines in SAB, few have focussed on the use these cytokines in the treatment of SAB. The aim of the present study was to observe the therapeutic efficacy of lentivirus‑mediated RNA interference (RNAi) on carrageenan‑induced SAB by injecting lentivirus‑tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α‑RNAi expressing TNF‑α small interfering (si)RNA. Using screened siRNA segments, an siRNA was designed. A lentivirus vector expressing siRNA was established and packed as lentivirus particles. A lentivirus that expressed the negative sequence was used as a lentivirus‑negative control (NC). The carrageenan‑induced SAB model was established in 32 male Sprague‑Dawley rats. The modeled rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Lentivirus‑RNAi treatment group, lentivirus‑NC group, SAB group and phosphate‑buffered saline (PBS) blank control group. The lentivirus was injected (1x10(7) transducing units) into the subacromial bursa of the rats in the lentivirus‑RNAi group and lentivirus‑NC group, whereas 100 µl PBS was injected at the same site in the SAB group and the PBS blank control group. At 5 weeks following injection, the animals were sacrificed and venous blood was obtained. The effect of TNF‑α interference and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were determined by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, hematoxylin and eosin staining, Van Gieson's staining and immunofluorescence. The expression of TNF‑α was decreased in the lentivirus‑TNF‑α‑RNAi group compared with that in the SAB group. Morphological observations revealed that the number of inflammatory cells were reduced and damage to tendon fibers was attenuated in this group, suggesting that the downregulation of the protein expression levels of TNF‑α‑associated nuclear

  4. Mannose receptor may be involved in small ruminant lentivirus pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo Helena

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thirty-one sheep naturally infected with small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV of known genotype (A or B, and clinically affected with neurological disease, pneumonia or arthritis were used to analyse mannose receptor (MR expression (transcript levels and proviral load in virus target tissues (lung, mammary gland, CNS and carpal joints. Control sheep were SRLV-seropositive asymptomatic (n = 3, seronegative (n = 3 or with chronic listeriosis, pseudotuberculosis or parasitic cysts (n = 1 in each case. MR expression and proviral load increased with the severity of lesions in most analyzed organs of the SRLV infected sheep and was detected in the affected tissue involved in the corresponding clinical disease (CNS, lung and carpal joint in neurological disease, pneumonia and arthritis animal groups, respectively. The increased MR expression appeared to be SRLV specific and may have a role in lentiviral pathogenesis.

  5. Pathological and Molecular Based Study of Naturally Occurring Lentivirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Mahmood*, Ahrar Khan, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Riaz Hussain1, Shafia Tehseen Gul and Abu Baker Siddique2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the multicentric lymphosarcoma associated with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia in indigenous breeds of sheep and goats in Pakistan. Serum samples from sheep (n=93 and goats (n=129 were screened for ovine lentivirus using agar gel immunodiffusion test. Overall, 7.52 and 3.87% seroprevalence was recorded in sheep and goat, respectively. During necropsy of sheep (n=3 and goats (n=4, gross lesions including dark color liver with multifocal whitish areas, unilaterally lungs consolidation with granular appearance of cut surface were observed. Mediastinal lymph nodes were swollen and arranged in chain like fashion. Histopathologically, liver parenchyma exhibited extensive proliferation of neoplastic cells of lymphocytic series. Metastatic cells in the form of follicular pattern in the lungs, spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes were also observed. Brain tissue exhibited degenerative changes in the neuron and perivascular cuffing. The PCR product size approximately 300 bp from lung tissue confirmed viral infection.

  6. Isolation and identification of a South African lentivirus from jaagsiekte lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, A.; York, D.F.; De Villiers, E-M.; Verwoerd, D.W.; Querat, G.; Barban, V.; Sauze, N.; Vigne, R.

    1986-01-01

    In the course of attempts to grow the jaagsiekte retrovirus in cell culture, a typical lentivirus was isolated for the first time in South Africa from adenomatous lungs. Morphologically the virus could not be distinguished from other lentiviruses, but serologically it was shown to be more closely related to visna virus than to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. However, a preliminary restriction enzyme analysis of the linear proviral DNA of this new lentivirus (SA-DMVV) revealed that it is significantly district from visna virus and CAEV and therefore may represent a third type of lentivirus. Antibodies to the virus were demonstrated in a number of sheep in various parts of the country, but a direct link to a disease condition was not found. Attempts to produce lung lesions by intratracheal injection of the virus have been unsuccessful to date but a transient arthritis was produced by intra-articular inoculation. Viral replication seems to be enhanced in jaagsiekte lungs

  7. Portfolio Analysis for Vector Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Classic stock portfolio analysis provides an applied context for Lagrange multipliers that undergraduate students appreciate. Although modern methods of portfolio analysis are beyond the scope of vector calculus, classic methods reinforce the utility of this material. This paper discusses how to introduce classic stock portfolio analysis in a…

  8. Characterization and comparative performance of lentiviral vector preparations concentrated by either one-step ultrafiltration or ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Eleni; Kontostathi, Georgia; Drakopoulou, Ekati; Georgomanoli, Maria; Stamateris, Evangelos; Vougas, Kostas; Vlahou, Antonia; Maloy, Andrew; Ware, Mark; Anagnou, Nicholas P

    2013-07-01

    Gene therapy utilizing lentiviral vectors (LVs) constitutes a real therapeutic alternative for many inherited monogenic diseases. Therefore, the generation of functional vectors using fast, non-laborious and cost-effective strategies is imperative. Among the available concentration methods for VSV-G pseudotyped lentiviruses to achieve high therapeutic titers, ultracentrifugation represents the most common approach. However, the procedure requires special handling and access to special instrumentation, it is time-consuming, and most importantly, it is cost-ineffective due to the high maintenance expenses and consumables of the ultracentrifuge apparatus. Here we describe an improved protocol in which vector stocks are prepared by transient transfection using standard cell culture media and are then concentrated by ultrafiltration, resulting in functional vector titers of up to 6×10(9) transducing units per millilitre (TU/ml) without the involvement of any purification step. Although ultrafiltration per se for concentrating viruses is not a new procedure, our work displays one major novelty; we characterized the nature and the constituents of the viral batches produced by ultrafiltration using peptide mass fingerprint analysis. We also determined the viral functional titer by employing flow cytometry and evaluated the actual viral particle size and concentration in real time by using laser-based nanoparticle tracking analysis based on Brownian motion. Vectors generated by this production method are contained in intact virions and when tested to transduce in vitro either murine total bone marrow or human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells, resulted in equal transduction efficiency and reduced toxicity, compared to lentiviral vectors produced using standard ultracentrifugation-based methods. The data from this study can eventually lead to the improvement of protocols and technical modifications for the clinical trials for gene therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Comparative Analysis of Tat-Dependent and Tat-Deficient Natural Lentiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanwita Bose

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV causing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in infected humans has resulted in a global pandemic that has killed millions. HIV-1 and HIV-2 belong to the lentivirus genus of the Retroviridae family. This genus also includes viruses that infect other vertebrate animals, among them caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV, the prototypes of a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs, affecting both goat and sheep worldwide. Despite their long host-SRLV natural history, SRLVs were never found to be responsible for immunodeficiency in contrast to primate lentiviruses. SRLVs only replicate productively in monocytes/macrophages in infected animals but not in CD4+ T cells. The focus of this review is to examine and compare the biological and pathological properties of SRLVs as prototypic Tat-independent lentiviruses with HIV-1 as prototypic Tat-dependent lentiviruses. Results from this analysis will help to improve the understanding of why and how these two prototypic lentiviruses evolved in opposite directions in term of virulence and pathogenicity. Results may also help develop new strategies based on the attenuation of SRLVs to control the highly pathogenic HIV-1 in humans.

  10. Targeting SPARC by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference inhibits cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, a calcium-binding matricellular glycoprotein, is implicated in the progressions of some cancers. However, no information has been available to date regarding the function of SPARC in cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis. Methods In this study, we isolated and established high invasive subclones and low invasive subclones from human cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa by the limited dilution method. Real-time q-RT-PCR, Western Blot and ICC were performed to investigate SPARC mRNA and protein expressions in high invasive subclones and low invasive subclones. Then lentivirus vector with SPARC shRNA was constructed and infected the highly invasive subclones. Real-time q-RT-PCR, Western Blot and ICC were also performed to investigate the changes of SPARC expression after viral infection. In functional assays, effects of SPARC knockdown on the biological behaviors of cervical cancer cells were investigated. The mechanisms of SPARC in cervical cancer proliferation, apoptosis and invasion were also researched. Results SPARC was over-expressed in the highly invasive subclones compared with the low invasive subclones. Knockdown of SPARC significantly suppressed cervical cancer cell proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1/G0 phase through the p53/p21 pathway, also caused cell apoptosis accompanied by the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and inhibited cell invasion and metastasis accompanied by down-regulated MMP2 and MMP9 expressions and up-regulated E-cadherin expression. Conclusion SPARC is related to the invasive phenotype of cervical cancer cells. Knockdown of SPARC significantly suppresses cervical cancer cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis and inhibits cell invasion and metastasis. SPARC as a promoter improves cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis.

  11. Propagating Gateway Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece-Hoyes, John S; Walhout, Albertha J M

    2018-01-02

    Generating stocks of Entry and Destination vectors for use in the Gateway recombinatorial cloning system requires transforming them into Escherichia coli strain DB3.1, where they can replicate because this strain is immune to the effects of the ccdB gene carried in the Gateway cassette. However, mutations in the ccdB gene can arise at low frequency, and these mutant plasmids will consequently allow growth of standard cloning strains of E. coli (e.g., DH5α). Therefore, after making new stocks of Gateway plasmids, their ability to grow in cloning strains of E. coli must be tested. This involves obtaining multiple stocks of vector, each arising from a single plasmid grown in a single DB3.1 bacterial colony, and transforming each stock into both DB3.1 and the preferred cloning strain of E. coli in a controlled fashion. Only vector stocks that effectively kill the standard cloning strain (i.e., no or few colonies are obtained after transformation) should be used in Gateway cloning reactions. The sequence can be performed in 3 d. © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Duration of passive immunity to small ruminant lentiviruses in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Sampaio de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the passive immunity against small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV in lambs, this study was conducted from two experimental groups. The first one (G1 was established by nine lambs subjected to artificial feeding of colostrum of goats positive for SRLV. The second one (G2 was the control group, consisting of ten lambs subjected to suckling of colostrum from their negative mothers. Blood samples were obtained before the first feeding, after 24 hours of birth and at 7, 15, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 120 days of age. The concentrations of total serum protein (TSP, albumin (ALB, globulin (GLOB and immunoglobulin G (IgG were determined and antibodies to SRLV were surveyed from the techniques of agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa and immunoblotting (IB. In both groups, the lowest averages of TSP, GLOB and IgG were observed at birth and the highest averages were observed at 24 hours of life, due to absorption of colostral immunoglobulins. For G1, transfer of immunity could also be detected by immunodiagnostic tests. At birth, the animals were seronegative. After 24 hours, all animals were positive in three serological tests. Negative results began to be observed after 15 days of age by the AGID test. As for Elisa testing, all animals remained reagent until 50 days old. Only IB was able to detect anti-SRLV at 70 days. Regarding G2, all animals tested negative in AGID and IB, from birth until 120 days of age. However, false-positive results were observed until day 15 in Elisa, due to nonspecific reactions. These data are consistent with the sensitivity and specificity of serological tests and show that starting at 90 days of age, colostral antibodies to SRLV are no longer detected in the serum of lambs.

  13. A Functional Henipavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Pseudotyped Lentivirus Assay System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broder Christopher C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV are newly emerged zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered during outbreaks in Queensland, Australia in 1994 and peninsular Malaysia in 1998/9 respectively and classified within the new Henipavirus genus. Both viruses can infect a broad range of mammalian species causing severe and often-lethal disease in humans and animals, and repeated outbreaks continue to occur. Extensive laboratory studies on the host cell infection stage of HeV and NiV and the roles of their envelope glycoproteins have been hampered by their highly pathogenic nature and restriction to biosafety level-4 (BSL-4 containment. To circumvent this problem, we have developed a henipavirus envelope glycoprotein pseudotyped lentivirus assay system using either a luciferase gene or green fluorescent protein (GFP gene encoding human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 genome in conjunction with the HeV and NiV fusion (F and attachment (G glycoproteins. Results Functional retrovirus particles pseudotyped with henipavirus F and G glycoproteins displayed proper target cell tropism and entry and infection was dependent on the presence of the HeV and NiV receptors ephrinB2 or B3 on target cells. The functional specificity of the assay was confirmed by the lack of reporter-gene signals when particles bearing either only the F or only G glycoprotein were prepared and assayed. Virus entry could be specifically blocked when infection was carried out in the presence of a fusion inhibiting C-terminal heptad (HR-2 peptide, a well-characterized, cross-reactive, neutralizing human mAb specific for the henipavirus G glycoprotein, and soluble ephrinB2 and B3 receptors. In addition, the utility of the assay was also demonstrated by an examination of the influence of the cytoplasmic tail of F in its fusion activity and incorporation into pseudotyped virus particles by generating and testing a panel of truncation mutants of NiV and HeV F

  14. Inhibition of lentivirus replication by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauck Cathy

    2009-01-01

    of the fractions. Conclusion Our findings indicate that multiple Prunella constituents have profound anti-viral activity against EIAV, providing additional evidence of the broad anti-viral abilities of these extracts. The ability of the aqueous extracts to prevent entry of viral particles into permissive cells suggests that these extracts may function as promising microbicides against lentiviruses.

  15. A lion lentivirus related to feline immunodeficiency virus: epidemiologic and phylogenetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E W; Yuhki, N; Packer, C; O'Brien, S J

    1994-09-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a novel lentivirus that is genetically homologous and functionally analogous to the human AIDS viruses, human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. FIV causes immunosuppression in domestic cats by destroying the CD4 T-lymphocyte subsets in infected hosts. A serological survey of over 400 free-ranging African and Asian lions (Panthera leo) for antibodies to FIV revealed endemic lentivirus prevalence with an incidence of seropositivity as high as 90%. A lion lentivirus (FIV-Ple) was isolated by infection of lion lymphocytes in vitro. Seroconversion was documented in two Serengeti lions, and discordance of mother-cub serological status argues against maternal transmission (in favor of horizontal spread) as a major route of infection among lions. A phylogenetic analysis of cloned FIV-Ple pol gene sequences from 27 lions from four African populations (from the Serengeti reserve, Ngorongoro Crater, Lake Manyara, and Kruger Park) revealed remarkably high intra- and interindividual genetic diversity at the sequence level. Three FIV-Ple phylogenetic clusters or clades were resolved with phenetic, parsimony, and likelihood analytical procedures. The three clades, which occurred not only together in the same population but throughout Africa, were as divergent from each other as were homologous pol sequences of lentivirus isolated from distinct feline species, i.e., puma and domestic cat. The FIV-Ple clades, however, were more closely related to each other than to other feline lentiviruses (monophyletic for lion species), suggesting that the ancestors of FIV-Ple evolved in allopatric (geographically isolated) lion populations that converged recently. To date, there is no clear evidence of FIV-Ple-associated pathology, raising the possibility of a historic genetic accommodation of the lion lentivirus and its host leading to a coevolved host-parasite symbiosis (or commensalism) in the population similar to that hypothesized for endemic

  16. Lentiviral vectors for treating and modeling human CNS disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Mimoun; Kingsman, Susan M; Mazarakis, Nicholas D

    2004-09-01

    Vectors based on lentiviruses efficiently deliver genes into many different types of primary neurons from a broad range of species including man and the resulting gene expression is long term. These vectors are opening up new approaches for the treatment of neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and motor neuron diseases (MNDs). Numerous animal studies have now been undertaken with these vectors and correction of disease models has been obtained. Lentiviral vectors also provide a new strategy for in vivo modeling of human diseases; for example, the lentiviral-mediated overexpression of mutated human alpha-synuclein or huntingtin genes in basal ganglia induces neuronal pathology in animals resembling PD and HD in man. These vectors have been refined to a very high level and can be produced safely for the clinic. This review will describe the general features of lentiviral vectors with particular emphasis on vectors derived from the non-primate lentivirus, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). It will then describe some key examples of genetic correction and generation of genetic animal models of neurological diseases. The prospects for clinical application of lentiviral vectors for the treatment of PD and MNDs will also be outlined. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Vector financial rogue waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhenya

    2011-01-01

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black–Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model. ► We analytically present vector financial rogue waves. ► The vector financial rogue waves may be used to describe the extreme events in financial markets. ► This results may excite the relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves.

  18. Endogenous lentivirus in Malayan colugo (Galeopterus variegatus), a close relative of primates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hron, Tomáš; Fábryová, Helena; Pačes, Jan; Elleder, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 84 (2014) ISSN 1742-4690 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11215 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Endogenous lentiviruses * Dermoptera * Paleovirology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.185, year: 2014

  19. Effects of deoxycycline induced lentivirus encoding FasL gene on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Fas/Fas ligand (FasL)-mediated apoptosis plays a critical role in deletion of activated T cells. This study aimed to construct the lentivirus encoding FasL gene induced by deoxycycline and evaluate its effects on apoptosis of Th1 cells. A plasmid expression system encoding FasL was constructed through utilizing the ...

  20. Effects of deoxycycline induced lentivirus encoding FasL gene on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... Fas/Fas ligand (FasL)-mediated apoptosis plays a critical role in deletion of activated T cells. This study aimed to ... The lentivirus system encoding FasL induced by deoxycycline promotes apoptosis of Th1 cells. Key words: FasL ..... In the immune system, especially in lymphocytes, apoptosis functions to ...

  1. Small ruminant lentiviruses: Strain variation, viral tropism, and host genetics influence pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV), which include the Maedi-Visna virus, also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), and caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus (CAEV), are of global economic importance to sheep and goat producers, respectively. These viruses belong to the genus Lentivi...

  2. Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) break the species barrier to acquire new host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardi da Cruz, Juliano Cezar; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Lamara, Ali; Chebloune, Yahia

    2013-07-23

    Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2), the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV), and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections, in addition to

  3. Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLVs Break the Species Barrier to Acquire New Host Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Cezar Minardi da Cruz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2, the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV, and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs, affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections

  4. Sensitivity and specificity of a nested polymerase chain reaction for detection of lentivirus infection in lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Hayley; van Vuuren, Moritz; Kania, Stephen; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Keet, Dewald; New, John; Kennedy, Melissa

    2010-12-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus in the Retroviridae family that causes lifelong infection in domestic cats. The lentivirus of African lions (Panthera leo), referred to as FIVple, is endemic in certain lion populations in eastern and southern Africa. Lentivirus infection leads to immunologic dysfunction and immunosuppressive disease in domestic cats; however, little is known about the pathogenic effects of infection in lions, nor about the epidemiologic impact on free-ranging and captive populations. Whole blood and serum samples were collected opportunistically from free-ranging lions in Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa (RSA). Whole blood and serum samples were also collected from captive wild lions in the RSA. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection of FIV was performed on all whole blood samples. In addition, serum samples were tested for cross-reactive antibodies to domestic feline lentivirus antigens and puma lentivirus synthetic envelope peptide antigen. The PCR assay successfully amplified the lion lentivirus from African lions. The relative sensitivity and relative specificity were 79% and 100%, respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 67%, respectively. This research represents the first study to compare genetic material with antibody-based methods of lentivirus detection on lions in RSA. Using PCR as an additional diagnostic test for FIV in lions will increase screening sensitivity and will allow viral characterization among circulating isolates and monitoring of changes in the viral epidemiology within geographic regions and populations over time.

  5. Gene transfer to human trabecular meshwork cells in vitro and ex vivo using HIV-based lentivirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate whether the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP reporter gene could be transferred into human trabecular meshwork (HTM cells by a HIV-based lentivirus both in vitro and ex vivo.METHODS:The HIV-based lentivirus that contains an EF1-α promoter driving EGFP expression cassette was constructed following the standard molecular cloning methods. The cultured HTM cells were transduced at a range of multiplicity of infection (MOI with HIV-based lentivirus. EGFP positive cell populations were detected by flow cytometry. Human anterior eye segments were cultured with perfusion culture system and transfected by HIV-based lentivirus with a 1×108 transducing unit (TU virus in perfusion liquid. The intraocular pressure was recorded every 8h for 21d. The expression of EGFP in the anterior segment of the human eye was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, the distribution of EGFP expression was confirmed by anti-EGFP immunohistochemical staining.RESULTS:The HIV-based lentivirus which contains an EF1-α promoter driving EGFP expression cassette was constructed successfully. After HTM cells were transduced with HIV-based lentivirus containing EGFP in vitro, the ratio of EGFP positive cells to the total cell number reached 92.3%, with the MOI of 15. After the lentivirus containing EGFP were used to transduce human anterior eye segments, the EGFP could be directly detected by fluorescence microscopy in vivo. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed that 88.19% EGFP-positive trabecular meshwork (TM cells were observed in the human anterior segment. Nevertheless, the intraocular pressure in the lentivirus-transduced group kept constant when compared with control group (P>0.05.CONCLUSION:EGFP gene could be efficiently transferred into HTM cells both in vitro and ex vivo by using HIV-based lentivirus.

  6. Bone marrow stem cells expressing keratinocyte growth factor via an inducible lentivirus protects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Aguilar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Many common diseases of the gas exchange surface of the lung have no specific treatment but cause serious morbidity and mortality. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF is characterized by alveolar epithelial cell injury, interstitial inflammation, fibroblast proliferation and collagen accumulation within the lung parenchyma. Keratinocyte Growth Factor (KGF, also known as FGF-7 is a critical mediator of pulmonary epithelial repair through stimulation of epithelial cell proliferation. During repair, the lung not only uses resident cells after injury but also recruits circulating bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC. Several groups have used Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs as therapeutic vectors, but little is known about the potential of Hematopoietic Stem cells (HSCs. Using an inducible lentiviral vector (Tet-On expressing KGF, we were able to efficiently transduce both MSCs and HSCs, and demonstrated that KGF expression is induced in a regulated manner both in vitro and in vivo. We used the in vivo bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis model to assess the potential therapeutic effect of MSCs and HSCs. While both populations reduced the collagen accumulation associated with bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, only transplantation of transduced HSCs greatly attenuated the histological damage. Using double immunohistochemistry, we show that the reduced lung damage likely occurs through endogenous type II pneumocyte proliferation induced by KGF. Taken together, our data indicates that bone marrow transplantation of lentivirus-transduced HSCs can attenuate lung damage, and shows for the first time the potential of using an inducible Tet-On system for cell based gene therapy in the lung.

  7. The experimental study of genetic engineering human neural stem cells mediated by lentivirus to express multigene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pei-qiang; Tang, Xun; Lin, Yue-qiu; Martin, Oudega; Sun, Guang-yun; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yun-kang; Zhou, Tian-hua

    2006-02-01

    To explore the feasibility to construct genetic engineering human neural stem cells (hNSCs) mediated by lentivirus to express multigene in order to provide a graft source for further studies of spinal cord injury (SCI). Human neural stem cells from the brain cortex of human abortus were isolated and cultured, then gene was modified by lentivirus to express both green fluorescence protein (GFP) and rat neurotrophin-3 (NT-3); the transgenic expression was detected by the methods of fluorescence microscope, dorsal root ganglion of fetal rats and slot blot. Genetic engineering hNSCs were successfully constructed. All of the genetic engineering hNSCs which expressed bright green fluorescence were observed under the fluorescence microscope. The conditioned medium of transgenic hNSCs could induce neurite flourishing outgrowth from dorsal root ganglion (DRG). The genetic engineering hNSCs expressed high level NT-3 which could be detected by using slot blot. Genetic engineering hNSCs mediated by lentivirus can be constructed to express multigene successfully.

  8. The Role of the Antiviral APOBEC3 Gene Family in Protecting Chimpanzees against Lentiviruses from Monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Etienne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-species transmissions of viruses from animals to humans are at the origin of major human pathogenic viruses. While the role of ecological and epidemiological factors in the emergence of new pathogens is well documented, the importance of host factors is often unknown. Chimpanzees are the closest relatives of humans and the animal reservoir at the origin of the human AIDS pandemic. However, despite being regularly exposed to monkey lentiviruses through hunting, chimpanzees are naturally infected by only a single simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVcpz. Here, we asked why chimpanzees appear to be protected against the successful emergence of other SIVs. In particular, we investigated the role of the chimpanzee APOBEC3 genes in providing a barrier to infection by most monkey lentiviruses. We found that most SIV Vifs, including Vif from SIVwrc infecting western-red colobus, the chimpanzee's main monkey prey in West Africa, could not antagonize chimpanzee APOBEC3G. Moreover, chimpanzee APOBEC3D, as well as APOBEC3F and APOBEC3H, provided additional protection against SIV Vif antagonism. Consequently, lentiviral replication in primary chimpanzee CD4(+ T cells was dependent on the presence of a lentiviral vif gene that could antagonize chimpanzee APOBEC3s. Finally, by identifying and functionally characterizing several APOBEC3 gene polymorphisms in both common chimpanzees and bonobos, we found that these ape populations encode APOBEC3 proteins that are uniformly resistant to antagonism by monkey lentiviruses.

  9. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P. Knowles

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]. Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions.

  10. Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen N.; Knowles, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

  11. Suppression of HLA expression by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer of siRNA cassettes and in vivo chemoselection to enhance hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Katrin; Falahati, Rustom; Flebbe-Rehwaldt, Linda; Kasahara, Noriyuki; Gaensler, Karin M L

    2009-01-01

    Current approaches for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and organ transplantation are limited by donor and host-mediated immune responses to allo-antigens. Application of these therapies is limited by the toxicity of preparative and post-transplant immunosuppressive regimens and a shortage of appropriate HLA-matched donors. We have been exploring two complementary approaches for genetically modifying donor cells that achieve long-term suppression of cellular proteins that elicit host immune responses to mismatched donor antigens, and provide a selective advantage to genetically engineered donor cells after transplantation. The first approach is based on recent advances that make feasible targeted down-regulation of HLA expression. Suppression of HLA expression could help to overcome limitations imposed by extensive HLA polymorphisms that restrict the availability of suitable donors. Accordingly, we have recently investigated whether knockdown of HLA by RNA interference (RNAi) enables allogeneic cells to evade immune recognition. For efficient and stable delivery of short hairpin-type RNAi constructs (shRNA), we employed lentivirus-based gene transfer vectors that integrate into genomic DNA, thereby permanently modifying transduced donor cells. Lentivirus-mediated delivery of shRNA targeting pan-Class I and allele-specific HLA achieved efficient and dose-dependent reduction in surface expression of HLA in human cells, and enhanced resistance to allo-reactive T lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity, while avoiding non-MHC restricted killing. Complementary strategies for genetic engineering of HSC that would provide a selective advantage for transplanted donor cells and enable successful engraftment with less toxic preparative and immunosuppressive regimens would increase the numbers of individuals to whom HLA suppression therapy could be offered. Our second strategy is to provide a mechanism for in vivo selection of genetically modified HSC and other donor cells. We have

  12. Relationships between oil price shocks and stock market: An empirical analysis from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Wei, Yi-Ming; Jiao, Jian-Ling

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships between oil price shocks and Chinese stock market using multivariate vector auto-regression. Oil price shocks do not show statistically significant impact on the real stock returns of most Chinese stock market indices, except for manufacturing...

  13. Therapeutic effects of lentivirus-mediated shRNA targeting of cyclin D1 in human gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jin-Hee; Jeong, Eui-Suk; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in males and the fourth in females. Traditional treatment has poor prognosis because of recurrence and systemic side effects. Therefore, the development of new therapeutic strategies is an important issue. Lentivirus-mediated shRNA stably inhibits target genes and can efficiently transduce most cells. Since overexpressed cyclin D1 is closely related to human gastric cancer progression, inhibition of cyclin D1 using specific targeting could be an effective treatment method of human gastric cancer. The therapeutic effect of lentivirus-mediated shRNA targeting of cyclin D1 (ShCCND1) was analyzed both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro, NCI-N87 cells with downregulation of cyclin D1 by ShCCND1 showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation, cell motility, and clonogenicity. Downregulation of cyclin D1 in NCI-N87 cells also resulted in significantly increased G1 arrest and apoptosis. In vivo, stable NCI-N87 cells expressing ShCCND1 were engrafted into nude mice. Then, the cancer-growth inhibition effect of lentivirus was confirmed. To assess lentivirus including ShCCND1 as a therapeutic agent, intratumoral injection was conducted. Tumor growth of the lentivirus-treated group was significantly inhibited compared to growth of the control group. These results are in accordance with the in vitro data and lend support to the mitotic figure count and apoptosis analysis of the tumor mass. The lentivirus-mediated ShCCND1 was constructed, which effectively inhibited growth of NCI-N87-derived cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The efficiency of shRNA knockdown and variation in the degree of inhibition is mediated by different shRNA sequences and cancer cell lines. These experimental results suggest the possibility of developing new gastric cancer therapies using lentivirus-mediated shRNA

  14. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newell, Homer E

    2006-01-01

    When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e

  15. About vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh

    1975-01-01

    From his unusual beginning in ""Defining a vector"" to his final comments on ""What then is a vector?"" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar p

  16. Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin S; Bevins, Sarah N; Serieys, Laurel E K; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L; Riley, Seth P; Boyce, Walter M; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-07-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories. Importance: An understanding of viral evolution in natural host populations is a fundamental goal of virology, molecular biology, and disease ecology. Here we provide a detailed analysis of puma lentivirus (PLV) evolution in two natural carnivore hosts, the bobcat and mountain lion. Our results illustrate that PLV evolution is a dynamic process that results from high rates of viral mutation/recombination and host-imposed selection pressure. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. PROTEIN AGREGATION MODELS OF PARKINSONS DISEASE USING VIRAL VECTORS, PROTEASOME INHIBITION AND INOCULATION OF PREFORMED FIBRILS IN THE GOTTINGEN MINIPIG CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Lillethorup, Thea Pinholt; Landeck, Natalie

    SYN) fibrils, overexpressing aSYN using Lentivirus (LV) and Adeno Assosiated Virus (AAV) vectors or proteasome inhibition in the nigrostriatal system, we hope to create a new porcine models for PD. Methods: Using conventional human-intended stereotaxic neurosurgery methods, we apply aSYN or preformed fibrils...

  18. Host Restriction of Lentiviruses and Viral Countermeasures: APOBEC3 and Vif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valgerdur Andrésdóttir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that organisms have developed a variety of mechanisms to fight against viral infection. The viruses have developed means of counteracting these defences in various ways. The APOBEC3 proteins are a mammalian-specific family of nucleic acid cytidine deaminases that block retroviral infection. These inhibitors are counteracted by the Vif proteins encoded by most lentiviruses. In this paper, we will review the interaction of the lentiviral Vif proteins with the APOBEC3 proteins, with an emphasis on sheep APOBEC3 and maedi-visna virus (MVV Vif.

  19. Vaccination delays maedi-visna lentivirus infection in a naturally-infected sheep flock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudnadóttir Margrét

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Maedi-Visna (MV lentivirus causes two slowly progressive eventually fatal diseases of sheep, Maedi, a progressive interstitial pneumonia, and Visna, a progressive demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Other lentiviruses also cause fatal slow infections in their natural hosts, e.g. the HIV virus in humans. Results of experimental vaccination against any lentivirus where vaccinees are challenged by natural routes, may therefore be of general interest. From 1991–1998 experiments with formalin-inactivated whole Maedi-Visna virus vaccine were carried out in the Department of Microbiology at the University of Iceland. Western Blot tests showed good immune response to all major proteins of the virus. When aluminium hydroxide was added to the vaccine all vaccinees developed neutralizing antibodies to the vaccine strain at titers 1/8 – 1/256. After housing 5 twin pairs, one twin in each pair vaccinated, the other unvaccinated, with infected sheep for 4 years, all the unvaccinated twins became infected, but only 2 of their vaccinated siblings as confirmed by virus cultivation experiments on tissues from their lungs spleens lymph nodes and choroid plexuses. Results One twin in each of 40 female twin pairs, born into a Maedi-Visna-infected sheep flock and kept under natural farming conditions in Cyprus, was vaccinated at birth, 3 weeks and 3 months, with formalin-inactivated whole Maedi-Visna lentivirus vaccine adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. 17 mothers of the twins were seronegative, 13 seroconverting and 10 had old infection. Of 17 vaccinees born to seronegative mothers 9 were uninfected at 28 months, but only 2 of their unvaccinated siblings. Of 13 unvaccinated twins born to seroconverting mothers, 12 caught infection during their first 10 weeks, but only 4 of their vaccinated siblings. Vaccination had no effects on 10 vaccinees born to mothers with long-standing Maedi-Visna infections and broad andibody

  20. Elementary vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenholme, E Œ

    1978-01-01

    Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl

  1. Oil prices and the stock prices of alternative energy companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Irene; Sadorsky, Perry

    2008-01-01

    Energy security issues coupled with increased concern over the natural environment are driving factors behind oil price movements. While it is widely accepted that rising oil prices are good for the financial performance of alternative energy companies, there has been relatively little statistical work done to measure just how sensitive the financial performance of alternative energy companies are to changes in oil prices. In this paper, a four variable vector autoregression model is developed and estimated in order to investigate the empirical relationship between alternative energy stock prices, technology stock prices, oil prices, and interest rates. Our results show technology stock prices and oil prices each individually Granger cause the stock prices of alternative energy companies. Simulation results show that a shock to technology stock prices has a larger impact on alternative energy stock prices than does a shock to oil prices. These results should be of use to investors, managers and policy makers. (author)

  2. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses isolated from Canadian sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoni Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV are widespread in Canadian sheep and goats and represent an important health issue in these animals. There is however no data about the genetic diversity of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV or Maedi Visna Virus (MVV in this country. Findings We performed a molecular and phylogenetic analysis of sheep and goat lentiviruses from a small geographic area in Canada using long sequences from the gag region of 30 infected sheep and 36 infected goats originating from 14 different flocks. Pairwise DNA distance and phylogenetic analyses revealed that all SRLV sequences obtained from sheep clustered tightly with prototypical Maedi visna sequences from America. Similarly, all SRLV strains obtained from goats clustered tightly with prototypical US CAEV-Cork strain. Conclusions The data reported in this study suggests that Canadian and US SRLV strains share common origins. In addition, the molecular data failed to bring to light any evidence of past cross species transmission between sheep and goats, which is consistent with the type of farming practiced in this part of the country where single species flocks predominate and where opportunities of cross species transmissions are proportionately low.

  3. Deletion variant near ZNF389 is associated with control of ovine lentivirus in multiple sheep flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S N; Mousel, M R; Reynolds, J O; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Knowles, D P

    2014-01-01

    Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus found in many countries that causes interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and cachexia in sheep. There is no preventive vaccine and no cure, but breed differences suggest marker-assisted selective breeding might improve odds of infection and control of OvLV post-infection. Although variants in TMEM154 have consistent association with odds of infection, no variant in any gene has been associated with host control of OvLV post-infection in multiple animal sets. Proviral concentration is a live-animal diagnostic measure of OvLV control post-infection related to severity of OvLV-induced lesions. A recent genome-wide association study identified a region including four zinc finger genes associated with proviral concentration in one Rambouillet flock. To refine this region, we tested additional variants and identified a small insertion/deletion variant near ZNF389 that showed consistent association with proviral concentration in three animal sets (P sheep from multiple locations and management conditions. Strikingly, one flock had exceptionally high prevalence (>87%, including yearlings) and mean proviral concentration (>950 copies/μg), possibly due to needle sharing. The best estimate of proviral concentration by genotype, obtained from all 1310 OvLV-positive animals tested, showed insertion homozygotes had less than half the proviral concentration of other genotypes (P sheep flocks. PMID:24303974

  4. Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin S.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A.; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Riley, Seth P.; Boyce, Walter M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories.

  5. Estudios estructurales de la proteína mayoritaria de la cápsida de lentivirus

    OpenAIRE

    Yélamos López, María Belén

    1998-01-01

    Los Lentivirus son un grupo de virus, subfamilia de los Retrovirus. Incluyen virus de gran importancia tanto veterinaria, como el virus de la anemia infecciosa equina (EIAV) o el virus de la inmunodeficiencia felina (FIV), como clínica como el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV). Nuestro sistema de estudio es la proteína mayoritaria de la cápsida de lentivirus. Las proteínas de las cápsidas lentivirales tienen una gran homología de secuencia. Este alto grado de similitud, junto con la ...

  6. Stock Market Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distel, Brenda D.

    This project is designed to teach students the process of buying stocks and to tracking their investments over the course of a semester. The goals of the course are to teach students about the relationships between conditions in the economy and the stock market; to predict the effect of an economic event on a specific stock or industry; to relate…

  7. Predictability of Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sekreter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Predictability of stock returns has been shown by empirical studies over time. This article collects the most important theories on forecasting stock returns and investigates the factors that affecting behavior of the stocks’ prices and the market as a whole. Estimation of the factors and the way of estimation are the key issues of predictability of stock returns.

  8. Lentiviral vectors can be used for full-length dystrophin gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsell, John R; Asgarian, Zeinab; Meng, Jinhong; Ferrer, Veronica; Vink, Conrad A; Howe, Steven J; Waddington, Simon N; Thrasher, Adrian J; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer E; Danos, Olivier

    2017-03-06

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a lack of dystrophin expression in patient muscle fibres. Current DMD gene therapy strategies rely on the expression of internally deleted forms of dystrophin, missing important functional domains. Viral gene transfer of full-length dystrophin could restore wild-type functionality, although this approach is restricted by the limited capacity of recombinant viral vectors. Lentiviral vectors can package larger transgenes than adeno-associated viruses, yet lentiviral vectors remain largely unexplored for full-length dystrophin delivery. In our work, we have demonstrated that lentiviral vectors can package and deliver inserts of a similar size to dystrophin. We report a novel approach for delivering large transgenes in lentiviruses, in which we demonstrate proof-of-concept for a 'template-switching' lentiviral vector that harnesses recombination events during reverse-transcription. During this work, we discovered that a standard, unmodified lentiviral vector was efficient in delivering full-length dystrophin to target cells, within a total genomic load of more than 15,000 base pairs. We have demonstrated gene therapy with this vector by restoring dystrophin expression in DMD myoblasts, where dystrophin was expressed at the sarcolemma of myotubes after myogenic differentiation. Ultimately, our work demonstrates proof-of-concept that lentiviruses can be used for permanent full-length dystrophin gene therapy, which presents a significant advancement in developing an effective treatment for DMD.

  9. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, Louis

    2006-01-01

    The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou

  10. Analyzing the Genotoxicity of Retroviral Vectors in Hematopoietic Cell Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Biasco

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Retroviral vectors, including those derived from gammaretroviruses and lentiviruses, have found their way into the clinical arena and demonstrated remarkable efficacy for the treatment of immunodeficiencies, leukodystrophies, and globinopathies. Despite these successes, gene therapy unfortunately also has had to face severe adverse events in the form of leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes, related to the semi-random vector integration into the host cell genome that caused deregulation of neighboring proto-oncogenes. Although improvements in vector design clearly lowered the risk of this insertional mutagenesis, analysis of potential genotoxicity and the consequences of vector integration remain important parameters for basic and translational research and most importantly for the clinic. Here, we review current assays to analyze biodistribution and genotoxicity in the pre-clinical setting and describe tools to monitor vector integration sites in vector-treated patients as a biosafety readout.

  11. Vector velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost vector velocimeter for example for determining velocities of particles suspended in a gas or fluid flow, or for determining velocity, displacement, rotation, or vibration of a solid surface, the vector velocimeter comprising a laser...

  12. ℓ(p)-Norm multikernel learning approach for stock market price forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xigao; Wu, Kun; Liao, Bifeng

    2012-01-01

    Linear multiple kernel learning model has been used for predicting financial time series. However, ℓ(1)-norm multiple support vector regression is rarely observed to outperform trivial baselines in practical applications. To allow for robust kernel mixtures that generalize well, we adopt ℓ(p)-norm multiple kernel support vector regression (1 ≤ p stock price prediction model. The optimization problem is decomposed into smaller subproblems, and the interleaved optimization strategy is employed to solve the regression model. The model is evaluated on forecasting the daily stock closing prices of Shanghai Stock Index in China. Experimental results show that our proposed model performs better than ℓ(1)-norm multiple support vector regression model.

  13. [RelB silencing in mouse bone-marrow derived dendritic cells mediated by lentiviral vector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Wang, Qian; Zheng, Lei; Qiu, Yu-rong; Zeng, Fang-yin; Yang, Chun-li; Huang, Xian-zhang

    2008-09-01

    To silence RelB gene in mouse bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (DC) utilizing lentiviral vector, a novel tolerogenic dendritic cell with a relatively low expression level RelB was constructed and a new way to treat and prevent autoimmune diseases was explored. Interferential targeting sequence R5 of RelB in mice was designed, synthesized and cloned into lentiviral vectors. Together with viral packaging materials were co-cultured in 293FT cell line to package lentiviral vector. Supernatant fluids were harvested, then virus titer detected. Mouse bone marrow derived DCs were infected by lentivirus particle. RelB gene expression level was detected by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining and analyzed by software of geo pro. There are three experiment control groups including immature DC, mature DC and DC infected by a negative independent control of T6. A similar RelB expression was detected by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining assay between DC infected virus R5 and immature DC, but was lower than that of mature DC. Significant difference in statistics P < 0.05. A similar RelB expression was detected by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining approaches between DC infected virus T6 and mature DC, but was higher than that of immature DC. Significant difference in statistics P < 0.05. RelB gene expressed by mouse bone marrow derived DC was silenced by Lentivirus vector effectively. The lentivirus vector with a low immunogenicity can be used to immunotherapy in vivo and overcome difficult transfection problem of primary DC. A new viral vector of DC immunotherapy can be obtained.

  14. Improving expression of reporter transgene in stem cell by construction of different lentiviral vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Seong Ho; Min, Jung Joon [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Le, Uyenchi N.; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman [Singapore Bio-Imaging Imaging Consortium, Singapore (Singapore)

    2007-07-01

    For stem cell trafficking applications, it is imperative to express transgenes at desired and stable levels. In recent years, lentivirus-mediated gene transfer was shown to be an efficient method to stably introduce genetic modifications in target cells, even if these are in proliferative or nonproliferative states. Moreover, transgene expression levels can be controlled by using different promoters. The present study was designed to compare the potency of various promoters regulating expression of imaging reporter genes in embryonic H9c2 cardiomyoblasts derived from rat heart. Lentiviral vector was produced by the transient transfection of plasmids carrying required genes and those encoding for virus coating proteins into 293T cells. Harvested viral constructs were incubated with Hela and H9c2 cells, respectively. Transgene expressions were detected by several imaging modalities and evaluated by enzymatic assays. Results - We observed that the level of stable transgene expression in lentivirus-transduced myoblasts could be modulated over several orders of magnitude, with the Ubiquitin (Ub) promoter exhibiting the highest activity, intermediate expression was observed with the CAG promoter, whereas expression observed with the CMV promoter was very weak. We observed that the level of stable transgene expression in lentivirus-transduced myoblasts could be modulated over several orders of magnitude, with the Ubiquitin (Ub) promoter exhibiting the highest activity, intermediate expression was observed with the CAG promoter, whereas expression observed with the CMV promoter was very weak. Here we show that lentivirus-mediated gene transfer allows efficient and stable transgene expression in embryonic cardiomyoblasts in vitro and that transgene expression levels can be varied by using different well-characterized gene promoters. In vivo trials about gene expression will probably further determine the potential of long-term trafficking stem cells using lentivirus.

  15. Improving expression of reporter transgene in stem cell by construction of different lentiviral vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Seong Ho; Min, Jung Joon; Le, Uyenchi N.; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman

    2007-01-01

    For stem cell trafficking applications, it is imperative to express transgenes at desired and stable levels. In recent years, lentivirus-mediated gene transfer was shown to be an efficient method to stably introduce genetic modifications in target cells, even if these are in proliferative or nonproliferative states. Moreover, transgene expression levels can be controlled by using different promoters. The present study was designed to compare the potency of various promoters regulating expression of imaging reporter genes in embryonic H9c2 cardiomyoblasts derived from rat heart. Lentiviral vector was produced by the transient transfection of plasmids carrying required genes and those encoding for virus coating proteins into 293T cells. Harvested viral constructs were incubated with Hela and H9c2 cells, respectively. Transgene expressions were detected by several imaging modalities and evaluated by enzymatic assays. Results - We observed that the level of stable transgene expression in lentivirus-transduced myoblasts could be modulated over several orders of magnitude, with the Ubiquitin (Ub) promoter exhibiting the highest activity, intermediate expression was observed with the CAG promoter, whereas expression observed with the CMV promoter was very weak. We observed that the level of stable transgene expression in lentivirus-transduced myoblasts could be modulated over several orders of magnitude, with the Ubiquitin (Ub) promoter exhibiting the highest activity, intermediate expression was observed with the CAG promoter, whereas expression observed with the CMV promoter was very weak. Here we show that lentivirus-mediated gene transfer allows efficient and stable transgene expression in embryonic cardiomyoblasts in vitro and that transgene expression levels can be varied by using different well-characterized gene promoters. In vivo trials about gene expression will probably further determine the potential of long-term trafficking stem cells using lentivirus

  16. Caprine nictitating membrane cell culture for production of small ruminants lentivirus antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Alana Aragão de Azevedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Azevedo D.A.A., Araújo J.F., Sousa A.L.M. de, Dias R.P., Souza T.S. de, Andrioli A. & Pinheiro R.R. [Caprine nictitating membrane cell culture for production of small ruminants lentivirus antigen.] Produção de antí- geno de lentivírus de pequenos ruminantes através da cultura celular de membrana nictitante caprina. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:316-320, 2015. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos, Fazenda Três Lagoas, Estrada Sobral/Jordão Km 4, Sobral, CE 62010-970, Brasil. E-mail: dalvaazevedo@outlook.com Small Ruminants lentivirus (SRLV belong to the Retroviridae family and is the etiologic agent of caprine arthritis encephalitis in goats and maedi-visna in sheep. Cells of the monocytic-phagocytic lineage are the main viral targets and infected hosts cannot develop a curative immune response. We evaluated whether nictitating membrane (NM cells can be cultivated in vitro and also whether it is a feasible system for SRLV antigen production for immunodiagnosis purposes. MN cells were collected from a SRLV negative animal and cultivated in minimal essential media supplemented with bovine fetal serum. Subcultures were inoculated with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV Cork strain, the supernatant was collected, clarified by centrifugation (3.400 g for 20 minutes, concentrated using the AMICON® system. Samples were subjected to agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID tests. MN cells presented satisfactory performance, were amenable to several subcultivation.

  17. An empirical analysis of stock and bond market liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Chordia, Tarun; Sarkar, Asani; Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores liquidity movements in stock and Treasury bond markets over a period of more than 1800 trading days. Cross-market dynamics in liquidity are documented by estimating a vector autoregressive model for liquidity (that is, bid-ask spreads and depth), returns, volatility, and order flow in the stock and bond markets. We find that a shock to quoted spreads in one market affects the spreads in both markets, and that return volatility is an important driver of liquidity. Innovatio...

  18. Beginning an African Stock Markets Integration? A Wavelet Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gourène, Grakolet Arnold Zamereith; Mendy, Pierre; Elegbe, Aguin Franck Yvon

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of the six largest African stock markets at different timescales. We want to see whether the numerous measures and reforms put in place to integrate the African stock markets are efficient. First, we used the Wavelet Multiple Correlation and the Wavelet Multiple Cross-Correlation proposed by Fernandez-Macho (2012). Then, we combine the spillovers index based on generalized vector autoregressive proposed by Diebold and Yilmaz (2012) with the Maxi...

  19. Presidential rhetoric, sentiment and their relation to stock markets

    OpenAIRE

    Partelová, Mária

    2017-01-01

    This thesis intends to uncover the linkages between the emotions contained within remarks of the president of the United States expressed on Twitter and movements of the stock market indices. The daily comments of the two consecutive presidents, Barack Obama and Donald Trump are annotated with sentiment intensity values using the lexicon-based model called VADER. Our analysis further focuses on testing for Granger causality using the bivariate vector autoregression. Overall, three major stock...

  20. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

    1994-12-27

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

  1. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  2. Eliminating HIV-1 Packaging Sequences from Lentiviral Vector Proviruses Enhances Safety and Expedites Gene Transfer for Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Conrad A; Counsell, John R; Perocheau, Dany P; Karda, Rajvinder; Buckley, Suzanne M K; Brugman, Martijn H; Galla, Melanie; Schambach, Axel; McKay, Tristan R; Waddington, Simon N; Howe, Steven J

    2017-08-02

    Lentiviral vector genomic RNA requires sequences that partially overlap wild-type HIV-1 gag and env genes for packaging into vector particles. These HIV-1 packaging sequences constitute 19.6% of the wild-type HIV-1 genome and contain functional cis elements that potentially compromise clinical safety. Here, we describe the development of a novel lentiviral vector (LTR1) with a unique genomic structure designed to prevent transfer of HIV-1 packaging sequences to patient cells, thus reducing the total HIV-1 content to just 4.8% of the wild-type genome. This has been achieved by reconfiguring the vector to mediate reverse-transcription with a single strand transfer, instead of the usual two, and in which HIV-1 packaging sequences are not copied. We show that LTR1 vectors offer improved safety in their resistance to remobilization in HIV-1 particles and reduced frequency of splicing into human genes. Following intravenous luciferase vector administration to neonatal mice, LTR1 sustained a higher level of liver transgene expression than an equivalent dose of a standard lentivirus. LTR1 vectors produce reverse-transcription products earlier and start to express transgenes significantly quicker than standard lentiviruses after transduction. Finally, we show that LTR1 is an effective lentiviral gene therapy vector as demonstrated by correction of a mouse hemophilia B model. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The epidemiology of lion lentivirus infection among a population of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, H; van Vuuren, M; Bosman, A-M; Keet, D; New, J; Kennedy, M

    2009-09-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus of domestic cats that causes significant lifelong infection. Infection with this or similar lentiviruses has been detected in several nondomestic feline species, including African lions (Panthera leo). Although lion lentivirus (FIVple) infection is endemic in certain lion populations in eastern and southern Africa, little is known about its pathogenic effects or its epidemiological impact in free-ranging lions. This report describes the epidemiological investigation of lentivirus positivity of free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. A nested polymerase chain reaction assay for virus detection was performed on all whole blood samples collected. In addition, serum samples were tested for cross-reactive antibodies to domestic feline lentivirus antigens and to puma lentivirus synthetic envelope peptide antigen. The results were analysed in conjunction with epidemiological data to provide a descriptive epidemiological study on lion lentivirus infection in a free-ranging population of lions. The overall prevalence of lentivirus infection was 69%, with a prevalence of 41% in the north of the park, and 80% in the south. Adult males had the highest prevalence when combining the factors of sex and age: 94%. The lowest prevalences were found among juveniles, with male juveniles at 29%. Adults were 5.58 times more likely to test positive for FIVple than juveniles, with adult males being 35 times more likely to be test positive for FIVple compared with juvenile males. This research represents the 1st epidemiological study of the lion lentivirus among free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park.

  4. The epidemiology of lion lentivirus infection among a population of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Adams

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus of domestic cats that causes significant lifelong infection. Infection with this or similar lentiviruses has been detected in several non-domestic feline species, including African lions (Panthera leo. Although lion lentivirus (FIVple infection is endemic in certain lion populations in eastern and southern Africa, little is known about its pathogenic effects or its epidemiological impact in free-ranging lions. This report describes the epidemiological investigation of lentivirus positivity of free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. A nested polymerase chain reaction assay for virus detection was performed on all whole blood samples collected. In addition, serum samples were tested for cross-reactive antibodies to domestic feline lentivirus antigens and to puma lentivirus synthetic envelope peptide antigen. The results were analysed in conjunction with epidemiological data to provide a descriptive epidemiological study on lion lentivirus infection in a free-ranging population of lions. The overall prevalence of lentivirus infection was 69 %, with a prevalence of 41 % in the north of the park, and 80 %in the south. Adult males had the highest prevalence when combining the factors of sex and age: 94 %. The lowest prevalences were found among juveniles, with male juveniles at 29 %. Adults were 5.58 times more likely to test positive for FIVple than juveniles, with adult males being 35 times more likely to be test positive for FIVple compared with juvenile males. This research represents the 1st epidemiological study of the lion lentivirus among free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park.

  5. In vivo molecular imaging and radionuclide (131I) therapy of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells transfected with a lentivirus expressing sodium iodide symporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuo; Zhang, Min; Guo, Rui; Miao, Ying; Hu, Jiajia; Xi, Yun; Li, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent improvements in the survival rates for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), novel treatment strategies are required to improve distant metastasis-free survival. The sodium iodine symporter (NIS) gene has been applied for in vivo imaging and cancer therapy. In this study, we examined the potential of NIS gene therapy as a therapeutic approach in NPC by performing non-invasive imaging using 125I and 131I therapy in vivo. We constructed a lentiviral vector expressing NIS and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the human elongation factor-1α (EF1α) promoter, and stably transfected the vector into CNE-2Z NPC cells to create CNE-2Z-NIS cells. CNE-2Z and CNE-2Z-NIS tumor xenografts were established in nude mice; 125I uptake, accumulation and efflux were measured using micro-SPECT/CT imaging; the therapeutic effects of treatment with 131I were assessed over 25 days by measuring tumor volume and immunohistochemical staining of the excised tumors. qPCR, immunofluorescence and Western blotting confirmed that CNE-2Z-NIS cells expressed high levels of NIS mRNA and protein. CNE-2Z-NIS cells and xenografts took up and accumulated significantly more 125I than CNE-2Z cells and xenografts. In vitro, 131I significantly reduced the clonogenic survival of CNE-2Z-NIS cells. In vivo, 131I effectively inhibited the growth of CNE-2Z-NIS xenografts. At the end of 131I therapy, CNE-2Z-NIS xenograft tumor cells expressed higher levels of NIS and caspase-3 and lower levels of Ki-67. Lentiviruses effectively delivered and mediated long-lasting expression of NIS in CNE-2Z cells which enabled uptake and accumulation of radioisotopes and provided a significant therapeutic effect in an in vivo model of NPC. NIS-mediated radioiodine treatment merits further investigation as a potentially effective, low toxicity therapeutic strategy for NPC.

  6. Bicistronic lentiviruses containing a viral 2A cleavage sequence reliably co-express two proteins and restore vision to an animal model of LCA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Verrier

    Full Text Available The disease processes underlying inherited retinal disease are complex and are not completely understood. Many of the corrective gene therapies designed to treat diseases linked to mutations in genes specifically expressed in photoreceptor cells restore function to these cells but fail to stop progression of the disease. There is growing consensus that effective treatments for these diseases will require delivery of multiple therapeutic proteins that will be selected to treat specific aspects of the disease process. The purpose of this study was to design a lentiviral transgene that reliably expresses all of the proteins it encodes and does so in a consistent manner among infected cells. We show, using both in vitro and in vivo analyses, that bicistronic lentiviral transgenes encoding two fluorescent proteins fused to a viral 2A-like cleavage peptide meet these expression criteria. To determine if this transgene design is suitable for therapeutic applications, we replaced one of the fluorescent protein genes with the gene encoding guanylate cyclase-1 (GC1 and delivered lentivirus carrying this transgene to the retinas of the GUCY1*B avian model of Leber congenital amaurosis-1 (LCA1. GUCY1*B chickens carry a null mutation in the GC1 gene that disrupts photoreceptor function and causes blindness at hatching, a phenotype that closely matches that observed in humans with LCA1. We found that treatment of these animals with the 2A lentivector encoding GC1 restored vision to these animals as evidenced by the presence of optokinetic reflexes. We conclude that 2A-like peptides, with proper optimization, can be successfully incorporated into therapeutic vectors designed to deliver multiple proteins to neural retinal. These results highlight the potential of this vector design to serve as a platform for the development of combination therapies designed to enhance or prolong the benefits of corrective gene therapies.

  7. DOMESTIC AND FORIGN FACTORS FOR STOCK PRICES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahajeng Cahyaning Putri Cipto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has been developing various sectors of its economy, and so it needs a huge amount of capital. Therefore, it has been putting a lot of efforts to develop its capital market. This paper analyzes the impacts of domestic and foreign factors on Indonesia stock price. Some considered domestic factors are interest rates, production index, and foreign exchange rates. Various considered foreign factors are Singapore and US stock prices. The paper uses Vector Error Correction Mechanism model to analyze the data. The estimation results suggest that all variables significantly influence Indonesia stock price, with Singapore stock price as the dominant factors.Keywords: Stock price, interest rates, exchange rates, production indexJEL classification numbers: G12, G15

  8. Relationships between oil price shocks and stock market: An empirical analysis from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong Ronggang; Wei Yiming; Jiao Jianlin; Fan Ying

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships between oil price shocks and Chinese stock market using multivariate vector auto-regression. Oil price shocks do not show statistically significant impact on the real stock returns of most Chinese stock market indices, except for manufacturing index and some oil companies. Some 'important' oil price shocks depress oil company stock prices. Increase in oil volatility may increase the speculations in mining index and petrochemicals index, which raise their stock returns. Both the world oil price shocks and China oil price shocks can explain much more than interest rates for manufacturing index

  9. A Stock Market Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christine; Cook, Stan

    1990-01-01

    Offers a field-tested stock market unit designed to develop mathematical skills involving fractions and decimals, basic understanding of the stock market, and hypothesis testing skills in real world situations. Includes tables displaying questions, tally sheets, and instructions, as well as a list of related activities. (MDH)

  10. Vector geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Gilbert de B

    2011-01-01

    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  11. Oil price shocks, stock market, economic activity and employment in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papapetrou, E.

    2001-01-01

    Using a multivariate vector-autoregression (VAR) approach, this paper attempts to shed light into the dynamic relationship among oil prices, real stock prices, interest rates, real economic activity and employment for Greece. The empirical evidence suggests that oil price changes affect real economic activity and employment. Oil prices are important in explaining stock price movements. Stock returns do not lead to changes in real activity and employment

  12. Linkages between international stock markets: A multivariate long-memory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Zeynel Abidin

    2009-06-01

    This paper aims to analyze the linkages between international stock markets and to search for an optimum model for analyzing their interactions taking into consideration their geographical location, using the vector fractionally integrated autoregressive moving-average (VARFIMA) model. This model has not so far been employed in examining the interdependence among the stock markets of Germany, Japan, the UK, and the USA. The results of the paper show that there is an interconnection among the stock markets of these countries.

  13. Stock Implied Volatility, Stock Turnover, and the Stock-Bond Return Relation

    OpenAIRE

    Stivers, Chris; Sun, Licheng

    2002-01-01

    The authors examine how the co-movement between daily stock and Treasury bond returns varies with stock market uncertainty. They use the lagged implied volatility from equity index options to provide an objective, observable, and dynamic measure of stock market uncertainty. The authors find that stock and bond returns tend to move substantially together during periods of lower stock market uncertainty. However, stock and bond returns tend to exhibit little relation or even a negative relation...

  14. [The influence of lentivirus-miRNA-184 on epithelial-mesenchcymal transition of human lens epithelial cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Hui

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the influence of miRNA-184 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human lens epithelial cells (HLEC) induced by TGF-beta2 in vitro. Experimental study. Recombinant plasmid of pL/IRES/GFP-miR-184 was constructed and used to produce the lentivirus. The lentivirus was used to transduce the HLEC which was in the process of EMT induced by transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2). The real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (QRT-PCR) was used to analyze E-cadherin (CDH1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin (VIM) expression at RNA levels during interval of 0 h, 6 h and 24 h after transduction, in comparison with that of control group. Statistical analysis method was single factor variance analysis. The expression level of epithelial marker gene CDH1 in the miRNA-184 transduced group maintains relatively stable during 24h interval, while it goes down in the control group. The expression level of mesenchymal cell marker gene VIM, α-SMA in the miRNA-184 transduced group maintain relatively stable, while it goes up in the control group. The results of statistical analysis showed a statistically significant difference between miRNA-184 transduced group and control group (P184 lentivirus-mediated HLEC can inhibit the occurrence of EMT.

  15. VECTOR INTEGRATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, E. G. F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the theory of integration of scalar functions with respect to a measure with values in a, not necessarily locally convex, topological vector space. It focuses on the extension of such integrals from bounded measurable functions to the class of integrable functions, proving

  16. A lentivirus-free inducible CRISPR-Cas9 system for efficient targeting of human genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Kamlesh; Grill, Sherilyn; Graniel, Jacqueline; Nandakumar, Jayakrishnan

    2017-08-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 is a cutting-edge tool for modifying genomes. The efficacy with which Cas9 recognizes its target has revolutionized the engineering of knockouts. However this efficacy complicates the knocking out of important genes in cultured cells. Unedited cells holding a survival advantage within an edited population can confound the knockout phenotype. Here we develop a HeLa-based system that overcomes this limitation, incorporating several attractive features. First, we use Flp-recombinase to generate clones stably integrated for Cas9 and guide RNAs, eliminating the possibility of unedited cells. Second, Cas9 can be induced uniformly in the clonal cultures using doxycycline to measure the knockout phenotype. Third, two genes can be simultaneously knocked out using this approach. Finally, by not involving lentiviruses, our method is appealing to a broad research audience. Using this methodology we generated an inducible AGO2-knockout cell line showing normal RNA interference in the absence of doxycycline. Upon induction of Cas9, the AGO2 locus was cleaved, the AGO2 protein was depleted, and RNA interference was compromised. In addition to generating inducible knockouts, our technology can be adapted to improve other applications of Cas9, including transcriptional/epigenetic modulation and visualization of cellular DNA loci. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Retroviral Infections in Sheep and Goats: Small Ruminant Lentiviruses and Host Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña M. Jugo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV are members of the Retrovirus family comprising the closely related Visna/Maedi Virus (VMV and the Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV, which infect sheep and goats. Both infect cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and cause lifelong infections. Infection by VMV and CAEV can lead to Visna/Maedi (VM and Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE respectively, slow progressive inflammatory diseases primarily affecting the lungs, nervous system, joints and mammary glands. VM and CAE are distributed worldwide and develop over a period of months or years, always leading to the death of the host, with the consequent economic and welfare implications. Currently, the control of VM and CAE relies on the control of transmission and culling of infected animals. However, there is evidence that host genetics play an important role in determining Susceptibility/Resistance to SRLV infection and disease progression, but little work has been performed in small ruminants. More research is necessary to understand the host-SRLV interaction.

  18. Apoptotic block in colon cancer cells may be rectified by lentivirus mediated overexpression of caspase-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Wang, C; Shen, X; Yu, Y; Rui, Y; Zhang, D; Zhou, Z

    2013-12-01

    At present, the inhibition of apoptosis during pathogenesis of colorectal cancer is widely recognized while the role of caspase-9 in this process remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the differential expression of caspase-9 and evaluate the therapeutic potential of expression intervention in this study. We first examined the different expression of caspase-9 in normal colon mucosa, adenoma and cancer, investigating the relationship between its expression and clinico-pathological characteristics. Secondly, overexpression of caspase-9 was established in colon cancer cell lines by lentivirus infection to study the changes in growth, proliferation and apoptosis. Compared with normal colon mucosa, the expression of caspase-9 was higher in adenoma while lower in cancer both at mRNA and protein level (P expression is more common in poorly differentiated cancers (P expression of caspase-9, poorer colony formation and slower cell proliferation. In terms of apoptosis related indicators, caspase-9 overexpression leads to higher apoptosis rate and GO/G1 arrest, while up-regulating the expression of caspase-3 (P expression from colon mucosa, adenoma to cancer suggested it may be involved in the carcinogenesis of colon cancer. The overexpression of caspase-9 exhibits an inhibitory role in cancer growth and proliferation while promoting apoptosis. However, a non-apoptotic role of caspase-9 facilitating differentiation was also implied.

  19. Influence of small ruminant lentivirus infection on cheese yield in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Dorota; Czopowicz, Michał; Bagnicka, Emilia; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Strzałkowska, Nina; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-02-01

    Three-year cohort study was carried out to investigate the influence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection on cheese yield in goats. For this purpose records of milk yield, milk composition and cheese yield were collected in a dairy goat herd. Cheese yield was recorded as the amount of fresh cheese obtained from 1 kg milk. All goats were serologically tested for SRLV infection twice a year. The analysis included 247 records in total (71 for seropositive and 176 from seronegative individuals) and was carried out with the use of the four-level hierarchical linear model (α = 0·05). SRLV infection proved to be a statistically significant independent factor reducing cheese yield (P = 0·013)--when other covariates were held constant cheese yield was reduced by 4·6 g per each 1 kg milk in an infected goat compared with an uninfected goat. Other statistically significant covariates positively associated with cheese yield were protein contents, fat contents and the 3rd stage of lactation (P < 0·001 for all).

  20. Positive selection of HIV host factors and the evolution of lentivirus genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengauer Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive selection of host proteins that interact with pathogens can indicate factors relevant for infection and potentially be a measure of pathogen driven evolution. Results Our analysis of 1439 primate genes and 175 lentivirus genomes points to specific host factors of high genetic variability that could account for differences in susceptibility to disease and indicate specific mechanisms of host defense and pathogen adaptation. We find that the largest amount of genetic change occurs in genes coding for cellular membrane proteins of the host as well as in the viral envelope genes suggesting cell entry and immune evasion as the primary evolutionary interface between host and pathogen. We additionally detect the innate immune response as a gene functional group harboring large differences among primates that could potentially account for the different levels of immune activation in the HIV/SIV primate infection. We find a significant correlation between the evolutionary rates of interacting host and viral proteins pointing to processes of the host-pathogen biology that are relatively conserved among species and to those undergoing accelerated genetic evolution. Conclusions These results indicate specific host factors and their functional groups experiencing pathogen driven evolutionary selection pressures. Individual host factors pointed to by our analysis might merit further study as potential targets of antiretroviral therapies.

  1. The Differences Between Stock Splits and Stock Dividends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Raaballe, Johannes

    It is often asserted that stock splits and stock dividends are purely cosmetic events. However, many studies have documented several stock market effects associated with stock splits and stock dividends. This paper examines the effects of these two types of events for the Danish stock market...... different. Second, the positive stock market reaction is closely related to associated changes in a firm's payout policy, but the relationship varies for the two types of events. Finally, there is only very weak evidence for a change in the liquidity of the stock. On the whole, after controlling...... for the firm's payout policy, the results suggest that a stock split is a cosmetic event and that a stock dividend on its own is considered negative news....

  2. Monetary Policy Shocks and Stock Returns Reactions: Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper applies standard vector autoregressions (VAR) technique to quarterly data for Botswana for the period 1993-2010 to investigate the impact of monetary policy shocks on stock returns. Monetary policy is measured by changes in the 91 day Bank of Botswana Certificates rate. Our results indicate that positive ...

  3. Fishing and stock fluctuations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laevastu, Taivo; Favorite, F

    1988-01-01

    .... Scarcely publicized are the multitude of causes of fish stock fluctuations. This book attempts to summarize the available knowledge on the subject and includes original work of the authors on a matter vital to the fisheries industries of the world...

  4. DLA Forward Stocking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flory, John

    2007-01-01

    .... This study evaluates the feasibility of forward stocking in terms of DoD savings. The performance of DLA's criteria is evaluated and a new criteria using a cost and demand threshold is proposed...

  5. An introduction to vectors, vector operators and vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Joag, Pramod S

    2016-01-01

    Ideal for undergraduate and graduate students of science and engineering, this book covers fundamental concepts of vectors and their applications in a single volume. The first unit deals with basic formulation, both conceptual and theoretical. It discusses applications of algebraic operations, Levi-Civita notation, and curvilinear coordinate systems like spherical polar and parabolic systems and structures, and analytical geometry of curves and surfaces. The second unit delves into the algebra of operators and their types and also explains the equivalence between the algebra of vector operators and the algebra of matrices. Formulation of eigen vectors and eigen values of a linear vector operator are elaborated using vector algebra. The third unit deals with vector analysis, discussing vector valued functions of a scalar variable and functions of vector argument (both scalar valued and vector valued), thus covering both the scalar vector fields and vector integration.

  6. Induction of hepatocyte-like cells from mouse embryonic stem cells by lentivirus-mediated constitutive expression of Foxa2/Hnf4a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Shichang; Xiang, Dedong; Wang, Yingjie

    2013-11-01

    Hepatocytes can be generated from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) using inducers such as chemical compounds and cytokines, but issues related to low differentiation efficiencies remain to be resolved. Recent work has shown that overexpression of lineage-specific transcription factors can directly cause cells phenotypic changes, including differentiation, trans-differentiation, and de-differentiation. We hypothesized that lentivirus-mediated constitutive expression of forkhead box A2 (Foxa2) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (Hnf4a) could promote inducing mouse ESCs to hepatocyte-likes cells. First, ESC lines that stably expressed Foxa2, Hnf4a, or Foxa2/Hnf4a were constructed via lentiviral expression vectors. Second, observations of cell morphology changes were made during the cell culture process, followed by experiments examining teratoma formation. Then, the effects of constitutive expression of Foxa2 and Hnf4a on hepatic differentiation and maturation were determined by measuring the marker gene expression levels of Albumin, α-fetoprotein, Cytokeratin18, and α1-antitrypsin. The results indicate that constitutive expression of Foxa2 and Hnf4a does not affect ESCs culture, teratoma formation, or the expression levels of the specific hepatocyte genes under autonomous differentiation. However, with some assistance from inducing factors, Foxa2 significantly increased the hepatic differentiation of ESCs, whereas the expression of Hnf4a alone or Foxa2/Hnf4a could not. Differentiated CCE-Foxa2 cells were more superior in expressing several liver-specific markers and protein, storing glycogen than differentiated CCE cells. Therefore, our method employing the transduction of Foxa2 would be a valuable tool for the efficient generation of functional hepatocytes derived from ESCs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Construction and identification of Nogo extra cellular peptide residues 1-40 gene lentiviral vector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haifeng; Song, Yueming; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Chunguang; Kong, Qingquan; Liu, Liming; Gong, Quan

    2012-02-01

    To construct a lentiviral expression vector carrying Nogo extra cellular peptide residues 1-40 (NEP1-40) and to obtain NEP1-40 efficient and stable expression in mammalian cells. The DNA fragment of NEP1-40 coding sequence was amplified by PCR with designed primer from the cDNA library including NEP1-40 gene, and then subcloned into pGC-FU vector with in-fusion technique to generate the lentiviral expression vector, pGC-FU-NEP1-40. The positive clones were screened by PCR and the correct NEP1-40 was confirmed by sequencing. Recombinant lentiviruses were produced in 293T cells after the cotransfection of pGC-FU-NEP1-40, and packaging plasmids of pHelper 1.0 and pHelper 2.0. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression of infected 293T cells was observed to evaluate gene delivery efficiency. NEP1-40 protein expression in 293T cells was detected by Western blot. The lentiviral expression vector carrying NEP1-40 was successfully constructed by GFP observation, and NEP1-40 protein expression was detected in 293T cells by Western blot. The recombinant lentivirus pGC-FU-NEP1-40 is successfully constructed and it lays a foundation for further molecular function study of NEP 1-40.

  8. Trading Network Predicts Stock Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  9. Trading network predicts stock price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  10. Introduction of optical reporter gene into cancer and immune cells using lentiviral vector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon; Le, Uyenchi N.; Moon, Sung Min; Heo, Young Jun; Song, Ho Chun; Bom, Hee Seung [School of Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon Soo [Schoole of Medicine, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    For some applications such as gene therapy or reporter gene imaging, a gene has to be introduced into the organism of interest. Adenoviral vectors are capable of transducing both replicating and non-dividing cells. The adenoviral vectors do not integrate their DNA into host DNA, but do lead to an immune response. Lentiviruses belong to the retrovirus family and are capable of infecting both dividing and non-dividing cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an example of a lentavirus. A disabled HIV virus has been developed and could be used for in vivo gene delivery. A portion of the viral genome which encodes for accessory proteins canbe deleted without affecting production of the vector and efficiency of infection. Lentiviral delivery into various rodent tissues shows sustained expression of the transgene of up to six months. Furthermore, there seems to be little or no immune response with these vectors. These lentiviral vectors hold significant promise for in vivo gene delivery. We constructed lentiviral vector encoding firefly luciferase (Fluc) and eGFP. Fluc-eGFP fusion gene was inserted into multiple cloning sites of pLentiM1.3 vector. Reporter gene (Fluc-eGFP) was designed to be driven by murine CMV promoter with enhanced efficacy of transgene expression as compared to human CMV promoter. We transfected pLenti1.3-Fluc into human cervix cancer cell line (HeLa) and murine T lymphocytes. We also constructed adenovirus encoding Fluc and transfected to HeLa and T cells. This LentiM1.3-Fluc was transfected into HeLa cells and murine T lymphocytes in vitro, showing consistent expression of eGFP under the fluorescence microscopy from the 2nd day of transfection. Firefly luciferase reporter gene was not expressed in immune cells when it is mediated by adenovirus. Lentivirus was validated as a useful vector for both immune and cancer cells.

  11. In vitro incorporation of a cell-binding protein to a lentiviral vector using an engineered split intein enables targeted delivery of genetic cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun-Emanuelli, Ana M; Wright, Gus; Roger, Smith; Münch, Robert C; Buchholz, Christian J; Chen, Zhilei

    2015-12-01

    Gene therapy represents a promising therapeutic paradigm for addressing many disorders, but the absence of a vector that can be robustly and reproducibly functionalized with cell-homing functionality to mediate the delivery of genetic cargo specifically to target cells following systemic administration has stood as a major impediment. In this study, a high-affinity protein-protein pair comprising a splicing-deficient naturally split intein was used as molecular Velcro to append a HER2/neu-binding protein (DARPin) onto the surface of a binding-deficient, fusion-competent lentivirus. HER2/neu-specific lentiviruses created using this in vitro pseudotyping approach were able to deliver their genetic reporter cargo specifically to cells that express the target receptor at high levels in a co-culture. We envision that the described technology could provide a powerful, broadly applicable platform for the incorporation of cell-targeting functionality onto viral vectors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Protective efficacy of centralized and polyvalent envelope immunogens in an attenuated equine lentivirus vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi K Craigo

    2015-01-01

    -functional, replication-competent lentivirus, which when experimentally evaluated, demonstrated broader immunogenicity that does not equate to higher protective efficacy.

  13. Characterization of Ovine A3Z1 Restriction Properties against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena de Pablo-Maiso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic factors of the innate immune system include the apolipoprotein B editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3 protein family. APOBEC3 inhibits replication of different virus families by cytosine deamination of viral DNA and a not fully characterized cytosine deamination-independent mechanism. Sheep are susceptible to small ruminant lentivirus (SRLVs infection and contain three APOBEC3 genes encoding four proteins (A3Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z2-Z3 with yet not deeply described antiviral properties. Using sheep blood monocytes and in vitro-derived macrophages, we found that A3Z1 expression is associated with lower viral replication in this cellular type. A3Z1 transcripts may also contain spliced variants (A3Z1Tr lacking the cytidine deaminase motif. A3Z1 exogenous expression in fully permissive fibroblast-like cells restricted SRLVs infection while A3Z1Tr allowed infection. A3Z1Tr was induced after SRLVs infection or stimulation of blood-derived macrophages with interferon gamma (IFN-γ. Interaction between truncated isoform and native A3Z1 protein was detected as well as incorporation of both proteins into virions. A3Z1 and A3Z1Tr interacted with SRLVs Vif, but this interaction was not associated with degradative properties. Similar A3Z1 truncated isoforms were also present in human and monkey cells suggesting a conserved alternative splicing regulation in primates. A3Z1-mediated retroviral restriction could be constrained by different means, including gene expression and specific alternative splicing regulation, leading to truncated protein isoforms lacking a cytidine-deaminase motif.

  14. Genetic Testing for TMEM154 Mutations Associated with Lentivirus Susceptibility in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, Dustin T.; Simpson, Barry; Kijas, James W.; Clawson, Michael L.; Chitko-McKown, Carol G.; Harhay, Gregory P.; Leymaster, Kreg A.

    2013-01-01

    In sheep, small ruminant lentiviruses cause an incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative disease that affects millions of animals worldwide. Known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in the U.S., and Visna/Maedi virus (VMV) elsewhere, these viruses reduce an animal’s health, productivity, and lifespan. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) has been previously associated with OPPV infection in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the ancestral TMEM154 haplotype encoding glutamate (E) at position 35, and either form of an N70I variant, were highly-susceptible compared to sheep homozygous for the K35 missense mutation. Our current overall aim was to characterize TMEM154 in sheep from around the world to develop an efficient genetic test for reduced susceptibility. The average frequency of TMEM154 E35 among 74 breeds was 0.51 and indicated that highly-susceptible alleles were present in most breeds around the world. Analysis of whole genome sequences from an international panel of 75 sheep revealed more than 1,300 previously unreported polymorphisms in a 62 kb region containing TMEM154 and confirmed that the most susceptible haplotypes were distributed worldwide. Novel missense mutations were discovered in the signal peptide (A13V) and the extracellular domains (E31Q, I74F, and I102T) of TMEM154. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assay was developed to detect these and six previously reported missense and two deletion mutations in TMEM154. In blinded trials, the call rate for the eight most common coding polymorphisms was 99.4% for 499 sheep tested and 96.0% of the animals were assigned paired TMEM154 haplotypes (i.e., diplotypes). The widespread distribution of highly-susceptible TMEM154 alleles suggests that genetic testing and selection may improve the health and productivity of infected flocks. PMID:23408992

  15. Genetic testing for TMEM154 mutations associated with lentivirus susceptibility in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Heaton

    Full Text Available In sheep, small ruminant lentiviruses cause an incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative disease that affects millions of animals worldwide. Known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV in the U.S., and Visna/Maedi virus (VMV elsewhere, these viruses reduce an animal's health, productivity, and lifespan. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154 has been previously associated with OPPV infection in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the ancestral TMEM154 haplotype encoding glutamate (E at position 35, and either form of an N70I variant, were highly-susceptible compared to sheep homozygous for the K35 missense mutation. Our current overall aim was to characterize TMEM154 in sheep from around the world to develop an efficient genetic test for reduced susceptibility. The average frequency of TMEM154 E35 among 74 breeds was 0.51 and indicated that highly-susceptible alleles were present in most breeds around the world. Analysis of whole genome sequences from an international panel of 75 sheep revealed more than 1,300 previously unreported polymorphisms in a 62 kb region containing TMEM154 and confirmed that the most susceptible haplotypes were distributed worldwide. Novel missense mutations were discovered in the signal peptide (A13V and the extracellular domains (E31Q, I74F, and I102T of TMEM154. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS assay was developed to detect these and six previously reported missense and two deletion mutations in TMEM154. In blinded trials, the call rate for the eight most common coding polymorphisms was 99.4% for 499 sheep tested and 96.0% of the animals were assigned paired TMEM154 haplotypes (i.e., diplotypes. The widespread distribution of highly-susceptible TMEM154 alleles suggests that genetic testing and selection may improve the health and productivity of infected flocks.

  16. Commodities and Stock Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is a multivariate analysis of commodities and stock investment in a newly established market scenario. Return distribution asymmetry is examined with higher order movements. Skewness in commodity future’s return is largely insignificant, whereas kurtosis is highly significant for both stock and commodity future contracts. Correlation analysis is done with Pearson’s and Kendall’s tau measures. Commodities provide significant diversification benefits when added in a portfolio of stocks. Compared with stocks, commodity future’s returns show stronger correlation with unexpected inflation. The volatility is measured through Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle - Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GJR-GARCH model and reflects that commodities have inverted asymmetric behavior, that is, more impact from the upward shocks compared with downward. Stocks have asymmetric volatility, that is, more impact from negative shocks compared with positive. Gold has highest inverted asymmetric volatility. Tail dependence, measured through Student’s t copula, shows no combined downside movement. In conclusion, commodity investments provide diversification and inflation protection.

  17. In vivo molecular imaging and radionuclide (131I therapy of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells transfected with a lentivirus expressing sodium iodide symporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Shi

    Full Text Available Despite recent improvements in the survival rates for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, novel treatment strategies are required to improve distant metastasis-free survival. The sodium iodine symporter (NIS gene has been applied for in vivo imaging and cancer therapy. In this study, we examined the potential of NIS gene therapy as a therapeutic approach in NPC by performing non-invasive imaging using 125I and 131I therapy in vivo.We constructed a lentiviral vector expressing NIS and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the control of the human elongation factor-1α (EF1α promoter, and stably transfected the vector into CNE-2Z NPC cells to create CNE-2Z-NIS cells. CNE-2Z and CNE-2Z-NIS tumor xenografts were established in nude mice; 125I uptake, accumulation and efflux were measured using micro-SPECT/CT imaging; the therapeutic effects of treatment with 131I were assessed over 25 days by measuring tumor volume and immunohistochemical staining of the excised tumors.qPCR, immunofluorescence and Western blotting confirmed that CNE-2Z-NIS cells expressed high levels of NIS mRNA and protein. CNE-2Z-NIS cells and xenografts took up and accumulated significantly more 125I than CNE-2Z cells and xenografts. In vitro, 131I significantly reduced the clonogenic survival of CNE-2Z-NIS cells. In vivo, 131I effectively inhibited the growth of CNE-2Z-NIS xenografts. At the end of 131I therapy, CNE-2Z-NIS xenograft tumor cells expressed higher levels of NIS and caspase-3 and lower levels of Ki-67.Lentiviruses effectively delivered and mediated long-lasting expression of NIS in CNE-2Z cells which enabled uptake and accumulation of radioisotopes and provided a significant therapeutic effect in an in vivo model of NPC. NIS-mediated radioiodine treatment merits further investigation as a potentially effective, low toxicity therapeutic strategy for NPC.

  18. A Polytropic Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Promoter Isolated from Multiple Tissues from a Sheep with Multisystemic Lentivirus-Associated Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Murphy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV. Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium, all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease; the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed.

  19. An EIAV field isolate reveals much higher levels of subtype variability than currently reported for the equine lentivirus family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Baoshan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV, a lentivirus that infects horses, has been utilized as an animal model for the study of HIV. Furthermore, the disease associated with the equine lentivirus poses a significant challenge to veterinary medicine around the world. As with all lentiviruses, EIAV has been shown to have a high propensity for genomic sequence and antigenic variation, especially in its envelope (Env proteins. Recent studies have demonstrated Env variation to be a major determinant of vaccine efficacy, emphasizing the importance of defining natural variation among field isolates of EIAV. To date, however, published EIAV sequences have been reported only for cell-adapted strains of virus, predominantly derived from a single primary virus isolate, EIAVWyoming (EIAVWY. Results We present here the first characterization of the Env protein of a natural primary isolate from Pennsylvania (EIAVPA since the widely utilized and referenced EIAVWY strain. The data demonstrated that the level of EIAVPA Env amino acid sequence variation, approximately 40% as compared to EIAVWY, is much greater than current perceptions or published reports of natural EIAV variation between field isolates. This variation did not appear to give rise to changes in the predicted secondary structure of the proteins. While the EIAVPA Env was serologically cross reactive with the Env proteins of the cell-adapted reference strain, EIAVPV (derivative of EIAVWY, the two variant Envs were shown to lack any cross neutralization by immune serum from horses infected with the respective virus strains. Conclusion Taking into account the significance of serum neutralization to universal vaccine efficacy, these findings are crucial considerations towards successful EIAV vaccine development and the potential inclusion of field isolate Envs in vaccine candidates.

  20. Lentiviral Vector-Mediated GFP/fluc gene introduction into primary mouse NK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L, Thi Thanh Hoa; Tae, Seong Ho; Min, Jung Joon

    2007-01-01

    NK cell is a type of lymphocyte that has ability in defense against virus infection and some kinds of cancer diseases. Recently, using genetic engineering, studies about the roles and functions of NK cells have been developing. In this study, we used lentivirus-based vector encoding GFP/Fluc gene to transfer into primary mouse NK cells. This model is a tool in studying characteristics of NK cells. The lentivirus used in this study was a commercial one, named LentiM1.3-Fluc, encoding GFP and Flue reporter genes under the control of the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) promoter. LentiM1.3-Fluc was infected into freshly isolated mouse NK cells at 2 20 MOl by incubating or using spin infection. In the spin infection, we gently suspended NK cells in viral fluid, then centrifuged at 2000 rpm, 20 minutes at room temperature and incubated for 1 day. After 1 day, virus was discarded and NK cells were cultured in IL-2 with or without IL-12 supplemented media. Infected NK cells were monitored by using fluorescent microscope for GFP and IVIS machine for Fire-fly luciferase expression. The results showed that using spin infection had much effect on introducing lentiviral vector-mediated reporter gene into NK cells than the way without spin. Also, NK cells which were cultured in IL-2 and IL-12 added media expressed higher fluorescent and luminescent signals than those cultured in only IL-2 supplemented media. When these NK cells were injected subcutaneously in Balb/C mice, the imaging signal was observed transiently. Our study demonstrates that by using a simple method, mouse NK cells can be transfected by lentivirus. And this will be useful in studying biology and therapeutic potential of NK cells. However, we require developing alternative lentiviral vectors with different promoter for in vivo application

  1. Lentiviral Vector-Mediated GFP/fluc gene introduction into primary mouse NK cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L, Thi Thanh Hoa; Tae, Seong Ho; Min, Jung Joon [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    NK cell is a type of lymphocyte that has ability in defense against virus infection and some kinds of cancer diseases. Recently, using genetic engineering, studies about the roles and functions of NK cells have been developing. In this study, we used lentivirus-based vector encoding GFP/Fluc gene to transfer into primary mouse NK cells. This model is a tool in studying characteristics of NK cells. The lentivirus used in this study was a commercial one, named LentiM1.3-Fluc, encoding GFP and Flue reporter genes under the control of the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) promoter. LentiM1.3-Fluc was infected into freshly isolated mouse NK cells at 2 20 MOl by incubating or using spin infection. In the spin infection, we gently suspended NK cells in viral fluid, then centrifuged at 2000 rpm, 20 minutes at room temperature and incubated for 1 day. After 1 day, virus was discarded and NK cells were cultured in IL-2 with or without IL-12 supplemented media. Infected NK cells were monitored by using fluorescent microscope for GFP and IVIS machine for Fire-fly luciferase expression. The results showed that using spin infection had much effect on introducing lentiviral vector-mediated reporter gene into NK cells than the way without spin. Also, NK cells which were cultured in IL-2 and IL-12 added media expressed higher fluorescent and luminescent signals than those cultured in only IL-2 supplemented media. When these NK cells were injected subcutaneously in Balb/C mice, the imaging signal was observed transiently. Our study demonstrates that by using a simple method, mouse NK cells can be transfected by lentivirus. And this will be useful in studying biology and therapeutic potential of NK cells. However, we require developing alternative lentiviral vectors with different promoter for in vivo application.

  2. About stock markets predictability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Benjelloun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that the financial markets have a predetermined outcome. They behave deterministically but appear to follow random patterns. Stock prices have nothing to do with future expectations; they are a reflection of previous convictions coming from the confident investors. A financial crisis is the result of the lack of confidence that characterizes a market moments before the crisis. Stocks returns are perfectly correlated to each other and it is possible to obtain high gains consistently. Finally we provide a different way of assessing risk and suggest a method to sense future performances.

  3. The effect of firm and stock characteristics on stock returns: Stock market crash analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizaldi Fauzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine characteristics of stocks and firms that are deliberately affected by stock market crash occurring in Indonesia. The study uses data for three major stock market crashes that occurred in 1997, 2000, and 2008. The analysis is accomplished by using multivariate regression method. The results of the study find that stocks with higher betas, larger capitalization, more return volatility, higher debt ratios, lower levels of liquid assets, and lower asset profitability tend to lose more value on crash day. This study also finds that there are short-term and long-term momentum effects on stock returns during most of stock market crashes.

  4. ARE THE FIVE ASEAN STOCK PRICE INDICES DYNAMICALLY INTERACTED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwin Surja Atmadja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to examine the dynamic interactions of stock price indices in five ASEAN countries, Indonesia; Malaysia; the Philippines; Singapore; and Thailand with particular attention to the 1997 Asian financial crisis and period onwards. Using monthly time series data of the stock price indices countries, a vector error correction model (VECM is employed to empirically examine the interaction among the variables. The finding is that the five ASEAN stock market prices were found to be integrated with two cointegrating vectors during the sample period, and that accounting innovation analyses show the short run dynamic interactions among those stock markets. The important implication might be drawn from the finding is that portfolio diversification across the five ASEAN stock markets is unlikely to reduce investment risk due to high degree of financial integration of these markets. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Studi ini bertujuan meneliti interaksi dinamis antara indeks harga saham yang terdapat di lima negara ASEAN, yaitu Indonesia, Malaysia, Filipina, Singapura, dan Thailan yang terjadi selama masa krisis finansial Asia tahun 1997 dan periode sesudahnya. Dengan menggunakan data time series bulanan indeks harga saham dari kelima negara tersebut selama periode penelitian, suatu vector error correction model (VECM diaplikasikan untuk meneliti secara empiris interaksi dinamis yang terjadi diantara berbagai variabel yang dipergunakan dalam penelitian ini. Dari hasil penelitian ditemukan dua vektor kointegrasi (cointegration vector selama masa penelitian, dan analisa inovasi akuntansi (accounting innovation analyses menunjukan adanya interaksi dinamis jangka pendek diantara pasar saham tersebut. Implikasi penting yang mungkin perlu diperhatikan dari penemuan ini adalah bahwa diversifikasi portofolio saham pada lima pasar saham tersebut agaknya tidak akan secara signifikan mengurangi tingkat resiko investasi. Hal ini dikarenakan oleh tingginya

  5. Early events in immune evasion by the lentivirus maedi-visna occurring within infected lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, P; Blacklaws, B; Reyburn, H T; Allen, D; Hopkins, J; Sargan, D; McConnell, I

    1993-09-01

    Infections caused by lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, are characterized by slowly progressive disease in the presence of a virus-specific immune response. The earliest events in the virus-host interaction are likely to be important in determining disease establishment and progression, and the kinetics of these early events following lentiviral infection are described here. Lymphatic cannulation in the sheep has been used to monitor both the virus and the immune response in efferent lymph after infection of the node with maedi-visna virus (MVV). Viral replication and dissemination could be detected and consisted of a wave of MVV-infected cells leaving the node around 9 to 18 days postinfection. No cell-free virus was recovered despite the fact that soluble MVV p25 was detected in lymph plasma. The maximum frequency of MVV-infected cells was only 11 in 10(6) but over the first 20 days of infection amounted to greater than 10(4) virus-infected cells leaving the node. There was a profound increase in the output of activated lymphoblast from the lymph nodes of infected sheep, characterized by an increased percentage of CD8+ lymphoblasts. All of the CD8+ lymphoblasts at the peak of the response expressed both major histocompatibility complex class II DR and DQ molecules but not interleukin-2 receptor (CD25). The in vitro proliferative response of efferent lymph cells existing the node after challenge with MVV to both recombinant human interleukin-2 and the mitogen concanavalin A was decreased between days 8 and 16 postinfection, and a specific proliferative response to MVV was not detected until after day 15. Despite the high level of CD8+ lymphoblasts in efferent lymph, direct MVV-specific cytotoxic activity was demonstrated in only one of the five MVV-challenged sheep. MVV-specific antibody responses, including neutralization and MVV p25 immune complexes in efferent lymph, were detectable during the major period of virus dissemination. The

  6. Stock Assessment Supplementary Information (SASINF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the interest of efficiency, clarity and standardization of stock assessment materials, the stock assessment reports for the 2015 Groundfish update have been...

  7. Stock Market Savvy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okula, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This issue of Keying In, the newsletter of the National Business Education Association, focuses upon teaching young adults how to develop both investment strategies and an understanding of the stock market. The first article, "Sound Investing Know-How: A Must for Today's Young Adults," describes how young adults can plan for their own…

  8. Essays on Stock Issuance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas

    consider firms for which relatively little information is available as “hard to value”. Examples are firms covered by few analysts and small firms. Second, I consider firms with high levels of analyst disagreement on stock price target, next quarter earnings per share and share recommendation as “hard...

  9. Trade networks evolution under the conditions of stock market globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopylova Olga Volodymyrivna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern perception of the stock market in terms of information technologies rapid development and under the institutionalists influence has been significantly modified and becomes multifaceted. It was detected that the main function of the market is activated, information asymmetry is minimized and more advanced financial architecture space is formed through trade networks. Formation of the modern trade networks has started on the basis of the old infrastructure, that had the highest tendency to self-organization and adaptation. The proposed architecture of trade networks of the stock market has a very clear vector of subordination – from top to bottom and has a number of positive points.

  10. Process of consignment stock implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Vrbová, Petra; Alina, Jiří; Cempírek, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Consignment stock concept is very important in case of short-term assets management in terms of completely innovative approach helping to manage inventories in which the supplier supplies his inventory and maintains a stock of material at the buyer´s stock. This article deals mainly with the process of Consignment stock implementation itself and considers the approach of Battini, Grassi, Persona, Sgarbossa (2010) by filling new phases and particularizes each separate phase and step. This pape...

  11. Relationships among energy price shocks, stock market, and the macroeconomy: evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Shen, Shaochuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships among China energy price shocks, stock market, and the macroeconomy using multivariate vector autoregression. The results indicate that there is a long cointegration among them. A 1% rise in the energy price index can depress the stock market index by 0.54% and the industrial value-adding growth by 0.037%. Energy price shocks also cause inflation and have a 5-month lag effect on stock market, which may result in the stock market "underreacting." The energy price can explain stock market fluctuations better than the interest rate over a longer time period. Consequently, investors should pay greater attention to the long-term effect of energy on the stock market.

  12. Estimating temporary and permanent stock price innovations on Croatian capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihana Škrinjarić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the size and duration of temporary and permanent stock price innovations on Croatian capital market in the structural VAR (vector autoregression framework with Blanchard and Quah (1989 decomposition. The purpose is to identify the effects of temporary price innovations in order to determine to which extent future stock prices can be predicted. Temporary components present in stock prices are explained throughout the mean-reversion hypothesis. This means that stock prices deviate from the fundamental values, but they will revert to their mean. In that way, to some extent, it is possible to predict future price movements. The results show that for the observed period from January 2000 to September 2013, temporary innovations account for only 2.62% of price variability over a two-year horizon. This means that forecasting the future movements of stock prices on Zagreb Stock Exchange is a difficult task.

  13. Perbandingan Stock Market Crash 1987 : Dan Stock Market Crash 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Indridewi Atmadjaja, Yovita Vivianty

    1999-01-01

    Stock market crash refers to the condition, which is marked with the large dropping of stock Market price index. Historically, stock market crash has happened three times, namely in 1929, 1987 and 1997. This paper will discuss the causes of 1987's and 1997's stock market Crash and the similarities and the differences between 1987's and 1997's stock market crash. The structure of the paper is as follows. The paper starts with the introduction. The second Section briefly explains the causes of ...

  14. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  15. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chok, Jay; Qian, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO) entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO) entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  16. Testing for rational bubbles in a co-explosive vector autoregression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Nielsen, Bent

    We derive the parameter restrictions that a standard equity market model implies for a bivariate vector autoregression for stock prices and dividends, and we show how to test these restrictions using likelihood ratio tests. The restrictions, which imply that stock returns are unpredictable, are d...... is analysed using a co-explosive framework. The methodology is illustrated using US stock prices and dividends for the period 1872-2000....

  17. Bioreactor production of recombinant herpes simplex virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, David R; Harrell, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Serotypical application of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors to gene therapy (type 1) and prophylactic vaccines (types 1 and 2) has garnered substantial clinical interest recently. HSV vectors and amplicons have also been employed as helper virus constructs for manufacture of the dependovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV). Large quantities of infectious HSV stocks are requisite for these therapeutic applications, requiring a scalable vector manufacturing and processing platform comprised of unit operations which accommodate the fragility of HSV. In this study, production of a replication deficient rHSV-1 vector bearing the rep and cap genes of AAV-2 (denoted rHSV-rep2/cap2) was investigated. Adaptation of rHSV production from T225 flasks to a packed bed, fed-batch bioreactor permitted an 1100-fold increment in total vector production without a decrease in specific vector yield (pfu/cell). The fed-batch bioreactor system afforded a rHSV-rep2/cap2 vector recovery of 2.8 x 10(12) pfu. The recovered vector was concentrated by tangential flow filtration (TFF), permitting vector stocks to be formulated at greater than 1.5 x 10(9) pfu/mL.

  18. Foamy virus vectors expressing anti-HIV transgenes efficiently block HIV-1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jason A; Vojtech, Lucia; Bahner, Ingrid; Kohn, Donald B; Laer, Dorothee Von; Russell, David W; Richard, Robert E

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy has the potential to control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients who do not respond to traditional antiviral therapy. In this study, we tested foamy virus (FV) vectors expressing three anti-HIV transgenes, both individually and in a combination vector. The transgenes tested in this study are RevM10, a dominant negative version of the viral rev protein, Sh1, a short hairpin RNA directed against a conserved overlapping sequence of tat and rev, and membrane-associated C46 (maC46), a membrane-attached peptide that blocks HIV cell entry. FV vectors efficiently transduce hematopoietic stem cells and, unlike lentivirus (LV) vectors, do not share viral proteins with HIV. The titers of the FV vectors described in this study were not affected by anti-HIV transgenes. On a direct comparison of FV vectors expressing the individual transgenes, entry inhibition using the maC46 transgene was found to be the most effective at blocking HIV replication. A clinically relevant FV vector expressing three anti-HIV transgenes effectively blocked HIV infection in primary macrophages derived from transduced, peripheral blood CD34-selected cells and in a cell line used for propagating HIV, CEMx174. These results suggest that there are potential benefits of using FV vectors in HIV gene therapy.

  19. The Impact of Macroeconomic Fundamentals on Stock Prices Revisited: Evidence from Indian Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar NAIK

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the relationships between the Indian stock market index (BSE Sensex and five macroeconomic variables, namely, industrial production index, wholesale price index, money supply, treasury bills rates and exchange rates over the period 1994:04–2011:06. Johansen’s co-integration and vector error correction model have been applied to explore the long-run equilibrium relationship between stock market index and macroeconomic variables. The analysis reveals that macroeconomic variables and the stock market index are co-integrated and, hence, a long-run equilibrium relationship exists between them. It is observed that the stock prices positively relate to the money supply and industrial production but negatively relate to inflation. The exchange rate and the short-term interest rate are found to be insignificant in determining stock prices. In the Granger causality sense, macroeconomic variable causes the stock prices in the long-run but not in the short-run. There is bidirectional causality exists between industrial production and stock prices whereas, unidirectional causality from money supply to stock price, stock price to inflation and interest rates to stock prices are found.

  20. Outlook '98 - Stock markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankka, D.

    1998-01-01

    In view of the recent drop of some 20 per cent in energy stock prices, and the decline in the value of the Canadian dollar, forecasting oilpatch financing in 1998 is a risky undertaking. Based on a variety of relevant factors, it is expected that there will be a slowdown in oil and gas financing deals in the short term. On the other hand, longer term outlook is bullish, based on the huge capital requirements over the next few years for conventional projects, heavy oil, oilsands and pipelines projects. Corporate mergers and acquisitions will continue at about the same rate as in 1997, as companies attempt to achieve ''economies of scale'' and growth in the most economically sensible manner. Adding production and reserves through corporate transactions at the current lower stock prices will be a powerful incentive. Creative deal structuring will become more prevalent. Corporate reorganizations into separate companies in search of value maximization will increase

  1. Comparing Neural Networks and ARMA Models in Artificial Stock Market

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krtek, Jiří; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 28 (2011), s. 53-65 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : neural networks * vector ARMA * artificial market Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/krtek-comparing neural networks and arma models in artificial stock market.pdf

  2. Viral vector-based tools advance knowledge of basal ganglia anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Rachel J; Seeger-Armbruster, Sonja; Hughes, Stephanie M; Parr-Brownlie, Louise C

    2016-04-01

    Viral vectors were originally developed to deliver genes into host cells for therapeutic potential. However, viral vector use in neuroscience research has increased because they enhance interpretation of the anatomy and physiology of brain circuits compared with conventional tract tracing or electrical stimulation techniques. Viral vectors enable neuronal or glial subpopulations to be labeled or stimulated, which can be spatially restricted to a single target nucleus or pathway. Here we review the use of viral vectors to examine the structure and function of motor and limbic basal ganglia (BG) networks in normal and pathological states. We outline the use of viral vectors, particularly lentivirus and adeno-associated virus, in circuit tracing, optogenetic stimulation, and designer drug stimulation experiments. Key studies that have used viral vectors to trace and image pathways and connectivity at gross or ultrastructural levels are reviewed. We explain how optogenetic stimulation and designer drugs used to modulate a distinct pathway and neuronal subpopulation have enhanced our mechanistic understanding of BG function in health and pathophysiology in disease. Finally, we outline how viral vector technology may be applied to neurological and psychiatric conditions to offer new treatments with enhanced outcomes for patients. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Viral vectors for cystic fibrosis gene therapy: What does the future hold?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Griesenbach

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Uta Griesenbach1, Makoto Inoue2, Mamoru Hasegawa2, Eric WFW Alton11Department of Gene Therapy, Imperial College London, UK; The UK Cystic Fibrosis Gene Therapy Consortium; 2DNAVEC Corporation, Tsukuba, JapanAbstract: Gene transfer to the airway epithelium has been more difficult than originally anticipated, largely because of significant extra- and intracellular barriers in the lung. In general, viral vectors are more adapted to overcoming these barriers than nonviral gene transfer agents and are, therefore, more efficient in transferring genes into recipient cells. Viral vectors derived from adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, and Sendai virus, which all have a natural tropism for the airway epithelium, have been evaluated for cystic fibrosis (CF gene therapy. Although these vectors transduce airway epithelial cells efficiently, gene expression is transient and repeated administration is inefficient. They are, therefore, unlikely to be suitable for CF gene therapy. More recently, lentiviruses (LV have been assessed for lung gene transfer. In contrast to retroviruses, they transduce nondividing cells and randomly integrate into the genome. However, LVs do not have a natural tropism for the lung, and a significant amount of effort has been put into pseudotyping these vectors with proteins suitable for airway gene transfer. Several studies have shown that LV-mediated transduction leads to persistent gene expression (for the lifetime of the animal in the airways and, importantly, repeated administration is feasible. Thus, appropriately pseudotyped LV vectors are promising candidates for CF gene therapy. Here, we will review preclinical and clinical research related to viral CF gene therapy.Keywords: cystic fibrosis, gene therapy, adenovirus, AAV, lentivirus, Sendai virus

  4. Do structural oil-market shocks affect stock prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Miller, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates how explicit structural shocks that characterize the endogenous character of oil price changes affect stock-market returns in a sample of eight countries - Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. For each country, the analysis proceeds in two steps. First, modifying the procedure of Kilian [Not All Oil Price Shocks are Alike: Disentangling Demand and Supply Shocks in the Crude Oil Market. American Economic Review.], we employ a vector error-correction or vector autoregressive model to decompose oil-price changes into three components: oil-supply shocks, global aggregate-demand shocks, and global oil-demand shocks. The last component relates to specific idiosyncratic features of the oil market, such as changes in the precautionary demand concerning the uncertainty about the availability of future oil supplies. Second, recovering the oil-supply shocks, global aggregate-demand shocks, and global oil-demand shocks from the first analysis, we then employ a vector autoregressive model to determine the effects of these structural shocks on the stock market returns in our sample of eight countries. We find that international stock market returns do not respond in a large way to oil market shocks. That is, the significant effects that exist prove small in magnitude. (author)

  5. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pistello

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy.

  6. Renal alterations in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats: a natural model of lentivirus-induced renal disease changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy.

  7. Evolutionary and Functional Analysis of Old World Primate TRIM5 Reveals the Ancient Emergence of Primate Lentiviruses and Convergent Evolution Targeting a Conserved Capsid Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R McCarthy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The widespread distribution of lentiviruses among African primates, and the lack of severe pathogenesis in many of these natural reservoirs, are taken as evidence for long-term co-evolution between the simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs and their primate hosts. Evidence for positive selection acting on antiviral restriction factors is consistent with virus-host interactions spanning millions of years of primate evolution. However, many restriction mechanisms are not virus-specific, and selection cannot be unambiguously attributed to any one type of virus. We hypothesized that the restriction factor TRIM5, because of its unique specificity for retrovirus capsids, should accumulate adaptive changes in a virus-specific fashion, and therefore, that phylogenetic reconstruction of TRIM5 evolution in African primates should reveal selection by lentiviruses closely related to modern SIVs. We analyzed complete TRIM5 coding sequences of 22 Old World primates and identified a tightly-spaced cluster of branch-specific adaptions appearing in the Cercopithecinae lineage after divergence from the Colobinae around 16 million years ago. Functional assays of both extant TRIM5 orthologs and reconstructed ancestral TRIM5 proteins revealed that this cluster of adaptations in TRIM5 specifically resulted in the ability to restrict Cercopithecine lentiviruses, but had no effect (positive or negative on restriction of other retroviruses, including lentiviruses of non-Cercopithecine primates. The correlation between lineage-specific adaptations and ability to restrict viruses endemic to the same hosts supports the hypothesis that lentiviruses closely related to modern SIVs were present in Africa and infecting the ancestors of Cercopithecine primates as far back as 16 million years ago, and provides insight into the evolution of TRIM5 specificity.

  8. Mutations in Ovis aries TMEM154 are associated with lower small ruminant lentivirus proviral concentration in one sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshanbari, F A; Mousel, M R; Reynolds, J O; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Highland, M A; Lewis, G S; White, S N

    2014-08-01

    Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV), also called ovine progressive pneumonia virus or maedi-visna, is present in 24% of US sheep. Like human immunodeficiency virus, SRLV is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus that causes lifelong infection. The production impacts from SRLV are due to a range of disease symptoms, including pneumonia, arthritis, mastitis, body condition wasting and encephalitis. There is no cure and no effective vaccine for preventing SRLV infection. However, breed differences in prevalence and proviral concentration indicate a genetic basis for susceptibility to SRLV. Animals with high blood proviral concentration show increased tissue lesion severity, so proviral concentration represents a live animal test for control post-infection in terms of proviral replication and disease severity. Recently, it was found that sheep with two copies of TMEM154 haplotype 1 (encoding lysine at position 35) had lower odds of SRLV infection. In this study, we examined the relationship between SRLV control post-infection and variants in two genes, TMEM154 and CCR5, in four flocks containing 1403 SRLV-positive sheep. We found two copies of TMEM154 haplotype 1 were associated with lower SRLV proviral concentration in one flock (P < 0.02). This identified the same favorable diplotype for SRLV control post-infection as for odds of infection. However, frequencies of haplotypes 2 and 3 were too low in the other three flocks to test. The CCR5 promoter deletion did not have consistent association with SRLV proviral concentration. Future work in flocks with more balanced allele frequencies is needed to confirm or refute TMEM154 association with control of SRLV post-infection. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Animal Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  9. Neuroprotective effects of lentivirus-mediated cystathionine-beta-synthase overexpression against 6-OHDA-induced parkinson's disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wei-Lan; Yin, Wei-Guo; Huang, Bai-Sheng; Wu, Li-Xiang

    2017-09-14

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is age-related neurodegenerative disorder by a progressive loss of dopaminergic(DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum, which is at least partly associated with α-synuclein protein accumulation in these neurons. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) plays an important role in the nervous system. Studies have shown that H 2 S has a protective effect on PD. However, as a kind of gas molecules, H 2 S is lively, volatile, and not conducive to scientific research and clinical application. Cystathionine-beta-synthase(CBS) is the main enzymes of synthesis of H 2 S in the brain. In order to examine the neuroprotective effects of CBS on PD, we detected the effects of CBS overexpression on 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned PD rats using lentivirus-mediated gene transfection techniques. In the injured SN of 6-OHDA-induced PD rats, the CBS expression and the endogenous H 2 S level markedly decreased, while administration of lentivirus-mediated CBS overexpression increased the CBS expression and the endogenous H 2 S production.CBS overexpression dramatically reversed apomorphine-induced rotation of the 6-OHDA model rats, decreased the number of TUNEL-positive neurons and the loss of the nigral DA neurons,specifically inhibited 6-OHDA-induced oxidase stress injury, and down-regulated the expression of α-synuclein(α-SYN) in the injured SN. NaHS (an H 2 S donor) had similar effects to CBS overexpression, while Amino-oxyacetate(AOAA, a CBS inhibitor) had opposite effects on PD rats. In summary, we demonstrated that CBS overexpression was able to provide neuroprotective on PD rats and improving the expression of CBS may be a potential therapeutic method for PD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Assessment demersal fish stocks Mauritania

    OpenAIRE

    Corten, A.A.H.M.; Goudswaard, P.C.; Heessen, H.J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The RIVO project "Assessment of demersal fish stocks in Mauritania" was commissioned by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of The Netherlands to produce information on the state of the demersal fish stocks (species that live near the bottom) in Mauritania, in particular octopus and shrimps. These stocks are fished by fleets from the EU, working under the fishery agreement between the EU and Mauritania. Although there are no Dutch vessels targeting demersal fish in Mauritania, the government of T...

  11. THE INDONESIAN STOCK MARKET PERFORMANCE DURING ASIAN ECONOMIC CRISIS AND GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA PRAPTININGSIH

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Volatility in the stock market had strongly affected by the movement of publicly or even inside information. The movements of this information will generate the perspectives and expectations of investors in decision-making. How strong is the level of market efficiency in determining the movement of stock market, especially to achieve stability in the stock market during the economic crisis? How effective are the policies of central banks in controlling the movement of the stock market? This study aims to measure the factors that influence changes in the movement of stock price in Indonesian stock market in terms of market efficiency hypothesis. This research also aims to investigate the effectiveness of central bank policy in controlling and stabilizing the movement of stocks in Indonesia. The research will focus on the economic crisis in 1997 and the global crisis in 2008 as case studies. Thepaperutilizesthe vector error-correction model, impulse responses and variance decomposition in measuring the contribution of the factors that affect the movement of stock and determine the effectiveness of central bank policy. The findings are beneficialto central banks, governments, companies and investors in strengthening the Indonesian Stock Market particularly in facing the threat of financial crisis.

  12. Fiscal Deficits and Stock Prices in India: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Joshi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at examining how fiscal deficits affect the performance of the stock market in India by using annual data from 1988–2012. The study makes use of Ng-Perron unit root tests to check the non-stationarity property of the series; the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL bounds test and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM for testing both short and long run dynamic relationships. The variance decomposition (VDC is used to predict the exogenous shocks of the variables. The findings of the bounds test reveal that the estimated equation and the series are co-integrated. The ARDL results suggest a long run negative relationship exists between budget deficit and stock prices and do not show any significant relationship in the short run. The VECM result shows that fiscal deficits influence the stock price only in the short run. The results of the Variance Decomposition show that stock price movement in the long run is mostly explained by shocks of fiscal deficits. The study implies that the government must adopt appropriate macroeconomic policies to reduce budget deficit, which will result in stock market growth and in turn will lead to the financial development of the country.

  13. Stock Market Development and Economic Growth: Evidence from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kajurová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the causal relation between the stock markets development and economic growth in the EU countries. In particular, the nature and causality direction is investigated. Panel data techniques including cointegration tests, vector error correction models and Granger causality tests were applied to indicate the nature and direction of causality. Long‑run effects of the economic growth upon stock market development was detected in the sample of the Euro area member countries. In addition, the short‑run mutual relations between growth and stock markets were indicated in that country‑sample. In the non‑Euro area countries, only short‑run impact of the stock market development upon economic growth was found. The empirical findings bring up implications for macroeconomic stabilization and development policies. The indicated relations also play a role in predicting economic growth and stock markets’ development.

  14. 12 CFR 925.23 - Excess stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess stock. 925.23 Section 925.23 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of this section, a member may purchase excess stock as long as the purchase is approved by the...

  15. Raster images vectorization system

    OpenAIRE

    Genytė, Jurgita

    2006-01-01

    The problem of raster images vectorization was analyzed and researched in this work. Existing vectorization systems are quite expensive, the results are inaccurate, and the manual vectorization of a large number of drafts is impossible. That‘s why our goal was to design and develop a new raster images vectorization system using our suggested automatic vectorization algorithm and the way to record results in a new universal vectorial file format. The work consists of these main parts: analysis...

  16. Kochen-Specker vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicic, Mladen; Merlet, Jean-Pierre; McKay, Brendan; Megill, Norman D

    2005-01-01

    We give a constructive and exhaustive definition of Kochen-Specker (KS) vectors in a Hilbert space of any dimension as well as of all the remaining vectors of the space. KS vectors are elements of any set of orthonormal states, i.e., vectors in an n-dimensional Hilbert space, H n , n≥3, to which it is impossible to assign 1s and 0s in such a way that no two mutually orthogonal vectors from the set are both assigned 1 and that not all mutually orthogonal vectors are assigned 0. Our constructive definition of such KS vectors is based on algorithms that generate MMP diagrams corresponding to blocks of orthogonal vectors in R n , on algorithms that single out those diagrams on which algebraic (0)-(1) states cannot be defined, and on algorithms that solve nonlinear equations describing the orthogonalities of the vectors by means of statistically polynomially complex interval analysis and self-teaching programs. The algorithms are limited neither by the number of dimensions nor by the number of vectors. To demonstrate the power of the algorithms, all four-dimensional KS vector systems containing up to 24 vectors were generated and described, all three-dimensional vector systems containing up to 30 vectors were scanned, and several general properties of KS vectors were found

  17. A molecular toolbox for rapid generation of viral vectors to up- or down-regulate in vivo neuronal gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie D. White

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a molecular toolbox for manipulation of neuronal gene expression in vivo. The toolbox includes promoters, ion channels, optogenetic tools, fluorescent proteins and intronic artificial microRNAs. The components are easily assembled into adeno-associated virus (AAV or lentivirus vectors using recombination cloning. We demonstrate assembly of toolbox components into lentivirus and AAV vectors and use these vectors for in vivo expression of inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir3.1 and Kir3.2 and an artificial microRNA targeted against the ion channel HCN1 (HCN1 miR. We show that AAV assembled to express HCN1 miR produces efficacious and specific in vivo knockdown of HCN1 channels. Comparison of in vivo viral transduction using HCN1 miR with mice containing a germ line deletion of HCN1 reveals similar physiological phenotypes in cerebellar Purkinje cells. The easy assembly and re-usability of the toolbox components, together with the ability to up- or down-regulate neuronal gene expression in vivo, may be useful for applications in many areas of neuroscience.

  18. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock splits, stock dividends... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... held as a result of a stock split or stock dividend applying equally to all securities of a class...

  19. Scaling analysis of stock markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Luping; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), local scaling detrended fluctuation analysis (LSDFA), and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate correlations of several stock markets. DFA method is for the detection of long-range correlations used in time series. LSDFA method is to show more local properties by using local scale exponents. DCCA method is a developed method to quantify the cross-correlation of two non-stationary time series. We report the results of auto-correlation and cross-correlation behaviors in three western countries and three Chinese stock markets in periods 2004-2006 (before the global financial crisis), 2007-2009 (during the global financial crisis), and 2010-2012 (after the global financial crisis) by using DFA, LSDFA, and DCCA method. The findings are that correlations of stocks are influenced by the economic systems of different countries and the financial crisis. The results indicate that there are stronger auto-correlations in Chinese stocks than western stocks in any period and stronger auto-correlations after the global financial crisis for every stock except Shen Cheng; The LSDFA shows more comprehensive and detailed features than traditional DFA method and the integration of China and the world in economy after the global financial crisis; When it turns to cross-correlations, it shows different properties for six stock markets, while for three Chinese stocks, it reaches the weakest cross-correlations during the global financial crisis.

  20. Assessment demersal fish stocks Mauritania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, A.A.H.M.; Goudswaard, P.C.; Heessen, H.J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The RIVO project "Assessment of demersal fish stocks in Mauritania" was commissioned by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of The Netherlands to produce information on the state of the demersal fish stocks (species that live near the bottom) in Mauritania, in particular octopus and shrimps. These

  1. Lentivirus-Mediated Knockdown of Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis through MAPK Pathways in Human Retinoblastoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chang

    Full Text Available To explore expression and function of astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1 in human retinoblastoma (RB.The expression of AEG-1 in histological sections of human RBs and in RB cell lines was examined using immunohistochemical staining and RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. We knocked down AEG-1 gene levels by AEG-1-siRNA lentivirus transfection of human RB cell lines SO-RB50 and Y79, and using an MTT assay, we assessed the role of AEG-1 on RB cell proliferation. The biological significance of lentivirus transfection induced AEG-1 down-regulation was examined by assessing the apoptosis rate in the transfected RB cells by Annexin V-APC staining and flow cytometry. We additionally measured the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved-caspase-3 and caspase-3, and the phosphorylation and non-phosphorylation alternation of MAPKs.AEG-1 expression was detected to be strongly positive in the histological slides of 35 out of 54 (65% patients with RB. AEG-1 expression increased significantly (P<0.05 with tumor stage. In the RB cell lines SO-RB50, Y79 and WERI-RB1 as compared with retinal pigment epithelium cells, expression of AEG-1 mRNA and AEG-1 protein was significantly higher. In AEG-1-siRNA lentivirus transfected cell cultures as compared with negative control lentivirus transfected cell cultures, levels of AEG-1 mRNA and of AEG-1 protein (P<0.05 and cell growth rates (P<0.01 were significantly lower, and apoptosis rate (P<0.001, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved-caspase-3 protein level were significantly increased. The P-ERK/ERK ratio was significantly decreased in the AEG-1-siRNA lentivirus transfected cell lines.Expression of AEG-1 was associated with RB, in histological slides of patients and in cell culture experiments. Lentivirus transfection induced knockdown of AEG-1 had a tumor suppressive effect, potentially by tumor cell apoptosis induction through inhibition of ERK.

  2. Vector regression introduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mok Tik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study formulates regression of vector data that will enable statistical analysis of various geodetic phenomena such as, polar motion, ocean currents, typhoon/hurricane tracking, crustal deformations, and precursory earthquake signals. The observed vector variable of an event (dependent vector variable is expressed as a function of a number of hypothesized phenomena realized also as vector variables (independent vector variables and/or scalar variables that are likely to impact the dependent vector variable. The proposed representation has the unique property of solving the coefficients of independent vector variables (explanatory variables also as vectors, hence it supersedes multivariate multiple regression models, in which the unknown coefficients are scalar quantities. For the solution, complex numbers are used to rep- resent vector information, and the method of least squares is deployed to estimate the vector model parameters after transforming the complex vector regression model into a real vector regression model through isomorphism. Various operational statistics for testing the predictive significance of the estimated vector parameter coefficients are also derived. A simple numerical example demonstrates the use of the proposed vector regression analysis in modeling typhoon paths.

  3. INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN JAKARTA STOCK EXCHANGE AND OTHER PACIFIC-BASIN STOCK MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Azam Achsani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 International capital markets linkages have been studied since early 90-es.  Most of these studies have mainly focused on the US and other developed markets. There were only a few researches on this topic in the emerging markets.  This paper examines the dynamic linkages among Indonesian and other Pacific-Basin stock markets using correlation analysis, Granger-causality and vector autoregressive (VAR approach. All the methods give generally similar results. Our empirical results indicate a high degree of international co-movement among the stock price indices.  The degree of integration among these markets after Asian Crisis increased substantially in compare to those before Asian Crisis. The results also show that there are close relationships among the geographically and economically closed markets such as ASEAN markets, New Zealand-Australian and also Hong Kong - South Korea.  The pattern of impulse-response functions illustrates a rapid transmission of stock market events. Shocks in the developed markets are immediately transmitted to other markets. Shocks in the emerging markets are also transmitted to other markets, but without such a big effect comparing to those in the developed markets. The Jakarta stock exchange is strongly correlated with other Pacific-Basin markets, especially with ASEAN markets, Hong Kong and Australia.   The strongest foreign effects for the JSX come from Singapore, Hong Kong and Thailand. They can explain about 5 – 8% of error variance of the Jakarta Index. In contrast, the JSX index can explain 3 - 5 % of their error variances. 

  4. Online stock trading platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the perfect tool that can assure the market’s transparency for any user who wants to trade on the stock market. The investor can have access to the market news, financial calendar or the press releases of the issuers. A good online trading platform also provides real-time intraday quotes, trading history and technical analysis giving the investor a clearer view of the supply and demand in the market. All this information provides the investor a good image of the market and encourages him to trade. This paper wishes to draft the pieces of an online trading platform and to analyze the impact of developing and implementing one in a brokerage firm.

  5. The Body Stocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Louise Ravnløkke Munk; Bang, Anne Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on a pilot study of six parents’ preferences for baby clothing and their experience of value. We investigate ways in which design aesthetics, material and the senses have an impact on high use frequency aiming to understand longevity as a parameter for sustainability in textiles...... of the Repertory Grid technique and Wardrobe Studies to frame a tangible dialogue enabling the parents to elaborate on personal preferences of design aesthetics and materials in baby clothing. In the analysis we use the body stocking as a common reference point for learning about reasons for high use frequency....... In addition, it is exemplified how personal taste, preferences for aesthetics and experience of wellbeing may have an impact on high use frequency. Finally, the paper points to further elaboration by suggesting a (tentative) matrix structure to better understand the parameters in designing sustainable...

  6. Rainy Day Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gormsen, Niels Joachim; Greenwood, Robin

    We study the good- and bad-times performance of equity portfolios formed on characteristics. Many characteristics associated with good performance during bad times—value, profitability, small size, safety, and total volatility—also perform well during good times. Stocks with characteristics...... signifying high liquidity, such as high turnover and low bid-ask spreads, perform well during bad times but otherwise underperform. We develop a simple but flexible procedure to recover a “risk neutral alpha” that recognizes a 1% return experienced during bad times as being more valuable than a 1% return...... generated during good times. We also show how an investor can build a “rainy day” portfolio that minimizes underperformance during bad times...

  7. Light axial vector mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan; Pang, Cheng-Qun; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the abundant experimental observation of axial-vector states, we study whether the observed axial-vector states can be categorized into the conventional axial-vector meson family. In this paper we carry out an analysis based on the mass spectra and two-body Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-allowed decays. Besides testing the possible axial-vector meson assignments, we also predict abundant information for their decays and the properties of some missing axial-vector mesons, which are valuable for further experimental exploration of the observed and predicted axial-vector mesons.

  8. Multigenic lentiviral vectors for combined and tissue-specific expression of miRNA- and protein-based antiangiogenic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Louise Askou

    Full Text Available Lentivirus-based gene delivery vectors carrying multiple gene cassettes are powerful tools in gene transfer studies and gene therapy, allowing coexpression of multiple therapeutic factors and, if desired, fluorescent reporters. Current strategies to express transgenes and microRNA (miRNA clusters from a single vector have certain limitations that affect transgene expression levels and/or vector titers. In this study, we describe a novel vector design that facilitates combined expression of therapeutic RNA- and protein-based antiangiogenic factors as well as a fluorescent reporter from back-to-back RNApolII-driven expression cassettes. This configuration allows effective production of intron-embedded miRNAs that are released upon transduction of target cells. Exploiting such multigenic lentiviral vectors, we demonstrate robust miRNA-directed downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression, leading to reduced angiogenesis, and parallel impairment of angiogenic pathways by codelivering the gene encoding pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF. Notably, subretinal injections of lentiviral vectors reveal efficient retinal pigment epithelium-specific gene expression driven by the VMD2 promoter, verifying that multigenic lentiviral vectors can be produced with high titers sufficient for in vivo applications. Altogether, our results suggest the potential applicability of combined miRNA- and protein-encoding lentiviral vectors in antiangiogenic gene therapy, including new combination therapies for amelioration of age-related macular degeneration.

  9. [Construction of recombinant lentiviral vector of Tie2-RNAi and its influence on malignant melanoma cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiu-ying; Liu, Zhao-liang; Wang, Biao; Guo, Guo-xiang; Wang, Mei-shui; Zhuang, Fu-lian; Cai, Chuan-shu; Zhang, Ming-feng; Zhang, Yan-ding

    2011-07-01

    To construct lentivector carrying Tie2-Small interfering RNA (SiRNA), so as to study its influence on malignant melanoma cells. Recombinant plasmid pSilencer 1.0-U6-Tie2-siRNA and plasmid pNL-EGFP were digested with XbaI, ligated a target lentiviral transfer plasmid of pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-I or pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-II, and then the electrophoresis clones was sequenced. Plasmids of pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-I and pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-II were constructed and combined with pVSVG and pHelper, respectively, to constitute lentiviral vector system of three plasmids. The Lentiviral vector system was transfected into 293T cell to produce pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2- I and pNL-EGFP-U6-Tie2-II lentivirus. Then the supernatant was collected to determine the titer. Malignant melanoma cells were infected by both lentiviruses and identified by Realtime RT-PCR to assess inhibitory efficiency. The recombinant lentiviral vectors of Tie2-RNAi were constructed successfully which were analyzed with restriction enzyme digestion and identified by sequencing. And the titer of lentiviral vector was 8.8 x 10(3)/ml, which was determined by 293T cell. The results of Realtime RT-PCR demonstrated that the lentiviral vectors of Tie2-RNAi could infect malignant melanoma cells and inhibit the expression of Tie2 genes in malignant melanoma cells (P0.05) between the two lentiviral vectors of Tie2-RNAi. Lentivector carrying Tie2-SiRNA can be constructed successfully and inhibit the expression of Tie2 gene in vitro significantly. The study will supply the theory basis for the further research on the inhibition of tumor growth in vivo.

  10. Distribution characteristics of stock market liquidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiawen; Chen, Langnan; Liu, Hao

    2013-12-01

    We examine the distribution characteristics of stock market liquidity by employing the generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) model and three-minute frequency data from Chinese stock markets. We find that the BCPE distribution within the GAMLSS framework fits the distributions of stock market liquidity well with the diagnosis test. We also find that the stock market index exhibits a significant impact on the distributions of stock market liquidity. The stock market liquidity usually exhibits a positive skewness, but a normal distribution at a low level of stock market index and a high-peak and fat-tail shape at a high level of stock market index.

  11. Generation of a human embryonic stem cell line, NERCe003-A-1, with lentivirus vector-mediated inducible CTNNB1 overexpression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell (hESC line NERCe003-A-1 was generated by introducing lentiviral-vector–mediated tetracycline-inducible β-catenin expression into a normal hESC line, NERCe003-A. The resulting cell line can overexpress the β-catenin protein, encoded by the CTNNB1 gene, after exposure to doxycycline (Dox. CTNNB1 gene expression was confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR and immunofluorescence assays. Further characterization confirmed that the NERCe003-A-1 cell line expresses typical pluripotency markers and has the ability to form the three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Immobilized Lentivirus Vector on Chondroitin Sulfate-Hyaluronate Acid-Silk Fibroin Hybrid Scaffold for Tissue-Engineered Ligament-Bone Junction

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Liguo; Li, Hongguo; Qu, Ling; Zhu, Rui; Fan, Xiangli; Xue, Yingsen; Xie, Zhenghong; Fan, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    The lack of a fibrocartilage layer between graft and bone remains the leading cause of graft failure after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The objective of this study was to develop a gene-modified silk cable-reinforced chondroitin sulfate-hyaluronate acid-silk fibroin (CHS) hybrid scaffold for reconstructing the fibrocartilage layer. The scaffold was fabricated by lyophilizing the CHS mixture with braided silk cables. The scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) showed that micr...

  13. What moves the primary stock and bond markets? Influence of macroeconomic factors on bond and equity issues in Malaysia and Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ameer, Rashid

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of macroeconomic factors on the stock and bond market activities in two Asian countries. We examine the influence of interest rate changes, expected inflation rate, and stock market returns on aggregate stock and bond issuance in Malaysia and Korea. Using vector autoregressive models (VARs) and variance decomposition techniques, our result show that dynamics of equity and bond issuance in both countries vary significantly. Our findings show that there has been a...

  14. Lentivirus-ABCG1 instillation reduces lipid accumulation and improves lung compliance in GM-CSF knock-out mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malur, Anagha; Huizar, Isham [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Wells, Greg [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Barna, Barbara P. [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Malur, Achut G. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Thomassen, Mary Jane, E-mail: thomassenm@ecu.edu [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lentivirus-ABCG1 reduces lipid accumulation in lungs of GM-CSF knock-out mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up-regulation of ABCG1 improves lung function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of ABCG1 improves surfactant metabolism. -- Abstract: We have shown decreased expression of the nuclear transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR{gamma}) and the PPAR{gamma}-regulated ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) in alveolar macrophages from patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). PAP patients also exhibit neutralizing antibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an upregulator of PPAR{gamma}. In association with functional GM-CSF deficiency, PAP lung is characterized by surfactant-filled alveolar spaces and lipid-filled alveolar macrophages. Similar pathology characterizes GM-CSF knock-out (KO) mice. We reported previously that intratracheal instillation of a lentivirus (lenti)-PPAR{gamma} plasmid into GM-CSF KO animals elevated ABCG1 and reduced alveolar macrophage lipid accumulation. Here, we hypothesized that instillation of lenti-ABCG1 might be sufficient to decrease lipid accumulation and improve pulmonary function in GM-CSF KO mice. Animals received intratracheal instillation of lenti-ABCG1 or control lenti-enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) plasmids and alveolar macrophages were harvested 10 days later. Alveolar macrophage transduction efficiency was 79% as shown by lenti-eGFP fluorescence. Quantitative PCR analyses indicated a threefold (p = 0.0005) increase in ABCG1 expression with no change of PPAR{gamma} or ABCA1 in alveolar macrophages of lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. ABCG1 was unchanged in control lenti-eGFP and PBS-instilled groups. Oil Red O staining detected reduced intracellular neutral lipid in alveolar macrophages from lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. Extracellular cholesterol and phospholipids were also decreased as shown by

  15. VectorBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VectorBase is a Bioinformatics Resource Center for invertebrate vectors. It is one of four Bioinformatics Resource Centers funded by NIAID to provide web-based...

  16. Manufacture of Third-Generation Lentivirus for Preclinical Use, with Process Development Considerations for Translation to Good Manufacturing Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Gándara, Carolina; Affleck, Valerie; Stoll, Elizabeth Ann

    2018-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors are used in laboratories around the world for in vivo and ex vivo delivery of gene therapies, and increasingly clinical investigation as well as preclinical applications. The third-generation lentiviral vector system has many advantages, including high packaging capacity, stable gene expression in both dividing and post-mitotic cells, and low immunogenicity in the recipient organism. Yet, the manufacture of these vectors is challenging, especially at high titers required fo...

  17. The Effect of Macroeconomic Factors on Stock Prices of Swiss Real Estate Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ligocká

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock values of companies listed on stock exchanges could be influenced by many factors. The aim of this article is to examine existence and character of relationship between stock prices of selected Swiss real estate companies and macroeconomic fundamentals (GDP, interest rate, price level. The existence of long-run equilibrium relationship between stock prices and macroeconomic fundamentals is tested with the Johansen cointegration. The short run dynamics between the variables is examined by Vector Error Correction modelling and the Granger causality test. During the period 2005 – 2014 we revealed a long‑run equilibrium for five of the six analyzed stocks. We also confirmed that macroeconomic variables and the interest rate in particular, can explain a long-run behavior of stock prices. By contrast, macroeconomic variables are usually short in explanation of short‑run dynamics of stock prices. However, the results differ substantially among the stocks and, hence, they prevent us from drawing any general conclusion for the entire real estate sector in Switzerland.

  18. Parallel Prediction of Stock Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Jenq

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatility is a measurement of the risk of financial products. A stock will hit new highs and lows over time and if these highs and lows fluctuate wildly, then it is considered a high volatile stock. Such a stock is considered riskier than a stock whose volatility is low. Although highly volatile stocks are riskier, the returns that they generate for investors can be quite high. Of course, with a riskier stock also comes the chance of losing money and yielding negative returns. In this project, we will use historic stock data to help us forecast volatility. Since the financial industry usually uses S&P 500 as the indicator of the market, we will use S&P 500 as a benchmark to compute the risk. We will also use artificial neural networks as a tool to predict volatilities for a specific time frame that will be set when we configure this neural network. There have been reports that neural networks with different numbers of layers and different numbers of hidden nodes may generate varying results. In fact, we may be able to find the best configuration of a neural network to compute volatilities. We will implement this system using the parallel approach. The system can be used as a tool for investors to allocating and hedging assets.

  19. Large-scale Clinical-grade Retroviral Vector Production in a Fixed-Bed Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuyan; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Qu, Jinrong; Wasielewska, Teresa; Bartido, Shirley; Hermetet, Gregory; Sadelain, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The successful genetic engineering of patient T cells with γ-retroviral vectors expressing chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors for phase II clinical trials and beyond requires the large-scale manufacture of high-titer vector stocks. The production of retroviral vectors from stable packaging cell lines using roller bottles or 10- to 40-layer cell factories is limited by a narrow harvest window, labor intensity, open-system operations, and the requirement for significant incubator space. To circumvent these shortcomings, we optimized the production of vector stocks in a disposable fixed-bed bioreactor using good manufacturing practice–grade packaging cell lines. High-titer vector stocks were harvested over 10 days, representing a much broader harvest window than the 3-day harvest afforded by cell factories. For PG13 and 293Vec packaging cells, the average vector titer and the vector stocks’ yield in the bioreactor were higher by 3.2- to 7.3-fold, and 5.6- to 13.1-fold, respectively, than those obtained in cell factories. The vector production was 10.4 and 18.6 times more efficient than in cell factories for PG13 and 293Vec cells, respectively. Furthermore, the vectors produced from the fixed-bed bioreactors passed the release test assays for clinical applications. Therefore, a single vector lot derived from 293Vec is suitable to transduce up to 500 patients cell doses in the context of large clinical trials using chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors. These findings demonstrate for the first time that a robust fixed-bed bioreactor process can be used to produce γ-retroviral vector stocks scalable up to the commercialization phase. PMID:25751502

  20. Do More Economists Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schröter; Rangvid, Jesper

    A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that more economists than otherwise identical investors hold stocks due to informational advantages. We confirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stock market than investors with any other education......, even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables. We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model...

  1. Custodial vector model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becciolini, Diego; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Foadi, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology of heavy vector resonances with a $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ spectral global symmetry. This symmetry partially protects the electroweak S-parameter from large contributions of the vector resonances. The resulting custodial vector model spectrum...

  2. Influence of true within-herd prevalence of small ruminant lentivirus infection in goats on agreement between serological immunoenzymatic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czopowicz, Michał; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Moroz, Agata; Witkowski, Lucjan; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Bagnicka, Emilia; Kaba, Jarosław

    2017-09-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate influence of the true within-herd prevalence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection on agreement beyond chance between three different types of commercial serological ELISAs. Blood samples were collected from 865 goats from 12 dairy goat herds. Serum samples were tested using three commercial ELISA kits: whole-virus indirect ELISA (wELISA), indirect ELISA based on recombined TM and CA antigens (TM/CA-ELISA), and competitive-inhibition ELISA based on SU antigen (SU-ELISA). Herds were classed into three prevalence strata of high (>50%), moderate (10-50%) and low (50% (Gwet's AC 1 between 91.9% and 98.8%) or <10% (Gwet's AC 1 between 94.7% and 98.4%). Concluding, the three different commercial ELISAs for SRLV infection in goats available on the market yield highly consistent results. However, their agreement is affected by the true within-herd prevalence in a tested population, and the worse (although still high) agreement should be expected, when the percentage of infected goats is moderate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Production and use of lentivirus to selectively transduce primary oligodendrocyte precursor cells for in vitro myelination assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Haley M; Ferner, Anita H; Giuffrida, Lauren; Murray, Simon S; Xiao, Junhua

    2015-01-12

    Myelination is a complex process that involves both neurons and the myelin forming glial cells, oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). We use an in vitro myelination assay, an established model for studying CNS myelination in vitro. To do this, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are added to the purified primary rodent dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to form myelinating co-cultures. In order to specifically interrogate the roles that particular proteins expressed by oligodendrocytes exert upon myelination we have developed protocols that selectively transduce OPCs using the lentivirus overexpressing wild type, constitutively active or dominant negative proteins before being seeded onto the DRG neurons. This allows us to specifically interrogate the roles of these oligodendroglial proteins in regulating myelination. The protocols can also be applied in the study of other cell types, thus providing an approach that allows selective manipulation of proteins expressed by a desired cell type, such as oligodendrocytes for the targeted study of signaling and compensation mechanisms. In conclusion, combining the in vitro myelination assay with lentiviral infected OPCs provides a strategic tool for the analysis of molecular mechanisms involved in myelination.

  4. Frequency of the serological reactivity against the caprine arthritis encephalitis lentivirus gp135 in children who consume goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoro-Cruz, Emiliano; Feria-Romero, Iris Angelica; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra; Hernández-González, Rafael; Silva-García, Raúl; Valladares-Salgado, Adan; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Blanco-Favela, Francisco; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro

    2009-04-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a retrovirus belonging to the lentivirus genus that also includes the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CAEV may be transmitted to humans by goat milk consumption. It has been suggested that CAEV may also be involved in the immunological protection process against HIV, but this has not been demonstrated. Here we identified serological reactivity against CAEV gp135 in children who consumed goat milk. Thirty sera samples from children (males between 6 and 16 years of age) who regularly consumed goat milk and a negative control of 30 serum samples from children (males between 6 and 12 years) with no previous contact with goats or goat dairy products were used. All sera were tested by Western blot against CAEV antigens. There were 18/30 serum samples from goat milk consumers that were reactive to CAEV gp135, and one reacted against gp50 simultaneously; none of the 30 serum samples from nonconsumers of goat dairy products reacted to viral proteins. These results showed that the positive response to gp135 may be the result of a repetitive stimulation without viral replication or the result of CAEV replication in humans. CAEV gp135 is codified by the env gene located on the viral particle surface as well as gp50. Moreover, there are similarities between CAEV gp135 and HIV-1 gp120, so there is a possibility that CAEV replicates in humans and may participate in immunological cross-phenomena, but this should be further studied.

  5. Epidemiological survey in single-species flocks from Poland reveals expanded genetic and antigenic diversity of small ruminant lentiviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valas, Stephen; Kuźmak, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infections are widespread in Poland and circulation of subtypes A1, A12, A13, B1 and B2 was detected. The present work aimed at extending previous study based on the analysis of a larger number of animals from single-species flocks. Animals were selected for genetic analysis based on serological reactivity towards a range of recombinant antigens derived from Gag and Env viral proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of subtypes B2 and A12 in both goats and sheep and subtypes A1 and B1 in goats only. In addition, two novel subtypes, A16 and A17, were found in goats. Co-infections with strains belonging to different subtypes within A and B groups were detected in 1 sheep and 4 goats originating from four flocks. Although the reactivity of serum samples towards the recombinant antigens confirmed immunological relatedness between Gag epitopes of different subtypes and the cross-reactive nature of Gag antibodies, eleven serum samples failed to react with antigens representing all subtypes detected up-to-date in Poland, highlighting the limitations of the serological diagnosis. These data showed the complex nature of SRLV subtypes circulating in sheep and goats in Poland and the need for improving SRLV-related diagnostic capacity. PMID:29505612

  6. Impaired Expression of Cytokines as a Result of Viral Infections with an Emphasis on Small Ruminant Lentivirus Infection in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Jarczak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowing about the genes involved in immunity, and being able to identify the factors influencing their expressions, helps in gaining awareness of the immune processes. The qPCR method is a useful gene expression analysis tool, but studies on immune system genes are still limited, especially on the caprine immune system. Caprine arthritis encephalitis, a disease caused by small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV, causes economic losses in goat breeding, and there is no therapy against SRLV. The results of studies on vaccines against other viruses are promising. Moreover, the Marker-Assisted Selection strategy against SRLV is possible, as has been shown in sheep breeding. However, there are still many gaps in our knowledge on the caprine immune response to infection. All types of cytokines play pivotal roles in immunity, and SRLV infection influences the expression of many cytokines in different types of cells. This information encouraged the authors to examine the results of studies conducted on SRLV and other viral infections, with an emphasis on the expression of cytokine genes. This review attempts to summarize the results of studies on the expression of cytokines in the context of the SRLV infection.

  7. Targeting S100P Inhibits Colon Cancer Growth and Metastasis by Lentivirus-Mediated RNA Interference and Proteomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Zhang, Jinfang; Wang, Hua; Lin, Marie CM; He, Ming-liang; Kung, Hsiang-fu

    2011-01-01

    S100P was recently found to be overexpressed in a variety of cancers and is considered a potential target for cancer therapy, but the functional role or mechanism of action of S100P in colon cancer is not fully understood. In the present study, we knocked down the gene expression of S100P in colon cancer cells using lentivirus-mediated RNA interference. This step resulted in significant inhibition of cancer cell growth, migration and invasion in vitro and tumor growth and liver metastasis in vivo. Moreover, S100P downstream target proteins were identified by proteomic analysis in colon cancer DLD-1 cells with deletion of S100P. Knockdown of S100P led to downregulation of thioredoxin 1 and β-tubulin and upregulation of Rho guanosine diphosphate (GDP) dissociation inhibitor α (RhoGDIA), all potential therapeutic targets in cancer. Taken together, these findings suggest that S100P plays an important role in colon tumorigenesis and metastasis, and the comprehensive and comparative analyses of proteins associated with S100P could contribute to understanding the downstream signal cascade of S100P, leading to tumorigenesis and metastasis. PMID:21327297

  8. Stocks low, marketers confident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantho, M. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This has been a nerve wracking season as we looked at inadequate inventory spurring prices ever upward. We have watched the American Petroleum Association`s figures on refiner stocks with considerable dismay as they consistantly fell behind year ago inventory. The anxiety extended to how much oil was in marketers` bulkplants and finally in customer tanks. And so, we asked our reporting panel to help us get a fix on how much oil was available for our customers. We asked the questions in early November and so all our figures are for that month. First we asked the capacity of their bulk tanks. And then how many gallons they had on hand November 1, 1996 and the same date of 1995. From these figures, we were able to get estimates of oil inventories. Marketers bulk tanks were 47.5% filled on November 1 which meant that there was on hand at this level, 36 gallons of heating oil for each customer. At that point in the season, customer tanks were 58% filled which translated into 218 gallons.

  9. Crude oil and stock markets. Stability, instability, and bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J. Isaac; Ratti, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the long-run relationship between the world price of crude oil and international stock markets over 1971:1-2008:3 using a cointegrated vector error correction model with additional regressors. Allowing for endogenously identified breaks in the cointegrating and error correction matrices, we find evidence for breaks after 1980:5, 1988:1, and 1999:9. There is a clear long-run relationship between these series for six OECD countries for 1971:1-1980.5 and 1988:2-1999.9, suggesting that stock market indices respond negatively to increases in the oil price in the long run. During 1980.6-1988.1, we find relationships that are not statistically significantly different from either zero or from the relationships of the previous period. The expected negative long-run relationship appears to disintegrate after 1999.9. This finding supports a conjecture of change in the relationship between real oil price and real stock prices in the last decade compared to earlier years, which may suggest the presence of several stock market bubbles and/or oil price bubbles since the turn of the century. (author)

  10. Stock Market Index Computer Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Eric

    1986-01-01

    Provides two computer programs, written in BASIC, to calculate average stock market price levels. The programs allow students to work directly from the raw price data that appear daily in the financial news. Teaching suggestions are provided. (JDH)

  11. 12 CFR 725.5 - Capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock. 725.5 Section 725.5 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.5 Capital stock. (a) The capital stock of the Facility is divided... or hypothecated except to the Facility. (b) The capital stock subscriptions provided for in §§ 725.3...

  12. Based on BP Neural Network Stock Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The stock market has a high profit and high risk features, on the stock market analysis and prediction research has been paid attention to by people. Stock price trend is a complex nonlinear function, so the price has certain predictability. This article mainly with improved BP neural network (BPNN) to set up the stock market prediction model, and…

  13. Rotations with Rodrigues' vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears to be a fundamental matrix that is used to express the components of the angular velocity, the rotation matrix and the angular momentum vector. The Hamiltonian formalism of rotational dynamics in terms of this vector uses the same matrix. The quantization of the rotational dynamics is performed with simple rules if one uses Rodrigues' vector and similar formal expressions for the quantum operators that mimic the Hamiltonian classical dynamics.

  14. Persistent collective trend in stock markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Emeric; Simonsen, Ingve; Nagy, Bálint Zs; Néda, Zoltán

    2010-12-01

    Empirical evidence is given for a significant difference in the collective trend of the share prices during the stock index rising and falling periods. Data on the Dow Jones Industrial Average and its stock components are studied between 1991 and 2008. Pearson-type correlations are computed between the stocks and averaged over stock pairs and time. The results indicate a general trend: whenever the stock index is falling the stock prices are changing in a more correlated manner than in case the stock index is ascending. A thorough statistical analysis of the data shows that the observed difference is significant, suggesting a constant fear factor among stockholders.

  15. 26 CFR 1.1036-1 - Stock for stock of the same corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Stock for stock of the same corporation. 1.1036...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1036-1 Stock for stock of the same corporation. (a) Section 1036 permits the exchange, without the recognition of gain or loss, of common stock...

  16. Relationship Among Political Instability, Stock Market Returns and Stock Market Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Hira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship of political instability with the stock prices. Results of the study indicated the negative relationship of stock prices with political instability. Moreover, results of suggested that instable political system ultimately leads decline in stock prices. Inflation has shown negative relationship with stock prices whereas, industrial production and Exports have positive relationship with stock prices.

  17. Relationship Among Political Instability, Stock Market Returns and Stock Market Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Irshad Hira

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of political instability with the stock prices. Results of the study indicated the negative relationship of stock prices with political instability. Moreover, results of suggested that instable political system ultimately leads decline in stock prices. Inflation has shown negative relationship with stock prices whereas, industrial production and Exports have positive relationship with stock prices.

  18. Estimating uncertainty of data limited stock assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkalis, Alexandros; Eikeset, Anne Maria; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2017-01-01

    Many methods exist to assess the fishing status of data-limited stocks; however, little is known about the accuracy or the uncertainty of such assessments. Here we evaluate a new size-based data-limited stock assessment method by applying it to well-assessed, data-rich fish stocks treated as data......-limited. Particular emphasis is put on providing uncertainty estimates of the data-limited assessment. We assess four cod stocks in the North-East Atlantic and compare our estimates of stock status (F/Fmsy) with the official assessments. The estimated stock status of all four cod stocks followed the established stock...... assessments remarkably well and the official assessments fell well within the uncertainty bounds. The estimation of spawning stock biomass followed the same trends as the official assessment, but not the same levels. We conclude that the data-limited assessment method can be used for stock assessment...

  19. Are Stock and Corporate Bond Markets Integrated?

    OpenAIRE

    van Zundert, J.; Driessen, Joost

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the cross-sectional integration of stock and corporate bond markets by comparing a firm’s expected stock return, as implied by corporate bond spreads, to its realized stock return. We compute expected corporate bond returns by correcting credit spreads for expected losses due to default, which are then transformed into expected stock returns. We find, surprisingly, a strong negative cross-sectional relation between these expected and realized stock returns over the period ...

  20. 12 CFR 925.20 - Stock purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stock purchase. 925.20 Section 925.20 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase stock in the Bank in which it is a member in an amount equal to the greater of: (1) $500; (2) 1 percent...

  1. Integration of Stock Markets between Indonesia and Its Major Trading Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakri Abdul Karim

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL and Vector Autoregressive (VAR frameworks, this study examines the integration between the emerging stock market of Indonesia and its major trading partners (i.e., Japan, the U.S., Singapore, and China. During the period of July 1998 to December 2007, the Indonesian stock market is found to be integrated with its major trading partners. Thus, this implies that there is a limited room available for investors to gain risk-reduction benefits through diversifying their portfolio in those markets. Meanwhile, in the short run, the Indonesian market responds more to shocks in the U.S. and Singapore than in Japan and China. In designing policies pertaining to its stock market, the Indonesian government should take into account any development in the stock markets of its major trading partners, particularly the U.S. and Singaporean markets.

  2. Supergravity inspired vector curvaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    2007-01-01

    It is investigated whether a massive Abelian vector field, whose gauge kinetic function is growing during inflation, can be responsible for the generation of the curvature perturbation in the Universe. Particle production is studied and it is shown that the vector field can obtain a scale-invariant superhorizon spectrum of perturbations with a reasonable choice of kinetic function. After inflation the vector field begins coherent oscillations, during which it corresponds to pressureless isotropic matter. When the vector field dominates the Universe, its perturbations give rise to the observed curvature perturbation following the curvaton scenario. It is found that this is possible if, after the end of inflation, the mass of the vector field increases at a phase transition at temperature of order 1 TeV or lower. Inhomogeneous reheating, whereby the vector field modulates the decay rate of the inflaton, is also studied

  3. China’s Stock Market Integration with a Leading Power and a Close Neighbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Current integration and co-movement among international stock markets has been boosted by increased globalization of the world economy, and profit-chasing capital surfing across borders. With a reputation as the fastest growing economy in the world, China’s stock market has continued gaining momentum during recent years and incurred growing attention from academicians, as well as practitioners. Taking into account economic and geographical considerations, the US and Hong Kong are considerably the most comparable stock markets to China. The usual vector error correction model (VECM could overlook the long memory feature of cointegration residual series, which can in turn exert bias on the resulting inferences. To overcome its limitations, we employ a fractionally integrated VECM (FIVECM in this paper to investigate the long-term cointegration relations binding China’s stock market to the aforementioned stock markets. In addition, by augmenting the FIVECM with multivariate GARCH model, the return transmission and volatility spillover between market return series were revealed simultaneously. Our empirical results show that China’s stock market is fractionally cointegrated with the two markets, and it appears that China’s stock market has stronger ties with its neighboring Hong Kong market than with the world superpower, the US market.

  4. Orthogonalisation of Vectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The vectors aI, a2 are lin- early independent and each of them has norm 1. How- ever, they are not orthogonal to each other. The Gram-. Schmidt process applied to them gives the vectors ql == (1,0), q2 = (0,1). The distance between the pair {all a2} and the pair {q I' q2} is (t) ~. Can we find another pair of orthonormal vectors ...

  5. Diagnostic performance of ID screen MVV-CAEV Indirect Screening ELISA in identifying small ruminant lentiviruses-infected goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, D; Czopowicz, M; Mickiewicz, M; Szaluś-Jordanow, O; Witkowski, L; Bagnicka, E; Kaba, J

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic performance of ID Screen MVV-CAEV Indirect Screening ELISA in identifying goats infected with small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) was evaluated. In total 299 serum samples from the collection of the Laboratory of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics--109 truly positive and 190 truly negative--were used. To be enrolled in the study a serum sample had to come from at least 2 year-old goat which had reacted identically in two serological surveys preceding sample collection and was kept in a herd of stable serological status confirmed at least twice during preceding 5 years. Moreover, in seropositive herds at least 20% of goats had to be serologically positive at the moment when the serum sample was collected for the study. The test proved to have high accuracy. Area under curve was 98.8% (95% CI: 97.5%, 100%). Diagnostic performance of the test was almost identical (Youlden's index of 90%, sensitivity > 90% and specificity > 95%) within a fairly wide range of cut-off values--between 20% and 60%. At manufacturer's cut-off of 50% sensitivity and specificity were 91.7% (95% CI: 85.0%, 95.6%) and 98.9% (95% CI: 96.2%, 99.7%), respectively. For this cut-off positive likelihood ratio was 87 (95% CI: 22, 346) and negative likelihood ratio was 0.08 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.16). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that ID Screen MVV-CAEV Indirect Screening ELISA is a highly accurate diagnostic test for SRLV infection.

  6. Evolution of Specific Antibodies and Proviral DNA in Milk of Small Ruminants Infected by Small Ruminant Lentivirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Domenech

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of Small Ruminant Lentivirus (SRLV is based on clinical signs, pathological lesions and laboratory testing. No standard reference test for the diagnosis of maedi visna has been validated up to the present, and it is puzzling that tests which detect antibodies against the virus and tests which detect the proviral genome may render opposite results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence in milk throughout a lactation period of specific antibodies by ELISA and of SRLV proviral DNA by a PCR of the highly conserved pol region. A six-month study was conducted with the milk of 28 ewes and 31 goats intensively reared. The percentage of animals with antibodies against SRLV increased throughout the study period. Seroprevalence in sheep was 28% at the beginning of the study and by the end it had increased up to 52.4%. In goats, initial seroprevalence of 5.6% increased to 16%. The percentage of PCR positive ewes was stable throughout the study period. Of the positive sheep, 21.4% were PCR-positive before antibodies could be detected and most of them became PCR-negative shortly after the first detection of antibodies. This might suggest that antibodies have a neutralizing effect. In addition, an equal percentage of sheep were always PCR-negative but either became ELISA-positive or was always ELISA-positive, which might support this hypothesis. On the other hand, the PCR results in goats did not follow any pattern and oscillated between 35.3% and 55.6% depending on the month. Most goats positive by PCR failed to develop antibodies in the 6 months tested. We may conclude that the infection and the antibody response to it follow a different trend in sheep and goats.

  7. ANTI-Lentivirus, Brucella abortus AND B. ovis ANTIBODIES IN SMALL RUMINANTS RAISED IN PERNAMBUCO AND BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODOLFO DE MORAES PEIXOTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goat and sheep production in the semi-arid northeast of Brazil has shown great economic potential. However, health problems can compromise the productivity of these animals. Given the scarcity of studies about the occurrence of these diseases, the aim of the present study was to analyze the serological diagnosis of anti-Brucella and anti-lentivirus antibodies among small ruminants in municipalities located in the Brazilian states of Bahia and Pernambuco. The samples were collected from local slaughterhouses and dairy farms. In total, 997 serum samples from animals in slaughterhouses and dairy herds were collected. In order to diagnose the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV, the samples underwent agarose gel immunodiffusion (AGID testing. The buffered acidified antigen test (goats and agarose gel immunodiffusion test (sheep were used to detect anti-Brucella abortus and B. ovis antibodies following the methodology recommended by the Institute of Technology of Paraná (TECPAR. With anti-CAEV antibodies, seropositivity rates of 4.1% and 2.2% were recorded for animals from the slaughterhouses and dairy farms, respectively. None of the animals (goats or sheep were positive for anti-B. abortus antibodies. With B. ovis, a seropositivity rate of 6.5% (n = 13 was recorded among the 199 sheep serum samples. Results of the present study confirmed the presence of the CAE virus in the meat and dairy herds studied, although the prevalence was low. Natural infection by B. abortus did not occur in the goat and sheep herds assessed. Seropositivity for B. ovis was confirmed, although prevalence was low. Direct tests are required to diagnose ovine brucellosis.

  8. Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit D inhibits proliferation of HCT116 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaojun; Zheng, Bo'an; Chai, Rui

    2014-12-12

    Dysregulation of protein synthesis is emerging as a major contributory factor in cancer development. eIF3D (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit D) is one member of the eIF3 (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3) family, which is essential for initiation of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. Acquaintance with eIF3D is little since it has been identified as a dispensable subunit of eIF3 complex. Recently, eIF3D was found to embed somatic mutations in human colorectal cancers, indicating its importance for tumour progression. To further probe into its action in colon cancer, we utilized lentivirus-mediated RNA interference to knock down eIF3D expression in one colon cancer cell line HCT116. Knockdown of eIF3D in HCT116 cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that depletion of eIF3D led to cell-cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and induced an excess accumulation of HCT116 cells in the sub-G1 phase representing apoptotic cells. Signalling pathways responsible for cell growth and apoptosis have also been found altered after eIF3D silencing, such as AMPKα (AMP-activated protein kinase alpha), Bad, PRAS40 [proline-rich Akt (PKB) substrate of 40 kDa], SAPK (stress-activated protein kinase)/JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), GSK3β and PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase]. Taken together, these findings suggest that eIF3D might play an important role in colon cancer progression.

  9. Vectors and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    Geared toward undergraduate students, this text illustrates the use of vectors as a mathematical tool in plane synthetic geometry, plane and spherical trigonometry, and analytic geometry of two- and three-dimensional space. Its rigorous development includes a complete treatment of the algebra of vectors in the first two chapters.Among the text's outstanding features are numbered definitions and theorems in the development of vector algebra, which appear in italics for easy reference. Most of the theorems include proofs, and coordinate position vectors receive an in-depth treatment. Key concept

  10. GENERAL METHOD OF STOCKS AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Galushchak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the organization and methodology of accounting and auditing inventory enterprises. Suggestions for improvement of accounting permit to raise processing and presenting economic information to a higher level for making the economic and management decisions. Theory and practice problems of stocks audit were investigated. The basic directions of improvement of  stock audit were defined. The auditor can form an opinion about the state of business transactions of accounting of goods, define shortcomings in its organization and possible directions of elimination of violations and abuses. Program of audit of operations accounting with stocks should include the investigation of the preservation of property, valuation and posting costs, correct evaluation of purchased tangible assets, using of stocks in production. It is worth  to use techniques and methods of verification such as inventory, comparative control,  comparison of documentary evidence, counter check, check arithmetic for  audit of goods. Keywords: audit, stocks, activities of the company.

  11. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Karali, Berna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan.

  12. Stock price prediction using geometric Brownian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida Agustini, W.; Restu Affianti, Ika; Putri, Endah RM

    2018-03-01

    Geometric Brownian motion is a mathematical model for predicting the future price of stock. The phase that done before stock price prediction is determine stock expected price formulation and determine the confidence level of 95%. On stock price prediction using geometric Brownian Motion model, the algorithm starts from calculating the value of return, followed by estimating value of volatility and drift, obtain the stock price forecast, calculating the forecast MAPE, calculating the stock expected price and calculating the confidence level of 95%. Based on the research, the output analysis shows that geometric Brownian motion model is the prediction technique with high rate of accuracy. It is proven with forecast MAPE value ≤ 20%.

  13. Use of lentiviral vectors to deliver and express bicistronic transgenes in developing chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple-Rowland, Susan L; Berry, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    The abilities of lentiviral vectors to carry large transgenes (∼8kb) and to efficiently infect and integrate these genes into the genomes of both dividing and non-dividing cells make them ideal candidates for transport of genetic material into cells and tissues. Given the properties of these vectors, it is somewhat surprising that they have seen only limited use in studies of developing tissues and in particular of the developing nervous system. Over the past several years, we have taken advantage of the large capacity of these vectors to explore the expression characteristics of several dual promoter and 2A peptide bicistronic transgenes in developing chick neural retina, with the goal of identifying transgene designs that reliably express multiple proteins in infected cells. Here we summarize the activities of several of these transgenes in neural retina and provide detailed methodologies for packaging lentivirus and delivering the virus into the developing neural tubes of chicken embryos in ovo, procedures that have been optimized over the course of several years of use in our laboratory. Conditions to hatch injected embryos are also discussed. The chicken-specific techniques will be of highest interest to investigators using avian embryos, development and packaging of lentiviral vectors that reliably express multiple proteins in infected cells should be of interest to all investigators whose experiments demand manipulation and expression of multiple proteins in developing cells and tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Paralleled comparison of vectors for the generation of CAR-T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Di-Yuan; Huang, Yong; Li, Dan; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Wei; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-09-01

    T-lymphocytes genetically engineered with the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-T) have shown great therapeutic potential in cancer treatment. A variety of preclinical researches and clinical trials of CAR-T therapy have been carried out to lay the foundation for future clinical application. In these researches, several gene-transfer methods were used to deliver CARs or other genes into T-lymphocytes, equipping CAR-modified T cells with a property of recognizing and attacking antigen-expressing tumor cells in a major histocompatibility complex-independent manner. Here, we summarize the gene-transfer vectors commonly used in the generation of CAR-T cell, including retrovirus vectors, lentivirus vectors, the transposon/transposase system, the plasmid-based system, and the messenger RNA electroporation system. The following aspects were compared in parallel: efficiency of gene transfer, the integration methods in the modified T cells, foreground of scale-up production, and application and development in clinical trials. These aspects should be taken into account to generate the optimal CAR-gene vector that may be suitable for future clinical application.

  15. Vector-Vector Scattering on the Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-López, Fernando; Urbach, Carsten; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2018-03-01

    In this work we present an extension of the LüScher formalism to include the interaction of particles with spin, focusing on the scattering of two vector particles. The derived formalism will be applied to Scalar QED in the Higgs Phase, where the U(1) gauge boson acquires mass.

  16. De Vector wetenschappelijk bekeken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, D.E.; van der Weijden, F.

    2009-01-01

    In juni 2008 heeft de sectie Parodontologie van ACTA een systematische review gepubliceerd over het effect van de Vector®. De vraagstelling luidde: Wat is het effect van het gebruik van de Vector® op (menselijke) gebitselementen vergeleken met ultrasone apparatuur of handinstrumentarium op

  17. Brane vector phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.; Nitta, Muneto; Veldhuis, T. ter; Xiong, C.

    2009-01-01

    Local oscillations of the brane world are manifested as massive vector fields. Their coupling to the Standard Model can be obtained using the method of nonlinear realizations of the spontaneously broken higher-dimensional space-time symmetries, and to an extent, are model independent. Phenomenological limits on these vector field parameters are obtained using LEP collider data and dark matter constraints

  18. Advancing vector biology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K.; Kersey, Paul J.; Maslen, Gareth L.; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M.; Oliva, Clelia F.; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F.X.; Failloux, Anna Bella; Levashina, Elena A.; Wilson, Anthony J.; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target

  19. Vector mesons in matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One consequence of the chiral restoration is the mixing of parity partners. We look for a possible signature of the mixing of vector and axial vector mesons in heavy-ion collisions. We suggest an experimental method for its observation. The dynamical evolution of the heavy-ion collision is described by a transport equation of ...

  20. Architecture and Vector Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Knols, Bart GJ; Kirby, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The character of buildings plays a major role in disease control. It is understood that water supply and sanitation are critical for the well-being of residents. Current vector control programs aim to prevent the access of vector to the human host. This can be achieved through screened windows, c...

  1. The Asean Stock Market Integration: The Effect of the 2007 Financial Crisis on the Asean Stock Indices’ Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwin Surja Atmadja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to examine the existence of cointegration relationship and the short run dynamic interaction among the five ASEAN stock market indices in the period of before and during the 2007 financial crisis. The multivariate time series analysis frameworks are employed to the series in both sub-sample periods in order to answer the hypotheses.The study finds two cointegrating vectors in the series before the financial crisis period, however it fails to detect any cointegrating vector in the period of financial crisis. Granger causality tests applied to the series reveal that number of significant causal linkages between two variables increase during the crisis period. Moreover, the accounting innovation analysis shows an increase in the explanatory power of an endogenous variable to another within the system during the crisis period, indicating that the contagious effect of the 2007-US financial crisis has entered into the ASEAN capital market, and significantly influenced the regional indices’ movements.

  2. Stock market development and integration in SADC (Southern African Development Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Bundoo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the extent of stock market integration in SADC by first analyzing beta and sigma convergence and then using cointegration analysis. The US market and the SSA index were used as benchmarks. The sample period was from January 1999 to December 2011 using daily market index data. We observe beta convergence but not sigma convergence; though the sigma values are falling for most of the SADC countries. Under normal conditions, no cointegrating vector was identified when using the US market as benchmark. When using the SSA index as benchmark one cointegrating vector was identified. The paper also takes stock of the extent of software and hardware stock market integration in SADC. The SADC stock exchanges must work towards greater integration so that they can attract more sustained portfolio flows rather than volatile portfolio flows and also greater FDI flows which are much needed for the financial and economic development of the SADC countries. We also need to consolidate and reduce the number of exchanges with the view to improve market capitalization, liquidity, market infrastructure, governance amongst others but most importantly to increase the visibility, robustness and reputation of SADC stock markets at the international level.

  3. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  4. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields.......The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...

  5. The influence of macroeconomic factors to the dynamics of stock exchange in the republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakizada Uteulievna Niyazbekova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the influence of macroeconomic factors on Kazakhstan Stock Exchange Market by using data from 2005 to 2014. Engle-Granger cointegration test has shown that stock index is cointegrated with the exchange rate, interest rate, CPI and oil price. Vector error correction model has confirmed that macroeconomic variables and the stock index has a long-term equilibrium relationship. Moreover, empirical results have shown that stock index can be used as a leading indicator of the economic situation in Kazakhstan. Therefore, the authors decided to consider the impact of major macroeconomic indicators to the dynamics of the stock market of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The Engle-Granger cointegration test results show that the following variables such as exchange rate, 10-years long-term bond rate, the consumer price index and the Brent oil price are cointegrated with stock index, which means that there is a long-term relationship between this stock market index and these variables. With the help of econometric models, the authors have found the factors such as the exchange rate, the 10-year long-term bonds rate, the consumer price index and the Brent oil price (these factors have the long-term relationship with stock market index. Changes in the dynamics of the stock market index in Kazakhstan are caused by changes in the dynamics of Central bank's reserves and export. The analysis has shown that the economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (the index reflects the situation in the real sector of the economy remains dependent on world oil prices, the volume of exports and the rate of the national currency

  6. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households' expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households' stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses.

  7. Revisiting the vector and axial-vector vacuum susceptibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Lei; Liu Yuxin; Sun Weimin; Zong Hongshi

    2008-01-01

    We re-investigate the vector and axial-vector vacuum susceptibilities by taking advantage of the vector and axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identities. We show analytically that, in the chiral limit, the vector vacuum susceptibility is zero and the axial-vector vacuum susceptibility equals three fourths of the square of the pion decay constant. Besides, our analysis reproduces the Weinberg sum rule

  8. Adenoviral vector-mediated gene expression in the nervous system of immunocompetent Wistar and T cell-deficient nude rats : preferential survival of transduced astroglial cells in nude rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, W.T.J.M.C.; Verhaagen, J

    1997-01-01

    In the present paper, we examined the effect of the adenoviral vector dosage, the role of T cells, and the influence of the presence of replication-competent adenovirus (RCA) in adenoviral vector stocks, on the efficacy of adenoviral vector-directed transgene expression in the facial nucleus of

  9. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  10. Stock option repricing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, M.; Sautner, Z.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between option repricing, firm performance and corporate governance in Europe. Our sample consists of 77 European firms that repriced their stock option between 1987 and 2003. We document that option repricing is mainly a phenomenon for young and fast growing firms

  11. ---Stock Market Devpt in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jetu_E_Ch

    many developing countries. In this respect, the challenges squarely recline on designing the legal frameworks capable of protecting the investor, preventing systemic crises and promoting the market they govern.3. In the Ethiopian context, the historical development of stock market traces its roots back to the Imperial period.

  12. Dispositional optimism and stock investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelini, Viola; Cavapozzi, D.

    This paper analyzes the relationship between dispositional optimism and stock investments, controlling for cognitive skills and personality traits such as trust, social interactions and risk aversion. We use data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) on investors aged

  13. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on current...

  14. The Role of Speculative Factor in the Indonesian Stock Price Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soemarso Slamet Rahardjo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study observes the speculative element in the price determination and its mean reverting pattern. The existence of speculative element in the Indonesian stock market price determination was proven. Exponential Generalized Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (EGARCH method indicates the non-stationary process of the residuals. There are systematic as well as unsystematic component embedded in the speculative behavior. Vector Error Correction Model (VECM concludes that prices contain volatilities in the short run, but, it will revert to the mean in the long run. Investors’ behavior are neutral toward expected gain vis a vis losses in a stock trading.

  15. The market efficiency in the stock markets

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jae-Suk; Kwak, Wooseop; Kaizoji, Taisei; Kim, In-mook

    2007-01-01

    We study the temporal evolution of the market efficiency in the stock markets using the complexity, entropy density, standard deviation, autocorrelation function, and probability distribution of the log return for Standard and Poor's 500 (S&P 500), Nikkei stock average index, and Korean composition stock price index (KOSPI). Based on the microscopic spin model, we also find that these statistical quantities in stock markets depend on the market efficiency.

  16. Interday drifts in opening stock returns

    OpenAIRE

    Andrey KUDRYAVTSEV

    2013-01-01

    In present study, I make an effort to shed light on the actual mechanism of autocorrelations in individual stocks' opening returns. I analyze intraday price data on thirty stocks currently making up the Dow Jones Industrial Index. Employing the sample average and the sample median of opening stock returns for each of the trading days within the sample period as two alternative proxies for the general market opening returns, I document that if the previous day's market and individual stock's o...

  17. Macroeconomic Determinants of Stock Market Development

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriano F. García; Lin Liu

    1999-01-01

    Using pooled data from fifteen industrial and developing countries from 1980 to 1995, this paper examines the macroeconomic determinants of stock market development, particularly market capitalization. The paper finds that: (1) real income, saving rate, financial intermediary development, and stock market liquidity are important determinants of stock market capitalization; (2) macroeconomic volatility does not prove significant; and (3) stock market development and financial intermediary deve...

  18. Validating Virtual Safety Stock Effectiveness through Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Nenni

    2013-08-01

    safety stock effectiveness through simulation in an inventory system using a base stock policy with periodic reviews and backorders. This approach can be useful for researchers as well as practitioners who want to model the behaviour of an inventory system under uncertain conditions and verify the opportunity for setting up a virtual safety stock on top of, or instead of, the traditional physical safety stock.

  19. Genome-wide association identifies multiple genomic regions associated with susceptibility to and control of ovine lentivirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen N White

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, ovine lentivirus (OvLV is macrophage-tropic and causes lifelong infection. OvLV infects one quarter of U.S. sheep and induces pneumonia and body condition wasting. There is no vaccine to prevent OvLV infection and no cost-effective treatment for infected animals. However, breed differences in prevalence and proviral concentration have indicated a genetic basis for susceptibility to OvLV. A recent study identified TMEM154 variants in OvLV susceptibility. The objective here was to identify additional loci associated with odds and/or control of OvLV infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This genome-wide association study (GWAS included 964 sheep from Rambouillet, Polypay, and Columbia breeds with serological status and proviral concentration phenotypes. Analytic models accounted for breed and age, as well as genotype. This approach identified TMEM154 (nominal P=9.2×10(-7; empirical P=0.13, provided 12 additional genomic regions associated with odds of infection, and provided 13 regions associated with control of infection (all nominal P<1 × 10(-5. Rapid decline of linkage disequilibrium with distance suggested many regions included few genes each. Genes in regions associated with odds of infection included DPPA2/DPPA4 (empirical P=0.006, and SYTL3 (P=0.051. Genes in regions associated with control of infection included a zinc finger cluster (ZNF192, ZSCAN16, ZNF389, and ZNF165; P=0.001, C19orf42/TMEM38A (P=0.047, and DLGAP1 (P=0.092. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These associations provide targets for mutation discovery in sheep susceptibility to OvLV. Aside from TMEM154, these genes have not been associated previously with lentiviral infection in any species, to our knowledge. Further, data from other species suggest functional hypotheses for future testing of these genes in OvLV and other lentiviral infections. Specifically, SYTL3 binds and may regulate RAB27A, which is required for enveloped

  20. Stock Market Efficiency in Thin Trading Markets: The Case of the Vietnamese Stock Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong Loc, T.; Lanjouw, G.; Lensink, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews developments in the Stock Trading Centre (STC) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, the main stock market in the country, since its start in 2000. It presents information about developments in the number of stocks traded, trading activity and stock-price developments. This article

  1. 26 CFR 1.1081-3 - Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. 1.1081-3 Section 1.1081-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1.1081-3 Exchanges of stock or securities solely for stock or securities. The exchange, without the...

  2. 78 FR 17053 - Indirect Stock Transfers and the Coordination Rule Exceptions; Transfers of Stock or Securities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... 1545-BJ75 Indirect Stock Transfers and the Coordination Rule Exceptions; Transfers of Stock or... stock transfers for certain outbound asset reorganizations. The regulations also modify the third... respect to transfers of stock or securities by a domestic corporation to a foreign corporation in a...

  3. 78 FR 17066 - Indirect Stock Transfers and Coordination Rule Exceptions; Transfers of Stock or Securities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... Indirect Stock Transfers and Coordination Rule Exceptions; Transfers of Stock or Securities in Outbound... stock transfers for certain outbound asset reorganizations. The temporary regulations also modify the... changes with respect to transfers of stock or securities by a domestic corporation to a foreign...

  4. 76 FR 7236 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia; Boston Stock Exchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ...-001] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia; Boston Stock Exchange... is hereby given that on January 19, 2011, Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia, Inc. (``SCCP'') and Boston Stock Exchange Clearing Corporation (``BSECC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange...

  5. Are Stock and Corporate Bond Markets Integrated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zundert, J.; Driessen, Joost

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the cross-sectional integration of stock and corporate bond markets by comparing a firm’s expected stock return, as implied by corporate bond spreads, to its realized stock return. We compute expected corporate bond returns by correcting credit spreads for expected losses due to

  6. Online Stock Market Games for High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopus, Jane; Placone, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Identifies a Web site providing information about stock market simulations for high school economics courses. Divides the information into two tables: (1) the structure of online stock market games; and (2) the determination of portfolio values of online stock market games. States that changes and updates are available at Web sites. (JEH)

  7. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the amount...

  8. 27 CFR 24.217 - Vinegar stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vinegar stock. 24.217... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.217 Vinegar stock. Vinegar stock may be produced on bonded wine premises with the addition of any quantity of water desired to meet...

  9. 47 CFR 32.4530 - Treasury stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treasury stock. 32.4530 Section 32.4530... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4530 Treasury stock. This account shall include the cost of the company's own capital stock which has been issued and...

  10. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF... WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be required in connection with the purposes...

  11. Analysis of Naval Ammunition Stock Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT ANALYSIS OF NAVAL AMMUNITION STOCK POSITIONING...professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYSIS OF NAVAL AMMUNITION STOCK POSITIONING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) David Sharp and Eric...alteration of the current Navy ammunition stock positioning system. The purpose of this project is to analyze the cost and delivery performance risk

  12. Maintenance Appointments in Railway Rolling Stock Rescheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); L.G. Kroon (Leo); M.E. Schmidt (Marie)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the Rolling Stock Rescheduling Problem (RSRP), while taking maintenance appointments into account. After a disruption, the rolling stock of the disrupted passenger trains has to be rescheduled in order to restore a feasible rolling stock circulation. Usually, a

  13. On the Design of Artificial Stock Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Boer-Sorban (Katalin); A. de Bruin (Arie); U. Kaymak (Uzay)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractArtificial stock markets are designed with the aim to study and understand market dynamics by representing (part of) real stock markets. Since there is a large variety of real stock markets with several partially observable elements and hidden processes, artificial markets differ

  14. Analysis of Information Contens and Stock Liquidity on the Companies Which Spliting Their Stock: Examination to Signaling and Trading Range on Jakarta Stock Exchange (Study on the Comanies Splitting Their Stock on the Year 200-2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Darmawan, Akhmad

    2007-01-01

    This research was held to examine signaling hypothesis by comparing the growth of companies profit which splitting their stock and not splitting their stock, on the period before stock splits and comparing yearly profit increase over 4 year before stock splits on the companies which splitting their stock. This research also conucted to examine trading range hypothesis by comparing market stock price the companies which splitting their stock and not splitting their stock split was done, and co...

  15. Stock Market Optimism and Cointegration among Stocks: The Case of the Prague Stock Exchange

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baxa, Jaromír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2007), s. 5-16 ISSN 0572-3043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/03/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : stock market * optimism * cointegration Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  16. Wavelet decomposition and regime shifts: Assessing the effects of crude oil shocks on stock market returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammazi, Rania; Aloui, Chaker

    2010-01-01

    While there is a large body of empirical studies on the relationship between crude oil price changes and stock market returns, they have failed to achieve a consensus on this subject. In this paper, we combine wavelet analysis and Markov Switching Vector Autoregressive (MS-VAR) approach to explore the impact of the crude oil (CO) shocks on the stock market returns for UK, France and Japan over the period from January 1989 to December 2007. Our procedure involves the estimation of the extended MS-VAR model in order to investigate the importance of the resultant wavelet filtering series (after removing random components) in determining the behavior of the stock market volatilities. We show that CO shocks do not affect the recession stock market phases (except for Japan). However, they significantly reduce moderate and/or expansion stock market phases temporarily. Moreover, this negative relationship appears to be more pronounced during the pre-1999 period. The empirical findings will prove extremely useful to investors who need to understand the exact effect of international oil changes on certain stocks prices as well as for policy managers who need a more thorough evaluation about the efficiency of hedging policies affected by oil price changes.

  17. The Volatility of Indonesia Shari’ah Capital Market Stock Price Toward Macro Economics Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma Malini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shari’ah stock market is also affected by many highly interrelated economic, social, political andother factor, same as the conventional stock market, the interaction between macroeconomic variablesand Shari’ah stock market creating volatility in the stock price as a response towards severalshocks. The sensitivity of Shari’ah stock market towards shocks happened related with the futureexpectation of micro and macro factor in one country which can be predict or unpredictable.There are six macroeconomic variables that used in this research; inflation, exchange rate, interestrate, dow jones index, crude oil palm price, and FED rate. Using vector error correction model(VECM, the result shows that domestic macroeconomic variables that significantly affect IndonesiaShari’ah compliance for long term, while for international macroeconomic variables the selectedvariable such as FED rate and Dow Jones Index are not significantly affected Indonesia Shari’ahcompliance both in short term and long term. Keywords: Indonesia Shari’ah compliance, Macro Economic Indicators, Impulse Response Function,Stock Price Volatility

  18. Wavelet decomposition and regime shifts: Assessing the effects of crude oil shocks on stock market returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammazi, Rania, E-mail: jamrania2@yahoo.f [International finance group-Tunisia, Faculty of Management and Economic Sciences of Tunis, Boulevard du 7 novembre, El Manar University, B.P. 248, C.P. 2092, Tunis Cedex (Tunisia); Aloui, Chaker, E-mail: chaker.aloui@fsegt.rnu.t [International finance group-Tunisia, Faculty of Management and Economic Sciences of Tunis, Boulevard du 7 novembre, El Manar University, B.P. 248, C.P. 2092, Tunis Cedex (Tunisia)

    2010-03-15

    While there is a large body of empirical studies on the relationship between crude oil price changes and stock market returns, they have failed to achieve a consensus on this subject. In this paper, we combine wavelet analysis and Markov Switching Vector Autoregressive (MS-VAR) approach to explore the impact of the crude oil (CO) shocks on the stock market returns for UK, France and Japan over the period from January 1989 to December 2007. Our procedure involves the estimation of the extended MS-VAR model in order to investigate the importance of the resultant wavelet filtering series (after removing random components) in determining the behavior of the stock market volatilities. We show that CO shocks do not affect the recession stock market phases (except for Japan). However, they significantly reduce moderate and/or expansion stock market phases temporarily. Moreover, this negative relationship appears to be more pronounced during the pre-1999 period. The empirical findings will prove extremely useful to investors who need to understand the exact effect of international oil changes on certain stocks prices as well as for policy managers who need a more thorough evaluation about the efficiency of hedging policies affected by oil price changes.

  19. Wavelet decomposition and regime shifts. Assessing the effects of crude oil shocks on stock market returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammazi, Rania; Aloui, Chaker [International finance group-Tunisia, Faculty of Management and Economic Sciences of Tunis, Boulevard du 7 novembre, El Manar University, B.P. 248, C.P. 2092, Tunis Cedex (Tunisia)

    2010-03-15

    While there is a large body of empirical studies on the relationship between crude oil price changes and stock market returns, they have failed to achieve a consensus on this subject. In this paper, we combine wavelet analysis and Markov Switching Vector Autoregressive (MS-VAR) approach to explore the impact of the crude oil (CO) shocks on the stock market returns for UK, France and Japan over the period from January 1989 to December 2007. Our procedure involves the estimation of the extended MS-VAR model in order to investigate the importance of the resultant wavelet filtering series (after removing random components) in determining the behavior of the stock market volatilities. We show that CO shocks do not affect the recession stock market phases (except for Japan). However, they significantly reduce moderate and/or expansion stock market phases temporarily. Moreover, this negative relationship appears to be more pronounced during the pre-1999 period. The empirical findings will prove extremely useful to investors who need to understand the exact effect of international oil changes on certain stocks prices as well as for policy managers who need a more thorough evaluation about the efficiency of hedging policies affected by oil price changes. (author)

  20. Determinants of Stock Price Movements: Evidence from Chittagong Stock Exchange, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Syedul Islam; Evana Nusrat Dooty

    2015-01-01

    Stock market plays a vital role in the economic development of an economy. It bridges up between savers and real manufacturers by raising funds from investors to companies. This process was broken down due to the 2010-2011 stock market crash in Bangladesh. Though the determinants of stock price have been settled empirically, the current paper aims to reexamine the relationship between stock price, dividend and retained earnings of 29 listed banks of Chittagong Stock Exchange, in the post-cras...

  1. Stock Market Manipulation on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionigi Gerace

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to empirically examine stock market manipulation on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. The dataset contains 40 cases of market manipulation from 1996 to 2009 that were successfully prosecuted by the Hong Kong Securities & Futures Commission. Manipulation is found to negatively impact market efficiency measures such as the bid-ask spread and volatility. Markets appear incapable of efficiently responding to the presence of manipulators and are characterised by information asymmetry. Manipulators were successfully able to raise prices and exit the market. This finding contradicts views that trade-based manipulation is entirely unprofitable and self-deterring. The victimisation of information-seeking investors and the market as a whole provides a strong rationale for all jurisdictions, including Australia, to have effective laws that prohibit manipulation and for robust enforcement of those laws to further deter market manipulation.

  2. Viscoelasticity and pattern formations in stock market indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Güngör; Gündüz, Aydın

    2017-06-01

    The viscoelastic and thermodynamic properties of four stock indices, namely, DJI, Nasdaq-100, Nasdaq-Composite, and S&P were analyzed for a period of 30 years from 1986 to 2015. The asset values (or index) can be placed into Aristotelian `potentiality-actuality' framework by using scattering diagram. Thus, the index values can be transformed into vectorial forms in a scattering diagram, and each vector can be split into its horizontal and vertical components. According to viscoelastic theory, the horizontal component represents the conservative, and the vertical component represents the dissipative behavior. The related storage and the loss modulus of these components are determined and then work-like and heat-like terms are calculated. It is found that the change of storage and loss modulus with Wiener noise (W) exhibit interesting patterns. The loss modulus shows a featherlike pattern, whereas the storage modulus shows figurative man-like pattern. These patterns are formed due to branchings in the system and imply that stock indices do have a kind of `fine-order' which can be detected when the change of modulus values are plotted with respect to Wiener noise. In theoretical calculations it is shown that the tips of the featherlike patterns stay at negative W values, but get closer to W = 0 as the drift in the system increases. The shift of the tip point from W = 0 indicates that the price change involves higher number of positive Wiener number corrections than the negative Wiener. The work-like and heat-like terms also exhibit patterns but with different appearance than modulus patterns. The decisional changes of people are reflected as the arrows in the scattering diagram and the propagation path of these vectors resemble the path of crack propagation. The distribution of the angle between two subsequent vectors shows a peak at 90°, indicating that the path mostly obeys the crack path occurring in hard objects. Entropy mimics the Wiener noise in the evolution

  3. Noncausal Bayesian Vector Autoregression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanne, Markku; Luoto, Jani

    We propose a Bayesian inferential procedure for the noncausal vector autoregressive (VAR) model that is capable of capturing nonlinearities and incorporating effects of missing variables. In particular, we devise a fast and reliable posterior simulator that yields the predictive distribution...

  4. Tagged Vector Contour (TVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) dataset consists of digitized contours from the 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle maps. Coverage for the state is incomplete....

  5. Vector hysteresis models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel

    1991-01-01

    Roč. 2, - (1991), s. 281-292 ISSN 0956-7925 Keywords : vector hysteresis operator * hysteresis potential * differential inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.math.cas.cz/~krejci/b15p.pdf

  6. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  7. CARBON STOCKS AND STOCK CHANGES IN AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Agevi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Trees on farmlands and agricultural lands play a crucial role in small holder farmers’ livelihoods in addition to carbon regulation through carbon sequestration. These trees have received much attention recently due to their contribution to climate change mitigation through carbon storage. Quantification of carbon stocks in these trees has always proven difficult due to the spatial extent of these trees and methodological difficulties encountered during measurement. This paper reviews a number of studies done in quantification of biomass and soil carbon stocks in agroforestry within tropics. Most appropriate method employed in determination of carbon stock changes is through use of allometric equations. The equations use parameters like diameter at breast height (DBH, height, crown area which can be measured during field inventory. DBH has always proven to be the best parameter to be used in the equation since it is easy to measure and it does not need expensive equipments.  Apart from trees, soils in agricultural lands have the capacity to store carbon and help mitigate effects of climate change. It then identifies the gap that future research can be done for accurate carbon quantification.

  8. Valuation of common and preferred stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Buying stocks is a modern way of investing. The investors may place the available capital on the domestic and foreign stock market, they may buy more stocks of a single issuer or distribute money to purchase stocks of various public (stock-exchange companies, and they may form a portfolio of various securities. The investors' decisions on these options are based on their estimate on returns and risks underlying individual security instruments (securities. The two basic approaches to valuation of common stocks are: the Present Value Approach (method of valuating the capitalization of income and the P/E Ratio Approach (the method of valuating the multiple of per-share earnings. Instead of viewing these methods as competing alternatives, they should better be viewed as mutually complementary methods. Both methods are equally useful and their concurrent use may provide better grounds for the analysts' valuation of stocks.

  9. Does Employee Stock Ownership Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Takao; Miyajima, Hideaki; Owan, Hideo

    This paper provides novel evidence on the effects of employee stock ownership (ESO), using new panel data on Japanese ESO plans for a highly representative sample of publicly-traded firms in Japan (covering more than 75% of all firms listed on Tokyo Stock Exchange) over 1989-2013. Unlike most prior...... studies, we focus on the effects of changes in varying attributes of existing ESO—the effects on the intensive margin. Our fixed effect estimates show that an increase in the strength of the existing ESO plans measured by stake per employee results in statistically significant productivity gains...... of the existing core participants is more effective in boosting gains from ESO plans than bringing in more employees into the trust. Reassuringly, our key results are found to be robust to the use of instrumental variables to account for possible endogeneity of ESO plans. Finally, we explore possible interplays...

  10. Statistical modelling of fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Trine

    1999-01-01

    for modelling the dynamics of a fish population is suggested. A new approach is introduced to analyse the sources of variation in age composition data, which is one of the most important sources of information in the cohort based models for estimation of stock abundancies and mortalities. The approach combines...... and it is argued that an approach utilising stochastic differential equations might be advantagous in fish stoch assessments....

  11. Armor Piercing Bullet Core Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1934-01-01

    letter 481/1557-1 let Ind., the speolaens were eeleoted ae follows:- 1. Carpenter Steel Co. Oal. .90 old stook ground to else. 8. Universal Steel...Co. Oal. .90 new stock ground to site Rsat 0 11981. 5. Universal Steel Co. Oal. .90 new stook ground to slss Heat C 11888. 4. Carpenter Steel Oo...Oal. .60 old stook oarburlsed oold drawn. 6. Carpenter Steel Co. Oal. .60 old stook oarburlsed oold drawn normalised. 6. Oruolble Steel Oo. Oal

  12. Forecasting Changes in Stock Prices on the Basis of Patterns Identified with the Use of Data Classification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szanduła Jacek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops the concept of harnessing data classification methods to recognize patterns in stock prices. The author defines a formation as a pattern vector describing the financial instrument. Elements of such a vector can be related to the stock price as well as sales volume and other characteristics of the financial instrument. The study uses data concerning selected companies listed on the stock exchange in New York. It takes into account a number of variables that describe the behavior of prices and volume, both in the short and long term. Partitioning around medoids method has been used for data classification (for pattern recognition. An evaluation of the possibility of using certain formations for practical purposes has also been presented.

  13. Tick size and stock returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo

    2009-02-01

    Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.

  14. The Difference Between Stock Splits and Stock Dividends - Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, Johannes; Bechmann, Ken L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates stock dividends and stock splits on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange (CSE), which is of interest because several of the more recent explanations for a stock market reaction can be ruled out. The main findings are that the announcement effect of stock dividends as well as stock...... splits is closely related to changes in a firm's payout policy, but that the relationship differs for the two types of events. A stock dividend implies an increase in nominal share capital and hence a decrease in retained earnings. Firms announcing stock dividends finance growth entirely by debt...... (explaining the need for an increase in nominal share capital) and retained earnings. Basically all firms announcing a stock dividend with a split factor of less than two can also afford to increase their total cash dividends permanently, at least proportionally to the increase in share capital, leading...

  15. Periodically Collapsing Bubbles in Stock Prices Cointegrated with Broad Dividends and Macroeconomic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Fu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We study fluctuations in stock prices using a framework derived from the present value model augmented with a macroeconomic factor. The fundamental value is derived as the expected present discounted value of broad dividends that include, in addition to traditional cash dividends, other payouts to shareholders. A stochastic discount factor motivated by the consumption-based asset pricing model is utilized. A single macroeconomic factor, namely the output gap determines the non-fundamental component of stock prices. A resulting trivariate Vector Autoregression (TVAR model of stock prices, broad dividends, and the output gap shows evidence of cointegration in the DJIA and S&P 500 index data. Nonetheless, a sup augmented Dickey-Fuller test reveals existence of periodically collapsing bubbles in S&P 500 data during the late 1990s.

  16. Practical utilization of recombinant AAV vector reference standards: focus on vector genomes titration by free ITR qPCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan D'Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV vectors have demonstrated efficacy and a good safety profile. Although the field is advancing quickly, vector analytics and harmonization of dosage units are still a limitation for commercialization. AAV reference standard materials (RSMs can help ensure product safety by controlling the consistency of assays used to characterize rAAV stocks. The most widely utilized unit of vector dosing is based on the encapsidated vector genome. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR is now the most common method to titer vector genomes (vg; however, significant inter- and intralaboratory variations have been documented using this technique. Here, RSMs and rAAV stocks were titered on the basis of an inverted terminal repeats (ITRs sequence-specific qPCR and we found an artificial increase in vg titers using a widely utilized approach. The PCR error was introduced by using single-cut linearized plasmid as the standard curve. This bias was eliminated using plasmid standards linearized just outside the ITR region on each end to facilitate the melting of the palindromic ITR sequences during PCR. This new “Free-ITR” qPCR delivers vg titers that are consistent with titers obtained with transgene-specific qPCR and could be used to normalize in-house product-specific AAV vector standards and controls to the rAAV RSMs. The free-ITR method, including well-characterized controls, will help to calibrate doses to compare preclinical and clinical data in the field.

  17. The past and future of food stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Human societies rely on food reserves and the importation of agricultural goods as means to cope with crop failures and associated food shortage. While food trade has been the subject of intensive investigations in recent years, food reserves remain poorly quantified. It is unclear how food stocks are changing and whether they are declining. In this study we use food stock records for 92 products to reconstruct 50 years of aggregated food reserves, expressed in caloric equivalent (kcal), at the regional and global scales. A detailed statistical analysis demonstrates that the overall regional and global per-capita food stocks are stationary, challenging a widespread impression that food reserves are shrinking. We develop a statistically-sound stochastic representation of stock dynamics and take the stock-halving probability as a measure of the natural variability of the process. We find that there is a 20% probability that the global per-capita stocks will be halved by 2050. There are, however, some strong regional differences: Western Europe and the region encompassing North Africa and the Middle East have smaller halving probabilities and smaller per-capita stocks, while North America and Oceania have greater halving probabilities and greater per-capita stocks than the global average. Africa exhibits low per-capita stocks and relatively high probability of stock halving by 2050, which reflects a state of higher food insecurity in this continent. (letter)

  18. The past and future of food stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Human societies rely on food reserves and the importation of agricultural goods as means to cope with crop failures and associated food shortage. While food trade has been the subject of intensive investigations in recent years, food reserves remain poorly quantified. It is unclear how food stocks are changing and whether they are declining. In this study we use food stock records for 92 products to reconstruct 50 years of aggregated food reserves, expressed in caloric equivalent (kcal), at the regional and global scales. A detailed statistical analysis demonstrates that the overall regional and global per-capita food stocks are stationary, challenging a widespread impression that food reserves are shrinking. We develop a statistically-sound stochastic representation of stock dynamics and take the stock-halving probability as a measure of the natural variability of the process. We find that there is a 20% probability that the global per-capita stocks will be halved by 2050. There are, however, some strong regional differences: Western Europe and the region encompassing North Africa and the Middle East have smaller halving probabilities and smaller per-capita stocks, while North America and Oceania have greater halving probabilities and greater per-capita stocks than the global average. Africa exhibits low per-capita stocks and relatively high probability of stock halving by 2050, which reflects a state of higher food insecurity in this continent.

  19. Jakarta Islamic Index-L 45: Rate Financial Performance, Beta Stocks and Stock Price in Indonesian Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajus Subqi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research had analyzed the effect of financial performance and stock beta (systematic risk towards stock price of eight listed companies in Jakarta Islamic Index (JII – LQ 45 for the time period of 2012-2014. The data was gathered by employing literature study and documentation of financial statements. Multiple regressions are used to measure the effect of independent variable towards dependent variable along with ttest and F test. The results based on overall test suggested that only ROE and NPM had opposite direction correlation with the stock price, meanwhile other variables had positive direction correlation. From partial test with 5% level of significance, only EPS and PER had significant effect on stock price while other variables had no effect.   Keywords: financial performance analysis, stock price, stock beta (systematic risk, Jakarta Islamic Index

  20. The synchronicity between the stock and the stock index via information in market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hai-Ling; Li, Jiang-Cheng; Guo, Wei; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2018-02-01

    The synchronicity between the stock and the stock-index in a market system is investigated. The results show that: (i) the synchronicity between the stock and the stock-index increases with the rising degree of market information capitalized into stock prices in certain range; (ii) the synchronicity decreases for large firm-specific information; (iii) the stock return synchronicity is small compared to the big noise trading, however the variance noise facilitates the synchronization within the tailored realms. These findings may be helpful in understanding the effect of market information on synchronicity, especially for the response of firm-specific information and noise trading to synchronicity.

  1. Oil price dynamics : analyses of macro economy & stock markets for ten countries

    OpenAIRE

    Visur, Emma Charlotte; Tajamal, Zara

    2017-01-01

    Masteroppgave(MSc) in Master of Science in Business, Finance - Handelshøyskolen BI, 2017 In this paper, the aim of research is to investigate the effects of oil price upon economic growth and stock market returns in ten net oil-dependent countries. We apply four different modifications to crude oil price and use Structural Vector Autoregressive regressions to examine the relationships and effects of oil price dynamics. The present research starts by introducing the topic of ...

  2. The interferon-induced antiviral protein PML (TRIM19) promotes the restriction and transcriptional silencing of lentiviruses in a context-specific, isoform-specific fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masroori, Nasser; Merindol, Natacha; Berthoux, Lionel

    2016-03-22

    The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein, a type I interferon (IFN-I)-induced gene product and a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family, modulates the transcriptional activity of viruses belonging to various families. Whether PML has an impact on the replication of HIV-1 has not been fully addressed, but recent studies point to its possible involvement in the restriction of HIV-1 in human cells and in the maintenance of transcriptional latency in human cell lines in which HIV-1 is constitutively repressed. We investigated further the restriction of HIV-1 and a related lentivirus, SIVmac, by PML in murine cells and in a lymphocytic human cell line. In particular, we studied the relevance of PML to IFN-I-mediated inhibition and the role of individual human isoforms. We demonstrate that both human PML (hPML) and murine PML (mPML) inhibit the early post-entry stages of the replication of HIV-1 and a related lentivirus, SIVmac. In addition, HIV-1 was transcriptionally silenced by mPML and by hPML isoforms I, II, IV and VI in MEFs. This PML-mediated transcriptional repression was attenuated in presence of the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA. In contrast, depletion of PML had no effect on HIV-1 gene expression in a human T cell line. PML was found to contribute to the inhibition of HIV-1 by IFN-I. Specifically, IFN-α and IFN-β treatments of MEFs enhanced the PML-dependent inhibition of HIV-1 early replication stages. We show that PML can inhibit HIV-1 and other lentiviruses as part of the IFN-I-mediated response. The restriction takes place at two distinct steps, i.e. reverse transcription and transcription, and in an isoform-specific, cellular context-specific fashion. Our results support a model in which PML activates innate immune antilentiviral effectors. These data are relevant to the development of latency reversal-inducing pharmacological agents, since PML was previously proposed as a pharmacological target for such inhibitors. This study also has

  3. The Australian stock market development: Prospects and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Sheilla Nyasha; Nicholas M. Odhiambo

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the origin and development of the Australian stock market. The country has three major stock exchanges, namely: the Australian Securities Exchange Group, the National Stock Exchange of Australia, and the Asia-Pacific Stock Exchange. These stock exchanges were born out of a string of stock exchanges that merged over time. Stock-market reforms have been implemented since the period of deregulation, during the 1980s; and the Exchanges responded largely positively to these r...

  4. Analysis of Right Issue Announcement Effect toward Stock Price Movement and Stock Trading Volume within Issuer in Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Yaputra Yakup

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to identify and analyze the rights issue effect to the stock price, the effect of the rights issue on stock trading volume, the correlation between stock prices before and after the right issue, as well as the correlation between volume of trading activity before the right issue and after that event. The objects of the study are the companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (JSX. The hypothesis stated that right issues have a significant effect on stock price on companies listed on the JSX, rights issues have a significant effect on the stock trading volume on companies listed on the JSX, there is a significant correlation between stock price before and after the rights issue on companies listed in JSX, there is a significant correlation between volume of the stock trading before the rights issue and after that event. Data analysis used were descriptive statistics, simple linear regression analysis and paired t-test. Hypothesis testing was performed by using the Pearson correlation test with significance level of 5%. The results show that the right issue has a positive effect but not significant toward stock prices of companies listed in JSX, right issue has a negative effect and not significant toward the trading volume activity (TVA on companies listed in JSX.

  5. Multithreading in vector processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Kim, Changhoan; Nair, Ravi

    2018-01-16

    In one embodiment, a system includes a processor having a vector processing mode and a multithreading mode. The processor is configured to operate on one thread per cycle in the multithreading mode. The processor includes a program counter register having a plurality of program counters, and the program counter register is vectorized. Each program counter in the program counter register represents a distinct corresponding thread of a plurality of threads. The processor is configured to execute the plurality of threads by activating the plurality of program counters in a round robin cycle.

  6. Twisting of paramodular vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson-Leung, Jennifer; Roberts, Brooks

    2013-01-01

    Let $F$ be a non-archimedean local field of characteristic zero, let $(\\pi,V)$ be an irreducible, admissible representation of $\\GSp(4,F)$ with trivial central character, and let $\\chi$ be a quadratic character of $F^\\times$ with conductor $c(\\chi)>1$. We define a twisting operator $T_\\chi$ from paramodular vectors for $\\pi$ of level $n$ to paramodular vectors for $\\chi \\otimes \\pi$ of level $\\max(n+2c(\\chi),4c(\\chi))$, and prove that this operator has properties analogous to the well-known $...

  7. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  8. Sums and Gaussian vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Yurinsky, Vadim Vladimirovich

    1995-01-01

    Surveys the methods currently applied to study sums of infinite-dimensional independent random vectors in situations where their distributions resemble Gaussian laws. Covers probabilities of large deviations, Chebyshev-type inequalities for seminorms of sums, a method of constructing Edgeworth-type expansions, estimates of characteristic functions for random vectors obtained by smooth mappings of infinite-dimensional sums to Euclidean spaces. A self-contained exposition of the modern research apparatus around CLT, the book is accessible to new graduate students, and can be a useful reference for researchers and teachers of the subject.

  9. Stock selection using a hybrid MCDM approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Poklepović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of selecting the right stocks to invest in is of immense interest for investors on both emerging and developed capital markets. Moreover, an investor should take into account all available data regarding stocks on the particular market. This includes fundamental and stock market indicators. The decision making process includes several stocks to invest in and more than one criterion. Therefore, the task of selecting the stocks to invest in can be viewed as a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM problem. Using several MCDM methods often leads to divergent rankings. The goal of this paper is to resolve these possible divergent results obtained from different MCDM methods using a hybrid MCDM approach based on Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Five MCDM methods are selected: COPRAS, linear assignment, PROMETHEE, SAW and TOPSIS. The weights for all criteria are obtained by using the AHP method. Data for this study includes information on stock returns and traded volumes from March 2012 to March 2014 for 19 stocks on the Croatian capital market. It also includes the most important fundamental and stock market indicators for selected stocks. Rankings using five selected MCDM methods in the stock selection problem yield divergent results. However, after applying the proposed approach the final hybrid rankings are obtained. The results show that the worse stocks to invest in happen to be the same when the industry is taken into consideration or when not. However, when the industry is taken into account, the best stocks to invest in are slightly different, because some industries are more profitable than the others.

  10. Model for correlations in stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh

    2000-05-01

    We propose a group model for correlations in stock markets. In the group model the markets are composed of several groups, within which the stock price fluctuations are correlated. The spectral properties of empirical correlation matrices reported recently are well understood from the model. It provides the connection between the spectral properties of the empirical correlation matrix and the structure of correlations in stock markets.

  11. Taxation, Transfer Income and Stock Market Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    are not harmonized because poorer agents mainly use their transfer income to finance present consumption. (ii) Since the evolution of the economy determines both the level of tax revenues and the evolution of the stock market, transfer income is subject to stock market risk. Hence, poorer agents optimally reduce...... their equity shares. This can happen to an extent that they optimally no longer participate in the stock market....

  12. Combining Stocks and Flows of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambos, Tina C.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    While previous research has mostly focused on either knowledge stocks or knowledge flows, our study is among the first to integrate these perspectives in order to shed light on the complementarity effects of different types of knowledge stocks and flows in the multinational corporation (MNC...... of complementarity create benefits for these units, but that the effects from intra-functional combinations of knowledge stocks and flows are significantly stronger than from cross-functional combinations....

  13. Elements of stock market analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a starting point in the presentation of the two types of stock/market analysis: the fundamental analysis and the technical analysis. The fundamental analysis consist in the assessment of the financial and economic status of the company together with the context and macroeconomic environment where it activates. The technical analysis deals with the demand and supply of securities and the evolution of their trend on the market, using a range of graphics and charts to illustrate the market tendencies for the quick identification of the best moments to buy or sell.

  14. Energy and Environment. Electric power stock exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazioli, R.; Antonioli, B.; Beccarello, M.; Da Rin, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper are reported the structural characteristics of electric power stock exchange in the processes liberalization of european electric markets. International experience are also considered [it

  15. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  16. Nuclear medium effects via quasielastic (p vector, p vector') and (p vector, n vector) scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillhouse, G.C.; Ventel, B.I.S. van der; Wyngaardt, S.M.; De Kock, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    For a 40 Ca target at a fixed momentum transfer of 1.97 fm -1 , and incident energies between 135 and 300 MeV, we quantitatively investigate the sensitivity of complete sets of quasielastic (p vector, p vector') and (p vector, n vector) spin observables to medium effects, pseudoscalar versus pseudovector forms of the πNN vertex, and exchange contributions to the NN amplitudes using a relativistic PWIA. The qualitative nature of previous studies failed to give an indication of the experimental statistical uncertainty required for distinguishing between the various model predictions. New Horowitz-Love-Franey relativistic NN amplitudes have been generated in order to yield improved and more quantitative spin observable values than before. This study indicates at which energies particular spin observables need to be measured in order to test current nuclear models. A comparison to the limited available data indicates that the relativistic parametrization of the NN scattering amplitudes in terms of only the five Fermi invariants (the SVPAT form) is questionable. (author)

  17. Orthogonalisation of Vectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    converting these vectors to orthonormal ones demanded by the model. The process of finding the closest or- thonormal basis is called the Lowdin orthogonalisation after the Swedish chemist P 0 Lowdin who introduced it. This is related to one of the basic theorems in linear algebra as we will see. Matrix Approximation ...

  18. Calculus with vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Treiman, Jay S

    2014-01-01

    Calculus with Vectors grew out of a strong need for a beginning calculus textbook for undergraduates who intend to pursue careers in STEM. fields. The approach introduces vector-valued functions from the start, emphasizing the connections between one-variable and multi-variable calculus. The text includes early vectors and early transcendentals and includes a rigorous but informal approach to vectors. Examples and focused applications are well presented along with an abundance of motivating exercises. All three-dimensional graphs have rotatable versions included as extra source materials and may be freely downloaded and manipulated with Maple Player; a free Maple Player App is available for the iPad on iTunes. The approaches taken to topics such as the derivation of the derivatives of sine and cosine, the approach to limits, and the use of "tables" of integration have been modified from the standards seen in other textbooks in order to maximize the ease with which students may comprehend the material. Additio...

  19. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...

  20. Sesquilinear uniform vector integral

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    absolute integral which generalizes the Lebesgue integral and is more easy to manipulate. We speak so far about scalar integrals (scalar functions integrated with respect to positive measures-speaking approximately). The idea of integrating vector functions with respect to scalar measures came naturally on the scene of ...

  1. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  2. Stock Market Integration in Africa: The Case of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange and Selected African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gail Ncube; Kapingura Forget Mingiri

    2015-01-01

    African stock markets are deemed to be small, segmented and illiquid. Given this back ground, the study utilises monthly data for the period 2000-2008, employing the Johansen and Julius cointegration method to determine the long-run relationship between the five selected African stock markets. Granger causality tests were also conducted to establish if there are any causal links between the stock markets in Africa. The analysis in the study indicates that African stock markets are improving i...

  3. The Stock Market Game: A Simulation of Stock Market Trading. Grades 5-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draze, Dianne

    This guide to a unit on a simulation game about the stock market contains an instructional text and two separate simulations. Through directed lessons and reproducible worksheets, the unit teaches students about business ownership, stock exchanges, benchmarks, commissions, why prices change, the logistics of buying and selling stocks, and how to…

  4. 12 CFR 950.11 - Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. 950.11 Section 950.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.11 Capital stock...

  5. The role of managerial stock option programs in governance: evidence from REIT stock repurchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, C.; Giambona, E.; Harding, J.P.; Sezer, O.; Sirmans, C.F.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of stock option programs and executive holdings of stock options in real estate investment trust (REIT) governance. We study the issue by analyzing how the market reaction to a stock repurchase announcement varies as a function of the individual REIT's governance

  6. Comparison of the efficacy of four viral vectors for transducing hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory neurons in the rat supraoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Faye C; Schaack, Jerome B; Sladek, Celia D

    2011-04-30

    Since transgenes were first cloned into recombinant adenoviruses almost 30 years ago, a variety of viral vectors have become important tools in genetic research. Viruses adeptly transport genetic material into eukaryotic cells, and replacing all or part of the viral genome with genes of interest or silencing sequences creates a method of gene expression modulation in which the timing and location of manipulations can be specific. The hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system (HNS), consisting of the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei in the hypothalamus, regulates fluid balance homeostasis and is highly plastic, yet tightly regulated by extracellular fluid (ECF) osmolality and volume. Its reversible plasticity and physiological relevance make it a good system for studying interactions between gene expression and physiology. Here, four viral vectors were compared for their ability to transduce magnocellular neurosecretory neurons (MNCs) of the SON in adult rats. The vectors included an adenovirus, a lentivirus (HIV) and two serotypes of adeno-associated viruses (AAV5 and AAV2). Though adenovirus and AAV2 vectors have previously been used to transduce SON neurons, HIV and AAV5 have not. All four vectors transduced MNCs, but the AAV vectors were the most effective, transducing large numbers of MNCs, with minimal or no glial transduction. The AAV vectors were injected using a convection enhanced delivery protocol to maximize dispersal through the tissue, resulting in the transduction of neurons throughout the anterior to posterior length of the SON (∼1.5mm). AAV5, but not AAV2, showed some selectivity for SON neurons relative to those in the surrounding hypothalamus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Do stock prices drive people crazy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Liang; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Liu, Tsai-Ching

    2015-03-01

    This is the first research to examine a potential relation between stock market volatility and mental disorders. Using data on daily incidences of mental disorders in Taiwan over 4000 days from 1998 through 2009 to assess the time-series relation between stock price movements and mental disorders, we observe that stock price fluctuation clearly affects the hospitalization of mental disorders. We find that during a 12-year follow-up period, a low stock price index, a daily fall in the stock price index and consecutive daily falls in the stock price index are all associated with greater of mental disorders hospitalizations. A 1000-point fall in the TAIEX (Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index) increases the number of daily mental disorders hospitalizations by 4.71%. A 1% fall in the TAIEX in one single day increases daily hospitalizations for mental disorders by 0.36%. When the stock price index falls one consecutive day, it causes a daily increase of approximately 0.32% hospitalizations due to mental disorders on that day. Stock price index is found to be significant for both gender and all age groups. In addition, daily change is significant for both gender and middle-age groups, whereas accumulated change is significant for males and people aged 45-64. Stockholdings can help people accumulate wealth, but they can also increase mental disorders hospitalizations. In other words, stock price fluctuations do drive people crazy. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  8. The alarming decline of Mediterranean fish stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakopoulos, Paraskevas; Maravelias, Christos D; Tserpes, George

    2014-07-21

    In recent years, fisheries management has succeeded in stabilizing and even improving the state of many global fisheries resources [1-5]. This is particularly evident in areas where stocks are exploited in compliance with scientific advice and strong institutional structures are in place [1, 5]. In Europe, the well-managed northeast (NE) Atlantic fish stocks have been recovering in response to decreasing fishing pressure over the past decade [3-6], albeit with a long way to go for a universal stock rebuild [3, 7]. Meanwhile, little is known about the temporal development of the European Mediterranean stocks, whose management relies on input controls that are often poorly enforced. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of 42 European Mediterranean stocks of nine species in 1990-2010, showing that exploitation rate has been steadily increasing, selectivity (proportional exploitation of juveniles) has been deteriorating, and stocks have been shrinking. We implement species-specific simulation models to quantify changes in exploitation rate and selectivity that would maximize long-term yields and halt stock depletion. We show that stocks would be more resilient to fishing and produce higher long-term yields if harvested a few years after maturation because current selectivity is far from optimal, especially for demersal stocks. The European Common Fisheries Policy that has assisted in improving the state of NE Atlantic fish stocks in the past 10 years has failed to deliver similar results for Mediterranean stocks managed under the same policy. Limiting juvenile exploitation, advancing management plans, and strengthening compliance, control, and enforcement could promote fisheries sustainability in the Mediterranean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel strategy for generation and titration of recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Ai-Li; Liu, Pu-Ste; Wu, Chao-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have many advantages for gene therapeutic applications compared with other vector systems. Several methods that use plasmids or helper viruses have been reported for the generation of rAAV vectors. Unfortunately, the preparation of large-scale rAAV stocks is labor-intensive. Moreover, the biological titration of rAAV is still difficult, which may limit its preclinical and clinical applications. For this study, we developed a novel strategy to generate and biologically titrate rAAV vectors. A recombinant pseudorabies virus (PrV) with defects in its gD, gE, and thymidine kinase genes was engineered to express the AAV rep and cap genes, yielding PS virus, which served as a packaging and helper virus for the generation of rAAV vectors. PS virus was useful not only for generating high-titer rAAV vectors by cotransfection with an rAAV vector plasmid, but also for amplifying rAAV stocks. Notably, the biological titration of rAAV vectors was also feasible when cells were coinfected with rAAV and PS virus. Based on this strategy, we produced an rAAV that expresses prothymosin alpha (ProT). Expression of the ProT protein in vitro and in vivo mediated by rAAV/ProT gene transfer was detected by immunohistochemistry and a bioassay. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the PrV vector-based system is useful for generating rAAV vectors carrying various transgenes.

  10. Functional Principal Components Analysis of Shanghai Stock Exchange 50 Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to explore the principle components of Shanghai stock exchange 50 index by means of functional principal component analysis (FPCA. Functional data analysis (FDA deals with random variables (or process with realizations in the smooth functional space. One of the most popular FDA techniques is functional principal component analysis, which was introduced for the statistical analysis of a set of financial time series from an explorative point of view. FPCA is the functional analogue of the well-known dimension reduction technique in the multivariate statistical analysis, searching for linear transformations of the random vector with the maximal variance. In this paper, we studied the monthly return volatility of Shanghai stock exchange 50 index (SSE50. Using FPCA to reduce dimension to a finite level, we extracted the most significant components of the data and some relevant statistical features of such related datasets. The calculated results show that regarding the samples as random functions is rational. Compared with the ordinary principle component analysis, FPCA can solve the problem of different dimensions in the samples. And FPCA is a convenient approach to extract the main variance factors.

  11. Scaling in the Bombay stock exchange index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fractals; multifractals; / analysis; scaling; stock markets. Abstract. In this paper we study Bombay stock exchange (BSE) index financial time series for fractal and multifractal behaviour. We show that BSE index time series is monofractal and can be represented by a fractional Brownian motion.

  12. Stock market volatility and macroeconomic uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Vrugt, E.B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the link between stock market volatility and macroeconomic uncertainty. We show that US stock market volatility is significantly related to the dispersion in economic forecasts from SPF survey participants over the period from 1969 to 1996. This link is much

  13. Recent market behavior of utility stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews the recent market behavior of utility stocks as compared to the Standard and Poor's 500 and the long-term government bond yield. Utility stock's performance continues to be affected by unfavorable regulation,and it appears that it will continue to be a factor for some time to come. A continually shrinking excess capacity continues to be a concern

  14. A Tale of Two Stock Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michelle Hine; Piercey, Victor I.; Greene-Hunley, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This article describes two different projects using the stock market as a context for learning. For both projects, students "bought" shares in individual companies, tracked stock prices for a period of time, and then "sold" their shares at a gain or loss. The projects are adaptable for students in late elementary school through…

  15. Jump Detection in the Danish Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2002-01-01

    It is well known in financial economics that stock market return data are often modelled by a diffusion process with some regular drift function. Occasionally, however, sudden changes or jumps occur in the return data. Wavelet scaling methods are used to detect jumps and cusps in stock market...

  16. Macroeconomic Volatility and Stock Market Volatility, Worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Francis X. Diebold; Kamil Yilmaz

    2008-01-01

    Notwithstanding its impressive contributions to empirical financial economics, there remains a significant gap in the volatility literature, namely its relative neglect of the connection between macroeconomic fundamentals and asset return volatility. We progress by analyzing a broad international cross section of stock markets covering approximately forty countries. We find a clear link between macroeconomic fundamentals and stock market volatilities, with volatile fundamentals translating in...

  17. Mandatory IFRS Reporting and Stock Price Informativeness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuselinck, C.A.C.; Joos, P.P.M.; Khurana, I.K.; van der Meulen, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine whether mandatory adoption of IFRS influences the flow of firm-specific information and contributes to stock price informativeness as measured by stock return synchronicity. Using a constant sample of 1,904 mandatory IFRS adopters in 14 EU countries for the period

  18. Scaling in the Bombay stock exchange index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we study Bombay stock exchange (BSE) index financial time series for fractal and multifractal behaviour. We show that BSE index time series is monofractal and can be represented by a fractional Brownian motion. Keywords. Fractals; multifractals; R/S analysis; scaling; stock markets. PACS Nos 47.53.

  19. Dynamic behavior of value and growth stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, T.; Plantinga, A.

    2004-01-01

    The difference between the performance of growth and value portfolios presents an interesting puzzle for researchers in finance. Most studies showed that value stocks outperform growth stocks. This is the so-called value premium. In this article, we try to find an answer to the question as to why

  20. Does Stock Market Performance Influence Retirement Intentions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Shoven, John B.; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

    2012-01-01

    Media reports predicted that the stock market decline in October 2008 would cause changes in retirement intentions, due to declines in retirement assets. We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study to investigate the relationship between stock market performance and retirement intentions during 1998-2008, a period that includes the…

  1. Optimising stocking rate under commercial and subsistence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of the model, it pays (in the short term) to overgraze. There is apparently no technical solution to this problem. Keywords: Commercial pastoralism; Farming; grazing ecosystems; herbivores; livestock; model; overstocking; pastoralism; plant-herbivore models; south africa; stocking rate; Stocking rates; Subsistence ...

  2. 25 CFR 700.717 - Stocking rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stocking rate. 700.717 Section 700.717 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.717 Stocking rate. The Commissioner will determine livestock carrying capacity for each...

  3. Simplified production and concentration of HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors using HYPERFlask vessels and anion exchange membrane chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Michael P

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past twelve years, lentiviral (LV vectors have emerged as valuable tools for transgene delivery because of their ability to transduce nondividing cells and their capacity to sustain long-term transgene expression in target cells in vitro and in vivo. However, despite significant progress, the production and concentration of high-titer, high-quality LV vector stocks is still cumbersome and costly. Methods Here we present a simplified protocol for LV vector production on a laboratory scale using HYPERFlask vessels. HYPERFlask vessels are high-yield, high-performance flasks that utilize a multilayered gas permeable growth surface for efficient gas exchange, allowing convenient production of high-titer LV vectors. For subsequent concentration of LV vector stocks produced in this way, we describe a facile protocol involving Mustang Q anion exchange membrane chromatography. Results Our results show that unconcentrated LV vector stocks with titers in excess of 108 transduction units (TU per ml were obtained using HYPERFlasks and that these titers were higher than those produced in parallel using regular 150-cm2 tissue culture dishes. We also show that up to 500 ml of an unconcentrated LV vector stock prepared using a HYPERFlask vessel could be concentrated using a single Mustang Q Acrodisc with a membrane volume of 0.18 ml. Up to 5.3 × 1010 TU were recovered from a single HYPERFlask vessel. Conclusion The protocol described here is easy to implement and should facilitate high-titer LV vector production for preclinical studies in animal models without the need for multiple tissue culture dishes and ultracentrifugation-based concentration protocols.

  4. Simplified production and concentration of HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors using HYPERFlask vessels and anion exchange membrane chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Robert H; Puthli, Sharon; Marino, Michael P; Reiser, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Background During the past twelve years, lentiviral (LV) vectors have emerged as valuable tools for transgene delivery because of their ability to transduce nondividing cells and their capacity to sustain long-term transgene expression in target cells in vitro and in vivo. However, despite significant progress, the production and concentration of high-titer, high-quality LV vector stocks is still cumbersome and costly. Methods Here we present a simplified protocol for LV vector production on a laboratory scale using HYPERFlask vessels. HYPERFlask vessels are high-yield, high-performance flasks that utilize a multilayered gas permeable growth surface for efficient gas exchange, allowing convenient production of high-titer LV vectors. For subsequent concentration of LV vector stocks produced in this way, we describe a facile protocol involving Mustang Q anion exchange membrane chromatography. Results Our results show that unconcentrated LV vector stocks with titers in excess of 108 transduction units (TU) per ml were obtained using HYPERFlasks and that these titers were higher than those produced in parallel using regular 150-cm2 tissue culture dishes. We also show that up to 500 ml of an unconcentrated LV vector stock prepared using a HYPERFlask vessel could be concentrated using a single Mustang Q Acrodisc with a membrane volume of 0.18 ml. Up to 5.3 × 1010 TU were recovered from a single HYPERFlask vessel. Conclusion The protocol described here is easy to implement and should facilitate high-titer LV vector production for preclinical studies in animal models without the need for multiple tissue culture dishes and ultracentrifugation-based concentration protocols. PMID:19220915

  5. Vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bicout, Dominique; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    After a request from the Europea n Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Animal Health and Welfaresummarised the main characteristics of 36 vector-borne disease s (VBDs) in 36 web-based storymaps.The risk of introduction in the EU through movement of livestock or pets was assessed for eac h of the36 VBDs...... individually, using a semiquantitative Metho d to INTegrate all relevant RISK aspects(MINTRI SK model), which was further modified to a European scale into the EFSA-VBD-RISK-m odel .Only eight of the 36 VBD-agents had an overall rate of introduction in the EU (being the combinationof the rate of entry, vector...... transmission and establishment) which was estimated to be above 0.001introductions per year. These were Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, bluetongue virus, WestNile virus, Schmallenberg virus, Hepatozoon canis, Leishmania infantum, Bunyamwera virus andHighlands J. virus. For these eight dise ases...

  6. Automatic SIMD vectorization of SSA-based control flow graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Karrenberg, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Ralf Karrenberg presents Whole-Function Vectorization (WFV), an approach that allows a compiler to automatically create code that exploits data-parallelism using SIMD instructions. Data-parallel applications such as particle simulations, stock option price estimation or video decoding require the same computations to be performed on huge amounts of data. Without WFV, one processor core executes a single instance of a data-parallel function. WFV transforms the function to execute multiple instances at once using SIMD instructions. The author describes an advanced WFV algorithm that includes a v

  7. Modeling Chaotic Behavior of Chittagong Stock Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Banik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock market prediction is an important area of financial forecasting, which attracts great interest to stock buyers and sellers, stock investors, policy makers, applied researchers, and many others who are involved in the capital market. In this paper, a comparative study has been conducted to predict stock index values using soft computing models and time series model. Paying attention to the applied econometric noises because our considered series are time series, we predict Chittagong stock indices for the period from January 1, 2005 to May 5, 2011. We have used well-known models such as, the genetic algorithm (GA model and the adaptive network fuzzy integrated system (ANFIS model as soft computing forecasting models. Very widely used forecasting models in applied time series econometrics, namely, the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH model is considered as time series model. Our findings have revealed that the use of soft computing models is more successful than the considered time series model.

  8. Recurrence quantification analysis of global stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João A.; Caiado, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the presence of deterministic dependencies in international stock markets using recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). The results are based on a large set of free float-adjusted market capitalization stock indices, covering a period of 15 years. The statistical tests suggest that the dynamics of stock prices in emerging markets is characterized by higher values of RQA measures when compared to their developed counterparts. The behavior of stock markets during critical financial events, such as the burst of the technology bubble, the Asian currency crisis, and the recent subprime mortgage crisis, is analyzed by performing RQA in sliding windows. It is shown that during these events stock markets exhibit a distinctive behavior that is characterized by temporary decreases in the fraction of recurrence points contained in diagonal and vertical structures.

  9. Tensor Calculus: Unlearning Vector Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wha-Suck; Engelbrecht, Johann; Moller, Rita

    2018-01-01

    Tensor calculus is critical in the study of the vector calculus of the surface of a body. Indeed, tensor calculus is a natural step-up for vector calculus. This paper presents some pitfalls of a traditional course in vector calculus in transitioning to tensor calculus. We show how a deeper emphasis on traditional topics such as the Jacobian can…

  10. Resistance of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class B (MHC-B) to Nef-Mediated Downregulation Relative to that of MHC-A Is Conserved among Primate Lentiviruses and Influences Antiviral T Cell Responses in HIV-1-Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwimanzi, Francis; Toyoda, Mako; Mahiti, Macdonald; Mann, Jaclyn K; Martin, Jeffrey N; Bangsberg, David; Brockman, Mark A; Goulder, Philip; Kirchhoff, Frank; Brumme, Zabrina L; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Ueno, Takamasa

    2018-01-01

    Patient-derived HIV-1 subtype B Nef clones downregulate HLA-A more efficiently than HLA-B. However, it remains unknown whether this property is common to Nef proteins across primate lentiviruses and how antiviral immune responses may be affected. We examined 263 Nef clones from diverse primate lentiviruses including different pandemic HIV-1 group M subtypes for their ability to downregulate major histocompatibility complex class A (MHC-A) and MHC-B from the cell surface. Though lentiviral Nef proteins differed markedly in their absolute MHC-A and MHC-B downregulation abilities, all lentiviral Nef lineages downregulated MHC-A, on average, 11 to 32% more efficiently than MHC-B. Nef genotype/phenotype analyses in a cohort of HIV-1 subtype C-infected patients ( n = 168), together with site-directed mutagenesis, revealed Nef position 9 as a subtype-specific determinant of differential HLA-A versus HLA-B downregulation activity. Nef clones harboring nonconsensus variants at codon 9 downregulated HLA-B (though not HLA-A) significantly better than those harboring the consensus sequence at this site, resulting in reduced recognition of infected target cells by HIV-1-specific CD8 + effector cells in vitro Among persons expressing protective HLA class I alleles, carriage of Nef codon 9 variants was also associated with reduced ex vivo HIV-specific T cell responses. Our results demonstrate that Nef's inferior ability to downregulate MHC-B compared to that of MHC-A is conserved across primate lentiviruses and suggest that this property influences antiviral cellular immune responses. IMPORTANCE Primate lentiviruses encode the Nef protein that plays an essential role in establishing persistent infection in their respective host species. Nef interacts with the cytoplasmic region of MHC-A and MHC-B molecules and downregulates them from the infected cell surface to escape recognition by host cellular immunity. Using a panel of Nef alleles isolated from diverse primate lentiviruses

  11. Systematic analysis of group identification in stock markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Jeong, Hawoong

    2005-10-01

    We propose improved methods to identify stock groups using the correlation matrix of stock price changes. By filtering out the market-wide effect and the random noise, we construct the correlation matrix of stock groups in which nontrivial high correlations between stocks are found. Using the filtered correlation matrix, we successfully identify the multiple stock groups without any extra knowledge of the stocks by the optimization of the matrix representation and the percolation approach to the correlation-based network of stocks. These methods drastically reduce the ambiguities while finding stock groups using the eigenvectors of the correlation matrix.

  12. Construction of Conveniently Screening pLKO.1-TRC Vector Tagged with TurboGFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Zhu, Wenhua; Guo, Yuanxu; Jiang, Congshan; Hussain, Nazim; Meng, Liesu; Lu, Shemin

    2017-02-01

    The pLKO.1-TRC plasmid has been a popular and widely used vector due to its simple handling and stability. The huge RNAi database, a TRC library, has been established based on this vector. However, this plasmid only has a puromycin-resisted gene for selecting, which limits its application in microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). In the present work, PCR, restriction endonuclease digestion and molecular cloning techniques were used to insert the gene decoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) without changing the structure of original plasmid to extend its application. To demonstrate the function of new plasmid, we constructed shNC and shGAPDH plasmids based on newly constructed pLKO-TurboGFP-TRC (pLKOG) and original pLKO plasmids, and then packaged lentivirus particles by 293T cells. The supernatant containing lentiviral particles was collected and then incubated with RAW264.7 cells for infection. After selection for 7 days by using puromycin, the cells were harvested. RT-qPCR and Western blotting were used to detect the target gene expression. FACS was used to detect the green fluorescent of cells. Our results showed that the newly constructed pLKOG plasmid, as a lentiviral vector carrying shRNA, could knock down the target gene expression efficiently and express TurboGFP protein efficiently in the host cells. We conclude that the new plasmid is a convenient vector for selecting positive cells with shRNA by using fluorescent microscope and FACS.

  13. Leishmaniasis vector behaviour in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutinga, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Leishmaniasis in Kenya exists in two forms: cutaneous and visceral. The vectors of visceral leishmaniasis have been the subject of investigation by various researchers since World War II, when the outbreak of the disease was first noticed. The vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis were first worked on only a decade ago after the discovery of the disease focus in Mt. Elgon. The vector behaviour of these diseases, namely Phlebotomus pedifer, the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Phlebotomus martini, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis, are discussed in detail. P. pedifer has been found to breed and bite inside caves, whereas P. martini mainly bites inside houses. (author)

  14. Managerial Stock Compensation and Risky Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana Nastasescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the mix of CEO equity-based compensation, namely stock options and restricted stock, and firms' risky investment. In general, the theory suggests that long-term compensation aligns CEOs' and shareholders' interests by inducing the managers to undertake risky investment, which has a positive impact on longterm well-being of the firm. However, as my results show, it is important to distinguish between types of awards since they can have different effects on the riskiness of the firm. In this respect, I answer the question how are different types of stock based compensation related to the executives' determination to increase or not the intensity of the firm's risky investment? I find that awarding the CEOs preponderantly with stock options positively affects the firm's level of R&D investment. Conversely, a higher proportion of restricted stock in the CEO's compensation is related to lower investment in (risky R&D. The inverse relation of causality also holds. Firms that make intensive R&D investments are more likely to award their CEOs with more stock options relative to restricted stock. Overall, the results are consistent with the theoretical prediction, in that the managerial compensation scheme plays an important role in determining the level of R&D investment.

  15. Hidden Markov Model for Stock Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyet Nguyen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hidden Markov model (HMM is typically used to predict the hidden regimes of observation data. Therefore, this model finds applications in many different areas, such as speech recognition systems, computational molecular biology and financial market predictions. In this paper, we use HMM for stock selection. We first use HMM to make monthly regime predictions for the four macroeconomic variables: inflation (consumer price index (CPI, industrial production index (INDPRO, stock market index (S&P 500 and market volatility (VIX. At the end of each month, we calibrate HMM’s parameters for each of these economic variables and predict its regimes for the next month. We then look back into historical data to find the time periods for which the four variables had similar regimes with the forecasted regimes. Within those similar periods, we analyze all of the S&P 500 stocks to identify which stock characteristics have been well rewarded during the time periods and assign scores and corresponding weights for each of the stock characteristics. A composite score of each stock is calculated based on the scores and weights of its features. Based on this algorithm, we choose the 50 top ranking stocks to buy. We compare the performances of the portfolio with the benchmark index, S&P 500. With an initial investment of $100 in December 1999, over 15 years, in December 2014, our portfolio had an average gain per annum of 14.9% versus 2.3% for the S&P 500.

  16. Carbon stocks assessment in subtropical forest types of Kashmir Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, H.; Khan, R.W.A.; Hussain, K.; Ullah, T.S.; Mehmood, A.

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of carbon sequestration in forest ecosystem is necessary to mitigate impacts of climate change. Current research project was focused to assess the Carbon contents in standing trees and soil of different subtropical forest sites in Kashmir. Tree biomass was estimated by using allometric equations whereas Soil carbon was calculated by Walkey-Black titration method. Total carbon stock was computed as 186.27 t/ha with highest value of 326 t/ha recorded from Pinus roxburghii forest whereas lowest of 75.86 t/ha at mixed forest. Average biomass carbon was found to be 151.38 t/ha with a maximum value of 294.7 t/ha and minimum of 43.4 t/ha. Pinus roxburghii was the most significant species having biomass value of 191.8 t/ha, followed by Olea cuspidata (68.9 t/ha), Acacia modesta (12.71 t/ha), Dalbergia sissoo (12.01 t/ha), Broussonetia papyrifera (5.93 t/ha), Punica granatum (2.27 t/ha), Mallotus philippensis (2.2 t/ha), Albizia lebbeck (1.8t/ha), Ficus palmata (1.51 t/ha), Acacia arabica (1.4 t/ha), Melia azedarach, (1.14 t/ha) and Ficus carica (1.07 t/ha) respectively. Recorded value of tree density was 492/ha; average DBH was 87.27 cm; tree height was 13.3m; and regeneration value was 83 seedlings/ha. Soil carbon stocks were found to be 34.89 t/ha whereas agricultural soil carbon was calculated as 27.18 t/ha. Intense deforestation was represented by a stump density of 147.4/ha. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed the distinct species clusters on the basis of location, biomass and Carbon stock values. Pinus roxburghii and Olea cuspidata were found to be the major contributors of carbon stock having maximum vector lengths in the PCA Biplot. Forest in the area needs to be managed in a sustainable manner to increase its carbon sequestration potential. (author)

  17. The dependence of Islamic and conventional stocks: A copula approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Ismail, Noriszura

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have found that Islamic stocks are dependent on conventional stocks and they appear to be more risky. In Asia, particularly in Islamic countries, research on dependence involving Islamic and non-Islamic stock markets is limited. The objective of this study is to investigate the dependence between financial times stock exchange Hijrah Shariah index and conventional stocks (EMAS and KLCI indices). Using the copula approach and a time series model for each marginal distribution function, the copula parameters were estimated. The Elliptical copula was selected to present the dependence structure of each pairing of the Islamic stock and conventional stock. Specifically, the Islamic versus conventional stocks (Shariah-EMAS and Shariah-KLCI) had lower dependence compared to conventional versus conventional stocks (EMAS-KLCI). These findings suggest that the occurrence of shocks in a conventional stock will not have strong impact on the Islamic stock.

  18. On vector equilibrium problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Let X be a real topological vector space; K & X be a nonempty closed convex set; ЕYY PЖ be a real ordered ... induced by a solid pointed closed convex cone P, thus x P y@Ay └ x P P, VxY y P Y; f : X ┬ X└3Y with .... tone; VxY y P K, the function t P Й0Y 1К└3gЕty З Е1 └ tЖxY yЖ is continuous at 0З; g is a P-convex and ...

  19. Scalar and vector Galileons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Yeinzon; Navarro, Andrés A.

    2017-03-01

    An alternative for the construction of fundamental theories is the introduction of Galileons. These are fields whose action leads to non higher than second-order equations of motion. As this is a necessary but not sufficient condition to make the Hamiltonian bounded from below, as long as the action is not degenerate, the Galileon construction is a way to avoid pathologies both at the classical and quantum levels. Galileon actions are, therefore, of great interest in many branches of physics, specially in high energy physics and cosmology. This proceedings contribution presents the generalities of the construction of both scalar and vector Galileons following two different but complimentary routes.

  20. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  1. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...... of funding liquidity constraints suggesting an economic channel for the effect....

  2. Neonatal Gene Therapy of Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia Using a Feline Immunodeficiency Virus–based Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshpun, Albert; Condiotti, Reba; N Waddington, Simon; Peer, Michael; Zeig, Eli; Peretz, Sima; Simerzin, Alina; Chou, Janice; Pann, Chi-Jiunn; Giladi, Hilla; Galun, Eithan

    2010-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia), also known as von Gierke disease, is caused by a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase), a key enzyme in glucose homeostasis. From birth, affected individuals cannot maintain normal blood glucose levels and suffer from a variety of metabolic disorders, leading to life-threatening complications. Gene therapy has been proposed as a possible option for treatment of this illness. Vectors have been constructed from feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a nonprimate lentivirus, because the wild-type virus does not cause disease in humans. Previously, we have shown that these vectors are capable of integrating stably into hepatocyte cell lines and adult murine livers and lead to long-term transgene expression. In the current work, we have assessed the ability to attenuate disease symptoms in a murine model of GSD-Ia. Single administration of FIV vectors containing the human G6Pase gene to G6Pase-α−/− mice did not change the biochemical and pathological phenotype. However, a double neonatal administration protocol led to normalized blood glucose levels, significantly extended survival, improved body weight, and decreased accumulation of liver glycogen associated with the disease. This approach shows a promising paradigm for treating GSD-Ia patients early in life thereby avoiding long-term consequences. PMID:20571544

  3. Neonatal gene therapy of glycogen storage disease type Ia using a feline immunodeficiency virus-based vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshpun, Albert; Condiotti, Reba; Waddington, Simon N; Peer, Michael; Zeig, Eli; Peretz, Sima; Simerzin, Alina; Chou, Janice; Pann, Chi-Jiunn; Giladi, Hilla; Galun, Eithan

    2010-09-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia), also known as von Gierke disease, is caused by a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase-alpha (G6Pase), a key enzyme in glucose homeostasis. From birth, affected individuals cannot maintain normal blood glucose levels and suffer from a variety of metabolic disorders, leading to life-threatening complications. Gene therapy has been proposed as a possible option for treatment of this illness. Vectors have been constructed from feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a nonprimate lentivirus, because the wild-type virus does not cause disease in humans. Previously, we have shown that these vectors are capable of integrating stably into hepatocyte cell lines and adult murine livers and lead to long-term transgene expression. In the current work, we have assessed the ability to attenuate disease symptoms in a murine model of GSD-Ia. Single administration of FIV vectors containing the human G6Pase gene to G6Pase-alpha(-/-) mice did not change the biochemical and pathological phenotype. However, a double neonatal administration protocol led to normalized blood glucose levels, significantly extended survival, improved body weight, and decreased accumulation of liver glycogen associated with the disease. This approach shows a promising paradigm for treating GSD-Ia patients early in life thereby avoiding long-term consequences.

  4. THE EFFECT OF MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES ON BANKING STOCK PRICE INDEX IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laduna R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock price index can be regarded as a barometer in the measuremet of a nation’s economic condition, besides it can also be used in conducting statistical analysis on the current market. Stock is the proof of one’s share in a company in the form of securities issued by the listed go-public companies. This study was conducted to measure the effect of macroeconomic variables such as inflation, interest rate, and exchange rate on banking stock price index in Indonesia stock exchange or Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI. The results of study show that inflation and exchange rate posively influence the stock price index. The positive effect of the exchange rate shows that issuers who were positively affected by Rupiah (IDR depreciation appear to be the most dominant group. Meanwhile, the interest rate or Suku Bunga (SBI has a negative effect. Lower interest rate stimulates higher investments and better economic activities which increase the stock price.

  5. Vertical vector face lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The production of viral vectors designed to express large and difficult to express transgenes within neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holehonnur, Roopashri; Lella, Srihari K; Ho, Anthony; Luong, Jonathan A; Ploski, Jonathan E

    2015-02-24

    Viral vectors are frequently used to deliver and direct expression of transgenes in a spatially and temporally restricted manner within the nervous system of numerous model organisms. Despite the common use of viral vectors to direct ectopic expression of transgenes within the nervous system, creating high titer viral vectors that are capable of expressing very large transgenes or difficult to express transgenes imposes unique challenges. Here we describe the development of adeno-associated viruses (AAV) and lentiviruses designed to express the large and difficult to express GluN2A or GluN2B subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) receptor, specifically within neurons. We created a number of custom designed AAV and lentiviral vectors that were optimized for large transgenes, by minimizing DNA sequences that were not essential, utilizing short promoter sequences of 8 widely used promoters (RSV, EFS, TRE3G, 0.4αCaMKII, 1.3αCaMKII, 0.5Synapsin, 1.1Synapsin and CMV) and utilizing a very short (~75 bps) 3' untranslated sequence. Not surprisingly these promoters differed in their ability to express the GluN2 subunits, however surprisingly we found that the neuron specific synapsin and αCaMKII, promoters were incapable of conferring detectable expression of full length GluN2 subunits and detectable expression could only be achieved from these promoters if the transgene included an intron or if the GluN2 subunit transgenes were truncated to only include the coding regions of the GluN2 transmembrane domains. We determined that viral packaging limit, transgene promoter and the presence of an intron within the transgene were all important factors that contributed to being able to successfully develop viral vectors designed to deliver and express GluN2 transgenes in a neuron specific manner. Because these vectors have been optimized to accommodate large open reading frames and in some cases contain an intron to facilitate expression of difficult to express

  7. Market Performance and Accounting Information as the Reference of Stocks Portfolio Formation in Indonesia Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaribu, Rowland Bismark Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to a stock portfolio formed with composite of companies market (PER, PBV, ROE, EPS, PSR, and B/M, VaR) and accounting performance (ROE, and EPS) also their market capitalization in Indonesia Stock Exchange period 2003-2006. Some clarification need to achieved, such as: real difference among variabel refer to their market capitalization and influence of predictor to stock return. Hereinafter, the performance of selected portfolio were evaluated. The evaluation result conclude ...

  8. Comparing Information Content of Accounting in Companies with Growth and Value Stocks in Tehran Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Sahar Haghnejad; Zahra Alipourdarvish

    2015-01-01

    Disclosure of information to the market is followed by different behaviors and reactions on the part of analysts and investors. Type of stocks in the market and amount of information content also affect the strength and extent of this reaction. The present study investigates the differences between the information content of accounting in companies with growth and value stocks. The statistical population was the companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange from 2007 to 2013, out of which the sta...

  9. Scaling in the Bombay stock exchange index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we study Bombay stock exchange (BSE) index financial time series for fractal and multifractal behaviour. We show that BSE index time series is monofractal and can be represented by a fractional Brownian motion.

  10. Decision Support for the Rolling Stock Dispatcher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen

    Real-time recovery is receiving a fast growing interest in an increasingly competitive railway operation market. This thesis considers the area of rolling stock dispatching which is one of the typical real-time railway dispatching problems. All work of the thesis is based on the network...... and planning processes of the railway operator DSB S-tog a/s. In the thesis the problems existing in the railway planning process from the strategic to real-time level are briefly sketched. Network planning, line planning, timetabling, crew and rolling stock planning is outlined and relevant references...... are given. Specifically the thesis references the operation research studies based on the railway operation of DSB S-tog a/s. Subsequently the process of dispatching is outlined with a specific emphasis on rolling stock. The rolling stock recovery problem is the problem of assigning train units to train...

  11. Dynamic Stock Market Participation of Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of stock market participation, where consumers’ decisions regarding stock market participation are influenced by participation costs. The practical significance of the participation costs is considered as being a channel through which financial...... education programs can affect consumers’ investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market articipation cost is about 5% of labor...... income; however, it varies substantially over consumers’ life. The model successfully predicts the level of the observed articipation rate and the increasing pattern of stock market participation over the consumers’ life cycle....

  12. SIS - Species and Stock Administrative Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Species and Stock Administrative data set within the Species Information System (SIS) defines entities within the database that serve as the basis for recording...

  13. Community monitoring of carbon stocks for REDD+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brofeldt, Søren; Theilade, Ida; Burgess, Neil David

    2014-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) is a potentially powerful international policy mechanism that many tropica...

  14. Multifractal structures for the Russian stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Taro

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we apply the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) to the Russian stock price returns. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to reveal the multifractal structures for the Russian stock market by financial crises. The contributions of the paper are twofold. (i) Finding the multifractal structures for the Russian stock market. The generalized Hurst exponents estimated become highly-nonlinear to the order of the fluctuation functions. (ii) Computing the multifractality degree according to Zunino et al. (2008). We find that the multifractality degree of the Russian stock market can be categorized within emerging markets, however, the Russian 1998 crisis and the global financial crisis dampen the degree when we consider the order of the polynomial trends in the MFDFA.

  15. Sustainment Stocks for the Korean Theater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St

    1998-01-01

    .... This study concludes that the Army intends to provide theater Class VII combat loss replacements, in the Korean theater, in the early stage of conflict or war from Army Pre-positioned Stocks-Sustainment 4 (APS-S 4...

  16. The price momentum of stock in distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijun; Wang, Longfei

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a new momentum of stock in distribution is proposed and applied in real investment. Firstly, assuming that a stock behaves as a multi-particle system, its share-exchange distribution and cost distribution are introduced. Secondly, an estimation of the share-exchange distribution is given with daily transaction data by 3 σ rule from the normal distribution. Meanwhile, an iterative method is given to estimate the cost distribution. Based on the cost distribution, a new momentum is proposed for stock system. Thirdly, an empirical test is given to compare the new momentum with others by contrarian strategy. The result shows that the new one outperforms others in many places. Furthermore, entropy of stock is introduced according to its cost distribution.

  17. Policy on Existing Stocks of Pesticide Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This statement establishes general principles the Agency generally will apply in determining whether and under what conditions to allow the sale and use of existing stocks of pesticides for which the registration has been amended, canceled, or suspended.

  18. Combining Stocks and Flows of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambos, Tina C.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Pedersen, Torben

    In the area of knowledge management and knowledge governance, previous research has mostly focused on either knowledge stocks or knowledge flows of firms or organizational units. Contrary to this work, our study is among the first to integrate these two perspectives in order to shed light...... on the complementarity effects of different types of knowledge stocks and flows in the multinational corporation (MNC). We investigate intra-functional as well as cross-functional complementarity effects from the perspective of the knowledge recipient. We test the impact of stocks on flows on the benefit that is created...... for MNC units. Based on a comprehensive sample of 324 relationships between MNC units we find that both types of complementarity create benefits for these units, but that the effects from intra-functional combinations of knowledge stocks and flows are significantly stronger than from cross...

  19. Boosting Learning Algorithm for Stock Price Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengzhang; Bai, Xiaoming

    2018-03-01

    To tackle complexity and uncertainty of stock market behavior, more studies have introduced machine learning algorithms to forecast stock price. ANN (artificial neural network) is one of the most successful and promising applications. We propose a boosting-ANN model in this paper to predict the stock close price. On the basis of boosting theory, multiple weak predicting machines, i.e. ANNs, are assembled to build a stronger predictor, i.e. boosting-ANN model. New error criteria of the weak studying machine and rules of weights updating are adopted in this study. We select technical factors from financial markets as forecasting input variables. Final results demonstrate the boosting-ANN model works better than other ones for stock price forecasting.

  20. Information and Stock Prices: A Simple Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Kenton K.

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes recent research in financial economics about why information, such as earnings announcements, moves stock prices. The article does not presume any prior exposure to finance beyond what you might read in newspapers.

  1. Development of the stock exchange information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Radojko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The stock exchange represents the key institution for the development of capital market of any country. Thus the information system of every stock exchange must satisfy very strict international standards. The development of these systems is particularly difficult in countries in transition, due to intense economic and legal changes, lack of technical and financial resources, lack of experience and knowledge in the area of the capital market business, etc. Therefore the special software project management methodology for their realization must be clearly defined. In the development process of the Belgrade Stock Exchange (BSE information system a new software project management methodology for its realization has been defined, the application of which is illustrated through a series of different development stages of the Belgrade Stock Exchange information system. In order to make all the problems more comprehensive, only the continuous trading method is described, being the most frequently used trading method in the world.

  2. Structural Estimation of Stock Market Participation Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    education programs can affect consumers' investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market participation cost is about 4–6% of labor......This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of stock market participation, where consumers' decisions regarding stock market participation are influenced by participation costs. The practical significance of the participation costs is considered as being a channel through which financial...... income; however, it varies substantially over consumers' life. The model successfully predicts the level of the observed participation rate and the increasing pattern of stock market participation over the consumers' life cycle....

  3. 41 CFR 109-27.5003 - Stock control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines § 109-27.5003 Stock control. (a) Stock control shall be maintained on the basis of stock record accounts of inventories on... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stock control. 109-27...

  4. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank, both...

  5. 47 CFR 65.303 - Cost of preferred stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost of preferred stock. 65.303 Section 65.303... stock. The formula for determining the cost of preferred stock is: ER01JN95.001 Where: “Total Annual Preferred Dividends” is the total dividends on preferred stock for the most recent two years for all local...

  6. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate purpose...

  7. 26 CFR 1.305-1 - Stock dividends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock dividends. 1.305-1 Section 1.305-1...) INCOME TAXES Effects on Recipients § 1.305-1 Stock dividends. (a) In general. Under section 305, a distribution made by a corporation to its shareholders in its stock or in rights to acquire its stock is not...

  8. 26 CFR 1.306-3 - Section 306 stock defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Section 306 stock defined. 1.306-3 Section 1.306... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Recipients § 1.306-3 Section 306 stock defined. (a) For the purpose of subchapter C, chapter 1 of the code, the term section 306 stock means stock which meets the requirements of...

  9. 41 CFR 101-30.101-3 - National stock number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true National stock number....1-General § 101-30.101-3 National stock number. The national stock number (NSN) is the identifying... NSN configuration is 1234-00-567-8901. The following terms are elements of the 13-digit national stock...

  10. 12 CFR 925.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 925.22 Section... ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.22 Adjustments in stock holdings. (a) Adjustment in general. A Bank may from time to time increase or decrease the amount of stock any member is required to...

  11. 12 CFR 615.5260 - Retirement of eligible borrower stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retirement of eligible borrower stock. 615.5260... Dividends § 615.5260 Retirement of eligible borrower stock. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this subpart the following definitions shall apply: (1) Eligible borrowers stock means: (i) Stock...

  12. 41 CFR 101-27.406 - Disposition of stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of stock. 101...-Elimination of Items From Inventory § 101-27.406 Disposition of stock. Stocks of slow-moving items which are... this section, shall be taken, as necessary, to remove stocks of inactive items from inventory. (a...

  13. 12 CFR 925.21 - Issuance and form of stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance and form of stock. 925.21 Section 925... ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.21 Issuance and form of stock. (a) A Bank shall issue to each new member, as of the effective date of membership, stock in the member's name for the...

  14. Regression of established renal cell carcinoma in nude mice using lentivirus-transduced human T cells expressing a human anti-CAIX chimeric antigen receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Shuk-Yee Lo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX is a tumor-associated antigen and marker of hypoxia that is overexpressed on > 90% of clear-cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC but not on neighboring normal kidney tissue. Here, we report on the construction of two chimeric antigen receptors (CARs that utilize a carbonic anhydrase (CA domain mapped, human single chain antibody (scFv G36 as a targeting moiety but differ in their capacity to provide costimulatory signaling for optimal T cell proliferation and tumor cell killing. The resulting anti-CAIX CARs were expressed on human primary T cells via lentivirus transduction. CAR-transduced T cells (CART cells expressing second-generation G36-CD28-TCRζ exhibited more potent in vitro antitumor effects on CAIX+ RCC cells than first-generation G36-CD8-TCRζ including cytotoxicity, cytokine secretion, proliferation, and clonal expansion. Adoptive G36-CD28-TCRζ CART cell therapy combined with high-dose interleukin (IL-2 injection also lead to superior regression of established RCC in nude mice with evidence of tumor cell apoptosis and tissue necrosis. These results suggest that the fully human G36-CD28-TCRζ CARs should provide substantial improvements over first-generation mouse anti-CAIX CARs in clinical use through reduced human anti-mouse antibody responses against the targeting scFv and administration of lower doses of T cells during CART cell therapy of CAIX+ RCC.

  15. The downregulation of CD4 and MHC-I by primate lentiviruses: a paradigm for the modulation of cell surface receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piguet, V; Schwartz, O; Le Gall, S; Trono, D

    1999-04-01

    The human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) downregulate the cell surface expression of CD4, their primary receptor, and of class I histocompatibility complex (MHC-I), a critical mediator of immune recognition. While the first of these effects seems important to preserve viral infectivity, the second likely promotes immune evasion. Three HIV-1 proteins, Nef, Env and Vpu, contribute to downregulate CD4, Env forms a complex with CD4 in the endoplasmic reticulum, thereby retaining the receptor in this compartment. Nef and Vpu, on the other hand, act as connectors between CD4 and specific intracellular trafficking pathways, targeting the receptor for degradation in the lysosome and the proteasome, respectively. Some of the downstream partners of the viral proteins in these events have been identified, and include the adaptor complex of clathrin-coated pits, the beta subunit of COP-I coatomer, and the ubiquitin pathway-related h-beta TrCP protein. HIV-induced MHC-I downregulation, mostly the effect of Nef, also reflects a redistribution of this receptor, with its accumulation in the Golgi. The modalities of this process, however, are as yet imperfectly understood. New evidence indicates that the mechanisms employed by primate lentiviruses to downmodulate CD4 and MHC-I are also exploited by a number of cellular regulatory processes.

  16. Long - Memory Persistence in African Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Numapau Gyamfi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging stock markets are said to become efficient with time. This study seeks to investigate this assertion by analyzing long - memory persistence in 8 African stock markets covering the period from 28 August 2000 to 28 August 2015. The Hurst exponent is used as our efficiency measure which is evaluated by the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA. Our findings show strong evidence of long - memory persistence in the markets studied therefore violating the weak - form Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH.

  17. Econometric Studies of Stock Market Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Reng

    This thesis consists of three sefcontained essays, all centering around the topic of stock market behaviour. The papers focus on the empirical performance of a number of asset pricing models, all attempting to quantify and price asset risk. We look at how well these models actually do in describing...... the historic behaviour of the stock market, allowing us to get further insight into what drives the markes....

  18. Taxation, Transfer Income and Stock Market Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the impact of a redistributive tax system on consumption, portfolio decisions, and asset prices in a dynamic general equilibrium model. Poorer agents, which receive more in transfers than they pay in taxes, optimally reduce their exposure to equity, because the transfer incom...... they receive is subject to stock market risk. This article thus provides a novel explanation for the low stock market participation rates of poorer investors....

  19. Stock Markets Indices in Artificial Insymmetrization Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiec, D.

    2002-01-01

    The daily data of indices of Warsaw Stock Exchange - WIG, and New York Stock Exchange - NASDAQ, NYSE and S and P 500 for the last two years are being studied. Properties of fluctuations of daily returns found from scaling analysis of tails are confronted with patterns obtained by the artificial insymmetrization method to specify difference between the world-wide American market and local and rather marginal Polish market. (author)

  20. Growth performance of Nigerian fish stocks

    OpenAIRE

    King, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function are presented for 42 fish stocks belonging to 16 families, 22 genera and 27 species. The growth performance index, Phi '(= log K + 2logL sub( infinity )), was computed for each stock and was found to be highest in male Gymnarchus niloticus (Gymnarchidae) from Lake Chad and lowest in Chrysichthys auratus (Bagridae) from the Cross River. Mean Phi ' for major fish genera and families are also presented and was highest in brackishwater fishes, clo...

  1. Should Africa Promote Stock Market Capitalism?

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajit

    1998-01-01

    Abstract In a recent paper exploring the relationship between a country's financial system, industrialisation and economic development, I concluded that stock markets are potent symbols of capitalism but paradoxically capitalism flourishes better without them (Singh 1997). It will be argued in this paper that contrary to the international financial institutions (IFIs) who are encouraging and assisting Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries in establishing stock markets, this conclusion is pa...

  2. The impact of stock spams on volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Taoufik Bouraoui

    2009-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to study the impact of stock spams through the analysis of the variations of volatility. We use the methodology of event studies on a sample of hundred ten firms. The results show positive and significant changes in volatility during 12 days of the event window; a widening of the variation [lowest price - highest price] was noticed following the consignment of messages by the spammers. The sending of stock spams affected the behaviour of investors, indicating thus that...

  3. Interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies:

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Studies concerning interlocking directorships have been carried out among Polish joint stock corporations. The main source of data have been the announcements that are to be published by corporations regularly in a journal called Business and Court Gazette (BCG). Interlocking directorships constitute a network among corporations the use of which enables co-ordinated management of the whole group. The phenomenon of interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies can be compared to t...

  4. Democracy, political risks and stock market performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lehkonen, Heikki; Heimonen, Kari

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impacts of democracy and political risk on stock market. Using annualized panel data for 49 emerging markets for 2000–2012 we find evidence that democracy and political risk do have impact on stock market returns and the relationship between democracy and political risk is parabolic, i.e., there is a threshold level of democracy after which political risk begins to decline. Also our results suggest that decreases in political risk lead to higher returns.

  5. Global stock market in 1990-s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshenskyi S.Z.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1990s became a period of long-term recovery, the main driving force of which was the high-tech companies of the so-called «new economy», mainly associated with information technology and Internet at the global stock market. Such innovations have led to unrealistic expectations of the profitability of new companies from the sale of goods and services on the Internet. This became a prerequisite for a speculative boom in equity markets in developed financial systems. The boom intensified the mass privatization of state-owned enterprises in UK, Germany, France and some other countries. The capitalization of the global stock market increased more than ten times although the world GDP grew only 2.5 times during two decades, from 1980 to 2000. Though the stock market is the source of capital only in the countries with the Anglo-American model of financial markets (for countries of continental Europe and Japan such sources are bank loans, stock markets increased in all countries with developed financial systems. The systematic analysis of such key indicators as market capitalization and liquidity is required for an objective assessment of such rise in stock markets. But statistical information at stock markets is often not systematized and fragmentary. Therefore, the author (based on the official statistics of such international financial organizations as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Federation of Exchanges has calculated and systematically analyzed capitalization and liquidity as the main indicators of the stock market for the largest countries with developed financial systems (USA, Great Britain, Germany, France, Japan. The paper displays the differences in the mechanisms of attraction of capital determined by the different models of financial markets (decentralized Anglo-American and centralized European as well as the features of the composition of the main investors in the world stock markets.

  6. Stock Price Synchronicity and Material Sustainability Information

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Jody; Hauptmann, Clarissa; Serafeim, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    We examine if, and under what conditions, disclosure of sustainability information identified as investor relevant by market-driven innovations in accounting standard-setting, is associated with stock prices reflecting more firm-specific information and thereby lower synchronicity with market and industry returns. We find that firms voluntarily disclosing more sustainability information, identified as material by the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB), have lower stock price syn...

  7. Analyzing Microblog Feeds to Trade Stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Joseph; Anderson, Nick; Asbill, Connor; Mehr, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this project is to leverage microblogging data about the stock market to predict price trends and execute trades based on these predictions. Predicting the price trends of stocks with microblogging data involves a complex opinion aggregation model. For this, we built upon previous research, specifically a paper called "CrowdIQ" submitted by a team consisting of some Virginia Tech faculty. This paper details a complicated method of aggregating an accurate opinion by modeling judge ...

  8. Do Stock Markets Promote Economic Growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Nauro F. Campos; Jan Hanousek; Randall K. Filer

    1999-01-01

    One of the most enduring debates in economics is whether financial development causes economic growth or whether it is a consequence of increased economic activity. Little research into this question, however, has used a true causality framework. This paper fills this lacuna by using Granger-causality tests and finds little evidence of a causal relationship going from stock market development to economic growth. We do find evidence that stock market development can cause currency appreciation...

  9. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...... a cross-country panel, we document the cross-sectional variation of the demographic effect and explain the cross-country differences in comovement between stock and bond markets....

  10. Optimality Conditions in Vector Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Manuel Arana; Lizana, Antonio Rufián

    2011-01-01

    Vector optimization is continuously needed in several science fields, particularly in economy, business, engineering, physics and mathematics. The evolution of these fields depends, in part, on the improvements in vector optimization in mathematical programming. The aim of this Ebook is to present the latest developments in vector optimization. The contributions have been written by some of the most eminent researchers in this field of mathematical programming. The Ebook is considered essential for researchers and students in this field.

  11. Symmetric vectors and algebraic classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibowitz, E.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of symmetric vector field in Riemannian manifolds, which arises in the study of relativistic cosmological models, is analyzed. Symmetric vectors are tied up with the algebraic properties of the manifold curvature. A procedure for generating a congruence of symmetric fields out of a given pair is outlined. The case of a three-dimensional manifold of constant curvature (''isotropic universe'') is studied in detail, with all its symmetric vector fields being explicitly constructed

  12. Vector continued fractions using a generalized inverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydock, Roger; Nex, C M M; Wexler, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    A real vector space combined with an inverse (involution) for vectors is sufficient to define a vector continued fraction whose parameters consist of vector shifts and changes of scale. The choice of sign for different components of the vector inverse permits construction of vector analogues of the Jacobi continued fraction. These vector Jacobi fractions are related to vector and scalar-valued polynomial functions of the vectors, which satisfy recurrence relations similar to those of orthogonal polynomials. The vector Jacobi fraction has strong convergence properties which are demonstrated analytically, and illustrated numerically

  13. Covariant Lyapunov vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginelli, Francesco; Politi, Antonio; Chaté, Hugues; Livi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs) which span local intrinsic directions in the phase space of chaotic systems. Here, we review the basic results of ergodic theory, with a specific reference to the implications of Oseledets’ theorem for the properties of the CLVs. We then present a detailed description of a ‘dynamical’ algorithm to compute the CLVs and show that it generically converges exponentially in time. We also discuss its numerical performance and compare it with other algorithms presented in the literature. We finally illustrate how CLVs can be used to quantify deviations from hyperbolicity with reference to a dissipative system (a chain of Hénon maps) and a Hamiltonian model (a Fermi–Pasta–Ulam chain). This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (paper)

  14. Covariant Lyapunov vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginelli, Francesco; Chaté, Hugues; Livi, Roberto; Politi, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs) which span local intrinsic directions in the phase space of chaotic systems. Here, we review the basic results of ergodic theory, with a specific reference to the implications of Oseledets’ theorem for the properties of the CLVs. We then present a detailed description of a ‘dynamical’ algorithm to compute the CLVs and show that it generically converges exponentially in time. We also discuss its numerical performance and compare it with other algorithms presented in the literature. We finally illustrate how CLVs can be used to quantify deviations from hyperbolicity with reference to a dissipative system (a chain of Hénon maps) and a Hamiltonian model (a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain). This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’.

  15. Chameleon vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Ann E.; Walsh, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    We show that for a force mediated by a vector particle coupled to a conserved U(1) charge, the apparent range and strength can depend on the size and density of the source, and the proximity to other sources. This chameleon effect is due to screening from a light charged scalar. Such screening can weaken astrophysical constraints on new gauge bosons. As an example we consider the constraints on chameleonic gauged B-L. We show that although Casimir measurements greatly constrain any B-L force much stronger than gravity with range longer than 0.1 μm, there remains an experimental window for a long-range chameleonic B-L force. Such a force could be much stronger than gravity, and long or infinite range in vacuum, but have an effective range near the surface of the earth which is less than a micron.

  16. 17 CFR 240.15g-2 - Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market. 240.15g-2 Section 240.15g-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Section 15(d) of the Act § 240.15g-2 Penny stock disclosure document relating to the penny stock market...

  17. 12 CFR 220.11 - Requirements for the list of marginable OTC stocks and the list of foreign margin stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... stocks and the list of foreign margin stocks. 220.11 Section 220.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE... (REGULATION T) § 220.11 Requirements for the list of marginable OTC stocks and the list of foreign margin... paragraph (f) of this section, OTC margin stock shall meet the following requirements: (1) Four or more...

  18. Collective behavior of stock price movements in an emerging market

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Raj Kumar; Sinha, Sitabhra

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the universality of the structure of interactions in different markets, we analyze the cross-correlation matrix C of stock price fluctuations in the National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India. We find that this emerging market exhibits strong correlations in the movement of stock prices compared to developed markets, such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). This is shown to be due to the dominant influence of a common market mode on the stock prices. By comparison, interactions ...

  19. Building an Optimal Portfolio Using Fundamental Analysis of Stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Serban Florentin; Busu Mihail; Tudorache Ana

    2012-01-01

    Various methods of analyzing the value of the stocks are called as a general characterization, titles evaluation. Fundamental analysis attempts to predict the direction of evolution of prices of the medium and long term stocks from past and present achievements of the company and the estimates of its future. This article discusses some of the most popular methods of stock assessment using fundamental analysis and propose a build of portfolio for stocks listed at Italian Stock Market using ind...

  20. The impact of investor sentiment on the German stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Finter, Philipp; Niessen-Ruenzi, Alexandra; Ruenzi, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a broad-based sentiment indicator for Germany and investigates whether investor sentiment can explain stock returns on the German stock market. Based on a principal component analysis, we construct a sentiment indicator that condenses information of several well-known sentiment proxies. We show that this indicator explains the return spread between sentiment sensitive stocks and stocks that are not sensitive to sentiment fluctuations. Specifically, stocks that are difficul...

  1. The effects of Macroeconomics on the Kazakhstan Stock Exchange Market

    OpenAIRE

    Baiturganova, Albina

    2010-01-01

    This study is an attempt to empirically find the relationship between the following macro economic variables and the stock market. The variables are: Foreign Exchange Rate (ER), Exchange Reserves (ERES), Discount Rate (DR), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The findings show that the DR is positively related to the stock market, GDP is negatively related to the stock market, Oil is negatively related to the stock market, ER is negatively related to the stock market,...

  2. Which stocks are profitable? A network method to investigate the effects of network structure on stock returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Luo, Peng; Sun, Bianxia; Wang, Huaiqing

    2015-10-01

    According to asset pricing theory, a stock's expected returns are determined by its exposure to systematic risk. In this paper, we propose a new method for analyzing the interaction effects among industries and stocks on stock returns. We construct a complex network based on correlations of abnormal stock returns and use centrality and modularity, two popular measures in social science, to determine the effect of interconnections on industry and stock returns. Supported by previous studies, our findings indicate that a relationship exists between inter-industry closeness and industry returns and between stock centrality and stock returns. The theoretical and practical contributions of these findings are discussed.

  3. Targeted stock identification using multilocus genotype 'familyprinting'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, B.H.; King, T.L.

    1999-01-01

    We present an approach to stock identification of small, targeted populations that uses multilocus microsatellite genotypes of individual mating adults to uniquely identify first- and second-generation offspring in a mixture. We call the approach 'familyprinting'; unlike DNA fingerprinting where tissue samples of individuals are matched, offspring from various families are assigned to pairs of parents or sets of four grandparents with known genotypes. The basic unit of identification is the family, but families can be nested within a variety of stock units ranging from naturally reproducing groups of fish in a small tributary or pond from which mating adults can be sampled to large or small collections of families produced in hatcheries and stocked in specific locations. We show that, with as few as seven alleles per locus using four loci without error, first-generation offspring can be uniquely assigned to the correct family. For second-generation applications in a hatchery more alleles per locus (10) and loci (10) are required for correct assignment of all offspring to the correct set of grandparents. Using microsatellite DNA variation from an Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar) restoration river (Connecticut River, USA), we also show that this population contains sufficient genetic diversity in sea-run returns for 100% correct first, generation assignment and 97% correct second-generation assignment using 14 loci. We are currently using first- and second-generation familyprinting in this population with the ultimate goal of identifying stocking tributary. In addition to within-river familyprinting, there also appears to be sufficient genetic diversity within and between Atlantic salmon populations for identification of 'familyprinted' fish in a mixture of multiple populations. We also suggest that second-generation familyprinting with multiple populations may also provide a tool for examining stock structure. Familyprinting with microsatellite DNA markers is a viable

  4. Stocks and energy shocks : the impact of energy accidents on stock market value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Boersen, A.

    We investigate how financial market participants value energy accidents. We employ an event study to look into the response of stock markets to 209 accidents. These accidents were derived from Sovacool's (2008) database on major energy accidents from 1907 to 2007. It appears that the stock market in

  5. Taking stock: provider prescribing practices in the presence and absence of ACT stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Caroline

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, the monitoring of prompt and effective treatment for malaria with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT is conducted largely through household surveys. This measure; however, provides no information on case management processes at the health facility level. The aim of this review was to assess evidence from health facility surveys on malaria prescribing practices using ACT, in the presence and absence of ACT stock, at time and place where treatment was sought. Methods A systematic search of published literature was conducted. Findings were collated and data extracted on proportion of patients prescribed ACT and alternative anti-malarials in the presence and absence of ACT stock. Results Of the 14 studies identified in which ACT prescription for uncomplicated malaria in the public sector was evaluated, just six, from three countries (Kenya, Uganda and Zambia, reported this in the context of ACT stock. Comparing facilities with ACT stock to facilities without stock (i ACT prescribing was significantly higher in all six studies, increasing by a range of 21.3% in children Conclusions Prescriber practices vary based on ACT availability. Although ACT prescriptions increased and alternative anti-malarials prescriptions decreased in the presence of ACT stock, ACT was prescribed in the absence, and alternative anti-malarials were prescribed in the presence of, ACT. Presence of stock alone does not ensure that treatment guidelines are followed. More health facility surveys, together with qualitative research, are needed to understand the role of ACT stock-outs on provider prescribing behaviours and preferences.

  6. ADVISABILITY OF MERGING THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE AND THE SIBIU MONETARYFINANCIAL AND STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Dudas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of performances of local stock exchanges in the latest years points out thenecessity of increasing the visibility of the local capital market in the regional andEuropean landscape. A single stock market may have the effect of increased credibility,giving thus an impulse to the number of new listings and of new investors.

  7. Simplified Representation of Vector Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    1999-01-01

    Vector field visualization remains a difficult task. Although many local and global visualization methods for vector fields such as flow data exist, they usually require extensive user experience on setting the visualization parameters in order to produce images communicating the desired insight. We

  8. The Neural Support Vector Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, Marco; van der Ree, Michiel; Embrechts, Mark; Stollenga, Marijn; Meijster, Arnold; Nolte, A; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new machine learning algorithm for regression and dimensionality reduction tasks. The Neural Support Vector Machine (NSVM) is a hybrid learning algorithm consisting of neural networks and support vector machines (SVMs). The output of the NSVM is given by SVMs that take a

  9. Estimation of Motion Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the estimation of 2-D motion vector fields from time varying image sequences. We use a piecewise smooth model based on coupled vector/binary Markov random fields. We find the maximum a posteriori solution by simulated annealing. The algorithm generate sample...

  10. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    vector of urban plague in Peru is the Oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis. The human flea, Pulex irritans, although biologically an inefficient vector...TEL: (215) 688-4400 Peru - 10 Instituto Nacional de Hygiene Lima, Peru Peru – 11 Institutos Nacionales de Salud Departamento de Animales

  11. GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .

  12. Archimedeanization of ordered vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Emelyanov, Eduard Yu.

    2014-01-01

    In the case of an ordered vector space with an order unit, the Archimedeanization method has been developed recently by V.I Paulsen and M. Tomforde. We present a general version of the Archimedeanization which covers arbitrary ordered vector spaces.

  13. Transcriptional Silencing of Retroviral Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders Henrik; Duch, M.; Pedersen, F.S.

    1996-01-01

    Although retroviral vector systems have been found to efficiently transduce a variety of cell types in vitro, the use of vectors based on murine leukemia virus in preclinical models of somatic gene therapy has led to the identification of transcriptional silencing in vivo as an important problem....... Extinction of long-term vector expression has been observed after implantation of transduced hematopoietic cells as well as fibroblasts, myoblasts and hepatocytes. Here we review the influence of vector structure, integration site and cell type on transcriptional silencing. While down-regulation of proviral...... transcription is known from a number of cellular and animal models, major insight has been gained from studies in the germ line and embryonal cells of the mouse. Key elements for the transfer and expression of retroviral vectors, such as the viral transcriptional enhancer and the binding site for the t...

  14. Vector superconductivity in cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, G.R.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1992-03-01

    We argue that in most realistic cases, the usual Witten-type bosonic superconductivity of the cosmic string is automatically (independent of the existence of superconducting currents) accompanied by the condensation of charged gauge vector bosons in the core giving rise to a new vector type superconductivity. The value of the charged vector condensate is related with the charged scalar expectation value, and vanishes only if the latter goes to zero. The mechanism for the proposed vector superconductivity, differing fundamentally from those in the literature, is delineated using the simplest realistic example of the two Higgs doublet standard model interacting with the extra cosmic string. It is shown that for a wide range of parameters, for which the string becomes scalarly superconducting, W boson condensates (the sources of vector superconductivity) are necessarily excited. (author). 14 refs

  15. Multifractal in Volatility of Family Business Stocks Listed on Casablanca STOCK Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    In this paper, we check for existence of multifractal in volatility of Moroccan family business stock returns and in volatility of Casablanca market index returns based on multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) technique. Empirical results show strong evidence of multifractal characteristics in volatility series of both family business stocks and market index. In addition, it is found that small variations in volatility of family business stocks are persistent, whilst small variations in volatility of market index are anti-persistent. However, large variations in family business volatility and market index volatility are both anti-persistent. Furthermore, multifractal spectral analysis based results show strong evidence that volatility in Moroccan family business companies exhibits more multifractality than volatility in the main stock market. These results may provide insightful information for risk managers concerned with family business stocks.

  16. Construction of a single lentiviral vector containing tetracycline-inducible Alb-uPA for transduction of uPA expression in murine hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiasi Bai

    Full Text Available The SCID-beige/Alb-uPA mouse model is currently the best small animal model available for viral hepatitis infection studies [1]. But the construction procedure is often costly and time-consuming due to logistic and technical difficulties. Thus, the widespread application of these chimeric mice has been hampered [2]. In order to optimize the procedure, we constructed a single lentiviral vector containing modified tetracycline-regulated system to control Alb-uPA gene expression in the cultured hepatocytes. The modified albumin promoter controlled by tetracycline (Tet-dependent transactivator rtTA2S-M2 was integrated into a lentiviral vector. The full-length uPA cDNA was inserted into another lentiviral vector containing PTight, a modified Tet-responsive promoter. Two vectors were then digested by specific enzymes and ligated by DNA ligase 4. The ligated DNA fragment was inserted into a modified pLKO.1 cloning vector and the final lentiviral vector was then successfully constructed. H2.35 cell, Lewis lung carcinoma, primary kidney, primary hepatic interstitial and CT26 cells were infected with recombinant lentivirus at selected MOI. The expression of uPA induced by DOX was detectable only in the infected H2.35 cells, which was confirmed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Moreover, DOX induced uPA expression on the infected H2.35 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The constructed single lentiviral vector has many biological advantages, including that the interested gene expression under "Tet-on/off" system is controlled by DOX in a dose-depending fashion only in murine liver cells, which provides an advantage for simplifying generation of conditional transgenic animals.

  17. Comparison between global financial crisis and local stock disaster on top of Chinese stock network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lisi; You, Daming; Jiang, Xin; Guo, Quantong

    2018-01-01

    The science of complex network theory can be usefully applied in many important fields, one of which is the finance. In these practical cases, a massive dataset can be represented as a very large network with certain attributes associated with its nodes and edges. As one of the most important components of financial market, stock market has been attracting more and more attention. In this paper, we propose a threshold model to build Chinese stock market networks and study the topological properties of these networks. To be specific, we compare the effects of different crises, namely the 2008 global crisis and the stock market disaster in 2015, on the threshold networks. Prices of the stocks belonging to the Shanghai and Shenzhen 300 index are considered for three periods: the global crisis, common period and the stock market disaster. We find the probability distribution of the cross-correlations of the stocks during the stock market disaster is fatter than that of others. Besides, the thresholds of cross-correlations are assigned to obtain the threshold networks and the power-law of degree distribution in these networks are observed in a certain range of threshold values. The networks during the stock market disaster also appear to have larger mean degree and modularity, which reveals the strong correlations among these stock prices. Our findings to some extent crosscheck the liquidity shortage reason which is believed to result in the outbreak of the stock market disaster. Moreover, we hope that this paper could give us a deeper understanding of the market's behavior and also lead to interesting future research about the problems of modern finance theory.

  18. Regional Public Stock Reductions in Spain: Estimations from a Multiregional Spatial Vector Autorregressive Model

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel A Márquez; Julian Ramajo; Geoffrey Hewings

    2017-01-01

    The estimation of the impact of public investment on regional economic growth requires consideration of the spatio-temporal dynamics among the state variables of each region.  Recent austerity policies in Spain that feature temporary decreases in the accumulation of regional public capital should thus be evaluated in terms of their impact on the economy as a whole, on specific regions together with the spillovers effects from one region to the rest of the regional system.  Applying a multireg...

  19. Using the Stock Market to Teach Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, David A.; Hearn, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    Students are interested in money. Personal finance is an important issue for most students, especially as they move into university education and take a greater control of their own finances. Many are also interested in stock markets and their ability to allow someone to make, and lose, large sums of money, with their interest fueled by the boom in technology-based stocks of 2000/2001 followed by their subsequent dramatic collapse and the publicizing of so-called "rogue-traders." There is also a much greater ownership of stocks by families following public offerings, stock-based savings products, and the ability to trade stocks online. Consequently, there has been a steady growth of finance and finance-related courses available within degree programs in response to the student demand, with many students motivated by the huge salaries commanded by those with a successful career in the financial sector. We report here details of a joint project between Charterhouse School and the University of Surrey designed to exploit the excitement of finance to teach elements of the high school (age 16-18) curriculum through modeling and simulation.

  20. Spillovers among regional and international stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huen, Tan Bee; Arsad, Zainudin; Chun, Ooi Po

    2014-07-01

    Realizing the greater risk by the increase in the level of financial market integration, this study investigates the dynamic of international and regional stock markets co-movement among Asian countries with the world leading market, the US. The data utilized in this study comprises of weekly closing prices for four stock indices, that consists of two developing markets (Malaysia and China) and two developed markets (Japan and the US), and encompasses the period from January 1996 to December 2012. Multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) model with the BEKK parameterization is employed to investigate the mean and volatility spillover effects among the selected stock indices. The results show significant mean spillover not only from the larger developed markets to smaller developing markets but also from the smaller developing markets to larger developed markets. Volatility spillover between the developed markets is found to be smaller than that between the developing markets. Conditional correlations among the stock markets are found to increase over the sample period. The findings of significant mean and volatility spillovers are considered as bad news for international investors as it reduces the benefit from portfolio diversification but act as useful information for investors to be more aware in diversifying their investment or stock selection.

  1. Changing recruitment capacity in global fish stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Gregory L; Dowd, Michael; Worm, Boris

    2016-01-05

    Marine fish and invertebrates are shifting their regional and global distributions in response to climate change, but it is unclear whether their productivity is being affected as well. Here we tested for time-varying trends in biological productivity parameters across 262 fish stocks of 127 species in 39 large marine ecosystems and high-seas areas (hereafter LMEs). This global meta-analysis revealed widespread changes in the relationship between spawning stock size and the production of juvenile offspring (recruitment), suggesting fundamental biological change in fish stock productivity at early life stages. Across regions, we estimate that average recruitment capacity has declined at a rate approximately equal to 3% of the historical maximum per decade. However, we observed large variability among stocks and regions; for example, highly negative trends in the North Atlantic contrast with more neutral patterns in the North Pacific. The extent of biological change in each LME was significantly related to observed changes in phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration and the intensity of historical overfishing in that ecosystem. We conclude that both environmental changes and chronic overfishing have already affected the productive capacity of many stocks at the recruitment stage of the life cycle. These results provide a baseline for ecosystem-based fisheries management and may help adjust expectations for future food production from the oceans.

  2. Nonsynonymous changes of equine lentivirus receptor-1 (ELR1) gene in amino acids involved in the interaction with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbi-Botto, C M; Sadaba, S A; Zappa, M E; Peral-García, P; Díaz, S

    2017-06-01

    Equine lentivirus receptor-1 (ELR1) has been characterized as the specific functional receptor that mediates equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) entrance to horse macrophages. This receptor is tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14 (TNFRSF14). The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of allelic variants in the coding sequence of equine TNFRSF14 gene by screening for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different equine populations. Forty seven horse samples were randomly selected from a reservoir of EIAV-seropositive and seronegative samples collected from different outbreaks and regions of Argentina. DNA samples were scanned via PCR and direct sequencing of exon 3 and exon 5 of TNFRSF14 gene. A total of 21 SNPs were identified, of which 11 were located in coding sequences. Within exon 5, four SNPs caused nonsynonymous substitutions, while two other SNPs caused synonymous substitutions in crucial residues (Ser112 and Thr114) implicated in the interaction with EIAV. Despite some of exon 5 variants occurred exclusively in EIAV-positive or EIAV-negative horses, critical residues for the function of the mature protein were conserved, accounting for selective pressures in favor of preserving the specific function of TNFRSF members and the host immune response. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the existence of allelic variations involving some crucial amino acid residues in horse ELR1. Further, it could be an initial step to test the possible functional relevance and relationship of these variants with EIAV infection and disease progression as well as to develop preventive strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effects of lentivirus-mediated CREB expression in the dorsolateral striatum: memory enhancement and evidence for competitive and cooperative interactions with the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathirvelu, Balachandar; Colombo, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    Neural systems specialized for memory may interact during memory formation or recall, and the results of interactions are important determinants of how systems control behavioral output. In two experiments, we used lentivirus-mediated expression of the transcription factor CREB (LV-CREB) to test if localized manipulations of cellular plasticity influence interactions between the hippocampus and dorsolateral striatum. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that infusion of LV-CREB in the dorsolateral striatum facilitates memory for response learning, and impairs memory for place learning. LV-CREB in the dorsolateral striatum had no effect on response learning, but impaired place memory; a finding consistent with competition between the striatum and hippocampus. In Experiment 2, we tested the hypothesis that infusion of LV-CREB in the dorsolateral striatum facilitates memory for cue learning, and impairs memory for contextual fear conditioning. LV-CREB in the dorsolateral striatum enhanced memory for cue learning and, in contrast to our prediction, also enhanced memory for contextual fear conditioning, consistent with a cooperative interaction between the striatum and hippocampus. Overall, the current experiments demonstrate that infusion of LV-CREB in the dorsolateral striatum (1) increases levels of CREB protein locally, (2) does not alter acquisition of place, response, cue, or contextual fear conditioning, (3) facilitates memory for cue learning and contextual fear conditioning, and (4) impairs memory for place learning. Taken together, the present results provide evidence that LV-CREB in the dorsolateral striatum can enhance memory formation and cause both competitive and cooperative interactions with the hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Molecular In Vivo Imaging Using a Noninvasive Cardiac-Specific MLC-2v Promoter Driven Dual-Gene Recombinant Lentivirus Monitoring System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Zhang

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of using the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS to monitor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165 expression in vivo.We constructed a recombinant lentivirus plasmid with the MLC-2v promoter driving the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS reporter gene linked to the VEGF165 gene. Expression of NIS and VEGF gene were identified by Western blot. On days 2 and 54, 99mTc-MIBI imaging was used to evaluate changes in myocardial ischemia. Noninvasive 125I micro-SPECT/CT imaging was used to assess the expression of NIS reporter gene dynamically over the next 2 months.Western blot analysis showed that both NIS and VEGF165 were highly expressed in rat cardiomyoblast H9C2 cells transduced with Lenti-MLC-2v-NIS--VEGF165. 125I micro-SPECT/CT reporter imaging showed higher uptake in mouse myocardium transduced with Lenti-MLC-2v-VEGF165-IRES-NIS. NIS expression peaked on day 1 after transduction followed by a progressive decline to negligible levels by day 21. On day 1, mean 125I activity value in group 1 was higher than that in group 2 (P 0.05. In group 1 (test group, 99mTc-MIBI SPECT/CT revealed improvements in perfusion and wall thickening in the apical anterior wall. Mean IOD values of NIS and CD34 were significantly higher in group 1 than group 3 (P<0.05. Our study proved mean I-125 uptake was significantly correlated with mean IOD value of NIS and CD34 (P<0.05.This study demonstrates the feasibility of using the NIS gene to monitor VEGF165 expression in a mouse myocardial ischemia model.

  5. Optimization Stock Portfolio With Mean-Variance and Linear Programming: Case In Indonesia Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Sun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available It is observed that the number of Indonesia’s domestic investor who involved in the stock exchange is very less compare to its total number of population (only about 0.1%. As a result, Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX is highly affected by foreign investor that can threat the economy. Domestic investor tends to invest in risk-free asset such as deposit in the bank since they are not familiar yet with the stock market and anxious about the risk (risk-averse type of investor. Therefore, it is important to educate domestic investor to involve in the stock exchange. Investing in portfolio of stock is one of the best choices for risk-averse investor (such as Indonesia domestic investor since it offers lower risk for a given level of return. This paper studies the optimization of Indonesian stock portfolio. The data is the historical return of 10 stocks of LQ 45 for 5 time series (January 2004 – December 2008. It will be focus on selecting stocks into a portfolio, setting 10 of stock portfolios using mean variance method combining with the linear programming (solver. Furthermore, based on Efficient Frontier concept and Sharpe measurement, there will be one stock portfolio picked as an optimum Portfolio (Namely Portfolio G. Then, Performance of portfolio G will be evaluated by using Sharpe, Treynor and Jensen Measurement to show whether the return of Portfolio G exceeds the market return. This paper also illustrates how the stock composition of the Optimum Portfolio (G succeeds to predict the portfolio return in the future (5th January – 3rd April 2009. The result of the study observed that optimization portfolio using Mean-Variance (consistent with Markowitz theory combine with linear programming can be applied into Indonesia stock’s portfolio. All the measurements (Sharpe, Jensen, and Treynor show that the portfolio G is a superior portfolio. It is also been found that the composition (weights stocks of optimum portfolio (G can be used to

  6. Enhancing poxvirus vectors vaccine immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arriaza, Juan; Esteban, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Attenuated recombinant poxvirus vectors expressing heterologous antigens from pathogens are currently at various stages in clinical trials with the aim to establish their efficacy. This is because these vectors have shown excellent safety profiles, significant immunogenicity against foreign expressed antigens and are able to induce protective immune responses. In view of the limited efficacy triggered by some poxvirus strains used in clinical trials (i.e, ALVAC in the RV144 phase III clinical trial for HIV), and of the restrictive replication capacity of the highly attenuated vectors like MVA and NYVAC, there is a consensus that further improvements of these vectors should be pursuit. In this review we considered several strategies that are currently being implemented, as well as new approaches, to improve the immunogenicity of the poxvirus vectors. This includes heterologous prime/boost protocols, use of co-stimulatory molecules, deletion of viral immunomodulatory genes still present in the poxvirus genome, enhancing virus promoter strength, enhancing vector replication capacity, optimizing expression of foreign heterologous sequences, and the combined use of adjuvants. An optimized poxvirus vector triggering long-lasting immunity with a high protective efficacy against a selective disease should be sought.

  7. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Lark L.; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Weaver, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed. PMID:25421891

  8. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lark L. Coffey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed.

  9. Quantifying Stock Return Distributions in Financial Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Federico; Moat, Helen Susannah; Stanley, H Eugene; Preis, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Being able to quantify the probability of large price changes in stock markets is of crucial importance in understanding financial crises that affect the lives of people worldwide. Large changes in stock market prices can arise abruptly, within a matter of minutes, or develop across much longer time scales. Here, we analyze a dataset comprising the stocks forming the Dow Jones Industrial Average at a second by second resolution in the period from January 2008 to July 2010 in order to quantify the distribution of changes in market prices at a range of time scales. We find that the tails of the distributions of logarithmic price changes, or returns, exhibit power law decays for time scales ranging from 300 seconds to 3600 seconds. For larger time scales, we find that the distributions tails exhibit exponential decay. Our findings may inform the development of models of market behavior across varying time scales.

  10. Flight to Safety from European Stock Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte

    This paper investigates flight-to-safety from stocks to bonds in seven European markets. We use quantile regressions to identify flight-to-safety episodes. The simple risk-return trade-off on the stock markets is negative which is caused by flight-to-safety episodes: During normal periods, the risk......-return trade-off is positive and during flight-to-safety episodes it is negative. The effects of flight-to-safety episodes on the risk-return trade-off are qualitatively similar for own country flight-to-safety episodes, for flight from own country stock market to the US bond market, and for US flight...

  11. Fish stocking density impacts tank hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Lunger, Angela; Laursen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    The effect of stocking density upon the hydrodynamics of a circular tank, configured in a recirculation system, was investigated. Red drums Sciaenops ocellatus of approximately 140 g wet weight, were stocked at five rates varying from 0 to 12 kg m-3. The impact of the presence of fish upon tank...... hydrodynamics was established using in-tank-based Rhodamine WT fluorometry at a flow rate of 0.23 l s-1 (tank exchange rate of 1.9 h-1). With increasing numbers of animals, curvilinear relationships were observed for dispersion coefficients and tank mixing times. Stocking densities of 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg m-3...... resulted in a 0.2-, 0.5-, 2.4-, and 3.2-fold decrease in mixing time relative to that observed for empty tanks (Pb0.001)....

  12. Clustering stocks using partial correlation coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sean S.; Chang, Woojin

    2016-11-01

    A partial correlation analysis is performed on the Korean stock market (KOSPI). The difference between Pearson correlation and the partial correlation is analyzed and it is found that when conditioned on the market return, Pearson correlation coefficients are generally greater than those of the partial correlation, which implies that the market return tends to drive up the correlation between stock returns. A clustering analysis is then performed to study the market structure given by the partial correlation analysis and the members of the clusters are compared with the Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS). The initial hypothesis is that the firms in the same GICS sector are clustered together since they are in a similar business and environment. However, the result is inconsistent with the hypothesis and most clusters are a mix of multiple sectors suggesting that the traditional approach of using sectors to determine the proximity between stocks may not be sufficient enough to diversify a portfolio.

  13. Foreign Delisting and Domestic Stock Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uderche-Rangau, Loredana; Carugati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    provided in the delisting announcements. i.e. delisting can be presented either as the result of the not fulfilment of the benefits of cross-listing or as a part of a more general strategy of the company. Highlighting significant clusters, content analysis provides a valuable addition to traditional event......The aim of our paper is to understand the foreign delisting phenomenon using a multi-method approach based on both information content analysis and event study analysis of foreign companies withdrawing their stocks from the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Our objective is to measure the impact...... of the delisting decision on the domestic stock price by observing the link between the pure value impact and the reasons for delisting. Our results show that, contrary to previous results, firms delisting from Tokyo can gain value depending on the reaction of the market operators to the content of the information...

  14. Stock return comovement and Korean business groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Ho Cho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores whether business group affiliations affect the covariance structure of stock returns in Korea. We find that the stock returns of firms belonging to the same business group show positive and significant comovement. The strong comovement between group returns and firm returns is explained by correlated fundamentals. We find strong comovement among business group affiliate earnings. Moreover, variance decomposition of returns shows that cash flow news plays a relatively more important role in explaining group comovement than discount rate news, suggesting a link between stock return comovement and the “tunneling” and “propping” behaviors of business groups. Finally, return comovement increases when a firm joins a business group.

  15. Lists of semi-dwarf cereal stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The lists are prepared in relation to the Co-ordinated Research Programme. At the first Research Co-ordination Meeting on evaluation of cereal semi-dwarf mutants for cross breeding, March 1981, programme participants were requested to list semi-dwarf mutants available at their institutes including also non-induced semi-dwarf stocks being used in cross-breeding programme for short stature. List-I is prepared from such lists provided by programme participants. Further it was requested to name breeders and institutes providing characteristics of the listed semi-dwarf stocks. List-II gives that information. In the List-I: Parents of semi-dwarf stocks derived from cross breeding, are shown in brackets. In column ''Culm length'', figures are in cm and those of parent cultivars are shown in brackets

  16. Stocks of organic carbon in Estonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kõlli, Raimo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The soil organic carbon (SOC stocks (Mg ha–1 ofautomorphic mineral (9 soil groups, hydromorphic mineral (7, and lowland organic soils (4 are given for the soil cover or solum layer as a whole and also for its epipedon (topsoil layer. The SOC stocks for forest, arable lands, and grasslands and for the entire Estonian soil cover were calculated on the basis of the mean SOC stock and distribution area of the respective soil type. In the Estonian soil cover (42 400 km2, a total of 593.8 ± 36.9 Tg of SOC is retained, with 64.9% (385.3 ± 27.5 Tg in the epipedon layer (O, H, and A horizons and 35.1% in the subsoil (B and E horizons. The pedo-ecological regularities of SOC retention in soils are analysed against the background of the Estonian soil ordination net.

  17. Participation Constraints in the Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    We use a natural experiment to investigate the impact of participation constraints on individuals' decisions to invest in the stock market. Unexpected inheritance due to sudden deaths results in exogenous variation in financial wealth, and allows us to examine whether fixed entry and ongoing...... participation costs cause non-participation. We have three key findings. First, windfall wealth has a positive effect on participation. Second, the majority of households do not react to sizeable windfalls by entering the stock market, but hold on to substantial safe assets—even over longer horizons. Third......, the majority of households inheriting stock holdings actively sell the entire portfolio. Overall, these findings suggest that participation by many individuals is unlikely to be constrained by financial participation costs....

  18. THE STEEL EUROPEAN STOCK MARKET EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica CHIRILA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Testing the hypothesis of informational efficiency is a permanent preoccupation of researchers because the theories and the models of modern finance are based on it. This paper presents the results obtained after testing the efficiency hypothesis, in the weak form, for the European stock market of the companies that belong to the economic steel sub-sector. Following the use of both linear and non-linear tests of autocorrelation of returns we can conclude that the European stock market in the economic steel sub-sector is inefficient from an informational point of view and the investors in these stocks may obtain better results than those of the European market in general.

  19. The Geometric Phase of Stock Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altafini, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Geometric phases describe how in a continuous-time dynamical system the displacement of a variable (called phase variable) can be related to other variables (shape variables) undergoing a cyclic motion, according to an area rule. The aim of this paper is to show that geometric phases can exist also for discrete-time systems, and even when the cycles in shape space have zero area. A context in which this principle can be applied is stock trading. A zero-area cycle in shape space represents the type of trading operations normally carried out by high-frequency traders (entering and exiting a position on a fast time-scale), while the phase variable represents the cash balance of a trader. Under the assumption that trading impacts stock prices, even zero-area cyclic trading operations can induce geometric phases, i.e., profits or losses, without affecting the stock quote.

  20. Statistical aspects of fish stock assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Casper Willestofte

    statistical aspects of fish stocks assessment, which includes topics such as time series analysis, generalized additive models (GAMs), and non-linear state-space/mixed models capable of handling missing data and a high number of latent states and parameters. The aim is to improve the existing methods...... for stock assessment by application of state-of-the-art statistical methodology. The main contributions are presented in the form of six research papers. The major part of the thesis deals with age-structured assessment models, which is the most common approach. Conversion from length to age distributions...... in the catches is a necessary step in age-based stock assessment models. For this purpose, GAMs and continuation ratio logits are combined to model the probability of age as a smooth function of length and spatial coordinates, which constitutes an improvement over traditional methods based on area...

  1. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...

  2. Violation of vector dominance in the vector manifestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Chihiro

    2003-01-01

    The vector manifestation (VM) is a new pattern for realizing the chiral symmetry in QCD. In the VM, the massless vector meson becomes the chiral partner of pion at the critical point, in contrast with the restoration based on the linear sigma model. Including the intrinsic temperature dependences of the parameters of the hidden local symmetry (HLS) Lagrangian determined from the underlying QCD through the Wilsonian matching together with the hadronic thermal corrections, we present a new prediction of the VM on the direct photon-π-π coupling which measures the validity of the vector dominance (VD) of the electromagnetic form factor of the pion. We find that the VD is largely violated at the critical temperature, which indicates that the assumption of the VD made in several analysis on the dilepton spectra in hot matter may need to be weakened for consistently including the effect of the dropping mass of the vector meson. (author)

  3. Stock Performance of Socially Responsible Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Tzu-Man

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Every year Corporate Responsibility Magazine selects and ranks 100 companies on the basis of their corporate social responsibility. This study investigates the stock performance of socially responsible companies in the U.S. The monthly stock returns for these companies are analyzed and compared with the market performance, with the S&P 500 index designated as a proxy for the market. The empirical evidence suggests that these 100 companies outperform the market in their monthly stock returns. We also narrow down the number of companies selected to the top 75, 50, 25, and 10 firms. As we narrow down the companies selected, the difference between their returns and the market returns also narrows. In other words, a portfolio that includes all top 100 companies provides the best stock performance. We extend the analysis to long-term annual stock performance. We find that these socially responsible companies′ annual returns are higher than the market returns for up to seven years after they are listed. We also conduct the same analysis on the top 75, 50, 25, and 10 firms, respectively. Similarly, the larger the number of these top 100 companies, the greater the tendency to generate higher annual returns. We suspect that because the difference between the socially responsible companies′ average returns and the market returns is not dramatic, with a bigger population and thus a larger sample size, the difference becomes more significant. However, in practice, transaction costs must be considered. This study is limited in that it does not consider transaction costs. Nevertheless, we hope to shed some light on the issue of socially responsible companies′ stock performance to encourage companies to start thinking about the importance of corporate social responsibility.

  4. Vector calculation of particle code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, A.; Yabe, T.; Orii, S.

    1985-01-01

    The development of vector computer requires the modification of the algorithm into a suitable form for vector calculation. Among many algorithms, the particle code is a typical example which has suffered a damage in the calculation on supercomputer owing to its possibility of recurrent data access in collecting cell-wise quantities from particle's quartities. In this article, we report a new method to liberate the particle code from recurrent calculations. It should be noticed, however, that the method may depend on the architecture of supercomputer, and works well on FACOM VP-100 and VP-200: the indirect data accessing must be vectorized and its speed should be fast. (Mori, K.)

  5. On the Witt vector Frobenius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Kedlaya, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    We study the kernel and cokernel of the Frobenius map on the p-typical Witt vectors of a commutative ring, not necessarily of characteristic p. We give many equivalent conditions to surjectivity of the Frobenius map on both finite and infinite length Witt vectors. In particular, surjectivity...... on finite Witt vectors turns out to be stable under certain integral extensions; this provides a clean formulation of a strong generalization of Faltings’s almost purity theorem from p-adic Hodge theory, incorporating recent improvements by Kedlaya–Liu and by Scholze....

  6. Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels

    2008-01-01

    of the thesis considers a method for estimating the two-dimensional velocity vector within the image plane. This method, called synthetic aperture vector flow imaging, is first shortly reviewed. The main contribution of this work is partly an analysis of the method with respect to focusing effects, motion...... estimation. The method can be used for increasing the frame rate of color flow maps or alternatively for a new imaging modality entitled quadroplex imaging, featuring a color flow map and two independent spectrograms at a high frame rate. The second is an alternative method for ultrasonic vector velocity...

  7. Vector control of induction machines

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the main law of physics and fundamental concepts inherent in electromechanical conversion, ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" introduces the standard mathematical models for induction machines - whichever rotor technology is used - as well as several squirrel-cage induction machine vector-control strategies. The use of causal ordering graphs allows systematization of the design stage, as well as standardization of the structure of control devices. ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" suggests a unique approach aimed at reducing parameter sensitivity for

  8. Determinants of Stock Price Movements: Evidence from Chittagong Stock Exchange, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Syedul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock market plays a vital role in the economic development of an economy. It bridges up between savers and real manufacturers by raising funds from investors to companies. This process was broken down due to the 2010-2011 stock market crash in Bangladesh. Though the determinants of stock price have been settled empirically, the current paper aims to reexamine the relationship between stock price, dividend and retained earnings of 29 listed banks of Chittagong Stock Exchange, in the post-crash period. Cross-sectional data were collected from secondary sources. Using linear regression method, the study found that both, dividend and retained earnings of sample banks have strong influence over the stock price, though there was moderate explanatory power of those variables. After reviewing the causes of crisis 2010-2011, this study suggests the following: to control price manipulation, to publish proper financial statement, regulate the dividend policy, to ensure sufficient knowledge among investors, recruit technical expert and ensure proper settlement for transactions, prevent crises of stock market against speculation etc.

  9. Mean reversion in the US stock market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Rosenberg, Aryeh Adam

    2009-01-01

    This paper revisits the evidence for the weaker form of the efficient market hypothesis, building on recent work by Serletis and Shintani [Serletis A, Shintani M. No evidence of chaos but some evidence of dependence in the US stock market. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2003;17:449-54], Elder and Serletis [Elder J, Serletis A. On fractional integrating dynamics in the US stock market. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2007;34;777-81], Koustas et al. [Koustas Z, Lamarche J.-F, Serletis A. Threshold random walks in the US stock market. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, forthcoming], Hinich and Serletis [Hinich M, Serletis A. Randomly modulated periodicity in the US stock market. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, forthcoming], and Serletis et al. [Serletis A, Uritskaya OY, Uritsky VM. Detrended Fluctuation analysis of the US stock market. Int J Bifurc Chaos, forthcoming]. In doing so, we use daily data, over the period from 5 February 1971 to 1 December 2006 (a total of 9045 observations) on four US stock market indexes - the Dow Jones Industrial Average, the Standard and Poor's 500 Index, the NASDAQ Composite Index, and the NYSE Composite Index - and a new statistical physics approach - namely the 'detrending moving average (DMA)' technique, recently introduced by Alessio et al. [Alessio E, Carbone A, Castelli G, Frappietro V. Second-order moving average and scaling of stochastic time series. Euro Phys J B 2002;27;197-200.] and further developed by Carbone et al. [Carbone A, Castelli G, Stanley HE. Time dependent hurst exponent in financial time series. Physica A 2004;344;267-71, Carbone A, Castelli G, Stanley HE. Analysis of clusters formed by the moving average of a long-range correlated time series. Phys Rev E 2004;69;026105.]. The robustness of the results to the use of alternative testing methodologies is also investigated, by using Lo's [Lo AW. Long-term memory in stock market prices. Econometrica 1991;59:1279-313.] modified rescaled range analysis. We conclude that US stock

  10. TRADING RULES ON A SMALL STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefán B. Gunnlaugsson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the results of an extensive study of the weak form efficiency of the Iceland stock market are presented. This study almost covers the market’s entire history, with the research starting at the beginning of 1993 and ending in July 2017. Four trading rules based on 70-day moving averages were constructed and compared with the passive investment strategy of buying the market index. All of these trading rules provided significantly better returns than the passive strategy, even when considering trading costs. This result indicates that the Icelandic stock market did not show weak form efficiency, and past returns predicted future returns during the period examined.

  11. Stock jumps: Analyzing traditional and behavioral perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Corea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to define the concept of stock jumps from a practitioner’s perspective and to give an insightful overview of the topic. We provide different technical and practical definitions from distinct points of view: mathematical, risk managerial, trading and investing. We verify the robustness of some common stylised facts for three major stock indices, and we derive an approximated jumps distribution. We finally provide some innovative insights from a behavioral perspective, and how to account for behavioral biases in this context.

  12. Are Economists More Likely to Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Eyðfrið Juanna Schrøter; Rangvid, Jesper

    A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that due to informational advantages economists are more likely to hold stocks than otherwise identical investors. Weconfirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stockmarket than investors with any other...... education, even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables.We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model....... The results are shown to be highly robust to various assumptions, including unobserved individual heterogeneityand instrumental variables estimation....

  13. Pyjamas, nylon stockings, and other Olympic dreams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen de Kloet

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Photography by Elaine W. Ho. While strolling through the streets of Xiamen in the summer of 1992, I came across many young women wearing short nylon stockings. I remember, with shame, I must confess now, how I would make fun of them with my friends. Taking Dutch standards as the yardstick of good taste, I considered nylon stockings to be part of one’s underwear, whose fringes, indeed the boundaries between the clothed and naked body, were not to be revealed in public. Similar smiles appeared ...

  14. Are Bred Vectors The Same As Lyapunov Vectors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnay, E.; Corazza, M.; Cai, M.

    Regional loss of predictability is an indication of the instability of the underlying flow, where small errors in the initial conditions (or imperfections in the model) grow to large amplitudes in finite times. The stability properties of evolving flows have been studied using Lyapunov vectors (e.g., Alligood et al, 1996, Ott, 1993, Kalnay, 2002), singular vectors (e.g., Lorenz, 1965, Farrell, 1988, Molteni and Palmer, 1993), and, more recently, with bred vectors (e.g., Szunyogh et al, 1997, Cai et al, 2001). Bred vectors (BVs) are, by construction, closely related to Lyapunov vectors (LVs). In fact, after an infinitely long breeding time, and with the use of infinitesimal ampli- tudes, bred vectors are identical to leading Lyapunov vectors. In practical applications, however, bred vectors are different from Lyapunov vectors in two important ways: a) bred vectors are never globally orthogonalized and are intrinsically local in space and time, and b) they are finite-amplitude, finite-time vectors. These two differences are very significant in a dynamical system whose size is very large. For example, the at- mosphere is large enough to have "room" for several synoptic scale instabilities (e.g., storms) to develop independently in different regions (say, North America and Aus- tralia), and it is complex enough to have several different possible types of instabilities (such as barotropic, baroclinic, convective, and even Brownian motion). Bred vectors share some of their properties with leading LVs (Corazza et al, 2001a, 2001b, Toth and Kalnay, 1993, 1997, Cai et al, 2001). For example, 1) Bred vectors are independent of the norm used to define the size of the perturba- tion. Corazza et al. (2001) showed that bred vectors obtained using a potential enstro- phy norm were indistinguishable from bred vectors obtained using a streamfunction squared norm, in contrast with singular vectors. 2) Bred vectors are independent of the length of the rescaling period as long as the

  15. The Index cohesive effect on stock market correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Y.; Kenett, D. Y.; Ben-Jacob, E.

    2009-12-01

    We present empirical examination and reassessment of the functional role of the market Index, using datasets of stock returns for eight years, by analyzing and comparing the results for two very different markets: 1) the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), representing a large, mature market, and 2) the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange (TASE), representing a small, young market. Our method includes special collective (holographic) analysis of stock-Index correlations, of nested stock correlations (including the Index as an additional ghost stock) and of bare stock correlations (after subtraction of the Index return from the stocks returns). Our findings verify and strongly substantiate the assumed functional role of the index in the financial system as a cohesive force between stocks, i.e., the correlations between stocks are largely due to the strong correlation between each stock and the Index (the adhesive effect), rather than inter-stock dependencies. The Index adhesive and cohesive effects on the market correlations in the two markets are presented and compared in a reduced 3-D principal component space of the correlation matrices (holographic presentation). The results provide new insights into the interplay between an index and its constituent stocks in TASE-like versus NYSE-like markets.

  16. Market Confidence Predicts Stock Price: Beyond Supply and Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Zhang, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem in stock market analysis. Existing prediction methods either exploit autocorrelation of stock price and its correlation with the supply and demand of stock, or explore predictive indictors exogenous to stock market. In this paper, using transaction record of stocks with identifier of traders, we introduce an index to characterize market confidence, i.e., the ratio of the number of traders who is active in two successive trading days to the number of active traders in a certain trading day. Strong Granger causality is found between the index of market confidence and stock price. We further predict stock price by incorporating the index of market confidence into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 50 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate that the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of the market confidence index. This study sheds light on using cross-day trading behavior to characterize market confidence and to predict stock price.

  17. Market Confidence Predicts Stock Price: Beyond Supply and Demand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qian Sun

    Full Text Available Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem in stock market analysis. Existing prediction methods either exploit autocorrelation of stock price and its correlation with the supply and demand of stock, or explore predictive indictors exogenous to stock market. In this paper, using transaction record of stocks with identifier of traders, we introduce an index to characterize market confidence, i.e., the ratio of the number of traders who is active in two successive trading days to the number of active traders in a certain trading day. Strong Granger causality is found between the index of market confidence and stock price. We further predict stock price by incorporating the index of market confidence into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 50 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate that the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of the market confidence index. This study sheds light on using cross-day trading behavior to characterize market confidence and to predict stock price.

  18. Vectorization at the KENO-IV code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, K.; Higuchi, K.; Katakura, J.

    1986-01-01

    The multigroup criticality safety code KENO-IV has been vectorized and tested on the FACOM VP-100 vector processor. At first, the vectorized KENO-IV on a scalar processor was slower than the original one by a factor of 1.4 because of the overhead introduced by vectorization. Making modifications of algorithms and techniques for vectorization, the vectorized version has become faster than the original one by a factor of 1.4 on the vector processor. For further speedup of the code, some improvements on compiler and hardware, especially on addition of Monte Carlo pipelines to the vector processor, are discussed

  19. KOMPARASI MODEL SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES (SVM DAN NEURAL NETWORK UNTUK MENGETAHUI TINGKAT AKURASI PREDIKSI TERTINGGI HARGA SAHAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hadapiningradja Kusumodestoni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many types of investments to make money, one of which is in the form of shares. Shares is a trading company dealing with securities in the global capital markets. Stock Exchange or also called stock market is actually the activities of private companies in the form of buying and selling investments. To avoid losses in investing, we need a model of predictive analysis with high accuracy and supported by data - lots of data and accurately. The correct techniques in the analysis will be able to reduce the risk for investors in investing. There are many models used in the analysis of stock price movement prediction, in this study the researchers used models of neural networks (NN and a model of support vector machine (SVM. Based on the background of the problems that have been mentioned in the previous description it can be formulated the problem as follows: need an algorithm that can predict stock prices, and need a high accuracy rate by adding a data set on the prediction, two algorithms will be investigated expected results last researchers can deduce where the algorithm accuracy rate predictions are the highest or accurate, then the purpose of this study was to mengkomparasi or compare between the two algorithms are algorithms Neural Network algorithm and Support Vector Machine which later on the end result has an accuracy rate forecast stock prices highest to see the error value RMSEnya. After doing research using the model of neural network and model of support vector machine (SVM to predict the stock using the data value of the shares on the stock index hongkong dated July 20, 2016 at 16:26 pm until the date of 15 September 2016 at 17:40 pm as many as 729 data sets within an interval of 5 minute through a process of training, learning, and then continue the process of testing so the result is that by using a neural network model of the prediction accuracy of 0.503 +/- 0.009 (micro 503 while using the model of support vector machine

  20. Introduction to matrices and vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Jacob T

    2001-01-01

    In this concise undergraduate text, the first three chapters present the basics of matrices - in later chapters the author shows how to use vectors and matrices to solve systems of linear equations. 1961 edition.

  1. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    biologically an inefficient vector, has an insatiable feeding preference for Rattus spp., Cavia porcellus (guinea pigs), domestic animals (swine...71 Peru – 11 Institutos Nacionales de Salud Departamento de Animales Venenosos Calle Capac Yupanqui 1400 Apartado 451 Lima, Peru TEL

  2. GRE Enzymes for Vector Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Microbial enzyme data that were collected during the 2004-2006 EMAP-GRE program. These data were then used by Moorhead et al (2016) in their ecoenzyme vector...

  3. High Accuracy Vector Helium Magnetometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed HAVHM instrument is a laser-pumped helium magnetometer with both triaxial vector and omnidirectional scalar measurement capabilities in a single...

  4. Optimal Groundwater Extraction under Uncertainty and a Spatial Stock Externality

    Science.gov (United States)

    We introduce a model that incorporates two important elements to estimating welfare gains from groundwater management: stochasticity and a spatial stock externality. We estimate welfare gains resulting from optimal management under uncertainty as well as a gradual stock externali...

  5. AFSC/REFM: Alaska Stock Assessment Results Archive (SARA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Each year over 50 Alaskan groundfish stock assessments report the condition of Alaskan fisheries resources in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. Stock assessment...

  6. The Stock Market: Risk vs. Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffitts, Dawn

    2002-01-01

    This economics education publication focuses on the U.S. stock market and the risk and uncertainty that an individual faces when investing in the market. The material explains that risk and uncertainty relate to the same underlying concept randomness. It defines and discusses both concepts and notes that although risk is quantifiable, uncertainty…

  7. Empirical Rationality in the Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Peter

    2003-01-01

    for this empiricalrationality on part of the agent, the resulting empirical model assignslikelihood to the data actually observed, unlike in the unmodified rational expectationscase. A Lucas (1978)-type asset pricing model which incorporatesempirical rationality is constructed and estimated using U.S. stock data...

  8. Fractal profit landscape of the stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Andreas; Yi, Il Gu; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the profit landscape obtained from the most basic, fluctuation based, trading strategy applied for the daily stock price data. The strategy is parameterized by only two variables, p and q Stocks are sold and bought if the log return is bigger than p and less than -q, respectively. Repetition of this simple strategy for a long time gives the profit defined in the underlying two-dimensional parameter space of p and q. It is revealed that the local maxima in the profit landscape are spread in the form of a fractal structure. The fractal structure implies that successful strategies are not localized to any region of the profit landscape and are neither spaced evenly throughout the profit landscape, which makes the optimization notoriously hard and hypersensitive for partial or limited information. The concrete implication of this property is demonstrated by showing that optimization of one stock for future values or other stocks renders worse profit than a strategy that ignores fluctuations, i.e., a long-term buy-and-hold strategy.

  9. Expected Stock Returns and Variance Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Tauchen, George; Zhou, Hao

    of the time series variation in post 1990 aggregate stock market returns, with high (low) premia predicting high (low) future returns. Our empirical results depend crucially on the use of "model-free," as opposed to Black- Scholes, options implied volatilities, along with accurate realized variation measures...

  10. Financial literacy and stock market participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Maarten; Lusardi, Annamaria; Alessie, Rob

    We have devised two special modules for De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) Household Survey to measure financial literacy and study its relationship to stock market participation. We find that the majority of respondents display basic financial knowledge and have some grasp of concepts such as interest

  11. Taking stock of agroforestry adoption studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhrendu K. Pattanayak; D. Evan Mercer; Erin Sills; Jui-Chen Yang

    2003-01-01

    In light of the large number of empirical studies of agroforestry adoption published during the last decade, we believe it is time to take stock and identify general determinants of agroforestry adoption. In reviewing 120 articles on adoption of agricultural and forestry technology by small holders, we find five categories of factors that explain technology adoption...

  12. Preliminary Studies On The Limnological Stock Assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Studies On The Limnological Stock Assessment, Productivity And Potential Fish Yield Of Ojirami Reservoir, Edo State, Nigeria. ... Tropical Freshwater Biology ... This report has only provided preliminary data on the reservoir but it is hoped that future studies would benefit from this initial benchmark information.

  13. Ecosystem carbon stocks of micronesian mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Boone Kauffman; Chris Heider; Thomas G. Cole; Kathleen A. Dwire; Daniel C. Donato

    2011-01-01

    Among the least studied ecosystem services of mangroves is their value as global carbon (C) stocks. This is significant as mangroves are subject to rapid rates of deforestation and therefore could be significant sources of atmospheric emissions. Mangroves could be key ecosystems in strategies addressing the mitigation of climate change though reduced deforestation. We...

  14. Optimal stocking densities of snails [ Archachatina marginata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal stocking densities of breeding and fattening snails [Archachatina marginata Saturalis A.m.s (Swainson)] were determined through two experiments (five treatments, four replicates and randomised complete block design each) between April and December 1998.Experiment 1 had 3,6, 12, 17 and 22 A.m.s. adult ...

  15. Stock keeping unit fill rate specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R. H.; Syntetos, A. A.; Babai, M. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The fill rate is the most widely applied service level measure in industry and yet there is minimal advice available on how it should be differentiated on an individual Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) basis given that there is an overall system target service level. The typical approach utilized in

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT STOCKING DENSITIES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helet Lambrechts

    The maintenance of breeding ostriches in large flocks is a well-known practice in South Africa and. Israel. ... This study presents results on the reproductive performance of a large commercial breeding population and ... Table 1 Stocking rates and male:female (M:F) ratios of the commercial ostrich breeding operation.

  17. Compression Stockings for Treating Venous Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Benigni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In order to treat venous leg ulcers, it is recommended to use high pressure compression (30–40 mmHg at the ankle. Compression stockings which are not operator dependant could be the best option because of their pressure control. However 30–40 mmHg compression stockings are often hard to put on. Putting two lower pressure compression stockings over each other could be a good therapeutic alternative. Objectives. To compare the in vitro pressures given by the manufacturers of 2 antiulcer kits with the in vivo interface pressures measured in healthy subjects and to evaluate the stiffness and friction indices from those kits based on the interface pressure in order to assess their clinical properties. Material and Methods. Using a Kikuhime pressure device, interface pressure was measured in 12 healthy subjects at the reference point B1. One stiffness index (Static Stiffness Index (SSI and a friction index have been calculated. Results. Mediven Ulcer kit gets the recommended pressures whereas Jobst’s Ulcer Care kit does not for treating a venous leg ulcer. Jobst’s Ulcer Care transmits entirely the pressure in relation to a friction index close to 1. Conclusion. This antiulcer kit study underlines that in vivo and in vitro pressures can be different (Jobst’s Ulcer Care kit and Mediven Ulcer kit. In order not to lose pressure, it is important to take into account the friction index when superimposing two stockings.

  18. A cointegration analysis of wine stock indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Introvigne

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes price patterns and long-run relationships for both fine wine and non-fine wine, with the aim to highlight price dynamics and co-movements between series, and to exploit potential diversification benefits. Data are from Liv-Ex 100 Fine Wine for fine wine, the Mediobanca Global Wine Industry Share Price for normal wine, and the MSCI World Index as a proxy of the overall stock market. Engle-Granger and Johansen tests were used to detect whether and to what extent the series co-move in the long run and which one of the variables contributes proactively to such an equilibrium by reacting to disequilibria from the long-run path. The estimates highlight that i the two wine indexes have a higher Sharpe ratio compared to the general stock market index, revealing wine stocks as a profitable investment per se, and ii the absence of cointegration among the three series and the existence of possible diversification benefits. In fact, in the long-run price do not move together and, therefore, investors may be better off by including wine stocks into investment portfolios and take advantage of diversification

  19. Scaling in the Bombay stock exchange index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This means that today's returns have nothing to do with yesterday's behaviour and there are no 'memory' effects i.e. the returns are independent. This leads to the argument that the data of stock prices and returns .... Hurst used the dimensionless ratio R/S, where S is the standard deviation which is given as. S = 1 τ τ. ∑ t 1.

  20. Algorithmic Trading at Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Victor SĂNDIŢĂ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Very conservative estimates indicate that over 40% of transactions on the stock exchanges in the United States are based on automatically generated orders. Such systems are designed to do algorithmic trading on the basis of a predefined set of rules that determine the composition of the portfolio and the moment in which the purchases and sales of securities are done. Applying highly diverse trading strategies, algorithmic trading systems ultimately aim to maximize profit and minimize risk taking. Algorithmic trading on the Bucharest Stock Exchange is still in its incipient phase. Now, automated trading systems are used only for participants who act as Market Makers for the actions of a few issuers. Estimates indicate a volume of algorithmic trading on the Bucharest Stock Exchange of under 1% of its total transactions. This paper aims to describe a general way that algorithmic trading systems can be connected to the Bucharest Stock Exchange and to present some of our results in the implementation of such a system.