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Sample records for lentinula edodes maitake

  1. In vitro cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes in lignocellulosic residues from Amazon. Ceci Sales-Campos, Diego A. Pires, Samira R. L. Barbosa, Raimunda Liége S. Abreu, Meire C. N. Andrade ...

  2. DNA-based identification of Lentinula edodes strains with species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phe

    2016-02-17

    Feb 17, 2016 ... Received 7 November, 2015; Accepted 25 January, 2016. Lentinula edodes is among the five globally cultivated ... through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a prelude to additional nutritional and .... Eleven (11) strains of shiitake, namely LE005 (ATTC #28759),. LE006 (ATTC# 28760), LE 008 (ATTC# ...

  3. Dye detoxification by Lentinula edodes INCQS 40220 | Detoxificação de corante por Lentinula edodes INCQS 40220

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    Ludmila R. Bergsten-Torralba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lentinula edodes belongs to the group of fungi known as ligninolytic fungi, due to its ability to degrade the aromatic structure of the lignin. Textile dyes also have aromatic structure, and after microbial degradation, some of them can be transformed into toxic compounds, when compared to the original structure, representing risk to environment and human health. Therefore, the potential of the fungus L. edodes INCQS 40220 to decolorize and to detoxify reactive red 198 (azo dye, reactive blue 214 (azo dye and reactive blue 21 (cooper phthalocyanine dye in a mixture (MXD, was evaluated. After 14 days of incubation, total decolorization in liquid media was obtained. The fungal treatment of MXD did not present toxic effects towards blood human cells. The genotoxicity of MXD, assessed by Comet assay, was efficiently reduced to 61% and in the Ames test presented negative response for mutagenicity for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains. The results indicated L. edodes INCQS 40220 efficiency on decolorization and genotoxicity reduction of a mixture of different dyes. Therefore, based on these results, obtained under laboratory conditions, L. edodes INCQS 40220 has potential for textile effluent treatment. ============================================= Lentinula edodes pertence ao grupo de fungos conhecidos como fungos ligninolíticos, devido a sua habilidade de degradar estruturas aromáticas da lignina. Corantes têxteis também possuem estruturas aromáticas e, após a degradação microbiana, alguns destes corantes podem ser transformados em compostos tóxicos quando comparados à estrutura original, representando risco à saúde ambiental e humana. Portanto, o potencial do fungo L. edodes INCQS 40220 para descolorir e detoxificar a mistura de vermelho reativo 198 (corante azo, azul reativo 214 (corante azo e azul reativo 21 (corante ftalocianina de cobre foi avaliada (MXD. Após 14 dias de incubação, foi

  4. Starch concentrations in log-grown shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) mushrooms have a reputation as a healthy food, in part from the abundance of different polysaccharides that may have functional food activities. Polysaccharide content of shiitake and shiitake-derived products are being utilized as a promotional tool to hea...

  5. Expression of manganese peroxidase by Lentinula edodes and Lentinula boryana in solid state and submerged system fermentation

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    KATIA L. HERMANN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is referred as a second generation biofuel, whose processing is one of the most promising technologies under development. There are few available studies on the use of enzymes produced by fungi as active for the biodegradation of lignocellulosic biomass. However, the manganese peroxidase (MnP enzyme presents high potential to degrade lignin and the basidiomycetes are the major producers of this oxidase. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the ability of fungi Lentinula edodes and Lentinula boryana to produce this enzyme when cultivated in submerged fermentation system (SS and also in solid-state fermentation system (SSF containing Eucalyptus benthamii sawdust with or without corn cob meal. In the SS the greatest MnP expression occurred on the 25th day, being of 70 UI.L–1 for L. boryana and of 20 UI.L–1 for L. edodes. In the SSF, the best results were obtained on the 10th day for L. edodes, while for L. boryana it happened between the 20th and the 25th days, despite both species presented values close to 110 UI.L–1. Therefore, the results indicated that the studied fungi express the enzyme of interest and that its production is enhanced when cultivated in solid system.

  6. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LENTINULA EDODES GROWN IN LIQUID MEDIUM Atividade antibacteriana de Lentinula edodes cultivado em meio líquido

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    Noemia Kazue Ishikawa

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of 35 isolates of Lentinula edodes, a shiitake mushroom, against Bacillus subtilis was evaluated by diffusion technique in agar with a semi-solid overlay. All isolates inhibited B. subtilis and the isolate Le1 promoted the formation of the largest inhibition zone. L. edodes Le1 also presented antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens and food contaminant bacteria, particularly Gram-positive species. The antibacterial activity of the culture filtrate after 18-25 days of cultivation of L. edodes in broth at 25ºC was high. The inhibitory activity was observed only in the organic layer when the culture filtrate was partitioned between ethyl acetate and water, suggesting that the inhibitory substances have low polarity. The silica gel thin-layer zone at Rf values of 0.63-0.80, developed in chloroform - acetone - ethyl acetate - methanol = 40:5:5:2, was responsible for the antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. The inhibitory activity of L. edodes was detectable in the culture filtrate after heat treatment at 100ºC for 10 min and after storage at 4ºC for 120 days.A atividade antibacteriana de 35 isolados de Lentinula edodes (shiitake contra Bacillus subtilis foi avaliada pela técnica de difusão em sobrecamada de ágar semi-sólido. Todos os isolados avaliados inibiram o crescimento de B. subtilis sendo o isolado Le1 o que apresentou maior halo de inibição. L. edodes Le1 também inibiu o crescimento de bactérias patogênicas e deterioradoras de alimentos, especialmente as Gram-positivas. Maior atividade antibacteriana do filtrado da cultura de L. edodes em meio líquido foi observada entre 18-25 dias de incubação, a 25ºC. O fracionamento do filtrado da cultura com acetato de etila e água permitiu evidenciar a atividade antagonista somente na fase orgânica, sugerindo que as substâncias inibitórias apresentam baixa poloridade. A cromatografia em camada fina, com o sistema de solventes clorof

  7. Long-read transcriptome data for improved gene prediction in Lentinula edodes

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    Sin-Gi Park

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lentinula edodes is one of the most popular edible mushrooms in the world and contains useful medicinal components such as lentinan. The whole-genome sequence of L. edodes has been determined with the objective of discovering candidate genes associated with agronomic traits, but experimental verification of gene models with correction of gene prediction errors is lacking. To improve the accuracy of gene prediction, we produced 12.6 Gb of long-read transcriptome data of variable lengths using PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT sequencing and generated 36,946 transcript clusters with an average length of 2.2 kb. Evidence-driven gene prediction on the basis of long- and short-read RNA sequencing data was performed; a total of 16,610 protein-coding genes were predicted with error correction. Of the predicted genes, 42.2% were verified to be covered by full-length transcript clusters. The raw reads have been deposited in the NCBI SRA database under accession number PRJNA396788. Keywords: Gene model, Gene prediction, Lentinula edodes, PacBio Single-molecule real-time (SMRT transcriptome sequencing

  8. Chemical Composition and Inhibitory Effect of Lentinula edodes Ethanolic Extract on Experimentally Induced Atopic Dermatitis in Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Ju; Park, Zee-Yong; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-07-29

    The ethanolic extract of Lentinula edodes was partially analyzed and then characterized for its efficacy in treating atopic dermatitis. Polyphenols were determined to be the major antioxidant component in the extract (6.12 mg/g), followed by flavonoids (1.76 mg/g), β-carotene (28.75 μg/g), and lycopene (5.25 μg/g). An atopic dermatitis (AD) model was established and epidermal and dermal ear thickness, mast cell infiltration, and serum immunoglobulin levels were measured after oral administration of the L. edodes extract for 4 weeks. L. edodes extract decreased Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE) and 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines in the ears, cervical lymph nodes, and splenocytes. Consequently, L. edodes extract may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of AD attributable to its immunomodulatory effects.

  9. Chemical Composition and Inhibitory Effect of Lentinula edodes Ethanolic Extract on Experimentally Induced Atopic Dermatitis in Vitro and in Vivo

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    Eun-Ju Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract of Lentinula edodes was partially analyzed and then characterized for its efficacy in treating atopic dermatitis. Polyphenols were determined to be the major antioxidant component in the extract (6.12 mg/g, followed by flavonoids (1.76 mg/g, β-carotene (28.75 μg/g, and lycopene (5.25 μg/g. An atopic dermatitis (AD model was established and epidermal and dermal ear thickness, mast cell infiltration, and serum immunoglobulin levels were measured after oral administration of the L. edodes extract for 4 weeks. L. edodes extract decreased Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE and 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB-induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines in the ears, cervical lymph nodes, and splenocytes. Consequently, L. edodes extract may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of AD attributable to its immunomodulatory effects.

  10. Chemical changes and increased degradability of wheat straw and oak wood chips treated with the white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van Sandra J.A.; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; Baars, Johan J.P.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Río, del José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Ruijter, de Norbert C.A.; Cone, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat straw and oak wood chips were incubated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes for 8 weeks. Samples from the fungal treated substrates were collected every week for chemical characterization. L. edodes continuously grew during the 8 weeks on both wheat straw and oak wood chips,

  11. Biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol by shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) using vanillin as an activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujiyama, S; Muraoka, T; Takada, N

    2013-07-01

    The white-rot shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, was used to degrade an environmentally hazardous compound, 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), using vanillin as an activator. Vanillin increased the mycelial growth from 74 to 118 mg/150 ml culture and accelerated laccase and Mn-peroxidase production from the maximum on days 24-28 without vanillin to days 10-14. It eliminated 92% of 100 mM DCP with 50 mg vanillin/l compared with only 15% without vanillin. GC-MS revealed that a diaryl ether dimer of DCP was formed in the culture without vanillin, whereas dimer formation was diminished with vanillin addition. This indicates that vanillin enhances the degradation of DCP and disrupts the formation of the toxic dimer. Therefore, lignin-derived phenol such as vanillin can be used as natural and eco-friendly activators to control white-rot mushrooms, thereby facilitating the effective degradation of environmentally hazardous compounds.

  12. Effects of certain heavy metals on the growth, dye decolorization, and enzyme activity of Lentinula edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatvani, Nóra; Mécs, Imre

    2003-06-01

    Various physiological parameters of Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) in the presence of nine heavy metal salts were investigated. The mycelial growth was highly sensitive to cadmium and mercury, but less sensitive to zinc, copper, and lead. This resistance can be particularly dangerous to humans in the case of edible fungi such as Shiitake because of the possible heavy metal accumulation during growth and fruiting body production. All of the tested heavy metals inhibited decolorization of the dye Poly R-478 and the production of manganese peroxidase to a greater extent than they inhibited growth. Interestingly, with the exception of iron, the addition of all heavy metal salts investigated led to the increase of laccase production. Apart from cadmium and iron, none of the heavy metals inhibited the in vitro enzyme activities in concentrations up to 3mM. The results of this study indicated the applicability of L. edodes in biosorption technologies used in the removal of toxic metals from contaminated effluents and in bioremediation technologies designed to treat complex wastes contaminated with heavy metals in addition to other xenobiotics.

  13. Effect of Lignin-Containing Media on Growth of Medicinal Mushroom Lentinula Edodes

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    Matjuškova Nataļja

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of lignocellulose and lignin on growth of mycelium of mushroom Lentinula edodes and laccase activity in cultivation medium was studied. It was shown that cultivation of L. edodes mycelium in liquid nutrient medium with addition of 0.25-0.5% of kraft lignin increased mycelium biomass yield approximately two times compared with reference conditions without addition of lignin. Similar results were obtained in experiments in which 0.5% lignocellulose that remained after obtaining furfural, and 0.5% lignin that remained after obtaining furfural and glucose from wheat straw, were added to the nutrient medium. This effect was greater in the conditions of cultivation with good aeration, compared with static culture. Laccase activity in medium increased after addition of wheat straw lignocellulose or lignin only in the case of mycelium cultivation with aeration. In the case of mushroom cultivation on solid nutrient medium, addition of wheat straw lignocellulose and lignin promoted growth of mycelium only during the first 7 days of cultivation.

  14. Extratos de Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei sobre Bipolaris sorokiniana e Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici, in vitro Extracts of Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei on Bipolaris sorokiniana and Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici., in vitro

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    Ana Cristina Grade Fiori-Tutida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de buscar medidas alternativas para o controle de Bipolaris sorokiniana e Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici testou-se o efeito fungitóxico in vitro dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei sobre esses fungos. Os extratos brutos aquosos de ambos os cogumelos não tiveram efeito significativo tanto no crescimento micelial quanto na germinação de esporos de B. sorokiniana. Por outro lado, os extratos dos cogumelos inibiram a germinação de esporos de P. recondita f. sp. tritici, com destaque para o isolado LE 96/17 de L. edodes que apresentou inibição da ordem de 52,4%.With the purpose of finding alternative ways to control Bipolaris sorokiniana and Puccinia recondita f. sp. triciti, the fungitoxic effect in vitro of Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei mushrooms was tested on these fungi. The aqueous crude extract of both mushrooms did not have significant effect on mycelial growth and spore germination of B. sorokiniana . On the other hand, the mushroom extracts inhibited the germination of P. recondita f. sp. tritici uredospores, particularly on the L. edodes (96/17, which exhibited the largest inhibition of spore germination (52,38%.

  15. Association Mapping Reveals Genetic Loci Associated with Important Agronomic Traits in Lentinula edodes, Shiitake Mushroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang; Gong, Wenbing; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Zhiquan; Nong, Wenyan; Bian, Yinbing; Kwan, Hoi-Shan; Cheung, Man-Kit; Xiao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Association mapping is a robust approach for the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Here, by genotyping 297 genome-wide molecular markers of 89 Lentinula edodes cultivars in China, the genetic diversity, population structure and genetic loci associated with 11 agronomic traits were examined. A total of 873 alleles were detected in the tested strains with a mean of 2.939 alleles per locus, and the Shannon's information index was 0.734. Population structure analysis revealed two robustly differentiated groups among the Chinese L. edodes cultivars (FST = 0.247). Using the mixed linear model, a total of 43 markers were detected to be significantly associated with four traits. The number of markers associated with traits ranged from 9 to 26, and the phenotypic variations explained by each marker varied from 12.07% to 31.32%. Apart from five previously reported markers, the remaining 38 markers were newly reported here. Twenty-one markers were identified as simultaneously linked to two to four traits, and five markers were associated with the same traits in cultivation tests performed in two consecutive years. The 43 traits-associated markers were related to 97 genes, and 24 of them were related to 10 traits-associated markers detected in both years or identified previously, 13 of which had a >2-fold expression change between the mycelium and primordium stages. Our study has provided candidate markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and useful clues for understanding the genetic architecture of agronomic traits in the shiitake mushroom. PMID:28261189

  16. Effects of Aeration of Sawdust Cultivation Bags on Hyphal Growth of Lentinula edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa-Yong; Ham, Eun-Ju; Yoo, Young-Jin; Kim, Eui-Sung; Shim, Kyu-Kwang; Kim, Myung-Kon; Koo, Chang-Duck

    2012-09-01

    The effects of aeration through lid filters on the hyphal growth of Lentinula edodes (oak mushroom) in sawdust cultivation bags were investigated. The aeration treatment levels were traditional 27 mm hole cotton plugs, cotton balls and combinations of seven hole sizes × two hole positions (up and under) in the lids covering plastic bags containing 1.4 kg sawdust medium at 63% moisture that had been autoclaved for one hour and inoculated with sawdust spawn of L. edodes strain 921. Aeration treatment effects were measured based on the CO(2) concentration at the 15th wk, as well as the hyphal growth rate and degree of weight loss of bags every 14 days for 15 wk. In bags with traditional cotton plugs, the CO(2) concentration was 3.8 ± 1.3%, daily mean hyphal growth was 2.3 ± 0.6 mm and daily mean weight loss was 0.84 ± 0.26 g. In the bags with 15 mm diameter holes, the CO(2) concentration was 6.0 ± 1.6%, daily hyphal growth was 2.8 ± 0.2 mm and daily weight loss was 0.86 ± 0.4 g. The bags with 15 mm holes had a higher CO(2) concentration and lower water loss than bags with other hole sizes, but the hyphal growth was not significantly different from that of other bags. The weight loss of bags increased proportionally relative to the lid hole sizes. Taken together, these results indicate that traditional cotton plugs are economically efficient, but 15 mm hole lids are the most efficient at maintaining hyphal growth and controlling water loss while allowing CO(2) emissions.

  17. Production evaluation of Lentinula edodes Pegler fungi in synthetic logs based on agricultural wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas Escobar, Valeska; Perez, Ana Milena; Clara Arredondo

    2007-01-01

    Production of Lentinula edodes, medicinal and gourmet mushroom commonly known as shiitake, was evaluated in synthetic blocks with the aim of using agroindustrial wastes not jet studied quantitatively and environmentally problematical for many industries. Fifty five different combinations of substrates were analyzed using two agroindustrial wastes (cocoa husk and cotton waste), one wood supplement (oak), one nitrogen source (wheat bran), one pH controller (CaC0 3 ), and one growth stimulator (CaS0 4 ). It was found that the substrate formulation has a considerable effect upon the colonization time of the block (P < 0.05), being the oak supplement essential for the time colonization reduction. Furthermore, the cocoa husk Was not a good waste for shiitake production. The treatments that gave the best conditions for shiitake culture contained 75% of oak, and 20 to 25% of wheat bran or 25% of cotton waste. Depending on the treatment evaluated, the biological efficiency achieved were between 5.3 to 21.5%, the pileo size from 4.7 to 9.3 cm for the first flush and the colonization precocity between 69 to 125 days with C/N relationship superior to 110 and with better nutritional value to those reported by other researchers

  18. Hydrolytic enzyme activities in shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) strains cultivated on coffee pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Gerardo; Salmones, Dulce; Pérez-Merlo, Rosalía

    Hydrolytic enzyme production (cellulases, laminarinases and xylanases) was studied in cultures of Lentinula edodes on sterilized coffee pulp. Samples of substrate colonized by mycelia were taken after 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days of incubation at 25°C (W1 to W5) and during the fruiting period at different stages: formation of primordia (PF), first harvest (H) and one week after the first harvest (PH). The enzymatic activity was lower during the early mycelial growth and showed higher levels during the formation and development of fruiting bodies. During the reproductive stage of the fungus, the samples were subjected to a soaking treatment; however, it was not possible to relate this soaking treatment to the increase in enzyme production. The levels of enzymatic activity suggest that secretion of the studied enzymes does not influence the adaptability of the strains to the substrate. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative changes in the biochemical composition of lignocellulosic residues during the vegetative growth of Lentinula edodes

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    Rigoberto Gaitán-Hernández

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical changes in barley-straw (BS, wheat-straw (WS and vineyard-pruning (VP substrates were determined during colonization of Lentinula edodes mycelia (during primordium development in solid state fermentation. Primordia appeared 39-50 days after inoculation. VP appeared to promote early sporophore initiation. The concentration of hemicellulose in BS and VP decreased gradually from 25.5% to 15.6% and from 15.8% to 12.3%, respectively. However in WS, hemicellulose decreased from 27.2% to 9.5%. Lignin broke down continuously in BS and WS, with 31.8% and 34.4% degradation, respectively; higher than that of cellulose. During the pinning stage, the C:N ratio decreased in VP and BS, but not in WS. On all substrates the phenols decreased notably throughout the first week of mycelial growth. The time elapsed (days to pinning was positively correlated with cellulose content (r=0.89, total sugar (r=0.85 and inversely correlated to lignin (r=-1.00 and phenol content (r=-0.55.

  20. Caracterização bromatológica de oito linhagens de Lentinula edodes (Shiitake cultivadas em toras de Eucalyptus grandis Bromatological characterization of Lentinula edodes strains (Shiitake grown on Eucalyptus grandis logs

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    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O Lentinula edodes é um alimento de qualidade elevada, sendo rico em proteínas, vitaminas e sais minerais e pobre em calorias e gorduras. No entanto, seu valor nutricional varia em função da linhagem cultivada, do processamento após a colheita, do estágio de desenvolvimento do basidioma e do substrato utilizado. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar bromatologicamente os basidiomas de oito linhagens de L. edodes (LE-95/01, LE-95/02, LE-95/07, LE-96/17, LE-96/18, LE-98/47, LE-98/55 e LE-96/13, inteiros ou em partes (estípete e píleo, produzidos em toras de E. grandis. Verificou-se que tanto as linhagens de L. edodes como as partes dos basidiomas analisados influenciaram nas respostas nutricionais das amostras. O estípete apresentou as maiores médias de fibra bruta e as menores médias de proteína bruta. O píleo, por sua vez, apresentou as maiores médias de cinzas. Nas avaliações de basidiomas inteiros, as maiores médias, quanto ao teor de proteína bruta, foram obtidas nas linhagens LE-95/07, LE-96/17 e LE-96/18. Já a maior média de fibra bruta foi obtida pela linhagem LE-96/13 de L. edodes. O conteúdo de lipídios do píleo e do estípete não variaram entre as linhagens de L. edodes.Lentinula edodes is high quality food which is rich in proteins, vitamins, and minerals and poor in calories and fat. However, its nutritional value is variable according to the strain grown, processing after harvest, development stage of basidiomata, and substrate used. Thus, the objective of this paper was to carry out the bromatological characterization of basidiomatas from eight (LE-95/01, LE-95/02, LE-95/07, LE-96/17, LE-96/18, LE-98/47, LE-98/55 e LE-96/13 L. edodes strains, whole or in parts (stalk and pileus, produced in E. grandis logs. We verified that both the L. edodes strains and parts of basidiomatas analyzed influenced nutritional responses of the samples. The stalk presented the highest raw fiber averages and the

  1. Selective ligninolysis of wheat straw and wood chips by the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes and its influence on in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Rio, del José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work investigated the influence of lignin content and composition in the fungal
    treatment of lignocellulosic biomass in order to improve rumen degradability. Wheat straw and wood chips,
    differing in lignin composition, were treated with Lentinula edodes for 0, 2, 4, 8

  2. Digital monitoring of mycelium growth kinetics and vigor of shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler on agar medium Monitoramento digital do crescimento e vigor do shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler em meio de cultura

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    Renato Mamede de Castro Montini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The mycelium growth kinetics and vigor of shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler strains LE 96/17, LE 98/51, LE 98/53, and LE 98/56 were studied under different agar medium compositions. The strains were from the mycological collection of the Módulo de Cogumelos, Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Unesp-Botucatu, Brazil. Mycelium fragments from stock cultures were transferred to Petri dishes with Sawdust extract-Dextrose-Agar medium. The area of growth and vigor (density of the mycelia were daily recorded with a digital camera, during incubation, until the complete colonization of the Petri dish. The images were analyzed by the freeware UTHSCSA ImageTool, v. 2.0, developed by the University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio. The kinetics of mycelium growth, as measured by the mycelium area (mm², has as a deterministic component an exponential function of Gompertz. The vigor, as evaluated by mycelium color in gray scale, was similar for all strains, reached a maximal value between the 4th and 5th day of incubation and decreased further on. The velocity of growth of L. edodes strains was lower in enriched culture media, while vigor was higher. Digital monitoring permits a objective evaluation of the growth kinetics of L. edodes in vitro.Avaliou-se o crescimento e vigor das linhagens LE 96/17, LE 98/51, LE 98/53 e LE 98/56 de Lentinula edodes (Berk Pegler em diferentes composições de meio de cultura. As linhagens foram provenientes da Micoteca do Módulo de Cogumelos da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Unesp, Campus de Botucatu. Os isolados foram obtidos por propagação vegetativa, pela transferência asséptica do micélio para o meio de cultura de extrato de serragem-dextrose-ágar. O crescimento e vigor do micélio foi fotografado diariamente com uma câmera digital, durante a incubação, até a colonização total da placa de Petri. As imagens foram analisadas pelo programa UTHSCSA ImageTool (freeware, versão 2

  3. Cogumelo "shiitake" (Lentinula edodes reduz o crescimento de fitopatógenos e a severidade de manchas foliares em sorgo “shiitake” (Lentinula edodes mushroom reduces growth of plant pathogens and leaf spot severity in sorghum

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    Everaldo Piccinin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lentinula edodes (cogumelo "shiitake" é um fungo basidiomiceto que apresenta propriedades nutricionais, medicinais e antibióticas. Compostos de interesse para o homem têm sido isolados do basidiocarpo e dos filtrados de cultura obtidos a partir do crescimento micelial. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o efeito de diferentes preparações de L. edodes sobre patógenos da cultura do sorgo, Exserohilum turcicum e Colletotrichum sublineolum, bem como a proteção das plantas de sorgo contra estes patógenos. Em testes com placas de Petri e lâminas de vidro para microscopia, extratos aquosos obtidos do basidiocarpo inteiro e de suas partes individualizadas, píleo e estipe, reduziram a taxa de crescimento micelial e inibiram a germinação de esporos dos fungos, enquanto a atividade antifúngica do filtrado de crescimento micelial foi menos pronunciada. Em mesocótilos de sorgo, as diferentes preparações do "shiitake" não provocaram o acúmulo de fitoalexinas. O extrato aquoso do basidiocarpo e o composto lentinana reduziram parcialmente a severidade das doenças provocadas por E. turcicum na cv. Brandes e por C. sublineolum na cv. Tx-398-B, quando pulverizados 48 horas antes da inoculação das plantas, sob condições de casa de vegetação. Portanto, L. edodes apresenta potencial como agente de controle biológico ou como um modelo para a síntese de substâncias fungicidas.Lentinula edodes ("shiitake" mushroom is a fungus that presents nutritional, medicinal and antibiotic properties. Valuable compounds have been isolated from the fruiting bodies and from mycelium growth filtrates. The present work had as objectives the evaluation of the effect of L. edodes preparations on two sorghum pathogens, Exserohilum turcicum and Colletotrichum sublineolum, as well as the protection of sorghum plants against those fungi. When in vitro studies were carried out, aqueous extracts from the whole fruiting bodies and also from fruiting body

  4. Insects associated with edible mushroom Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler (Agaricales: Agaricaceae cultivation in Brazil Insetos associados ao cultivo do cogumelo comestível Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler (Agaricales: Agaricaceae no Brasil

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    Luzia Paccola Meirelles

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Lentinula edodes has adapted itself well to the Brazilian climate and its cultivation techniques are accessible to small and large producers. As with any other crop, the shiitake faces insect and pest attack problems, both during the mycelia colonization period in the substrate and during the basidiocarp formation. There is no report up to now of the pests that may attack in the crop in Brazil. Consequently, this study was carried out as a preliminary survey of the insects associated with shiitake cultivation both in the growing substrate and in the fruiting bodies. The samples were taken from properties situated in Londrina (PR, Rolândia (PR Nova Friburgo (RJ Sorocaba (SP and Viçosa (MG. As a result, insects from the orders Coleoptera (Bostrichidae, Staphilinidae and Dermestidae, Diptera (Calliphoridae, Himenoptera (Formicidae and Lepidoptera (Stenomatidae, were found. O cultivo de Lentinula edodes apresenta-se em crescente expansão no Brasil. Um dos problemas enfrentados pelos produtores é o ataque de insetos, tanto no substrato de crescimento do micélio, como durante o processo de formação do basidiocarpo. Este trabalho teve por objetivo fazer um levantamento preliminar dos insetos associados ao cultivo do shiitake. Deste modo, foram realizadas coletas de insetos invasores de culturas, por meio do uso de puçá e sugadores, em Londrina (PR, Rolândia (PR, Nova Friburgo (RJ, Sorocaba (SP e Viçosa (MG. Como resultado, foram encontrados insetos das ordens Coleóptera (Bostrichidae, Staphilinidae e Dermestidae, Diptera (Calliphoridae, Himenoptera (Formicidae e Lepidoptera (Stenomatidae.  

  5. Aqueous extracts of Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibit high antioxidant capability and promising in vitro antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finimundy, T C; Gambato, G; Fontana, R; Camassola, M; Salvador, M; Moura, S; Hess, J; Henriques, J A P; Dillon, A J P; Roesch-Ely, M

    2013-01-01

    Mushroom extracts are increasingly sold as dietary supplements because of several of their properties, including the enhancement of immune function and antitumor activity. We hypothesized that soluble polar substances present in mushroom extracts may show antioxidant and anticancer properties. This report shows that Brazilian aqueous extracts of Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus sajor-caju exert inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the human tumor cell lines laryngeal carcinoma (Hep-2) and cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa). Cell viability was determined after using 3 different temperatures (4°C, 22°C, and 50°C) for mushroom extraction. Biochemical assays carried out in parallel indicated higher amounts of polyphenols in the L edodes extracts at all extraction temperatures investigated. The scavenging ability of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher activity for L edodes extracts. Superoxide dismutase-like activity showed no statistically significant difference among the groups for the 2 tested extracts, and catalase-like activity was increased with the L edodes extracts at 4°C. The results for the cytotoxic activity from P sajor-caju extracts at 22°C revealed the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.64% ± 0.02% for Hep-2 and 0.25% ± 0.02% for HeLa. A higher cytotoxic activity was found for the L edodes extract at 22°C, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.78% ± 0.02% for Hep-2 and 0.57% ± 0.01% for HeLa. Substantial morphological modifications in cells were confirmed by Giemsa staining after treatment with either extract, suggesting inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis with increasing extract concentrations. These results indicate that the aqueous extracts of Brazilian L edodes and P sajor-caju mushrooms are potential sources of antioxidant and anticancer compounds. However, further investigations are needed to exploit their valuable therapeutic uses and to elucidate their modes of

  6. A metabolomics approach to evaluate the effects of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) treatment in undernourished young rats

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    Molz, Patrícia [Nutrition Course, Department of Physical Education and Health, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program in Health Promotion, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Ellwanger, Joel Henrique [Biological Sciences Course, Department of Biology and Pharmacy, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Eliete Iochims dos Santos, Carla; Dias, Johnny Ferraz [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Campos, Deivis de [Biological Sciences Course, Department of Biology and Pharmacy, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Corbellini, Valeriano Antonio [Graduate Program in Health Promotion, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Prá, Daniel [Graduate Program in Health Promotion, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Biological Sciences Course, Department of Biology and Pharmacy, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Putzke, Marisa Terezinha Lopes [Biological Sciences Course, Department of Biology and Pharmacy, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech, E-mail: silviafr@unisc.br [Nutrition Course, Department of Physical Education and Health, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program in Health Promotion, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Undernourishment is characterized by a decrease of the metabolic rate as a result of lack of nutrients important to life. Shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) can be an alternative to reverse undernourishment. The aim of this study was to explore the metabolic changes and consequent elemental concentrations found in undernourished rats and undernourished rats treated with shiitake mushroom (n = 12 rats each group). To determine the elemental concentration, blood samples were analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). For metabolomics, blood samples were tested under Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that the supplementation with shiitake mushroom in undernourished rats altered the composition of blood proteins, elements and volume. Several strong correlations were observed between the elemental concentrations and metabolic parameters.

  7. ANALYSES OF GENETIC VARIABILITY IN LENTINULA EDODES THROUGH MYCELIA RESPONSES TO DIFFERENT ABIOTIC CONDITIONS AND RAPD MOLECULAR MARKERS

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    Maki Cristina Sayuri

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of thirty-four Lentinula edodes strains submitted to different mycelial cultivation conditions (pH and temperature was evaluated and strain variability was assessed by RAPD molecular markers. The growth at three pH values (5, 6 and 7 and four different temperatures (16, 25, 28 and 37ºC was measured using the in vitro mycelial development rate and water retention as parameters. Mycelial cultivation was successful at all pH tested, while the ideal temperature for mycelial cultivation ranged between 25 and 28ºC. The water content was lower in strains grown at 37ºC. Among 20 OPA primers (Operon Technologies, Inc. used for the RAPD analyses, seventeen presented good polymorphism (OPA01 to OPA05, OPA07 to OPA14, OPA17 to OPA20. The clustering based on similarity coefficients allowed the separation of strain in two groups with different geographic origins.

  8. Extracts from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Edible Mushrooms Enriched with Vitamin D Exert an Anti-Inflammatory Hepatoprotective Effect.

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    Drori, Ariel; Shabat, Yehudit; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Danay, Ofer; Levanon, Dan; Zolotarov, Lidya; Ilan, Yaron

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D has been known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Extracts derived from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) edible mushroom exert an anti-inflammatory effect. These extracts contain high levels of ergosterol, which converts into ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) following exposure to ultraviolet light, followed by absorption and hydroxylation into the active form 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. To determine the anti-inflammatory effect of overexpression of vitamin D in edible mushrooms, L. edodes mushrooms were exposed to ultraviolet-B light, freeze-dried, followed by measurement of vitamin D2 contents, in their dry weight. C57B1/6 mice were orally treated with vitamin D2-enriched or nonenriched mushroom extract prior and during concanavalin A-immune-mediated liver injury. Exposure to ultraviolet light increased vitamin D2 content in Shiitake edible mushrooms. Following feeding of vitamin D-enriched mushroom extracts to mice with immune-mediated hepatitis, a significant decrease in liver damage was noted. This was shown by a decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels, a decrease in proportion of mice with severe liver injury, and by improvement in liver histology. These effects were associated with a decrease in serum interferon gamma levels. A synergistic effect was noted between the anti-inflammatory effect of the mushroom extracts and that of vitamin D. Oral administration of vitamin D-enriched L. edodes edible mushroom exerts a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect in the immune-mediated hepatitis. The data support its potential use as safe immunomodulatory adjuvant for the treatment of HCV and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  9. Production evaluation of Lentinula edodes Pegler fungi in synthetic logs based on agricultural wastes Evaluación de la producción del hongo Lentinula edodes Pegler en bloques sintéticos a base de residuos agroindustriales

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    Clara Arredondo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of Lentinula edodes, medicinal and gourmet mushroom commonly known as shiitake, was evaluated in synthetic blocks with the aim of using agroindustrial wastes not jet studied quantitatively and environmentally problematical for many industries. Fifty five different combinations of substrates were analyzed using two agroindustrial wastes (cocoa husk and cotton waste, one wood supplement (oak, one nitrogen source (wheat bran, one pH controller (CaCO3, and one growth stimulator (CaSO4. It was found that the substrate formulation has a considerable effect upon the colonization time of the block (P El cultivo de Lentinula edodes, hongo comestible, medicinal y comúnmente llamado shiitake, se evaluó en bloques sintéticos con el fin de aprovechar diferentes residuos agroindustriales no estudiados hasta el momento cuantitativamente, y que representan un problema ambiental para algunas empresas. Se realizaron 55 diferentes combinaciones de sustratos utilizando dos residuos agroindustriales (cascarilla de cacao y motosa de algodón, un suplemento maderable (viruta de roble, una fuente de nitrógeno (salvado de trigo, un controlador de pH (CaCO3 y un estimulador de crecimiento (CaSO4. Se encontró que la formulación del sustrato tiene un gran efecto sobre el tiempo de colonizaci´on del bloque (P < 0,05, siendo la viruta de roble un elemento esencial para la reducci´on del tiempo de colonizaci´on. Adicionalmente, se halló que la cascarilla de cacao no es un buen suplemento para la producción del macromiceto. Los tratamientos que proporcionaron mejores condiciones para la formación de cuerpos fructíferos contenían 75% de viruta de roble en combinación con salvado de trigo (20 − 25% o motosa de algodón (25%. Dependiendo del tratamiento evaluado, se obtuvieron eficiencias biol´ogicas entre un 5,3 a un 21,5%, tamaños de píleo entre 4,7 y 9,3 cm para la primera cosecha, precocidades de colonizaci´on entre 69 y 125 d´ıas, con

  10. Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

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    Robson Marcelo Di Piero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas

  11. A Kinetic Model for Predicting the Relative Humidity in Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Its Application in Lentinula edodes Packages

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    Li-xin Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adjusting and controlling the relative humidity (RH inside package is crucial for ensuring the quality of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP of fresh produce. In this paper, an improved kinetic model for predicting the RH in MAP was developed. The model was based on heat exchange and gases mass transport phenomena across the package, gases heat convection inside the package, and mass and heat balances accounting for the respiration and transpiration behavior of fresh produce. Then the model was applied to predict the RH in MAP of fresh Lentinula edodes (one kind of Chinese mushroom. The model equations were solved numerically using Adams-Moulton method to predict the RH in model packages. In general, the model predictions agreed well with the experimental data, except that the model predictions were slightly high in the initial period. The effect of the initial gas composition on the RH in packages was notable. In MAP of lower oxygen and higher carbon dioxide concentrations, the ascending rate of the RH was reduced, and the RH inside packages was saturated slowly during storage. The influence of the initial gas composition on the temperature inside package was not much notable.

  12. Screening of inducers for laccase production by Lentinula edodes in liquid medium Seleção de indutores para produção de lacase por Lentinula edodes

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    José Renato P. Cavallazzi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Laccases are enzymes involved in lignin degradation and are produced by various organisms. Due to their low substrate specificity their potential to be used in biotechnological applications has received attention. The addition of laccase inducers to the culture medium of microorganisms can enhance laccase production and facilitate its purification and utilization. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of some compounds as laccase inducers in cultures of Lentinula edodes (shiitake. First, it was selected a culture medium suitable for laccase production by shiitake using two levels of N (2.6 and 26 mM and seven levels of Cu (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 µM. The medium with 2.6 mM N and 250 µM Cu was found to provide the highest laccase activity. To the selected medium it were added gallic acid (1 mM, catechol (1 mM, ammonium tartrate (55 µM, hydroxybenzoic acid (1 mM and vanillin (1 mM. The two first compounds completely inhibited laccase activity and a 30 day time course experiment was carried out with the remaining compounds. Only cultures with ammonium tartrate exhibited laccase activity higher than control cultures, reaching 251 U/mL of extract after 30 days. A native-PAGE was performed and showed only one band, suggesting that no isozyme was produced.Lacases são enzimas envolvidas na degradação da lignina e produzidas por diversos organismos. Devido à sua baixa especificidade por substratos, seu potencial para utilização em aplicações biotecnológicas tem sido objeto de investigação. A adição de indutores de lacases ao meio de cultivo de microrganismos aumenta a produção dessas enzimas, facilitando sua purificação e utilização. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar o efeito de alguns compostos utilizados como indutores de lacases em fungos na produção destas enzimas por Lentinula edodes (shiitake. Previamente a utilização de indutores, foi selecionado um meio de cultura para a produção de

  13. Activation of the NRF2-ARE signalling pathway by the Lentinula edodes polysaccharose LNT alleviates ROS-mediated cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

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    Chen, Qian; Peng, Huixia; Dong, Lei; Chen, Lijuan; Ma, Xiaobin; Peng, Yuping; Dai, Shejiao; Liu, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    The nephrotoxicity of cisplatin (cis-DDP) limits its general clinical applications. Lentinan (LNT), a dextran extracted from the mushroom Lentinula edodes, has been shown to have multiple pharmacological activities. The primary objective of the current study was to determine whether and how LNT alleviates cis-DDP- induced cytotoxicity in HK-2 cells and nephrotoxicity in mice. LNT did not interfere with cisplatin's anti-tumour efficacy in vitro and functioned cooperatively with cis-DDP to inhibit activity in HeLa and A549 tumour cells. LNT alleviated the cis-DDP-induced decrease in HK-2 cell viability, caspase-3 activation and cleavage of the DNA repair enzyme PARP, decreased HK-2 cell apoptosis and inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in HK-2 cells. The inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC) could decreased the apoptosis of HK-2 cell. In addition, LNT significantly prevented cis-DDP-induced kidney injury in vivo. LNT itself could not eliminate ROS levels in vitro. Further studies demonstrated that LNT induced NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein and mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. LNT promoted Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus and binding to the antioxidant-response element (ARE) sequence and induced the transcription and translation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), aldo-keto reductases 1C1 and 1C2 (AKR1C), and NADP(H):quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Finally, we used hNrf2 siRNA and an Nrf2 agonist (tBHQ) to inhibit or enhance Nrf2 expression. The results demonstrated that the LNT-mediated alleviation of cis-DDP-induced nephrotoxicity was achieved by preventing the accumulation of ROS in a manner that depended on the activation of the Nrf2-ARE signalling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Crescimento micelial de dois isolados de Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler, em resíduos ligninocelulósicos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3622 Mycelial growth of two isolated strains of Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler in lignocellulose residue - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3622

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    Eraldo Schunck da Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de verificar o crescimento micelial de dois isolados, 42 e 47, de Lentinula edodes, utilizaram-se os substratos: serragens de Eucalyptus sp., de Grevillea robusta e de Melia azedarach; resíduo de algodão e folhas de Panicum maximum em diferentes composições e suplementados com farelos de soja e de arroz. Verificou-se crescimento micelial por meio de medidas do raio avaliadas pela Análise de Dados Longitudinais. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à analise estatística (Manova. O crescimento foi significativamente diferente ao longo do tempo e este influenciou marcadamente o comportamento dos isolados nos diferentes resíduos. Observaram-se quatro padrões de comportamento para o isolado 42 e cinco, para o 47. As serragens de Eucalyptus sp. e de G. robusta mostraram-se as mais propícias ao crescimento dos dois isolados de L. edodes, confirmando ser essa espécie essencialmente de hábito lignícola.With the purpose of verifying the mycelial growth of two isolated strains of Lentinula edodes – 42 and 47 –, the following substrates were used: sawdusts of Eucalyptus sp., Grevillea robusta and Melia azedarach; cotton residue and leaves of Panicum maximum, in different compositions and complemented with crumbs of soy and rice. Mycelial growth was verified through radius measurements as evaluated by Longitudinal Data Analysis. The obtained data was submitted to statistical analysis (Manova. The growth was significantly different along time, and this influenced remarkably the behavior of the isolated strains in the different residues. Four patterns of behavior were observed for isolate 42, and five for number 47. The sawdusts of Eucalyptus sp. and of G. robusta proved to the most favorable for growing the two isolates of L. edodes, confirming this species to be essentially lignous.

  15. Bioavailability of iron from cereal products enriched with dried shittake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) as determined by iron regeneration efficacy method in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regula, Julita; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Staniek, Halina

    2010-10-01

    Lentinula edodes shiitake mushrooms are rich sources of iron, which in addition to their relatively high nutritive value are also characterized by high contents of biologically active components. However, recommendation of products prepared on the basis of dried shiitake mushrooms and introduced to the diet as sources of iron requires a precise determination of bioavailability of this element. The purpose of this study was to assess the bioavailability of iron from cereal products with the addition of dried shiitake mushrooms using the iron regeneration efficacy method in Fe-deficient female rats. Feeding products with 10% and 20% addition of dried shiitake to female rats with a previously evoked Fe deficiency resulted in a gradual repletion of lowered Fe indices, including an increase in blood hemoglobin concentration and serum and liver Fe levels to values comparable to those of the control group. Bioavailability of iron from cereal products enriched with dried shiitake mushrooms is comparable to that of Fe(II) gluconate.

  16. Mycelial growth of two Lentinula edodes strains in culture media prepared with sawdust extracts from seven eucalyptus species and three eucalyptus clones = Crescimento micelial de duas linhagens de Lentinula edodes em meios de cultura à base de extrato de serragem de sete espécies e três clones de eucalipto

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    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro mycelial growth of Lentinula edodes strains LE-95/01 and LE- 96/18 were evaluated in solid culture media prepared with sawdust extracts from seven eucalyptus species (E. saligna, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. pellita, E. paniculata, E. citriodora, and E. camaldulensis and three eucalyptus clones (E. grandis × E. urophylla hybrids. Evaluations were made every 48 hours by means of colony diameter measurements (mean of four transversely-oriented measurements, during ten days of incubation in the dark at 25ºC±1°C. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, and treatment means were compared by Tukey test. The culture medium prepared from E. citriodora sawdust extract was the most promising to grow L. edodes strains LE-96/18 and LE-95/01. L. edodes strainLE-96/18 presented the fastest mycelial growth after incubation for ten days, regardless of sawdust extract type used in the culture medium.Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial in vitro das linhagens LE-95/01 e LE-96/18 de Lentinula edodes, em meios de cultura sólidos à base de extrato de serragem de sete espécies (Eucalyptus saligna, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. pellita, E. paniculata, E. citriodora e E. camaldulensis e três clones (híbridos de E. grandis x E. urophylla de eucalipto. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio de medições do diâmetro das colônias (média de quatro medidas diametralmenteopostas, a cada 48 horas, durante dez dias de incubação, no escuro a 25ºC ±1°C. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com uso do teste de Tukey para a comparação das médias. O meio de cultura à base de extrato de serragem de E. citriodora foio mais promissor no crescimento das linhagens LE-96/18 e LE-95/01 de L. edodes. A linhagem LE-96/18 de L. edodes foi a que apresentou o crescimento micelial mais rápido após dez dias de incubação, independentemente do tipo de extrato de serragem utilizado nomeio de cultura.

  17. Evaluation of host quality of life and immune function in breast cancer patients treated with combination of adjuvant chemotherapy and oral administration of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract

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    Nagashima Y

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yukiko Nagashima,1 Noriko Maeda,2 Shigeru Yamamoto,2 Shigefumi Yoshino,2 Masaaki Oka21Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Shakaihoken Shimonoseki Kosei Hospital, Shimonoseki City, Yamaguchi, Japan; 2Department of Digestive Surgery and Surgical Oncology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube City, Yamaguchi, JapanPurpose: Anthracycline-based chemotherapies for breast cancer are well known to have adverse effects and can also negatively affect host immune function. There is therefore a necessity for an adjuvant that maintains the quality of life (QOL and immune function of cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapies.Patients and methods: The present study investigated the effectiveness of the concomitant use of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract (LEM, an oral immunomodulator, with FEC75 (5-fluorouracil + epirubicin + cyclophosphamide therapy on host QOL and immune function in breast cancer patients with nodal metastases. Ten breast cancer patients with nodal metastases receiving surgery were enrolled in this study. Treatment with 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m2, epirubicin (75 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2 was performed every 21 days for two courses, and LEM (1800 mg/day by mouth was administered during the second course.Results: In the first course, hematological toxicity was observed and host QOL and immune function were exacerbated. In the second course, however, the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes did not decrease and host QOL was maintained. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activities of natural killer (NK and lymphokine-activated killer cells and the proportion of activated NK and NK T-cells in lymphocytes were maintained in the second course.Conclusion: It has been suggested that the concomitant use of LEM with FEC75 therapy can maintain host QOL and immune function, and offer important implications for an application of LEM as a useful oral adjuvant to anthracycline-based chemotherapies

  18. Changes in the mycovirus (LeV) titer and viral effect on the vegetative growth of the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Mi; Song, Ha-Yeon; Choi, Hyo-Jin; Yun, Suk-Hyun; So, Kum-Kang; Ko, Han-Kyu; Kim, Dae-Hyuk

    2015-02-02

    This study attempted to cure the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes strain FMRI0339 of the L. edodes mycovirus (LeV) in order to obtain an isogenic virus-free fungal strain as well as a virus-infected strain for comparison. Mycelial fragmentation, followed by being spread on a plate with serial dilutions resulted in a virus-free colony. Viral absence was confirmed with gel electrophoresis after dsRNA-specific virus purification, Northern blot analysis, and PCR using reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR). Once cured, all of fungal cultures remained virus-free over the next two years. Interestingly, the viral titer of LeV varied depending on the culture condition. The titer from the plate culture showed at least a 20-fold higher concentration than that grown in the liquid culture. However, the reduced virus titer in the liquid culture was recovered by transferring the mycelia to a plate containing the same medium. In addition, oxygen-depleted culture conditions resulted in a significant decrease of viral concentration, but not to the extent seen in the submerged liquid culture. Although no discernable phenotypic changes in colony morphology were observed, virus-cured strains showed significantly higher growth rates and mycelial mass than virus-infected strains. These results indicate that LeV infection has a deleterious effect on mycelial growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring the potential of novel biomixtures and Lentinula edodes fungus for the degradation of selected pesticides. Evaluation for use in biobed systems.

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    Pinto, A P; Rodrigues, S C; Caldeira, A T; Teixeira, D M

    2016-01-15

    An approach to reduce the contamination of water sources with pesticides is the use of biopurificaction systems. The active core of these systems is the biomixture. The composition of biomixtures depends on the availability of local agro-industrial wastes and design should be adapted to every region. In Portugal, cork processing is generally regarded as environmentally friendly and would be interesting to find applications for its industry residues. In this work the potential use of different substrates in biomixtures, as cork (CBX); cork and straw, coat pine and LECA (Light Expanded Clay Aggregates), was tested on the degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole, diflufenican and pendimethalin pesticides. Bioaugmentation strategies using the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes inoculated into the CBX, was also assessed. The results obtained from this study clearly demonstrated the relevance of using natural biosorbents as cork residues to increase the capacity of pesticide dissipation in biomixtures for establishing biobeds. Furthermore, higher degradation of all the pesticides was achieved by use of bioaugmented biomixtures. Indeed, the biomixtures inoculated with L. edodes EL1 were able to mineralize the selected xenobiotics, revelling that these white-rot fungi might be a suitable fungus for being used as inoculum sources in on-farm sustainable biopurification system, in order to increase its degradation efficiency. After 120 days, maximum degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole, diflufenican and pendimethalin, of bioaugmented CBX, was 89.9%, 75.0%, 65.0% and 99.4%, respectively.. The dominant metabolic route of terbuthylazine in biomixtures inoculated with L. edodes EL1 proceeded mainly via hydroxylation, towards production of terbuthylazine-hydroxy-2 metabolite. Finally, sorption process to cork by pesticides proved to be a reversible process, working cork as a mitigating factor reducing the toxicity to microorganisms in the biomixture, especially in the

  20. The Feasibility of Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Rapid Discrimination of Aged Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinula edodes after Long-Term Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term storage can largely degrade the taste and quality of dried shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes. This paper aimed at developing a rapid method for discrimination of the regular and aged shiitake by near infrared (NIR spectroscopic analysis and chemometrics. Regular (n=197 and aged (n=133 samples of shiitake were collected from six main producing areas in two successive years (2013 and 2014. NIR reflectance spectra (4000–12000 cm−1 were measured with finely ground powders. Different data preprocessing method including smoothing, taking second-order derivatives (D2, and standard normal variate (SNV were investigated to reduce the unwanted spectral variations. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM were used to develop classification models. The results indicate that SNV and D2 can largely enhance the classification accuracy. The best sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of classification were 0.967, 0.953, and 0.961 obtained by SNV-LS-SVM and 0.933, 0.930, and 0.932 obtained by SNV-PLSDA, respectively. Moreover, the low model complexity and the high accuracy in predicting objects produced in different years demonstrate that the classification models had a good generalization performance.

  1. Process Parameters Affecting the Synthesis of Natural Flavors by Shiitake (Lentinula edodes during the Production of a Non-Alcoholic Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Özdemir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel alcohol-free beverage with a fruity, slightly sour, sweetish, fresh, and plum-like flavor was produced by incorporating the edible mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes into the fermentation process. Shiitake pellets were used as a biocatalyst to promote the synthesis of the fruity esters methyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-phenylethanol from amino acids and an organic acid present in the wort. We investigated the impact of two critical process parameters (volumetric power input and inoculum concentration on the morphology of, and flavor production by, the shiitake pellets in a 1 L stirred bioreactor. Increasing the volumetric power input and biomass concentration influenced the morphology of the pellets and promoted the production of the most important flavor compound methyl 2-methylbutanoate in the beverage. Furthermore the worty off-flavor methional was degraded during the cultivation in stirred bioreactor by shiitake pellets. These findings provide useful information to facilitate the scale-up of the biotransformation and fermentation process in bioreactors.

  2. Phenol-oxidizing enzyme expression in Lentinula edodes by the addition of sawdust extract, aromatic compounds, or copper in liquid culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanesaka, Eiji; Takeda, Hironori; Yoshida, Motonobu

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how the addition of a sawdust extract from Castanopsis cuspidata, several aromatic compounds, and copper affected the expression of a phenol-oxidizing enzyme in the white-rot basidiomycete, Lentinula edodes. Compared to liquid media that had not been supplemented with sawdust extract (MYPG), MYPG containing low (MYPG-S100) or high (MYPG-S500) concentrations of sawdust extract had a marked effect on the promotion of mycelial growth. No manganese peroxidase (MnP) production was observed in either MYPG or MYPG-S100 media until 35 days after inoculation. However, MnP production was enhanced by culture in MYPG-S500, with a marked increase observed suddenly at 14 days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed that the transcription of the lemnp2 gene coding extracellular MnP was initially observed at detectable levels at day 10 after the initial inoculation of MYPG-S500, increasing gradually thereafter until days 22-25. However, laccase (Lcc) production was not observed in any of the media until 35 days after inoculation. Addition of 10 mM aromatic compounds - 1,2-benzenediol, 2-methoxyphenol, hydroquinone, and 4-anisidine--into the MYPG-S500 medium completely inhibited MnP production and did not enhance any Lcc production. While the addition of 1 or 2 mM Cu2+ (CuSO4 x 5H2O) to MYPG-S500 medium completely inhibited MnP production, this Cu2+ addition caused a marked increase in Lcc production at 17 and 6 days after the addition, respectively.

  3. Use of spent mushroom substrates from Agaricus subrufescens (syn. A. blazei, A. brasiliensis) and Lentinula edodes productions in the enrichment of a soil-based potting media for lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivation: Growth promotion and soil bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, L C C; de Mendonça, M M; Camelini, C M; Soares, C H L

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to assess physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh spent mushroom substrates (SMSs)--without post-crop heat treatment--from Agaricus subrufescens and Lentinula edodes production to optimize the use of these residues in the soil enrichment for lettuce growth promotion and soil remediation. Organic matter and C content of both SMSs were high. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was a good source of N, P and K. On the other hand, L. edodes SMS presented a lower concentration of these nutrients and a high level of immaturity. Both SMSs presented high electric conductivity values (2.5-3.4 mS/cm). Microbiological analysis, based upon enumeration of culturable bacteria (thermophilic and mesophilic) and fungi, and also evolution of CO(2), showed that SMSs played higher microbial diversity than soil control. Laccase activity from A. subrufescens SMS tended to remain constant during a 2-month period, while L. edodes SMS presented low laccase activity throughout the same period. Agaricus subrufescens and L. edodes were able to grow on a PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) media supplemented with different concentrations of atrazine (1-50 microg/ml), degraded the herbicide, attaining rates of 35% and 26%, respectively. On experiments of lettuce growth promotion using a soil-based potting media with different SMS rates, 5% and 10% (dw) rates of A. subrufescens SMS resulted in higher lettuce aerial dry weights than the rates of 25% and 40%, the chemical fertilization (NPK) and the control (soil). At 10% supplementation, lettuce aerial dry weight increased 2.2 and 1.3 times compared to the control and the NPK treatment, respectively. Protein content increased along with SMS rates. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was an excellent supplement for lettuce growth promotion and showed potential for remediation of biocides possibly due to improved microbial diversity and enzymatic activity. Fresh L. edodes SMS was not a good fertilizer, at least under the conditions tested

  4. Occurrence of dsRNA Mycovirus (LeV-FMRI0339 in the Edible Mushroom Lentinula edodes and Meiotic Stability of LeV-FMRI0339 among Monokaryotic Progeny

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    Jung-Mi Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available dsRNA was found in malformed cultures of Lentinula edodes strain FMRI0339, one of the three most popular sawdust cultivated commercial strains of shiitake, and was also found in healthy-looking fruiting bodies and actively growing mycelia. Cloning of the partial genome of the dsRNA revealed the presence of the RdRp sequence of a novel L. edodes mycovirus (LeV, and sequence comparison of the cloned amplicon showed identical sequences sequence to known RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of LeV found in strain HKA. The meiotic stability of dsRNA was examined by measuring the ratio of the presence of dsRNA among sexual monokaryotic progeny. More than 40% of the monokaryotic progeny still contained the dsRNA, indicating the persistence of dsRNA during sexual reproduction. Comparing the mycelia growth of monokaryotic progeny suggested that there appeared to be a tendency toward a lower frequency of virus incidence in actively growing progeny.

  5. Zeolites as possible biofortifiers in Maitake cultivation

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    Vunduk Jovana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of Ni, Cu and Mg in Grifola frondosa (also known as Maitake mushroom fruit body produced on zeolite Minazel Plus (MG-supplemented substrate were measured with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Two different concentrations of MG were added to the substrate for mushroom cultivation. Levels of selected metals were measured in cultivated dry carpophores. The content of Ni increased in fruit bodies produced on supplemented substrate, while in case of Cu, a pronounced decrease was observed. When two different concentrations of MG were implemented, the Mg level showed both positive and negative trend, depending on the applied concentration of zeolite. MG in a concentration of 1% showed the strongest influence on the observed elements in the cultivated fruiting body of Maitake mushroom. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46010

  6. Characterization and production of shiitake ( Lentinula edodes ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cultivation of shiitake in Latin America started during the early 1980's, and several attempts for its commercial cultivation have been carried out during the last decade in Guatemala, Colombia, Mexico, Argentina and Brazil. However, a major constrain has been the lack of basic research, allowing further development.

  7. Effect of Media Components on the Mycelial Film Formation in Submerged Culture of Lentinus edodes (Shiitake

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    Olga M. Tsivileva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between the chemical composition of nutrient medium, the activity of extracellular lectins of Lentinus edodes (Berk. Sing Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler (shiitake, and the formation of pigmented mycelial film in liquid culture has been found. A possibility to regulate the lectin activity of shiitake using the synthetic components has been shown. The formulation of medium, on which the brown mycelial film appears in several days of submerged cultivation, has been proposed. Among the natural amino acids studied as nitrogen sources, and nine divalent metal cations as inorganic additives, L-asparagine and Ca2+ (Mn2+ in the simultaneous presence exhibited the explicit positive effect in respect to the above without regard to the age of the culture. Quantum chemical methods and QSAR were applied to test our supposition that a differential character of interaction between the studied amino acids and Ca2+ (Mn2+ cations should be related not to the distinct electron structures of zwitter ions, but most likely to their differing hydrophobicities. The results obtained seem to make some contribution to the present notion of biochemicalprocesses that give rise to the occurrence of the aforesaid morphological structure of shiitake.

  8. In vitro assessment of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) extract for its antigingivitis activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciric, L.; Tymon, A.; Zaura, E.; Lingström, P.; Stauder, M.; Papetti, A.; Signoretto, C.; Pratten, J.; Wilson, M.; Spratt, D.

    2011-01-01

    Gingivitis is a preventable disease characterised by inflammation of the gums due to the buildup of a microbial biofilm at the gingival margin. It is implicated as a precursor to periodontitis, amuchmore serious problem which includes associated bone loss. Unfortunately, due to poor oral hygiene

  9. In vitro assessment of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) extract for its antigingivitis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciric, Lena; Tymon, Anna; Zaura, Egija; Lingström, Peter; Stauder, Monica; Papetti, Adele; Signoretto, Caterina; Pratten, Jonathan; Wilson, Michael; Spratt, David

    2011-01-01

    Gingivitis is a preventable disease characterised by inflammation of the gums due to the buildup of a microbial biofilm at the gingival margin. It is implicated as a precursor to periodontitis, a much more serious problem which includes associated bone loss. Unfortunately, due to poor oral hygiene among the general population, gingivitis is prevalent and results in high treatment costs. Consequently, the option of treating gingivitis using functional foods, which promote oral health, is an attractive one. Medicinal mushrooms, including shiitake, have long been known for their immune system boosting as well as antimicrobial effects; however, they have not been employed in the treatment of oral disease. In the current study, the effectiveness of shiitake mushroom extract was compared to that of the active component in the leading gingivitis mouthwash, containing chlorhexidine, in an artificial mouth model (constant depth film fermenter). The total bacterial numbers as well as numbers of eight key taxa in the oral community were investigated over time using multiplex qPCR. The results indicated that shiitake mushroom extract lowered the numbers of some pathogenic taxa without affecting the taxa associated with health, unlike chlorhexidine which has a limited effect on all taxa.

  10. In Vitro Assessment of Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinula edodes Extract for Its Antigingivitis Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ciric

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingivitis is a preventable disease characterised by inflammation of the gums due to the buildup of a microbial biofilm at the gingival margin. It is implicated as a precursor to periodontitis, a much more serious problem which includes associated bone loss. Unfortunately, due to poor oral hygiene among the general population, gingivitis is prevalent and results in high treatment costs. Consequently, the option of treating gingivitis using functional foods, which promote oral health, is an attractive one. Medicinal mushrooms, including shiitake, have long been known for their immune system boosting as well as antimicrobial effects; however, they have not been employed in the treatment of oral disease. In the current study, the effectiveness of shiitake mushroom extract was compared to that of the active component in the leading gingivitis mouthwash, containing chlorhexidine, in an artificial mouth model (constant depth film fermenter. The total bacterial numbers as well as numbers of eight key taxa in the oral community were investigated over time using multiplex qPCR. The results indicated that shiitake mushroom extract lowered the numbers of some pathogenic taxa without affecting the taxa associated with health, unlike chlorhexidine which has a limited effect on all taxa.

  11. Valorization of spent oyster mushroom substrate and laccase recovery through successive solid state cultivation of Pleurotus, Ganoderma, and Lentinula strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Christina N; Diamantopoulou, Panagiota A; Philippoussis, Antonios N

    2017-06-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of Pleurotus ostreatus was supplemented with wheat bran and soybean flour in various proportions to obtain C/N ratios of 10, 20, and 30, and their effect was evaluated in successive cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Ganoderma adspersum, Ganoderma resinaceum, and Lentinula edodes strains with respect to mycelium growth rate, biomass concentration, recovery of the enzyme laccase and crude exopolysaccharides, and also with additional fruiting body production. All fungi showed the highest growth rate on unamended SMS (C/N 30), with G. resinaceum being the fastest colonizer (Kr = 9.84 mm day -1 ), while biomass concentration maximized at C/N 10. Moreover, supplementation affected positively laccase activity, with P. pulmonarius furnishing the highest value (44,363.22 U g -1 ) at C/N 20. On the contrary, L. edodes growth, fruiting, and laccase secretion were not favored by SMS supplementation. Fruiting body formation was promoted at C/N 30 for Ganoderma and at C/N 20 for Pleurotus species. Exopolysaccharide production of further studied Pleurotus strains was favored at a C/N 20 ratio, at the initial stage of SMS colonization. The obtained results support the potential effective utilization of supplemented SMS for laccase production from Ganoderma spp. and for new fruiting body production of Pleurotus spp.

  12. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Akiko Maihara; Patricia Landim da Costa Moura; Marília Gabriela Miranda Catharino; Edson Gonçalves Moreira; Lilian Pavanelli Castro; Rubens Cesar Lopes Figueira

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitak...

  13. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  14. A Novel Apoptosis Correlated Molecule: Expression and Characterization of Protein Latcripin-1 from Lentinula edodes C91–3

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    Min Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An apoptosis correlated molecule—protein Latcripin-1 of Lentinula edodes C91-3—was expressed and characterized in Pichia pastoris GS115. The total RNA was obtained from Lentinula edodes C91–3. According to the transcriptome, the full-length gene of Latcripin-1 was isolated with 3'-Full Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE and 5'-Full RACE methods. The full-length gene was inserted into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K. The protein Latcripin-1 was expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 and analyzed by Sodium Dodecylsulfonate Polyacrylate Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The Western blot showed that the protein was expressed successfully. The biological function of protein Latcripin-1 on A549 cells was studied with flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide (MTT method. The toxic effect of protein Latcripin-1 was detected with the MTT method by co-culturing the characterized protein with chick embryo fibroblasts. The MTT assay results showed that there was a great difference between protein Latcripin-1 groups and the control group (p < 0.05. There was no toxic effect of the characterized protein on chick embryo fibroblasts. The flow cytometry showed that there was a significant difference between the protein groups of interest and the control group according to apoptosis function (p < 0.05. At the same time, cell ultrastructure observed by transmission electron microscopy supported the results of flow cytometry. The work demonstrates that protein Latcripin-1 can induce apoptosis of human lung cancer cells A549 and brings new insights into and advantages to finding anti-tumor proteins.

  15. Antitumor activity of orally administered maitake α-glucan by stimulating antitumor immune response in murine tumor.

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    Yuki Masuda

    Full Text Available Maitake α-glucan, YM-2A, isolated from Grifola frondosa, has been characterized as a highly α-1,6-branched α-1,4 glucan. YM-2A has been shown to possess an anti-virus effect in mice; however, it does not directly inhibit growth of the virus in vitro, indicating that the anti-virus effect of YM-2A might be associated with modulation of the host immune system. In this study, we found that oral administration of YM-2A could inhibit tumor growth and improve survival rate in two distinct mouse models of colon-26 carcinoma and B16 melanoma. Orally administered YM-2A enhanced antitumor immune response by increasing INF-γ-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ cells in the spleen and INF-γ-expressing CD8+ cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes. In vitro study showed that YM-2A directly activated splenic CD11b+ myeloid cells, peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, but did not affect splenic CD11b- lymphocytes or colon-26 tumor cells. YM-2A is more slowly digested by pancreatic α-amylase than are amylopectin and rabbit liver glycogen, and orally administered YM-2A enhanced the expression of MHC class II and CD86 on dendritic cells and the expression of MHC class II on macrophages in Peyer's patches. Furthermore, in vitro stimulation of YM-2A increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Peyer's patch CD11c+ cells. These results suggest that orally administered YM-2A can activate dendritic cells and macrophages in Peyer's patches, inducing systemic antitumor T-cell response. Thus, YM-2A might be a candidate for an oral therapeutic agent in cancer immunotherapy.

  16. EFFECTS OF MANAGEMENT FACTORS ON THE CONCENTRATION OF A HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYSACCARIDE FRACTION FROM LOG-GROWN SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiitake mushrooms have a reputation as a healthy food. Growers may be able to use the presence of health promoting constituents as a marketing tool to promote sales of their products for premium prices. There are few reports on the effects of management protocols for log-grown shiitakes on the conc...

  17. Turmeric bioprocessed with mycelia from the shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom lentinus edodes (agaricomycetes) protects mice against salmonellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extracts of the shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes and the spice tumeric (Curcuma longa) have both been reported to have health-promoting properties. The present study investigated the suppressive mechanisms of a bioprocessed Lentinus edodes liquid mushroom mycelia culture supplemented with turmeric ...

  18. Effective Removal of Cadmium Ions from a Simulated Gastrointestinal Fluid by Lentinus edodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qiao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lentinus edodes, a functional food, was evaluated as a potential antidote for adsorption/removal of cadmium ion from simulated gastrointestinal fluids. An adsorption/removal capacity of 65.12 mg/g was achieved by L. edodes in solutions with a pH ranging from 2.5 to 6.0, while little if any adsorption was observed in solutions with a pH under 2.5. In solutions with pH 6.0, 84% of the cadmium adsorption by L. edodes occurred in the first minute. Scanning electronic microscopic examination showed that the cell wall polysaccharides of L. edodes provided a rough sponge-like surface for effective cadmium adsorption. FTIR indicated that the carboxyl, hydroxyl and –NH groups of the cell wall polysaccharides and proteins were the primary functional groups that chemically bind with cadmium ions. The energy dispersive spectrometry further revealed that cation exchange might be attributed to cadmium biosorption. These results suggested that L. edodes was effective for cadmium detoxication, especially in low concentration.

  19. Caracterização da produção em toros do cogumelo comestível Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler na região oeste do Estado de São Paulo = Characterization of log cultivation of the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler in western São Paulo State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilene Ferreira de Queiroz Neves

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi realizada nos municípios de Dracena, Junqueirópolis,Mirandópolis, Alianças, Ilha Solteira, Castilho, Araçatuba, Birigui e Guararapes, Estado de São Paulo, aplicando-se um questionário para 17 produtores. As informações sobre as etapas do cultivo de Shiitake em toros, catalogando e caracterizando os produtores e o cultivo,foram tabuladas no software Microsoft Excel for Windows. Os resultados evidenciaram que o cultivo de Shiitake, nesta região, é recente, está em franca expansão e os produtores possuem alto grau de escolaridade. O cultivo está localizado principalmente na zona rural eé realizado tanto por brasileiros descendentes de japoneses como por brasileiros nativos. O eucalipto e a mangueira são as árvores mais utilizadas. A alta ocorrência de contaminação nos toros pode ser por causa do cultivo realizado em ambientes sem controle de temperatura e umidade relativa e à ausência de um manejo adequado. A região contava, em 2004, com 45 mil toros inoculados e uma produtividade média de 200 g cogumelo fresco/toro. Os cogumelos embalados em bandejas de 200 g são vendidos principalmente para o Ceasa em feiras livres.This study was carried out in the towns of Dracena, Junqueirópolis, Mirandópolis, Alianças, Ilha Solteira, Castilho, Araçatuba, Birigui and Guararapes, São Paulo State, by surveying 17 Shiitakegrowers through a questionnaire. Data pertaining to the stages of log-Shiitake growing, recording and characterization of growers and growing systems were entered into Microsoft Excel for Windows. The results showed that Shiitake cultivation is recent and increasing inthis region, and that growers have a high education level. Shiitake cultivation is mainly located in rural areas, with both Brazilians of Japanese descent and native Brazilians growing it. The most commonly used trees are eucalyptus and mango. The high level of log contamination is perhaps due to growing without temperature or moisture control and to the inappropriate growing system. In 2004, there were 45,000 Shiitake-inoculated logs in this region, and the yield stood around 200 g of fresh mushroom/log. The mushrooms arepacked in boxes of 200 g, and are sold mainly to Ceasa in open markets.

  20. PENGGUNAAN BEBERAPA MEDIUM SEMISINTETIK UNTUK PRODUKSI MISELIUM JAMUR MAITAKE (Grifola frondosa (Dickson: Fr. S. F. Gray ISOLAT CIANJUR DAN EKSTRAK KASARNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mardhitama Maharani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the use of some semisynthetic medium for the production of fungal mycelium Maitake (Grifola frondosa (dickson: Fr. SF Gray isolates Cianjur and crude extract was performed with an incubation period of 30 days. This study aimed to determine the ability of green bean, cowpea and maize as an alternative material of semisynthetic medium for manufacturing G. frondosa’s mycelium and and to know the production of G. frondosa’s mycelium and the highest crude extract. This study was experimental study with a completely randomized design consisted of 4 treatments : Yeast Potato Dextrose Broth (PDYB medium, Green bean Yeast Dextrose Broth (GbDYB medium, Cowpea Yeast Dextrose Broth (CpDYB medium and Corn Yeast Dextrose Broth (CDYB medium. The highest average dry weight of mycelium (1,584 g/100ml was GbDYB medium. The lowest average dry weight of the mycelium (g/100ml 0.244 was PDYB medium. The weight of the crude extract of mycelium in each treatment was lower than the dry weight. The highest weight of the crude extract was obtained from the GbDYB medium treatment (1,22 g and the lowest was obtained from PDYB medium (0,113 g. Anova test results of different treatment was very significant, meaning that the use of extract of green bean, cowpea and maize greatly affected the growth of G.frondosa’s mycelium. The LSD test between treatment of PDYB medium and CDYB medium was not significant, meaning that the increase of mycelium’s growth  on PDYB medium had no different with the CDYB medium.

  1. Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes): A Species with Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory, and Hepatoprotective Activities in Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Jaweria; Mustafa, Imtiaz; Anwar, Haseeb; Sohail, Muhammad Umar; Hussain, Ghulam; Ullah, Muhammad Irfan; Faisal, Muhammad Naeem; Bukhari, Shazia Anwer; Basit, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Lentinus edodes is a culinary-medicinal mushroom that has an established history of use in Asian therapies. The mushroom offers well-documented beneficial health effects such as antihypercholesterolemic, antitumor, and antibacterial activities. In this study, dried powder of L. edodes fruiting bodies was used to evaluate immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant effects in hypercholesterolemic rats. Albino rats (n = 24) were divided into 3 groups: the control (CON) group, the hypercholesterolemia-only group (HCG), and the L. edodes group (LEG). Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rats in the HCG and LEG by feeding cholesterol and cholic acid in a chow maintenance diet (CMD) for 24 days. The CON group was fed the CMD throughout the experiment. The HCG continued on the high-cholesterol diet without any L. edodes supplement. The LEG was fed the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with L. edodes for an additional 42 days. Various biological health biomarkers, such as total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, arylesterase, paraoxonase activity, and liver enzymes in serum were studied to evaluate antioxidant and hepatoprotective responses. Cell-mediated immunity was evaluated in each group through a delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction. The total oxidant status decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) after administration of L. edodes in the diet. The cell-mediated immune response significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in the LEG. The significant decrease in liver enzymes supports the hepatoprotective effect of L. edodes. In conclusion, the results show the immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant activities of L. edodes supplementation in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  2. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species Determinação de cádmio em cogumelos da espécie Lentinus edodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.Muitos estudos têm encontrado elementos tóxicos em cogumelos. Sabe-se que algumas espécies de cogumelos comestíveis acumulam elevados níveis de contaminantes inorgânicos, como cádmio, mercúrio e chumbo. Há cerca de duas mil espécies de cogumelos comestíveis, mas apenas 25 espécies são cultivadas e usadas como alimentos. No Brasil, as espécies mais comercializadas e consumidas são Agaricus bisporus, conhecida como Champignon de Paris; Lentinus edodes ou Shitake, e Pleurotus sp, também chamada de Shimeji ou Hiratake. Neste trabalho, o cádmio (Cd foi determinado em amostras de cogumelos da espécie Lentinus edodes cultivadas em diversas cidades do Estado de São Paulo e algumas amostras importadas do Japão e da China. O cádmio foi determinado por espectrometria de absor

  3. Agaricus blazei and Lentinus edodes dried formulations: chemical composition and antioxidant activity

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Carneiro, Andreia A.J.; Dueñas, Montserrat; Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    A balanced diet is one of themainstays ofiherapyfor the prevention of the oxidative stress, which if cannot beeliminated, at leastcan be controlled. Food antioxidants may help intrinsic antioxidant mechanisms to fight against oxidative stress. Several mushroom species have been pointed out as sources of antioxidant compounds, besides their nimportant nutritional value. Agaricus blazei and Lentimrs edodes are among the most studied species all over the world, but those studies focused on...

  4. Antioxidative activities and chemical characterization of polysaccharide extracts from the widely used mushrooms Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes and Trametes versicolor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Vrvic, M.M.; Todorovic, N.; Jakovljevic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of polysaccharide extracts of four of the most widely known mushrooms often used in medicinal applications as well as in tea and food, namely Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes and Trametes versicolor, were studied. G. applanatum and L edodes extracts

  5. The Tyrosinase Produced by Lentinula boryana (Berk. & Mont. Pegler Suffers Substrate Inhibition by L-DOPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio de Faria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We undertook a preliminary characterization of the tyrosinase produced by a strain of Lentinula boryana from Brazil, with a view to evaluate its potential for biotechnological applications. The enzyme was similar to other fungal tyrosinases in many respects. When the crude extract was characterized, the tyrosinase activity was optimal at pH=6 and was not particularly thermostable, with half-lives of about 10 min and 1 min at 50 and 60 °C, respectively. We purified the enzyme with ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE Sepharose column, obtaining a yield of 33 % and a 5.3-fold enrichment. The purified preparation gave three bands on SDS-PAGE, with molecular masses of 20, 27 and 47 kDa. This preparation showed substrate inhibition kinetics with L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, with a KM of 1.9 mM and a KI of 72 mM. Under the same reaction conditions, a commercial mushroom tyrosinase followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a KM of 0.51 mM. Although the present study did not identify properties that would make the tyrosinase of L. boryana more suitable in biotechnological applications than tyrosinases from other mushrooms, it has made a contribution by showing that the enzyme suffers substrate inhibition by L-DOPA, something that has not previously been reported for mushroom tyrosinases.

  6. Biosorption potential of synthetic dyes by heat-inactivated and live Lentinus edodes CCB-42 immobilized in loofa sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Gabriela Gregolin; Ruiz, Suelen Pereira; Caetano, Wilker; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Matioli, Graciette

    2014-12-01

    Lentinus edodes CCB-42 was immobilized in loofa sponges and applied to the biosorption of the synthetic dyes congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet. Live immobilized microorganisms achieved average decolorations of congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet of 97.8, 99.7 and 90.6 %, respectively. The loofa sponge was the support and the coadjuvant promoting dye adsorption. The biosorption conditions were optimized for each dye, yielding 30 °C, pH 5.0 and a 12 h reaction time for congo red; 25 °C, pH 3.0 and 36 h for bordeaux red; and 25 °C, pH 8.0 and 24 h for methyl violet. Operational stability was evaluated over five consecutive cycles, with both bordeaux red and congo red exhibiting decolorations above 90 %, while the decoloration of methyl violet decreased after the third cycle. In the sixth month of storage, congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet had decolorations of 93.1, 79.4 and 73.8 %, respectively. Biosorption process best fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic and Freundlich isotherm models. Maximum biosorption capacity of heat-treated L. edodes immobilized in loofa sponge was determined as 143.678, 500.00 and 381.679 mg/g for congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet, respectively. Treatment with immobilized L. edodes reduced the phytotoxicity of the medium containing dyes. FT-Raman experiments suggested the occurrence of interactions between loofa sponge fibers, L. edodes and dye. L. edodes CCB-42 immobilized in loofa sponges represents a promising new mode of treatment of industrial effluents.

  7. [Survival Benefit by Combined Administration of Cyclophosphamide, Lentinula edodes Mycelia Extract(LEM), and Ganoderma lucidum Mycelia Extract(MAK)in S1018B10 Tumor-Bearing Mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukegawa, Yasushi; Kawamura, Junichiro; Okuno, Kiyotaka

    2017-10-01

    Cyclophosphamide(CY)was intraperitoneally administered once a week to C57BL/10mice that had received Rous sarcoma virus(RSV)-induced S1018B10 syngeneic tumor transplantation and in whom tumor diameter exceeded 4.5 mm. Survival was prolonged in a group of mice that also received a mixture of LEM and MAK orally. When splenic cells were cultured under mitomycin C-treated S1018B10 stimulation and the S1018B10-directed cell killing ability was examined, the effector cells were found to be F4/80 - DC/Mф cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the proportion of F4/80- DC/Mф cells in the splenic cell culture of the CY+LEM+MAK treatment group was higher than that in the untreated group. The ratio of F4/80+ CD8a+ cells in the CY+LEM+MAK treatment group was lower than that in the untreated group.

  8. Discrimination of wild-growing and cultivated Lentinus edodes by tri-step infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haojian; Liu, Gang; Yang, Weimei; An, Ran; Ou, Quanhong

    2018-01-01

    It's not easy to discriminate dried wild-growing Lentinus edodes (WL) and cultivated Lentinus edodes (CL) by conventional method based on the morphological inspection of fruiting bodies. In this paper, fruiting body samples of WL and CL are discriminated by a tri-step IR spectroscopy method, including Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, second derivatives infrared (SD-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy under thermal perturbation. The results show that the FT-IR spectra of WL and CL are similar in holistic spectral profile. More significant differences are exhibited in their SD-IR spectra in the range of 1700 - 900 cm-1. Furthermore, more evident differences have been observed in their synchronous 2D-IR spectra in the range of 2970 - 2900, 1678 - 1390, 1250 -1104 and 1090 - 1030 cm-1. The CL has thirteen auto-peaks at 2958, 2921, 1649, 1563, 1450, 1218, 1192, 1161, 1140, 1110, 1082, 1065 and 1047 cm-1, in which the four strongest auto-peaks are at 2921, 1563, 1192 and 1082 cm-1. The WL shows fifteen auto-peaks at 2960, 2937, 2921, 1650, 1615, 1555, 1458, 1219, 1190, 1138, 1111, 1084, 1068, 1048 and 1033 cm-1, in which the four strongest auto-peaks are at 2921, 1650, 1190 and 1068 cm-1. This study shows the potential of FT-IR spectroscopy and 2D correlation analysis in a simple and quick distinction of wild-growing and cultivated mushrooms.

  9. Antioxidant activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes enriched with selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Milena D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiitake (Lentinus edodes belongs to medically important and delicious fungi. It is recognizable for its healing properties, excellent taste and rich aroma. According to the traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine, shiitake mushroom significantly increases the strength and vitality of the body. Shiitake contains immunostimulants, compounds that lower cholesterol, prevents clogging of blood vessels, regulates the pressure, balances blood sugar levels, regulates digestion, and improves the performance of respiratory organs by its antirheumatic and antiallergic activities. Shiitake is recommended to use as food, prevention and cure, usually in a form of a spice (dried and ground or tea. It can be consumed fresh, too. The objective of this study was to test the effect of enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes. The fungus was enhanced by adding organic selenium, zinc (II complex with the ligand 2.6-bis diacetylpyridine (selenosemicarbazon and inorganic compounds (Na2SeO3 of selenium in nutritional substrate where the fungus was grown. The total selenium content in fruit body was around 50 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium originating from organic sources, and 80 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium from inorganic sources. Samples were prepared by extraction of fruiting bodies in heated water. The results indicated that water extracts of whole fruit bodies, from both control and mushrooms supplemented with selenium, had quite good antioxidant activity. However, there was no significant difference between the samples supplemented with selenium content and those that were not.

  10. Effect of lignin-derived phenolic monomers on the growth of the edible mushrooms Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y J; Buswell, J A; Chang, S T

    1993-09-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju was generally more tolerant to lignin-related phenolic monomers and tannin derivatives than Lentinus edodes and the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea. Several phenols, at up to 5 mM, enhanced mycelial growth of P. sajor-caju. No clear pattern was evident when the effects of phenols and tannins on the growth of V. volvacea and L. edodes were compared, but the lower concentrations of 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and vanillin which were tested were markedly more toxic to the straw mushroom. The distribution of phenolic monomers and tannin derivatives in the agricultural wastes used for mushroom cultivation may be an important growth determinant. However, the differences in the growth inhibition profiles of L. edodes, P. sajor-caju and V. volvacea suggest that, alone, the effect of these compounds on fungal growth is unlikely to account for the varying abilities of the three mushroom species to grow and fruit on a particular lignocellulosic substrate.

  11. Protective effect of polysaccharides of lentinus edodes on damage in mice induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xiuling; Wang Hongfang; Qi Yanfei; Wang Xuerui; Chen Tian; Wang Quan; Li Juan; Li Jing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the protective effect of polysaccharides of lentinus edodes (PLE) on immune and anti-oxidative and hematopoietic function of ionizing irradiated mice, and provide theoretical basis for its clinical application. Methods: Fifty ICR mice were randomly divided into normal control group (NC), irradiating control group (IC), low dose of PLE irradiating group (800 mg · kg -1 ), middle dose of PLE irradiating group (1600 mg · kg -1 ), and high dose of PLE irradiating group (2400 mg · kg -1 ) (n=10). The mice in PLE groups were gaster-poured by PLE for 7 d, the mice in NC group and IC group were gaster-poured by 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The mice in all groups except NC group were irradiated with 2 Gy X-ray on the eighth day. The spleen index, thymus index, the activity of SOD and content of MDA, the number of WBC, the micronucleus rate of bone marrow polychromalic erythrocytes (PCE)were detected at the 24th hour after radiation. Results: Compared with IC group,the spleen index, thymus index and activity of SOD in high dose of PLE irradiating group were increased markedly (P<0.05); the contents of MDA in middle and high dose of PLE irradiating groups were increased significantly (P<0.05). The number of WBC in PLE groups was increased significantly (P<0.05); the micronucleus rates of bone marrow PCE in middle and high dose of PLE irradiating groups were decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: PLE has an obvious protective effect on damage in X-ray irradiated mice. (authors)

  12. The anti-adhesive mode of action of a purified mushroom (Lentinus edodes) extract with anticaries and antigingivitis properties in two oral bacterial phatogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signoretto, C.; Marchi, A.; Bertoncelli, A.; Buralcchini, G.; Papetti, A.; Pruzzo, C.; Zaura, E.; Lingström, P.; Ofek, I.; Pratten, J.; Spratt, D.A.; Wilson, M.; Canepari, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background In previous works we have shown that a low-molecular-mass (LMM) fraction from mushroom (Lentinus edodes) homogenate interferes with binding of Streptococcus mutans to hydroxyapatite and Prevotella intermedia to gingival cells. Additionally, inhibition of biofilm formation of both odonto-

  13. Elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms in liquid Culture: Composition and mechanism of protection against allergic asthma in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of a bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia bark extract (BPUBE) from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelia culture against allergic asthma biomarkers in U266B1 leukemia cells and OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cel...

  14. Purification and Antithrombotic Potential of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Shiitake Culinary- Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes GNA01 (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Hui; Kim, Kyung-Je; Kim, Seung

    2018-01-01

    We purified Lentinus edodes GNA01 fibrinolytic enzyme (LEFE) and identified it as a novel metalloprotease. LEFE was purified to homogeneity through a 2-step procedure, with an 8.28-fold increase in specific activity and 5.3% recovery. The molecular mass of LEFE was approximately 38 kDa, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its optimal pH, optimal temperature, pH stability, and thermal stability were 5, 30°C, 6-7, and 40°C, respectively. LEFE was inhibited by zinc and magnesium ions, and by EDTA and EGTA, indicating that LEFE is a metalloprotease. The protease exhibited fibrinolytic activity and a degradative effect on clot formation and blood clots. The protease prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and coagulation time as induced by platelet aggregators (collagen and epinephrine). Taken together, our results indicate that L. edodes GNA01 produces a metalloprotease/fibrinolytic enzyme and that this enzyme might be applied as a new thrombolytic and antithrombotic agent for thrombosis-related cardiovascular disorders.

  15. Characterization of Lentinus edodes β-glucan influencing the in vitro starch digestibility of wheat starch gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haining; Chen, Zhongqiu; Feng, Tao; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jingsong; Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhaofeng; Ye, Ran

    2017-06-01

    Lentinus edodes β-glucan (abbreviated LEBG) was prepared from fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes. The average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) of LEBG were measured to be 1.868×10 6 g/mol and 1.007, respectively. In addition, the monosaccharide composition of LEBG was composed of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose with a molar ratio of 5:11:18:644:16. After adding LEBG, both G' and G″ of starch gel increased. This is mainly because the connecting points between the molecular chains of LEBG and starch formed so that gel network structures were enhanced. The peak temperature in the heat flow diagram shifted to a higher temperature and the peak area of the endothermic enthalpy increased. Furthermore, LEBG can significantly inhibit starch hydrolysis. The predicted glycemic index (pGI) values were reduced when starch was replaced with LEBG at 20% (w/w). It might indicate that LEBG was suitable to develop low GI noodle or bread. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Bioprocessed Polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes Mycelia Cultures with Turmeric Protects Chicks from a Lethal Challenge of Salmonella Gallinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dalmuri; Lee, Hyung Tae; Lee, June Bong; Kim, Yongbaek; Lee, Sang Jong; Yoon, Jang Won

    2017-02-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes mushroom mycelia cultures supplemented with black rice bran can protect mice against Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia and reduce the mortality from Salmonella Typhimurium infection through upregulated T-helper 1 immunity. Here, we report that a BPP from L. edodes mushroom mycelia liquid cultures supplemented with turmeric (referred to as BPP-turmeric) alters chicken macrophage responses against avian-adapted Salmonella Gallinarum and protects chicks against a lethal challenge from Salmonella Gallinarum. In vitro analyses revealed that the water extract of BPP-turmeric (i) changed the protein expression or secretion profile of Salmonella Gallinarum, although it was not bactericidal, (ii) reduced the phagocytic activity of the chicken-derived macrophage cell line HD-11 when infected with Salmonella Gallinarum, and (iii) significantly activated the transcription expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in response to various Salmonella infections, whereas it repressed that of IL-4, IL-6, interferon-β, and interferon-γ. We also found that BPP-turmeric (0.1 g/kg of feed) as a feed additive provided significant protection to 1-day-old chicks infected with a lethal dose of Salmonella Gallinarum. Collectively, these results imply that BPP-turmeric contains biologically active component(s) that protect chicks against Salmonella Gallinarum infection, possibly by regulating macrophage immune responses. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential efficacy of BPP-turmeric as a livestock feed additive for the preharvest control of fowl typhoid or foodborne salmonellosis.

  17. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Apoptotic Responses Induced by Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes) Aqueous Extract against a Larynx Carcinoma Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finimundy, Tiane C; Scola, Gustavo; Scariot, Fernando J; Dillon, Aldo J P; Moura, Sidnei; Echeverrigaray, Sérgio; Henriques, João Pegas; Roesch-Ely, Mariana

    2018-01-01

    Cumulative evidence from research studies has shown that the shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes, is an excellent source of natural antitumor agents and is capable of inhibiting cancer cell growth. However, the cell signaling pathway that leads tumor cells to apoptosis is not well understood because many chemical compounds may be acting. This study investigated the chemopreventive effects of an L. edodes aqueous extract on human HEp-2 epithelial larynx carcinoma cells and normal human MRC-5 lung fibroblasts by identifying proliferative and apoptotic pathways. The chemical characterization of the dry powder was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects induced by the extract were evaluated by assessing proliferative markers, cell sorting through flow cytometry, and expression levels of apoptotic proteins with Western blotting. The results suggest that inhibition of cell proliferation was more prominent in HEp-2 than in MRC-5 cells. Cell death analysis showed the appearance of cell populations in the sub-G1 phase, with late apoptotic signal increased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the aqueous extract induced depolarization of mitochondria, activating the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in HEp-2 cells. These observations suggest that L. edodes extract may exert a chemopreventive effect, regulating mitotic induction of apoptogenic signals. These findings highlight the mushroom's pharmacological potential in cancer treatment.

  18. Turmeric Bioprocessed with Mycelia from the Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes) Protects Mice Against Salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the suppressive mechanisms of an extract from bioprocessed Lentinus edodes mycelial liquid culture supplemented with turmeric (bioprocessed Curcuma longa extract [BPCLE]) against murine salmonellosis. The BPLCE extract from the bioprocessed mycelia of the Salmonella Typhimurium into murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, elimination of intracellular bacteria, and elevation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Dietary administration of BPCLE activated leukocytes from the mice infected with Salmonella through the intraperitoneal route. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the cytokines produced by splenocytes from infected mice showed significant increases in the levels of Th1 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-12. Histology showed that dietary administration of BPCLE protected against necrosis of the liver resulting from a sublethal dose of Salmonella. In addition, the treatment (1) extended the lifespan of lethally infected mice, (2) suppressed the invasion of Salmonella into human Caco-2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, (3) increased excretion of the bacterium in the feces, (4) suppressed the translocation of the Salmonella to internal organs, and (5) increased total immunoglobulin A in both serum and intestinal fluids. BPCLE protected the mice against salmonellosis via cooperative effects that include the upregulation of the Th1 immune reaction, prevention of translocation of bacteria across the intestinal epithelial cells, and increased immunoglobulin A production in serum and intestinal fluids.

  19. A Lentinus edodes polysaccharide induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Guowei

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a homogeneous polysaccharide (LEP1) with an average molecular weight of 53kDa was successfully purified from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes and its anticancer efficacy on human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells in vitro and associated possible molecular mechanism were also evaluated. MTT assay showed that LEP1 exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa cells and caused apoptotic death. Our present findings provided the first evidence that LEP1 induced the apoptosis of HeLa cells via a mitochondria dependent pathway, as indicated by an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δym), the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in HeLa cells. These combined results unequivocally indicated that the involvement of mitochondria-mediated signaling pathway in LEP1-induced apoptosis and strongly provided experimental evidence for the use of LEP1 as a potential therapeutic agent in the prevention and treatment of human cervical carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  1. Productivity, Physicochemical Changes, and Antioxidant Activity of Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes) Cultivated on Lignocellulosic Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Zavaleta, Marco Antonio Barradas; Aquino-Bolaños, Elia Nora

    2017-01-01

    The effects of substrate and strain on productivity, physicochemical characteristics, and compounds with antioxidant activity were evaluated in basidiomes of the shiitake mushroom, Lentinus edodes. Strains IE-245 and IE-256 and the substrates oak wood shavings (OW), sorghum stubble (SS), and sugar cane bagasse (SC) were used. Productivity was evaluated by measuring biological efficiency (BE), production rate (PR), and yield. Total sugars, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, color parameters, total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant activity of the basidiomes were measured. BE, PR and yield were higher with the combination IE-256/SS, at 103.71%, 1.32%, and 34.57%, respectively. The largest amount of total sugars (17.61 mg glucose · g-1 dry weight) was found with combination IE-256/SS. Variation was observed in basidiome color; the lowest luminosity (L*) value (darkest color) was found in the IE-256 strain on the OW substrate (L* = 30.45), whereas that of the IE-245 strain on the SC substrate was the lightest in color (L* = 57.00). The largest amounts of total phenolics were recorded in the IE-256 strain on the OW (6.50 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] · g-1 dry weight) and the SS substrates (5.85 mg GAE · g-1 dry weight). The best antioxidant activity was obtained with IE-256-0.80, 0.65, and 0.59 μmol Trolox equivalents · g dry weight-1-on the OW, SC, and SS substrates, respectively. Based on the values of BE, PR, and yield, IE-256/SS was the most productive. Substrate and strain, and their interactions, influenced the physicochemical characteristics of the basidiomes and the amounts of compounds with antioxidant activity they contained.

  2. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against Salmonellosis through up-regulation of the Th1 immune reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine salmonellosis. BPP was not bactericidal in vitro, but did, however stimulate uptake of the bacteria i...

  3. Elm Tree (Ulmus parvifolia) Bark Bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Mushrooms in Liquid Culture: Composition and Mechanism of Protection against Allergic Asthma in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2016-02-03

    Mushrooms can break down complex plant materials into smaller, more digestible and bioactive compounds. The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of an Ulmus parvifolia bark extract bioprocessed in Lentinus edodes liquid mycelium culture (BPUBE) against allergic asthma in chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cells in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Inhibitory activity of BPUBE against OVA-specific IgE secretion in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was observed in OVA-sensitized/challenged asthmatic mice. BPUBE also inhibited OVA-specific IgG and IgG1 secretion into serum from the allergic mice, suggesting the restoration of a Th2-biased immune reaction to a Th1/Th2-balanced status, as indicated by the Th1/Th2 as well as regulatory T cell (Treg) cytokine profile changes caused by BPUBE in serum or BALF. Inflammatory cell counts in BALF and lung histology showed that leukocytosis and eosinophilia induced by OVA-sensitization/challenge were inhibited by the oral administration of BPUBE. Amelioration of eosinophil infiltration near the trachea was associated with reduced eotaxin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels. Changes in proinflammatory mediator levels in BALF suggest that BPUBE decreased OVA-sensitization-induced elevation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The finding that asthma-associated biomarker levels of OVA-sensitized/challenged mice were much more inhibited with BPUBE treatment than NPUBE (not-bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia extract) treatment suggested the production of new bioactive compounds by the mushroom mycelia that may be involved in enhancing the observed antiasthmatic properties. The possible relation of the composition determined by proximate analysis and GC/MS to observed bioactivity is discussed. The results suggest that the elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with mycelia of shiitake (Lentinus edodes

  4. Immunomodulatory beta-glucan from Lentinus edodes activates mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojuan; Pan, Chen; Zhang, Lina; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2011-09-09

    Lentinan, a cell wall β-glucan from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, is well known to be a biological defense modifier, but the signal transduction pathway(s) induced by Lentinan have not been elucidated. In this study, we extracted Lentinan (LNT-S) by ultrasonication from Lentinus edodes and report that, in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, LNT-S glucan activated NF-κB p65 and triggered its nuclear translocation as determined by Western blotting. Moreover, LNT-S enhanced NF-κB-luciferase activity in the Dual-Luciferase gene system assay. Its upstream signaling molecules, MAPKs such as ERK1/2 and JNK1/2, were shown to be activated by assessing the level of phosphorylation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, but its downstream proinflammatory enzyme, inducible NOS, was not observed. The data evaluated using a TNF-α ELISA kit and Griess reagent further demonstrated that no proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and NO were produced by LNT-S stimulation in RAW 264.7 cells. In contrast, LPS significantly induced inducible NOS expression and increased NO and TNF-α production, which are associated with activation of the NF-κB p65/p50 heterodimer complex. It is possible that LNT-S did not activate NF-κB p65/p50, and the activation of NF-κB p65 was not sufficient to stimulate cytokine production. These data demonstrate that LNT-S glucan carries out its immunomodulating activity by activating MAPK signaling pathways without secretion of TNF-α and NO.

  5. Pengaruh Bobot Dan Komposisi Media, Rangsangan Suhu Dan Kimiawi Terhadap Pembentukan Tubuh Buah Jamur Shiitake {Lenhnus Edodes*the Effect of Weight and Composition of Media, Temperatures and Chemically Stimulation on Fruiting Body Formation of Shiitake (

    OpenAIRE

    Subowo, YB; Latupapua, HJD

    1998-01-01

    Research on the effect of weight and composition of media, temperature and chemically stimulation on fruiting body formation of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) had been done in Wamena, Jayawijaya district, Irian Jay a. The research consisted of three experiments. The first experiment consisted of 3 kinds of media such as media A, B and C(A- sawdust and 100% standard nutrition; B = sawdust and 50% standard nutrition; and C = sawdust without nutrition) and three kinds of temperatures were 20°C (room...

  6. Effect of L-Cysteine Pretreatment on the Control of Formaldehyde and Browning of the Culinary-Medicinal Shiitake Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Higher Basidiomycetes) during Drying and Canning Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guijie; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Peng; Chen, Feng; Chen, Xiaolin; Wang, Cun; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Fresh culinary-medicinal Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were pretreated by soaking in 0.1 mg/mL of L-cysteine solution for 1 hour; then the variation in formaldehyde content and browning degree were studied during hot air-drying and canning processes. The results indicated that L-cysteine pretreatment significantly inhibited the increase of formaldehyde content and browning during the drying process; these increases in the pretreatment groups ranged from 7.0% to 14.0% and 65.4% to 68.9%, respectively, of that of the control groups. While the L-cysteine pretreatment did not seem to have a significant effect on controlling the formaldehyde content during the canning process, the increase of the browning degree of the canned products of the pretreatment groups ranged from 64.8% to 78.5% of that of the control groups, indicating the inhibitive effect of L-cysteine on browning during the canning process of L. edodes. Overall, L-cysteine pretreatment improved the sensory quality of both dried and canned L. edodes.

  7. Characterization and Antiproliferative Effect of Novel Acid Polysaccharides from the Spent Substrate of Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes) Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wei; Xu, Chunping; Huang, Wei; He, Peixin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a high yield of crude polysaccharide (16.73 ± 0.756%) was extracted from the spent mushroom substrate of Lentinus edodes using a hot alkali extraction method. Two groups of polysaccharides (designated as LSMS-1 and LSMS-2) were obtained from the crude extract by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and their molecular characteristics were examined by a multiangle laser-light scattering (MALLS) and refractive index detector system. The weight-average molar masses of LSMS-1 and LSMS-2 were determined to be 6.842 × 106 and 2.154 × 106 g/mol, respectively. The SEC/MALLS analysis revealed that the molecular shapes of LSMS-1 and LSMS-2 were sphere-like forms in aqueous solution. Carbohydrate composition analysis using chromatography--mass spectrometry revealed that they were both acid heteropolysaccharides. LSMS-1 comprised mainly glucose and galacturonic acid, whereas LSMS-2 mainly consisted of xylose and glucuronic acid. Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis of the purified fractions revealed typical characteristic polysaccharide groups. In addition, MTT assays with refined polysaccharide doses of 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 µg/mL suggested that both of the polysaccharide fractions exhibited antiproliferative activity against 6 tested human tumor cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, and LSMS-2 had better anticancer capacity in vitro than LSMS-1. The inhibition ratio of LSMS-2 against A549 human lung cancer cells, the SGC7901 gastric cancer cell line, MCF-7 breast cancer cells, the U937 histiocytic lymphoma cell line, and the MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line reached 43.55%, 29.97%, 19.63%, 18.24%, and 17.93%, respectively, at a concentration of 400 µg/mL.

  8. The anti-adhesive mode of action of a purified mushroom (Lentinus edodes) extract with anticaries and antigingivitis properties in two oral bacterial phatogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoretto, Caterina; Marchi, Anna; Bertoncelli, Anna; Burlacchini, Gloria; Papetti, Adele; Pruzzo, Carla; Zaura, Egija; Lingström, Peter; Ofek, Itzhak; Pratten, Jonathan; Spratt, David A; Wilson, Michael; Canepari, Pietro

    2014-02-24

    In previous works we have shown that a low-molecular-mass (LMM) fraction from mushroom (Lentinus edodes) homogenate interferes with binding of Streptococcus mutans to hydroxyapatite and Prevotella intermedia to gingival cells. Additionally, inhibition of biofilm formation of both odonto- and periodonto-pathogenic bacteria and detachment from preformed biofilms have been described for this compound. Further purification of mushroom extract has been recently achieved and a sub-fraction (i.e. # 5) has been identified as containing the majority of the mentioned biological activities. The aim of this study was to characterise the bacterial receptors for the purified mushroom sub-fraction #5 in order to better elucidate the mode of action of this compound when interfering with bacterial adhesion to host surfaces or with bacteria-bacteria interactions in the biofilm state. Candidate bacterial molecules to act as target of this compound were bacterial surface molecules involved in cell adhesion and biofilm formation, and, thus, we have considered cell wall associated proteins (CWPs), teichoic acid (TA) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of S. mutans, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of P. intermedia. Fifteen S. mutans CWPs and TA were capable of binding sub-fraction #5, while LTA did not. As far as P. intermedia is concerned, we show that five OMPs interact with sub-fraction # 5. Capacity of binding to P. intermedia LPS was also studied but in this case negative results were obtained. Binding sub-fraction # 5 to surface molecules of S. mutans or P. intermedia may result in inactivation of their physiological functions. As a whole, these results indicate, at molecular level, the bacterial surface alterations affecting adhesion and biofim formation. For these antimicrobial properties, the compound may find use in daily oral hygiene.

  9. Relationship of two ribonucleases with molecular masses of 45 kDa and 37 kDa from the culture medium of Lentinus edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Hara, J; Itagaki, T; Inokuchi, N; Koyama, T; Sanda, A; Iwama, M; Ohgi, K; Irie, M

    2000-07-01

    Lentinus edodes (shiitake) produces three base non- specific and acid ribonucleases, RNase Le2, RNase Le37 and RNase Le45. The primary structures of the former two RNases, having molecular masses about 24 and 37 kDa, respectively, have been elucidated to be members of the RNase T2 family. The latter two are excreted from mycelia into the medium. In this report, we estimated the primary structure of RNase Le45 using the following experimental evidence. (i) The partial amino acid sequence of RNase Le45 determined that up to about 60% of total protein was identical with that of RNase Le37. (ii) The amino acid composition of RNase Le45 was identical to that of RNase Le37. (iii) The elution profiles on HPLC of lysylendopeptidase and Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digests of RCM-RNase Le45 (reduced and S-carboxymethylated RNase Le45) were very similar to those of RNase Le37, except for the absence of C-terminus peptide which contained O-glycosylated peptides. However, RNase Le45 contained about 70 residues of mannose and 4 residues of hexosamine. These values were more than twice those of RNase Le37. (iv) RNase Le45 was immunologically indistinguishable from RNase Le37. (v) After treatment with both glycosidase EndoH and alpha-mannosidase, RNases Le37 and Le45 gave complex bands by slab-gel electrophoresis. However, one of the major bands with the highest mobility from RNase Le45 and Le37 showed the molecular mass of 29 kDa in common, which is slightly larger than that of RNase Le2 containing no carbohydrate. These results indicated that RNase Le45 is an enzyme which is a heavily glycosylated species of RNase Le37.

  10. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 9, No 53 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spent bleaching clay (SBC) from oil refining as a substrate for the spawn production of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ... Modeling herbivorous animal digestive system as 3- continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and 1-plug flow reactor (PFR) in series with specific reference to ...

  11. Effect of fungal treatments of fibrous agricultural by-products on chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation and methane production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyen, D.V.; Phuong, H.N.; Cone, J.W.; Baars, J.J.P.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Maize stover, rice straw, oil palm fronds and sugarcane bagasse were treated with the white-rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus eryngii, or Pleurotus ostreatus at 24 °C for 0–6 weeks. The fungi increased total gas production from oil palm fronds by 68–132%, but none of

  12. Spent bleaching clay (SBC) from oil refining as a substrate for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the utilization of SBC in shiitatke spawn production not only considerably reduces the costs of shiitake production but also bring about substantial environmental benefits. Keywords: Spent bleaching clay, shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, vegetable oils, spawn production, mycelial growth, components ...

  13. The effects of fractions from shiitake mushroom on composition and cariogenicity of dental plaque microcosms in an in vitro caries model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.; Buijs, M.J.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; Ciric, L.; Papetti, A.; Signoretto, C.; Stauder, M.; Lingström, P.; Pratten, J.; Spratt, D.A.; Wilson, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the anticariogenic potential of the (sub)fractions obtained from the edible mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes) in in vitro caries model. We used a modified constant depth film fermentor (CDFF) with pooled saliva as the inoculum and bovine dentin as a

  14. Author Details - African Journals Online

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of fed-batch fermentation for a staphylokinase-hirudin fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21 Abstract PDF · Vol ... Vision-based judgment of tomato maturity under growth conditions ... Spent bleaching clay (SBC) from oil refining as a substrate for the spawn production of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes)

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 11090 ... Asma Murtaza, Shazia Shafique, Tehmina Anjum, Sobiya Shafique. Vol 12, No 46 (2013), In vitro cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes in lignocellulosic residues from Amazon, Abstract PDF. Ceci Sales-Campos, Diego A. Pires, Samira R. L. Barbosa, Raimunda Liége S. Abreu, ...

  16. MICGLOGM APLICADA INTERNATIONAL, 15(2), 2003, pp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bj

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... whose approximated economic value surpasses 30 billion ... et al., 1990; Morales and Martínez-Carrera, 1990; Pire et .... of Lentinula edodes cultivated on different selected formulations in the laboratory and experimental chamber. Experiment Parameter. Genotype. CP-7. CP-163. Highest value. Lowest.

  17. Fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass: Importance of fungal species, colonization and time on chemical composition and in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate fungal treatments to improve in vitro rumen degradability of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study four selective lignin degrading fungi, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus, were used to pre-treat lignocellulosic

  18. The effect of particle size and amount of inoculum on fungal treatment of wheat straw and wood chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van Sandra J.A.; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; Baars, Johan J.P.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Cone, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to optimize the fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass by stimulating the colonization. Wheat straw and wood chips were treated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes with various amounts of colonized millet grains (0.5, 1.5 or 3.0 % per g

  19. A Polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against salmonellosis through upregulation of the Th1 immune reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Park, Sun Ok; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2014-03-19

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine salmonellosis. BPP was not bactericidal in vitro, it did, however, stimulate uptake of the bacteria into RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells, as indicated by increased colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of the contents of the lysed macrophages incubated with Salmonella Typhimurium for 30 and 60 min. Two hours postinfection, the bacterial counts drastically increased in the macrophages, but 4 and 8 h postinfection BPP extract-treated cells showed lower bacterial counts than the vehicle (saline phosphate pH 7.4 buffer, PBS)-treated control. BPP elicited altered morphology and markedly elevated inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein expression in the infected macrophage cells. BPP also activated leukocytes in S. Typhimurium-infected mice, as determined by spleen lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ levels in mice sera. ELISA analysis on cytokine production by Th1 and Th2 immune cells from splenocytes of infected mice showed significant increases in the levels of the following Th1 cytokines: IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-12. Histology assays of the livers of mice infected with a sublethal dose (1 × 10(4) CFU) of S. Typhimurium showed that BPP, administered daily through an intraperitoneal (ip) or oral route, protected against necrosis of the liver, a biomarker of in vivo salmonellosis. The lifespan of mice similarly infected with a lethal dose of S. Typhimurium (1 × 10(5) CFU) was significantly extended by ip injection or oral administration of the BPP without side effects. These results suggest that the activity of BPP against bacterial infection in mice occurs mainly through the activation of macrophage-mediated immune response resulting from augmented Th1 immunity. The significance of the results for microbial food safety and human health and further

  20. Medicinal properties of fungi occurring on Betula sp. trees. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolibowska Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the chemical costituents and pharmacological properties of polyporoid fungi found on birch, namely Piptoporus betulinus, Inonotus obliquus, Lenzites betulina, Fomes fomentarius, and Trametes versicolor. The in vitro and in vivo studies on the effect of different extracts from above-mentioned fungi on the human organism shown anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and immunostimulant activity, conditioned by the presence of such compounds as polysaccharides, polyphenols or terpenes. These fungi are commonly found in Poland and may superbly compete with Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Lentinula edodes (Shitake used in Asia for medicinal purposes.

  1. Shiitake Flagellate Dermatitis: the First Case Reported in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, N

    2017-01-01

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) is the second most commonly consumed mushroom worldwide1. It is used in Asian medicine for its anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive and lipid lowering properties2. Furthermore, extracts of these mushrooms are used in over-the-counter dietary supplements designed to improve the immune system1. The first case of shiitake mushroom induced flagellate dermatitis was described in Japan in 1977 and it is now being reported in the western world3. After literary review and consultation with the Irish National Poisons Information Centre, we believe this is the first reported case of shiitake flagellate dermatitis in Ireland

  2. Densidade básica da madeira de sete espécies e três clones de eucalipto antes e durante o cultivo de shiitake = Basic density of wood from seven species and three clones of eucalyptus before and during shiitake cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a densidade básica da madeira e casca de sete espécies (E. saligna, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora, E. paniculata e E. pellita e três clones de eucalipto (híbridos de E. grandis x E. urophylla antes e durante o cultivo das linhagens LE-95/01 e LE-96/18 de shiitake (Lentinula edodes em toras. Cada linhagem de shiitake foi inoculada em nove toras de cada tipo de eucalipto com 1 m de comprimento e 9 a 14 cm de diâmetro. Assim, o delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 20tratamentos e 9 repetições, sendo cada repetição correspondente a uma tora. As toras foram mantidas em estufa climatizada, com temperatura de 25 ± 5ºC e umidade relativa do ar entre 60-80% durante 12 meses. Para a determinação da densidade básica, analisaram-secunhas de discos e cascas de eucalipto recém-cortadas (sem inoculação das linhagens de L. edodes e em cunhas de discos retirados de toras já inoculadas com as linhagens de L. edodes após 8 e 12 meses de incubação. Verificou-se que a densidade básica da madeira, aolongo do ciclo de cultivo, foi reduzida em todos os tipos de eucalipto.Basic density of the wood and bark of seven eucalyptus species (E. saligna, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora, E.paniculata and E. pellita and three eucalyptus clones (E. grandis x E. urophylla hybrids were evaluated before and during the cultivation of shiitake (Lentinula edodes strains LE-95/01and LE-96/18 in logs. Each shiitake strain was inoculated into 9 logs of each type of eucalyptus with length of 1 m and diameter of 9 to 14 cm. Thus, the experimental design was totally randomized, with 20 treatments and 9 repetitions, with each repetition corresponding to one log. The logs were kept in a greenhouse, under the temperature of25 ± 5ºC and relative air humidity between 60-80 %, during 12 months. To determine basic density, newly cut disks and barks wedges of eucalyptus (without the

  3. EVALUATION OF ENDOGLUCANASE, EXOGLUCANASE, LACCASE, AND LIGNIN PEROXIDASE ACTIVITIES ON TEN WHITE-ROT FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Montoya B

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a way of tracking the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in ten species of white rot fungi: Lentinula edodes, Schizophyllum commune, Trametes trogii, Coriolus versicolor, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus ostreatus and Auricularia delicata. These species were first screened on solid culture media containing carboxymethyl cellulose, crystalline cellulose, ABTS (2,2´-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate and azure B, which showed the production of endoglucanase, exoglucanase, laccase and lignin peroxidase (LiP enzymes. Cellulolytic activities were detected after five days of incubation with congo red indicator, forming a clear-white halo in areas where cellulose was degraded. For ligninases, the tracking consisted of the monitoring in the formation of green halos due to ABTS oxidation for laccase, and decolorization halos on azure B for LiP during 14 days of incubation. From this qualitative screening, four strains were selected (G. lucidum, L. edodes, C. versicolor and T. trogii as the best producers of cellulolytic and ligninolytic enzymes. These four species were inoculated on a substrate of sawdust oak, yielding 51,8% of lignin degraded by L. edodes and 22% of cellulose degraded by C. versicolor.

  4. Structural Identification of Lentinus edodes Cellulose Derivative that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zjalic S, Reverberi M, Ricelli A, Mario Granito V, Fanelli. C, Adele Fabbri A. Trametes versicolor: a possible tool for aflatoxin control. Int J Food Microbiol 2006;. 107: 243-249. 7. Yan FY, Krishniah D, Rajin M, Bono A. Cellulose extraction from palm kernel cake using liquid phase oxidation. J Eng Sci Technol 2009; 4: 57-68. 8.

  5. Structural Identification of Lentinus edodes Cellulose Derivative that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... aspartic acid, leucine and alanine. Conclusion: CED was identified as a complex of peptide and polysaccharide structures possessing β- (1, 4)-glucan backbones, and it provides a theoretical basis for developing polysaccharide preparations to control aflatoxin contamination with medical and food science applications.

  6. Inhibitory effects of polysaccharides on the cariogenic activities of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Akira; Konno, Naotake; Imai, Susumu; Kato, Hirohisa

    2012-01-01

    Many carbohydrates are involved in the biofilm formation and activities of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) of Streptococcus mutans, and the effects of various disaccharides and polysaccharides were investigated in this study, including the hot water-extracted glucan fraction of the Lentinula edodes fruiting body (HWG). HWG was found to inhibit the initial adhesion of S. mutans to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA), and also laminarin to inhibit glucan synthesis by Gtfs. However, sucrose-dependent biofilm formation by S. mutans was not inhibited by these materials. Interestingly, dextran was found to have an inhibitory effect on the sucrose-dependent biofilm formation. The data suggest that the presence of such an edible glucan as dextran in daily foods would act to some degree on S. mutans for suppressing the cariogenic activity.

  7. The inhibitory effects of mushroom extracts on sucrose-dependent oral biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Akira; Kikuchi, Sayaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Sakamoto, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Yuko; Yoshida, Yasuo

    2010-03-01

    Mushrooms contain large quantities of alpha-glucans. Shiitake (Lentinula edodes), Japan's most popular edible mushroom, has been reported to contain about 6% (weight/dried weight) of alpha-(1,3)-glucan. This glucan is one of the major components of oral biofilm formed by the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. We found that extracts from shiitake and other edible mushrooms could reduce preformed biofilms of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in the presence of dextranase. We also investigated the alpha-glucanase activities of shiitake mushroom extracts and their effects on biofilm formation. The extracts possessed alpha-glucanase activity and degraded water-insoluble glucans from mutans streptococci. The extracts strongly inhibited the sucrose-dependent formation of biofilms by S. mutans and S. sobrinus in the presence of dextranase. Our results suggest that some components of mushrooms, including alpha-glucanases, might inhibit the sucrose-induced formation of oral biofilms.

  8. Easy preparation of dietary fiber with the high water-holding capacity from food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Eiji; Murakami, Kazumi; Kurita, Osamu

    2005-03-01

    Dietary fibers were prepared as alkali- and acid-insoluble fractions with chemical phosphorylation from Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius), defatted soybean (Glycine max), and Shiitake (Lentinula edodes). The dietary fiber fractions treated with alkaline solution containing sodium metaphosphate had the lower protein content and higher total dietary fiber content than those of the preparations without phosphorylation. Alkaline extraction followed by phosphorylation led to a 1.5-fold increase in the water holding capacity of dietary fiber compared with no phosphorylation, whereas the binding capacity to bile acids of dietary fiber was almost the same. The alkali- and acid-insoluble extraction with phosphorylation provided an efficient preparation of water-insoluble dietary fiber with high-water holding capacity from various food sources.

  9. Macro and trace mineral constituents and radionuclides in mushrooms: health benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Borovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews and updates data on macro and trace elements and radionuclides in edible wild-grown and cultivated mushrooms. A huge biodiversity of mushrooms and spread of certain species over different continents makes the study on their multi-element constituents highly challenging. A few edible mushrooms are widely cultivated and efforts are on to employ them (largely Agaricus spp., Pleurotus spp., and Lentinula edodes) in the production of selenium-enriched food (mushrooms) or nutraceuticals (by using mycelia) and less on species used by traditional medicine, e.g., Ganoderma lucidum. There are also attempts to enrich mushrooms with other elements than Se and a good example is enrichment with lithium. Since minerals of nutritional value are common constituents of mushrooms collected from natural habitats, the problem is however their co-occurrence with some hazardous elements including Cd, Pb, Hg, Ag, As, and radionuclides. Discussed is also the problem of erroneous data on mineral compounds determined in mushrooms.

  10. Screening of beta-glucan contents in commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Miriam; Prange, Alexander; Lelley, Jan I; Hambitzer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results. Many wild growing species present high beta-glucan contents, especially Bracket fungi. The well-known cultivated species Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Cantharellus cibarius as well as most screened wild growing species show higher glucan contents in their stipes than caps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of different cooking methods on nutritional value and antioxidant activity of cultivated mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Mendiola-Lanao, Mónica; Pérez-Clavijo, Margarita; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Influence of culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Pleurotus eryngii) was studied. Proximate composition was affected by the cooking method and the mushrooms species. Frying induced more severe losses in protein, ash, and carbohydrates content but increased the fat and energy. Boiling improved the total glucans content by enhancing the β-glucans fraction. A significant decrease was detected in the antioxidant activity especially after boiling and frying, while grilled and microwaved mushrooms reached higher values of antioxidant activity. Maillard reaction products could be partially responsible, as supported by the absorbance values measured at 420 nm. Since cooking techniques clearly influence the nutritional attributes of mushrooms, the proper selection of treatments is a key factor to prevent/reduce nutritional losses. Microwaving and grilling were established as the best processes to maintain the nutritional profile of mushrooms.

  12. Cultivation of three medicinal mushroom species on olive oil press cakes containing substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej GREGORI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil press cakes (OOPC represent a waste that has a negative impact on environment. OOPC have little or no use and because of that solutions for their alternative use are sought after. In our experiments we investigated substrate mixtures composed of different proportions of OOPC, wheat bran, crushed corn seeds and beech sawdust for cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes and Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies. The increasing amount of OOPC in fruiting bodies cultivation substrates resulted in decreasing production of fruiting bodies. Results show, that although OOPC in small portion can be successfully used as a medicinal mushroom fruiting bodies cultivating substrate, their use is rational only, if no other substrate composing materials can be found or when OOPC usage solves the problem of its deposition.

  13. Terpenoids and sterols from some Japanese mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao; Machida, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    Over the past twenty years, our research group has been studying the chemical constituents of mushrooms. From nineteen species, namely, Amanita virgineoides Bas (Amanitaceae), Daedaleopsis tricolor (Bull.: Fr.) Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae), Grifolafrondosa (Fr.) S. F. Gray (Polyporaceae), Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Hericiaceae), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Peck) Bigelow (Tricholomataceae), Lactarius piperatus (Scop.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Russulaceae), Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Pleurotaceae), Lyophyllyum connatum (Schum.: Fr.) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), Naematoloma sublateritium (Fr.) Karst. (Strophariaceae), Ompharia lapidescens Schroeter (Polyporaceae), Panellus serotinus (Pers.: Fr.) Kuhn. (Tricholomataceae), Pholiota nameko (T. Ito) S. Ito et Imai in Imai (Strophariaceae), Pleurotus eringii (DC.: Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae), Polyporus umbellatus Fries (Polyporaceae), Russula delica Fr. (Russulaceae), Russula sanguinea (Bull.) Fr. (Russulaceae), Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito (Thelephoraceae), Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), and Tricholomaportentosum (Fr.) Quel. (Tricholomataceae), we isolated eight new sesquiterpenoids, six new meroterpenoids, three new triterpenoids, and twenty eight new sterols. In this review, structural features of these new compounds are discussed.

  14. The use of residual geothermal energy in an edible mushroom production plant, Los Humeros geothermal fields (Mexico): Achievements and alternatives; El uso de la energia geotermica residual en la planta productora de hongos comestibles del campo geotermico Los Humeros (Mexico): Logros y alternativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel Rangel, Maria Elena [Proteccion ambiental, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    A plant for raising edible mushrooms with residual geothermal energy is a project of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The results reflect important achievements in the development of technology for the productions of wholesome and available food with geothermal heat instead of conventional energy sources. The installations have an enormous technological and commercial potential- demonstrated by the cultivation of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), which success has awakened the interest of research institutions. The Instituto of Ecologia, A.C., has begun a joint project with CFE cultivating shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) with geothermal energy. These achievements mark a clear trend toward the integral use of facilities, the establishment of a crop with greater economic advantages, and the diffusion of this project. [Spanish] La planta productora de hongos comestibles es un proyecto de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) para dar un uso alterno a la energia geotermica residual. Los resultados obtenidos hasta el momento reflejan logros importantes en la generacion de tecnologia propia para la produccion de un alimento sano y accesible, sustituyendo la energia proveniente de combustibles convencionales por calor geotermico. Las instalaciones creadas cuentan con un enorme potencial tecnologico y comercial demostrando con el cultivo de las setas (Pleurotus ostreatus) con un exito tal que ha despertado el interes de instituciones dedicadas a la investigacion. Tal es el caso de Instituto de Ecologia, A.C que acualmente se encuentra involucrado en un proyecto conjunto sobre el cultivo del hongo Lentinula edodes (shiitake) utilizando energia geotermica en su proceso productivo. Con lo anterior, se esta marcando una clara tendencia hacia el aprovechamiento integral de las instalaciones, el establecimiento de un cultivo con mayores ventajas economicas y la difusion de este proyecto.

  15. Residual polysaccharides from fungi reduce the bacterial spot in tomato plants

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    Tarsis Aguiar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polysaccharides from fungal wastes were partially characterized and evaluated for their protective effects against bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas gardneri on four tomato cultivars: Santa Cruz Kada, Natália, BRS Sena and Forty. The polysaccharides were extracted from spent mushroom substrate of Pleurotus ostreatus, residual brewery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and basidiocarps discarded from Lentinula edodes production. These polysaccharides were characterized for total carbohydrates, phenolics and proteins content, pH, scatter intensity, conductivity, Zeta potential, DPPH scavenging assay and infrared spectroscopy. The effects of time interval between treatment and inoculation (4 or 7 days and polysaccharide concentrations (0.5 or 1.5 mg.mL–1 were assessed for disease severity using a susceptible tomato cultivar. The polysaccharide action mode was investigated by determining the activity of peroxidases and phenylalanine ammonialyase and by quantifying flavonoids and total phenolics in the plants treated and challenged with X. gardneri. The polysaccharides obtained from Lentinula edodes (PSHII, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (PRC and Pleurotus ostreatus (PSPO (1.5 mg.mL-1 reduced bacterial spot severity by 50% on tomato cotyledons, leaflets and five-leaf plants. Furthermore, PRC and PSHII (1.5 mg.mL–1 could decrease disease severity in all tested cultivars. PSHII, the most effective, did not cause change in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity or flavonoid content on the cultivars Kada and Natália. However, an increase in peroxidase activity and total phenol content on cv. Kada was noted. The polysaccharides obtained from food industry wastes could provide protection against bacterial spot on tomato cultivars by inducing defense mechanisms and can be useful in formulating products with phytosanitary potential.

  16. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  17. [Determination of illudin S in Omphalotus guepiniformis and foods that caused food poisoning by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Yoshimasa; Itou, Takeshi

    2009-08-01

    A simple method was developed for determination of illudin S in fungi (Omphalotus guepiniformis: poisonous mushroom) and a food that caused food poisoning, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Illudin S in fungi and the food that caused food poisoning was extracted with methanol and then cleaned up with an Oasis HLB cartridge. LC separation was performed with an octadecylated silica column (Inertsil ODS-3, 2.1 mm i.d. x 150 mm) and a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid-methanol (7 : 3) at a flow rate 0.2 mL/min. Mass spectral acquisition was performed in the positive mode and illudin S was targeted using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with electrospray ionization (ESI). The recoveries of illudin S were 84-94% from edible fungi (Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Panellus serotinus). The detection limits of illudin S in the fungi (L. edodes, P. ostreatus and P. serotinus) were 0.08-0.10 microg/g respectively. Illudin S was detected in the food that caused food poisoning at the level of 2.0 and 15.1 microg/g in the soup and fungi, respectively. The recovery of illudin S from a mushroom soup (cooked at 100 degrees C for 10 min) sample which simulated food poisoning was 74.8%. These results indicate that the developed method is suitable for the determination of illudin S in fungi (O. guepiniformis) and foods that caused food poisoning.

  18. Detection limit of Clostridium botulinum spores in dried mushroom samples sourced from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Pradeep K; Plowman, June; Aldus, Clare F; Xing, Zengtao; Zhao, Yong; Peck, Michael W

    2013-08-16

    A survey of dried mushrooms (Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) and Auricularia auricula (Wood Ear)) sourced from China was carried out to determine the natural contamination of these mushrooms with spores of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum and non-proteolytic C. botulinum. The mushrooms were collected from supermarkets and retailers in 21 cities in China during October 2008. Spore loads of C. botulinum in mushrooms have a degree of uncertainty and variability and this study contributes valuable data for determining prevalence of spores of C. botulinum in mushrooms. An optimized detection protocol that combined selective enrichment culture with multiplex PCR was used to test for spores of proteolytic and non-proteolytic C. botulinum. Detection limits were calculated, using a maximum likelihood protocol, from mushroom samples inoculated with defined numbers of spores of proteolytic C. botulinum or non-proteolytic C. botulinum. Based on the maximum likelihood detection limit, it is estimated that dried mushroom A. auricula contained botulinum, and botulinum. Dried L. edodes contained botulinum and it was not possible to determine reliable detection limits for spores of non-proteolytic C. botulinum using the current detection protocol. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Concentrations of 137Cs and 40K in mushrooms consumed in Japan and radiation dose as a result of their dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    Mushrooms are known to accumulate radiocesium. To estimate the intake of radiocesium through the eating of mushrooms, about 30 samples belonging to 4 commonly consumed species (Lentinula edodes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Grifola frondosa, and Tricholoma matsutake), were analyzed for 137 Cs and 40 K. The concentration ranges were 0.060-29 Bq kg -1 (wet wt) for 137 Cs and 38-300 Bq kg -1 (wet wt) for 40 K. The geometric mean concentration for 137 Cs was 0.56 Bq kg -1 (wet wt), and the mean concentration for 40 K was 92 Bq kg -1 (wet wt). The 137 Cs concentrations in L. edodes cultivated in mushroom beds (sawdust-rice bran media) were lower than those cultivated on bed logs (natural wood with bark). The annual intake of 137 Cs per person through mushrooms was calculated, by using the current analytical results and food consumption data in Japan, to be 3.1 Bq for 137 Cs, which is about 28% of the total dietary intake of this nuclide. The effective dose equivalent of 137 Cs through mushrooms was estimated to be 4.0 x 10 -8 Sv, which is about the half the value obtained in our previous study. The decrease of the 137 Cs intake through mushrooms is probably related to changes in cultivation methods in recent years, from the use of bed logs to mushroom beds. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Waste Mushroom Medium as a Fermentable Substrate and Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Ai; Sasaki, Chizuru; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    Waste Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushroom medium, a lignocellulosic aglicultural residue, was evaluated as a fermentable substrate. 87% of the fermentable sugars remained in the waste mushroom medium. The sugar yield of the waste mushroom medium (46.3%) was higher than that of raw mushroom medium (20.3%) after 48 h of enzymatic saccharification by Meicelase because L. edodes changed wood structure. These results indicated that the waste mushroom medium is a suitable substrate for fermentation. Next, the efficient ethanol production using steam explosion pretreatment was studied. After 30 h of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 20.0 g/L ethanol was produced from 100 g/L water-insoluble residue of the waste mushroom medium treated at a steam pressure of 20 atm and a steaming time of 5 min. This corresponded to an ethanol yield of 77.0% of the theoretical, i.e. 14.7 g of ethanol obtained from 100 g of waste mushroom medium.

  1. EVALUACIÓN DE ACTIVIDADES ENDOGLUCANASA, EXOGLUCANASA, LACASA Y LIGNINA PEROXIDASA EN DIEZ HONGOS DE PUDRICIÓN BLANCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA MONTOYA B.

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una vía de rastreo de producción de enzimas lignocelulolíticas en diez especies de hongos de pudrición blanca: Lentinula edodes, Schizophyllum commune, Trametes trogii, Coriolus versicolor, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus ostreatus y Auricularia delicata. Estas especies primero fueron rastreadas sobre medios de cultivo sólido que contienen carboximetil celulosa, celulosa cristalina, ABTS (2,2´-azino-bis(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfonato y azure B, los cuales evidenciaron la producción de las enzimas endoglucanasa, exoglucanasa, lacasa y lignina peroxidasa (LiP. Las actividades celulolíticas fueron detectadas a los cinco días de incubación con el indicador rojo congo, formándose un halo claro-blanco en las zonas donde se degrada la celulosa. Para las ligninasas, este rastreo consistió en el seguimiento a la formación de halos verdes por oxidación del ABTS para lacasa y halos de decoloración sobre el azure B para la LiP durante 14 días de incubación. De este rastreo cualitativo, se seleccionaron cuatro cepas (G. lucidum, L. edodes, C. versicolor y T. Trogii, como las mejores productoras de enzimas celulolíticas y ligninolíticas. Estas cuatro especies fueron inoculadas sobre un sustrato de aserrín de roble, obteniéndose 51,8% de lignina degradada por L. edodes y 22% de celulosa degrada por C. versicolor.

  2. Decontamination Trials for the Bed-Log Cultivation of Mushroom in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Kahori; Arai, Shio; Hirano, Yurika; Yoshida, Hirohisa [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Ogawa, Hideki [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112 (Japan); Ito, Hirohisa; Kumata, Atsushi [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112 (Japan); Murayama, Kazunari [Macoho Co. Ltd., Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan); Suzuki, Kin-ichi [Abukuma Cooperative for Best Use of Broad-leaved Trees (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive nuclear dispersed in environment from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNP) Accident-contaminated forests in Fukushima Prefecture, especially in Abukuma mountainous region located 10 to 20 Km west from FNP. Broad-leaved trees such as Quercus serrata, chestnut tree, oak, chinquapin tree, Japanese beech are widely planting in Abukuma area. Many prefectures in Japan depends on supply of bed-log from Fukushima prefecture, especially Abukuma area. North part of Abukuma mountain area has highly contaminated by radioactive nuclear, however, the contamination level in the south part of Abkuma area was about ten times lower than the north part. The outside (bark, leaves and twigs) of broad-leaved trees was highly contaminated above 10,000 Bq/kg in Iidate and Kawamata villages located the north part of Abkuma ears, 35 to 40 km from FNP. On the other hand, the contamination level of the outside of broad-leaved trees in the south part of Abukuma ears was 100-500 Bq/kg and the contamination of the inside tree was lower than 10 Bq/kg. For the bed-log cultivation of mushrooms using broad-leaved trees, two methods were used in Japan. The mushrooms incubated broad-leaved trees (90 cm of length and 15 cm of diameter) were setting in the lack on the ground in forest from winter to autumn. This method was mainly used for the cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes). The second method was used for Maitake (Grifola frondosa) cultivation. The mushroom incubated broad-leaved trees (20 cm of length and 20 cm of diameter) were setting in the ground holes and covered by soil (2 cm) and litters. The maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms harvesting October 2013 at Iidate, the evaluation area, contained 120 Bq/kg, even though the soil on the broad-leaved trees contained more than 20,000 Bq/kg. The outside contamination of broad-leaved trees supplied from the south part of Abkuma ears were washed by the wet blasting. 80 % of radiocesium on the bark was efficiently

  3. Valor nutricional de cogumelos comestíveis Nutritional value of edible mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Prado Zanes Furlani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar e comparar a composição centesimal, teor de ácido ascórbico, fibra alimentar e fósforo dos cogumelos mais cultivados no Brasil (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes e Pleorotus spp.. Cinco amostras de diferentes lotes e marcas, de cada espécie de cogumelo, foram analisadas segundo os métodos descritos pela "Association of Official Analytical Chemists International". Para sólidos totais, proteína, lipídeo, cinzas, carboidratos e fibra alimentar os valores médios obtidos, em base seca, foram, respectivamente: 9,37; 23,22; 4,71; 8,89; 63,17; e 34,0 g.100 g -1. Para fósforo e ácido ascórbico os valores médios encontrados em base úmida foram de 104,13 e 6,67 mg.100 g -1, respectivamente. A avaliação da composição centesimal dos cogumelos estudados mostrou ser um alimento com características nutricionais excelentes, com alto teor de proteínas e fibras alimentares, além do baixo teor de lipídeos e fonte considerável de fósforo; apresentaram, entretanto, baixo teor de ácido ascórbico.The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare the proximate composition, vitamin C (ascorbic acid, dietary fiber and phosphorus contents of the more cultivated mushrooms in Brazil (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, and Pleorotus spp.. Five different batches, from different brands of each mushroom were analyzed according to methods described in the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International. For total solids, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates and dietary fiber, the average values, on a dry weight basis, were respectively: 9.37, 23.22, 4.71, 8.89, 63.17 and 34.0 g.100 g -1. For phosphorus and vitamin C, the average values on a wet weight basis were: 104.13 and 6.67 mg.100 g -1. From their compositions, the mushrooms studied here were shown to be excellent nutritional foods, presenting high protein and dietary fiber contents, low fat contents and reasonable sources of phosphorus, although

  4. Screening of antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of some edible mushrooms cultivated in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammed; Kubra, Khadizatul; Ahmed, Sheikh

    2015-02-07

    For a long time mushrooms have been playing an important role in several aspects of the human activity. Recently edible mushrooms are used extensively in cooking and make part of new food in Bangladesh for their beneficial properties. The aim of this study is to screen some values of mushrooms used in Bangladesh. Methanolic extracts of 3 edible mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes, Hypsizigus tessulatus) isolated from Chittagong, Bangladesh were used in this study. Phenolic compounds in the mushroom methanolic extracts were estimated by a colorimetric assay. The antioxidant activity was determined by radical 1, 1-diphenyl;-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Eight microbial isolates were used for antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of mushrooms by the agar well diffusion method with slight modification. Determination of antimicrobial activity indicated considerable activity against all bacteria and fungi reveling zone of inhibition ranged from 7 ± 0.2 to 20 ± 0.1 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of the extracts showed that they are also active even in least concentrations ranged from 1 mg/ml to 9 mg/ml. Lentinula edodes showed the best antimicrobial activity than others. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was quite resistant and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was more sensitive than others microbial isolates. Antioxidant efficiency by inhibitory concentration on 1,1-Diphenly-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was found significant when compared to standard antioxidant like ascorbic Acid . The concentration (IC50) ranged from 100 ± 1.20 to 110 ± 1.24 μg/ml. Total phenols are the major bioactive component found in extracts of isolates expressed as mg of GAE per gram of fruit body, which ranged from 3.20 ± 0.05 to 10.66 ± 0.52 mg/ml. Average concentration of flavonoid ranged from 2.50 ± 0.008 mg/ml to 4.76 ± 0.11 mg/ml; followed by very small concentration of ascorbic acid (range, 0.06 ± 0.00 mg/ml to 0

  5. Mushroom Shiitake, is it mutagenic or antimutagenic agent? Shiitake, um cogumelo mutagênico ou antimutagênico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilce Mara de Syllos Cólus

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been consumed by eastern populations due to their edible and medicinal properties, for a long time. Over the years, there has also been a gradual increase in the consumption of mushrooms in the western countries, including Brazil. However, the benefits or harms that these mushrooms may cause to the human health are still uncertain. Shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler is one of the most appreciated fungi in the Brazilian cuisine and its functional and nutritional properties have been extensively studied. Other characteristics of this basidiomycet have also been reported, including its antitumoral, antiviral, bactericidal properties, as well as being a homeostasis and biorhythm regulator. However, studies regarding its mutagenic and antimutagenic potential in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms are scarce. Knowledge of these biological properties is essential before a product can be recommended as food and/or drug. Therefore, its indication as a beneficial product to human health is premature since it is necessary to broaden studies on the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the mushroom Shiitake or of its active compounds.   Desde a antigüidade, os cogumelos vêm sendo consumidos pelos povos orientais devido às suas  propriedades medicinais e comestíveis e ao longo dos anos tem-se observado um aumento gradativo no consumo também nos países ocidentais, inclusive o Brasil. No entanto, ainda há dúvidas quanto aos benefícios ou prejuízos à saúde, decorrentes do uso destes cogumelos pelas populações humanas. Entre os cogumelos muito apreciados na culinária brasileira, destaca-se o Shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler, um dos fungos comestíveis mais estudados quanto às suas propriedades funcionais e nutricionais. Já se tem conhecimento sobre várias atividades deste basidiomiceto superior, como antitumoral, antiviral, bactericida, regulador da homeostase e do biorritmo. No entanto, poucos trabalhos

  6. UTILIZATION OF AREN (Arenga pinnata Merr. SAWMILLING WASTE FOR EDIBLE MUSHROOM CULTIVATION MEDIA

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    Djarwanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aren (Arenga pinnata Merr. is a multipurpose tree that can be utilized for palm sugar, alcoholic drinks, beverages and construction wood. The use of aren sawdust has not been studied intensively. This study examines the utilization of aren sawdust as cultivation media for edible mushrooms. Aren sawdust was mixed with rice bran, CaCO3, gypsum, fertilizers and distilled water before sterilization in 30 minutes pressurized autoclave at 1210C and 1.5atm. The mixed media was inoculated with pure cultures containing four mushrooms species (Pleurotus flabellatus, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju and Lentinula edodes and incubated for five weeks to allow mycelium growth producing fruit bodies. The fruit bodies were harvested everyday within four months and examined for its gained mushroom-weight and biological conversion efficiency/BE. The core part of aren trunk was cut into smaller pieces of 10 cm (width by 5 cm (thickness, by 120 cm (length. Each core sample was bored from the surface inward, creating holes with a particular distance apart. Each hole was inoculated with pure cultures containing 6 mushroom species (four species above, P. cystidiosus and Auricularia polytricha. The inoculated samples were slanted on bamboo support, and placed in a bamboo hut. Harvesting was carried out everyday after the fruiting body became mature and examined for its gained mushroom weight. Results show that the use of sawdust supplemented with nutritious material is more likely to improve the mushroom yield than that of aren sawn-timber core. In this case, the BE values with aren-sawdust media were 21.97-89.45% (P. flabellatus, 15.36-105.36% (P. ostreatus, 63.88-76.86% (P. sajor-caju, and up to 62.88% (L. edodes. Meanwhile, the yields (gained mushroom weight with aren sawn-timber media were 210g (P. ostreatus, 368g (P. flabellatus, 331g (P. sajor-caju and 48g (A. polytricha; however, P. cystidiosus and L. edodes inoculated on aren stem core failed to grow.

  7. Interactions between Xylotrophic Mushrooms and Mycoparasitic Fungi in Dual-Culture Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Badalyan

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen wood-decaying mushroom species (Coriolus versicolor, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma sp., Hypholoma fasciculare, H. sublateritium, Kühneromyces mutabilis, Lentinula edodes, Lentinus tigrinus, Pholiota alnicola, Ph. aurivella, Ph. destruens, Pleurotus cornucopiae, Pl. ostreatus, Polyporus subarcularius, Po. squamosus, Po. varius and Schizophyllum commune were paired with three Trichoderma species (T. harzianum, T. pseudokoningii, and T. viride and Clonostachys rosea in dual-culture experiments on an agar-based medium. Xylotrophic mushrooms and mycoparasitic fungi in general showed similar competitive ability; deadlock, or mutual inhibition after mycelial contact, was observed in 45.6% of pairings, while stable inhibition at a distance occurred in 4.4% of pairings. Replacement, or overgrowth of xylotrophic mushroom by a mycoparasitic fungus was observed in 29.4% of pairings; the opposite, overgrowth of the xylotrophic mushroom on the mycoparasitic fungus in 20.6%. of pairings. Of the xylotrophic mushrooms, Pl. ostreatus, Ganoderma sp., F. velutipes and H. fasciculare, showed the highest competitive ability against mycoparasitic fungi. Of the mycoparasitic fungi, T. harzianum showed the strongest competitive activity against xylotrophic mushrooms.

  8. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for the edible mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin jing; Shi, Liang; Chen, Hui; Sun, Yun qi; Zhao, Ming wen; Ren, Ang; Chen, Ming jie; Wang, Hong; Feng, Zhi yong

    2014-01-01

    Hypsizygus marmoreus is one of the major edible mushrooms in East Asia. As no efficient transformation method, the molecular and genetics studies were hindered. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) gene of H. marmoreus was isolated and its promoter was used to drive the hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPH) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in H. marmoreus. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was successfully applied in H. marmoreus. The transformation parameters were optimized, and it was found that co-cultivation of bacteria with protoplast at a ratio of 1000:1 at a temperature of 26 °C in medium containing 0.3 mM acetosyringone resulted in the highest transformation efficiency for Agrobacterium strain. Besides, three plasmids, each carrying a different promoter (from H. marmoreus, Ganoderma lucidum and Lentinula edodes) driving the expression of an antibiotic resistance marker, were also tested. The construct carrying the H. marmoreus gpd promoter produced more transformants than other constructs. Our analysis showed that over 85% of the transformants tested remained mitotically stable even after five successive rounds of subculturing. Putative transformants were analyzed for the presence of hph gene by PCR and Southern blot. Meanwhile, the expression of EGFP in H. marmoreus transformants was detected by fluorescence imaging. This ATMT system increases the transformation efficiency of H. marmoreus and may represent a useful tool for molecular genetic studies in this mushroom species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Mineral Composition of Four Edible Mushrooms

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    S. E. Mallikarjuna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivated mushroom species, namely, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus florida and two wild growing species Lentinus cladopus and Pleurotus djamor were studied for their mineral contents such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Se, Pb, and Cd by Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES and also Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, (AAS. Phosphorus was estimated by spectrophotometric method. K, Ca, Na, and P were in higher concentrations ranging from 59.3 mg to 3634 mg, 8.27 mg–174.9 mg, 22.2 mg–327.4 mg, and 100.5 mg–769.9 mg/100 g dry weight respectively in the four mushroom species studied. Fe, Zn, Mg and Se were ranging from 6.27 mg to 35.3 mg, 1.58 mg–9.44 mg, 21.1 mg–40.7 mg and 0.048 mg–0.182 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively, amongst the mushroom species analyzed. However, Ni, Cu, and Mn contents showed relatively lower concentrations, whereas Pb and Cd were below detectable level. The mushrooms were safe for consumption, in accordance with the permissible tolerance limits of the estimated toxic metals. Implications of the mineral contents on mushroom nutritional value are highlighted.

  11. Solubilization and Mineralization of Lignin by White Rot Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, C. David; Kropp, Bradley R.; Reid, Ian D.

    1992-01-01

    The white rot fungi Lentinula edodes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Flammulina velutipes, and Schizophyllum commune were grown in liquid media containing 14C-lignin-labelled wood, and the formation of water-soluble 14C-labelled products and 14CO2, the growth of the fungi, and the activities of extracellular lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase were measured. Conditions that affect the rate of lignin degradation were imposed, and both long-term (0- to 16-day) and short-term (0- to 72-h) effects on the production of the two types of product and on the activities of the enzymes were monitored. The production of 14CO2-labelled products from the aqueous ones was also investigated. The short-term studies showed that the different conditions had different effects on the production of the two products and on the activities of the enzymes. Nitrogen sources inhibited the production of both products by all species when differences in growth could be discounted. Medium pH and manganese affected lignin degradation by the different species differently. With P. chrysosporium, the results were consistent, with lignin peroxidase playing a role in lignin solubilization and manganese peroxidase being important in subsequent CO2 production. PMID:16348781

  12. A comparison of dried shiitake mushroom in log cultivation and mycelial cultivation from different geographical origins using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yaeko; Nakashita, Rumiko; Ishikawa, Noemia Kazue; Tabuchi, Akiko; Sakuno, Emi; Tokimoto, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    We determined carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) of dried shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) samples from Japan, China, South Korea and Brazil in order to discriminate their geographical origins. In log cultivation, the δ 13 C values of Japanese dried shiitake samples were lower than those of Chinese samples, depending on the δ 13 C values of log and their growth conditions. In mycelial cultivation, the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of Japanese dried shiitake samples were higher than those of Chinese samples. By using the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values, 87.4% of Japanese dried shiitake samples (n = 95) and 87.9% of Chinese dried shiitake samples (n = 66) in log cultivation, 90.0% of the Japanese dried shiitake samples (n = 50) and 93.9% of Chinese dried shiitake samples (n = 114) in mycelial cultivation, were correctly classified according to the production site. These results suggested that the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values will be potentially useful for tracing their geographical origin of dried shiitake samples. (author)

  13. Modification of growth conditions by mm-waves of wood-decaying mushrooms cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avagyan, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    Basidial macromycetes are not only value food, but can be used as source of such biological active compounds as the genistein, β -glucans, glioxal-oxidase et al. In this work we used different frequencies of extremely high frequency of electromagnetic irradiation (EHF EMI) with the aim of obtaining mushroom cultures with increased fermentative activity by the modulation of its growth conditions during growth on the peptone media. We investigated the influence of the non-thermal extremely high frequency electromagnetic waves in the interval of 45-53 GHz on β-glucosidase activities of two species of wood-decaying mushroom. In this study we examined the most popular edible wood-decaying mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, which is wide-spread in the forests and commercial mushroom Lentinula edodes, under influence of such an abiotic factor as the extremely high frequency waves in the interval of 45 GHz - 53 GHz during 20 and 40 min on the 7th day of mycelial culture's growth. After the treatment of cultures we continued their growth and on the 3th day we examined the influence of these waves on fermentative activity of mycelial extracts. The some conditions of such treatment led to significant rising of β-glucosidase activities in the extracts of mycelial cultures

  14. Identification and Characterization of Gliocladium viride Isolated from Mushroom Fly Infested Oak Log Beds Used for Shiitake Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Young; Yun, Yeo Hong; Hyun, Min Woo; Kim, Myeong Ho; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2010-03-01

    A green mold species that has not previously been reported in Korea was isolated from oak log beds used for shiitake (Lentinula edodes) cultivation that were infested by mushroom flies. In this study, we identify the mold species as Gliocladium viride (an anamorph of Hypocrea lutea) and describe its mycological properties. The fungus was cottony on both potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Czapek yeast extract agar (CYA), but was colored white on PDA and became yellowish green and brown on CYA. Mycelial growth on PDA attained a diameter of 73 mm at 30℃ after 5 days. The fungus grew faster on malt extract agar (> 80 mm, 5 days at 25℃) compared to CYA and PDA (< 68 mm, 5 days at 25℃). Penicillate conidiophores of the fungus are hyaline, smooth walled, branching above typically in four stages, and 120~240 µm in length. Club-shaped or slender phialides are formed on the metulae. Conidia of the fungus were ovate and elliptic, yellowish brown and green, and 2.5~3.0 µm × 1.8~2.3 µm in size. Typically, slimy conidia are formed in a mass and colored brown to dark green to almost black. The internal transcribed spacer rDNA and translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene sequences of the fungus isolated here show 99% identity with previously identified G. viride strains.

  15. Pilot studies on scale-up biocatalysis of 7-β-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol and its analogues by an engineered yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Cang; Zhu, Ping

    2015-06-01

    Paclitaxel content in yew tree is extremely low, causing a worldwide shortage of this important anticancer drug. Yew tree can also produce abundant 7-β-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol that can be bio-converted into 10-deacetyltaxol for semi-synthesis of paclitaxel. However, the bio-conversion by the screened natural microorganisms was inefficient. We have constructed the recombinant yeast with a glycoside hydrolase gene from Lentinula edodes and explored the bioconversion. Based on previously established reaction conditions, the bioconversion of 7-β-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol or its extract was further optimized and scaled up with the engineered yeast harvested from 200-L scale high-cell-density fermentation. The optimization included the freeze-dried cell amount, dimethyl sulfoxide concentration, addition of 0.5% antifoam supplement, and substrate concentration. A 93-95% bioconversion and 83% bioconversion of 10 and 15 g/L 7-β-xylosyltaxanes in 10 L reaction volume were achieved, respectively. The yield of 10-deacetyltaxol reached 10.58 g/L in 1 L volume with 15 g/L 7-β-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol. The conversion efficiencies were not only much higher than those of other reports and our previous work, but also realized in 10 L reaction volume. A pilot-scale product purification was also established. Our study bridges the gap between the basic research and commercial utilization of 7-β-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol for the industrial production of semi-synthetic paclitaxel.

  16. The Effects of Fractions from Shiitake Mushroom on Composition and Cariogenicity of Dental Plaque Microcosms in an In Vitro Caries Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egija Zaura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the anticariogenic potential of the (subfractions obtained from the edible mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes in in vitro caries model. We used a modified constant depth film fermentor (CDFF with pooled saliva as the inoculum and bovine dentin as a substratum. The test compounds were low molecular weight fraction (MLMW of the shiitake extract and subfractions 4 and 5 (SF4 and SF5 of this fraction. Chlorhexidine (CHX and water served as a positive and a negative control, respectively. Dentin mineral loss was quantified (TMR, microbial shifts within the microcosms were determined (qPCR, and the acidogenicity of the microcosms was assessed (CIA. From the compounds tested, the SF4 of shiitake showed strong inhibiting effect on dentin demineralization and induced microbial shifts that could be associated with oral health. The acid producing potential was increased, suggesting uncoupling of the glycolysis of the microbiota by the exposure to SF4. In conclusion, the results suggest that SF4 of shiitake has an anticariogenic potential.

  17. The effects of fractions from shiitake mushroom on composition and cariogenicity of dental plaque microcosms in an in vitro caries model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; Buijs, Mark J; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Ciric, Lena; Papetti, Adele; Signoretto, Caterina; Stauder, Monica; Lingström, Peter; Pratten, Jonathan; Spratt, David A; Wilson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the anticariogenic potential of the (sub)fractions obtained from the edible mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes) in in vitro caries model. We used a modified constant depth film fermentor (CDFF) with pooled saliva as the inoculum and bovine dentin as a substratum. The test compounds were low molecular weight fraction (MLMW) of the shiitake extract and subfractions 4 and 5 (SF4 and SF5) of this fraction. Chlorhexidine (CHX) and water served as a positive and a negative control, respectively. Dentin mineral loss was quantified (TMR), microbial shifts within the microcosms were determined (qPCR), and the acidogenicity of the microcosms was assessed (CIA). From the compounds tested, the SF4 of shiitake showed strong inhibiting effect on dentin demineralization and induced microbial shifts that could be associated with oral health. The acid producing potential was increased, suggesting uncoupling of the glycolysis of the microbiota by the exposure to SF4. In conclusion, the results suggest that SF4 of shiitake has an anticariogenic potential.

  18. Effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation conditions on137Cs concentrations in cultivated mushrooms produced after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in mushrooms has been a matter of public concern after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. To minimize the internal dose by ingestion of cultivated mushrooms, the Japanese government set a guideline level with respect to the radiocesium concentration in bed-logs and mushroom beds; however, the effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation methods on radiocesium concentrations in cultivated mushrooms were not clear. The effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation on the radiocesium concentrations in mushroom were examined using published food monitoring data. 137 Cs concentration data in Lentinula edodes from the Aizu area in Fukushima Prefecture and seven prefectures outside Fukushima were used for the analysis. No statistically significant 137 Cs concentration differences were found between these two cultivation methods. Using detected 137 Cs data in shiitake, the geometric means from each prefecture were less than one-quarter of the standard limit (100 Bq kg -1 ) for total radiocesium under both cultivation conditions. It was suspected that re-suspended radiocesium might have been taken up by mushrooms or that radiocesium might have been absorbed into the mushrooms from the soil in the outdoor cultures. However, neither effect was significant for cultivated mushrooms in the areas examined. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. On the reaction of some bacteria and fungi on coal tar creosote. Zur Verhalten einiger Bakterien und Pilze gegenueber Steinkohlenteeroel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, O.; Dittberner, D.; Faix, O. (Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Ordinariat fuer Holzbiologie)

    1991-01-01

    To contribute to the waste management of wood preservatives, the biodegradability of coal tar creosote by bacteria and fungi has been investigated. Microorganisms comprised 24 bacterial strains and 31 fungi from different systematic and ecological groups as well as isolates from contaminated soils. Based on countings of viable cells, the experiments with various nutrient media, methods of cultivation, preservative concentrations, and organic solvents yielded some bacteria which could grow in the presence of creosote: {ital Aeromonas hydrophila}, {ital Flavobacterium} sp., {ital Pseudomonas arvilla}, {ital P. fluorescens}, and {ital P. putida}. The white-rot fungi {ital Bjerkandera adusta}, {ital Heterobasidion annosum}, {ital Hirschioporus abietinus}, {ital Lentinula edodes}, {ital Peniophora gigantea}, {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Schizophyllum commune}, and {ital Trametes versicolor}, the brown-rot fungus {ital Lentinus lepideus}, the staining fungi {ital Ceratocystis piceae} and {ital Stereum sanguinolentum}, and the moulds {ital Paecilomyces variotii} and {ital Trichoderma viride} also grew with creosote. To prepare samples for IR-measurements, continuous extraction of creosote from the nutrient liquid by percolation with methylene chloride was suitable. However, the IR-spectra of creosote did not show any measurable changes after incubation with 16 bacterial strains and 6 fungi. 42 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Fungal biosolubilization of Rhenish brown coal monitored by Curie-point pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using tetraethylammonium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, G.K.E. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie und Biotechnologie; Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle; Fakoussa, R.M. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie und Biotechnologie

    1999-07-01

    Residues and coal fractions that remained after the biosolubilization of Rhenish brown coal by strains of Lentinula edodes and Trametes versicolor have been studied by Curie-point pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using tetraethylammonium hydroxide (NEt{sub 4}OH) at 610 C. To differentiate methyl derivatives of esters and ethers from free or bound hydroxyl and carboxyl groups NEt{sub e}OH was used in the thermochemolysis experiments instead the commonly used tetramethylammonium hydroxide. A comparison of humic acid fractions before and after fungal attack shows considerable alteration of the soluble macromolecules of coal. Depending on the coal fraction studied and the fungi used, the assortment of fatty acid esters released during the pyrolysis varies significantly. Furthermore, dicarbonic acid ethyl diesters as well as ethyl derivatives of aromatic ethers and acids yield information about humic acid structure and the biosolubilization of brown coal. Variations in the mixture produced are possibly caused by differences in the pattern of extracellular enzymes secreted that attack the macromolecular structural elements of brown coal. Therefore pyrolysis of native and microbiologically altered geomacromolecules using NEt{sub 4}OH allows one to differentiate between free hydroxyl groups as well as substances that are attached to humic substances via ester or ether bridges, and their methylated counterparts. (orig.)

  1. Antioxidative Effects of Phenolic Compounds of Mushroom Mycelia in Simulated Regions of the Human Colon, In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamanu Emanuel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds in mushrooms are biologically active; however, the in vivo actions of their metabolites are poorly understood. An in vitro system, GIS1, was used to simulate the fermentation action of microbiota in each colon region. We used MycoPo, a natural product obtained from the lyophilized mycelia of different Pleurotus ostreatus species to determine the biological effects in human-colon regions. Controls (Lentinula edodes mycelia; dried basidia of Agaricus brunnescens were chosen to confirm the biological activity of P. ostreatus mycelia in vitro. We measured total antioxidant capacity and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP in simulated colon regions to identify antioxidant compounds, and undertook in vitro gastrointestinal simulation and microbiological analyses. The highest FRAP was found for the ascending colon, and the antioxidant effect was higher when MycoPo was administered. A. brunnescens consumption resulted in low total antioxidant capacity. Polyphenol content was correlated with the antioxidant status and microbial composition of microbiota. Total polyphenolic content was higher after A. brunnescens consumption, and four types of polyphenols were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Major phenolic acids were gentisic acid, homogentisic acid, and small amounts of caffeic acid. The Enterobacteriaceae species populations varied greatly across the three parts of the colon. We noted a significant (p0.85. These data suggest a direct relationship between favorable bacterial strains and availability of bioactive compounds, with specificity for each colon region.

  2. Macro and trace elements in edible mushrooms, Shiitake, Shimeji and Cardoncello from Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylei Monteiro Gonçalves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of twenty-five elements (Al, As, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb , Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, V and Zn were determined in three edible mushrooms, Shiitake (Lentinula edodes, Black Shimeji (Pleurotus ostreatusi and Cardoncello (Pleurotus eryngyii from Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected along the year 2010 and their preparations were made after drying, milling, an acid pre-digestion and a decomposition procedure in a muffle furnace. The analytical techniques employed for the elements determination were Mass Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Two certified reference materials, Apple Leaves and Mussel Tissue, were used for the evaluation of the analytical procedure and recovery values around 98% were obtained. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms have high levels of Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Zn containing more than 30% the recommended daily intake for these nutrients according to Brazilian legislation. These mushrooms presented a very low ratio Na/K. Regarding the levels of some contaminants, the mushrooms had concentrations of Cd, Pb and As below the recommended maximum limits allowed by Brazilian legislation.

  3. Phenotypic variation and characterization of mutant matting in shiitake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Mahmood; Azhar Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) is an edible mushroom that has many uses such as: pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industries. In this study, we will induce Shiitake to create the genetic variation via exposing the spores of shiitake to gamma (γ) ray at different doses (0-700 Gy) then make the matting between two different monokaryon mycelium (MM). potato dextrose agar (PDA), this media will be used for spore germination and monokaryon mycelium subculturing during this study. The compatibility of the matting will be observed macroscopically (observing on the plates of PDA) and microscopically (by observing the clamps test under the microscope (Olympus brand)). The finding of this study, there is no significant changing in the growth performance of irradiated monokaryon mycelium in comparing with non-irradiated mycelium. From 108 matting only 15 were compatibles. This study, the physical mutagen will be used followed by mating as a normal stage of life cycle for creating potential strain of shiitake with alteration in phenotypic characterization of dikaryon mycelium (DM) as a compatible mating for two MM. (author)

  4. Mn(II) regulation of lignin peroxidases and manganese-dependent peroxidases from lignin-degrading white rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnarme, P.; Jeffries, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    Two families of peroxidases-lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese-dependent lignin peroxidase (MnP)-are formed by the lignin-degrading white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium and other white rot fungi. Isoenzymes of these enzyme families carry out reactions important to the biodegradation of lignin. This research investigated the regulation of LiP and MnP production by Mn(II). In liquid culture, LiP titers varied as an inverse function of and MnP titers varied as a direct function of the Mn(II) concentration. The extracellular isoenzyme profiles differed radically at low and high Mn(II) levels, whereas other fermentation parameters, including extracellular protein concentrations, the glucose consumption rate, and the accumulation of cell dry weight, did not change significantly with the Mn(II) concentration. In the absence of Mn(II), extracellular LiP isoenzymes predominated, whereas in the presence of Mn(II), MnP isoenzymes were dominant. The release of 14 CO 2 from 14 C-labeled dehydrogenative polymerizate lignin was likewise affected by Mn(II). The rate of 14 CO 2 release increased at low Mn(II) and decreased at high Mn(II) concentrations. This regulatory effect of Mn(II) occurred with five strains of P. chrysosporium, two other species of Phanerochaete, three species of Phlebia, Lentinula edodes, and Phellinus pini

  5. Isolation and Physicochemical Characterization of Laccase from Ganoderma lucidum-CDBT1 Isolated from Its Native Habitat in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Jarina; Malla, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    At present, few organisms are known to and capable of naturally producing laccases and white rot fungi are one such group. In the present study, three fungal species, namely, Ganoderma lucidum-CDBT1, Ganoderma japonicum, and Lentinula edodes, isolated from their native habitat in Nepal were screened for laccase production, and G. lucidum-CDBT1 was found to express highest levels of enzyme (day 10 culture media showed 0.92 IU/mg total protein or 92 IU/mL laccase activity with ABTS as substrate). Lignin extracted from rice straw was used in Olga medium for laccase production and isolation from G. lucidum-CDBT1. Presence of lignin (5 g/L) and copper sulfate (30 μM) in the media increased the extracellular laccase content by 111% and 114%, respectively. The laccase enzyme produced by G. lucidum-CDBT1 was fractionated by ammonium sulfate and purified by DEAE Sepharose anion exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme was found to have a molecular mass of 43 kDa and exhibits optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 30°C. The isolated laccase was thermally stable for up to 70°C for 1 h and exhibited broad pH stability. The kinetic constants, K m, V max, and K cat, determined using 2,2′-azinobis-(-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) as substrate were found to be 110 μM, 36 μmol/min/mg, and 246 min−1, respectively. The isolated thermostable laccase will be used in future experiments for delignification process. PMID:27822471

  6. A high throughput colorimetric assay of β-1,3-D-glucans by Congo red dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Magda C; Karmali, Amin; Fonseca, Luís

    2015-02-01

    Mushroom strains contain complex nutritional biomolecules with a wide spectrum of therapeutic and prophylactic properties. Among these compounds, β-d-glucans play an important role in immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities. The present work involves a novel colorimetric assay method for β-1,3-d-glucans with a triple helix tertiary structure by using Congo red. The specific interaction that occurs between Congo red and β-1,3-d-glucan was detected by bathochromic shift from 488 to 516 nm (>20 nm) in UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A micro- and high throughput method based on a 96-well microtiter plate was devised which presents several advantages over the published methods since it requires only 1.51 μg of polysaccharides in samples, greater sensitivity, speed, assay of many samples and very cheap. β-D-Glucans of several mushrooms (i.e., Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma carnosum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes, Inonotus obliquus, Auricularia auricular, Polyporus umbellatus, Cordyseps sinensis, Agaricus blazei, Poria cocos) were isolated by using a sequence of several extractions with cold and boiling water, acidic and alkaline conditions and quantified by this microtiter plate method. FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the structural features of β-1,3-D-glucans in these mushroom samples as well as the specific interaction of these polysaccharides with Congo red. The effect of NaOH on triple helix conformation of β-1,3-D-glucans was investigated in several mushroom species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The mitochondrial LSU rRNA group II intron of Ustilago maydis encodes an active homing endonuclease likely involved in intron mobility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Pfeifer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The a2 mating type locus gene lga2 is critical for uniparental mitochondrial DNA inheritance during sexual development of Ustilago maydis. Specifically, the absence of lga2 results in biparental inheritance, along with efficient transfer of intronic regions in the large subunit rRNA gene between parental molecules. However, the underlying role of the predicted LAGLIDADG homing endonuclease gene I-UmaI located within the group II intron LRII1 has remained unresolved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the enzymatic activity of I-UmaI in vitro based on expression of a tagged full-length and a naturally occurring mutant derivative, which harbors only the N-terminal LAGLIDADG domain. This confirmed Mg²⁺-dependent endonuclease activity and cleavage at the LRII1 insertion site to generate four base pair extensions with 3' overhangs. Specifically, I-UmaI recognizes an asymmetric DNA sequence with a minimum length of 14 base pairs (5'-GACGGGAAGACCCT-3' and tolerates subtle base pair substitutions within the homing site. Enzymatic analysis of the mutant variant indicated a correlation between the activity in vitro and intron homing. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that putatively functional or former functional I-UmaI homologs are confined to a few members within the Ustilaginales and Agaricales, including the phylogenetically distant species Lentinula edodes, and are linked to group II introns inserted into homologous positions in the LSU rDNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present data provide strong evidence that intron homing efficiently operates under conditions of biparental inheritance in U. maydis. Conversely, uniparental inheritance may be critical to restrict the transmission of mobile introns. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that I-UmaI-associated introns have been acquired independently in distant taxa and are more widespread than anticipated from available genomic data.

  8. Improving the Catalytic Property of the Glycoside Hydrolase LXYL-P1–2 by Directed Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The glycoside hydrolase LXYL-P1–2 from Lentinula edodes can specifically hydrolyze 7-β-xylosyltaxanes to form 7-β-hydroxyltaxanes for the semi-synthesis of paclitaxel. In order to improve the catalytic properties of the enzyme, we performed error-prone PCR to construct the random mutant library of LXYL-P1–2 and used the methanol-induced plate method to screen the mutants with improved catalytic properties. Two variants, LXYL-P1–2-EP1 (EP1, S91D mutation and LXYL-P1–2-EP2 (EP2, T368E mutation, were obtained from the library and exhibited 17% and 47% increases in their catalytic efficiencies on 7-β-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol. Meanwhile, compared with LXYL-P1–2, EP1 and EP2 showed elevated stabilities in the range of pH ≥ 6 conditions. After treatment at pH 12 for 48 h, EP1 and EP2 retained 77% and 63% activities, respectively, while the wild-type only retained 33% activity under the same condition. Molecular docking results revealed that the S91D mutation led to a shorter distance between the R-chain and the substrate, while the T368E mutation increased negative charge at the surface of the enzyme, and may introduce alterations of the loop near the active pocket, both of which may result in improved stabilities and catalytic activities of enzymes. This study provides a practical directed evolution method for exploring catalytically improved glycoside hydrolase.

  9. Selenium bioaccumulation in shiitake mushrooms: a nutritional alternative source of this element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Regiane Gonçalves Feitosa Leal; da Luz, Jose Maria R; Freitas, Rodrigo de B; Higuchi, Angela; Kasuya, Maria Catarina M; Vanetti, Maria Cristina D

    2012-09-01

    Mushrooms have effective mechanisms to absorb and accumulate trace elements from substrates and, therefore could be used as a strategy to produce mineral-enriched food and nutritional supplements. This study aimed to enrich shiitake mushrooms with selenium (Se), an important dietary element in human health. Strains of Lentinula edodes (Berk.) were grown on artificial logs composed of eucalyptus sawdust, and were subjected to cold shock in water containing sodium selenite (Na(2)SeO(3) ) at concentrations of up to 1.28 mM. The content of Se in the mushrooms increased linearly with increasing amounts of Na(2)SeO(3) added to the cold water although above 0.96 mM, mushroom formation was inhibited. Concentrations greater than 17 mg Se 100/g of dried mushrooms were observed after treatment with 0.64 mM Na(2)SeO(3). Shiitake mushroom had a demonstrate potential to offer an effective and economical way to produce Se-enriched products and, the strategy of adding selenite in cold water, used in this study, showed promising once it does not interfere with mycelial growth. Selenium is an essential trace element for both human and animals and is required for the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine, which is used for the synthesis of about a dozen selenoenzymes. In this study, it is demonstrated that shiitake mushroom is a good Se accumulator and only one step during fructification was necessary to obtained enriched mushroom. Se enriched shiitake mushroom can be considered to be an excellent source of this element and used to consumption in different ways. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Isolation and Physicochemical Characterization of Laccase from Ganoderma lucidum-CDBT1 Isolated from Its Native Habitat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabin Shrestha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, few organisms are known to and capable of naturally producing laccases and white rot fungi are one such group. In the present study, three fungal species, namely, Ganoderma lucidum-CDBT1, Ganoderma japonicum, and Lentinula edodes, isolated from their native habitat in Nepal were screened for laccase production, and G. lucidum-CDBT1 was found to express highest levels of enzyme (day 10 culture media showed 0.92 IU/mg total protein or 92 IU/mL laccase activity with ABTS as substrate. Lignin extracted from rice straw was used in Olga medium for laccase production and isolation from G. lucidum-CDBT1. Presence of lignin (5 g/L and copper sulfate (30 μM in the media increased the extracellular laccase content by 111% and 114%, respectively. The laccase enzyme produced by G. lucidum-CDBT1 was fractionated by ammonium sulfate and purified by DEAE Sepharose anion exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme was found to have a molecular mass of 43 kDa and exhibits optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 30°C. The isolated laccase was thermally stable for up to 70°C for 1 h and exhibited broad pH stability. The kinetic constants, Km, Vmax, and Kcat, determined using 2,2′-azinobis-(-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid as substrate were found to be 110 μM, 36 μmol/min/mg, and 246 min−1, respectively. The isolated thermostable laccase will be used in future experiments for delignification process.

  11. Testing a low molecular mass fraction of a mushroom (Lentinus edodes) extract formulated as an oral rinse in a cohort of volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signoretto, C.; Burlacchini, G.; Marchi, A.; Grillenzoni, M.; Cavalleri, G.; Ciric, L.; Lingström, P.; Pezzati, E.; Daglia, M.; Zaura, E.; Pratten, J.; Spratt, D.A.; Wilson, M.; Canepari, P.

    2011-01-01

    Although foods are considered enhancing factors for dental caries and periodontitis, laboratory researches indicate that several foods and beverages contain components endowed with antimicrobial and antiplaque activities. A low molecular mass (LMM) fraction of an aqueous mushroom extract has been

  12. Active Hexose Correlated Compound Extends the Lifespan and Increases the Thermotolerance of Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Okuyama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC is the extract from cultured mycelia of Lentinula edodes, a species of Basidiomycetes mushroom. AHCC contains various polysaccharides, including partially acylated -1,4-glucan, which is one of its major constituents. The application of AHCC has been markedly increased in complementary and alternative medicine as a functional food because AHCC improved the prognosis of postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma patients. AHCC has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, such as the suppression of nitric oxide production in hepatocytes. AHCC might affect resistance to environmental stress, which is assumed to play a pivotal role in the longevity of many organisms.Objective: To investigate the effect of AHCC on longevity, we measured the lifespan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a model animal that is widely used to assess longevity. We also examined the effect of AHCC on resistance to heat stress, i.e., thermotolerance.Methods: The lifespan of C. elegans animals grown on media in the absence or presence of AHCC at 20°C was evaluated. Thermotolerance assays were performed at 35°C, the restrictive temperature of the animals. The effects of AHCC on lifespan and thermotolerance were analyzed with longevity mutants. Expression levels of stress-related genes, including heat shock genes, were measured by strand-specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction after heat shock.Results: Wild-type C. elegans animals exhibited a longer mean lifespan by up to 10% in the presence of AHCC in the growth media than animals in the absence of AHCC. Furthermore, AHCC markedly increased thermotolerance at 35°C. Epistasis analyses showed that lifespan extension by AHCC at least partly required two longevity-promoting transcription factors: DAF-16 (C. elegans homolog of FOXO and HSF-1 (C. elegans homolog of heat shock transcription factor 1. After heat shock, AHCC activated the transcription

  13. Güney Kore’de Mantar Yetiştiriciliği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal Soylu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Güney Kore’de son yıllarda mantar üretimi çok hızlı bir şekilde artmaktadır. Güney Kore mantar üretimi 173577 ton olup, bu üretimden yıllık 800 milyon dolar gelir elde edilmektedir. Farklı mantar türlerinin üretimi yapılmakta olup, üretim miktarının %31’ni kış mantarı (Flammulina velutipes, %26’sını kulacık mantarı (Pleurotus eryngii, %26’sını kayın mantarı (Pleurotus ostreatus, %13’ünü beyaz şapkalı kültür mantar (Agaricus bisporus, kalan %4’ünü ise Lentinula edodes, Ganoderma lucidum ve Phellinus vb. mantarlar oluşturmaktadır. 764ha’lık bir alanda mantar üretimi yapılmaktadır. Üretim alanının %31’inde kayın mantarı (Pleurotus ostreatus, %14’ünde kulacık mantarı (Pleurotus eryngii, %6’sında kış mantarı (Flummulina velutipes, %16’sında beyaz şapkalı kültür mantarı (Agaricus bisporus, %3’ünde Phellinus, %3’ünde ölümsüzlük mantarı (Ganoderma lucidum, %27’sı ise diğer mantar türlerinden oluşmaktadır. Kore’de mantar sıkça tüketilen bir gıda olup, kişi başına mantar tüketimi 4.2 kg’dır. Kütüklerde (meşe mantarı, ölümsüzlük mantarı ve Phellinus yetiştiricilik, ranzalarda yetiştiricilik (Agaricus bisporus ve Pleurotus ostreatus ve şişe kültürü (Flummulina velutipes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii yaygın olarak yapılan yetiştirme sistemleridir.

  14. Folate composition of ten types of mushrooms determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    White button, crimini, shiitake, maitake, enoki, oyster, chanterelle, morel, portabella, and uv-treated portabella mushrooms were sampled from U.S. retail outlets and major producers. Folate (5-methyltetrahydrofolate [5MTHF], 10-formyl folate [10FF], 5-formyltetrahydrofolate [5FTHF]) was analyzed u...

  15. Propiedades antifúngicas diferenciadas de extractos vegetales como estrategia potencial para la prevención, manejo y control del "moho verde" (Trichoderma spp.). En el cultivo de los hongos comestibles (Lentinula, Pleurotus).

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Quintanar, Claudia Katia

    2014-01-01

    En la actualidad, se utilizan agroquímicos como el benomil para el control de Trichoderma en el cultivo de hongos comestibles; sin embargo, su uso es cada vez más restringido por la sociedad debido a su potencial toxicidad y persistencia en el ambiente. Los alimentos producidos con productos naturales son cada vez más demandados, debido a esto, el objetivo del presente estudio fue el obtener extractos vegetales con propiedades antifúngicas diferenciadas para el control del “moho verde” (Trich...

  16. Coccidiosis Immunization: Effects of Mushroom and Herb Polysaccharides on Immune Responses of Chickens Infected with Eimeria Tenella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Williams, B.A.; Suo, X.; Li, W.K.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of polysaccharide extracts (E) of two mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and an herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE), on the immune responses of chickens infected with Eimeria tenella. A total of 180 broiler

  17. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  18. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  19. In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability. In vitro culture of chicken spleen lymphocytes with extracts ...

  20. HS/GC-MS analyzed chemical composition of the aroma of fruiting bodies of two species of genus Lentinus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Gerardo; Valdez, Karina; Mendoza, Remedios; Trigos, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of the aroma of fresh fruiting bodies of the cultivated mushroom Lentinus boryanus is described here and compared with medicinal shiitake mushroom L. edodes. Volatile compounds were analyzed through headspace sampling coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mushrooms under study were grown on different substrates based on barley straw, sugarcane bagasse, oak wood sawdust, and beech leaf litter. It was determined that L. boryanus as well as L. edodes contain an abundant amount of a volatile compound identified as 3-octanone with a sweet fruity aroma. On the other hand, only L. boryanus produced 3-octanol a characteristic aroma of cod liver oil. In total, 10 aromatic compounds were identified, some of which were obtained exclusively in one species or substrate.

  1. Diversity of edible mushrooms in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, K.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Iftikhar, F.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty six edible species of mushrooms are reported from Pakistan including four from Balochistan, three from Sindh, five from Punjab and 44 from NWFP and Azad Kashmir. Some of species being commercially exploited in the world are Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia spp. Coprinus comatus, Flammulina vellutipes, Lentinus edodes, Phellorina inquinans, Pleurotus ostreatus, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Volvariella volvacea. Because of over collection, urbanization and deforestation, some of species are threatened of extinction. (author)

  2. 15-2-13 :難分解性物質分解に向けた酵素ライブラリーの構築 : 染色剤脱色酵素の開発

    OpenAIRE

    野崎, 功一

    2004-01-01

    The decolorization activities of industrial dyes were investigated using extracellular enzymes produced by 21 kinds of basidiomycetes. Most of them showed decolorization activity against some dyes at acidic pH, but the ability and specificity were different. Among these, Agaricus bisporus, Armillariella mellea and Lentinus edodes showed high decolorization activities against azo, phthalocyanine and triphenylmethane dyes. Pleurotus salmoneostramineus showed strong activities for azo and phthal...

  3. Utilization of Bagasse Cellulose for Ethanol Production through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation by Xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Samsuri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bagasse is a solid residue from sugar cane process, which is not many use it for some product which have more added value. Bagasse, which is a lignosellulosic material, be able to be use for alternative energy resources like bioethanol or biogas. With renewable energy resources a crisis of energy in Republic of Indonesia could be solved, especially in oil and gas. This research has done the conversion of bagasse to bioethanol with xylanase enzyme. The result show that bagasse contains of 52,7% cellulose, 20% hemicelluloses, and 24,2% lignin. Xylanase enzyme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to hydrolyse and fermentation in SSF process. Variation in this research use pH (4, 4,5, and 5, for increasing ethanol quantity, SSF process was done by added chloride acid (HCl with concentration 0.5% and 1% (v/v and also pre-treatment with white rot fungi such as Lentinus edodes (L.edodes as long 4 weeks. The SSF process was done with 24, 48, 72, and 96 hour's incubation time for fermentation. Variation of pH 4, 4,5, and 5 can produce ethanol with concentrations 2,357 g/L, 2,451 g/L, 2,709 g/L. The added chloride acid (HCl with concentration 0.5% and 1% (v/v and L. edodes can increase ethanol yield, The highest ethanol concentration with added chloride acid (HCl concentration 0.5% and 1% consecutively is 2,967 g/L, 3,249 g/L. The highest ethanol concentration with pre-treatment by L. edodes is 3,202 g/L.

  4. [Antiviral properties of basidiomycetes metabolites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtonomova, A V; Krasnopolskaya, L M

    2014-01-01

    The data on the antiviral action of the Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa, Agaricus brasiliensis and other basidiomycetes metabolites are summurized. The metabolites of these species of basidiomycetes exhibit a direct antiviral effect on herpes simplex virus types I and II, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, influenza virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and others. Moreover, metabolites of basidiomycetes increased antiviral immunity.

  5. Vitamin D2 Stability During the Refrigerated Storage of Ultraviolet B-Treated Cultivated Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawinska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Jablonska-Rys, Ewa; Parfieniuk, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation on the synthesis of vitamin D2 and its stability during refrigerated storage was determined in fresh cultivated culinary-medicinal mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lentinus edodes) after harvest. The irradiated mushrooms were stored at 4°C for up to 10 days. The concentrations of vitamin D2 and ergosterol were determined using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The cultivated mushrooms not treated with UVB were devoid of vitamin D2. After UVB irradiation, we obtained mushrooms with a large amount of ergocalciferol. A. bisporus showed the lowest vitamin D2 content (3.55 ± 0.11 μg D2/g dry weight); P. ostreatus contained 58.96 ± 1.15 μg D2/g dry weight, and L. edodes contained 29.46 ± 2.21 μg/g dry weight. During storage at 4°C, the amount of vitamin D2 was gradually decreased in P. ostreatus and L. edodes, whereas in A. bisporus vitamin D2 gradually increased until the sixth day, then decreased. Mushrooms exposed to UVB radiation contain a significant amount of vitamin D2 and are therefore an excellent food source of vitamin D.

  6. Comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferation activities of polysaccharides from eight species of medicinal mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiying; Yong, Yangyang; Gu, Yifan; Wang, Zeliang; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides from mushrooms including Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, P. nebrodensis, Lentinus edodes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Hericium erinaceus were isolated by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Our results suggest that all tested polysaccharides have the significant antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals). Among them, the H. erinaceus polysaccharide exhibits the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas the L. edodes polysaccharide shows the strongest scavenging ability for hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and HeLa cells, all 8 selected polysaccharides are able to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, but the strength of inhibition varied depending on the mushroom species and the concentration used. Notably, G. lucidum polysaccharide shows the highest inhibition activity on MCF-7 cells. By comparison, H. erinaceus polysaccharide has the strongest inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography with a carbohydrate analysis column showed significant differences in polysaccharide components among these mushrooms. Thus our data suggest that the different species of mushrooms have the variable functions because of their own specific polysaccharide components. The 8 mushroom polysaccharides have the potential to be used as valuable functional food additives or sources of therapeutic agents for antioxidant and cancer treatments, especially polysaccharides from H. erinaceus, L. edodes, and G. lucidum.

  7. Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Horst, Ronald L; Koszewski, Nicholas J; Simon, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D(2) as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D(4) (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D(4) was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [(3)H] itamin D(3) as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D(4) was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D(4) in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D(4) content was more than twice that of D(2) (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D(4), but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D(4) precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D(4) coeluted with D(3) in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D(2) and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D(2) in mushrooms and using D(3) as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D(3) and D(4).

  8. Growth of higher fungi on wheat straw and their impact on the digestibility of the substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyson, E.; Verachtert, H. (Catholic Univ. of Leuven (Belgium). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1991-12-01

    The influence of the growth of three higher fungi on the composition of wheat straw was investigated. Pleurotus pulmonarius, P. sajor-caju and Lentinus edodes grew very well on lignocellulosic substrates, breaking down a considerable amount of lignin. The initial lignin concentration of straw was halved after 12 weeks of fungal growth, doubling the enzymic digestibility. Together with lignin, the higher fungi consumed half of the amount of hemicellulose (i.e. 15%), leaving cellulose fairly intact, which should remain as an energy source for ruminants. (orig.).

  9. Effect of type of fungal culture, type of pellets and pH on the semi-continuous post-treatment of an anaerobically-pretreated weak black liquor from kraft pulp industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robledo-Narvaez, P. N.; Ortega-Clemente, L. A.; Ponce-Noyola, M. T.; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N. F.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that fungi belonging to the Basidiomycetes (such as Trametes versicolor, Lentinus edodes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium) are microorganisms with a demonstrated capability of degrading lignin and its derivatives using a powerful and diverse group of enzymes. Because of these features, ligninolytic fungi have been used for the treatment or post-treatment of a variety of recalcitrant and toxic effluents, those of the Kraft industry among them. Yet, most of reported fungal treatments so far required the supplementation with glucose or other soluble carbohydrates, pH 4 to 4,5, and their effective performance was demonstrated only for short periods of operation time. (Author)

  10. Effect of type of fungal culture, type of pellets and pH on the semi-continuous post-treatment of an anaerobically-pretreated weak black liquor from kraft pulp industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robledo-Narvaez, P. N.; Ortega-Clemente, L. A.; Ponce-Noyola, M. T.; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N. F.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    It is well known that fungi belonging to the Basidiomycetes (such as Trametes versicolor, Lentinus edodes, Phanerochaete chrysosporium) are microorganisms with a demonstrated capability of degrading lignin and its derivatives using a powerful and diverse group of enzymes. Because of these features, ligninolytic fungi have been used for the treatment or post-treatment of a variety of recalcitrant and toxic effluents, those of the Kraft industry among them. Yet, most of reported fungal treatments so far required the supplementation with glucose or other soluble carbohydrates, pH 4 to 4,5, and their effective performance was demonstrated only for short periods of operation time. (Author)

  11. Survey of radiocesium in domestic mushrooms on the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Uchiyama, Sadao; Saito, Yukio

    1991-01-01

    Domestic mushrooms on the market were tested for concentration of radiocesium; cesium-134 and 137 by γ-ray spectrometer. Cesium-137 was detected in most samples of dried and raw shiitake (Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing.). The concentrations were from 6.7 to 73.9 Bq/kg in dried ones and from 1.3 to 6.4 Bq/kg in raw ones. It was not detected in enokitake (Flammulina veltipes (Fr.) Sing.) and shimeji (Lyophyllum aggregatum (Secr.) Kuhner and Pliurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Quel.). Cesium-134 was not found in all samples. (author)

  12. Enzyme-assisted extraction enhancing the umami taste amino acids recovery from several cultivated mushrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poojary, Mahesha Manjunatha; Orlien, Vibeke; Passamonti, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, enzyme-assisted extraction was performed to extract umami taste and total free amino acids (FAAs) from the six different mushrooms including shiitake (Lentinus edodes), oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus), tea tree (Agrocybe aegerita) and, white, brown and portobello champignons (Agaricus...... significantly up to 20-fold compared to conventional HCl mediated extraction, depending on the mushroom species. The optimal conditions for the enzyme treatment were: water as extraction solvent (initial pH = 7), enzyme concentration of 5% v/w each of β-glucanase and Flavourzyme®, temperature 50 °C...

  13. A ribonuclease from the wild mushroom Boletus griseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hexiang; Ng, T B

    2006-10-01

    A ribonuclease (RNase) with a molecular mass of 29 kDa and cospecific for poly A and poly U was isolated from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus griseus. Its N-terminal sequence exhibited some similarity to those of RNases from the mushrooms Irpex lacteus and Lentinus edodes. The RNase was adsorbed on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, and Affi-gel blue gel and was unadsorbed on CM-cellulose. The enzyme exhibited a temperature optimum between 60 and 70 degrees C and a pH optimum at 3.5.

  14. Contaminación por cromo en Noreste de la Ciudad de México, un enfoque Interdisciplinario

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Eugenia Gutiérrez R.; Gerardo Bocco; Silvia Castillo B.

    1986-01-01

    En el municipio de Tultitlán, Edo.de México, se acumularon residuos industriales con un alto contenido de cromo en formas químicas muy solubles, por lo que el elemento se está dispersando en el entorno. Principalmente se infiltra y contamina aguas subterráneas, pero en menor medida también está afectando la atmósfera y los suelos. En este artículo se describen los niveles de cromo en aguas profundas y suelos; los antecedentes y las causas que provocaron el problema, las características del me...

  15. Shiitake dermatitis: the first case reported in Brazil Dermatite flagelada por shiitake, primeiro relato de caso no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo Adriano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiitake Dermatitis is often presented as papules and erythemato-violaceous linear streaks. It can be associated with bleomycin treatment, dermatomyositis and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes. There is not any previous report concerning this rare etiology in our country. Shiitake is the second most consumed mushroom worldwide and it can cause flagellate erythema when ingested raw or half cooked. It has a higher incidence in Oriental countries because of their eating habits, this is the first case reported in Brazil, in a male patient that presented a cutaneous rash after consuming this raw mushroom.A dermatite flagelada é caracterizada por pápulas eritematosas lineares com aspecto de "chicotada". A etiologia pode ser associada ao uso de bleomicina, dermatomiosite e shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Este é o segundo cogumelo mais consumido no mundo e pode ser causa de dermatite flagelada quando ingerido cru ou mal cozido. Não há relatos nas literaturas de quadro de dermatite flagelada por shiitake em nosso país, reportamos o primeiro caso no Brasil de um paciente masculino que desenvolveu o quadro após a ingesta desse cogumelo cru.

  16. Screening of Lignocellulose-Degrading Superior Mushroom Strains and Determination of Their CMCase and Laccase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to screen lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains ten strains of mushrooms (Lentinus edodes939, Pholiota nameko, Lentinus edodes868, Coprinus comatus, Macrolepiota procera, Auricularia auricula, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus nebrodensis, and Shiraia bambusicola were inoculated onto carboxymethylcellulose agar-Congo red plates to evaluate their ability to produce carbomethyl cellulase (CMCase. The results showed that the ratio of transparent circle to mycelium circle of Hericium erinaceus was 8.16 (P<0.01 higher than other strains. The filter paper culture screening test showed that Hericium erinaceus and Macrolepiota procera grew well and showed extreme decomposition of the filter paper. When cultivated in guaiacol culture medium to detect their abilities to secrete laccase, Hericium erinaceus showed the highest ability with the largest reddish brown circles of 4.330 cm. CMCase activity determination indicated that Coprinus comatus and Hericium erinaceus had the ability to produce CMCase with 33.92 U/L on the 9th day and 22.58 U/L on the 10th day, respectively, while Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus nebrodensis had the ability to produce laccase with 496.67 U/L and 489.17 U/L on the 16th day and 18th day. Based on the results, Coprinus comatus might be the most promising lignocellulose-degrading strain to produce both CMCase and laccase at high levels.

  17. Quantification of Water-Soluble Metabolites in Medicinal Mushrooms Using Proton NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Chang; Chien, Shih-Chang; Mishchuk, Darya O; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2016-01-01

    The water-soluble metabolites in 5 mushrooms were identified and quantified using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and software for targeted metabolite detection and quantification. In total, 35 compounds were found in Agaricus brasiliensis, 25 in Taiwanofungus camphoratus, 23 in Ganoderma lucidum (Taiwan) and Lentinus edodes, and 16 in G. lucidum (China). Total amounts of all identified metabolites in A. brasiliensis, T. camphoratus, G. lucidum, G. lucidum (China), and L. edodes were 149,950.51, 12,834.18, 9,549.09, 2,788.41, and 111,726.51 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. These metabolites were categorized into 4 groups: free amino acids and derivatives, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and nucleosides. Carbohydrates were the most abundant metabolites among all 4 groups, with mannitol having the highest concentration among all analyzed metabolites (848-94,104 mg/kg dry weight). Principal components analysis (PCA) showed obvious distinction among the metabolites of the 5 different kinds of mushrooms analyzed in this study. Thus PCA could provide an optional analytical way of identifying and recognizing the compositions of flavor products. Furthermore, the results of this study demonstrate that NMRbased metabolomics is a powerful tool for differentiating between various medicinal mushrooms.

  18. Southern blot screening for lignin peroxidase and aryl-alcohol oxidase genes in 30 fungal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, E; Martínez, A T; Martínez, M J

    2000-10-13

    Screening to detect genes encoding lignin peroxidase (LiP) and aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO) has been carried out with 30 fungal strain using DNA probes from genes lpo of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (encoding LiP isoenzyme H8) and aao of Pleurotus eryngii. Evidence for the presence of genes closely related to lpo was found in Bjerkandera adusta, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma australe, Lentinula degener, Peniophora gigantea, P. chrysosporium, Phanerochaete flavido-alba and Trametes tersicolor, whereas the gene aao was detected in Pleurotus species and B. adusta. The presence of both genes was only detected in B. adusta. These results suggest that different enzymatic system, formed by enzymes encoded by different genes, are responsible for lignin degradation by white-rot fungi.

  19. Rapid and efficient protocol for DNA extraction and molecular identification of the basidiomycete Crinipellis perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, S C O; Pungartnik, C; Cascardo, J C M; Brendel, M

    2006-12-14

    DNA isolation from some fungal organisms is difficult because they have cell walls or capsules that are relatively unsusceptible to lysis. Beginning with a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomic DNA isolation method, we developed a 30-min DNA isolation protocol for filamentous fungi by combining cell wall digestion with cell disruption by glass beads. High-quality DNA was isolated with good yield from the hyphae of Crinipellis perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease in cacao, from three other filamentous fungi, Lentinus edodes, Agaricus blazei, Trichoderma stromaticum, and from the yeast S. cerevisiae. Genomic DNA was suitable for PCR of specific actin primers of C. perniciosa, allowing it to be differentiated from fungal contaminants, including its natural competitor, T. stromaticum.

  20. Contaminación por cromo en Noreste de la Ciudad de México, un enfoque Interdisciplinario

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    Margarita Eugenia Gutiérrez R.

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available En el municipio de Tultitlán, Edo.de México, se acumularon residuos industriales con un alto contenido de cromo en formas químicas muy solubles, por lo que el elemento se está dispersando en el entorno. Principalmente se infiltra y contamina aguas subterráneas, pero en menor medida también está afectando la atmósfera y los suelos. En este artículo se describen los niveles de cromo en aguas profundas y suelos; los antecedentes y las causas que provocaron el problema, las características del medio, una primera estimación del área afectada; y, finalmente, se plantean posibles soluciones.

  1. Concentration of radiocesium in cultivated mushrooms and substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Higasa, Mamoru; Urabe, Ken-ichi; Haraguchi, Masato; Omura, Toshitaka

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K in mushrooms cultivated in Saitama prefecture and those substrates were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. In all mushrooms and substrates, 134 Cs was not detected. Concentrations of 137 Cs in mushrooms were in the range of 0.012 - 2.1 Bq/kg·fresh, and those in substrates were in the range of 0.080 - 1.8 Bq/kg·dry. Concentrations of 137 Cs in mushrooms varied widely with mushroom species, and the average concentration of 137 Cs in Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) was over 30 times higher than that in Pleurotus ostreatus (Hiratake). Mushroom-to-substrate concentration ratios of 137 Cs (fresh/dry) were 0.11-0.53. They were higher than the reported transfer factors for common agricultural plants. (author)

  2. Chemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Crude Water Soluble Polysaccharides from Four Common Edible Mushrooms

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    Pei-Long Sun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Four crude water soluble polysaccharides, CABP, CAAP, CFVP and CLDP, were isolated from common edible mushrooms, including Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia auricula, Flammulina velutipes and Lentinus edodes, and their chemical characteristics and antioxidant properties were determined. Fourier Transform-infrared analysis showed that the four crude polysaccharides were all composed of β-glycoside linkages. The major monosaccharide compositions were D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose for CABP, CAAP and CLDP, while CFVP was found to consist of L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose. The main molecular weight distributions of CABP and the other three polysaccharides were 66.0 × 104 Da, respectively. Antioxidant properties of the four polysaccharides were evaluated in in vitro systems and CABP showed the best antioxidant properties. The studied mushroom species could potentially be used in part of well-balanced diets and as a source of antioxidant compounds.

  3. Structural Features and Healthy Properties of Polysaccharides Occurring in Mushrooms

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    Eva Guillamón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to the many healthy benefits they have demonstrated, such as immunomodulation, anticancer activity, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, among others. Isolation and purification of polysaccharides commonly involve several steps, and different techniques are actually available in order to increase extraction yield and purity. Studies have demonstrated that the molecular structure and arrangement significantly influence the biological activity; therefore, there is a wide range of analytical techniques for the elucidation of chemical structures. Different polysaccharides have been isolated from mushrooms, most of them consisting of β-linked glucans, such as lentinan from Lentinus edodes, pleuran from Pleurotus species, schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune, calocyban from Calocybe indica, or ganoderan and ganopoly from Ganoderma lucidum. This article reviews the main methods of polysaccharide isolation and structural characterization, as well as some of the most important polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms and the healthy benefits they provide.

  4. EFFECTS OF LIGHT WAVELENGTHS AND COHERENCE ON BASIDIOSPORES GERMINATION

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    Natalia Poyedinok

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light wavelengths and coherence on basidiospore germination of Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus have been studied. Short-term low-intensity irradiation by coherent (laser light wavelength 488.0 nm and 632.8 nm at doses 45 and 230 mJ/cm2 has significantly increased the number of germinated basidiospores. It has established that there are differences in the photosensitivity not only between species but also between strains. Spores irradiation by 514.5 nm light has been either neutral or inhibitory. A comparative analysis of basidiospores sensitivity to laser and LED light has also been conducted. To stimulate germination of basidiospores and growth of monokaryons the most suitable solution was to use red coherent and incoherent light of 632.8 nm and 660,0 nm for A. bisporus, G. applanatum and P. ostreatus, red and blue coherent light of 632.8 nm and 488,0 nm for F. velutipes, and both red and blue laser and LED light G. lucidum and H. erinaceus and for L. edodes. No essential difference of a continuous wave mode and intermittent mode light effect at the same doses and wavelength on spore germination were revealed. Light influence has reduced germination time and formation of aerial mycelium on agar medium as compared to the original value and increased the growth rate of monosporous isolates. Characterization of basidiospores photosensitivity and development of environmentally friendly stimulating methods of their germination is important for creating highly effective technologies of mushrooms selection and cultivation.

  5. Biotechnology for in vitro growing of edible and medicinal mushrooms on wood wastes

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    Marian Petre

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was focused on finding out the best way to convert the wood wastes into useful food supplements, such as mushroom fruit bodies, by using them as growing sources for the edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, three fungal species from Basidiomycetes, namely Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr. P. Karst, Lentinus edodes (Berkeley Pegler and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacquin ex Fries Kummer were tested to determine their biological potential to grow on substrates made of wood wastes (sawdusts as well as shavings which could be used in this way as main ingredients for preparation of natural culture composts.The experiments were achieved by in vitro growing of all these fungal species in special rooms, where the main culture parameters were kept at optimal levels in order to get the highest production of mushroom fruit bodies. The effects of culture compost composition (carbon, nitrogen and mineral sources as well as other physical and chemical factors (such as: temperature, inoculum amount, pH level and incubation time, etc. on mycelial net formation and especially on fruit body induction, were investigated. From all these fungal species tested in our experiments, P. ostreatus was registered as the fastest mushroom culture, then L. edodes and finally, G. lucidum asthe longest mushroom culture. During the experiments, different logs of the same species were used as control samples for each culture compost variants. Applying such biotechnology, the environmental problems generated by the plant wastes accumulation in wood industry could be solved only by using biological means for theirvalorising, simultaneously with food supplements producing having high nutritive values as well as healing effects by increasing the consumers` health.

  6. Measurement of activity concentrations for 137Cs and 40K in edible wild mushrooms collected from Mangshi, Yunnan province and evaluation of dose to adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuo Fei; Xu Cuihua; Zhang Jing; Li Wenhong; Zhou Qiang; Zhang Qing; Su Xu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the activity concentration of radionuclides for 137 Cs and 40 K in edible wild mushrooms, and to evaluate the extent of radioactive contamination and ingestion doses to adults from consumption of these wild mushrooms. Methods: A total of 33 samples for 18 edible wild mushroom species were collected from natural forest Mangshi, Yunnan province. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 40 K were analyzed by using high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry. Results: Except for one sample that was below the MDA, 137 Cs artificial radionuclides were detected in other 32 samples, with activity concentration of 137 Cs in the range of 0.45-339.58 Bq/kg (dry weight) and an average of 25.47 Bq/kg (dry weight). In regards to 40 K in edible mushrooms, all species presented the activity concentrations for this radionuclide and the levels varied from 453.4 to 1882.6 Bq/kg (dry weight), with an average of 815.1 Bq/kg (dry weight). After species of mushroom with only one sample were eliminated, there was significant difference for 137 Cs(F = 21.13, P < 0.05) among 6 species of mushroom named Gomphus floccosus (Schw.) Sing., Boletus edulis bull, Boletus edulis bull, Tylopllus bolloul (Peck) Sing., Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. and Boletus brunneissimus W.F.Chin, but without significant difference for 40 K. Conclusions: These 6 different mushroom species have different capacity to retain radionuclides of 137 Cs in soil. These wild mushrooms, such as Gomphus floccosus (Schw.) Sing. and Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. have large affinity ability for radionuclides 137 Cs. The effective dose to adults attributable to consuming these kinds of mushrooms is small and below the level that could cause harm. (authors)

  7. Biotechnology for in vitro growing of edible and medicinal mushrooms on wood wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Petre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was focused on finding out the best way to convert the wood wastes into useful food supplements, such as mushroom fruit bodies, by using them as growing sources for the edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, three fungal species from Basidiomycetes, namely Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr. P. Karst, Lentinus edodes (Berkeley Pegler and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacquin ex Fries Kummer were tested to determine their biological potential to grow on substrates made of wood wastes (sawdusts as well as shavings which could be used in this way as main ingredients for preparation of natural culture composts. The experiments were achieved by in vitro growing of all these fungal species in special rooms, where the main culture parameters were kept at optimal levels in order to get the highest production of mushroom fruit bodies. The effects of culture compost composition (carbon, nitrogen and mineral sources as well as other physical and chemical factors (such as: temperature, inoculum amount, pH level and incubation time, etc. on mycelial net formation and especially on fruit body induction, were investigated. From all these fungal species tested in our experiments, P. ostreatus was registered as the fastest mushroom culture, then L. edodes and finally, G. lucidum as the longest mushroom culture. During the experiments, different logs of the same species were used as control samples for each culture compost variants. Applying such biotechnology, the environmental problems generated by the plant wastes accumulation in wood industry could be solved only by using biological means for their valorising, simultaneously with food supplements producing having high nutritive values as well as healing effects by increasing the consumers` health.

  8. Radiopasteurization of sawdust media used in propagation of mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Sato, Tomotaro

    1975-01-01

    In our country, cultivation of mushrooms such as Pleurotus ostreatus, Kuehneromyces nameko, and Lentinus edodes (Cortinellus shiitake) are expanding, and has reached considerable amounts. These mushrooms are cultivated generally on decaying logs of broad leaf trees. Recently, these mushrooms are also cultivated artificially on the sawdust-media containing rice bran and other nutrient in the room of which temperature is controlled. However, these artificial culture media must be germicidated for 2 or 6 hours at 100 to 120 0 C before inoculation of mushroom spawn. In this study, attempts were made to cultivate Pleurotus ostreatus on the sawdust-media pasteurized by ionizing radiation. Inhibition of mushrooms growth were caused mainly by multiplication of Citrobacter and Fusarium, and these organisms were eliminated by a dose of 0.5 Mrad gamma irradiation. A surprising result was that many of sawdust media subjected to 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Mrad increased mycelial growth rates more than heat treatments, and also mushroom yields were enhanced. The multiplication of remaining microorganisms such as Bacillus and yeasts after irradiation with a dose of 0.5 Mrad or 1.0 Mrad did not inhibit the mycelial growth of mushrooms. (auth.)

  9. Antioxidant activity of edible fungi (truffles and mushrooms): losses during industrial processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, M Antonia; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena; Jiménez, Antonia M; Vera, Ana M; Honrubia, Mario; Parras, Pilar

    2002-10-01

    The antioxidant properties of two raw truffles (Terfezia claveryi Chatin and Picoa juniperi Vittadini) and five raw mushrooms (Lepista nuda, Lentinus edodes, Agrocybe cylindracea, Cantharellus lutescens, and Hydnum repandum) were tested by subjecting these truffles and mushrooms to different industrial processes (freezing and canning) and comparing them with common food antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol [E-307], BHA [E-320], BHT [E-321], and propyl gallate [E-310]) with regard to their ability to inhibit lipid oxidation. All of the truffles and mushrooms analyzed exhibited higher percentages of oxidation inhibition than did the food antioxidants according to assays based on lipid peroxidation (LOO*), deoxyribose (OH*), and peroxidase (H2O2). Frozen samples exhibited a small reduction in free radical scavenger activity, but the results did not show a significant difference (P Terfezia, Picoa, and Hydnum showed high or medium antioxidant activity. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay was used to provide a ranking order of antioxidant activity as measured against that of Trolox (a standard solution used to evaluate equivalent antioxidant capacity). The order of raw samples with regard to antioxidant capacity was as follows (in decreasing order): Cantharellus, Agrocybe, Lentinus, Terfezia, Picoa, Lepista, and Hydnum. Losses of antioxidant activity were detected in the processed samples of these truffles and mushrooms.

  10. A simple multistage closed-(box+reservoir model of chemical evolution

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    Caimmi R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple closed-box (CB models of chemical evolution are extended on two respects, namely (i simple closed-(box+reservoir (CBR models allowing gas outflow from the box into the reservoir (Hartwick 1976 or gas inflow into the box from the reservoir (Caimmi 2007 with rate proportional to the star formation rate, and (ii simple multistage closed-(box+reservoir (MCBR models allowing different stages of evolution characterized by different inflow or outflow rates. The theoretical differential oxygen abundance distribution (TDOD predicted by the model maintains close to a continuous broken straight line. An application is made where a fictitious sample is built up from two distinct samples of halo stars and taken as representative of the inner Galactic halo. The related empirical differential oxygen abundance distribution (EDOD is represented, to an acceptable extent, as a continuous broken line for two viable [O/H]-[Fe/H] empirical relations. The slopes and the intercepts of the regression lines are determined, and then used as input parameters to MCBR models. Within the errors (-+σ, regression line slopes correspond to a large inflow during the earlier stage of evolution and to low or moderate outflow during the subsequent stages. A possible inner halo - outer (metal-poor bulge connection is also briefly discussed. Quantitative results cannot be considered for applications to the inner Galactic halo, unless selection effects and disk contamination are removed from halo samples, and discrepancies between different oxygen abundance determination methods are explained.

  11. Personal-Care Products Formulated with Natural Antioxidant Extracts

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    Maria Luisa Soto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of some vegetal raw materials in personal-care products. Four ethanolic extracts (grape pomace, Pinus pinaster wood chips, Acacia dealbata flowers, and Lentinus edodes were prepared and total phenolics, monomeric sugars, and antioxidant capacity were determined on alcoholic extracts. Six of the most important groups of cosmetics products (hand cream, body oil, shampoo, clay mask, body exfoliating cream, and skin cleanser were formulated. Participants evaluated some sensory attributes and overall acceptance by a 10-point scale; the results showed differences among age-intervals, but not between males and females. The results confirmed that all extracts presented characteristics appropriate for their use in cosmetic formulations and their good acceptability by consumers into all cosmetic products. Texture/appearance, spreadability, and skin feeling are important attributes among consumer expectations, but odor and color were the primary drivers and helped differentiate the natural extracts added into all personal-care products.

  12. Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms: a modern perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, S P; Weis, A L

    1999-01-01

    This review highlights some of the recently isolated and identified substances of higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms origin that express promising antitumor, immune modulating, cardiovascular and hypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, and antiparasitic effects. Medicinal mushrooms have a long history of use in folk medicine. In particular, mushrooms useful against cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lungs, etc. are known in China, Russia, Japan, Korea, as well as the U.S.A. and Canada. There are about 200 species of mushrooms that have been found to markedly inhibit the growth of different kinds of tumors. Searching for new antitumor and other medicinal substances from mushrooms and to study the medicinal value of these mushrooms have become a matter of great significance. However, most of the mushroom origin antitumor substances have not been clearly defined. Several antitumor polysaccharides such as hetero-beta-glucans and their protein complexes (e.g., xyloglucans and acidic beta-glucan-containing uronic acid), as well as dietary fibers, lectins, and terpenoids have been isolated from medicinal mushrooms. In Japan, Russia, China, and the U.S.A. several different polysaccharide antitumor agents have been developed from the fruiting body, mycelia, and culture medium of various medicinal mushrooms (Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, Schizophyllum commune, Trametes versicolor, Inonotus obliquus, and Flammulina velutipes). Both cellular components and secondary metabolites of a large number of mushrooms have been shown to effect the immune system of the host and therefore could be used to treat a variety of disease states.

  13. The Anticaries Effect of a Food Extract (Shiitake in a Short-Term Clinical Study

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    Peter Lingström

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective was to investigate whether low-molecular-weight fraction of edible mushroom shiitake extract (Lentinus edodes possesses caries-preventive properties. The study was designed as a double-blind, three-leg, cross-over, randomized, controlled clinical trial carried out on two series of volunteers at the University of Gothenburg, and the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam. Volunteers rinsed twice daily with a solution containing low-molecular-weight fraction of edible mushroom, placebo (negative control without active ingredients, or Meridol (positive control, AmF-SnF2 for two weeks, with a two-week washout period between each rinsing period. Changes in the acidogenicity of dental plaque before and after a sucrose challenge, shifts in microbial composition, and plaque scores were determined. Frequent rinses with shiitake reduced the metabolic activity of dental plaque. No reduction of plaque scores and no inhibition of the production of organic acids in plaque was found. Minor differences in microbial composition between test sessions were found. To conclude, the results indicate that shiitake extract has anticariogenic potential, but not to the same extent as the positive control.

  14. Investigation on the biosolubilization of brown coal using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and in situ-alkylation with tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, G.K.E. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle]|[Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie und Biotechnologie; Frost, P.J.; Fakoussa, R.M. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie und Biotechnologie

    1997-12-31

    Brown coal of the Lower Rhine basin has been used for the biosolubilization experiments using Lentimula edodes and Trametes versicolor. Studying the coal fractions and residues remaining after coal biosolubilization by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectromety using tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAH) at 610 C show significant alteration of coal`s organic matter. The assemblage of fatty acid esters released during the pyrolysis varies depending on the investigated coal fraction and the used fungi. Further, ethyl derivatives of aromatic ethers and acids as well as dicarbonic acid ethyl diesters gain an insight into the metabolism pathways of the biosolubilization process of brown coal. Therefore TEAH was used in these thermochemolysis experiments instead the more common tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The reaction of TEAH with free hydroxyl and carboxyl groups yield the ethyl derivatives which can be easily identified and differentiated from their methyl homologues by mass spectrometry. In situ-alkylation with TEAH during thermochemolysis of native and biological altered geomacromolecules offers a differentiation between free hydroxyl groups and their methylated counterparts and substances, which are attached to humic substances via ester or ether bridges. (orig.)

  15. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine

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    Kuo-Hsiung Lee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus, Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo, pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus, green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum, garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus, turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma, and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood. Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.

  16. Conocimiento etnoecólogico de los hongos entre los indígenas Uitoto, Muinane y Andoke de la Amazonía Colombiana Conhecimento etnoecológico de fungos entre os indígenas Uitoto, Muinane e Andoke da Amazônia Colombiana

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    Aída Marcela Vasco-Palacios

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto es el resultado de un compartir de conocimientos acerca de los hongos y sus relaciones ecológicas con animales y plantas, con las etnias Uitoto, Andoke y Muinane que habitan la región del medio Caquetá. Gran parte de la información ecológica encontrada está contenida en la tradición oral de estas etnias, y refleja la capacidad integradora y descriptiva que tienen los indígenas sobre el medio natural circundante. En la zona de estudio la madera es un sustrato muy abundante debido principalmente al tipo de agricultura que tienen los indígenas, y por tanto se desarrollan una gran cantidad de especies de hongos lignícolas. Muinanes, Uitotos y Andokes conocen algunas de las especies vegetales que sirven de sustrato para los hongos, sobretodo aquellas utilizadas en la alimentación tales como Lentinula raphanica y Lentinus scleropus, entre otros. El conocimiento ecológico que tienen estos indígenas sobre los hongos, incluye además datos acerca de cucarrones (Coleoptera y larvas (Diptera, mamíferos como venados (Mazama americana y M. gouazoubira y ardillas (Microsciurus flaviventer y tortugas que incluyen los hongos en su dieta, así como sobre especies de hongos que parasitan plantas e insectos.O presente texto é o resultado de um intercâmbio de conhecimentos sobre os fungos e as suas relações ecológicas com animais e plantas, com as etnias Uitoto, Andoke e Muinane que habitam a região do Medio Caquetá. Grande parte da informação ecológica encontrada está contida na tradição oral destas etnias e reflete a capacidade integradora e descritiva que os indígenas possuem sobre o meio natural que os circunda. Na zona de estudo a madeira é um substrato abundante devido principalmente ao tipo de agricultura que os indígenas têm, portanto uma grande quantidade de espécies de fungos lignícolas se desenvolve perto dessas tribos. Os Muinanes, Uitotos e Andokes conhecem algumas das espécies vegetais que servem de

  17. ARTRÓPODOS ASOCIADOS A SEIS ESPECIES DE HONGOS COMESTIBLES DE OCURRENCIA NATURAL EN MANAUS, AMAZONAS, BRASIL.

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    Carlos Andre Amaringo-Cortegano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los artrópodos pueden afectar directamente el desarrollo micelial y de basidiomas, siendo el cultivo de hongos una actividad perjudicada, produciéndose daños reflejados en pérdidas de producción y calidad del hongo. De ahí la importancia del conocimiento de artrópodos asociados a hongos comestibles en estados silvestres puede ayudar en el establecimiento de sistemas de prevención, que permitan controlar y manejar las posibles plagas potenciales de especies de hongos en el futuro. Por lo tanto, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar artrópodos asociados a seis especies de hongos comestibles de ocurrencia natural en Manaus-Amazonas-Brasil. Las muestras de artrópodos pertenecieron a colectas de basidiomas de Lentinula raphanica, Favolus brasiliensis, Oudemansiella cf. platensis, Panus strigellus, Pleurotus djamor y Pleurotus sp., encontrados en diferentes zonas de Manaus, desde noviembre del 2008 hasta mayo del 2011. Los grupos de artrópodos encontrados con mayor frecuencia fueron Staphylinidae (Coleoptera en L. raphanica, P. strigellus y Pleurotus sp.; Siphonophorida (Diplopoda en O. cf. platensis; Mesostigmata (Acari en F. brasiliensis y P. djamor. Además, se observó que Staphylinidae (Coleoptera y Formicidae (Hymenoptera se encontraron asociados a las especies de hongos comestibles en estudio, excepto en O. cf. platensis. De esta manera podemos afirmar que los artrópodos asociados a hongos comestibles amazónicos con potencial de cultivo, se constituyen por ser posibles plagas y considerando los daños causados por artrópodos podrían afectar la calidad comercial de los hongos en un cultivo comercial. Palavras-chave: cultivo de hongos; plagas potenciales; basidioma; micofagia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p54-63

  18. Artificial and natural radioactivity in edible mushrooms from Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, L.P. de; Maihara, V.A.; Silva, P.S.C.; Figueira, R.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental biomonitoring has demonstrated that organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful to evaluate and monitor both ecosystem contamination and quality. Particularly, some mushroom species have a high capacity to retain radionuclides and some toxic elements from the soil and the air. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate radionuclides in their fruit-bodies has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide composition in edible mushrooms, in Brazil. Artificial ( 137 Cs) and natural radioactivity ( 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Ra) were determined in 17 mushroom samples from 3 commercialized edible mushroom species. The edible mushrooms collected were Agaricus sp., Pleurotus sp. and Lentinula sp. species. The activity measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry. The levels of 137 Cs varied from 1.45 ± 0.04 to 10.6 ± 0.3 Bq kg −1 , 40 K levels varied from 461 ± 2 to 1535 ± 10 Bq kg −1 , 226 Ra levels varied from 14 ± 3 to 66 ± 12 Bq kg −1 and 228 Ra levels varied from 6.2 ± 0.2 to 54.2 ± 1.7 Bq kg −1 . 137 Cs levels in Brazilian mushrooms are in accordance with the radioactive fallout in the Southern Hemisphere. The artificial and natural activities determined in this study were found to be below the maximum permissible levels as established by national legislation. Thus, these mushroom species can be normally consumed by the population without any apparent risks to human health. - Highlights: ► 137 Cs, 40 K, 226 Ra and 228 Ra in edible mushroom samples. ► There are very few data about natural radionuclides in mushrooms. ► The radionuclide activities were below the national maximum permissible levels. ► Mushrooms can be consumed by the population without any apparent risks.

  19. Novel and rapid method for determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in edible fungus using direct gas purge microsyringe extraction coupled on-line with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Jingxi; Wang, Juan; Piao, Xiangfan; Yang, Cui; Wu, Xue; Quinto, Maurizio; Li, Donghao

    2015-09-01

    In this work a new analytical method for a rapid and simultaneous determination of 28 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) residues in edible fungus using gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE), coupled with on-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GP-MSE-GC-MS) has been developed and optimized. GP-MSE, a novel gas flow liquid-phase microextraction technique, has been then fruitfully used as innovative and one-step extraction procedure, allowing a direct injection into the gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) system without any further cleaning step. Once optimized, the GP-MSE-GC-MS analysis procedure showed reproducibility values, resolutions, linear responses, detection and quantification limits that allowed to consider this method suitable for the analysis of the 28 OPPs in real samples. Furthermore, OPP recoveries and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 85.26% to 100.21%, and from 1.6% to 6.9%, respectively. This procedure was then used for the analysis of real samples and the obtained results were compared with those of ultrasonic extraction-solid phase extraction. Among the 28 OPPs, 14 of them were found in Lentinus edodes and Enoki mushrooms fungus samples, with a total concentrations of 112.7 and 210.7 μg kg(-1), respectively. This work demonstrated then that GP-MSE-GC-MS provided a highly efficient, solvent-saving, accurate and sensitive quantitative analysis method for a rapid determination of OPPs in edible fungus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekaran, M.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  1. A CTAB Procedure Of Total Genomic DNA Extraction For Medicinal Mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Muhammad Hussaini Mohd Mustafa; Muhammad Hanif Azhari Noor; Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hasan Hamdani Hasan Mutaat; Meswan Meskom; Mat Rasol Awang

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal mushroom is defined as mushrooms used in medicine or medical research. Isolation of intact, high-molecular-mass genomic DNA is essential for many molecular biology applications including Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), endonuclease restriction digestion, Southern blot analysis, and genomic library construction. The most important and prerequisite towards reliable molecular biology work is the total genomic DNA of a sample must be in good quality. Five freshly samples of medicinal mushroom were used in this work known as Auriculariapolytricha, Lentinus edode, Pleurotus sayorcaju, Sczhizopyllum commune and Ganodermalucidum. 5 mg of each sample were used to extraction the DNA, prepared in 3 replications and repeated twice. PCR based technique by using ISSR markers were used in checking the amplification ability of the total genomic extraction. A standard Doyle and Doyle protocol for genomic DNA extraction was modified in optimizing the total genomic DNA from the medicinal mushroom.The modification parameters were percentage of CTAB, incubation period and temperature. The results reveal that each sample required a certain combinations of time and period of incubation. Besides, percentage of CTAB in the buffer was found significant in giving a high yielding of extracted total genomic DNA. The extracted total genomic DNA from the medicinal mushroom yielded from 39.7 ng/ μl to 919.1 ng/ μl. The different yield among the samples found to be corresponded to polysaccharide content in the medicinal mushrooms. The objective of this works is to optimize total genomic DNA extraction of medicinal mushrooms towards a high quality intact genomic DNA for molecular activities. (author)

  2. Effects of mushroom and chicory extracts on the shape, physiology and proteome of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoretto, Caterina; Marchi, Anna; Bertoncelli, Anna; Burlacchini, Gloria; Milli, Alberto; Tessarolo, Francesco; Caola, Iole; Papetti, Adele; Pruzzo, Carla; Zaura, Egija; Lingström, Peter; Ofek, Itzhak; Spratt, David A; Pratten, Jonathan; Wilson, Michael; Canepari, Pietro

    2013-05-29

    Dental caries is an infectious disease which results from the acidic demineralisation of the tooth enamel and dentine as a consequence of the dental plaque (a microbial biofilm) accumulation. Research showed that several foods contain some components with antibacterial and antiplaque activity. Previous studies indicated antimicrobial and antiplaque activities in a low-molecular-mass (LMM) fraction of extracts from either an edible mushroom (Lentinus edodes) or from Italian red chicory (Cichorium intybus). We have evaluated the antimicrobial mode of action of these fractions on Streptococcus mutans, the etiological agent of human dental caries. The effects on shape, macromolecular syntheses and cell proteome were analysed. The best antimicrobial activity has been displayed by the LMM mushroom extract with a bacteriostatic effect. At the MIC of both extracts DNA synthesis was the main macromolecular synthesis inhibited, RNA synthesis was less inhibited than that of DNA and protein synthesis was inhibited only by roughly 50%. The partial inhibition of protein synthesis is compatible with the observed significant increase in cell mass. The increase in these parameters is linked to the morphological alteration with transition from cocci of the untreated control to elongated cells. Interestingly, these modifications were also observed at sub-MIC concentrations. Finally, membrane and cytosol proteome analysis was conducted under LMM mushroom extract treatment in comparison with untreated S. mutans cells. Significant changes were observed for 31 membrane proteins and 20 of the cytosol fractions. The possible role of the changed proteins is discussed. This report has shown an antibiotic-like mode of action of mushroom and chicory extracts as demonstrated by induced morphogenetic effects and inhibition of specific macromolecular synthesis. This feature as well as the safe use of this extract as result of its natural origin render the LMM both mushroom and chicory extracts

  3. EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION OF EXTRACELLULAR LACCASE FROM WILD, MUTANTS AND HYBRID STRAINS OF TWO WHITE-ROT FUNGUS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN DECOLOURIZATION AND LIGNINOLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Majolagbe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular laccases were extracted from a 5-day old submerge cultures of the wild, mutants and hybrid of Lentinus subnudus. Mutants were generated by exposure of the wild strain of L. subnudus to ultraviolet radiation (ג = 280 nm at specific time intervals while the hybrid was produced by cross-breeding L. subnudus with L. edodes. The crude enzyme was fractionated with 80% ammonium sulphate and further purified on DEAE column. The laccase has a molecular weight of about 45 KDa. Purification yield on DEAE column gave the highest purification yield of 23.25% in SWT and least in SHT (5.29%. Its potentials in decolourization of 2, 6-dichlorophenol-indophenol dye at different pH conditions were investigated. Five out of the six fungal strains tested gave significant (P<0.05 percentage decolourization (≥43.94% at pH 8. The fungus was further studied for their ability in degrading wheat and paddy straws. The solid substrate fermentation was inoculated with two pieces (0.6cm diameter mycelial agar blocks of each of the fungal strains, supplemented with 30mg/100g sucrose, 24mg/100g KNO3 and 60mg/100g CaCO3. The periodic reduction in weight of the solid substrate medium and enzymatic activity of laccase for each of the fungal strains was assessed. Therefore, the ability of the wild, mutants and hybrid of L subnudus strains to produce laccase enzyme shows their significant potential in textile industry, especially in decolourization of dye and bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastes.

  4. Bioconversion of rice straw as animal feed ingredient through solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Hanif Mohamad Jamil; Sepiah Muid

    1998-01-01

    Work was conducted to establish procedures and techniques to utilise microorganisms, particularly basidiomycetes, for solid fermentation of rice by-products. The purpose of the study was to determine the potential of biologically processed rice by-products as ingredients of feed formula for selected livestock. Fungal organisms Auriculariapolytrichia, Lentimus connatus, L. edodes, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. florida, P. sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea respectively were inoculated on sterilised rice straw and the mycelium produced were cultured for periods of 3-4 weeks by which time the straw was fully enmeshed with mycelia. Proximate analysis of the finished products gave increases of 93-172 % crude protein and reduction of 31-54 % crude fibre on comparison with untreated rice straw. Amino acid analysis showed general increases for solid fermented rice straw (SFRS) which were comparatively close to amino acid values of conventional feed ingredients such as wheat, corn, sorghum and barley. Solid fermented rice straw was also tested as an ingredient in the formulation of rations for broiler chickens. Feeding trials on poultry indicated a maximum substitution of 50% maize with SFRS in feed rations was possible to attain acceptable growth of chickens to an average live final weight of 1.8 - 2.0 kg. per chicken at age 7 weeks. From studies undertaken, it was observed that the cellulolytic straw could be developed as a potential feed material for livestock through solid fermentation with microorganisms. From the research results, the use of solid fermented rice straw as an alternative ingredient in animal feeds may be one way in reducing reliance on feed imports and at the same time controlling environmental pollution. (Author)

  5. Effectiveness of thermoluminescence analysis to detect low quantity of gamma-irradiated component in non-irradiated mushroom powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Kashif; Ahn, Jae-Jun; Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad; Jo, Deokjo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-irradiated (0–10 kGy) dried mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) powders were mixed at different ratios (1–10%) in the non-irradiated samples and investigated using photostimulated-luminescence (PSL), electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) techniques. The PSL results were negative for all samples at 1% mixing ratio, whereas intermediate results were observed for the samples containing 5% or 10% irradiated component with the exception (positive) of 10% mixing of 10 kGy-irradiated sample. The ESR analysis showed the presence of crystalline sugar radicals in the irradiated samples but the radiation-specific spectral features were absent in the mixed samples. TL analysis showed the radiation-specific TL glow curves; however, the complicated results were observed at 1% mixing of 2 and 5 kGy-irradiated samples, which required careful evaluations to draw the final conclusion about the irradiation status of the samples. TL ratios could only confirm the results of samples with 5% and 10% mixing of 10 kGy, and 10% mixing of 5 kGy-irradiated components. SEM-EDX analysis showed that feldspar and quartz were major contaminating minerals, responsible for the radiation-specific luminescence characteristics. -- Highlights: ► Detection of irradiated food is important to enforce the applied regulations. ► The effectiveness of TL analysis was investigated to detect irradiated component. ► The TL results were compared with those from PSL and ESR analysis. ► TL analysis was most effective to characterize the irradiation status of samples. ► SEM-EDX analysis showed feldspar and quartz as the main source of TL properties

  6. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp. and shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould, also affect all three kinds of edible mushrooms. Over the past two decades, green mould caused by T. aggressivum has been the most serious disease of button mushroom. Oyster mushroom is susceptible to T. pleurotum and shiitake to T. harzianum. The bacterial brawn blotch disease, caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, is distributed globally. Disease control on mushroom farms worldwide is commonly based on the use of fungicides. However, evolution of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application, and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. Only a few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom production: chlorothalonil and thiabendazol in North America and prochloraz in the EU and some other countries. Even though decreased sensitivity levels of L. fungicola and Cladobotryum mycophilum to prochloraz have been detected, disease control is still mainly provided by that chemical fungicide. Considering such resistance evolution, harmful impact to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on biofungicides, both microbiological products based on Bacillus species and various natural substances of biological origin, together with good programs of hygiene. Introduction of biofungicides has created new possibilities for crop protection with reduced application of chemicals.

  7. Effectiveness of thermoluminescence analysis to detect low quantity of gamma-irradiated component in non-irradiated mushroom powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Kashif [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100 (Pakistan); Ahn, Jae-Jun [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100 (Pakistan); Jo, Deokjo [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho, E-mail: jhkwon@knu.ac.kr [School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Gamma-irradiated (0–10 kGy) dried mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) powders were mixed at different ratios (1–10%) in the non-irradiated samples and investigated using photostimulated-luminescence (PSL), electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermoluminescence (TL) techniques. The PSL results were negative for all samples at 1% mixing ratio, whereas intermediate results were observed for the samples containing 5% or 10% irradiated component with the exception (positive) of 10% mixing of 10 kGy-irradiated sample. The ESR analysis showed the presence of crystalline sugar radicals in the irradiated samples but the radiation-specific spectral features were absent in the mixed samples. TL analysis showed the radiation-specific TL glow curves; however, the complicated results were observed at 1% mixing of 2 and 5 kGy-irradiated samples, which required careful evaluations to draw the final conclusion about the irradiation status of the samples. TL ratios could only confirm the results of samples with 5% and 10% mixing of 10 kGy, and 10% mixing of 5 kGy-irradiated components. SEM-EDX analysis showed that feldspar and quartz were major contaminating minerals, responsible for the radiation-specific luminescence characteristics. -- Highlights: ► Detection of irradiated food is important to enforce the applied regulations. ► The effectiveness of TL analysis was investigated to detect irradiated component. ► The TL results were compared with those from PSL and ESR analysis. ► TL analysis was most effective to characterize the irradiation status of samples. ► SEM-EDX analysis showed feldspar and quartz as the main source of TL properties.

  8. The β-glucan fromLentinus edodessuppresses cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis in estrogen receptor positive breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Zou, Siwei; Xu, Xiaojuan

    2017-10-17

    Breast cancer is now the most common cancer in worldwide women, and novel interventions are needed to overcome the resistance occurring in the estrogen-targeted endocrine therapy. Herein, we demonstrate that the β-glucan from Lentinus edodes (LNT) exhibited a profound inhibition ratio of ∼53% against estrogen receptor positive (ER+) MCF-7 tumor growth in nude mice similar to the positive control of cisplatin. Immunohistochemistry images showed that LNT evidently suppressed cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis in MCF-7 tumor tissues. The Western blotting analysis indicated that LNT up-regulated the tumor suppressor p53, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (p-ERK1/2), cleaved-Caspase 3 and poly [ADP (ribose)] polymerase 1 (PARP 1) protein levels, and reduced the expression of mouse double minute 2 (MDM2), telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), estrogen receptor α (ERα), etc. in tumor tissues. Moreover, LNT significantly suppressed phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein levels. It was thus proposed that LNT inhibited MCF-7 tumor growth through suppressing cell proliferation and enhancing apoptosis possibly via multiple pathways such as PI3K/Akt/mTOR, NF-κB-, ERK-, ERα-, caspase- and p53-dependent pathways. Interestingly, the cell viability assay, siRNA transfection, Western blotting and flow cytometric analysis suggested that LNT targeted p53/ERα to only suppress cell proliferation via cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase without apoptosis in vitro . The big difference between in vivo and in vitro data suggested that the immune responses triggered by the polysaccharide should mainly contribute to the apoptotic effect in vivo . Overall, this work provides a novel strategy to treat ER+ breast cancers by using a naturally occurring β-glucan from mushrooms.

  9. Cytotoxic, antimigratory, pro-and antioxidative activities of extracts from medicinal mushrooms on colon cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šeklić Dragana S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extracts of five commercially available mushroom species (Phellinus linteus (Berk. et Curt Teng, Cordyceps sinensis (Berk. Sacc., Lentinus edodes (Berk. Pegler, Coprinus comatus (O. F. Müll. Pers. and Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis P. Karst, traditionally used as anticancer agents, were evaluated in vitro for their total phenol and flavonoid contents, cytotoxic and antimigratory activities and antioxidant/prooxidant effects on colon cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and SW-480. Spectrophotometric methods were used for the determination of total phenol content, flavonoid concentrations and DPPH activity of the extracts. Cytotoxic activity was measured by the MTT assay. The antimigratory activity of extracts was determined using the Transwell assay and immunofluorescence staining of β-catenin. The prooxidant/antioxidant status was followed by measuring the superoxide anion radical (O2•-, nitrite and reduced glutathione (GSH concentrations. Our results show that the highest phenolic and flavonoid content was found in P. linteus, and its DPPH-scavenging capacity was significantly higher than in other samples. The P. linteus extract significantly decreased cell viability of both tested cancer cell lines. All other extracts selectively inhibited SW-480 cell viability, but did not show significant cytotoxic activity. The mushroom extracts caused changes in the prooxidant/antioxidant status of cells, inducing oxidative stress. All extracts tested on HCT-116 cells demonstrated significant antimigratory effects, which correlated with increased production of O2•- and a reduced level of β-catenin protein expression, while only P. linteus showed the same effect on SW-480 cells. The results of the present research indicate that the mushroom extracts causes oxidative stress which has a pronounced impact on the migratory status of colon cancer cell lines. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41010

  10. Wild food plants and wild edible fungi in two valleys of the Qinling Mountains (Shaanxi, central China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    explain. It may arise from the easy access to the cultivated Auricularia and Lentinula mushrooms and very steep terrain, making foraging for fungi difficult. PMID:23587149

  11. Antimicrobial Potential, Identification and Phylogenetic Affiliation of Wild Mushrooms from Two Sub-Tropical Semi-Evergreen Indian Forest Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallawmsanga; Passari, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Leo, Vincent Vineeth; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Valliammai Meyyappan, Geetha; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Uthandi, Sivakumar; Upadhyay, Ramesh Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of wild mushrooms was investigated from two protected forest areas in India and 231 mushroom specimens were morphologically identified. Among them, 76 isolates were screened for their antimicrobial potential against seven bacterial and fungal pathogens. Out of 76 isolates, 45 isolates which displayed significant antimicrobial activities were identified using ITS rRNA gene amplification and subsequently phylogenetically characterized using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Sequencing of the ITS rRNA region classified the isolates into 16 genera belonging to 11 families. In total, 11 RAPD and 10 ISSR primers were selected to evaluate genetic diversity based on their banding profile produced. In total 337 RAPD and 312 ISSR bands were detected, among which percentage of polymorphism ranges from 34.2% to 78.8% and 38.6% to 92.4% by using RAPD and ISSR primers respectively. Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) trees of selected two methods were structured similarly, grouping the 46 isolates into two clusters which clearly showed a significant genetic distance among the different strains of wild mushroom, with an similarity coefficient ranges from 0.58 to 1.00 and 0.59 to 1.00 with RAPD and ISSR analysis respectively. This reporthas highlighted both DTR and MNP forests provide a habitat for diverse macrofungal species, therefore having the potential to be used for the discovery of antimicrobials. The report has also demonstrated that both RAPD and ISSR could efficiently differentiate wild mushrooms and could thus be considered as efficient markers for surveying genetic diversity. Additionally, selected six wild edible mushroom strains (Schizophyllum commune BPSM01, Panusgiganteus BPSM27, Pleurotussp. BPSM34, Lentinussp. BPSM37, Pleurotusdjamor BPSM41 and Lentinula sp. BPSM45) were analysed for their nutritional (proteins, carbohydrates, fat and ash content), antioxidant potential

  12. Wild food plants and wild edible fungi in two valleys of the Qinling Mountains (Shaanxi, central China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yongxiang; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Kang, Jin; Zhang, Shijiao

    2013-04-15

    the cultivated Auricularia and Lentinula mushrooms and very steep terrain, making foraging for fungi difficult.

  13. Comparison of two continuous fungal bioreactors for posttreatment of anaerobically pretreated weak black liquor from kraft pulp mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Clemente, Alfredo; Marín-Mezo, G; Ponce-Noyola, M T; Montes-Horcasitas, M C; Caffarel-Méndez, S; Barrera-Cortés, Josefina; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate and compare two continuous systems of posttreatment of anaerobically pretreated weak black liquor (WBL). The first system consisted of a packed bed reactor (PBR) with Trametes versicolor (Tv) immobilized on wood cubes of holm oak (biocubes). The second system was a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) with Lentinus edodes (Le) immobilized on wood cubes of holm oak. The reactors operated for 65 days at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 days, at 28 degrees C, with continuous aeration. Response variables monitored were conventional and specific, unit, net removal efficiency (eta and eta(sun), respectively) of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, and ligninoids, and enzymatic activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), laccase (Lac) and proteases. The PBR showed an average color eta superior to that of the FBR (52.42 +/- 21.78% and 25.34 +/- 14.38% for PBR and FBR, respectively); removals of COD and ligninoids presented a similar pattern to that of color. Lac activity was significantly larger in PBR than in FBR. Activity of MnP in PBR was higher than that of the FBR (0.004 and 0.002 U MnP/mL, respectively). This difference could be ascribed to the different fungi present in each bioreactor. LiP activity was very low in both reactors. Average value of proteases was almost double in the FBR as compared with PBR (0.472 and 0.209 U Proteases/mL, respectively). During the last 2 weeks of operation, biocubes in the FBR experienced a significant loss of the attached Le biomass, probably by attrition. This and higher protease activity in the FBR could explain the lower pollutant removals achieved in the FBR. Overall, PBR with immobilized Tv showed a better performance than the FBR with Le for the posttreatment of the recalcitrant anaerobic effluent. Extended and sustained pollutant removal (65 days) was achieved in the PBR, although more research is needed to evaluate bioreactor performance at shorter hydraulic

  14. The role of culinary-medicinal mushrooms on human welfare with a pyramid model for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu Ting; Wasser, Solomon P

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms are part of fungal biota characterized by wonder. They rise up from lignocellulosic wastes: yet they become so bountiful and nourishing. Mushrooms are environmentally friendly. They biosynthesize their own food from agricultural crop residues, which would otherwise cause health hazards. The extant records show the continued use of some mushrooms, e.g., Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Cordyceps sinensis are now centuries old. This review presents a pyramid model for mushroom uses (industries), as food, dietary supplements (tonic), and medicine. A regular intake of mushrooms can make us healthier, fitter, and happier, and help us live longer. The sense of purpose and vision for the mushroom industries is also briefly discussed. A variety of mushrooms have been used traditionally in many different cultures for the maintenance of health and in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. A total of 126 medicinal functions are thought to be produced by medicinal mushrooms (MM) and fungi, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and anti-diabetic effects. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. The data on mushroom polysaccharides are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. In particular, the most important for modern medicine are polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through phase I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully as drugs in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Mushrooms are superior sources of different types of dietary supplements (DSs

  15. Natural radionuclides and 137Cs in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Lilian Pavanelli de

    2008-01-01

    Artificial and natural radionuclides are commonly found in several compartments of the earth's crust. Some mushroom species have a high capacity to absorb radionuclides and toxic elements from the soil. Diet is considered as one of the main routes of radioactive contamination. Therefore, radioactivity measurements in the environment and in food are extremely important to monitor the radiation levels that human can be exposed to either directly or indirectly. Environmental bio monitoring has demonstrated that diverse organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful when evaluating both the contamination and the quality of the ecosystems. There are actually several radionuclides that can be accumulated in mushrooms, including 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U. There are few studies in the Southern hemisphere countries, on the natural and artificial radioactivity levels in mushrooms. The present study evaluated 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U in commercialized edible mushrooms in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The edible mushroom samples were acquired in different commercial establishments in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, specifically in Municipal Markets. Some samples were acquired directly from producers located in the cities of Mogi das Cruzes, Mirandopolis, Suzano and Juquitiba. About 400g were collected for each edible mushroom species, which included Agaricus sp, Pleurotus sp and Lentinula sp species. All the samples were prepared and stored in polyethylene bottles for approximately 35 days, so that secular equilibrium could be established before counting. The 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U gamma activities were measured by gamma spectrometry. The equipment consisted of a Hyper pure Germanium detector connected to an electronic system. The detector efficiency was obtained from measurements of reference materials: IAEA-300, IAEA-327 and IAEA-375. The results for the specific activities in edible mushrooms samples ranged fi-om 461 to 1535 Bq kg -1