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Sample records for lenticular galaxies ngc

  1. Dynamical models of two lenticular galaxies: NGC 1023 and NGC 4526

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study kinematics and dynamics of two lenticular galaxies that possess globular clusters (GCs which extend beyond approximately seven effective radii. We analyze two nearby lenticular galaxies, NGC 1023 and NGC 4526, based on their GCs. We extract the kinematics of these galaxies and use it for dynamical modeling based on the Jeans equation. The Jeans equation was solved in both the Newtonian mass-follows-light approach assuming constant mass-to-light ratio and assuming a dark halo in the Navarro-Frenk-White form. We find that while the first galaxy, NGC 1023, does not need a significant amount of dark matter, in the other galaxy, NGC 4526, the dark component fully dominates stellar matter in the total dynamical mass. In this paper we also used three different MOND approaches and found that while for both galaxies MOND models can provide successful fits of the observed velocity dispersion, in the case of NGC 4526 we have a hint of an additional dark component even in the MOND framework. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 176021: Visible and Invisible Matter in Nearby Galaxies: Theory and Observations

  2. NGC 404: A REJUVENATED LENTICULAR GALAXY ON A MERGER-INDUCED, BLUEWARD EXCURSION INTO THE GREEN VALLEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thilker, David A.; Bianchi, Luciana; Schiminovich, David; Gil de Paz, Armando; Seibert, Mark; Madore, Barry F.; Wyder, Ted; Barlow, Tom; Conrow, Tim; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter; Martin, Chris; Morrissey, Patrick; Small, Todd; Rich, R. Michael; Yi, Sukyoung; Neff, Susan

    2010-01-01

    We have discovered recent star formation in the outermost portion ((1-4) x R 25 ) of the nearby lenticular (S0) galaxy NGC 404 using Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV imaging. FUV-bright sources are strongly concentrated within the galaxy's H I ring (formed by a merger event according to del RIo et al.), even though the average gas density is dynamically subcritical. Archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging reveals resolved upper main-sequence stars and conclusively demonstrates that the UV light originates from recent star formation activity. We present FUV, NUV radial surface brightness profiles, and integrated magnitudes for NGC 404. Within the ring, the average star formation rate (SFR) surface density (Σ SFR ) is ∼2.2 x 10 -5 M sun yr -1 kpc -2 . Of the total FUV flux, 70% comes from the H I ring which is forming stars at a rate of 2.5 x 10 -3 M sun yr -1 . The gas consumption timescale, assuming a constant SFR and no gas recycling, is several times the age of the universe. In the context of the UV-optical galaxy color-magnitude diagram, the presence of the star-forming H I ring places NGC 404 in the green valley separating the red and blue sequences. The rejuvenated lenticular galaxy has experienced a merger-induced, disk-building excursion away from the red sequence toward bluer colors, where it may evolve quiescently or (if appropriately triggered) experience a burst capable of placing it on the blue/star-forming sequence for up to ∼1 Gyr. The green valley galaxy population is heterogeneous, with most systems transitioning from blue to red but others evolving in the opposite sense due to acquisition of fresh gas through various channels.

  3. DISTRIBUTION AND MOTIONS OF ATOMIC-HYDROGEN IN LENTICULAR GALAXIES .10. THE BLUE S0-GALAXY NGC-5102

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWOERDEN, H; VANDRIEL, W; BRAUN, R; ROTS, AH

    We have mapped the blue gas-rich S0 galaxy NGC 5102 in the 21-cm HI line with a spatial resolution of 34'' x 37'' (DELTAalpha x DELTAdelta) and a velocity resolution of 12 km s-1. Optically NGC 5102 is a peculiar S0 galaxy, in the sense that it has unusually blue colours, and shows evidence for a

  4. Creating lenticular galaxies with mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querejeta, Miguel; Eliche-Moral, M. Carmen; Tapia, Trinidad; Borlaff, Alejandro; van de Ven, Glenn; Lyubenova, Mariya; Martig, Marie; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Méndez-Abreu, Jairo; Zamorano, Jaime; Gallego, Jesús

    2017-03-01

    Lenticular galaxies (S0s) represent the majority of early-type galaxies in the local Universe, but their formation channels are still poorly understood. While galaxy mergers are obvious pathways to suppress star formation and increase bulge sizes, the marked parallelism between spiral and lenticular galaxies (e.g. photometric bulge-disc coupling) seemed to rule out a potential merger origin. Here, we summarise our recent work in which we have shown, through N-body numerical simulations, that disc-dominated lenticulars can emerge from major mergers of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with observational photometric scaling relations. Moreover, we show that mergers simultaneously increase the light concentration and reduce the angular momentum relative to their spiral progenitors. This explains the mismatch in angular momentum and concentration between spirals and lenticulars recently revealed by CALIFA observations, which is hard to reconcile with simple fading mechanisms (e.g. ram-pressure stripping).

  5. Elliptical and lenticular galaxies evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, L.

    1981-01-01

    Different evolutionnary models for elliptical and lenticular galaxies are discussed. In the first part, we show that, at least some peculiar early types galaxies exhibit some activity. Then we describe the observationnal constraints: the color-magnitude diagram, the color gradient and the high metallicity of intraclusters gas. Among the different models, only the dissipation collapse followed by a hot wind driven by supernovae explosion explain in a natural way these constraints. Finally, the origin of SO is briefly discussed [fr

  6. Deconstructing bulges in lenticular galaxies using CALIFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Abreu, J.; CALIFA Team

    2015-05-01

    Bulges play a key role in the evolution of disk galaxies and their influence on the fate of lenticular galaxies (S0s) is still more manifest. We present preliminary results on the photometric and kinematic properties of S0 bulges drawn from the CALIFA survey. We find that S0 galaxies usually deviate from their archetypal view of simple systems composed by a bulge and disk structure. In fact, most of S0 galaxies (˜65%) host bars or non-single exponential profiles, making compulsory the use of multi-component photometric decompositions to properly address the bulge properties. We confirm previous results present in the literature showing S0 galaxies as a complete photometric and kinematic sequence of galaxies.

  7. STELLAR NUCLEI AND INNER POLAR DISKS IN LENTICULAR GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sil’chenko, Olga K., E-mail: olga@sai.msu.su [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Isaac Newton Institute, Chile, Moscow Branch (Chile)

    2016-09-01

    I analyze statistics of the stellar population properties for stellar nuclei and bulges of nearby lenticular galaxies in different environments by using panoramic spectral data of the integral-field spectrograph SAURON retrieved from the open archive of the Isaac Newton Group. I also estimate the fraction of nearby lenticular galaxies having inner polar gaseous disks by exploring the volume-limited sample of early-type galaxies of the ATLAS-3D survey. By inspecting the two-dimensional velocity fields of the stellar and gaseous components with the running tilted-ring technique, I have found seven new cases of inner polar disks. Together with those, the frequency of inner polar disks in nearby S0 galaxies reaches 10%, which is much higher than the frequency of large-scale polar rings. Interestingly, the properties of the nuclear stellar populations in the inner polar ring hosts are statistically the same as those in the whole S0 sample, implying similar histories of multiple gas-accretion events from various directions.

  8. STELLAR NUCLEI AND INNER POLAR DISKS IN LENTICULAR GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sil’chenko, Olga K.

    2016-01-01

    I analyze statistics of the stellar population properties for stellar nuclei and bulges of nearby lenticular galaxies in different environments by using panoramic spectral data of the integral-field spectrograph SAURON retrieved from the open archive of the Isaac Newton Group. I also estimate the fraction of nearby lenticular galaxies having inner polar gaseous disks by exploring the volume-limited sample of early-type galaxies of the ATLAS-3D survey. By inspecting the two-dimensional velocity fields of the stellar and gaseous components with the running tilted-ring technique, I have found seven new cases of inner polar disks. Together with those, the frequency of inner polar disks in nearby S0 galaxies reaches 10%, which is much higher than the frequency of large-scale polar rings. Interestingly, the properties of the nuclear stellar populations in the inner polar ring hosts are statistically the same as those in the whole S0 sample, implying similar histories of multiple gas-accretion events from various directions.

  9. Starburst Galaxy NGC 3310

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope are studying the colors of star clusters to determine the age and history of starburst galaxies, a technique somewhat similar to the process of learning the age of a tree by counting its rings. This month's Hubble Heritage image showcases the galaxy NGC 3310. It is one of several starburst galaxies, which are hotbeds of star formation, being studied by Dr. Gerhardt Meurer and a team of scientists at Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Md. The picture, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://heritage.stsci.edu and http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2001/26 and http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Most galaxies form new stars at a fairly slow rate, but starburst galaxies blaze with extremely active star formation. Measuring the clusters' colors yields information about stellar temperatures. Since young stars are blue and older stars redder, the colors relate to their ages. NGC 3310 is forming clusters of new stars at a prodigious rate. The new image shows several hundred star clusters, visible as the bright blue, diffuse objects that trace the galaxy's spiral arms. Each of these star clusters represents the formation of up to about a million stars, a process that takes less than 100,000 years. In addition, hundreds of individual young, luminous stars can be seen throughout the galaxy. The star clusters become redder with age as the most massive and bluest stars exhaust their fuel and burn out. Measurements in this image of the wide range of cluster colors show their ages range between about one million and more than one hundred million years. This suggests that the starburst 'turned on' more than 100 million years ago. It may have been triggered when NGC 3310 collided with a companion galaxy. These observations may change astronomers' view of starbursts. Starbursts were once thought to be brief

  10. The SAURON project - VI. Line strength maps of 48 elliptical and lenticular galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Emsellem, Eric; Bacon, R.; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc

    2006-01-01

    We present absorption line strength maps of 48 representative elliptical and lenticular galaxies obtained as part of a survey of nearby galaxies using our custom-built integral-field spectrograph, SAURON, operating on the William Herschel Telescope. Using high-quality spectra, spatially binned to a

  11. Photographic surface photometry of NGC 2855 and NGC 6771 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M. de F.S.

    1984-01-01

    Photographic surface photometry in the BV system was carried out two Southern SO's galaxies, NGC 2855 and NGC 6771. B and V isophote maps were obtained as well as geometric and integrated parameters as position angles, inclination, diameters, magnitudes and integrated colors. Each luminosity profile was decomposed into bulge and disk contributions, each component being fitted to convenient laws. For NGC 2855 de Vaucouleurs law described well the bulge whereas the disk showed an exponential distribution. For NGC 6771 the barred nuclear bulge as well as the disk was best fitted by exponential laws. Additional luminosity components due to an inner fragmented ring were identified in NGC 2855 and due to both a quite prominent lens and well defined ring in NGC 6771. In this galaxy the minor axis, oriented almost edge-on, present clues of another luminosity component besides the bulge and the thin disk. For both galaxies the disk central surface brightness was found to be fainter than the standard value observed by Freeman. The fitting parameters were used to determine the bulge-to-disk luminosity ratios as well as their contribution to total luminosity. The domination by the bulge light over the disk light was clear in both galaxies. From the B and V luminosity profile the color gradients were estimated. For both objects the local color indices decreased from inner to outer regions, this effect being relatively smooth in NGC 2855 and more prominent in NGC 6771 [pt

  12. NGC 5291: Implications for the Formation of Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malphrus, Benjamin K.; Simpson, Caroline E.; Gottesman, S. T.; Hawarden, Timothy G.

    1997-01-01

    The possible formation and evolution of dwarf irregular galaxies from material derived from perturbed evolved galaxies is addressed via an H I study of a likely example, the peculiar system NGC 5291. This system, located in the western outskirts of the cluster Abell 3574, contains the lenticular galaxy NGC 5291 which is in close proximity to a disturbed companion and is flanked by an extensive complex of numerous knots extending roughly 4 min north and 4 min south of the galaxy. In an initial optical and radio study, Longmore et al. (1979, MNRAS, 188, 285) showed that these knots have the spectra of vigorous star-forming regions, and suggested that some may in fact be young dwarf irregular galaxies. High resolution 21-cm line observations taken with the VLA are presented here and reveal that the H I distribution associated with this system encompasses not only the entire N-S complex of optical knots, but also forms an incomplete ring or tail that extends approximately 3 min to the west. The H I associated with NGC 5291 itself shows a high velocity range; the Seashell is not detected. The formation mechanism for this unusual system is unclear and two models - a large, low-luminosity ram-swept disk, and a ram-swept interaction-are discussed. The H I in the system contains numerous concentrations, mostly along the N-S arc of the star-forming complexes, which generally coincide with one or more optical knots; the larger H I features contain several x 10(exp 9) solar mass of gas. Each of the knots is compared to a set of criteria designed to determine if these objects are bound against their own internal kinetic energy and are tidally stable relative to the host galaxy. An analysis of the properties of the H I concentrations surrounding the optical star-forming complexes indicates that at least the largest of these is a bound system; it also possesses a stellar component. It is suggested that this object is a genuinely young dwarf irregular galaxy that has evolved from

  13. Spectrophotometry of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4593

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAlpine, G.M.; Williams, G.A.; Lewis, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Spectrophotometry of the bright class 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 4593 is presented. The emission-line characteristics are briefly discussed and compared with those of other Seyfert galaxies. The measured hydrogen Balmer-line ratios are reasonably consistent with expected recombination values, and the emission intensities of Fe II, He I 5876, and forbidden O III 4363 relative to other lines are stronger than average in NGC 4593

  14. An over-massive black hole in the compact lenticular galaxy NGC 1277.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Remco C E; Gebhardt, Karl; Gültekin, Kayhan; van de Ven, Glenn; van der Wel, Arjen; Walsh, Jonelle L

    2012-11-29

    Most massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres, and the masses of the black holes are believed to correlate with properties of the host-galaxy bulge component. Several explanations have been proposed for the existence of these locally established empirical relationships, including the non-causal, statistical process of galaxy-galaxy merging, direct feedback between the black hole and its host galaxy, and galaxy-galaxy merging and the subsequent violent relaxation and dissipation. The empirical scaling relations are therefore important for distinguishing between various theoretical models of galaxy evolution, and they furthermore form the basis for all black-hole mass measurements at large distances. Observations have shown that the mass of the black hole is typically 0.1 per cent of the mass of the stellar bulge of the galaxy. Until now, the galaxy with the largest known fraction of its mass in its central black hole (11 per cent) was the small galaxy NGC 4486B. Here we report observations of the stellar kinematics of NGC 1277, which is a compact, lenticular galaxy with a mass of 1.2 × 10(11) solar masses. From the data, we determine that the mass of the central black hole is 1.7 × 10(10) solar masses, or 59 per cent of its bulge mass. We also show observations of five other compact galaxies that have properties similar to NGC 1277 and therefore may also contain over-massive black holes. It is not yet known if these galaxies represent a tail of a distribution, or if disk-dominated galaxies fail to follow the usual black-hole mass scaling relations.

  15. THE STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSION OF THE SPIRAL GALAXIES NGC-1566 AND NGC-2815

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOTTEMA, R

    Long slit absorption line spectroscopy has been obtained of the close to face-on Sc galaxy NGC 1566 and inclined Sb galaxy NGC 2815. These observations provided stellar radial velocities and stellar velocity dispersions as a function of radius for both galaxies. For NGC 1566 a radially decreasing

  16. ASCA observation of three bright early-type galaxies: NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaki, Hisamitsu; Mushotzky, Richard; Tsuru, Takeshi; Fabian, Andrew C.; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Loewenstein, Michael; Makishima, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; Mihara, Tatehiro

    1994-01-01

    We report Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) 0.3-10 keV and X-ray observations of three early type galaxies, NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636. The extended mission in these galaxies is well described by thin thermal eimssion from hot gas. The gas temperature is 0.92 +/- 0.02 keV for NGC 4472, 0.79 +/- 0.01 keV for NGC 4406, and 0.73 +/- 0.02 keV for NGC 4636. The metal abundance for NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636 are, under the assumption of solar ratios, 0.63 +/- 0.15, 0.45 +/- 0.10, and 0.38 +/- 0.07, respectively. Detailed analysis has allowed determination of the abundances of oxygen, silicon, sulfur, and iron. The observed abundances are consistent with the solar ratios. For NGC 4472 and NGC 4406 we also determined the mean temperature of the gas producing the Si lines from the ratio of the Si H to He-like lines and find it to be consistent with the continuum temperature. The X-ray temperature is in good agreement with the observed optical velocity dispersion, stellar density profile, and gas density profile. Our data indicates that the supernova rate should be less than one fifth of the nominal rate in early type galaxies. We derive the mass of these systems within fixed angular scales and find that M/L greater than 40, confirming that elliptical galaxies are dark matter dominated at large radii.

  17. Diverse Group of Galaxy Types, NGC 3190 Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image of a diverse group of galaxy types. NGC 3190 is a dusty edge on spiral galaxy. NGC 3187 is highly distorted. The two are separated by only 35 kilo-parsecs (about half the diameter of our own Milky Way galaxy). A ring, elliptical, and other irregular galaxies are also present.

  18. The ISM in nearby galaxies: NGC1365

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baan, Willem; Loenen, Edo; Spaans, Marco

    We propose a sensitive spectral survey of the nuclear region of the nearby Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC1365. These observations are to confirm a similar program carried out in 2007, which suffers from severe bandpass issues. The previous observations have resulted in 76+ tentative detections,

  19. New Portraits of Spiral Galaxies NGC 613, NGC 1792 and NGC 3627

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Not so long ago, the real nature of the "spiral nebulae", spiral-shaped objects observed in the sky through telescopes, was still unknown. This long-standing issue was finally settled in 1924 when the famous American astronomer Edwin Hubble provided conclusive evidence that they are located outside our own galaxy and are in fact "island universes" of their own. Nowadays, we know that the Milky Way is just one of billions of galaxies in the Universe. They come in vastly different shapes - spiral, elliptical, irregular - and many of them are simply beautiful, especially the spiral ones. Astronomers Mark Neeser from the Universitäts-Sternwarte München (Germany) and Peter Barthel from the Kapteyn Institute in Groningen (The Netherlands) were clearly not insensitive to this when they obtained images of three beautiful spiral galaxies with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). They did this in twilight during the early morning when they had to stop their normal observing programme, searching for very distant and faint quasars. The resulting colour images ( ESO PR Photos 33a-c/03 ) were produced by combining several CCD images in three different wavebands from the FORS multi-mode instruments. The three galaxies are known as NGC 613, NGC 1792 and NGC 3627 . They are characterized by strong far-infrared, as well as radio emission, indicative of substantial ongoing star-formation activity. Indeed, these images all display prominent dust as well as features related to young stars, clear signs of intensive star-formation. NGC 613 ESO PR Photo 33a/03 ESO PR Photo 33a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 470 x 400 pix - 25k] [Normal - JPEG: 939 x 800 pix - 416k] [Full Res - JPEG: 2702 x 2301 pix - 3.4M] PR Photo 33a/03 of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 613 was obtained with the FORS1 and FORS2 multi-mode instruments (at VLT MELIPAL and YEPUN, respectively) on December 16-18, 2001. It is a composite of three exposures in different wavebands, cf. the technical note below. The full-resolution version

  20. Accurate Distances to Important Spiral Galaxies: M63, M74, NGC 1291, NGC 4559, NGC 4625, and NGC 5398

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-01

    Accurate distances are fundamental for interpreting various measured properties of galaxies. Surprisingly, many of the best-studied spiral galaxies in the Local Volume have distance uncertainties that are much larger than can be achieved with modern observation techniques. Using Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging, we use the tip of the red giant branch method to measure the distances to six galaxies that are included in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey program and its offspring surveys. The sample includes M63, M74, NGC 1291, NGC 4559, NGC 4625, and NGC 5398. We compare our results with distances reported to these galaxies based on a variety of methods. Depending on the technique, there can be a wide range in published distances, particularly from the Tully–Fisher relation. In addition, differences between the planetary nebular luminosity function and surface brightness fluctuation techniques can vary between galaxies, suggesting inaccuracies that cannot be explained by systematics in the calibrations. Our distances improve upon previous results, as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in an optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian maximum likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties.

  1. DUST EXTINCTION IN NGC-4594, THE SOMBRERO GALAXY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KNAPEN, JH; HES, R; BECKMAN, JE; PELETIER, RF

    We have studied the extinction law in the well-defined dust lane of the Sombrero galaxy, NGC4594. In the R,I,J,H, and K bands we find good agreement between values for the extinction ratios A-lambda/A(v) in NGC4594 and those reported for our own Galaxy. We can explain the apparently somewhat lower

  2. DISTRIBUTION AND MOTIONS OF H(I) IN THE SA GALAXIES NGC-1169 AND NGC-3898

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDRIEL, W; VANWOERDEN, H

    The Sa-type galaxies NGC 1169 and NGC 3898 were mapped in the 21-cm HI line at Westerbork with a spatial resolution of about 30'' and a velocity resolution of 40 km s-1. NGC 1169, classified as SBa(r) I, has M(HI)/L(B)0=0.12. M./L.,B. The HI distribution of NGC 1169 shows a central hole, 2.5 times

  3. A tale of two galaxies : Light and mass in NGC 891 and NGC 7814

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraternali, F.; Sancisi, R.; Kamphuis, P.

    The two edge-on galaxies NGC 891 and NGC 7814 are representative of two extreme morphologies: the former is disk-dominated while the latter is almost entirely bulge-dominated. It has been argued that since the two galaxies, which are optically so different, have similar rotation curves their total

  4. Disturbed Fossil Group Galaxy NGC 1132

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Doug; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jen; McCollough, Michael; Morgan, Doug; Mossman, Amy; O’Sullivan, Ewan; Paggi, Alessandro; Vrtilek, Saeqa; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2018-02-01

    We have analyzed the Chandra archival data of NGC 1132, a well-known fossil group, i.e., a system expected to be old and relaxed long after the giant elliptical galaxy assembly. Instead, the Chandra data reveal that the hot gas morphology is disturbed and asymmetrical, with a cold front following a possible bow shock. We discuss possible origins of the disturbed hot halo, including sloshing by a nearby object, merger, ram pressure by external hotter gas, and nuclear outburst. We consider that the first two mechanisms are likely explanations for the disturbed hot halo, with a slight preference for a minor merger with a low impact parameter because of the match with simulations and previous optical observations. In this case, NGC 1132 may be a rare example of unusual late mergers seen in recent simulations. Regardless of the origin of the disturbed hot halo, the paradigm of the fossil system needs to be reconsidered.

  5. Infrared and optical properties of the emission-line galaxies NGC 1386 and NGC 1365

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, M.M.; Frogel, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    We have obtained optical spectrophotometry and broad-band infrared data for the nucleus of the emission-line galaxy NGC 1386. These observations are discussed and compared with our own optical spectrophotometry as well as published optical and infrared measurements of the nucleus of the neighboring ''hot spot'' galaxy NGC 1365. Both galaxies show large infared excesses. The very high excitation emission-line spectrum of NGC 1386 is that of a type of 2 Seyfert, making this galaxy the closest known member of this class of objects. We find direct evidence for a significant early-type stellar population in the nucleus of NGC 1365, thus strengthening the previous conclusion that the nuclear emission lines of this galaxy are excited by the radiation of young, hot stars. In addition, we confirm the presence of weak [Ne V] and He II emission, which suggests that a nonthermal source of ionization may also be present. The nucleus of NGC 1365 is emitting a factor of 10 more energy in both the optical emission lines and the infrared than is that of NGC 1386. Finally, we point out the uncertainty in identification of NGC 1365 as an X-ray source in view of its proximity of a Seyfert 2, galaxy, several of which have now been shown to be strong X-ray emitters

  6. FISICA observations of the starburst galaxy, NGC 1569

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Raines, S. N.; Gruel, N.; Elston, R.; Guzman, R.; Julian, J.; Boreman, G.; Glenn, P. E.; Hull-Allen, C. G.; Hoffman, J.; Rodgers, M.; Thompson, K.; Flint, S.; Comstock, L.; Myrick, B.

    2006-06-01

    Using the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) we obtained observations of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569. We present our JH band spectra, particularly noting the existence of extended emission in Paschen β and He I.

  7. HST/ACS DIRECT AGES OF THE DWARF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES NGC 147 AND NGC 185

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geha, M. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Weisz, D. [Astronomy Department, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Grocholski, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Dolphin, A. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Marel, R. P. van der [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Guhathakurta, P., E-mail: marla.geha@yale.edu [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We present the deepest optical photometry for any dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy based on Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) observations of the Local Group dE galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185. Our F606W and F814W color–magnitude diagrams are the first to reach below the oldest main sequence turnoff in a dE galaxy, allowing us to determine full star formation histories in these systems. The ACS fields are located roughly ∼1.5 effective radii from the galaxy center to avoid photometric crowding. While both ACS fields show unambiguous evidence for old and intermediate age stars, the mean age of NGC 147 is ∼4–5 Gyr younger as compared to NGC 185. In NGC 147, only 40% of stars were in place 12.5 Gyr ago (z ∼ 5), with the bulk of the remaining stellar population forming between 5 to 7 Gyr. In contrast, 70% of stars were formed in NGC 185 prior to 12.5 Gyr ago with the majority of the remaining population forming between 8 to 10 Gyr ago. Star formation has ceased in both ACS fields for at least 3 Gyr. Previous observations in the central regions of NGC 185 show evidence for star formation as recent as 100 Myr ago, and a strong metallicity gradient with radius. This implies a lack of radial mixing between the center of NGC 185 and our ACS field. The lack of radial gradients in NGC 147 suggests that our inferred SFHs are more representative of its global history. We interpret the inferred differences in star formation histories to imply an earlier infall time into the M31 environment for NGC 185 as compared to NGC 147.

  8. The SAURON project - X. The orbital anisotropy of elliptical and lenticular galaxies : revisiting the (V/sigma,epsilon) diagram with integral-field stellar kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappellari, Michele; Emsellem, Eric; Bacon, R.; Bureau, M.; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the orbital distribution of elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies using SAURON integral-field stellar kinematics within about one effective (half-light) radius. We construct the anisotropy diagram, which relates the ratio of the ordered and random motion in a galaxy (V/sigma) to its

  9. Galaxy evolution in groups. NGC 3447/NGC 3447A: the odd couple in LGG 225

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, P.; Marino, A.; Rampazzo, R.; Plana, H.; Rosado, M.; Arias, L.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Local Group (LG) analogs (LGAs) are galaxy associations dominated by a few bright spirals reminiscent of the LG. The NGC 3447/NGC 3447A system is a member of the LGG 225 group, a nearby LGA. This system is considered a physical pair composed of an intermediate-luminosity late-type spiral, NGC 3447 itself, and an irregular companion, NGC 3447A, linked by a faint, short filament of matter. A ring-like structure in the NGC 3447 outskirts has been emphasised by Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) observations. Aims: This work aims to contribute to the study of galaxy evolution in low-density environments, a favourable habitat to highly effective encounters, shedding light on the evolution of the NGC 3447/NGC 3447A system. Methods: We performed a multi-λ analysis of the surface photometry of this system to derive its spectral energy distribution and structural properties using ultraviolet (UV), Swift UVOT, and optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images complemented with available far-IR observations. We also characterised the velocity field of the pair using two-dimensional Hα kinematical observations of the system obtained with PUMA Fabry-Perot interferometer at the 2.1 m telescope of San Pedro Mártir (Mexico). All these data are used to constrain smooth particle hydrodynamic simulations with chemo-photometric implementation to shed light on the evolution of this system. Results: The luminosity profiles, from UV to optical wavelengths, are all consistent with the presence of a disc extending and including NGC 3447A. The overall velocity field does not emphasise any significant rotation pattern, rather a small velocity gradient between NGC 3447 and NGC 3447A. Our simulation, detached from a large grid explored to best-fit the global properties of the system, suggests that this arises from an encounter between two halos of equal mass. Conclusions: NGC 3447 and NGC 3447A belong to the same halo, NGC 3447A being a substructure of the same disk including NGC

  10. A tidally distorted dwarf galaxy near NGC 4449.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R M; Collins, M L M; Black, C M; Longstaff, F A; Koch, A; Benson, A; Reitzel, D B

    2012-02-08

    NGC 4449 is a nearby Magellanic irregular starburst galaxy with a B-band absolute magnitude of -18 and a prominent, massive, intermediate-age nucleus at a distance from Earth of 3.8 megaparsecs (ref. 3). It is wreathed in an extraordinary neutral hydrogen (H I) complex, which includes rings, shells and a counter-rotating core, spanning ∼90 kiloparsecs (kpc; refs 1, 4). NGC 4449 is relatively isolated, although an interaction with its nearest known companion--the galaxy DDO 125, some 40 kpc to the south--has been proposed as being responsible for the complexity of its H I structure. Here we report the presence of a dwarf galaxy companion to NGC 4449, namely NGC 4449B. This companion has a V-band absolute magnitude of -13.4 and a half-light radius of 2.7 kpc, with a full extent of around 8 kpc. It is in a transient stage of tidal disruption, similar to that of the Sagittarius dwarf near the Milky Way. NGC 4449B exhibits a striking S-shaped morphology that has been predicted for disrupting galaxies but has hitherto been seen only in a dissolving globular cluster. We also detect an additional arc or disk ripple embedded in a two-component stellar halo, including a component extending twice as far as previously known, to about 20 kpc from the galaxy's centre.

  11. Millimeter interferometer observations of infrared luminous galaxies - NGC 828 and NGC 6240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Scoville, N.Z.; Sanders, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Millimeter interferometer observations of the infrared luminous galaxies NGC 828 and NGC 6240 at about 7 arcsec resolution are reported which reveal details of the spatial distribution and kinematics of molecular gas in these two high-luminosity IRAS galaxies. The centers of both galaxies have massive concentrations of molecular gas representing a large fraction of the total dynamical mass. These regions are likely to be extremely unstable to gravitational instability. The high infrared luminosity of these galaxies is probably triggered by the galactic interaction. However, the estimated available kinetic energy in the ISM indicates that the luminosity can be provided by the bulk kinetic energy release for no more than 10 to the 6th yr, far too short compared to the time scale for merging. In both galaxies, the CO data support the general picture that these are merger systems. 34 refs

  12. The Globular Cluster System of the Spiral Galaxy NGC 7814

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, Katherine L.; Zepf, Stephen E.

    2003-11-01

    We present the results of a wide-field photometric study of the globular cluster (GC) system of the edge-on Sab spiral NGC 7814. This is the first spiral to be fully analyzed from our survey of the GC systems of a large sample of galaxies beyond the Local Group. NGC 7814 is of particular interest because a previous study estimated that it has 500-1000 GCs, giving it the largest specific frequency (SN) known for a spiral. Understanding this galaxy's GC system is important in terms of our understanding of the GC populations of spirals in general and has implications for the formation of massive galaxies. We observed the galaxy in BVR filters with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope and used image classification and three-color photometry to select GC candidates. We also analyzed archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of NGC 7814, both to help quantify the contamination level of the WIYN GC candidate list and to detect GCs in the inner part of the galaxy halo. Combining HST data with high-quality ground-based images allows us to trace the entire radial extent of this galaxy's GC system and determine the total number of GCs directly through observation. We find that rather than being an especially high-SN spiral, NGC 7814 has <~200 GCs and SN~1, making it comparable to the two most well-studied spiral galaxies, the Milky Way and M31. We explore the implications of these results for models of the formation of galaxies and their GC systems. The initial results from our survey suggest that the GC systems of typical elliptical galaxies can be accounted for by the merger of two or more spirals, but that for highly luminous elliptical galaxies, additional physical processes may be needed.

  13. Near-infrared to Mid-infrared Observations of Galaxy Mergers: NGC 2782 and NGC 7727

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Wu, Ronin; Ohsawa, Ryou; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Roellig, Thomas L.

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of near-infrared-to-mid-infrared (NIR-to-MIR) imaging and NIR spectroscopic observations of two galaxy mergers, NGC 2782 (Arp 215) and NGC 7727 (Arp 222), with the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. NGC 2782 shows extended MIR emission in the eastern side of the galaxy, which corresponds to the eastern tidal tail seen in the H I 21 cm map, while NGC 7727 shows extended MIR emission in the north of the galaxy, which is similar to the plumes seen in the residual image at the K-band after subtracting a galaxy model. Both extended structures are thought to have formed in association with their merger events. They show excess emission at 7–15 μm, which can be attributed to emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), while the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) decline longward of 24 μm, suggesting that very small grains (VSGs) are deficient. These characteristics of the observed MIR SED may be explained if PAHs are formed by fragmentation of VSGs during merger events. The star formation rate is estimated from the MIR PAH emission in the eastern tail region of NGC 2782 and it is in fair agreement with those estimated from Hα and [C II] 158 μm. MIR observations are efficient for the study of dust processing and structures formed during merger events.

  14. Black Holes in Bulgeless Galaxies: An XMM-Newton Investigation of NGC 3367 AND NGC 4536

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, W.; Satyapal, S.; Gliozzi, M.; Cheung, C. C.; Sambruna, R. M.; Eracleous, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of optically identified active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the local Universe reside in host galaxies with prominent bulges, supporting the hypothesis that black hole formation and growth is fundamentally connected to the build-up of galaxy bulges. However, recent mid-infrared spectroscopic studies with Spitzer of a sample of optically "normal" late-type galaxies reveal remarkably the presence of high-ionization [NeV] lines in several sources, providing strong evidence for AGNs in these galaxies. We present follow-up X-ray observations recently obtained with XMM-Newton of two such sources, the late-type optically normal galaxies NGC 3367 and NGC 4536. Both sources are detected in our observations. Detailed spectral analysis reveals that for both galaxies, the 2-10 keV emission is dominated by a power law with an X-ray luminosity in the L(sub 2- 10 keV) approximates 10(exp 39) - 10(exp 40) ergs/s range, consistent with low luminosity AGNs. While there is a possibility that X-ray binaries account for some fraction of the observed X-ray luminosity, we argue that this fraction is negligible. These observations therefore add to the growing evidence that the fraction of late-type galaxies hosting AGNs is significantly underestimated using optical observations alone. A comparison of the midinfrared [NeV] luminosity and the X-ray luminosities suggests the presence of an additional highly absorbed X-ray source in both galaxies, and that the black hole masses are in the range of 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) solar M for NGC 3367 and 10(exp 4) - (exp 10) solar M for NGC 4536

  15. HI observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 2146

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taramopoulos, A; Payne, H; Briggs, FH

    NGC 2146 is a peculiar spiral galaxy which is currently undergoing a major burst of star formation and is immersed in a extended HT structure that has morphological and kinematical resemblence to a strong tidal interaction. This paper reports aperture synthesis observations carried out in the 21 cm

  16. The optical morphology of the kinematically peculiar galaxy NGC 4826

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterbos, R. A. M.; Braun, R.; Kennicutt, R. C., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We present charge coupled device (CCD) BVI photometry of the galaxy NGC 4826, the Evil- or Black-Eye galaxy, which was recently found to have two counter-rotating gas disks. We study the extinction in the inner gas disk, which gives NGC 4826 its nickname, and find that this disk can be coplanar or close to coplanar with the stellar disk and still cause the strong absorption that is seen on one side of the galaxy. We try to constrain the orientation of the outer gas disk by looking for a small overall asymmetry in the light distribution which would be present if there is dust in this disk, and if it is significantly tilted with respect to the main body of the galaxy. The test shows that the light distribution does not preclude the outer gas disk from being coplanar with the stellar disk as well. NGC 4826 has a small bulge, with a bulge to total light ratio of 0.17 in B. We confirm that this galaxy is indeed a spiral, with a perfect exponential disk down to 27 mag/sq arcsec in B. The close to coplanar orientation of the gas disks is one aspect which is in good agreement with what is expected on the basis of a merger model for the counter-rotating gas. The rotation direction of the inner gas disk with respect to the stars, however, is not. In addition, the existence of a well defined exponential disk probably implies that if a merger did occur it must have been between a gas-rich dwarf and a spiral, not between two equal mass spirals. The stellar spiral arms of NGC 4826 are trailing over part of the disk and leading in the outer disk. Recent numerical calculations by Byrd et al. for NGC 4622 suggest that long lasting leading arms could be formed by a close retrograde passage of a small companion. In this scenario, the outer counter-rotating gas disk in NGC 4826 might be the tidally stripped gas from the dwarf. However, in NGC 4826 the outer arms are leading, while it appears that in NGC 4622 the inner arms are leading. A realistic N-body/hydro simulation of a dwarf

  17. Gas component parameters in the nucleus of galaxy NGC5879

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, G.T.; Mineva, V.A.; Kyazumov, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Relative intensities of the emission lines from the nucleus of galaxy NGC 5879 are determined, using spectra obtained by the 125-cm ZTE telescope at the Crimea Station of State Astronomical Institute Shane. On the basis of these data, the luminosity in the line HSUB(α) is determined: LSUB(Hα)= 3.43.10 38 erg/sec; also the mass of gas: MSUB(gas)= 1.10 36 g, and other quantities, for H=75 km/s Mpc. The electron density of the gas, nSUB(e), is estimated to be 1550 cm -3 . Nitrogen and sulphur ion contents are correspondingly lgN + =7.09 and lgS + =6.53, assuming lgH=12.00. The NGC 5879 galaxy exibits a weak activity, expressed in relatively strong emission lines, and can be referred to galaxies of the M51 or M81 type, studied in detail by Peimbert

  18. The environment and dynamics of the radio galaxy NGC 6251

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Pierre Nicolas

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is primarily a case study of the low-power radio galaxy NGC 6251. New radio (VLA), optical imaging (KPNO), optical spectroscopy (MMTO) and X-ray (Chandra) data are complemented with existing HST, ROSAT and ASCA results to give a comprehensive multi-wavelength overview of this spectacular source on different size scales. On the large scale, the gravity field is probed by measuring the velocity dispersion of the cluster members associated with NGC 6251 and relating this to the cluster's X-ray emission. The cluster is found to be a poor one, and the X-ray-emitting gas confined within is consequently cool. Potential optical and X-ray jet detections are discussed, and spectral distributions of three jet knots are modeled. The results suggest that synchrotron radiation most convincingly explains the radio to X-ray spectrum. The issue of the dynamics of the host galaxy and their relation to the radio structure is briefly discussed, but proves largely inconclusive, due to observational limitations. To probe the inner regions of NGC 6251, L-band spectral line radio observations are analysed, and show 21 cm neutral hydrogen absorption against the continuum of the galactic core. The HI spectrum shows a rare double-peaked absorption profile straddling the systemic velocity of the galaxy, suggesting the existence of both infalling and outflowing components. It is shown that the amount of infalling gas is more than enough to fuel the central engine of the AGN by accretion. Two models are proposed to account for the outflow, including an outflowing 'wind' that explains both the HI absorption component and the blue-shifted optical-line-emitting gas. The technique of using optical spectroscopic observations to probe cluster environments is also applied to the low-power radio galaxy NGC 326. The measured velocity dispersion is found to be consistent with the X-ray temperature of the cluster dominated by NGC 326. (author)

  19. Extragalactic molecular line surveys: the starburst galaxy NGC253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, S.; Mauersberger, R.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Henkel, C.; García-Burillo, S.

    Figure 1 shows the first spectral line survey towards an extragalactic source, the starburst galaxy NGC253. The scan, carried out at the IRAM 30m telescope, covers ~86% of the observable 2mm atmospheric window from 129.1 to 175.2GHz. A total of ~ 100 spectral features have been identified as transitions from 25 different molecular species. Ten out of these 25 molecules have been detected for the first time towards a starbust galaxy. NO, NS, SO2, H2S and H2CS were reported by Martín et al.(2003), Martín et al.(2005) while C2S, CH2NH, NH2CN, HOCO+ and C3H are tentatively detected in the survey. These new detections implies an increase of ~ 40% in the 27 molecular species previosly detected outside the galaxy (Mauersberger & Henkel(1993), Mauersberger et al.(1995), Sage & Ziurys(1995), Heikkila et al.(1999).) Additionaly, DNC and N2D+, two deuterated species never obseved in the extragalactic ISM, are tentatively identified. The molecular abundances derived for each species in NGC253 have been compared with five Galactic sources known to be prototypes of different types of chemistry. The chemical complexity of NGC253 resembles closely that observed towards prototypical Galactic Center molecular clouds (SgrB2(OH) in, thought to be mainly dominated by low velocity shocks Martín-Pintado et al.(2001). This comparison certainly indicates that the chemistry of the molecular environment within the nuclear region of NGC253 and that in Galactic Center molecular clouds are driven by similar physical processes. Also a comparison has been performed with five selected prominent galaxies which clearly shows up the chemical differenciation between nuclei of galaxies. The chemical complexity of IC342, and also that of NGC4945 except for the observed lack of SiO, clearly resemble that of NGC253. On the other hand, it is remarkable the different chemical complexity observed between the starburst nuclei within NGC253 and M82. This difference has been interpreted in terms of the

  20. Ultraviolet imaging of the AGN+starburst galaxy NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Susan G.; Fanelli, Michael N.; Roberts, Laura J.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Bohlin, Ralph; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1994-01-01

    Images of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 were obtained at two ultraviolet wavelengths by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT). These data represent the first detailed UV imagery of a composite (active galactic nucleus + starburst) disk galaxy. NGC 1068 cotains multiple components at UV wavelengths: the central active galactic nucleus; a population of very luminous starburst knots; a bright oval inner disk; and a fainter, more circular halo. The most luminous knot, which is located approximately 750 pc from the nucleus at PA 315 deg, is approximately 80 times the luminosity of 30 Doradus and gives NGC 1068 a 'double nucleus' appearance in the UV. Significant extended emission is observed throughout the disk, unlike other disk galaxies so far observed in the UV. The radial brightness profile in both UV bandpasses generally follows an exponential decline to approximately 5 kpc. A faint halo extending to approximately 13 kpc is likely to be a galaxian-sized reflection nebula where ambient dust scatters the intense UV continuum from the inner galaxy. UV colors show a striking asymmetric morphology, which is correlated with the observed molecular CO emission.

  1. S0 galaxies in Formax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedregal...[], A. G.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Merrifield, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1......Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1...

  2. Dark and luminous matter in the NGC 3992 group of galaxies - I. The large barred spiral NGC 3992

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, R; Verheijen, MAW

    Detailed neutral hydrogen observations have been obtained of the large barred spiral galaxy NGC 3992 and its three small companion galaxies, UGC 6923, UGC 6940, and UGC 6969. For the main galaxy, the Hi distribution is regular with a low level radial extension outside the stellar disc. However, at

  3. ISM Parameters in the Normal Galaxy NGC 5713

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, S. D.; Malhotra, S.; Lim, T.; Helou, G.; Beichman, C. A.; Dinerstein, H.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Hunter, D. A.; Lo, K. Y.; Lu, N. Y.; hide

    1996-01-01

    We report ISO Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) observations fo the Sbc(s) pec galaxy NGC 5713. We have obtained strong detections of the fine-structure forbidden transitions [C(sub ii)] 158(micro)m, [O(sub i)]63(micro)m, and [O(sub iii)] 88(micro)m, and significant upper limits for[N(sub ii)]122(micro)m, [O(sub iii)] 52(micro)m, and [N(sub iii)] 57(micro)m. We also detect the galaxy's dust continuum emission between 43 and 197 microns.

  4. GMRT Low Radio Frequency Study of the Wolf Rayet Galaxy NGC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with a background galaxy, 2MASX J12153795+3622218. Key words. Galaxy: radio continuum—galaxy: Wolf Rayet—individual: NGC 4214. 1. Introduction. Galaxies containing the signatures of Wolf Rayet stars such as broad He II 4686 Å emission feature in their optical spectra are known as Wolf Rayet (WR) galaxies.

  5. Testing the nature of SO galaxies using planetary nebula kinematics in NGC 1023

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, E.; Merrifield, M. R.; Coccato, L.; Arnaboldi, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Douglas, N. G.; Freeman, K. C.; Gerhard, O.; Kuijken, K.; De Lorenzi, F.; Napolitano, N. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the manner in which lenticular galaxies are formed by studying their stellar kinematics: an S0 formed from a fading spiral galaxy should display similar cold outer disc kinematics to its progenitor, while an S0 formed in a minor merger should be more dominated by random motions. In a

  6. The peculiar spiral galaxy NGC 4258

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albada, G.D. van.

    1978-01-01

    Observations have been obtained of the 21 cm line and continuum emission, both with the WSRT and the 100m telescope of the Max Planck Institut fuer Radioastronomie in Bonn. The reduction of these observations is described, maps of the distribution of the neutral hydrogen and the continuum are presented and an analysis is given. The normal aspects and the anomalous arms are discussed. Methods for the reduction and analysis of H I observations are reviewed and how the ejected matter in NGC 4258 may have behaved is discussed. Some suggestions are made for further, mainly observational research. (C.F.)

  7. Mapping the Supernova-Rich Fireworks Galaxy NGC 6946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Locke; Levesque, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Supernovae (SNe) are the spectacularly violent deaths of evolved young massive stars, which expel a shock wave into the intergalactic medium that in turn can spark star formation and disperse heavy elements into their host galaxy. While a SN event can be classified by its spectral signature, determining the nature of a SN progenitor depends upon chance photometry taken prior to the event. By turning to the study of SN host environments and their surrounding interstellar medium within the unique and rare population of galaxies that have hosted three or more SN events within the last century, we are granted the opportunity to study the locations and environmental properties of stellar populations prone to supernova progenitor production. Using moderate-resolution optical slit spectra taken with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m DIS spectrograph, our goal is to map metallicity, ionization parameter, and star formation rates using emission line diagnostic ratios across each SN-rich galaxy. Dubbed the “Fireworks Galaxy” at a distance of 5.6 ± 1.5 Mpc, NGC 6946 is of particular interest as it has uniquely produced ten core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and several other massive star transients within the last century. We present spatially-resolved metallicity and star formation rate (SFR) maps of NGC 6946, tracing fifty-five slit orientations which span the face of the galaxy and cover all CCSN host sites. Future work will include both stellar population synthesis modelling to determine stellar populations, ages, and SFR histories in NGC 6946 and a further expansion of this analysis to the other SN-rich host galaxies in our sample.

  8. Small-Scale Systems of Galaxies. II. Properties of the NGC 4756 Group of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützbauch, R.; Kelm, B.; Focardi, P.; Trinchieri, G.; Rampazzo, R.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2005-04-01

    This paper is part of a series that focuses on investigating galaxy formation and evolution in small-scale systems of galaxies in low-density environments. We present results from a study of the NGC 4756 group, which is dominated by the elliptical galaxy NGC 4756. The characteristics of the group are investigated through (1) the detailed investigation of the morphological, photometric, and spectroscopic properties of nine galaxies among the dominant members of the group; (2) the determination of the photometric parameters of the faint galaxy population in an area of 34'×34' centered on NGC 4756 and (3) an analysis of the X-ray emission in the area based on archival data. The nine member galaxies are located in the core part of the NGC 4756 group (a strip ~300 kpc in diameter, H0=70 km s-1 Mpc-1), which has a very loose configuration. The central part of the NGC 4756 group contains a significant fraction of early-type galaxies. Three new group members with previously unknown systemic velocities are identified, one of which is type dE. At about 7.5 arcmin southwest of NGC 4756 a substructure of the group is detected, including IC 829, MCG -2-33-35, MCG -2-33-36, and MCG -2-33-38, that meets the Hickson criteria for being a compact group. Most of the galaxies in this substructure show interaction signatures. We do not detect apparent fine structure and signatures of recent interaction events in the early-type galaxy population, with the exception of a strong dust lane in the elliptical galaxy MCG -2-33-38. However, this galaxy displays signatures of nuclear activity. Strong [O III], [N II], and [S II] line emission, combined with comparatively weak but broad Hα emission, suggests an intermediate Seyfert type classification. Although the area is heavily contaminated by the background cluster A1631, X-ray data suggest the presence of a hot intergalactic medium related to the detected X-ray emission of the group. The present results are discussed in the context of

  9. Hard Gamma Ray Emission from the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James M.; Marscher, Alan M.

    1996-01-01

    We have completed the study to search for hard gamma ray emission from the starburst galaxy NGC 253. Since supernovae are thought to provide the hard gamma ray emission from the Milky Way, starburst galaxies, with their extraordinarily high supernova rates, are prime targets to search for hard gamma ray emission. We conducted a careful search for hard gamma ray emission from NGC 253 using the archival data from the EGRET experiment aboard the CGRO. Because this starburst galaxy happens to lie near the South Galactic Pole, the Galactic gamma ray background is minimal. We found no significant hard gamma ray signal toward NGC 253, although a marginal signal of about 1.5 sigma was found. Because of the low Galactic background, we obtained a very sensitive upper limit to the emission of greater than 100 MeV gamma-rays of 8 x 10(exp -8) photons/sq cm s. Since we expected to detect hard gamma ray emission, we investigated the theory of gamma ray production in a dense molecular medium. We used a leaky-box model to simulate diffusive transport in a starburst region. Since starburst galaxies have high infrared radiation fields, we included the effects of self-Compton scattering, which are usually ignored. By modelling the expected gamma-ray and synchrotron spectra from NGC 253, we find that roughly 5 - 15% of the energy from supernovae is transferred to cosmic rays in the starburst. This result is consistent with supernova acceleration models, and is somewhat larger than the value derived for the Galaxy (3 - 10%). Our calculations match the EGRET and radio data very well with a supernova rate of 0.08/ yr, a magnetic field B approx. greater than 5 x 10(exp -5) G, a density n approx. less than 100/sq cm, a photon density U(sub ph) approx. 200 eV/sq cm, and an escape time scale tau(sub 0) approx. less than 10 Myr. The models also suggest that NGC 253 should be detectable with only a factor of 2 - 3 improvement in sensitivity. Our results are consistent with the standard picture

  10. A Multiwavelength Study of the Starburst Galaxy NGC 7771

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Richard I.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Ward, Martin J.

    1997-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the interacting starburst galaxy NGC 7771, including new optical and ultra-violet spectra and a previously unpublished soft X-ray ROSAT image and spectrum. The far-infrared, radio, and X-ray fluxes suggest that a massive burst of star-formation is currently in progress but the small equivalent width of the Balmer emission lines (equivalent width H(alpha approximately equals 100 A), the weak UV flux, the low abundance of ionised oxygen, and the shape of the optical spectrum lead us to conclude that there are few 0 stars. This might normally suggest that star-formation has ceased but the galaxy's barred gravitational potential and large gas reserves imply that this should not be so, and we therefore consider other explanations. We argue that the observations cannot be due to effects of geometry, density bounded nebulae, or dust within the nebulae, and conclude that a truncated IMF is required. The dwarf galaxy NGC 7770 appears to be in the initial stages of a merger with NGC 7771, and the resulting tidal perturbations may have induced the apparent two-armed spiral pattern, and driven a substantial fraction of the disk gas inwards. The presence of a bulge in NGC 7771 may be moderating the starburst so that, while still occuring on a large scale with a supernova rate of 0.8-1/yr, it is less violent and the IMF has a relatively low upper mass limit. We find that there is a cluster of stars obscuring part of the starburst region, and we offer an explanation of its origin.

  11. Far UV study on the non-thermal activity in the narrow line galaxies NGC 4507 and NGC 5506

    CERN Document Server

    Bergeron, J; Perola, C

    1981-01-01

    The narrow line high excitation galaxies NGC 4507 and NGC 5506 were observed with the IUE satellite. The continua of both galaxies, when combined with optical observations, show a flattening at log nu >14.9. The reddening correction cannot be estimated with accuracy. The UV non-stellar component is hard; after reddening correction it can be fitted with a power law, f/sub nu / varies as nu /sup - alpha /. The energy content in the Lyman continuum is large enough to power the narrow line region providing the coverage factor is of order unity. In the case of NGC 4507 the spectral lines are studied. (25 refs).

  12. Dark matter deprivation in the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Richard R.; Salinas, Ricardo; Richtler, Tom

    2015-02-01

    Context. Previous studies have shown that the kinematics of the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507 do not necessarily require dark matter. This is troubling because, in the context of ΛCDM cosmologies, all galaxies should have a large dark matter component. Aims: Our aims are to determine the rotation and velocity dispersion profile out to larger radii than do previous studies, and, therefore, more accurately estimate of the dark matter content of the galaxy. Methods: We use penalised pixel-fitting software to extract velocities and velocity dispersions from GMOS slit mask spectra. Using Jeans and MONDian modelling, we then produce models with the goal of fitting the velocity dispersion data. Results: NGC 7507 has a two-component stellar halo, with the outer halo counter rotating with respect to the inner halo, with a kinematic boundary at a radius of ~110'' (~12.4 kpc). The velocity dispersion profile exhibits an increase at ~70'' (~7.9 kpc), reminiscent of several other elliptical galaxies. Our best fit models are those under mild anisotropy, which include ~100 times less dark matter than predicted by ΛCDM, although mildly anisotropic models that are completely dark matter free fit the measured dynamics almost equally well. Our MONDian models, both isotropic and anisotropic, systematically fail to reproduce the measured velocity dispersions at almost all radii. Conclusions: The counter-rotating outer halo implies a merger remnant, as does the increase in velocity dispersion at ~70''. From simulations it seems plausible that the merger that caused the increase in velocity dispersion was a spiral-spiral merger. Our Jeans models are completely consistent with a no dark matter scenario, however, some dark matter can be accommodated, although at much lower concentrations than predicted by ΛCDM simulations. This indicates that NGC 7507 may be a dark matter free elliptical galaxy. Regardless of whether NGC 7507 is completely dark matter free or very dark matter poor

  13. Reverberation mapping of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, B. M.; Grier, C. J.; Pogge, R. W.; De Rosa, G.; Denney, K. D.; Martini, Paul; Zu, Y.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B.; Araya Salvo, C.; Beatty, T. G.; Bird, J. C. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, 25 Park Place, Suite 605, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Sergeev, S. G.; Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny Crimea 298409 (Russian Federation); Kaspi, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Minezaki, T. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, 181-0015 Tokyo (Japan); Siverd, R. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Bord, D. J., E-mail: peterson.12@osu.edu [Department of Natural Sciences, The University of Michigan—Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); and others

    2014-11-10

    A large reverberation-mapping study of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469 has yielded emission-line lags for Hβ λ4861 and He II λ4686 and a central black hole mass measurement M {sub BH} ≈ 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, consistent with previous measurements. A very low level of variability during the monitoring campaign precluded meeting our original goal of recovering velocity-delay maps from the data, but with the new Hβ measurement, NGC 7469 is no longer an outlier in the relationship between the size of the Hβ-emitting broad-line region and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus. It was necessary to detrend the continuum and Hβ and He II λ4686 line light curves and those from archival UV data for different time-series analysis methods to yield consistent results.

  14. THE HOT INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM OF THE INTERACTING GALAXY NGC 4490

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richings, A. J.; Fabbiano, G.; Wang Junfeng; Roberts, T. P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the hot interstellar medium (ISM) in the spiral galaxy NGC 4490, which is interacting with the irregular galaxy NGC 4485, using ∼100 ks of Chandra ACIS-S observations. The high angular resolution of Chandra enables us to remove discrete sources and perform spatially resolved spectroscopy for the star-forming regions and associated outflows, allowing us to look at how the physical properties of the hot ISM such as temperature, hydrogen column density, and metal abundances vary throughout these galaxies. We find temperatures of >0.41 keV and 0.85 +0.59 -0.12 keV, electron densities of >1.87η -1/2 x 10 -3 cm -3 and 0.21 +0.03 -0.04 η -1/2 x 10 -3 cm -3 , and hot gas masses of >1.1η 1/2 x 10 7 M sun and ∼3.7η 1/2 x 10 7 M sun in the plane and halo of NGC 4490, respectively, where η is the filling factor of the hot gas. The abundance ratios of Ne, Mg, and Si with respect to Fe are found to be consistent with those predicted by theoretical models of type II supernovae (SNe). The thermal energy in the hot ISM is ∼5% of the total mechanical energy input from SNe, so it is likely that the hot ISM has been enriched and heated by type II SNe. The X-ray emission is anticorrelated with the Hα and mid-infrared emission, suggesting that the hot gas is bounded by filaments of cooler ionized hydrogen mixed with warm dust.

  15. The ULX Population in the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, K. A.; Heckman, T. M.; Strickland, D. K.

    2004-01-01

    Optimism is mounting for the existence of intermediate mass black holes (IMBH), which occupy the mass spectrum somewhere between the stellar-mass and supermassive varieties. IMBH are naturally predicted by theoretical stellar and black hole evolution models, but the strong attention to them began only recently with the discovery of ultraluminous x-ray sources (ULX). If isotropic and accreting normally, ULX have luminosities tens to thousands of times greater than the Eddington luminosity of a neutron star or stellar-mass black hole. A standard interpretation of their x-ray flux implies that they are powered by IMBH. On the other hand, they may be stellar-mass black holes that are beamed or emit anisotropically. Therefore, the exact nature of ULX is highly controversial. ULX are common in starburst galaxies. At a distance of only 3 Mpc, NGC 253 is bright, nearby, and one of the best-studied starburst galaxies. Approximately 50 distinct x-ray point sources are detected in or near the plane of the galaxy. At least six of these are ULX, with luminosities greater than 10 times that expected for a stellar-mass, accreting compact object. We present new Chandra data from an 80 ksec observation of NGC 253 obtained in 2003 that provides high quality spectra of these sources. Comparing the 1999 and 2003 Chandra observations, the sources have varied significantly over the course of four years, with one of the ULX disappearing completely. The ULX spectra are similar to black-hole XRBs and at least one appears to possess an iron K line. We will discuss what insight these data provide for the nature of ULX in NGC 253 .

  16. Deep imaging of the shell elliptical galaxy NGC3923 with MegaCam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílek, Michal; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Gwyn, S.; Ebrová, Ivana; Bartošková, Kateřina; Jungwiert, Bruno; Jílková, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 588, April (2016), A77/1-A77/12 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : elliptical and lenticular galaxies * peculiar * photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  17. Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby Galaxies (SWAN): Resolved Ammonia Thermometry and Water and Methanol Masers in IC 342, NGC 6946, and NGC 2146

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Mark; Ott, Jürgen; Rand, Richard; Meier, David S.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Schinnerer, Eva

    2018-04-01

    The Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby galaxies (SWAN) studies atomic and molecular species across the nuclei of four star-forming galaxies: NGC 253, IC 342, NGC 6946, and NGC 2146. As part of this survey, we present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array molecular line observations of three galaxies: IC 342, NGC 6946, and NGC 2146. NGC 253 is covered in a previous paper. These galaxies were chosen to span an order of magnitude in star formation rates and to select a variety of galaxy types. We target the metastable transitions of ammonia NH3(1, 1) to (5, 5), the 22 GHz water (H2O) (616–523) transition, and the 36.1 GHz methanol (CH3OH) (4‑1–30) transition. We use the NH3 metastable lines to perform thermometry of the dense molecular gas. We show evidence for uniform heating across the central kiloparsec of IC 342 with two temperature components for the molecular gas, similar to NGC 253, of 27 and 308 K, and that the dense molecular gas in NGC 2146 has a temperature <86 K. We identify two new water masers in IC 342, and one new water maser in each of NGC 6946 and NGC 2146. The two galaxies NGC 253 and NGC 2146, with the most vigorous star formation, host H2O kilomasers. Lastly, we detect the first 36 GHz CH3OH masers in IC 342 and NGC 6946. For the four external galaxies the total CH3OH luminosity in each galaxy suggests a correlation with galactic star formation rate, whereas the morphology of the emission is similar to that of HNCO, a weak shock tracer.

  18. HI study of the warped spiral galaxy NGC5055 : a disk/dark matter halo offset?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, G.; Fraternali, F.; Oosterloo, T.; Sancisi, R.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: We present a study of the HI distribution and the dynamics of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC5055 based on observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The gaseous disk of NGC5055 extends out to about 40 kpc, equal to 3.5 R_25 and shows a pronounced warp, starting at the end of

  19. HI study of the warped spiral galaxy NGC5055 : a disk/dark matter halo offset?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, G; Fraternali, F; Oosterloo, T; Sancisi, R

    We present a study of the Hi distribution and dynamics of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5055 based on observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The gaseous disk of NGC5055 extends out to about 40 kpc, equal to 3.5 R-25, and shows a pronounced warp that starts at the end of the

  20. Chandra Data Analysis of H2O Megamaser Galaxy NGC 4258 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. Chandra Data Analysis of H2O Megamaser Galaxy NGC 4258. Baisheng Liu, Jiangshui Zhang. ∗. & Jin Wang. Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China. *e-mail: jszhang@gzhu.edu.cn. Abstract. Chandra observations of NGC 4258 were analyzed to inves-.

  1. ROSAT PSPC observations of the early-type galaxies NGC 507 and NGC 499: Central cooling and mass determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Fabbiano, G.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a deep observation of NGC 507 and NGC 499 with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC). The X-ray emission of NGC 507 is extended at least out to 1000 sec (458 kpc at a distance of 94.5 Mpc). The radial profile of X-ray surface brightness goes as Sigma(sub x) is approximately r(exp -1.8) outside the core region. The radial profile is a function of energy such that the softer X-rays have a smaller core radius and a flatter slope. Spectral analysis reveals that the emission temperature, with an average of 1 keV, peaks at an intermediate radius of 2-3 min and falls toward the center (possibly decreases outward as well). The absorption column density is consistent with the Galactic line-of-sight value. The X-ray emission of NGC 499 is extended to 300 sec and suggests a similarly cooler core. The cooler cores of NGC 507 and NGC 499 are strong evidence of the presence of cooling flows in these galaxies. Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium outside the cooling radius, the estimated mass-to-light ratio of NGC 507 is 97 +/- 16 within 458 kpc, indicative of the presence of a heavy halo. Similarly, the mass-to-light ratio of NGC 499 is 89 +/- 14 within 137 kpc. Near the edge of the X-ray-emitting region of NGC 507 we detect 19 soft, unresolved sources. These sources do not have optical counterparts and are significantly in excess of the expected number of background serendipitous sources. We speculate that they may represent cooling clumps in the halo of NGC 507. If there are many undetected cooling clumps distributed at large radii, then the radial profile of the X-ray surface brightness does not directly reflect the potential, adding uncertainty to the measurement of the binding mass; the gas mass could also be overestimated.

  2. A search for candidate radio supernova remnants in the nearby irregular starburst galaxies NGC 4214 and NGC 4395

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a search for new candidate radio su­pernova remnants (SNRs in the nearby starburst irregular galaxies NGC 4214 and NGC 4395 using archived radio observations made with the Very Large Array (VLA at the wavelengths of 3.5 cm, 6 cm and 20 cm for NGC 4214 and 6 cm and 20 cm for NGC 4395. These observations were analyzed as part of our ongoing search for candidate radio SNRs in nearby galaxies: the goal of this search is to prepare a large sample of candidate radio SNRs for the purpose of a robust statistical study of the properties of these sources. Based on our analysis, we have confirmed the nonthermal nature of the discrete radio sources α and β in NGC 4214 and classify these sources as candidate radio SNRs based on their positional coincidences with HII regions in that galaxy. We have measured the flux densities of the two candidate radio SNRs at each wavelength and calculated corresponding spectral indices: we have also measured flux densities of two other discrete radio sources in these galaxies - ρ in NGC 4214 and #3 in NGC 4395 which we suspect to be additional candidate radio SNRs based on their positional coincidences with other HII regions in these galaxies. However, the radio data presently available for these sources can­not confirm such a classification and additional observations are needed. We have also calculated the radio luminosities Lradio at the wavelength of 20 cm for these two candidate radio SNRs as well as the corresponding values for the minimum total energy Emin required to power these radio sources via synchrotron emission and the corresponding magnetic field strength Bmin. We have compared our mean calculated values for these properties with the mean values for populations of candidate radio SNRs in other starburst galaxies: while the values for Lradio and Bmin are roughly comparable to the values seen in other starburst galaxies, the mean value for Emin is higher than the mean value of any

  3. A Fourier Analysis of the Interacting Pair of Galaxies KPG 404 (NGC 5394/95)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerari, I.; Valdez-Gutiérrez, M.; Hernández-López, I.

    2004-06-01

    We present a bi-dimensional Fourier analysis of near-infrared images of KPG 404 (NGC 5394/95). The 2D Fourier analysis shows that NGC 5394 is a H2β galaxy in the DP classification (Block & Puerari 1999). In contrast, NGC 5395 displays a very complex structure which needs a number of Fourier coefficients to be explained. A tightly wound m=1 (DP class H1α) is the main structure, but other m=1 and m=2 coefficients (suggesting spiral arm modulation) are also present in the Fourier spectra. The complex structure of NGC 5395 also suggests a strong interaction in the pair. The m=1 coefficients can represent a pseudo ring-type structure, resulting of a collision rather than a grazing passage. We conclude that the most probable scenario of the interaction in this pair should take into account a crossing of NGC 5394 through the disk of NGC 5395.

  4. Counter-rotating gaseous disks in the 'Evil Eye' galaxy NGC4826

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Robert; Walterbos, Rene A. M.; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.

    1992-12-01

    The discovery of two counterrotating gaseous disks in the otherwise normal early-type spiral NGC4826 is reported. This is the most disklike galaxy in which any kinematic substructure has yet been found. This discovery raises the possibility that even spiral galaxies may have undergone a significant degree of structural evolution due to mergers.

  5. Neutral hydrogen observations of the amorphous galaxy NGC 4670 at moderate spatial resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, DA; vanWoerden, H; Gallagher, JS

    1996-01-01

    We present a moderate resolution H I map of the amorphous galaxy NGC 4670. Our previous lower resolution data had shown a symmetric H I distribution centered on the single supergiant H II region and highly concentrated to the center of the galaxy. We now resolve the central H I distribution into

  6. GMRT Low Radio Frequency Study of the Wolf Rayet Galaxy NGC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we present the first low frequency (< 1.4 GHz) radio continuum study of a Wolf Rayet galaxy NGC 4214 using the. Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We detect diffuse extended emission from the galaxy disk at 325 MHz and find that the radio emis- sion closely follows the ultraviolet emission ...

  7. Extra-planar H I in the starburst galaxy NGC 253

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, R; Oosterloo, TA; Fraternali, F; van der Hulst, JM; Sancisi, R

    Observations of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253 in the 21-cm line reveal the presence of neutral hydrogen in the halo, up to 12 kpc from the galactic plane. This extra-planar H I is found in only one half of the galaxy and is concentrated in a half-ring structure and plumes which are lagging in

  8. GMRT Low Radio Frequency Study of the Wolf Rayet Galaxy NGC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present the first low frequency (< 1.4 GHz) radio continuum study of a Wolf Rayet galaxy NGC 4214 using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We detect diffuse extended emission from the galaxy disk at 325 MHz and find that the radio emission closely follows the ultraviolet emission mapped by ...

  9. The evolution of interacting spiral galaxy NGC 5194

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoyu

    2015-08-01

    NGC 5194 (M51a) is a grand-design spiral galaxy and undergoing interactions with its companion. Here, we focus on investigating main properties of its star formation history by constructing a simple evolution model, which assumes that the disk builds up gradually by cold gas infall and the gas infall rate can be parametrizedly described by a Gaussian form. By comparing model predictions with the observed data, we discuss the probable range for free parameter in the model and then know more about the main properties of the evolution and SFH of M51a. We find that the model predictions are very sensitive to the free parameter and the model adopting a constant infall-peak time tp = 7.0 Gyr can reproduce most of the observed constraints of M51a. Although our model does not assume the gas infall time-scale of the inner disk is shorter than that of the outer disc, our model predictions still show that the disk of M51a forms inside-out. We find that the mean stellar age of M51a is younger than that of the Milky Way, but older than that of the gas-rich disk galaxy UGC 8802. In this paper, we also introduce a ‘toy’ model to allow an additional cold gas infall occurred recently to imitate the influence of the interaction between M51a and its companion. Our results show that the current molecular gas surface density, the star formation rate and the UV-band surface brightness are important quantities to trace the effects of recent interaction on galactic star formation process.

  10. The Evolution of Interacting Spiral Galaxy NGC\\,5194

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ruixiang

    2015-08-01

    NGC\\,5194 (M51a) is a grand-design spiral galaxy and undergoing interactions with its companion. Here we focus on investigating main properties of its star-formation history (SFH) by constructing a simple evolution model, which assumes that the disc builds up gradually by cold gas infall and the gas infall rate can be parameterizedly described by a Gaussian form. By comparing model predictions with the observed data, we discuss the probable range for free parameter in the model and then know more about the main properties of the evolution and SFH of M51a. We find that the model predictions are very sensitive to the free parameter and the model adopting a constant infall-peak time $t_{\\rm p}\\,=\\,7.0{\\rm Gyr}$can reproduce most of the observed constraints of M51a. Although our model does not assume the gas infall time-scale of the inner disc is shorter than that of the outer disc, our model predictions still show that the disc of M51a forms inside-out. We find that the mean stellar age of M51a is younger than that of the Milky Way, but older than that of the gas-rich disc galaxy UGC\\,8802. In this paper, we also introduce a 'toy' model to allow an additional cold gas infall occurred recently to imitate the influence of the interaction between M51a and its companion. Our results show that the current molecular gas surface density, the SFR and the UV-band surface brightness are important quantities to trace the effects of recent interaction on galactic SF process.

  11. Extended Red Emission in the Evil Eye Galaxy (NGC 4826)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierini, D.; Majeed, A.; Boroson, T. A.; Witt, A. N.

    2002-04-01

    NGC 4826 (M64) is a nearby Sab galaxy with an outstanding, absorbing dust lane (called the Evil Eye) asymmetrically placed across its prominent bulge. In addition, its central region is associated with several regions of ongoing star formation activity. We obtained accurate low-resolution (4.3 Å pixel-1) long-slit spectroscopy (KPNO 4 m) of NGC 4826 in the 5300-9100 Å spectral range, with a slit of 4.4‧ length, encompassing the galaxy's bulge size, positioned across its nucleus. The wavelength-dependent effects of absorption and scattering by the dust in the Evil Eye are evident when comparing the observed stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of pairs of positions symmetrically located with respect to the nucleus, one on the dust lane side and one on the symmetrically opposite side of the bulge, under the assumption that the intrinsic (i.e., unobscured) radiation field is to first-order axisymmetric. We analyzed the SED ratios for a given number of pairs of positions through the multiple-scattering radiative transfer model of Witt & Gordon. As a main result, we discovered strong residual extended red emission (ERE) from a region of the Evil Eye within a projected distance of about 13" from the nucleus, adjacent to a broad, bright H II region, intercepted by the spectrograph slit. ERE is an established phenomenon well-covered in the literature and interpreted as originating from photoluminescence by nanometer-sized clusters, illuminated by UV/optical photons of the local radiation field. In the innermost part of the Evil Eye, the ERE band extends from about 5700 to 9100 Å, with an estimated peak intensity of ~3.7×10-6 ergs s -1 Å-1 cm-2 sr-1 near 8300 Å and with an ERE to scattered light band integrated intensity ratio, I(ERE)/I(sca), of about 0.7. At farther distances, approaching the broad, bright H II region, the ERE band and peak intensity shift toward longer wavelengths, while the ERE band-integrated intensity, I(ERE), diminishes and, eventually

  12. STAR FORMATION IN THE SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 4736

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Farhanul; Crocker, Alison

    2018-01-01

    We estimate star formation properties of the center and circumnuclear ring of spiral galaxy NGC 4736 using its population of observed young star clusters. Compact star clusters in the center and ring are identified and selected from Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images in F814W, F568N, F555W, F450W, and F336W filters. We fit Bruzual & Charlot's (2003) stellar evolutionary models to the observed photometry of each cluster to determine the masses (M), ages, and extinctions of each. The cluster mass function in the ring and center are both well-approximated by a power law function, dN/d log M ∝ Mβ with β ∼ -1.8 (though some evidence of truncation at high-mass end is found for the ring). Using total cluster masses extrapolated from these mass functions along with estimated cluster formation efficiencies, we determine the star formation rates (SFR) in both regions. The surface density of star formation, ΣSFR, is about 7 times as high in the ring as in the center, despite very similar surface gas densities, Σgas. In both regions, the SFR is below that predicted by the Kennicutt-Schmidt (1998) law, however only the central region has a lower SFR than expected given the intrinsic scatter in the relation.

  13. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. XI. THE REMARKABLY UNDISTURBED NGC 2403 DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Stilp, Adrienne; Radburn-Smith, David [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Skillman, Evan D., E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: adrienne@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: dolphin@raytheon.com, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We present detailed analysis of color-magnitude diagrams of NGC 2403, obtained from a deep (m {approx}< 28) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observation of the outer disk of NGC 2403, supplemented by several shallow (m {approx}< 26) HST Advanced Camera for Surveys fields. We derive the spatially resolved star formation history of NGC 2403 out to 11 disk scale lengths. In the inner portions of the galaxy, we compare the recent star formation rates (SFRs) we derive from the resolved stars with those measured using GALEX FUV + Spitzer 24{mu} fluxes, finding excellent agreement between the methods. Our measurements also show that the radial gradient in recent SFR mirrors the disk exponential profile to 11 scale lengths with no break, extending to SFR densities a factor of {approx}100 lower than those that can be measured with GALEX and Spitzer ({approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}). Furthermore, we find that the cumulative stellar mass of the disk was formed at similar times at all radii. We compare these characteristics of NGC 2403 to those of its ''morphological twins'', NGC 300 and M 33, showing that the structure and age distributions of the NGC 2403 disk are more similar to those of the relatively isolated system NGC 300 than to those of the Local Group analog M 33. We also discuss the environments and HI morphologies of these three nearby galaxies, comparing them to integrated light studies of larger samples of more distant galaxy disks. Taken together, the physical properties and evolutionary history of NGC 2403 suggest that the galaxy has had no close encounters with other M 81 group members and may be falling into the group for the first time.

  14. VELOCITY PROFILES OF GALAXIES WITH CLAIMED BLACK-HOLES .1. OBSERVATIONS OF M31, M32, NGC-3115 AND NGC-4594

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERMAREL, RP; RIX, HW; CARTER, D; FRANX, M; WHITE, SDM; DEZEEUW, T

    1994-01-01

    The presence of a massive black hole has been invoked to match the observed rotation velocities and velocity dispersions at the centres of M31, M32, NGC 3115 and NGC 4594. Here we determine stellar line-of-sight velocity profiles of these galaxies, from high spatial resolution, high S/N spectra

  15. A single population of red globular clusters around the massive compact galaxy NGC 1277

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Michael A.; Trujillo, Ignacio; Leaman, Ryan; Montes, Mireia

    2018-03-01

    Massive galaxies are thought to form in two phases: an initial collapse of gas and giant burst of central star formation, followed by the later accretion of material that builds up their stellar and dark-matter haloes. The systems of globular clusters within such galaxies are believed to form in a similar manner. The initial central burst forms metal-rich (spectrally red) clusters, whereas more metal-poor (spectrally blue) clusters are brought in by the later accretion of less-massive satellites. This formation process is thought to result in the multimodal optical colour distributions that are seen in the globular cluster systems of massive galaxies. Here we report optical observations of the massive relic-galaxy candidate NGC 1277—a nearby, un-evolved example of a high-redshift ‘red nugget’ galaxy. We find that the optical colour distribution of the cluster system of NGC 1277 is unimodal and entirely red. This finding is in strong contrast to other galaxies of similar and larger stellar mass, the cluster systems of which always exhibit (and are generally dominated by) blue clusters. We argue that the colour distribution of the cluster system of NGC 1277 indicates that the galaxy has undergone little (if any) mass accretion after its initial collapse, and use simulations of possible merger histories to show that the stellar mass due to accretion is probably at most ten per cent of the total stellar mass of the galaxy. These results confirm that NGC 1277 is a genuine relic galaxy and demonstrate that blue clusters constitute an accreted population in present-day massive galaxies.

  16. The Interacting Galaxy Pair NGC 5394/95: Near-Infrared Photometry, Structure, and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerari, Ivânio; Valdez-Gutiérrez, Margarita; Hernández-López, Izbeth

    2005-10-01

    We present near-infrared observations in the J, H, and K' passbands of the interacting pair of galaxies NGC 5394/95 (KPG 404). The total magnitudes, colors, surface brightnesses, and color profiles are calculated. In addition, aperture magnitudes are compared against previous determinations. We also perform a structural (disk + bulge) analysis, as well as a two-dimensional Fourier analysis, to gain insight into the morphology of the pair. The disk + bulge fit shows that NGC 5394 (KPG 404A) is more compact than normal galaxies, while NGC 5395 (KPG 404B) is less concentrated. The two-dimensional Fourier analysis shows that NGC 5394 is an H2β galaxy in the dust-penetrated (DP) classification by Block & Puerari. NGC 5395, in contrast, displays a very complex structure that needs a number of Fourier coefficients to be explained. A tightly wound m=1 coefficient (DP class H1α) is the main structure, but other m=1 and m=2 coefficients (suggesting modulation) are also present in the Fourier spectra. The m=1 coefficients represent a pseudo-ring-type structure, indicative of a collision rather than a passage. Based on our results we are able to assert that the scenario of the interaction between the galaxy members of KPG 404 should take into account a crossing of NGC 5394 through the disk of NGC 5395 in a Cartwheel-like encounter rather than a passage as in M51-type pairs. Numerical simulations could help to unravel the structural and morphological evolution of this interacting pair.

  17. The Total Mass of the Early-Type Galaxy NGC 4649 (M60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković, M. M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of the total mass and the total mass-to-light ratio of the early-type galaxy NGC~4649 (M60 is analyzed. Use is made of two independent techniques: the X-ray methodology which is based on the temperature of the X-ray halo of NGC~4649 and the tracer mass estimator (TME which uses globular clusters (GCs observed in this galaxy. The mass is calculated in Newtonian and MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND approaches and it is found that inside 3 effective radii ($R_e$ there is no need for large amounts of dark matter. Beyond $3R_e$ the dark matter starts to play important dynamical role. The possible reasons for the discrepancy between the estimates of the total mass based on X-rays and TME in the outer regions of NGC~4649 are also discussed.

  18. VERITAS UPPER LIMIT ON THE VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM THE RADIO GALAXY NGC 1275

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Celik, O.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Cogan, P.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.

    2009-01-01

    The recent detection by the Fermi γ-ray space telescope of high-energy γ-rays from the radio galaxy NGC 1275 makes the observation of the very high energy (VHE: E>100 GeV) part of its broadband spectrum particularly interesting, especially for the understanding of active galactic nuclei with misaligned multi-structured jets. The radio galaxy NGC 1275 was recently observed by VERITAS at energies above 100 GeV for about 8 hr. No VHE γ-ray emission was detected by VERITAS from NGC 1275. A 99% confidence level upper limit of 2.1% of the Crab Nebula flux level is obtained at the decorrelation energy of approximately 340 GeV, corresponding to 19% of the power-law extrapolation of the Fermi Large Area Telescope result.

  19. Radio continuum observations of the quasar-galaxy pair 3C 232-NGC 3067

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxthausen, E.; Carilli, C.; Vangorkom, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The quasar-galaxy pair 3C 232-NGC 3067 is well known to show absorption by gas associated with the foreground galaxy against the background quasar (see Stocke et al. this volume). Observations by Carilli, van Gorkom, and Stocke (Nature 338, 134, 1989) found that the absorbing gas is located in a long tail of gas which extends from the galaxy toward the quasar and beyond (in projection). Though the HI observations of NGC 3067 indicate that the galaxy has been severely disturbed, there is no obvious candidate in the field which could cause such a disturbance, leading to the conclusion that the system has undergone a recent merger. The radio continuum observations of this system were designed to study the nature of this highly disturbed galaxy. New continuum observations confirm the notion that NGC 3067 is a highly disturbed system, and, in particular, the notion that the western half of the galaxy extends only 1/2 as far in radius as the eastern half. This disturbance must have occurred recently, since the galactic rotation would smooth out the observed asymmetry in about 10(exp 8) years. Researchers are left with the problem that there are no obvious candidates which could have caused such a disturbance

  20. A jet model for the broadband spectrum of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maitra, D.; Miller, J.M.; Markoff, S.; King, A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent radio very long baseline interferometry observations of the ~ parsec-scale nuclear region of the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 hint toward the presence of outflowing plasma. From available literature we have collected high-quality, high-resolution broadband spectral energy

  1. Abundance ratios and IMF slopes in the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 1396 with MUSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentz, J. J.; La Barbera, F.; Peletier, R. F.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Lisker, T.; van de Ven, G.; Loubser, S. I.; Hilker, M.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Napolitano, N.; Cantiello, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Norris, M.; Paolillo, M.; Smith, R.; Beasley, M. A.; Lyubenova, M.; Munoz, R.; Puzia, T.

    2016-01-01

    Deep observations of the dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy NGC 1396 (MV = -16.60, Mass ˜4 × 108 M⊙), located in the Fornax cluster, have been performed with the Very Large Telescope/Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer spectrograph in the wavelength region from 4750 to 9350 Å. In this paper, we present a

  2. H I observations of the nearest starburst galaxy NGC 253 with the SKA precursor KAT-7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucero, D. M.; Carignan, C.; Elson, E. C.; Randriamampandry, T. H.; Jarrett, T. H.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Heald, G. H.

    We present H I observations of the Sculptor group starburst spiral galaxy NGC 253, obtained with the Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). KAT-7 is a pathfinder for the Square Kilometre Array precursor MeerKAT, under construction. The short baselines and low system temperature of the telescope make it very

  3. The PN.S Elliptical Galaxy Survey: a standard ΛCDM halo around NGC 4374? : A standard ΛCDM halo around NGC 4374?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napolitano, N. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Capaccioli, M.; Douglas, Nigel; Arnaboldi, M.; Coccato, L.; Gerhard, O.; Kuijken, K.; Merrifield, M. R.; Bamford, S. P.; Cortesi, A.; Das, P.; Freeman, K. C.

    As part of our current programme to test ΛCDM predictions for dark matter (DM) haloes using extended kinematical observations of early-type galaxies, we present a dynamical analysis of the bright elliptical galaxy NGC 4374 (M84) based on ˜450 planetary nebulae (PNe) velocities from the

  4. Star Formation Histories of the LEGUS Dwarf Galaxies. I. Recent History of NGC 1705, NGC 4449, and Holmberg II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignoni, M.; Sacchi, E.; Aloisi, A.; Tosi, M.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Sabbi, E.; Adamo, A.; Cook, D. O.; Dale, D. A.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Messa, M.; Smith, L. J.; Thilker, D. A.; Ubeda, L.; Whitmore, B. C.

    2018-03-01

    We use Hubble Space Telescope observations from the Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey to reconstruct the recent star formation histories (SFHs) of three actively star-forming dwarf galaxies, NGC 4449, Holmberg II, and NGC 1705, from their UV color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs). We apply a CMD fitting technique using two independent sets of stellar isochrones, PARSEC-COLIBRI and MIST, to assess the uncertainties related to stellar evolution modeling. Irrespective of the adopted stellar models, all three dwarfs are found to have had almost constant star formation rates (SFRs) in the last 100–200 Myr, with modest enhancements (a factor of ∼2) above the 100 Myr averaged SFR. Significant differences among the three dwarfs are found in terms of the overall SFR, the timing of the most recent peak, and the SFR/area. The initial mass function of NGC 1705 and Holmberg II is consistent with a Salpeter slope down to ≈5 M ⊙, whereas it is slightly flatter, s = ‑2.0, in NGC 4449. The SFHs derived with the two different sets of stellar models are consistent with each other, except for some quantitative details, attributable to their input assumptions. They also share the drawback that all synthetic diagrams predict a clear separation in color between the upper main-sequence and helium-burning stars, which is not apparent in the data. Since neither differential reddening, which is significant in NGC 4449, nor unresolved binaries appear to be sufficient to fill the gap, we suggest this calls for a revision of both sets of stellar evolutionary tracks. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA Contract NAS 5-26555.

  5. Gemini/GMOS imaging of globular clusters in the Virgo galaxy NGC 4649 (M60)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Duncan A.; Faifer, Favio Raúl; Forte, Juan Carlos; Bridges, Terry; Beasley, Michael A.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hanes, David A.; Sharples, Ray; Zepf, Stephen E.

    2004-12-01

    We present Sloan g and i imaging from the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph (GMOS) instrument on the Gemini North telescope for the globular cluster (GC) system around the Virgo galaxy NGC 4649 (M60). Our three pointings, taken in good seeing conditions, cover an area of about 90 square arcmin. We detect 2151 unresolved sources. Applying colour and magnitude selection criteria to this source list gives 995 candidate GCs. Our source list is greater than 90 per cent complete to a magnitude of i= 23.6, and has little contamination from background galaxies. We find fewer than half a dozen potential ultracompact dwarf galaxies around NGC 4649. Foreground extinction from the nearby spiral NGC 4647 is limited to be AV < 0.1. We confirm the bimodality in the GC colour distribution found by earlier work using Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 imaging. As is commonly seen in other galaxies, the red GCs are concentrated towards the centre of the galaxy, having a steeper number density profile than the blue GC subpopulation. The varying ratio of red-to-blue GCs with radius can largely explain the overall GC system colour gradient. The underlying galaxy starlight has a similar density profile slope and colour to the red GCs. This suggests a direct connection between the galaxy field stars and the red GC subpopulation. We estimate a total GC population of 3700 +/- 900, with the uncertainty dominated by the extrapolation to larger radii than observed. This total number corresponds to a specific frequency SN= 4.1 +/- 1.0. Future work will present properties derived from GMOS spectra of the NGC 4649 GCs.

  6. The Distance to NGC 4993: The Host Galaxy of the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Jens; Levan, Andrew J.; Tanvir, Nial R.; Lyman, Joe D.; Wojtak, Radosław; Schrøder, Sophie L.; Mandel, Ilya; Gall, Christa; Bruun, Sofie H.

    2017-10-01

    The historic detection of gravitational waves from a binary neutron star merger (GW170817) and its electromagnetic counterpart led to the first accurate (sub-arcsecond) localization of a gravitational-wave event. The transient was found to be ˜10″ from the nucleus of the S0 galaxy NGC 4993. We report here the luminosity distance to this galaxy using two independent methods. (1) Based on our MUSE/VLT measurement of the heliocentric redshift (z helio = 0.009783 ± 0.000023), we infer the systemic recession velocity of the NGC 4993 group of galaxies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) frame to be v CMB = 3231 ± 53 km s-1. Using constrained cosmological simulations we estimate the line-of-sight peculiar velocity to be v pec = 307 ± 230 km s-1, resulting in a cosmic velocity of v cosmic = 2924 ± 236 km s-1 (z cosmic = 0.00980 ± 0.00079) and a distance of D z = 40.4 ± 3.4 Mpc assuming a local Hubble constant of H 0 = 73.24 ± 1.74 km s-1 Mpc-1. (2) Using Hubble Space Telescope measurements of the effective radius (15.″5 ± 1.″5) and contained intensity and MUSE/VLT measurements of the velocity dispersion, we place NGC 4993 on the Fundamental Plane (FP) of E and S0 galaxies. Comparing to a frame of 10 clusters containing 226 galaxies, this yields a distance estimate of D FP = 44.0 ± 7.5 Mpc. The combined redshift and FP distance is D NGC 4993 = 41.0 ± 3.1 Mpc. This “electromagnetic” distance estimate is consistent with the independent measurement of the distance to GW170817 as obtained from the gravitational-wave signal ({D}{GW}={43.8}-6.9+2.9 Mpc) and confirms that GW170817 occurred in NGC 4993.

  7. ROSAT PSPC observations of two X-ray-faint early-type galaxies: NGC 4365 and NGC 4382

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiano, G.; Kim, D.-W.; Trinchieri, G.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of ROSAT Positive Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observations of the two early-type galaxies NGC 4365 and NGC 4382. These galaxies are among those observed with Einstein to have the lowest X-ray to optical flux ratios of early-type galaxies. The PSCP data show that for radii r greater than 50 arcsec the radial distributions of the X-ray surface brightness are consistent with the optical distributions of King (1978). We also find that these galaxies have X-ray spectra significantly different from those observed in X-ray-bright ellipticals, with a relative excess of counts detected in the softest spectral channels. This confirms earlier Einstein results. The characteristics of the ROSAT PSPC do not allow us to discriminate between possible spectral models. If we adopt a two-component thermal model on the grounds of physical plausibility, we find that the spectral data can be fitted with a very soft optically thin component, with kT approximately 0.2 keV, and a hard component with kT greater than (1.0-1.5) keV. The hard component has a luminosity consistent with that expected from the integrated emission of a population of low mass-X-ray binaries in these galaxies; the nature of the very soft component is more speculative. Candidates include the coronal emission of late-type stars, supersoft X-ray sources, RS CVn, and perhaps a hot Interstellar Medium (ISM). Alternatively, the spectal data may be fitted with a 0.6-1 keV bremsstrahlung spectrum (expontential plus Gaunt), and may suggest the presence of a totally new population of X-ray sources.

  8. Low dark matter content of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the kinematics and dynamics of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821 based on its globular clusters (GCs and planetary nebulae (PNe. We use PNe and GCs to extract the kinematics of NGC 821 which is then used for the dynamical modelling based on the Jeans equation. We apply the Jeans equation using the Newtonian mass-follows-light approach assuming constant mass-to-light ratio and find that using such an approach we can successfully fit the kinematic data. The inferred constant mass-to-light ratio, 4:2 < M=LB < 12:4 present throughout the whole galaxy, implies the lack of significant amount of dark matter. We also used three different MOND approaches and found that we can fit the kinematic data without the need for additional, dark, component. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021: Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: theory and observations

  9. The Environment of X-Ray Binaries in the Dwarf Starburst Galaxy NGC 1569

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David M.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Raines, Steven N.

    2008-05-01

    We use deep, J and Ks observations of NGC 1569 acquired with FLAMINGOS on the KPNO 4-m to search for star cluster counterparts to X-ray binaries identified in archived Chandra images of this dwarf starburst galaxy. Performing near-IR photometry on the star cluster counterparts, we determine their colors, luminosities and masses. Comparing these results to the properties for all clusters in this galaxy, we search for trends in clusters associated with X-ray sources. Combining this study with FISICA, near-IR spectral observations, we further characterize the surroundings to X-ray binaries in NGC 1569. Contrasting this work with findings from a similar study performed on the Antennae galaxies, a large, merging system, we investigate the differences in X-ray binary environments.

  10. THE FORMATION OF SHELL GALAXIES SIMILAR TO NGC 7600 IN THE COLD DARK MATTER COSMOGONY

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Andrew P.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Helly, John; Frenk, Carlos; Cole, Shaun; Crawford, Ken; Zibetti, Stefano; Carballo-Bello, Julio A.; GaBany, R. Jay

    2011-01-01

    We present new deep observations of 'shell' structures in the halo of the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 7600, alongside a movie of galaxy formation in a cold dark matter universe (available at http://www.virgo.dur.ac.uk/shell-galaxies). The movie, based on an ab initio cosmological simulation, shows how continuous accretion of clumps of dark matter and stars creates a swath of diffuse circumgalactic structures. The disruption of a massive clump on a near-radial orbit creates a complex system o...

  11. GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND SPUR CLUSTERS IN NGC 4921, THE BRIGHTEST SPIRAL GALAXY IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung, E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: isjang@astro.snu.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    We resolve a significant fraction of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4921, the brightest spiral galaxy in the Coma cluster. We also find a number of extended bright star clusters (star complexes) in the spur region of the arms. The latter are much brighter and bluer than those in the normal star-forming region, being as massive as 3 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}. The color distribution of the GCs in this galaxy is found to be bimodal. The turnover magnitudes of the luminosity functions of the blue (metal-poor) GCs (0.70 < (V − I) ≤ 1.05) in the halo are estimated V(max) = 27.11 ± 0.09 mag and I(max) = 26.21 ± 0.11 mag. We obtain similar values for NGC 4923, a companion S0 galaxy, and two Coma cD galaxies (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889). The mean value for the turnover magnitudes of these four galaxies is I(max) = 26.25 ± 0.03 mag. Adopting M{sub I} (max) = −8.56 ± 0.09 mag for the metal-poor GCs, we determine the mean distance to the four Coma galaxies to be 91 ± 4 Mpc. Combining this with the Coma radial velocity, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, H{sub 0} = 77.9 ± 3.6 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}. We estimate the GC specific frequency of NGC 4921 to be S{sub N} = 1.29 ± 0.25, close to the values for early-type galaxies. This indicates that NGC 4921 is in the transition phase to S0s.

  12. Keck Spectroscopy of Globular Clusters in the Elliptical Galaxy NGC 3610

    OpenAIRE

    Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P.; Schweizer, Francois; Larsen, Soeren S.; Seitzer, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    We present moderate-resolution Keck spectra of nine candidate globular clusters in the possible merger-remnant elliptical galaxy NGC 3610. Eight of the objects appear to be bona fide globular clusters of NGC 3610. We find that two of the clusters belong to an old metal-poor population, five to an old metal-rich population, and only one to an intermediate-age metal-rich population. The estimated age of the intermediate-age cluster is 1-5 Gyr, which is in agreement with earlier estimates of the...

  13. THE RINGS SURVEY. I. Hα AND H i VELOCITY MAPS OF GALAXY NGC 2280

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Carl J.; Williams, T. B.; Sellwood, J. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Spekkens, Kristine; Lee-Waddell, K. [Department of Physics, Royal Military College of Canada, P.O. Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4, XNS (Canada); Naray, Rachel Kuzio de, E-mail: cmitchell@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: williams@saao.ac.za, E-mail: kristine.spekkens@rmc.ca, E-mail: karen.lee-waddell@rmc.ca, E-mail: kuzio@astro.gsu.edu, E-mail: sellwood@physics.rutgers.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Precise measurements of gas kinematics in the disk of a spiral galaxy can be used to estimate its mass distribution. The Southern African Large Telescope has a large collecting area and field of view, and is equipped with a Fabry–Pérot (FP) interferometer that can measure gas kinematics in a galaxy from the Hα line. To take advantage of this capability, we have constructed a sample of 19 nearby spiral galaxies, the RSS Imaging and Spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey, as targets for detailed study of their mass distributions and have collected much of the needed data. In this paper, we present velocity maps produced from Hα FP interferometry and H i aperture synthesis for one of these galaxies, NGC 2280, and show that the two velocity measurements are generally in excellent agreement. Minor differences can mostly be attributed to the different spatial distributions of the excited and neutral gas in this galaxy, but we do detect some anomalous velocities in our Hα velocity map of the kind that have previously been detected in other galaxies. Models produced from our two velocity maps agree well with each other and our estimates of the systemic velocity and projection angles confirm previous measurements of these quantities for NGC 2280.

  14. Ram Pressure Stripping in the Low-Luminosity Virgo Cluster Elliptical Galaxy NGC 4476

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, D. M.; Young, L. M.; van Gorkom, J. H.

    2005-09-01

    We present a deep VLA search for H I emission from the low-luminosity Virgo Cluster elliptical galaxy NGC 4476, which contains 1.1x108 solar masses of molecular gas in an undisturbed disk in regular rotation. No H I was detected. The total H I mass is less than 1.5x107 solar masses. If we compare our H I upper limit with the H2 content, we find that NGC 4476 is extremely deficient in H I compared with other galaxies detected in these two species. The H2/HI mass ratio for NGC 4476 is greater than 7, whereas typical H2/HI ratios for elliptical galaxies detected in both H I and H2 are less than 2. On the basis of this extreme H I deficiency and the intracluster medium density at the projected distance from M87, we argue that either NGC 4476 has undergone ram pressure stripping while traveling through the Virgo Cluster core or its average molecular gas density is larger and its interstellar UV field is smaller than in typical spiral galaxies. NGC 4476 is located 12 arcminutes in projection from M87, which causes extreme continuum confusion problems. We also discuss in detail the techniques used for continuum subtraction. The spectral dynamic range of our final image is 50,000 to 1. This work was partially supported by NSF grant AST 00-74709 to New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and NSF grant AST 00-98249 to Columbia University.

  15. Kinematics of NGC 4826: A sleeping beauty galaxy, not an evil eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Vera C.

    1994-01-01

    A recent high resolution H I study of the Sab galaxy NGC 4826 (1992) reveals that the sense of rotation of the neutral gas reverses from the inner to the outer disk. The present paper reports on optical spectra at high velocity resolution in four position angles in NGC 4826, which cover the region of the gas reversal and which reveal a high degree of complexity. In the inner disk, which includes the prominent dusty lane, the stars and gas rotate in concert, and the spiral arms trail (for the adopted geometry). Arcs of ionized gas are observed partially encircling the nucleus; expansion velocities reach 400 km/s. At distances just beyond the prominent dust lane, the ionized gas exhibits a rapid, orderly velocity fall and within 500 parsecs it has reversed from 180 km/s prograde to 200 km/s retrograde; it also has a component radial toward the nucleus of over 100 km/s. The stars, however, continue their prograde rotation. Beyond this transition zone, the neutral gas continues its retrograde rotation, stellar velocities are prograde, but the sense of the almost circular arms is not established. Because of its kinematical complexity as well as its proximity, NGC 4826 is an excellent early-type galaxy in which to observe the long term effects of gas acquistion or a galaxy merger on a disk galaxy.

  16. Near-IR TRGB Distance to Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy NGC 147

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the distance modulus of nearby dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 147 estimated from the Tip of Red-giant Branch (TRGB method applying to the color-magnitude diagrams and luminosity functions in the near-infrared JHK bands. Apparent magnitudes of TRGBs in each band are obtained by applying Savitzky-Golay filter to the luminosity functions, and the theoretical absolute magnitudes are estimated from Yonsei-Yale isochrones. The derived values of distance modulus to NGC 147 are (m-M=23.69±0.12, 23.78±0.17, and 23.85±0.22 for J, H, and K bands, respectively. Distance modulus in bolometric magnitude is also derived as (m-M=23.87±0.11. We compare the derived values of the TRGB distance modulus to NGC 147 in the near-infrared bands with the previous results in other bands.

  17. Distance and Reddening of the Isolated Dwarf Irregular Galaxy NGC 1156

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Chul; Park, Hong Soo; Kyeong, Jaemann; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Ree, Chang Hee; Kim, Minjin

    2012-04-01

    We present a photometric estimation of the distance and reddening values to the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1156, that is one of the best targets for the study of isolated dwarf galaxies in the nearby universe. We used imaging data sets of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys, High Resolution Channel of the central region of NGC 1156 (26'' × 29'') available in the HST archive for this study. From the (U - B, B - V) color-color diagram, we first estimated the total (foreground + internal) reddening toward NGC 1156 of E (B - V) = 0.35±0.05 mag, whereas only the foreground reddening was previously known to be E (B - V) = 0.16 mag (1984, ApJS, 54, 33) or 0.24 mag (1998, ApJ, 500, 525). Based on the brightest-star method, selecting the three brightest blue supergiant (BSG) stars with a mean B magnitude of = 21.94 and the three brightest red supergiant (RSG) stars with a mean V magnitude of = 22.76, we derived the distance modulus to NGC 1156 to be (m - M)0,BSG = 29.16 mag and (m - M)0,RSG = 29.5 5 mag. By using weights of 1 for BSGs and 1.5 for RSGs, we finally obtained a weighted mean distance modulus to NGC 1156, (m - M)0 = 29.39 ± 0.20 mag (distance = 7.6 ± 0.7 Mpc), which is in agreement with previous estimates. Combining the photometry data of this study with those of Karachentsev, Musella, and Grimardi (1996, A&A, 310, 722) gives a smaller distance to NGC 1156, which is discussed together with the limits of the data.

  18. THE STRUCTURE OF THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF GALAXIES: COOL ACCRETION INFLOW AROUND NGC 1097

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, David V.; Jenkins, Edward B. [Princeton University Observatory, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Chelouche, Doron [Department of Physics, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Tripp, Todd M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Pettini, Max [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0EZ (United Kingdom); York, Donald G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Frye, Brenda L. [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope far-UV spectra of four QSOs whose sightlines pass through the halo of NGC 1097 at impact parameters of ρ = 48–165 kpc. NGC 1097 is a nearby spiral galaxy that has undergone at least two minor merger events, but no apparent major mergers, and is relatively isolated with respect to other nearby bright galaxies. This makes NGC 1097 a good case study for exploring baryons in a paradigmatic bright-galaxy halo. Ly α absorption is detected along all sightlines and Si iii λ 1206 is found along the three sightlines with the smallest ρ ; metal lines of C ii, Si ii, and Si iv are only found with certainty toward the innermost sightline. The kinematics of the absorption lines are best replicated by a model with a disk-like distribution of gas approximately planar to the observed 21 cm H i disk, which is rotating more slowly than the inner disk, and into which gas is infalling from the intergalactic medium. Some part of the absorption toward the innermost sightline may arise either from a small-scale outflow or from tidal debris associated with the minor merger that gives rise to the well known “dog-leg” stellar stream that projects from NGC 1097. When compared to other studies, NGC 1097 appears to be a “typical” absorber, although the large dispersion in absorption line column density and equivalent width in a single halo goes perhaps some way toward explaining the wide range of these values seen in higher- z studies.

  19. A spatially resolved radio spectral index study of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1569

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Jonathan; Brinks, Elias; Hindson, Luke; Beswick, Robert; Heesen, Volker

    2018-04-01

    We study the resolved radio continuum spectral energy distribution of the dwarf irregular galaxy, NGC 1569, on a beam-by-beam basis to isolate and study its spatially resolved radio emission characteristics. Utilizing high-quality NRAO Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations that densely sample the 1-34 GHz frequency range, we adopt a Bayesian fitting procedure, where we use H α emission that has not been corrected for extinction as a prior, to produce maps of how the separated thermal emission, non-thermal emission, and non-thermal spectral index vary across NGC 1569's main disc. We find a higher thermal fraction at 1 GHz than is found in spiral galaxies (26^{+2}_{-3} {per cent}) and find an average non-thermal spectral index α = -0.53 ± 0.02, suggesting that a young population of cosmic ray electrons is responsible for the observed non-thermal emission. By comparing our recovered map of the thermal radio emission with literature H α maps, we estimate the total reddening along the line of sight to NGC 1569 to be E(B - V) = 0.49 ± 0.05, which is in good agreement with other literature measurements. Spatial variations in the reddening indicate that a significant portion of the total reddening is due to internal extinction within NGC 1569.

  20. Quantitative spectroscopy of blue supergiants in metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosek, Matthew W. Jr.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Przybilla, Norbert; Evans, Christopher J.; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Carraro, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the low-resolution (∼4.5 Å) spectra of 12 late-B and early-A blue supergiants (BSGs) in the metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109. A modified method of analysis is presented which does not require use of the Balmer jump as an independent T eff indicator, as used in previous studies. We determine stellar effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, reddening, and luminosities, and combine our sample with the early-B-type BSGs analyzed by Evans et al. to derive the distance to NGC 3109 using the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relation (FGLR). Using primarily Fe-group elements, we find an average metallicity of [ Z-bar ] = –0.67 ± 0.13, and no evidence of a metallicity gradient in the galaxy. Our metallicities are higher than those found by Evans et al. based on the oxygen abundances of early-B supergiants ([ Z-bar ] = –0.93 ± 0.07), suggesting a low α/Fe ratio for the galaxy. We adjust the position of NGC 3109 on the BSG-determined galaxy mass-metallicity relation accordingly and compare it to metallicity studies of H II regions in star-forming galaxies. We derive an FGLR distance modulus of 25.55 ± 0.09 (1.27 Mpc) that compares well with Cepheid and tip of the red giant branch distances. The FGLR itself is consistent with those found in other galaxies, demonstrating the reliability of this method as a measure of extragalactic distances.

  1. Quantitative spectroscopy of blue supergiants in metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosek, Matthew W. Jr.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Przybilla, Norbert [Institute for Astro and Particle Physics, A-6020 Innsbruck University (Austria); Evans, Christopher J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Carraro, Giovanni, E-mail: mwhosek@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: bresolin@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: Miguel.Urbaneja-Perez@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: Norbert.Przybilla@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: chris.evans@stfc.ac.uk, E-mail: pietrzyn@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: gcarraro@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, La Silla Paranal Observatory (Chile)

    2014-04-20

    We present a quantitative analysis of the low-resolution (∼4.5 Å) spectra of 12 late-B and early-A blue supergiants (BSGs) in the metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109. A modified method of analysis is presented which does not require use of the Balmer jump as an independent T {sub eff} indicator, as used in previous studies. We determine stellar effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, reddening, and luminosities, and combine our sample with the early-B-type BSGs analyzed by Evans et al. to derive the distance to NGC 3109 using the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relation (FGLR). Using primarily Fe-group elements, we find an average metallicity of [ Z-bar ] = –0.67 ± 0.13, and no evidence of a metallicity gradient in the galaxy. Our metallicities are higher than those found by Evans et al. based on the oxygen abundances of early-B supergiants ([ Z-bar ] = –0.93 ± 0.07), suggesting a low α/Fe ratio for the galaxy. We adjust the position of NGC 3109 on the BSG-determined galaxy mass-metallicity relation accordingly and compare it to metallicity studies of H II regions in star-forming galaxies. We derive an FGLR distance modulus of 25.55 ± 0.09 (1.27 Mpc) that compares well with Cepheid and tip of the red giant branch distances. The FGLR itself is consistent with those found in other galaxies, demonstrating the reliability of this method as a measure of extragalactic distances.

  2. Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission from the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, David L.; Paglione, Timothy A. D.; Marscher, Alan P.; Jackson, James M.

    1995-01-01

    The starburst galaxy NGC 253 was observed with the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) satellite. We obtain a 2 sigma upper limit to the gamma-ray emission above 100 MeV of 8 x 10(exp -8) photons/sq cm/s. Because of their large gas column densities and supernova rates, nearby starburst galaxies were predicted to have gamma-ray fluxes detectable by EGRET. Our nondetection of gamma-rays from NGC 253 motivates us to reexamine in detail the premise of supernova acceleration of cosmic rays and the effect of enhanced cloud densities, photon densities, and magnetic fields on the high-energy spectra of galaxies. By modeling the expected gamma-ray and synchrotron spectra from NGC 253, we find that up to 20% of the energy from supernovae is transferred to cosmic rays in the starburst, which is consistent with supernova acceleration models. Our calculations match the EGRET and radio data well with a supernova rate of 0.08/yr, a magnetic field B greater than or approximately equal to 5 x 10(exp -5) G, a density n approximately 300/cu cm, a photon density U(sub ph) approximately 200 eV/cu cm, and an escape timescale tau(sub o) less than or approximately equal to 10 Myr.

  3. The Halo Dynamics of NGC 3379: A Normal Elliptical Galaxy with No Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardullo, R.; Jacoby, G. H.

    1993-05-01

    We present the results of a radial velocity survey of planetary nebulae in the normal, non-interacting, elliptical galaxy NGC 3379. In two half-nights with the Kitt Peak 4-m telescope and the NESSIE multifiber spectrograph, we measured the velocities of 29 PNe with projected galactocentric distances between 0.4 and 3.8 effective radii (1 kpc < R < 10 kpc). These data, which have an observational uncertainty of ~ 7 km s(-1) , extend 3 times further into the halo than any previous absorption line study, and allow us for the first time, to examine the kinematics of halo stars in a normal E0 galaxy. The observed velocity dispersion and photometric profile of NGC 3379 agrees extremely well with that expected from a constant mass-to-light, isotropic orbit Jaffe model with a mass-to-light ratio M/L_B ~ 7. A simple c = 2.33 King model with M/L_B ~ 7 also fits the data reasonably well, but models with purely radial or circular orbits are ruled out. The data strongly suggest that NGC 3379 is a galaxy with little or no dark matter within 3.5 effective radii of its nucleus.

  4. THE BULGELESS SEYFERT/LINER GALAXY NGC 3367: DISK, BAR, LOPSIDEDNESS, AND ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Toledo, H. M.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Valenzuela, O.; García-Barreto, J. A; Moreno-Díaz, E.; Puerari, I.; Bravo-Alfaro, H.

    2011-01-01

    NGC 3367 is a nearby isolated active galaxy that shows a radio jet, a strong bar, and evidence of lopsidedness. We present a quantitative analysis of the stellar and gaseous structure of the galaxy disk and search for evidence of recent interaction. Our study is based on new UBVRI Hα and JHK images and on archive Hα Fabry-Perot and H I Very Large Array data. From a coupled one-dimensional/two-dimensional GALFIT bulge/bar/disk decomposition a (B/D ∼ 0.07-0.1) exponential pseudobulge is inferred in all the observed bands. A near-infrared (NIR) estimate of the bar strength Q max T (R) = 0.44 places NGC 3367 bar among the strongest ones. The asymmetry properties were studied using (1) the optical and NIR concentration-asymmetry-clumpiness indices, (2) the stellar (NIR) and gaseous (Hα, H I) A 1 Fourier mode amplitudes, and (3) the H I-integrated profile and H I mean intensity distribution. While the average stellar component shows asymmetry values close to the average found in the local universe for isolated galaxies, the young stellar component and gas values are largely decoupled showing significantly larger A 1 mode amplitudes suggesting that the gas has been recently perturbed and placing NGC 3367 in a global starburst phase. NGC 3367 is devoid of H I gas in the central regions where a significant amount of molecular CO gas exists instead. Our search for (1) faint stellar structures in the outer regions (up to μ R ∼ 26 mag arcsec –2 ), (2) (Hα) star-forming satellite galaxies, and (3) regions with different colors (stellar populations) along the disk all failed. Such an absence is interpreted by using results from recent numerical simulations to constrain either a possible tidal event with an LMC like galaxy to some dynamical times in the past or a very low mass but perhaps gas rich recent encounter. We conclude that a cold flow accretion mode (gas and small/dark galaxies) may be responsible for the nuclear activity and peculiar (young stars and gas

  5. Gas Kinematics and the Black Hole Mass at the Center of the Radio Galaxy NGC 4335

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs A.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Noel-Storr, Jacob; Baum, Stefi A.

    2002-11-01

    We investigate the kinematics of the central gas disk of the radio-loud elliptical galaxy NGC 4335, derived from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) long-slit spectroscopic observations of Hα+[N II] along three parallel slit positions. The observed mean velocities are consistent with a rotating thin disk. We model the gas disk in the customary way, taking into account the combined potential of the galaxy and a putative black hole with mass M•, as well as the influence on the observed kinematics of the point-spread function and finite slit width. This sets a 3 σ upper limit of 108 Msolar on M•. The velocity dispersion at rintegral model of the stellar dynamics yields M•>~3×109 Msolar. However, there is reason to believe that this model overestimates M•. Reported correlations between black hole mass and inner stellar velocity dispersion σ predict M• to be >=5.4×108 Msolar in NGC 4335. If our standard thin disk modeling of the gas kinematics is valid, then NGC 4335 has an unusually low M• for its velocity dispersion. If, on the other hand, this approach is flawed and provides an underestimate of M•, then black hole masses for other galaxies derived from HST gas kinematics with the same assumptions should be treated with caution. In general, a precise determination of the M•-σ relation and its scatter will benefit from (1) joint measurements of M• from gas and stellar kinematics in the same galaxies and (2) a better understanding of the physical origin of the excess velocity dispersion commonly observed in nuclear gas disks of elliptical galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  6. A close nuclear black-hole pair in the spiral galaxy NGC 3393.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiano, G; Wang, Junfeng; Elvis, M; Risaliti, G

    2011-08-31

    The current picture of galaxy evolution advocates co-evolution of galaxies and their nuclear massive black holes, through accretion and galactic merging. Pairs of quasars, each with a massive black hole at the centre of its galaxy, have separations of 6,000 to 300,000 light years (refs 2 and 3; 1 parsec = 3.26 light years) and exemplify the first stages of this gravitational interaction. The final stages of the black-hole merging process, through binary black holes and final collapse into a single black hole with gravitational wave emission, are consistent with the sub-light-year separation inferred from the optical spectra and light-variability of two such quasars. The double active nuclei of a few nearby galaxies with disrupted morphology and intense star formation (such as NGC 6240 with a separation of about 2,600 light years and Mrk 463 with a separation of about 13,000 light years between the nuclei) demonstrate the importance of major mergers of equal-mass spiral galaxies in this evolution; such mergers lead to an elliptical galaxy, as in the case of the double-radio-nucleus elliptical galaxy 0402+379 (with a separation of about 24 light years between the nuclei). Minor mergers of a spiral galaxy with a smaller companion should be a more common occurrence, evolving into spiral galaxies with active massive black-hole pairs, but have hitherto not been seen. Here we report the presence of two active massive black holes, separated by about 490 light years, in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3393 (50 Mpc, about 160 million light years). The regular spiral morphology and predominantly old circum-nuclear stellar population of this galaxy, and the closeness of the black holes embedded in the bulge, provide a hitherto missing observational point to the study of galaxy/black hole evolution. Comparison of our observations with current theoretical models of mergers suggests that they are the result of minor merger evolution. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights

  7. NGC 741—Mergers and AGN Feedback on a Galaxy-group Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellenberger, G.; Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L.; O’Sullivan, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Giacintucci, S. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Code 7213, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Duchesne, S. W. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, 6140 (New Zealand); Raychaudhury, S., E-mail: gerrit.schellenberger@cfa.harvard.edu [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2017-08-10

    Low-mass galaxy cluster systems and groups will play an essential role in upcoming cosmological studies, such as those to be carried out with eROSITA. Though the effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and merging processes are of special importance to quantify biases like selection effects or deviations from hydrostatic equilibrium, they are poorly understood on the galaxy-group scale. We present an analysis of recent deep Chandra and XMM-Newton integrations of NGC 741 that provides an excellent example of a group with multiple concurrent phenomena: both an old central radio galaxy and a spectacular infalling head-tail source, strongly bent jets, a 100-kpc radio trail, intriguing narrow X-ray filaments, and gas-sloshing features. Supported principally by X-ray and radio continuum data, we address the merging history of the group, the nature of the X-ray filaments, the extent of gas-stripping from NGC 742, the character of cavities in the group, and the roles of the central AGN and infalling galaxy in heating the intra-group medium.

  8. ROTATIONAL DYNAMICS AND STAR FORMATION IN THE NEARBY DWARF GALAXY NGC 5238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew T.; Teich, Yaron G., E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: amcnicho@nrao.edu, E-mail: yateich@gmail.com; and others

    2016-12-01

    We present new H i spectral-line images of the nearby low-mass galaxy NGC 5238, acquired with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. Located at a distance of 4.51 ± 0.04 Mpc, NGC 5238 is an actively star-forming galaxy with widespread H α and ultraviolet (UV) continuum emission. The source is included in many ongoing and recent nearby galaxy surveys, but until this work the spatially resolved qualities of its neutral interstellar medium have remained unstudied. Our H i images resolve the disk on physical scales of ∼400 pc, allowing us to undertake a detailed comparative study of the gaseous and stellar components. The H i disk is asymmetric in the outer regions, and the areas of high H i mass surface density display a crescent-shaped morphology that is slightly offset from the center of the stellar populations. The H i column density exceeds 10{sup 21} cm{sup −2} in much of the disk. We quantify the degree of co-spatiality of dense H i gas and sites of ongoing star formation as traced by far-UV and H α emission. The neutral gas kinematics are complex; using a spatially resolved position–velocity analysis, we infer a rotational velocity of 31 ± 5 km s{sup −1}. We place NGC 5238 on the baryonic Tully–Fisher relation and contextualize the system among other low-mass galaxies.

  9. The 0.3-30 Kev Spectra Of Powerful Starburst Galaxies: Nustar And Chandra Observations Of Ngc 3256 And Ngc 3310

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Tyler, J. B.; Hornschemeier, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    -law distributions with Γ ≈ 2.6 at E > 5-7 keV. Using new and archival Chandra data, we search for signatures of heavily obscured or low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find that both NGC 3256 and NGC 3310 have X-ray detected sources coincident with nuclear regions; however, the steep NuSTAR spectra...... observations therefore constrain the average spectral shape of galaxy-wide populations of luminous accreting binaries (i.e., ULXs). Interestingly, despite a completely different galaxy sample selection, emphasizing here a range of SFRs and stellar masses, these properties are similar to those of super...... likely explained by the relatively low metallicity of the young stellar population in this galaxy, a property that is expected to produce an excess of luminous X-ray binaries for a given SFR....

  10. The extent of CO in the early-type galaxy NGC 4472

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchtmeier, W. K.; Bregman, J. N.; Hogg, D. E.; Roberts, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    NGC 4472, and E/SO system, is the earliest type normal galaxy with detected CO emission, and here we present additional radio observations in the lines of CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) to determine the distribution and internal properties of this gas. The original detection is reconfirmed, but observations at five surrounding locations and at two other locations in the galaxy do not show the gas to be extended; the total H2 gas mass is estimated to be 4 x 10(exp 7) solar mass. A high CO(1-0)/CO(2-1) brightness temperature ratio is found (greater than 3), which is indicative of subthermal excitation of the CO(2-1) line that can occur at low gas temperatures and low gas densities. Also, upper limits are given for the CO(2-1) fluxes in four other early-type galaxies.

  11. Detection of retrograde gas streaming in the SB0 galaxy NGC 4546

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galletta, G.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations are reported of the almost edge-on SB0 galaxy NGC 4546 which reveal a striking discordance between the derived emission and absorption-line velocities. The gas clouds show velocities that are similar in amplitude but opposite in direction from the stars. This discordance is seen in observations obtained through slits oriented in a wide range of position angles. NGC 4546 is thus, at present, unique as a disk system exhibiting large-scale retrograde motions relative to the stellar component. Orbits elongated both along the bar major axis (prograde, stars) and along the bar intermediate axis (retrograde, gas) are found. The possibility that this material originated from an infall is discussed. 27 references

  12. Dust extinction and X-ray emission from the starburst galaxy NGC 1482

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagshette, N. D.; Pandge, M. B.; Pandey, S. K.; Patil, M. K.

    2012-07-01

    We present the results based on multiwavelength imaging observations of the prominent dust lane starburst galaxy NGC 1482 aimed to investigate the extinction properties of dust existing in the extreme environment. (B-V) colour-index map derived for the starburst galaxy NGC 1482 confirms two prominent dust lanes running along its optical major axis and are found to extend up to ˜11 kpc. In addition to the main lanes, several filamentary structures of dust originating from the central starburst are also evident. Though, the dust is surrounded by exotic environment, the average extinction curve derived for this target galaxy is compatible with the Galactic curve, with RV = 3.05, and imply that the dust grains responsible for the optical extinction in the target galaxy are not really different than the canonical grains in the Milky Way. Our estimate of total dust content of NGC 1482 assuming screening effect of dust is ˜2.7 × 105 M⊙, and provide lower limit due to the fact that our method is not sensitive to the intermix component of dust. Comparison of the observed dust in the galaxy with that supplied by the SNe to the ISM, imply that this supply is not sufficient to account for the observed dust and hence point towards the origin of dust in this galaxy through a merger like event. Our multiband imaging analysis reveals a qualitative physical correspondence between the morphologies of the dust and Hα emission lines as well as diffuse X-ray emission in this galaxy. Spatially resolved spectral analysis of the hot gas along outflows exhibit a gradient in the temperature. Similar gradient was also noticed in the measured values of metallicity, indicating that the gas in the halo is not yet enriched. High resolution, 2-8 keV Chandra image reveals a pair of point sources in the nuclear region with their luminosities equal to 2.27 × 1039 erg s-1 and 9.34 × 1039 erg s-1, and are in excess of the Eddington-limit of 1.5 M⊙ accreting source. Spectral analysis of these

  13. STAR Formation Histories Across the Interacting Galaxy NGC 6872, the Largest-Known Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, RIchard G.; deMello, Duilia F.; Gadotti, DImitri A.; Urrutia-Viscarra, Fernanda; deOliveira, CLaudia Mendes; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    NGC6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 micrometer) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  14. Star formation histories across the interacting galaxy NGC 6872, the largest-known spiral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; De Mello, Duilia F. [Physics Department, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Benford, Dominic J. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gadotti, Dimitri A. [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Urrutia-Viscarra, Fernanda; De Oliveira, Claudia Mendes, E-mail: rafael.t.eufrasio@nasa.gov [Departamento de Astronomia, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas da USP, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, 05508-090 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    NGC 6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 μm) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  15. The Physical Properties and Kinematics of Molecular Gas in a Barred Galaxy NGC 2903

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zizheng; Ueda, Junko; Petitpas, Glen

    2018-01-01

    Barred spiral galaxies are ideal sources for studying the relation between star formation and kpc-scale galactic dynamics. The non-circular motions of gas are induced by the non-axisymmetric bar potential. Theoretical studies and numerical simulations have shown that these motions pile up the gas along the leading side of the bar and induce shock waves and/or shear motion. It is expected that the physical properties of molecular gas change in such an environment. The shock wave and shear motion make molecular clouds break down, which eventually suppresses the star-formation activities. In order to better understand star formation in barred galaxies, it is important to investigate the physical properties and kinematics of the molecular gas that is the fuel of stars. We have conducted the CO (2-1) observations of a nearby barred galaxy NGC 2903 using SMA. We compare the distribution and kinematics of cold molecular gas with those of stellar components and ionized gas in order to investigate the relation between the properties of molecular gas and star formation. We also make the CO (2-1)/CO (1-0) line ratio map using the archival CO (1-0) data obtained with BIMA. This enables us investigate the excitation condition of the CO molecule with twice higher angular resolution compared to previous studies. In this presentation, we discuss the distribution and kinematics of molecular gas, and excitation condition in NGC 2903.

  16. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH ANALYSIS OF NGC 4178: A BULGELESS GALAXY WITH AN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secrest, N. J.; Satyapal, S.; Gliozzi, M.; Moran, S. M.; Cheung, C. C.; Giroletti, M.; Bergmann, M. P.; Seth, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present Gemini longslit optical spectroscopy and Very Large Array radio observations of the nuclear region of NGC 4178, a late-type bulgeless disk galaxy recently confirmed to host an active galactic nucleus (AGN) through infrared and X-ray observations. Our observations reveal that the dynamical center of the galaxy is coincident with the location of the Chandra X-ray point source discovered in a previous work, providing further support for the presence of an AGN. While the X-ray and IR observations provide robust evidence for an AGN, the optical spectrum shows no evidence for the AGN, underscoring the need for the penetrative power of mid-IR and X-ray observations in finding buried or weak AGNs in this class of galaxy. Finally, the upper limit to the radio flux, together with our previous X-ray and IR results, is consistent with the scenario in which NGC 4178 harbors a deeply buried AGN accreting at a high rate

  17. Distance and Properties of NGC 4993 as the Host Galaxy of the Gravitational-wave Source GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Myungshin; Yoon, Yongmin; Lee, Seong-Kook J.; Lee, Hyung Mok; Kim, Joonho; Lee, Chung-Uk; Kim, Seung-Lee; Troja, Eleonora; Choi, Changsu; Lim, Gu; Ko, Jongwan; Shim, Hyunjin

    2017-11-01

    Recently, the optical counterpart of the gravitational-wave source GW170817 has been identified in the NGC 4993 galaxy. Together with evidence from observations in electromagnetic waves, the event has been suggested as a result of a merger of two neutron stars (NSs). We analyze the multi-wavelength data to characterize the host galaxy property and its distance to examine if the properties of NGC 4993 are consistent with this picture. Our analysis shows that NGC 4993 is a bulge-dominated galaxy with {r}{eff}˜ 2{--}3 {kpc} and a Sérsic index of n=3{--}4 for the bulge component. The spectral energy distribution from 0.15 to 24 μm indicates that this galaxy has no significant ongoing star formation, a mean stellar mass of (0.3{--}1.2)× {10}11 {M}⊙ , a mean stellar age greater than ˜3 Gyr, and a metallicity of about 20%-100% of solar abundance. Optical images reveal dust lanes and extended features that suggest a past merging activity. Overall, NGC 4993 has characteristics of normal, but slightly disturbed elliptical galaxies. Furthermore, we derive the distance to NGC 4993 with the fundamental plane relation using 17 parameter sets of 7 different filters and the central stellar velocity dispersion from the literature, finding an angular diameter distance of 37.7 ± 8.7 Mpc. NGC 4993 is similar to some host galaxies of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) but much different from those of long GRBs, supporting the picture of GW170817 as a result of the merger of two NSs.

  18. The origin of the X-ray, radio and H I structures in the NGC 5903 galaxy group

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Ewan; Kolokythas, Konstantinos; Kantharia, Nimisha G.; Raychaudhury, Somak; David, Laurence P.; Vrtilek, Jan M.

    2018-02-01

    The NGC 5903 galaxy group is a nearby (∼30 Mpc) system of ∼30 members, dominated by the giant ellipticals NGC 5903 and NGC 5898. The group contains two unusual structures: a ∼110 kpc long H I filament crossing NGC 5903 and a ∼75 kpc wide diffuse, steep-spectrum radio source of unknown origin that overlaps NGC 5903 and appears to be partly enclosed by the H I filament. Using a combination of Chandra, XMM-Newton, Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and Very Large Array (VLA) observations, we detect a previously unknown ∼0.65 keV intra-group medium filling the volume within 145 kpc of NGC 5903 and find a loop of enhanced X-ray emission extending ∼35 kpc south-west from the galaxy, enclosing the brightest part of the radio source. The northern and eastern parts of this X-ray structure are also strongly correlated with the southern parts of the H I filament. We determine the spectral index of the bright radio emission to be α _{150}^{612} = 1.03 ± 0.08, indicating a radiative age >360 Myr. We discuss the origin of the correlated radio, X-ray and H I structures, either through an interaction-triggered active galactic nucleus (AGN) outburst with enthalpy 1.8 × 1057 erg, or via a high-velocity collision between a galaxy and the H I filament. While neither scenario provides a complete explanation, we find that an AGN outburst is the most likely source of the principal X-ray and radio structures. However, it is clear that galaxy interactions continue to play an important role in the development of this relatively highly evolved galaxy group. We also resolve the question of whether the group member galaxy ESO 514-3 hosts a double-lobed radio source, confirming that the source is a superposed background AGN.

  19. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The size and nature of any large-scale anisotropy in the three-dimensional distribution of galaxies is still little understood. Recent studies have indicated that large fluctuations in the matter distribution on a scale from tens up to several hundreds of megaparsecs may exist. Work at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in recent years has made major contributions to studies of the large scale distribution of galaxies, as well as to solving the problems of the galactic and extragalactic distance scale. Other studies of galaxies undertaken at SAAO include: quasars in the fields of nearby galaxies; dwarf irregular galaxies; IRAS galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; 'hot spot' galaxies; supernovae in NGC 5128 and NGC 1559 and superclusters. 4 figs

  20. NGC 985 - Extended ionized regions and the far-infrared luminosity of a ring-shaped Seyfert galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Espinosa, J.M.; Stanga, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Narrow-band H-alpha images and long-slit spectroscopy of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 985 are presented. Large-scale extended ionized zones are seen to cover a significant fraction of the ring of this object. These ionized zones are responsible for a considerable fraction (greater than 35 percent) of the far-infrared emission of NGC 985. These ionized zones are interpreted as giant H II region complexes, formed in a recent burst of star formation. It is also argued that that starburst was triggered by a galaxy interaction. 41 refs

  1. Accurate Parameters of the Mass Distribution in Spiral Galaxies: 1. Fabry - Perot Observations of NGC 5585

    OpenAIRE

    Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien; Carignan, Claude; Amram, Philippe; Cote, Stephanie

    1999-01-01

    Using the example of the Sd galaxy NGC 5585, it is shown that high resolution 2-D HII kinematical data are necessary to determine accurately the parameters of the mass distribution in spirals. New CFHT Fabry-Perot Halpha observations are combined with low resolution (20") Westerbork HI data to study its mass distribution. Using the combined rotation curve and best fit models, it can be seen that M/L of the luminous disk goes from 0.3 using only the HI rotation curve, to 0.8 using both the opt...

  2. The old globular cluster system of the dIrr galaxy NGC 1427A in the Fornax cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, I. Y.; Hilker, M.; Puzia, T. H.; Chanamé, J.; Mieske, S.; Goudfrooij, P.; Reisenegger, A.; Infante, L.

    2006-06-01

    We present a study of the old globular cluster (GC) population of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1427A using multi-wavelength VLT observations in U,B,V,I, Hα and J bands under excellent observing conditions. We applied color and size selection criteria to select old GC candidates and made use of archival ACS images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope to reject contaminating background sources and blended objects from the GC candidates' list. The Hα observations were used to check for contamination due to compact, highly reddened young star clusters whose colors and sizes could mimic those of old GCs. After accounting for contamination we obtain a total number of 38±8 GC candidates with colors consistent with an old (~10 Gyr) and metal-poor (Zcontamination analysis indicates that the density distribution of GCs in the outskirts of the Fornax central cD galaxy NGC 1399 may not be spherically symmetric. We derive a present-day specific frequency SN of 1.6 for NGC 1427A, a value significantly larger than what is observed in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxies and comparable with the values found for the same galaxy types in the Virgo and Fornax clusters. Assuming a universal globular cluster luminosity function turnover magnitude, we derive a distance modulus to NGC 1427A of 31.01±0.21 mag which places it ˜3.2±2.5 (statistic)±1.6 (systematic) Mpc in front of the Fornax central cD galaxy NGC 1399. The implications of this result for the relationship between NGC 1427A and the cluster environment are briefly discussed.

  3. RED SUPERGIANTS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES: THE SCULPTOR GALAXY NGC 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazak, J. Zachary; Kudritzki, Rolf; Bresolin, Fabio [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai’i, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Evans, Chris [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh., EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Patrick, Lee [Institute for Astronomy, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh., EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Davies, Ben [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Bergemann, Maria [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Plez, Bertrand [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Bender, Ralf; Wegner, Michael [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Bonanos, Alceste Z.; Williams, Stephen J. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece)

    2015-06-01

    We present a quantitative spectroscopic study of 27 red supergiants (RSGs) in the Sculptor Galaxy NGC 300. J-band spectra were obtained using KMOS on the Very Large Telescope and studied with state of the art synthetic spectra including NLTE corrections for the strongest diagnostic lines. We report a central metallicity of [Z] = −0.03 ± 0.05 with a gradient of −0.083 ± 0.014 [dex/kpc], in agreement with previous studies of blue supergiants and H ii-region auroral line measurements. This result marks the first application of the J-band spectroscopic method to a population of individual RSG stars beyond the Local Group of galaxies and reveals the great potential of this technique.

  4. RED SUPERGIANTS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES: THE SCULPTOR GALAXY NGC 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazak, J. Zachary; Kudritzki, Rolf; Bresolin, Fabio; Evans, Chris; Patrick, Lee; Davies, Ben; Bergemann, Maria; Plez, Bertrand; Bender, Ralf; Wegner, Michael; Bonanos, Alceste Z.; Williams, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantitative spectroscopic study of 27 red supergiants (RSGs) in the Sculptor Galaxy NGC 300. J-band spectra were obtained using KMOS on the Very Large Telescope and studied with state of the art synthetic spectra including NLTE corrections for the strongest diagnostic lines. We report a central metallicity of [Z] = −0.03 ± 0.05 with a gradient of −0.083 ± 0.014 [dex/kpc], in agreement with previous studies of blue supergiants and H ii-region auroral line measurements. This result marks the first application of the J-band spectroscopic method to a population of individual RSG stars beyond the Local Group of galaxies and reveals the great potential of this technique

  5. Chemical abundances of giant stars in NGC 5053 and NGC 5634, two globular clusters associated with the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbordone, L.; Monaco, L.; Moni Bidin, C.; Bonifacio, P.; Villanova, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Ibata, R.; Chiba, M.; Geisler, D.; Caffau, E.; Duffau, S.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The tidal disruption of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph) is producing the most prominent substructure in the Milky Way (MW) halo, the Sagittarius Stream. Aside from field stars, it is suspected that the Sgr dSph has lost a number of globular clusters (GC). Many Galactic GC are thought to have originated in the Sgr dSph. While for some candidates an origin in the Sgr dSph has been confirmed owing to chemical similarities, others exist whose chemical composition has never been investigated. Aims: NGC 5053 and NGC 5634 are two of these scarcely studied Sgr dSph candidate-member clusters. To characterize their composition we analyzed one giant star in NGC 5053, and two in NGC 5634. Methods: We analyze high-resolution and signal-to-noise spectra by means of the MyGIsFOS code, determining atmospheric parameters and abundances for up to 21 species between O and Eu. The abundances are compared with those of MW halo field stars, of unassociated MW halo globulars, and of the metal-poor Sgr dSph main body population. Results: We derive a metallicity of [Fe ii/H] = -2.26 ± 0.10 for NGC 5053, and of [Fe i/H] = -1.99 ± 0.075 and -1.97 ± 0.076 for the two stars in NGC 5634. This makes NGC 5053 one of the most metal-poor globular clusters in the MW. Both clusters display an α enhancement similar to the one of the halo at comparable metallicity. The two stars in NGC 5634 clearly display the Na-O anticorrelation widespread among MW globulars. Most other abundances are in good agreement with standard MW halo trends. Conclusions: The chemistry of the Sgr dSph main body populations is similar to that of the halo at low metallicity. It is thus difficult to discriminate between an origin of NGC 5053 and NGC 5634 in the Sgr dSph, and one in the MW. However, the abundances of these clusters do appear closer to that of Sgr dSph than of the halo, favoring an origin in the Sgr dSph system. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http

  6. The Complex Neutral Gas Dynamics of the Dwarf Starburst Galaxy NGC 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, John M.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Skillman, Evan D.; Côté, Stéphanie

    2004-05-01

    We present new multiconfiguration H I aperture synthesis imaging of the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 625 obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Total H I column density images show gas well aligned with the optical major axis and low column density H I extending to greater than 6 optical scale lengths. The H I velocity field, on the other hand, is highly disturbed, with neutral gas at nearly all detected velocities within the central region. After considering various interpretations, we find that a blowout scenario most accurately describes the data. Since at our resolution we do not detect any large evacuated holes in the H I disk, we interpret this blowout to be the result of the extended (both spatially and temporally) star formation event that NGC 625 has undergone in the last 100 Myr. This is one of the clearest examples of H I outflow detected in a dwarf galaxy. We find no obvious external trigger for this extended star formation event. We detect strong radio continuum emission from the largest H II regions; comparing to our Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based Hα fluxes suggests either appreciable amounts of extinction toward the star formation regions or the contribution of nonthermal sources to the radio continuum luminosity.

  7. Rotation curve of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 5907: disc and halo masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casertano, S.; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

    1983-01-01

    The dynamical consequences of a truncation in the disc of a spiral galaxy, like that suggested by the sharp decline of luminosity observed in the outer parts of some edge-on galaxies, are investigated, in relation to the interpretation of observed velocity curves. The disc truncation leaves a 'signature' on the rotation curve, in the form of a region of nearly constant velocity, followed by a steep decline of velocity just outside the truncation. Such a feature is clearly present in the observed rotation curve of NGC 5907, in which the luminosity truncation is also present. The observed velocity curve of NGC 5907 can be well reproduced by a two-component model, with a smooth spherical distribution of 'dark mass' (a halo) superimposed on the luminous disc. The best-fitting values for the mass in the disc and in the halo (inside the optical truncation) are 9 and 13.5 x 10 10 solar masses, respectively. The mass-to-light ratio (luminosity in the J band) is about 11, in solar units. The model predicts the values of some quantities, such as the thickness of the gas layer, that could possibly be observed in the near future, thus providing a clear-cut test of the model itself. (author)

  8. Discovery of an Active Galactic Nucleus Driven Molecular Outflow in the Local Early-type Galaxy NGC 1266

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alatalo, K.; Blitz, L.; Young, L. M.; Davis, T. A.; Bureau, M.; Lopez, L.A.; Cappellari, M.; Scott, N.; Shapiro, K. L.; Crocker, A. F.; Martin, S.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Davies, R. L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, P. -A.; Emsellem, E.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnovic, D.; Kuntschner, H.; Lablanche, P. -Y.; McDermid, R. M.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Oosterloo, T.; Sarzi, M.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of a powerful molecular wind from the nucleus of the non-interacting nearby S0 field galaxy NGC 1266. The single-dish CO profile exhibits emission to +/- 400 km s(-1) and requires a nested Gaussian fit to be properly described. Interferometric observations reveal a massive,

  9. The Interstellar Medium and Star Formation in Edge-On Galaxies. II. NGC 4157, 4565, and 5907

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yim, Kijeong; Wong, Tony; Xue, Rui; Rand, Richard J.; Rosolowsky, Erik; van der Hulst, J. M.; Benjamin, Robert; Murphy, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the vertical structure of the gaseous and stellar disks in a sample of edge-on galaxies (NGC 4157, 4565, and 5907) using BIMA/CARMA 12COJ=1\\to 0, VLA Hi, and Spitzer 3.6 μm data. In order to take into account projection effects when we measure the disk thickness as a function

  10. Evidence of a Supermassive Black Hole in the Galaxy NGC 1023 From The Nuclear Stellar Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, G. A.; Green, R. F.; Bender, R.; Gebhardt, K.; Lauer, T. R.; Magorrian, J.; Richstone, D. O.; Danks, A.; Gull, T.; Hutchings, J.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the nuclear stellar dynamics of the SBO galaxy NGC 1023, utilizing observational data both from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope and from the ground. The stellar kinematics measured from these long-slit spectra show rapid rotation (V equals approx. 70 km/s at a distance of O.1 deg = 4.9 pc from the nucleus) and increasing velocity dispersion toward the nucleus (where sigma = 295 +/- 30 km/s). We model the observed stellar kinematics assuming an axisymmetric mass distribution with both two and three integrals of motion. Both modeling techniques point to the presence of a central dark compact mass (which presumably is a supermassive black hole) with confidence > 99%. The isotropic two-integral models yield a best-fitting black hole mass of (6.0 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp 7) solar masses and mass-to-light ratio (M/L(sub v)) of 5.38 +/- 0.08, and the goodness-of-fit (CHI(exp 2)) is insensitive to reasonable values for the galaxy's inclination. The three-integral models, which non-parametrically fit the observed line-of-sight velocity distribution as a function of position in the galaxy, suggest a black hole mass of (3.9 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp 7) solar masses and M/L(sub v) of 5.56 +/- 0.02 (internal errors), and the edge-on models are vastly superior fits over models at other inclinations. The internal dynamics in NGC 1023 as suggested by our best-fit three-integral model shows that the velocity distribution function at the nucleus is tangentially anisotropic, suggesting the presence of a nuclear stellar disk. The nuclear line of sight velocity distribution has enhanced wings at velocities >= 600 km/s from systemic, suggesting that perhaps we have detected a group of stars very close to the central dark mass.

  11. Dark and luminous matter in the NGC 3992 group of galaxies - II. The dwarf companions UGC 6923, UGC 6940, UGC 6969, and the Tully-Fisher relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, R

    Detailed neutral hydrogen observations have been obtained of the large barred spiral galaxy NGC 3992 and its three small companion spiral galaxies, UGC 6923, UGC 6940, and UGC 6969. Contrary to the large galaxy, for the companions the Hi distribution ends quite abruptly at the optical edges.

  12. STAR FORMATION PROPERTIES IN BARRED GALAXIES (SFB). I. ULTRAVIOLET TO INFRARED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF NGC 7479

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhimin; Meng Xianmin; Wu Hong; Cao Chen

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale bars and minor mergers are important drivers for the secular evolution of galaxies. Based on ground-based optical images and spectra as well as ultraviolet data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we present a multi-wavelength study of star formation properties in the barred galaxy NGC 7479, which also has obvious features of a minor merger. Using various tracers of star formation, we find that under the effects of both a stellar bar and a minor merger, star formation activity mainly takes place along the galactic bar and arms, while the star formation rate changes from the bar to the disk. With the help of spectral synthesis, we find that strong star formation took place in the bar region about 100 Myr ago, and the stellar bar might have been ∼10 Gyr old. By comparing our results with the secular evolutionary scenario from Jogee et al., we suggest that NGC 7479 is possibly in a transitional stage of secular evolution at present, and it may eventually become an earlier type galaxy or a luminous infrared galaxy. We also note that the probable minor merger event happened recently in NGC 7479, and we find two candidates for minor merger remnants.

  13. Sloshing in its cD halo: MUSE kinematics of the central galaxy NGC 3311 in the Hydra I cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, C. E.; Arnaboldi, M.; Coccato, L.; Gerhard, O.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Hilker, M.; Richtler, T.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Early-type galaxies (ETGs) show a strong size evolution with redshift. This evolution is explained by fast "in-situ" star formation at high-z followed by a late mass assembly mostly driven by minor mergers that deposit stars primarily in the outer halo. Aims: We aim to identify the main structural components of the Hydra I cD galaxy NGC 3311 to investigate the connection between the central galaxy and the surrounding stellar halo. Methods: We produce maps of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) moments from a mosaic of MUSE pointings covering NGC 3311 out to 25 kpc. Combining deep photometric and spectroscopic data, we model the LOSVD maps using a finite mixture distribution, including four non-concentric components that are nearly isothermal spheroids, with different line-of-sight systemic velocities V, velocity dispersions σ, and small (constant) values of the higher order Gauss-Hermite moments h3 and h4. Results: The kinemetry analysis indicates that NGC 3311 is classified as a slow rotator, although the galaxy shows a line-of-sight velocity gradient along the photometric major axis. The comparison of the correlations between h3 and h4 with V/σ with simulated galaxies indicates that NGC 3311 assembled mainly through dry mergers. The σ profile rises to ≃ 400 km s-1 at 20 kpc, a significant fraction (0.55) of the Hydra I cluster velocity dispersion, indicating that stars there were stripped from progenitors orbiting in the cluster core. The finite mixture distribution modeling supports three inner components related to the central galaxy and a fourth component with large effective radius (51 kpc) and velocity dispersion (327 km s-1) consistent with a cD envelope. We find that the cD envelope is offset from the center of NGC 3311 both spatially (8.6 kpc) and in velocity (ΔV = 204 km s-1), but coincides with the cluster core X-ray isophotes and the mean velocity of core galaxies. Also, the envelope contributes to the broad wings of the

  14. METALLICITY AND AGE OF THE STELLAR STREAM AROUND THE DISK GALAXY NGC 5907

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, Seppo; Grillmair, Carl J.; Capak, Peter [Spitzer Science Center-Caltech, MS 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arendt, Richard G. [CRESST/UMBC/NASA GSFC, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San José State University, One Washington Square, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Martínez-Delgado, David [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ashby, Matthew L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Davies, James E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Majewski, Stephen R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Brodie, Jean P.; Arnold, Jacob A. [University of California Observatories and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); GaBany, R. Jay, E-mail: seppo@ipac.caltech.edu [Black Bird Observatory, 5660 Brionne Drive, San Jose, CA 95118 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Stellar streams have become central to studies of the interaction histories of nearby galaxies. To characterize the most prominent parts of the stellar stream around the well-known nearby ( d  = 17 Mpc) edge-on disk galaxy NGC 5907, we have obtained and analyzed new, deep gri Subaru/Suprime-Cam and 3.6 μ m Spitzer /Infrared Array Camera observations. Combining the near-infrared 3.6 μ m data with visible-light images allows us to use a long wavelength baseline to estimate the metallicity and age of the stellar population along an ∼60 kpc long segment of the stream. We have fitted the stellar spectral energy distribution with a single-burst stellar population synthesis model and we use it to distinguish between the proposed satellite accretion and minor/major merger formation models of the stellar stream around this galaxy. We conclude that a massive minor merger (stellar mass ratio of at least 1:8) can best account for the metallicity of −0.3 inferred along the brightest parts of the stream.

  15. Molecular Gasdynamics of the Young Nuclear Starburst in the Barred Galaxy NGC 3504

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Carlstrom, John E.; Young, Judith S.

    1993-12-01

    We present CO (J = 1 → 0) interferometry at 2".5 resolution and Hα CCD observations of the circumnuclear starburst region of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 3504. The CO emission is centrally peaked, extends over a region 16" (1.6 kpc) in diameter, and is relatively azimuthally symmetric. The CO radial distribution is well fitted by an exponential with a scale length of 2".3 (220 pc). This simple distribution is surprisingly unusual for the center of a galaxy. The velocity field is consistent with purely circular motions. Gas comprises ˜40% of the dynamical mass within a radius of 100 pc (1"), if the "standard" CO-H2 relationship is assumed. If isothermal and self-gravitating, the circumnuclear gas disk has a scale height of only 5-10 pc, and a spatially averaged proton density of 104 cm-3 at radii less than 300 pc. The rotation curve and the dust-lane morphology indicate the presence of an outer inner Lindblad resonance (OILR) at a radius of ˜5", and an inner inner Lindblad resonance (IILR) at a radius of ˜2". The starburst and most of the circumnuclear gas disk seem to be located between the OILR and the IILR. The maximum value of Ω-κ/2 is nearly twice as large as the bar pattern speed of the large-scale bar, and the OILR and the IILR are well separated, and these may be important dynamical differences between NGC 3504 and nonstarburst barred galaxies. The rate of high-mass star formation per unit gas mass, as traced by the ratio of Hα to CO emission, is uniformly high over the portion of the rotation curve which is nearly solid body, and drops by a factor of ˜4 where the rotation curve turns over and flattens out. Since the CO radial distribution is not ringlike despite the fact that gas is being consumed more rapidly in the center, we believe that the starburst in NGC 3504 is in an early phase of its evolution. The Toomre Q stability parameter is approximately constant at 0.9±0.2 throughout the circumnuclear molecular gas disk, so the simple

  16. Spectral Characteristics of Radiation from the Nucleus of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1275 After an Epoch of its Maximum Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikmaev, I. F.; Sharipova, L. M.; Galeev, A. I.; Akhmetkhanova, A. É.

    2016-03-01

    The spectral characteristics of radiation from the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 are studied on a long time scale. Changes in the profiles of some emission lines and changes in the relative intensities of hydrogen and forbidden lines and their equivalent widths (EWλ ) are demonstrated on a time scale of decades. These studies employed spectral data obtained with the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish telescope (RTT-150) during January 2012 and drew on spectral data published earlier in the literature. These results made it possible to trace the state of the nucleus of NGC 1275 after an activity maximum that occurred during the 1960's.

  17. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei

    2017-01-01

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  18. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei, E-mail: gbmou@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2017-07-20

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  19. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei

    2017-07-01

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  20. Chemical characterisation of the globular cluster NGC 5634 associated to the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, E.; Bragaglia, A.; Lucatello, S.; D'Orazi, V.; Gratton, R. G.; Donati, P.; Sollima, A.; Sneden, C.

    2017-04-01

    As part of our on-going project on the homogeneous chemical characterisation of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (GCs), we studied NGC 5634, associated to the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy, using high-resolution spectroscopy of red giant stars collected with VLT/FLAMES. We present here the radial velocity distribution of the 45 observed stars, 43 of which are cluster members, the detailed chemical abundance of 22 species for the seven stars observed with UVES-FLAMES, and the abundance of six elements for stars observed with GIRAFFE. On our homogeneous UVES metallicity scale, we derived a low-metallicity [Fe/H] =-1.867 ± 0.019 ± 0.065 dex (±statistical ±systematic error) with σ = 0.050 dex (7 stars). We found the normal anticorrelations between light elements (Na and O, Mg and Al), a signature of multiple populations typical of massive and old GCs. We confirm the associations of NGC 5634 to the Sgr dSph, from which the cluster was lost a few Gyr ago, on the basis of its velocity and position, and the abundance ratios of α and neutron capture elements. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under programme 093.B-0583.Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/600/A118

  1. The Young Starburst Nucleus of the Wolf-Rayet LINER Galaxy NGC 6764

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinnerer, E.; Eckart, A.; Boller, Th.

    2000-12-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) K-band imaging spectroscopy of the central 8" (1.3 kpc) in the Wolf-Rayet LINER galaxy NGC 6764 shows that the most recent star formation is most likely still unresolved at subarcsecond resolution (bar still transports gas down to radii close to the nucleus. This suggests that the massive star formation activity is directly competing with the AGN for the fuel. We also present the results of a 44 ks HRI ROSAT exposure. The HRI data show the presence of an X-ray source (probably an AGN) which varies by more than a factor of 2 over a timescale of 7 days. This implies the presence of a compact source with a discrete or at most 1000 AU source size. In addition, we find an extended X-ray component which looks similar to the radio continuum emission presented in published VLA maps. Both data sets confirm the composite nature of the center of NGC 6764: the presence of a compact AGN as well as recent violent nuclear star formation.

  2. Variability of Fe II Emission Features in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Peterson, B. M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the low-contrast Fe II emission blends in the ultraviolet (1250--2200A) and optical (4000--6000A) spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 and show that these features vary in flux and that these variations are correlated with those of the optical continuum. The amplitude of variability...... of the optical Fe II emission is 50% - 75% that of Hbeta and the ultraviolet Fe II emission varies with an even larger amplitude than Hbeta. However, accurate measurement of the flux in these blends proves to be very difficult even using excellent Fe II templates to fit the spectra. We are able to constrain only...... weakly the optical Fe II emission-line response timescale to a value less than several weeks; this upper limit exceeds all the reliably measured emission-line lags in this source so it is not particularly meaningful. Nevertheless, the fact that the optical Fe II and continuum flux variations...

  3. Chandra Observations of the Evening Core of the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, K. A.; Heckman, T. M.; Dahlem, M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Chandra observations of the core of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253 reveal a heavily absorbed source of hard X-rays embedded within the nuclear starburst region. The source has an unabsorbed, 2 to 10 keV luminosity of greater than or equal to 10(exp 39) erg per s and photoionizes the surrounding gas. We observe this source through a dusty torus with a neutral absorbing column density of N(sub eta) approximately 2 x 10(exp 23)cm (exp -2). The torus is hundreds of pc across and collimates the starburst-driven nuclear outflow. We suggest that the ionizing source is an intermediate-mass black hole or a weakly accreting supermassive black hole, which may signal the beginnings or endings of AGN (active galactic nuclei) activity.

  4. The Mass of the Black Hole in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 4593 from Reverberation Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.

    2006-01-01

    We present new observations leading to an improved black hole mass estimate for the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593 as part of a reverberation-mapping campaign conducted at the MDM Observatory. Cross-correlation analysis of the H_beta emission-line light curve with the optical continuum light curve...... reveals an emission-line time delay of 3.73 (+-0.75) days. By combining this time delay with the H_beta line width, we derive a central black hole mass of M_BH = 9.8(+-2.1)x10^6 M_sun, an improvement in precision of a factor of several over past results....

  5. H I studies of the Sculptor group galaxies. V. NGC 253

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puche, D.; Carignan, C.; Van Gorkom, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    A study of the H I properties and mass distribution of the Sculptor group galaxy NGC 253, from VLA obserations, is presented. The detected H I disk is fairly small with a diameter of about 0.8 D HO. The rotation curve, derived from the velocity field using a full tilted ring model, is still rising at the last observed point. The maximum observed rotation velocity is 224 km/s at a radius of 8.5 kpc. From this analysis, a systematic velocity of 245 km/s, a mean inclination of 72 deg, and a mean position angle of 229 deg are derived. The study of the mass distribution shows that a two-component (luminous and dark) mass model is needed to explain the observed rotation curve over the whole radius range. 24 refs

  6. Suppression of star formation in the galaxy NGC 253 by a starburst-driven molecular wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolatto, Alberto D; Warren, Steven R; Leroy, Adam K; Walter, Fabian; Veilleux, Sylvain; Ostriker, Eve C; Ott, Jürgen; Zwaan, Martin; Fisher, David B; Weiss, Axel; Rosolowsky, Erik; Hodge, Jacqueline

    2013-07-25

    The under-abundance of very massive galaxies in the Universe is frequently attributed to the effect of galactic winds. Although ionized galactic winds are readily observable, most of the expelled mass (that is, the total mass flowing out from the nuclear region) is likely to be in atomic and molecular phases that are cooler than the ionized phases. Expanding molecular shells observed in starburst systems such as NGC 253 (ref. 12) and M 82 (refs 13, 14) may facilitate the entrainment of molecular gas in the wind. Although shell properties are well constrained, determining the amount of outflowing gas emerging from such shells and the connection between this gas and the ionized wind requires spatial resolution better than 100 parsecs coupled with sensitivity to a wide range of spatial scales, a combination hitherto not available. Here we report observations of NGC 253, a nearby starburst galaxy (distance ∼ 3.4 megaparsecs) known to possess a wind, that trace the cool molecular wind at 50-parsec resolution. At this resolution, the extraplanar molecular gas closely tracks the Hα filaments, and it appears to be connected to expanding molecular shells located in the starburst region. These observations allow us to determine that the molecular outflow rate is greater than 3 solar masses per year and probably about 9 solar masses per year. This implies a ratio of mass-outflow rate to star-formation rate of at least 1, and probably ∼3, indicating that the starburst-driven wind limits the star-formation activity and the final stellar content.

  7. COMPARING X-RAY AND DYNAMICAL MASS PROFILES IN THE EARLY-TYPE GALAXY NGC 4636

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Ria; Raychaudhury, Somak; Chakrabarty, Dalia; O'Sullivan, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of an X-ray mass analysis of the early-type galaxy NGC 4636, using Chandra data. We have compared the X-ray mass density profile with that derived from a dynamical analysis of the system's globular clusters (GCs). Given the observed interaction between the central active galactic nucleus and the X-ray emitting gas in NGC 4636, we would expect to see a discrepancy in the masses recovered by the two methods. Such a discrepancy exists within the central ∼10 kpc, which we interpret as the result of non-thermal pressure support or a local inflow. However, over the radial range ∼10-30 kpc, the mass profiles agree within the 1σ errors, indicating that even in this highly disturbed system, agreement can be sought at an acceptable level of significance over intermediate radii, with both methods also indicating the need for a dark matter halo. However, at radii larger than 30 kpc, the X-ray mass exceeds the dynamical mass, by a factor of 4-5 at the largest disagreement. A Fully Bayesian Significance Test finds no statistical reason to reject our assumption of velocity isotropy, and an analysis of X-ray mass profiles in different directions from the galaxy center suggests that local disturbances at large radius are not the cause of the discrepancy. We instead attribute the discrepancy to the paucity of GC kinematics at large radius, coupled with not knowing the overall state of the gas at the radius where we are reaching the group regime (>30 kpc), or a combination of the two.

  8. Globular clusters as tracers of stellar bimodality in elliptical galaxies: the case of NGC 1399

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Juan C.; Faifer, Favio; Geisler, Doug

    2005-02-01

    Globular cluster systems (GCSs) frequently show a bimodal distribution of cluster integrated colours. This work explores the arguments to support the idea that the same feature is shared by the diffuse stellar population of the galaxy they are associated with. The particular case of NGC 1399, one of the dominant central galaxies in the Fornax cluster, for which a new B surface brightness profile and (B-RKC) colours are presented, is discussed taking advantage of a recently published wide-field study of its GCS. The results show that the galaxy brightness profile and colour gradient, as well as the behaviour of the cumulative globular cluster specific frequency, are compatible with the presence of two dominant stellar populations, associated with the so-called `blue' and `red' globular cluster families. These globular families are characterized by different intrinsic specific frequencies (defined in terms of each stellar population): Sn= 3.3 +/- 0.3 in the case of the red globulars and Sn= 14.3 +/- 2.5 for the blue ones. We stress that this result does not necessarily conflict with recent works that point out a clear difference between the metallicity distribution of (resolved) halo stars and globulars when comparing their number statistics. The region within 0.5arcmin of the centre shows a deviation from the model profile (in both surface brightness and colour) that may be explained in terms of the presence of a bulge-like high-metallicity component. Otherwise, the model gives an excellent fit up to 12arcmin (or 66.5Kpc) from the centre, the galactocentric limit of our blue brightness profile. The inferred specific frequencies imply that, in terms of their associated stellar populations, the formation of the blue globulars took place with an efficiency about six times higher than that corresponding to their red counterparts. The similarity of the spatial distribution of the blue globulars with that inferred for dark matter, as well as with that of the X

  9. DWARFS GOBBLING DWARFS: A STELLAR TIDAL STREAM AROUND NGC 4449 AND HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION ON SMALL SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Delgado, David; Rix, Hans-Walter; Maccio, Andrea V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Brodie, Jean P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Jay Gabany, R. [Black Bird Observatory, Mayhill, New Mexico (United States); Annibali, Francesca [Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Fliri, Juergen [LERMA, CNRS UMR 8112, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Zibetti, Stefano [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute-University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Aloisi, Alessandra [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chonis, Taylor S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Texas (United States); Carballo-Bello, Julio A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Tenerife (Spain); Gallego-Laborda, J. [Fosca Nit Observatory, Montsec Astronomical Park, Ager (Spain); Merrifield, Michael R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-01

    A candidate diffuse stellar substructure was previously reported in the halo of the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 4449 by Karachentsev et al. We map and analyze this feature using a unique combination of deep integrated-light images from the BlackBird 0.5 m telescope, and high-resolution wide-field images from the 8 m Subaru Telescope, which resolve the nebulosity into a stream of red giant branch stars, and confirm its physical association with NGC 4449. The properties of the stream imply a massive dwarf spheroidal progenitor, which after complete disruption will deposit an amount of stellar mass that is comparable to the existing stellar halo of the main galaxy. The stellar mass ratio between the two galaxies is {approx}1:50, while the indirectly measured dynamical mass ratio, when including dark matter, may be {approx}1:10-1:5. This system may thus represent a 'stealth' merger, where an infalling satellite galaxy is nearly undetectable by conventional means, yet has a substantial dynamical influence on its host galaxy. This singular discovery also suggests that satellite accretion can play a significant role in building up the stellar halos of low-mass galaxies, and possibly in triggering their starbursts.

  10. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In studies of the large scale structure of the universe there is a continuing need for extensive galaxy redshift determinations. Optically selected redshift surveys are of particular importance, since flux-limited samples record much higher space densities of galaxies than samples of similar size selected in other wavebands. A considerable amount of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) observing time is currently being devoted to carrying out a large southern galaxy redshift survey. A recently completed study, the Durham-SAAO redshift survey suggests that the mean density of matter is well below the critical limit for a closed universe and also that the universe may be homogenous at very large scales. Other research conducted by the SAAO include studies on: the distribution of galaxies; Seyfert galaxies; starburst and IRAS galaxies; interacting and compact galaxies; a re-evaluation of the Cepheid distance to NGC 300, and a search for quasars behind galaxies. 1 fig

  11. THE SUZAKU VIEW OF THE DISK-JET CONNECTION IN THE LOW-EXCITATION RADIO GALAXY NGC 6251

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D. A.; Kraft, R. P.; Lee, J. C.; Summers, A. C.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Gandhi, P.; Croston, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from an 87 ks Suzaku observation of the canonical low-excitation radio galaxy (LERG) NGC 6251. We have previously suggested that LERGs violate conventional active galactic nucleus unification schemes: they may lack an obscuring torus and are likely to accrete in a radiatively inefficient manner, with almost all of the energy released by the accretion process being channeled into powerful jets. We model the 0.5-20 keV Suzaku spectrum with a single power law of photon index Γ = 1.82 +0.04 -0.05 , together with two collisionally ionized plasma models whose parameters are consistent with the known galaxy- and group-scale thermal emission. Our observations confirm that there are no signatures of obscured, accretion-related X-ray emission in NGC 6251, and we show that the luminosity of any such component must be substantially sub-Eddington in nature.

  12. Total and Gas Flow Activity of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC3227 Nucleus for its Different Evolutionary Epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikmaev, I. F.; Pronik, I. I.; Sharipova, L. M.

    A comparative analysis of time variations of spectral characteristics of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3227 nucleus: equivalent widths (EW γ), relative intensities, the width of the Balmer line profiles was carried out. Spectral data obtained in April 2009 with the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish telescope (RTT-150) and data published in the literature were used. Results of the comparative analysis showed the weakening of total activity and, consequently, gas flow activity of the galaxy nucleus in the time interval of more than 30 years.

  13. The Araucaria Project. The Distance to the Sculptor Group Galaxy NGC 7793 from Near-infrared Photometry of Cepheid Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zgirski, Bartlomiej; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Wielgorski, Piotr; Narloch, Weronika; Graczyk, Dariusz [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Gieren, Wolfgang; Gorski, Marek [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Astronomia, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Karczmarek, Paulina [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478, Warsaw (Poland); Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio, E-mail: bzgirski@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: pietrzyn@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: pwielgor@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: wnarloch@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: darek@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: mgorski@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: pkarczmarek@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: bresolin@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Following the earlier discovery of classical Cepheid variables in the Sculptor Group spiral galaxy NGC 7793 from an optical wide-field imaging survey, we have performed deep near-infrared J - and K -band follow-up photometry of a subsample of these Cepheids to derive the distance to this galaxy with a higher accuracy than what was possible from optical photometry alone, by minimizing the effects of reddening and metallicity on the distance result. Combining our new near-infrared period–luminosity relations with previous optical photometry, we obtain a true distance modulus to NGC 7793 of (27.66 ± 0.04) mag (statistical) ±0.07 mag (systematic), i.e., a distance of (3.40 ± 0.17) Mpc. We also determine the mean reddening affecting the Cepheids to be E(B − V) = (0.08 ± 0.02) mag, demonstrating that there is significant dust extinction intrinsic to the galaxy in addition to the small foreground extinction. A comparison of the new, improved Cepheid distance to earlier distance determinations of NGC 7793 from the Tully–Fisher and TRGB methods is in agreement within the reported uncertainties of these previous measurements.

  14. The Araucaria Project. The Distance to the Sculptor Group Galaxy NGC 7793 from Near-infrared Photometry of Cepheid Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgirski, Bartlomiej; Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Karczmarek, Paulina; Gorski, Marek; Wielgorski, Piotr; Narloch, Weronika; Graczyk, Dariusz; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio

    2017-10-01

    Following the earlier discovery of classical Cepheid variables in the Sculptor Group spiral galaxy NGC 7793 from an optical wide-field imaging survey, we have performed deep near-infrared J- and K-band follow-up photometry of a subsample of these Cepheids to derive the distance to this galaxy with a higher accuracy than what was possible from optical photometry alone, by minimizing the effects of reddening and metallicity on the distance result. Combining our new near-infrared period-luminosity relations with previous optical photometry, we obtain a true distance modulus to NGC 7793 of (27.66 ± 0.04) mag (statistical) ±0.07 mag (systematic), I.e., a distance of (3.40 ± 0.17) Mpc. We also determine the mean reddening affecting the Cepheids to be E(B - V) = (0.08 ± 0.02) mag, demonstrating that there is significant dust extinction intrinsic to the galaxy in addition to the small foreground extinction. A comparison of the new, improved Cepheid distance to earlier distance determinations of NGC 7793 from the Tully-Fisher and TRGB methods is in agreement within the reported uncertainties of these previous measurements.

  15. CO excitation in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 34: stars, shock or AGN driven?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingozzi, M.; Vallini, L.; Pozzi, F.; Vignali, C.; Mignano, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Talia, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cresci, G.; Massardi, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the X-ray and molecular gas emission in the nearby galaxy NGC 34, to constrain the properties of molecular gas, and assess whether, and to what extent, the radiation produced by the accretion on to the central black hole affects the CO line emission. We analyse the CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) as resulting mainly from Herschel and ALMA data, along with X-ray data from NuSTAR and XMM-Newton. The X-ray data analysis suggests the presence of a heavily obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) with an intrinsic luminosity of L1-100 keV ≃ 4.0 × 1042 erg s-1. ALMA high-resolution data (θ ≃ 0.2 arcsec) allow us to scan the nuclear region down to a spatial scale of ≈100 pc for the CO(6-5) transition. We model the observed SLED using photodissociation region (PDR), X-ray-dominated region (XDR), and shock models, finding that a combination of a PDR and an XDR provides the best fit to the observations. The PDR component, characterized by gas density log(n/cm-3) = 2.5 and temperature T = 30 K, reproduces the low-J CO line luminosities. The XDR is instead characterized by a denser and warmer gas (log(n/cm-3) = 4.5, T = 65 K), and is necessary to fit the high-J transitions. The addition of a third component to account for the presence of shocks has been also tested but does not improve the fit of the CO SLED. We conclude that the AGN contribution is significant in heating the molecular gas in NGC 34.

  16. The complex radio and X-ray structure in the nuclear regions of the active galaxy NGC 1365

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ian R.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Norris, Ray P.

    1999-06-01

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of the prominent active galaxy NGC 1365, in particular looking at the radio and X-ray properties of the central regions of the galaxy. We analyse ROSAT (PSPC and HRI) observations of NGC 1365, and discuss recent ASCA results. In addition to a number of point sources in the vicinity of NGC 1365, we find a region of extended X-ray emission extending along the central bar of the galaxy, combined with an emission peak near the centre of the galaxy. This central X-ray emission is centred on the optical/radio nucleus, but is spatially extended. The X-ray spectrum can be well fitted by a thermal plasma model, with a temperature of kT=0.6-0.8 keV and a very low local absorbing column. The thermal spectrum is suggestive of starburst emission rather than emission from a central black hole. The ATCA radio observations show a number of hotspots, located in a ring around a weak radio nucleus. Synchrotron emission from electrons accelerated by supernovae and supernova remnants (SNRs) is the likely origin of these hotspots. The radio nucleus has a steep spectrum, indicative perhaps of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) or SNRs. The evidence for a jet emanating from the nucleus (as has been previously claimed) is at best marginal. The extent of the radio ring is comparable to that of the extended central X-ray source. We discuss the nature of the central activity in NGC 1365 in the light of these observations. The extended X-ray emission and the thermal spectra strongly suggest that at soft X-ray energies we are not seeing emission predominantly from a central black hole, although the presence of Fe K line emission at higher energies does suggest the presence of an AGN. Consequently, a black hole is probably not the dominant contributor to the energetics of the central regions of NGC 1365 at radio, optical or soft X-ray wavelengths. Activity associated with a starburst is likely the dominant explanation for the observed properties of NGC 1365.

  17. Dearth of dark matter or massive dark halo? Mass-shape-anisotropy degeneracies revealed by NMAGIC dynamical models of the elliptical galaxy NGC 3379

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lorenzi, F.; Gerhard, O.; Coccato, L.; Arnaboldi, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Douglas, N. G.; Freeman, K. C.; Kuijken, K.; Merrifield, M. R.; Napolitano, N. R.; Noordermeer, E.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Debattista, V. P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent results from the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph (PNS) survey have revealed a rapidly falling velocity dispersion profile in the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 3379, casting doubts on whether this intermediate-luminosity galaxy has the kind of dark matter (DM) halo expected in A cold dark matter

  18. RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BURLACU,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Pixel Analysis of the Interacting Face-on Spiral Galaxy NGC 5194 (M51A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Sang Chul; Park, Hong Soo; Ree, Chang Hee; Kyeong, Jaemann; Chung, Jiwon

    2011-10-01

    A pixel analysis is carried out on the interacting face-on spiral galaxy NGC 5194 (M51A), using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images in the F435W, F555W, and F814W (BVI) bands. After 4 × 4 binning of the HST/ACS images to secure a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for each pixel, we derive several quantities describing the pixel color-magnitude diagram (pCMD) of NGC 5194: blue/red color cut, red pixel sequence parameters, blue pixel sequence parameters, and blue-to-red pixel ratio. The red sequence pixels are mostly older than 1 Gyr, while the blue sequence pixels are mostly younger than 1 Gyr, in their luminosity-weighted mean stellar ages. The color variation in the red pixel sequence from V = 20 mag arcsec-2 to V = 17 mag arcsec-2 corresponds to a metallicity variation of Δ[Fe/H] ~2 or an optical depth variation of Δτ V ~ 4 by dust, but the actual sequence is thought to originate from the combination of those two effects. At V compressing process by spiral density waves: dense dust → newly formed stars. The tidal interaction between NGC 5194 and NGC 5195 appears to enhance the star formation at the tidal bridge connecting the two galaxies. We find that the pixels corresponding to the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) area of NGC 5194 show a tight sequence at the bright-end of the pCMD, which are in the region of R ~ 100 pc and may be a photometric indicator of AGN properties.

  20. Chandra Reveals Heavy Obscuration and Circumnuclear Star Formation in Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 4968

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Yaqoob, Tahir; Levenson, N. A.; Boorman, Peter; Heckman, Timothy M.; Gandhi, Poshak; Rigby, Jane R.; Urry, C. Megan; Ptak, Andrew F.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Chandra imaging and spectral analysis of NGC 4968, a nearby (z = 0.00986) Seyfert 2 galaxy. We discover extended (approx. 1 kpc) X-ray emission in the soft band (0.5-2 keV) that is neither coincident with the narrow line region nor the extended radio emission. Based on spectral modeling, it is linked to on-going star formation [approx. 2.6-4 Mass compared to Earth yr(exp.- 1)]. The soft emission at circumnuclear scales (inner approx. 400 pc) originates from hot gas, with kT approx. 0.7 keV, while the most extended thermal emission is cooler (kT approx. 0.3 keV). We refine previous measurements of the extreme Fe K alpha equivalent width in this source (EW 2.5 + 2.6/-1.0 keV), which suggests the central engine is completely embedded within Compton-thick levels of obscuration. Using physically motivated models fit to the Chandra spectrum, we derive a Compton-thick column density [N(sub H) is greater than 1.25× 10(exp 24) cm(exp.- 2)] and an intrinsic hard (2-10 keV) X-ray luminosity of approx. 3-8× 10(exp. 42) erg s(exp. - 1) (depending on the presumed geometry of the obscurer), which is over two orders of magnitude larger than that observed. The large Fe K Alpha EW suggests a spherical covering geometry, which could be confirmed with X-ray measurements above 10 keV. NGC 4968 is similar to other active galaxies that exhibit extreme Fe K Alpha EWs (i.e., greater than 2 keV) in that they also contain on-going star formation. This work supports the idea that gas associated with nuclear star formation may increase the covering factor of the enshrouding gas and play a role in obscuring active galactic nuclei.

  1. PROBING THE X-RAY BINARY POPULATIONS OF THE RING GALAXY NGC 1291

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Fabbiano, G.; Fragos, T.; Kim, D.-W.; Wang Junfeng; Belczynski, K.; Brassington, N. J.; Pellegrini, S.; Tzanavaris, P.; Zezas, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present Chandra studies of the X-ray binary (XRB) populations in the bulge and ring regions of the ring galaxy NGC 1291. We detect 169 X-ray point sources in the galaxy, 75 in the bulge and 71 in the ring, utilizing the four available Chandra observations totaling an effective exposure of 179 ks. We report photometric properties of these sources in a point-source catalog. There are ≈40% of the bulge sources and ≈25% of the ring sources showing >3σ long-term variability in their X-ray count rate. The X-ray colors suggest that a significant fraction of the bulge (≈75%) and ring (≈65%) sources are likely low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The spectra of the nuclear source indicate that it is a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) with moderate obscuration; spectral variability is observed between individual observations. We construct 0.3-8.0 keV X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for the bulge and ring XRB populations, taking into account the detection incompleteness and background AGN contamination. We reach 90% completeness limits of ≈1.5 × 10 37 and ≈2.2 × 10 37 erg s –1 for the bulge and ring populations, respectively. Both XLFs can be fit with a broken power-law model, and the shapes are consistent with those expected for populations dominated by LMXBs. We perform detailed population synthesis modeling of the XRB populations in NGC 1291, which suggests that the observed combined XLF is dominated by an old LMXB population. We compare the bulge and ring XRB populations, and argue that the ring XRBs are associated with a younger stellar population than the bulge sources, based on the relative overdensity of X-ray sources in the ring, the generally harder X-ray color of the ring sources, the overabundance of luminous sources in the combined XLF, and the flatter shape of the ring XLF.

  2. A state-of-the-art analysis of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, F.; Buonanno, R.; Hidalgo, S. L.; Aparicio, A.; Pietrinferni, A.; Bono, G.; Monelli, M.; Cassisi, S.

    2014-12-01

    We present a detailed photometric study of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822 aimed at investigating the properties of its stellar populations and, in particular, the presence of stellar radial gradients. Our goal is to analyse the stellar populations in six fields, which cover the whole bar of this dwarf galaxy. We derived the quantitative star formation history (SFH) of the six fields using the IAC method, involving IAC-pop/MinnIAC codes. The solutions we derived show an enhanced star formation rate (SFR) in Fields 1 and 3 during the past 500 Myr. The SFRs of the other fields are almost extinguished at very recent epochs and. We study the radial gradients of the SFR and consider the total mass converted into stars in two time intervals (between 0 and 0.5 Gyr ago and between 0.5 and 13.5 Gyr ago). We find that the scale lengths of the young and intermediate-to-old populations are perfectly compatible, with the exception of the young populations in Fields 1 and 3. The recent SF in these two fields is greater than in the other ones. This might be an indication that in these two fields we are sampling incipient spiral arms. Further evidence and new observations are required to prove this hypothesis. In addition, we derived the age-metallicity relations. As expected, the metallicity increases with time for all of the fields. We do not observe any radial gradient in the metallicity. Based on observations collected with the ACS on board the NASA/ESA HST.The photometric catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A26

  3. Spatially resolving a starburst galaxy at hard X-ray energies: NuSTAR, CHANDRA, AND VLBA observations of NGC 253

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wik, D. R.; Lehmer, B. D.; Hornschemeier, A. E.

    2014-01-01

    for the first time. As a follow up to our initial study of its nuclear region, we present the first results concerning the full galaxy from simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra, and Very Long Baseline Array monitoring of the local starburst galaxy NGC 253. Above ~10 keV, nearly all the emission is concentrated within...... 253 is typical of starburst galaxies at higher redshift, their contribution to the E > 10 keV cosmic X-ray background is...

  4. A molecular line survey toward the nearby galaxies NGC 1068, NGC 253, and IC 342 at 3 mm with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope: Impact of an AGN on 1 kpc scale molecular abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Taku; Takano, Shuro; Kohno, Kotaro; Harada, Nanase; Herbst, Eric

    2018-01-01

    It is important to investigate the relationships between the power sources and the chemical compositions of galaxies in order to understand the scenario of galaxy evolution. We carried out an unbiased molecular line survey towards active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxy NGC1068, and prototypical starburst galaxies, NGC 253 and IC 342, with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope in the 3 mm band. The advantage of this line survey is that the obtained spectra have the highest angular resolution ever obtained with single-dish telescopes. In particular, the beam size of this telescope is ˜15″-19″, which is able to separate spatially the nuclear molecular emission from that of the starburst ring (d ˜ 30″) in NGC 1068. We successfully detected approximately 23 molecular species in each galaxy, and calculated rotation temperatures and column densities. We estimate the molecular fractional abundances with respect to 13CO and CS molecules and compare them among three galaxies in order to investigate the chemical signatures of an AGN environment. As a result, we found clear trends in the abundances of molecules surrounding the AGN on a 1-kpc scale. HCN, H13CN, CN, 13CN, and HC3N are more abundant, and CH3CCH is deficient in NGC 1068 compared with the starburst galaxies. High abundances of HCN, H13CN, and HC3N suggest that the circumnuclear disk in NGC 1068 is in a high-temperature environment. The reason for the non-detection of CH3CCH is likely to be dissociation by high-energy radiation or less sublimation of a precursor of CH3CCH from grains.

  5. Multi-wavelength study of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3783 with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Blustin, A J; Behar, E; Kaastra, J S; Kahn, S M; Page, M J; Sako, M; Steenbrugge, K C

    2002-01-01

    We present the analysis of multi-wavelength XMM-Newton data from the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3783, including UV imaging, X-ray and UV lightcurves, the 0.2-10 keV X-ray continuum, the iron K-alpha emission line, and high-resolution spectroscopy and modelling of the soft X-ray warm absorber. The 0.2-10 keV spectral continuum can be well reproduced by a power-law at higher energies; we detect a prominent Fe K-alpha emission line, with both broad and narrow components, and a weaker emission line at 6.9 keV which is probably a combination of Fe K-beta and Fe XXVI. We interpret the significant deficit of counts in the soft X-ray region as being due to absorption by ionised gas in the line of sight. This is demonstrated by the large number of narrow absorption lines in the RGS spectrum from iron, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, neon, argon, magnesium, silicon and sulphur. The wide range of iron states present in the spectrum enables us to deduce the ionisation structure of the absorbing medium. We find that our spectrum contai...

  6. H I IMAGING OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERTHIN GALAXIES. II. IC 2233 AND THE BLUE COMPACT DWARF NGC 2537

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Lynn D.; Uson, Juan M.

    2008-01-01

    We have used the Very Large Array to image the H I 21 cm line emission in the edge-on Sd galaxy IC 2233 and the blue compact dwarf NGC 2537. We also present new optical B, R, and Hα imaging of IC 2233 obtained with the WIYN telescope. Despite evidence of localized massive star formation in the form of prominent H II regions and shells, supergiant stars, and a blue integrated color, IC 2233 is a low surface brightness system with a very low global star formation rate (∼ sun yr -1 ), and we detect no significant 21 cm radio continuum emission from the galaxy. The H I and ionized gas disks of IC 2233 are clumpy and vertically distended, with scale heights comparable to that of the young stellar disk. Both the stellar and H I disks of IC 2233 appear flared, and we also find a vertically extended, rotationally anomalous component of H I extending to ∼ 2.4d 10 kpc from the midplane. The H I disk exhibits a mild lopsidedness as well as a global corrugation pattern with a period of ∼7d 10 kpc and an amplitude of ∼150d 10 pc. To our knowledge, this is the first time corrugations of the gas disk have been reported in an external galaxy; these undulations may be linked to bending instabilities or to underlying spiral structure and suggest that the disk is largely self-gravitating. Lying at a projected distance of 16'.7 from IC 2233, NGC 2537 has an H I disk with a bright, tilted inner ring and a flocculent, dynamically cold outer region that extends to ∼3.5 times the extent of the stellar light (D 25 ). Although NGC 2537 is rotationally-dominated, we measure H I velocity dispersions as high as σ V.HI ∼25 km s -1 near its center, indicative of significant turbulent motions. The inner rotation curve rises steeply, implying a strong central mass concentration. Our data indicate that IC 2233 and NGC 2537 do not constitute a bound pair and most likely lie at different distances. We also find no compelling evidence of a recent minor merger in either IC 2233 or NGC

  7. The Second Nucleus of NGC 7727: Direct Evidence for the Formation and Evolution of an Ultracompact Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, François; Seitzer, Patrick; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Villanueva, Edward V.

    2018-01-01

    We present new observations of the late-stage merger galaxy NGC 7727, including Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 images and long-slit spectra obtained with the Clay telescope. NGC 7727 is relatively luminous ({M}V = ‑21.7) and features two unequal tidal tails, various bluish arcs and star clusters, and two bright nuclei 480 pc apart in projection. These two nuclei have nearly identical redshifts, yet are strikingly different. The primary nucleus, hereafter Nucleus 1, fits smoothly into the central luminosity profile of the galaxy and appears—at various wavelengths—“red and dead.” In contrast, Nucleus 2 is very compact, has a tidal radius of 103 pc, and exhibits three signs of recent activity: a post-starburst spectrum, an [O III] emission line, and a central X-ray point source. Its emission-line ratios place it among Seyfert nuclei. A comparison of Nucleus 2 ({M}V = ‑15.5) with ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) suggests that it may be the best case yet for a massive UCD having formed through tidal stripping of a gas-rich disk galaxy. Evidence for this comes from its extended star formation history, long blue tidal stream, and elevated dynamical-to-stellar-mass ratio. While the majority of its stars formed ≳ 10 {Gyr} ago, ∼1/3 formed during starbursts in the past 2 Gyr. Its weak active galactic nucleus activity is likely driven by a black hole of mass 3× {10}6-8 {M}ȯ . We estimate that the former companion’s initial mass was less than half that of then NGC 7727, implying a minor merger. By now this former companion has been largely shredded, leaving behind Nucleus 2 as a freshly minted UCD that probably moves on a highly eccentric orbit. Based in part on data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  8. Probing the Hot X-Ray Corona around the Massive Spiral Galaxy, NGC 6753, Using Deep XMM-Newton Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdán, Ákos; Bourdin, Hervé; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars; Springel, Volker

    2017-11-01

    X-ray emitting gaseous coronae around massive galaxies are a basic prediction of galaxy formation models. Although the coronae around spiral galaxies offer a fundamental test of these models, observational constraints on their characteristics are still scarce. While the presence of extended hot coronae has been established around a handful of massive spiral galaxies, the short X-ray observations only allowed for measurements of the basic characteristics of the coronae. In this work, we utilize deep XMM-Newton observations of NGC 6753 to explore its extended X-ray corona in unprecedented detail. Specifically, we establish the isotropic morphology of the hot gas, suggesting that it resides in hydrostatic equilibrium. The temperature profile of the gas shows a decrease with an increasing radius: it drops from {kT}≈ 0.7 {keV} in the innermost parts to {kT}≈ 0.4 {keV} at a 50 kpc radius. The temperature map reveals the complex temperature structure of the gas. We study the metallicity distribution of the gas, which is uniform at Z≈ 0.1 Solar. This value is about an order of magnitude lower than that obtained for elliptical galaxies with similar dark matter halo mass, hinting that the hot gas in spiral galaxies predominantly originates from external gas inflows rather than from internal sources. By extrapolating the density profile of the hot gas out to the virial radius, we estimate the total gas mass and derive the total baryon mass of NGC 6753. We conclude that the baryon mass fraction is {f}{{b}}≈ 0.06, implying that about half of the baryons are missing.

  9. The scaling relation of early-type galaxies in clusters II. Spectroscopic data for galaxies in eight nearby clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bettoni, D.; Moles, M.; Fasano, G.

    2006-01-01

    Galaxies: elliptical and lenticulars, cD, distances and redshifts - clusters: general Udgivelsesdato: June......Galaxies: elliptical and lenticulars, cD, distances and redshifts - clusters: general Udgivelsesdato: June...

  10. Imaging and spectroscopic observations of a strange elliptical bubble in the northern arm of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946

    OpenAIRE

    Efremov, Yuri N.; Moiseev, Alexei V.

    2016-01-01

    NGC 6946, known as the Fireworks galaxy because of its high supernova rate and high star formation, is embedded in a very extended HI halo. Its northern spiral arm is well detached from the galactic main body. We found that this arm contains a large (~300 pc in size) Red Ellipse, named according to a strong contamination of the H-alpha emission line on its optical images. The ellipse is accompanied by a short parallel arc and a few others still smaller and less regular; a bright star cluster ...

  11. Internal Variations in Empirical Oxygen Abundances for Giant H II Regions in the Galaxy NGC 2403

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ye-Wei; Lin, Lin; Kong, Xu

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a spectroscopic investigation of 11 {{H}} {{II}} regions in the nearby galaxy NGC 2403. The {{H}} {{II}} regions are observed with a long-slit spectrograph mounted on the 2.16 m telescope at XingLong station of National Astronomical Observatories of China. For each of the {{H}} {{II}} regions, spectra are extracted at different nebular radii along the slit-coverage. Oxygen abundances are empirically estimated from the strong-line indices R23, N2O2, O3N2, and N2 for each spectrophotometric unit, with both observation- and model-based calibrations adopted into the derivation. Radial profiles of these diversely estimated abundances are drawn for each nebula. In the results, the oxygen abundances separately estimated with the prescriptions on the basis of observations and models, albeit from the same spectral index, systematically deviate from each other; at the same time, the spectral indices R23 and N2O2 are distributed with flat profiles, whereas N2 and O3N2 exhibit apparent gradients with the nebular radius. Because our study naturally samples various ionization levels, which inherently decline at larger radii within individual {{H}} {{II}} regions, the radial distributions indicate not only the robustness of R23 and N2O2 against ionization variations but also the sensitivity of N2 and O3N2 to the ionization parameter. The results in this paper provide observational corroboration of the theoretical prediction about the deviation in the empirical abundance diagnostics. Our future work is planned to investigate metal-poor {{H}} {{II}} regions with measurable T e, in an attempt to recalibrate the strong-line indices and consequently disclose the cause of the discrepancies between the empirical oxygen abundances.

  12. Chandra Evidence of a Flattened, Triaxial Dark Matter Halo in the Elliptical Galaxy NGC 720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buote, David A.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Canizares, Claude R.; Garmire, Gordon P.

    2002-09-01

    We present an analysis of a Chandra ACIS-S observation of the elliptical galaxy NGC 720, to verify the existence of a dark matter halo and to measure its ellipticity. The ACIS-S3 image reveals over 60 point sources distributed throughout the field, most of which were undetected and therefore unaccounted for in previous X-ray studies. For semimajor axes a~150'' out to a=185'' (22.4h-170 kpc), which is near the edge of the S3 CCD, ɛX and P.A. diverge from their values at smaller a. Possible origins of this behavior at the largest a are discussed. Overall, the ellipticities and P.A. twist for aRomanowsky & Kochanek (which could not produce the abrupt P.A. twist in the ROSAT HRI data). Since the optical image displays no substantial isophote twisting, the X-ray P.A. twist requires a massive dark matter halo if the hot gas is in hydrostatic equilibrium. Furthermore, the values of ɛX obtained by Chandra are too large to be explained if the gravitating mass follows the optical light (M~L*), irrespective of the P.A. twist. The M~L* hypothesis is inconsistent with the Chandra ellipticities at the 96% confidence level, assuming oblate symmetry, and at the 98% confidence level for prolate symmetry. Thus, both the P.A. twist and the ellipticities of the Chandra image imply the existence of dark matter, independent of the temperature profile of the gas. This geometric evidence for dark matter cannot be explained by alternative gravity theories, such as the modification of Newtonian dynamics (MOND). To constrain the ellipticity of the dark matter halo, we considered both oblate and prolate spheroidal mass models to bracket the full range of (projected) ellipticities of a triaxial ellipsoid. The dark matter density model, ρ~(a2s+a2)-1, provides the best fit to the data and gives ellipticities and 1 σ errors of ɛ=0.37+/-0.03 for oblate and ɛ=0.36+/-0.02 for prolate models. Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) and Hernquist models give similar ellipticities for the dark matter. These

  13. The Far-Infrared Emission Line and Continuum Spectrum of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Smith, Howard A.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Fisher, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    We report on the analysis of the first complete far-infrared spectrum (43-197 microns) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 as observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to the 7 expected ionic fine structure emission lines, the OH rotational lines at 79, 119 and 163 microns were all detected in emission, which is unique among galaxies with full LWS spectra, where the 119 micron line, where detected, is always in absorption. The observed line intensities were modelled together with IS0 Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and optical and ultraviolet line intensities from the literature, considering two independent emission components: the AGN component and the starburst component in the circumnuclear ring of approximately 3kpc in size. Using the UV to mid-IR emission line spectrum to constrain the nuclear ionizing continuum, we have confirmed previous results: a canonical power-law ionizing spectrum is a poorer fit than one with a deep absorption trough, while the presence of a big blue bump is ruled out. Based on the instantaneous starburst age of 5 Myr constrained by the Br gamma equivalent width in the starburst ring, and starburst synthesis models of the mid- and far-infrared fine-structure line emission, a low ionization parameter (U=10(exp -3.5)) and low densities (n=100 cm (exp -3)) are derived. Combining the AGN and starburst components, we succeed in modeling the overall UV to far-IR atomic spectrum of SGC 1068, reproducing the line fluxes to within a factor 2.0 on average with a standard deviation of 1.4. The OH 119 micron emission indicates that the line is collisionally excited, and arises in a warm and dense region. The OH emission has been modeled using spherically symmetric, non-local, non-LTE radiative transfer models. The models indicate that the bulk of the emission arises from the nuclear region, although some extended contribution from the starburst is not ruled out. The OH abundance

  14. HIGH STAR FORMATION RATES IN TURBULENT ATOMIC-DOMINATED GAS IN THE INTERACTING GALAXIES IC 2163 AND NGC 2207

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Kaufman, Michele [110 Westchester Rd, Newton, MA 02458 (United States); Bournaud, Frédéric; Juneau, Stéphanie [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Elmegreen, Debra Meloy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Struck, Curtis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Brinks, Elias, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com, E-mail: kaufmanrallis@icloud.com, E-mail: frederic.bournaud@gmail.com, E-mail: stephanie.juneau@cea.fr, E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu, E-mail: struck@iastate.edu, E-mail: e.brinks@herts.ac.uk [University of Hertfordshire, Centre for Astrophysics Research, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-20

    CO observations of the interacting galaxies IC 2163 and NGC 2207 are combined with HI, H α , and 24 μ m observations to study the star formation rate (SFR) surface density as a function of the gas surface density. More than half of the high-SFR regions are HI dominated. When compared to other galaxies, these HI-dominated regions have excess SFRs relative to their molecular gas surface densities but normal SFRs relative to their total gas surface densities. The HI-dominated regions are mostly located in the outer part of NGC 2207 where the HI velocity dispersion is high, 40–50 km s{sup −1}. We suggest that the star-forming clouds in these regions have envelopes at lower densities than normal, making them predominantly atomic, and cores at higher densities than normal because of the high turbulent Mach numbers. This is consistent with theoretical predictions of a flattening in the density probability distribution function for compressive, high Mach number turbulence.

  15. HIGH STAR FORMATION RATES IN TURBULENT ATOMIC-DOMINATED GAS IN THE INTERACTING GALAXIES IC 2163 AND NGC 2207

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Kaufman, Michele; Bournaud, Frédéric; Juneau, Stéphanie; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Struck, Curtis; Brinks, Elias

    2016-01-01

    CO observations of the interacting galaxies IC 2163 and NGC 2207 are combined with HI, H α , and 24 μ m observations to study the star formation rate (SFR) surface density as a function of the gas surface density. More than half of the high-SFR regions are HI dominated. When compared to other galaxies, these HI-dominated regions have excess SFRs relative to their molecular gas surface densities but normal SFRs relative to their total gas surface densities. The HI-dominated regions are mostly located in the outer part of NGC 2207 where the HI velocity dispersion is high, 40–50 km s −1 . We suggest that the star-forming clouds in these regions have envelopes at lower densities than normal, making them predominantly atomic, and cores at higher densities than normal because of the high turbulent Mach numbers. This is consistent with theoretical predictions of a flattening in the density probability distribution function for compressive, high Mach number turbulence.

  16. Detection of faint BLR components in the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221 and measure of the central BH mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eLa Franca

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, using single epoch virial based techniques in the optical band, it has been possible to measure the central black hole mass on large type 1 Active Galactive Nuclei (AGN samples. However these measurements use the width of the broad line region as a proxy of the virial velocities and are therefore difficult to be carried out on those obscured (type 2 or low luminosity AGN where the nuclear component does not dominate in the optical. Here we present the optical and near infrared spectrum of the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221, observed with X-shooter/VLT. Previous observations of NGC 6221 in the X-ray band shows an absorbed (N_H=8.5 +/- 0.4 x 10^21 cm^-2 spectrum typical of a type 2 AGN with luminosity log(L_14-195/ erg s^-1 = 42.05, while in the optical band its spectrum is typical of a reddened (A_V=3 starburst. Our deep X-shooter/VLT observations have allowed us to detect faint broad emission in the H_alpha, HeI and Pa_beta lines (FWHM=1400-2300 km s^-1 confirming previous studies indicating that NGC 6221 is a reddened starbust galaxy which hosts an AGN. We use the measure of the broad components to provide a first estimate of its central black hole mass (M_BH = 10^6.6+/-0.3 Msol, lambda_Edd=0.01-0.03, obtained using recently calibrated virial relations suitable for moderately obscured (N_H<10^24 cm^-2 AGN.

  17. CALIFA reveals prolate rotation in massive early-type galaxies: A polar galaxy merger origin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsatsi, A.; Lyubenova, M.; van de Ven, G.; Chang, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Macciò, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    We present new evidence for eight early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the CALIFA Survey that show clear rotation around their major photometric axis ("prolate rotation"). These are LSBCF560-04, NGC 0647, NGC 0810, NGC 2484, NGC 4874, NGC 5216, NGC 6173, and NGC 6338. Including NGC 5485, a known case of

  18. The optical spectrum and morphology of the probable X-ray galaxy NGC 5506 (3U 1410-03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.S.; Penston, M.V.; Fosbury, R.A.E.; Boksenberg, A.

    1976-01-01

    Spectra of the nucleus and plates of the galaxy NGC 5506, suggested by Bahcall et al. as the identification of the X-ray source 3U 1410-03, have been obtained with the Isaac Newton and Anglo-Australian Telescopes. The photographs show it to be a highly elongated system, crossed by dust lanes and possessing a prominent nucleus. It appears to be of irregular Type II and superficially resembles M 82. The nuclear spectrum is dominated by intense emission lines of [O III], [O I], [N II], [S II] and the Balmer series. Lines of high ionized species (e.g. He II, [Ne V], [Fe VII]) are also found, implying that the object is active and greatly enhancing the probability of association with the X-ray source. Numerous weak lines of [Fe II] emission are observed. The strong lines are narrower than is characteristic of Seyfert galaxies, and have widths (FWHM) of about 400 km s -1 . The measured Balmer decrement indicates the nucleus is significantly reddened, from which a visual absorption Asub(v) approximately equal to 4.5 mag is deduced. The dereddened line intensities are remarkably similar to those derived for the radio galaxy Cyg A by Osterbrock and Miller. The forbidden lines from NGC 5506 are emitted in a region with log 10 Tsub(e) =4.2 and log 10 Nsub(e) = 3.4. The observed continuum may be described by a power law S varies as νsup(+α) with α = - 3.6 +- 0.5; after correction for reddening the spectral index becomes α = - 1.3 +- 0.6. If the X-ray source is associated with the nucleus, the high visual absorption implies a low energy cut-off in its spectrum near 0.9 keV. (author)

  19. Detection of the high-energy cut-off from the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 5273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahari, Mayukh; McHardy, I. M.; Mallick, Labani; Dewangan, G. C.; Misra, R.

    2017-09-01

    We perform the NuSTAR and Swift/XRT joint energy spectral fitting of simultaneous observations from the broad-line Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 5273. When fitted with the combination of an exponential cut-off power law and a reflection model, a high-energy cut-off is detected at 143^{+96}_{-40} keV with 2σ significance. Existence of such cut-off is also consistent with the observed Comptonizing electron temperature when fitted with a Comptonization model independently. We observe a moderate hard X-ray variability of the source over the time-scale of ∼12 yr using INTEGRAL/ISGRI observations in the energy range of 20-100 keV. When the hard-band count rate (6-20 keV) is plotted against the soft-band count rate (3-6 keV), a hard offset is observed. Our results indicate that the cut-off energy may not correlate with the coronal X-ray luminosity in a simple manner. Similarities in parameters that describe coronal properties indicate that the coronal structure of NGC 5273 may be similar to that of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 390.3 and another galaxy MCG-5-23-16, where the coronal plasma is dominated by electrons, rather than electron-positron pairs. Therefore, the coronal cooling is equally efficient to the heating mechanism keeping the cut-off energy at low even at the low accretion rate.

  20. Correlated X-ray/UV/optical emission and short-term variability in a Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Main; Naik, Sachindra

    2018-03-01

    We present a detailed multifrequency analysis of an intense monitoring programme of Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593 over a duration of nearly for a month with Swift observatory. We used 185 pointings to study the variability in six ultraviolet/optical and two soft (0.3-1.5 keV) and hard X-ray (1.5-10 keV) bands. The amplitude of the observed variability is found to decrease from high energy to low energy (X-ray to optical) bands. Count-count plots of ultraviolet/optical bands with hard X-rays clearly suggest the presence of a mixture of two major components: (i) highly variable component such as hard X-ray emission, and (ii) slowly varying disc-like component. The variations observed in the ultraviolet/optical emission are strongly correlated with the hard X-ray band. Cross-correlation analysis provides the lags for the longer wavelengths compared to the hard X-rays. Such lags clearly suggest that the changes in the ultraviolet/optical bands follow the variations in the hard X-ray band. This implies that the observed variation in longer wavelengths is due to X-ray reprocessing. Though, the measured lag spectrum (lag versus wavelength) is well described by λ4/3 as expected from the standard disc model, the observed lags are found to be longer than the predicted values from standard disc model. This implies that the actual size of the disc of NGC 4593 is larger than the estimated size of standard thin disc as reported in active galactic nuclei such as NGC 5548 and Fairall 9.

  1. NuSTAR spectral analysis of two bright Seyfert 1 galaxies: MCG +8-11-11 and NGC 6814

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa, A.; Bianchi, S.; Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Middei, R.; Piconcelli, E.; Brenneman, L. W.; Cappi, M.; Dadina, M.; De Rosa, A.; Petrucci, P. O.; Ursini, F.; Walton, D. J.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the NuSTAR observations of two bright Seyfert 1 galaxies, namely MCG +8-11-11 (100 ks) and NGC 6814 (150 ks). The main goal of these observations was to investigate the Comptonization mechanisms acting in the innermost regions of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) which are believed to be responsible for the UV/X-ray emission. The spectroscopic analysis of the NuSTAR spectra of these two sources revealed that although they had different properties overall (black hole masses, luminosity and Eddington ratios), they had very similar coronal properties. Both presented a power-law spectrum with a high-energy cut-off at ∼150-200 keV, a relativistically broadened Fe K α line and the associated disc reflection component, plus a narrow iron line likely emitted in Compton thin and distant matter. The intrinsic continuum was well described by Comptonization models that show for MCG +8-11-11 a temperature of the coronal plasma of kTe ∼ 60 keV and an extrapolated optical depth τ = 1.8; for NGC 6814, the coronal temperature was kTe ∼ 45 keV with an extrapolated optical depth of τ = 2.5. We compare and discuss these values to some most common Comptonization models that aim at explaining the energy production and stability of coronae in AGNs.

  2. Globular clusters and planetary nebulae kinematics and X-ray emission in the early-type galaxy NGC 5128

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimates of the mass of the galaxy NGC 5128 based on the different mass tracers, globular clusters (GCs and planetary nebulae (PNe, are presented. These estimates are compared with the estimate based on the X-ray methodology and it is found that the results for the mass (and mass-to-light ratio for all three approaches are in very good agreement interior to 25 arcmin; beyond 25 arcmin the X-rays predict the mass which is too high with respect to the one found using GCs and PNe. Some possible explanations for this discrepancy were discussed. The Jeans equation is also solved and its predictions for the velocity dispersion are then compared with the observed values, which extend to ~8 effective radii in the case of the GCs and ~15 effective radii in the case of the PNe. It is found that interior to ~25 arcmin (~5 effective radii dark matter does not dominate because the total mass-to-light ratio in the B band in solar units is less than 10. Based on the GCs and PNe beyond ~25 arcmin the total mass-to-light ratio increases to ~14 (at ~80 arcmin which indicates the existence of dark matter in the outer regions of NGC 5128.

  3. Extraplanar H II Regions in Spiral Galaxies. II. In Situ Star Formation in the Interstellar Thick Disk of NGC 4013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howk, J. Christopher; Rueff, Katherine M.; Lehner, Nicolas; Wotta, Christopher B.; Croxall, Kevin; Savage, Blair D.

    2018-04-01

    We present observations of an Hα-emitting knot in the thick disk of NGC 4013, demonstrating it is an H II region surrounding a cluster of young hot stars z = 860 pc above the plane of this edge-on spiral galaxy. With LBT/MODS spectroscopy we show that this H II region has an Hα luminosity ∼4–7 times that of the Orion nebula, with an implied ionizing photon production rate log Q 0 ≈ 49.4 (photons s‑1). HST/WFPC2 imaging reveals an associated blue continuum source with M V = ‑8.21 ± 0.24. Together, these properties demonstrate that the H II region is powered by a young cluster of stars formed in situ in the thick disk, with an ionizing photon flux equivalent to ∼6 O7 V stars. If we assume ≈6 other extraplanar Hα-emitting knots are H II regions, the total thick disk star formation rate of NGC 4013 is ∼5 × 10‑4 M ⊙ yr‑1. The star formation likely occurs in the dense clouds of the interstellar thick disk seen in optical images of dust extinction and CO emission.

  4. XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations of the Galaxy Group NGC 5044. 1; Evidence for Limited Multiphase Hot Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buote, David A.; Lewis, Aaron D.; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    2003-01-01

    Using new XMM and Chandra observations, we present an analysis of the temperature structure of the hot gas within a radius of 100 kpc of the bright nearby galaxy group NGC 5044. A spectral deprojection analysis of data extracted from circular annuli reveals that a two-temperature model (2T) of the hot gas is favored over single-phase or cooling flow (M = 4.5 +/- 0.2 solar mass/yr) models within the central approx.30 kpc. Alternatively, the data can be fitted equally well if the temperature within each spherical shell varies continuously from approx.T(sub h) to T(sub c) approx. T(sub h)/2, but no lower. The high spatial resolution of the Chandra data allows us to determine that the temperature excursion T(sub h) approaches T(sub c) required in each shell exceeds the temperature range between the boundaries of the same shell in the best-fitting single-phase model. This is strong evidence for a multiphase gas having a limited temperature range. We do not find any evidence that azimuthal temperature variations within each annulus on the sky can account for the range in temperatures within each shell. We provide a detailed investigation of the systematic errors on the derived spectral models considering the effects of calibration, plasma codes, bandwidth, variable NH, and background rate. We find that the RGS gratings and the EPIC and ACIS CCDs give fully consistent results when the same models are fitted over the same energy ranges for each instrument. The cooler component of the 2T model has a temperature (T(sub c) approx. 0.7 keV) similar to the kinetic temperature of the stars. The hot phase has a temperature (T(sub h) approx. 1.4 keV) characteristic of the virial temperature of the solar mass halo expected in the NGC 5044 group. However, in view of the morphological disturbances and X-ray holes visible in the Chandra image within R approx. equals 10 kpc, bubbles of gas heated to approx.T(sub h) in this region may be formed by intermittent AGN feedback. Some

  5. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH IMAGING OF THE NEARBY SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 5668 : AN UNUSUAL FLATTENING IN METALLICITY GRADIENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Zamorano, J.; Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Sánchez, S. F.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Boissier, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the full bidimensional optical spectral cube of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5668, observed with the Pmas fiber PAcK Integral Field Unit (IFU) at the Calar Alto observatory 3.5 m telescope. We make use of broadband imaging to provide further constraints on the evolutionary history of the galaxy. This data set will allow us to improve our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the evolution of disks. We investigated the properties of 62 H II regions and concentric rings in NGC 5668 and derived maps in ionized-gas attenuation and chemical (oxygen) abundances. We find that while inward of r ∼36'' ∼ 4.4 kpc ∼ 0.36 (D 25 /2) the derived O/H ratio follows the radial gradient typical of spiral galaxies, the abundance gradient beyond r ∼ 36'' flattens out. The analysis of the multi-wavelength surface brightness profiles of NGC 5668 is performed by fitting these profiles with those predicted by chemo-spectrophotometric evolutionary models of galaxy disks. From this, we infer a spin and circular velocity of λ = 0.053 and v c = 167 km s –1 , respectively. The metallicity gradient and rotation curve predicted by this best-fitting galaxy model nicely match the values derived from the IFU observations, especially within r ∼36''. The same is true for the colors despite some small offsets and a reddening in the bluest colors beyond that radius. On the other hand, deviations of some of these properties in the outer disk indicate that a secondary mechanism, possibly gas transfer induced by the presence of a young bar, must have played a role in shaping the recent chemical and star formation histories of NGC 5668.

  6. A new measurement of the baryonic fraction using the sparse NGC 3258 group of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristian; Yoshii, Y.; Sommer-Larsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    )(-1) kpc is found to be 0.065(-0.020)(+0.051) for h(50) = 1, where h(50) = H-0/50 km s(-1) Mpc(-1), in good agreement with the universal value of 0.05 +/- 0.01 predicted by standard big bang nucleosynthesis for a universe with Omega(0) = 1 and h(50) = 1. Since the deep potential of the NGC 3258 group...

  7. MOND prediction of a new giant shell in the elliptical galaxy NGC 3923

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílek, Michal; Bartošková, Kateřina; Ebrová, Ivana; Jungwiert, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 566, June (2014), A151/1-A151/11 ISSN 0004-6361 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005; UK(CZ) SVV-26089 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravitation * galaxies: kinematics and dynamics * galaxies: formation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  8. THE UNUSUAL VERTICAL MASS DISTRIBUTION OF NGC 4013 SEEN THROUGH THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S4G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeron, Sebastien; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Knapen, Johan H.; Sheth, Kartik; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Kim, Taehyun; Mizusawa, Trisha; Hinz, Joannah L.; Regan, Michael W.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Menendez-Delmestre, KarIn; Seibert, Mark; Ho, Luis C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Laine, Jarkko; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Buta, Ronald J.; Gadotti, Dimitri A.

    2011-01-01

    NGC 4013 is a nearby Sb edge-on galaxy known for its 'prodigious' H I warp and its 'giant' tidal stream. Previous work on this unusual object shows that it cannot be fitted satisfactorily by a canonical thin+thick disk structure. We have produced a new decomposition of NGC 4013, considering three stellar flattened components (thin+thick disk plus an extra and more extended component) and one gaseous disk. All four components are considered to be gravitationally coupled and isothermal. To do so, we have used the 3.6 μm images from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. We find evidence for NGC 4013 indeed having a thin and a thick disk and an extra flattened component. This smooth and extended component (scale height z EC ∼ 3 kpc) could be interpreted as a thick disk or as a squashed ellipsoidal halo and contains ∼20% of the total mass of all three stellar components. We argue it is unlikely to be related to the ongoing merger or due to the off-plane stars from a warp in the other two disk components. Instead, we favor a scenario in which the thick disk and the extended component were formed in a two-stage process, in which an initially thick disk has been dynamically heated by a merger soon enough in the galaxy history to have a new thick disk formed within it.

  9. Submillimeter Array/Plateau de Bure Interferometer Multiple Line Observations of the Nearby Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 1068: Shock-related Gas Kinematics and Heating in the Central 100 pc?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krips, M.; Martin, S.; Eckart, A.; Neri, R.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Matsushita, S.; Peck, A.; Stoklasová, Ivana; Petitpas, G.; Usero, A.; Combes, F.; Schinnerer, E.; Humphreys, L.; Baker, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 736, 1-4 (2011), 37/1-37/27 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : galaxies * active galaxies * NGC 1068 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.024, year: 2011

  10. A Faint Luminous Halo that May Trace the Dark Matter around Spiral Galaxy NGC~5907

    OpenAIRE

    Sackett, Penny D.; Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; Boroson, Todd A.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of unseen halos of ``dark matter'' has long been inferred from the high rotation speeds of gas and stars in the outer parts of spiral galaxies$^{1}$. The volume density of this dark matter decreases less quickly from the galactic center than does that of the luminous mass (such as that in stars), meaning that the dark matter dominates the mass far from the center$^{1,2}$. While searching for faint starlight away from the plane of the edge-on disk galaxy \\gal$^{3}$, we have found ...

  11. ENERGY-DEPENDENT TIME LAGS IN THE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY NGC 4593

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, K.; Agrawal, V. K.; Rao, A. R.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the energy-time lag dependence of the source NGC 4593 using XMM-Newton/EPIC pn data. We found that the time lag dependency is linear in nature with respect to the logarithm of different energy bands. We also investigate the frequency-dependent time lags and identify that at some frequency range (5 x 10 -5 Hz to 2 x 10 -4 Hz) the X-ray emission is highly coherent, mildly frequency dependent, and very strongly energy dependent. These observations can be explained in the framework of the thermal Comptonization process, and they indicate a truncated accretion disk very close to the black hole. We discuss the plausible spectral state to explain the phenomenon and conclude that the observed properties bear a close resemblance to the intermediate state or the steep power-law state, found in galactic black hole sources.

  12. The discovery of an O VII emission line in the ASCA spectrum of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3783

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, I. M.; Turner, T. J.; Netzer, H.

    1995-01-01

    We report the first observation of an O VII 0.57 keV emission line in a Seyfert 1 galaxy. NGC 3783 was observed by ASCA twice over a period of 4 days in 1993 December. The source exhibited a approximately 30% change in intensity between the two observations, with most of the variability taking place as a result of steepening of the continuum less than or approximately equal to 1 keV. Spectra from both observations show intense absorption features in the 0.5-1.5 keV band, which can be well fitted by an ionized absorber model of solar composition, column density of 10(exp 22.2)/sq cm and ionization parameter of approximately 7-8; the strongest absorption features being due to O VII and O VIII. Two emission features are also seen in the spectra which we identify as O VII 0.57 keV (equivalent width approximately equals 36 eV) and O VIII 0.65 keV (equivalent width approximately equals 11 eV). We also show that the 3-6 keV continuum of the source is well fitted by a Gamma = 1.3-1.4 power-law continuum, a narrow neutral iron K-shell fluorescence line and a strong iron K-shell absorption edge, possibly corresponding to highly ionized iron.

  13. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of Four Bright Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources in the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/4039)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. M.; Zezas, A.; Fabbiano, G.; Schweizer, F.

    2004-07-01

    We report the results of spectral fits to four bright ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/4039) observed for 41 ks with XMM-Newton. Although emission regions are not resolved as well as in prior Chandra observations, at least four ULXs (X-11, X-16, X-37, and X-44 in the Zezas and Fabbiano scheme) are sufficiently bright and well separated with XMM-Newton that reliable extractions and spectral analyses are possible. We find that the single-component multicolor disk blackbody models cannot describe any of the spectra. Sources X-11 and X-16 are acceptably fitted with simple power-law models. A thermal bremsstrahlung model provides a better fit to the spectrum of X-44. Including a disk blackbody component to the spectrum of X-37 improves the fit and reveals an apparently cool disk (kT=0.13+/-0.02 keV). This would suggest a parallel to cool disks recently found in other very luminous ULXs, which may contain intermediate-mass black holes; however, the complex diffuse emission of the Antennae demands that this finding be regarded cautiously.

  14. Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby Galaxies (SWAN): Resolved Ammonia Thermometry, and Water and Methanol Masers in the Nuclear Starburst of NGC 253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Mark; Ott, Jürgen; Rand, Richard; Meier, David S.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Schinnerer, Eva

    2017-06-01

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array molecular line observations of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253, from SWAN, the Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby galaxies. SWAN is a molecular line survey at centimeter wavelengths designed to reveal the physical conditions of star-forming gas over a range of star-forming galaxies. NGC 253 has been observed in four 1 GHz bands from 21 to 36 GHz at 6″ ˜ 100 pc) spatial and 3.5 km s-1 spectral resolution. In total we detect 19 transitions from 7 molecular and atomic species. We have targeted the metastable inversion transitions of ammonia (NH3) from (1, 1) to (5, 5) and the (9, 9) line, the 22.2 GHz water (H2O) ({6}16{--}{5}23) maser, and the 36.1 GHz methanol (CH3OH) ({4}-1{--}{3}0) maser. Using NH3 as a thermometer, we present evidence for uniform heating over the central kpc of NGC 253. The molecular gas is best described by a two kinetic temperature model with a warm 130 K and a cooler 57 K component. A comparison of these observations with previous ALMA results suggests that the molecular gas is not heated in photon-dominated regions or shocks. It is possible that the gas is heated by turbulence or cosmic rays. In the galaxy center we find evidence for NH3(3, 3) masers. Furthermore, we present velocities and luminosities of three water maser features related to the nuclear starburst. We partially resolve CH3OH masers seen at the edges of the bright molecular emission, which coincides with expanding molecular superbubbles. This suggests that the masers are pumped by weak shocks in the bubble surfaces.

  15. DETECTION OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE STARBURST GALAXIES M82 AND NGC 253 WITH THE LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON FERMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of high-energy γ-ray emission from two starburst galaxies using data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Steady point-like emission above 200 MeV has been detected at significance levels of 6.8σ and 4.8σ, respectively, from sources positionally coincident with locations of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The total fluxes of the sources are consistent with γ-ray emission originating from the interaction of cosmic rays with local interstellar gas and radiation fields and constitute evidence for a link between massive star formation and γ-ray emission in star-forming galaxies.

  16. Tests of star formation metrics in the low-metallicity galaxy NGC 5253 using ALMA observations of H30α line emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendo, G. J.; Miura, R. E.; Espada, D.; Nakanishi, K.; Beswick, R. J.; D'Cruze, M. J.; Dickinson, C.; Fuller, G. A.

    2017-11-01

    We use Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of H30α (231.90 GHz) emission from the low-metallicity dwarf galaxy NGC 5253 to measure the star formation rate (SFR) within the galaxy and to test the reliability of SFRs derived from other commonly used metrics. The H30α emission, which originates mainly from the central starburst, yields a photoionizing photon production rate of (1.9 ± 0.3) × 1052 s-1 and an SFR of 0.087 ± 0.013 M⊙ yr-1 based on conversions that account for the low metallicity of the galaxy and for stellar rotation. Among the other star formation metrics we examined, the SFR calculated from the total infrared flux was statistically equivalent to the values from the H30α data. The SFR based on a previously published version of the H α flux that was extinction corrected using Paα and Paβ lines was lower than but also statistically similar to the H30α value. The mid-infrared (22 μm) flux density and the composite star formation tracer based on H α and mid-infrared emission give SFRs that were significantly higher because the dust emission appears unusually hot compared to typical spiral galaxies. Conversely, the 70 and 160 μm flux densities yielded SFRs lower than the H30α value, although the SFRs from the 70 μm and H30α data were within 1σ-2σ of each other. While further analysis on a broader range of galaxies is needed, these results are instructive of the best and worst methods to use when measuring SFR in low-metallicity dwarf galaxies like NGC 5253.

  17. Evidence for large-scale winds from starburst galaxies. I. The nature of the ionized gas in M82 and NGC 253

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccarthy, P.J.; Van breugel, W.; Heckman, T.; Maryland Univ., College Park)

    1987-01-01

    The results of long-slit spectroscopy and narrow-band imaging of M82 and NGC 253, the two nearest examples of FIR luminous galaxies believed to be undergoing intense bursts of star formation, are presented. The profile of the gas pressure in the emission-line filaments in M82 is derived and found to be in good agreement with the model of Chevalier and Clegg (1985) of a supernovae-driven wind from a starburst nucleus. Lower quality data from NGC 253 support the same interpretation. Analysis of the emission-line ratios suggests that the line-emitting gas may be heated by low-velocity shocks, although photoionization from dilute UV radiation from unusually hot stars in the central starburst may also be important. 56 references

  18. Structure of the Circumnuclear Region of Seyfert 2 Galaxies Revealed by RXTE Hard X-Ray Observations of NGC 4945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejski, G.; Zycki, P.; Done, C.; Valinia, A.; Blanco, P.; Rothschild, R.; Turek, B.

    2000-01-01

    NGC 4945 is one of the brightest Se.yfert galaxies on the sky at 100 keV, but is completely absorbed below 10 keV, implying an optical depth of the absorber to electron scattering of a few; its absorption column is probably the largest which still allows a direct view of the nucleus at hard X-ray energies. Our observations of it with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite confirm the large absorption, which for a simple phenomenological fit using an absorber with Solar abundances implies a column of 4.5(sup 0.4, sub -0.4) x 10(exp 24) /sq cm. Using a a more realistic scenario (requiring Monte Carlo modeling of the scattering), we infer the optical depth to Thomson scattering of approximately 2.4. If such a scattering medium were to subtend a large solid angle from the nucleus, it should smear out any intrinsic hard X-ray variability on time scales shorter than the light travel time through it. The rapid (with a time scale of approximately a day) hard X-ray variability of NGC 4945 we observed with the RXTE implies that the bulk of the extreme absorption in this object does not originate in a parsec-size, geometrically thick molecular torus. Limits on the amount of scattered flux require that the optically thick material on parsec scales must be rather geometrically thin, subtending a half-angle < 10 deg. This is only marginally consistent with the recent determinations of the obscuring column in hard X-rays, where only a quarter of Seyfert 2s have columns which are optically thick, and presents a problem in accounting for the Cosmic X-ray Background primarily with AGN possessing the geometry as that inferred by us. The small solid angle of the obscuring material, together with the black hole mass (of approximately 1.4 x 10(exp 6) solar mass) from megamaser measurements. allows a robust determination of the source luminosity, which in turn implies that the source radiates at approximately 10% of the Eddington limit.

  19. Seeing Red in NGC 1978, NGC 55, and NGC 3109

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2018-04-01

    Spectra of the intermediate-age star cluster NGC 1978 and the dwarf irregular galaxies NGC 55 and NGC 3109 are discussed. The spectra were recorded with the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph on Gemini South and span the 0.7–1.1 μm wavelength interval. Five slit pointings were observed in NGC 1978, and these are used to examine stochastic effects on the integrated red light from an intermediate-age cluster. The removal of either the brightest M giant or the brightest C star from the co-added spectrum has minor effects on the equivalent withs of the Ca triplet. The most robust signature of C stars in the integrated cluster spectrum at these wavelengths is the CN band head near 7900 Å. The equivalent widths of Ca triplet lines in the NGC 1978 spectrum and in the spectra of individual cluster stars are larger than expected for a scaled-solar abundance system. It is suggested that these stars have a lower than expected surface gravity, which might occur if the stars in NGC 1978 have been subject to extra mixing processes, as suggested by Lederer et al. The near-infrared color profile of NGC 1978 is shown to contain a prominent red cusp in the central 10 arcsec, and the suppression of light from this cusp does not affect the depth of the Ca lines in the integrated spectrum. The NGC 55 spectra run parallel to the major axis, and a gradient is found in the strength of the Ca lines, in the sense that the Ca lines weaken with increasing distance from the disk plane. Comparisons with models suggest that the disk light is dominated by stars with ages 1–2 Gyr, in agreement with star-forming histories (SFHs) obtained from the analysis of color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The NGC 55 spectra also sample a large star-forming complex. The age of this complex inferred from comparisons with models is broadly consistent with that estimated from a near-infrared CMD of the same region. The CN band head at 7900 Å in this part of NGC 55 is detected, but this is likely a signature of

  20. Optical and near-infrared IFU spectroscopy of the nuclear region of the AGN-starburst galaxy NGC 7582

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, T. V.; Steiner, J. E.; May, D.; Garcia-Rissmann, A.; Menezes, R. B.

    2018-02-01

    NGC 7582 is an SB(s)ab galaxy which displays evidences of simultaneous nuclear activity and star formation in its centre. Previous optical observations revealed, besides the H II regions, an ionization cone and a gas disc in its central part. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images in both optical and infrared bands show the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and a few compact structures that are possibly associated with young stellar clusters. In order to study in detail both the AGN and evidence for star formation, we analyse optical (Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph) and near-infrared (Spectrograph for Integral Field Observations in the Near Infrared) archival data cubes. We detected five nebulae with strong He II λ4686 emission in the same region where an outflow is detected in the [O III] λ5007 kinematic map. We interpreted this result as clouds that are exposed to high-energy photons emerging from the AGN throughout the ionization cone. We also detected Wolf-Rayet features which are related to emission of one of the compact clusters seen in the HST image. Broad Hα and Br γ components are detected at the position of the nucleus. [Fe II] λ1.644 μm, H2λ2.122 μm and Br γ flux maps show two blobs, one north and the other south from the nucleus, that seem to be associated with five previously detected mid-infrared sources. Two of the five He II nebulae are partially ionized by photons from starbursts. However, we conclude that the main source of excitation of these blobs is the AGN jet/disc. The jet orientation indicates that the accretion disc is nearly orthogonal to the dusty torus.

  1. The X-ray Power Density Spectrum of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 4945: Analysis and Application of the Method of Light Curve Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Martin; /SLAC

    2010-12-16

    The study of the power density spectrum (PDS) of fluctuations in the X-ray flux from active galactic nuclei (AGN) complements spectral studies in giving us a view into the processes operating in accreting compact objects. An important line of investigation is the comparison of the PDS from AGN with those from galactic black hole binaries; a related area of focus is the scaling relation between time scales for the variability and the black hole mass. The PDS of AGN is traditionally modeled using segments of power laws joined together at so-called break frequencies; associations of the break time scales, i.e., the inverses of the break frequencies, with time scales of physical processes thought to operate in these sources are then sought. I analyze the Method of Light Curve Simulations that is commonly used to characterize the PDS in AGN with a view to making the method as sensitive as possible to the shape of the PDS. I identify several weaknesses in the current implementation of the method and propose alternatives that can substitute for some of the key steps in the method. I focus on the complications introduced by uneven sampling in the light curve, the development of a fit statistic that is better matched to the distributions of power in the PDS, and the statistical evaluation of the fit between the observed data and the model for the PDS. Using archival data on one AGN, NGC 3516, I validate my changes against previously reported results. I also report new results on the PDS in NGC 4945, a Seyfert 2 galaxy with a well-determined black hole mass. This source provides an opportunity to investigate whether the PDS of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies differ. It is also an attractive object for placement on the black hole mass-break time scale relation. Unfortunately, with the available data on NGC 4945, significant uncertainties on the break frequency in its PDS remain.

  2. A search for supernova remnants in the nearby spiral galaxy M 74 (NGC 628)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonbaş, E.; Akyüz, A.; Balman, Ş.; Özel, M. E.

    2010-07-01

    An optical search was carried out for supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Sc type nearby spiral galaxy M 74, using ground-based observations at the TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG, Antalya/Turkey) and the Special Astrophysics Observatory (SAO, Russia). Observations were supplemented by the spectral analysis of archived X-ray data from XMM-Newton and Chandra. The survey of M 74 covered ~9 arcmin2 with [S II], Hα, and their continuum filters. Interference filter images of M 74 were obtained the with the 1.5 m Russian Turkish Telescope (RTT150) at TUG and spectral data taken with the 6 m Bolsoi Azimuthal Telescope (BTA) at SAO. The emission nebulae with continuum-subtracted line ratio values of [S II]λλ6716,6731 /Hα ≥ 0.4 are identified as SNRs. Follow-up spectroscopy confirmed optical SNR identifications. We have identified nine new SNR candidates in M 74 with [S II]/Hα ≥ 0.4 as the basic criterion. The [S II]/Hα ratio ranges from 0.40 to 0.91 and Hα intensities from 2.8 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 to 1.7 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. We also present spectral follow-up observations of these SNR candidates, however, we are able to spectrally confirm only three of them (SNR2, SNR3, and SNR5). The lack of confirmation for the rest might come from contamination by the nearby H II emission regions, as well as from the inaccurate positioning of the long slit on these objects. In addition, we searched the XMM-Newton and Chandra Observatory archival data for the X-ray counterparts to the optically identified candidates. We find positional coincidence with only three SNR candidates, SNR1, SNR2, and SNR8. The spectrum of SNR2 yields a shock temperature of 10.8 keV with an ionization timescale of 1.6 × 1010 s cm-3, indicating a relatively young remnant in an early Sedov phase, which is not supported by our optical wavelength analysis. Given the high luminosity of 1039 erg s-1 and the characteristics of the X-ray spectrum, we favor an ultra luminous X-ray source interpretation for

  3. MUSE stares into the shadows: the high-resolution dust attenuation curve of NGC 5626

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, S.; Sarzi, M.; Baes, M.; Fritz, J.; Puerari, I.

    2017-12-01

    The newest generation of integral field unit spectrographs brings three-dimensional mapping of nearby galaxies one step closer. While the focus up to this point was mostly on stars and ionized gas, it is also possible to look at dust in a new, more complete way. Using MUSE science verification observations of NGC 5626, we map the interstellar matter in this dusty lenticular. We use the resolving power of MUSE to measure the optical attenuation with a spectral resolution of 6.25 Å, at physical scales of 0.1-1 kpc. The integrated attenuation curve of NGC 5626 shows a smooth, slightly steeper than Milky Way and SMC attenuation curves. Several sharp features are superimposed: we measure lower attenuation at spectral emission lines and higher attenuation for the sodium line doublet. No correlation was observed between sodium line strength and reddening by dust on spatially resolved scales. Additionally, the continuum attenuation was found to be independent from the Balmer decrement (tracing ionized gas attenuation). We model and interpret the variations in the attenuation curves of each spatial resolution element of NGC 5626. We find that the amount and distribution of dust along the line of sight is highly degenerate with any variation in the intrinsic extinction law. Our analysis shows that the interstellar matter in NGC 5626 resides in a regular and well-settled disc. Our results preach caution in the application of simple recipes to de-redden global galaxy spectra and underlines the need for more realistic dust geometries when constructing such correction formulas.

  4. What Are S0 Galaxies?

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, Sidney van den

    2009-01-01

    The data collected in the Shapley-Ames catalog of bright galaxies show that lenticular (S0) galaxies are typically about a magnitude fainter than both elliptical (E) and early spiral (Sa) galaxies. Hubble (1936) was therefore wrong to regard S0 galaxies as being intermediate between morphological types E and Sa. The observation that E5-E7 galaxies are significantly fainter than objects of sub-types E0-E5 suggests that many of the flattest 'ellipticals' may actually be misclassified lenticular...

  5. On the Mass-loss Rate of Massive Stars in the Low-metallicity Galaxies IC 1613, WLM, and NGC 3109

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramper, F.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Kaper, L.

    2011-11-01

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter observations of six O-type stars in the low-metallicity (Z ~ 1/7 Z sun) galaxies IC 1613, WLM, and NGC 3109. The stellar and wind parameters of these sources allow us, for the first time, to probe the mass loss versus metallicity dependence of stellar winds at metallicities below that of the Small Magellanic Cloud (at Z ~ 1/5 Z sun) by means of a modified wind momentum versus luminosity diagram. The wind strengths that we obtain for the objects in WLM and NGC 3109 are unexpectedly high and do not agree with theoretical predictions. The objects in IC 1613 tend toward a higher than expected mass-loss rate, but remain consistent with predictions within their error bars. We discuss potential systematic uncertainties in the mass-loss determinations to explain our results. However, if further scrutinization of these findings point towards an intrinsic cause for this unexpected sub-SMC mass-loss behavior, implications would include a higher than anticipated number of Wolf-Rayet stars and Ib/Ic supernovae in low-metallicity environments, but a reduced number of long-duration gamma-ray bursts produced through a single-star evolutionary channel. Based on VLT/X-Shooter observations under program 085D.0741.

  6. Probing the cold and warm molecular gas in the Whirlpool Galaxy: Herschel SPIRE-FTS observations of the central region of M51 (NGC 5194)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirm, M. R. P.; Wilson, C. D.; Kamenetzky, J.; Parkin, T. J.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P.; Rangwala, N.; Spinoglio, L.; Baes, M.; Boselli, A.; Cooray, A.; De Looze, I.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Wu, R.

    2017-10-01

    We present Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE)-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) intermediate-sampled mapping observations of the central ˜8 kpc (˜150 arcsec) of M51, with a spatial resolution of 40 arcsec. We detect four 12CO transitions (J = 4-3 to J = 7-6) and the [C I] 3P2-3P1 and 3P1-3P0 transitions. We supplement these observations with ground-based observations of 12CO J = 1-0 to J = 3-2 and perform a two-component non-local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis. We find that the molecular gas in the nucleus and centre regions has a cool component (Tkin ˜ 10-20 K) with a moderate but poorly constrained density (n(H2) ˜ 103-106 cm-3), as well as significant molecular gas in a warmer (Tkin ˜ 300-3000 K), lower density (n(H2) ˜ 101.6-102.5 cm-3) component. We compare our CO line ratios and calculated densities along with ratios of CO to total infrared luminosity to a grid of photon-dominated region (PDR) models and find that the cold molecular gas likely resides in PDRs with a field strength of G0 ˜ 102. The warm component likely requires an additional source of mechanical heating, from supernovae and stellar winds or possibly shocks produced in the strong spiral density wave. When compared to similar two-component models of other star-forming galaxies published as part of the Very Nearby Galaxies Survey (Arp 220, M82 and NGC 4038/39), M51 has the lowest density for the warm component, while having a warm gas mass fraction that is comparable to those of Arp 220 and M82, and significantly higher than that of NGC 4038/39.

  7. Enormous Disc of Cool Gas Surrounding the Nearby Powerful Radio Galaxy NGC 612 (PKS 0131-36)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    of dark matter is still under debate (see e.g. Romanowsky et al. 2003; Humphrey et al. 2006), but our derived value of Menc/LB for NGC 612 is in good...2002, New Astronomy Review, 46, 313 Raimann D., Storchi-Bergmann T., Quintana H., Hunstead R., Wisotzki L., 2005, MNRAS, 364, 1239 Romanowsky A. J

  8. X-Rays from NGC 3256: High-Energy Emission in Starburst Galaxies and Their Contribution to the Cosmic X-Ray Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, Edward C.; Lehnert, Matthew D.; Helfand, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The infrared-luminous galaxy NGC 3256 is a classic example of a merger-induced nuclear starburst system. We find here that it is the most X-ray-luminous star-forming galaxy yet detected (L 0.5-10keV =1.6x10 42 ergs s-1). Long-slit optical spectroscopy and a deep, high-resolution ROSAT X-ray image show that the starburst is driving a ''superwind'' which accounts for ∼20% of the observed soft X-ray emission. Analysis of X-ray spectral data from ASCA indicates this gas has a characteristic temperature of kT≅0.3 keV. Our model for the broadband X-ray emission of NGC 3256 contains two additional components: a warm thermal plasma (kT≅0.8 keV) associated with the central starburst, and a hard power-law component with an energy index of α X ≅0.7. We discuss the energy budget for the two thermal plasmas and find that the input of mechanical energy from the starburst is more than sufficient to sustain the observed level of emission. We also examine possible origins for the power-law component, concluding that neither a buried AGN nor the expected population of high-mass X-ray binaries can account for this emission. Inverse Compton scattering, involving the galaxy's copious flux of infrared photons and the relativistic electrons produced by supernovae, is likely to make a substantial contribution to the hard X-ray flux. Such a model is consistent with the observed radio and IR fluxes and the radio and X-ray spectral indices. We explore the role of X-ray-luminous starbursts in the production of the cosmic X-ray background radiation. The number counts and spectral index distribution of the faint radio source population, thought to be dominated by star-forming galaxies, suggest that a significant fraction of the hard X-ray background could arise from starbursts at moderate redshift. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  9. Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented

  10. KDG218, a nearby ultra-diffuse galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Makarova, L. N.; Sharina, M. E.; Karachentseva, V. E.

    2017-10-01

    We present properties of the low-surface-brightness galaxy KDG218 observed with the HST/ACS. The galaxy has a half-light (effective) diameter of a e = 47″ and a central surface brightness of SB V (0) = 24.m4/□″. The galaxy remains unresolved with the HST/ACS, which implies its distance of D > 13.1 Mpc and linear effective diameter of A e > 3.0 kpc. We notice that KDG218 is most likely associated with a galaxy group around the massive lenticular NGC4958 galaxy at approximately 22 Mpc, or with the Virgo Southern Extension filament at approximately 16.5 Mpc. At these distances, the galaxy is classified as an ultra-diffuse galaxy (UDG) similar to those found in the Virgo, Fornax, and Coma clusters. We also present a sample of 15 UDG candidates in the Local Volume. These sample galaxies have the following mean parameters: 〈 D〉 = 5.1 Mpc, 〈 A e 〉 = 4.8 kpc, and 〈 SB B ( e)〉 = 27.m4/□″. All the local UDG candidates reside near massive galaxies located in the regions with the mean stellar mass density (within 1 Mpc) about 50 times greater than the average cosmic density. The local fraction of UDGs does not exceed 1.5% of the Local Volume population. We notice that the presented sample of local UDGs is a heterogeneous one containing irregular, transition, and tidal types, as well as objects consisting of an old stellar population.

  11. CHANDRA observations of the NGC 1550 galaxy group: Implication for the temperature and entropy profiles of 1 keV galaxy groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, M.; Forman, W.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2003-01-01

    is remarkably similar to those of two other 1 keV groups with accurate temperature determination. The temperature begins to decline at 0.07r(vir) - 0.1r(vir), while in hot clusters the decline begins at or beyond 0.2rvir. Thus, there are at least some 1 keV groups that have temperature profiles significantly...... different from those of hot clusters, which may reflect the role of nongravitational processes in intracluster medium/intergalactic medium evolution. NGC 1550 has no isentropic core in its entropy pro. le, in contrast to the predictions of "entropy floor'' simulations. We compare the scaled entropy profiles...

  12. The luminosity function of field galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Mahtessian, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    Schmidt's method for construction of luminosity function of galaxies is generalized by taking into account the dependence of density of galaxies from the distance in the near Universe. The logarithmical luminosity function (LLF) of field galaxies depending on morphological type is constructed. We show that the LLF for all galaxies, and also separately for elliptical and lenticular galaxies can be presented by Schechter function in narrow area of absolute magnitudes. The LLF of spiral galaxies...

  13. Epidemiology of traumatic lenticular subluxation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agrawal, Saurabh; Gupta, Shikha; Gogia, Varun; Agarwal, Tushar

    2014-04-01

    To study the epidemiological and clinical profile of patients with traumatic subluxated lenses at a tertiary care center in India. Ours was a non-comparative descriptive case series. Evaluation of 71 eyes of 71 consecutive patients presenting to the lens clinic over a period of 2 years with traumatic lenticular subluxation was done. Demographic and clinical profile of patients was acquired, followed by a biomicroscopic examination of the cornea, anterior chamber, iris, lens, angles, zonules, anterior vitreous and fundus. Most of the patients were adolescents and belonged to lower socioeconomic status. The mean time lag before presenting was 33.6 months (range 5 days to 40 years) and mean visual acuity in the affected eyes was 1.67 + 0.56 logMAR. Blunt trauma (63/71) was nine times more common than penetrating trauma in the etiology of manifest subluxation. Injury while playing accounted for the highest rate of injury; sports-related injury with a gulli danda or a cricket bat and ball were the most common mode of blunt trauma while bow and arrow injury was the commonest cause of injury in the penetrating trauma subgroup. Cataract was the most frequent ocular association (53.5 %). All eyes had broken zonules and most presented with inferior subluxation (46 %). Traumatic lenticular subluxation, a unilateral cause of zonulolysis usually occurs while playing with a gulli danda, bow and arrow, or cricket bat and ball in Northern India. It is a major cause of severe visual loss and a modification in risk factors is mandatory to decrease ocular morbidity from trauma.

  14. Star formation histories in NGC 147 and NGC 185

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedani Golshan, R.; Javadi, A.; van Loon, J. Th

    2017-06-01

    NGC 147 and NGC 185 are two of the most massive satellites of the Andromeda galaxy (M 31). With similar mass and morphological type dE, they possess different amounts of interstellar gas and tidal distortion. The question therefore is, how do their histories compare? We present the first reconstruction of the star formation histories of NGC 147 and NGC 185 using long-period variable stars (LPVs). LPVs are low- to intermediate-mass stars at the asymptotic giant branch, which their luminosity is related to their birth mass. Combining near-infrared photometry with stellar evolution models, we construct the mass function and hence the star formation history. For NGC 185 we found that the main epoch of star formation occurred 8.3 Gyr ago, followed by a much lower, but relatively constant star formation rate. In the case of NGC 147, the star formation rate peaked only 7 Gyr ago, staying intense until ∼ 3 Gyr ago, but no star formation has occurred for at least 300 Myr. Despite their similar masses, NGC 147 has evolved more slowly than NGC 185 initially, but more dramatically in more recent times.

  15. High spatial resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy of the starburst galaxies NGC3256, IIZw 40 and Henize 2-10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, N. L.; Schaerer, D.; Peeters, E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Sauvage, M.

    Aims. In order to show the importance of high spatial resolution observations of extra-galactic sources when compared to observations obtained with larger apertures such as ISO, we present N-band spectra (8-13 mu m) of some locations in three starburst galaxies. In particular, we show the two

  16. The outer envelopes of globular clusters. II. NGC 1851, NGC 5824 and NGC 1261*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, P. B.; Da Costa, G. S.; Mackey, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    We present a second set of results from a wide-field photometric survey of the environs of Milky Way globular clusters. The clusters studied are NGC 1261, NGC 1851 and NGC 5824: all have data from the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m telescope. NGC 5824 also has data from the Magellan Clay telescope with MegaCam. We confirm the existence of a large diffuse stellar envelope surrounding NGC 1851 of size at least 240 pc in radius. The radial density profile of the envelope follows a power-law decline with index γ = -1.5 ± 0.2 and the projected shape is slightly elliptical. For NGC 5824, there is no strong detection of a diffuse stellar envelope, but we find the cluster is remarkably extended and is similar in size (at least 230 pc in radius) to the envelope of NGC 1851. A stellar envelope is also revealed around NGC 1261. However, it is notably smaller in size with radius ∼105 pc. The radial density profile of the envelope is also much steeper with γ = -3.8 ± 0.2. We discuss the possible nature of the diffuse stellar envelopes, but are unable to draw definitive conclusions based on the current data. NGC 1851, and potentially NGC 5824, could be stripped dwarf galaxy nuclei, akin to the cases of ω Cen, M54 and M2. On the other hand, the different characteristics of the NGC 1261 envelope suggest that it may be the product of dynamical evolution of the cluster.

  17. Simultaneous UV and X-ray Spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548. I: Physical Conditions in the UV Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Gabel, J. R.; Kaastra, J. S.; Steenbrugge, K. C.; Brinkman, A. C.; Dunn, J. P.; George, I. M.; Liedahl, D. A.; Paerels, F. B. S.

    2003-01-01

    We present new UV spectra of the nucleus of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548, which we obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph at high spectral resolution, in conjunction with simultaneous Chandra X-ray Observatory spectra. Taking advantage of the low UV continuum and broad emission-line fluxes, we have determined that the deepest UV absorption component covers at least a portion of the inner, high-ionization narrow-line region (NLR). We find nonunity covering factors in the cores of several kinematic components, which increase the column density measurements of N V and C IV by factors of 1.2 to 1.9 over the full-covering case; however, the revised columns have only a minor effect on the parameters derived from our photoionization models. For the first time, we have simultaneous N V and C IV columns for component 1 (at -1040 km/s), and find that this component cannot be an X-ray warm absorber, contrary to our previous claim based on nonsimultaneous observations. We find that models of the absorbers based on solar abundances severely overpredict the O VI columns previously obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectrograph, and present arguments that this is not likely due to variability. However, models that include either enhanced nitrogen (twice solar) or dust, with strong depletion of carbon in either case, are successful in matching all of the observed ionic columns. These models result in substantially lower ionization parameters and total column densities compared to dust-free solar-abundance models, and produce little O VII or O VIII, indicating that none of the UV absorbers are X-ray warm absorbers.

  18. Active galactic nuclei, neutrinos, and interacting cosmic rays in NGC 253 and NGC 1068

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M.; Zweibel, Ellen G. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Gallagher III, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Everett, John E., E-mail: yoasthull@wisc.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern University, IL 60208 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    The galaxies M82, NGC 253, NGC 1068, and NGC 4945 have been detected in γ-rays by Fermi. Previously, we developed and tested a model for cosmic-ray interactions in the starburst galaxy M82. Now, we aim to explore the differences between starburst and active galactic nucleus (AGN) environments by applying our self-consistent model to the starburst galaxy NGC 253 and the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068. Assuming a constant cosmic-ray acceleration efficiency by supernova remnants with Milky Way parameters, we calculate the cosmic-ray proton and primary and secondary electron/positron populations, predict the radio and γ-ray spectra, and compare with published measurements. We find that our models easily fit the observed γ-ray spectrum for NGC 253 while constraining the cosmic-ray source spectral index and acceleration efficiency. However, we encountered difficultly modeling the observed radio data and constraining the speed of the galactic wind and the magnetic field strength, unless the gas mass is less than currently preferred values. Additionally, our starburst model consistently underestimates the observed γ-ray flux and overestimates the radio flux for NGC 1068; these issues would be resolved if the AGN is the primary source of γ-rays. We discuss the implications of these results and make predictions for the neutrino fluxes for both galaxies.

  19. Dark matter in NGC 4472

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Michael

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to constrain the total mass distribution of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472 by constructing simultaneous equilibrium models for the gas and stars. Emphasis is given to reconciling the value of the emission-weighted average value of kT derived from the Ginga spectrum with the amount of dark matter needed to account for velocity dispersion observations.

  20. Probing the interstellar medium in early-type galaxies with Infrared Space Oberservatory observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, S.; Hollenbach, D.; Helou, D.; Silbermann, N.; Valjavec, E.; Rubin, R.; Dale, D.; Hunter, D.; Lu, N.; Lord, S.; hide

    2000-01-01

    Four IRAS-detected early-type galaxies were observed with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). With the exception of the 15 mu m image of NGC 1052, the mid-IR images of NGC 1052, NGC 1155, NGC 5866, and NGC 6958 at 4.5, 7, and 15 mu m show extended emission.

  1. The Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/4039) Revisited: Advanced Camera for Surveys and NICMOS Observations of a Prototypical Merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Bradley C.; Chandar, Rupali; Schweizer, François; Rothberg, Barry; Leitherer, Claus; Rieke, Marcia; Rieke, George; Blair, W. P.; Mengel, S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.

    2010-07-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) have been used to obtain new Hubble Space Telescope images of NGC 4038/4039 ("The Antennae"). These new observations allow us to better differentiate compact star clusters from individual stars, based on both size and color. We use this ability to extend the cluster luminosity function (LF) by approximately 2 mag over our previous WFPC2 results, and find that it continues as a single power law, dN/dL vprop L α with α = -2.13 ± 0.07, down to the observational limit of MV ≈ -7. Similarly, the mass function (MF) is a single power law dN/dM vprop M β with β = -2.10 ± 0.20 for clusters with ages agreement between values of α and β, similar to the results for the total population of clusters in the system. There is tentative evidence that the values of both α and β are flatter for the youngest clusters in some areas, but it is possible that this is caused by observational biases. Several of the areas studied show evidence for age gradients, with somewhat older clusters appearing to have triggered the formation of younger clusters. The area around Knot B is a particularly interesting example, with a ~10-50 Myr old cluster of estimated mass ~106 M sun having apparently triggered the formation of several younger, more massive (up to 5 × 106 M sun) clusters along a dust lane. A comparison with new NICMOS observations reveals that only 16% ± 6% of the IR-bright clusters in the Antennae are still heavily obscured, with values of AV >3 mag. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Also based on data obtained from the Hubble Legacy Archive, which is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI/NASA), the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST

  2. Light-year scale radio cores in four LINER galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filho, ME; Barthel, PD; Ho, LC

    The LINER galaxies NGC2911, NGC3079, NGC3998, and NGC6500 were observed at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network at a resolution of 5 milliarcsecond and found to possess at-spectrum, variable, high-brightness temperature (T-B > 10(8) K) radio cores. These radio characteristics reinforce the view that

  3. Tails and streams around the Galactic globular clusters NGC 1851, NGC 1904, NGC 2298 and NGC 2808

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Bello, Julio A.; Martínez-Delgado, David; Navarrete, Camila; Catelan, Márcio; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Antoja, Teresa; Sollima, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    We present Dark Energy Camera imaging for the peculiar Galactic globular clusters NGC 1851, NGC 1904 (M 79), NGC 2298 and NGC 2808. Our deep photometry reveals that all the clusters have an important contribution of stars beyond their King tidal radii and present tails with different morphologies. We have also explored the surroundings of the clusters where the presence of the Canis Major overdensity and/or the low Galactic latitude Monoceros ring at d⊙ ˜ 8 kpc is evident. A second stellar system is found at d⊙ ˜ 17 kpc and spans at least 18 deg × 15 deg in the sky. As one of the possible scenarios to explain that feature, we propose that the unveiled system is part of Monoceros explained as a density wave moving towards the outer Milky Way. Alternatively, the unveiled system might be connected with other known halo substructures or associated with the progenitor dwarf galaxy of NGC 1851 and NGC 1904, which are widely considered accreted globular clusters.

  4. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey IX: the isolated galaxy sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minchin, R.F.; Auld, R.; Davies, J.I.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Keenan, O.; Momjian, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Taber, T.; Taylor, Rhys

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 455, č. 4 (2016), s. 3430-3435 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14013; GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : individual galaxies NGC 1156 * individual galaxies NGC 5523 * individual galaxies UGC 2082 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  5. Seyfert Galaxies: Radio Continuum Emission Properties and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1989), hosted in spiral or lenticular galaxies (Weed- man 1977). Seyfert galaxies are broadly classified into type 1 and type 2 depending on the presence and absence of broad permitted emission lines in their optical spec- tra, respectively. Unification scheme of Seyfert galaxies hypothesizes that Seyfert type 1s and type 2s ...

  6. THE MASS-DISTRIBUTION OF THE DWARF SPIRAL NGC-1560

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROEILS, AH

    H I synthesis observations with the WSRT and optical surface photometry of the dwarf spiral galaxy NGC 1560 are presented. This galaxy has an absolute luminosity of M(B) = -15.87. The observations show that the galaxy is gas rich, with an M(HI)/L(B) of 2.4. We obtained a very detailed rotation curve

  7. Neutral hydrogen in elliptical and IO galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottinelli, L.; Gouguenheim, L.

    1979-01-01

    New HI detections have been obtained using the Nancay radiotelescope for NGC 2974 and 3962. These results and the large scale distribution obtained for NGC 3962 indicate that the HI-rich elliptical galaxies exhibit common properties which are not easily explained by accretion of an intergalactic cloud. The field aroud NGC 1052 has been mapped and there is an HI connection with the neighbouring galaxies. The HI content of several IO galaxies indicates that the galaxies which are members of groups are relatively HI-rich; this could be produced by additional HI coming from companion galaxies [fr

  8. Comparative study of dust and young stars in three small galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study is presented of dust and young stars in the central regions of the three small galaxies NGC 205, NGC 185, and NGC 3077 in the U, B, V, and K filters, and at six additional optical wavelengths. All three program galaxies have been successfully modeled with the empirical models of Oemler (1976); NGC 205 and NGC 3077 were also modeled with unsharp mask models. Subtracting model galaxies from the data enabled the authors to isolate clusters of young stars and dust clouds in the central regions of each galaxy. A comparison of the colors of the young clusters in NGC 3077 and those in NGC 205 reveals that the colors of the clusters in these two small galaxies are different. In NGC 185, diffuse emission after subtracting an Oemler model was discovered. NGC 205 also showed this remnant emission, with very similar colors to those of the remnant in NGC 185, but NGC 3077 did not. The colors of this diffuse remnant emission in NGC 205 and NGC 185 are interpreted as being due to previous episodes of star formation in the two dwarf ellipticals. A comparison of the author's data with that of Caldwell (1983) on a sample of 33 dwarf elliptical galaxies in Virgo indicates that star formation in dwarf elliptical galaxies is a common phenomenon. The study of dust in NGC 185 and NGC 205 at optical wavelengths shows that the properties of dust in NGC 205 are very similar to those of galactic dust, while the dust in NGC 185 is distinctly different. The optical and 2.2 micron centers of NGC 3077 are found to be different. From comparison of the three galaxies studied here, the author concludes that it is unlikely that NGC 205 and NGC 185 tidally interacted with M31

  9. The search for inner polar disks with integral field spectroscopy : the case of NGC 2855 and NGC 7049

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccato, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Pizzella, A.; Bertola, F.

    Context. The presence of non-circular and off-plane gas motion is frequently observed in the inner regions of disk galaxies. Aims. With integral-field spectroscopy we have measured the surface-brightness distribution and kinematics of the ionized gas in NGC 2855 and NGC 7049. These two early-type

  10. Cosmic rays and the magnetic field in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253 III. Helical magnetic fields in the nuclear outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, V.; Beck, R.; Krause, M.; Dettmar, R.-J.

    2011-11-01

    Context. Magnetic fields are good tracers of gas compression by shock waves in the interstellar medium. These can be caused by the interaction of star-formation driven outflows from individual star formation sites as described in the chimney model. Integration along the line-of-sight and cosmic-ray diffusion may hamper detection of compressed magnetic fields in many cases. Aims. We study the magnetic field structure in the central part of the nuclear starburst galaxy NGC 253 with spatial resolutions between 40 and 150 pc to detect any filamentary emission associated with the nuclear outflow. As the nuclear region is much brighter than the rest of the disc we can distinguish this emission from that of the disc. Methods. We used radio polarimetric observations with the VLA. New observations at λ3 cm with 7.5 arcsec resolution were combined with archive data at λλ 20 and 6 cm. We created a map of the rotation measure distribution between λλ 6 and 3 cm and compared it with a synthetic polarization map. Results. We find filamentary radio continuum emission in a geometrical distribution, which we interpret as the boundary of the NW nuclear outflow cone seen in projection. The scaleheight of the continuum emission is 150 ± 20 pc, regardless of the observing frequency. The equipartition magnetic field strength is 46 ± 10 μG for the total field and 21 ± 5 μG for the regular field in the filaments. We find that the ordered magnetic field is aligned along the filaments, in agreement with amplification due to compression. The perpendicular diffusion coefficient across the filaments is κ⊥= 1.5-1028 cm2 s-1 E(GeV)0.5±0.7. In the SE part of the nuclear outflow cone the magnetic field is pointing away from the disc in form of a helix, with an azimuthal component increasing up to at least 1200 pc height, where it is about equal to the total component. The ordered magnetic field in the disc is anisotropic within a radius of 2.2 kpc. At larger radii, the large

  11. The Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110: hard X-ray emission observed by NuSTAR and variability of the iron Kα line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Bianchi, S.

    2015-01-01

    -Newton, Suzaku, BeppoSAX, Chandra and Swift. Simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift broad-band spectra (in the 3-80 keV range) indicate a cutoff energy Ec > 210 keV, with no detectable contribution from Compton reflection. NGC 2110 is one of the very few sources where no evidence for distant Compton-thick scattering...

  12. Isolated ellipticals and their globular cluster systems. III. NGC 2271, NGC 2865, NGC 3962, NGC 4240, and IC 4889

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, R.; Alabi, A.; Richtler, T.; Lane, R. R.

    2015-05-01

    As tracers of star formation, galaxy assembly, and mass distribution, globular clusters have provided important clues to our understanding of early-type galaxies. But their study has been mostly constrained to galaxy groups and clusters where early-type galaxies dominate, leaving the properties of the globular cluster systems (GCSs) of isolated ellipticals as a mostly uncharted territory. We present Gemini-South/GMOS g'i' observations of five isolated elliptical galaxies: NGC 3962, NGC 2865, IC 4889, NGC 2271, and NGC 4240. Photometry of their GCSs reveals clear color bimodality in three of them, but remains inconclusive for the other two. All the studied GCSs are rather poor with a mean specific frequency SN ~ 1.5, independently of the parent galaxy luminosity. Considering information from previous work as well, it is clear that bimodality and especially the presence of a significant, even dominant, population of blue clusters occurs at even the most isolated systems, which casts doubts on a possible accreted origin of metal-poor clusters, as suggested by some models. Additionally, we discuss the possible existence of ultra-compact dwarfs around the isolated elliptical NGC 3962. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).Globular cluster photometry is available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A59Appendices are available in

  13. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE EVIDENCE OF ENDURING HIGH STAR FORMATION RATES IN AN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY: HIGH [Ca/Fe] IN NGC 5128 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Durán, María Fernanda; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We present [Fe/H], ages, and Ca abundances for an initial sample of 10 globular clusters in NGC 5128 obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio echelle spectra of their integrated light. All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution integrated light abundance analysis of globular clusters. The clusters have a range in [Fe/H] between –1.6 and –0.2. In this sample, the average [Ca/Fe] for clusters with [Fe/H] <–0.4 is +0.37 ± 0.07, while the average [Ca/Fe] in our Milky Way (MW) and M31 GC samples is +0.29 ± 0.09 and +0.24 ± 0.10, respectively. This may imply a more rapid chemical enrichment history for NGC 5128 than for either the MW or M31. This sample provides the first quantitative picture of the chemical history of NGC 5128 that is directly comparable to what is available for the MW. Data presented here were obtained with the MIKE echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope

  14. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE EVIDENCE OF ENDURING HIGH STAR FORMATION RATES IN AN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY: HIGH [Ca/Fe] IN NGC 5128 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Duran, Maria Fernanda; Bernstein, Rebecca A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1156 High Street, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); McWilliam, Andrew, E-mail: jcolucci@ucolick.org [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We present [Fe/H], ages, and Ca abundances for an initial sample of 10 globular clusters in NGC 5128 obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio echelle spectra of their integrated light. All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution integrated light abundance analysis of globular clusters. The clusters have a range in [Fe/H] between -1.6 and -0.2. In this sample, the average [Ca/Fe] for clusters with [Fe/H] <-0.4 is +0.37 {+-} 0.07, while the average [Ca/Fe] in our Milky Way (MW) and M31 GC samples is +0.29 {+-} 0.09 and +0.24 {+-} 0.10, respectively. This may imply a more rapid chemical enrichment history for NGC 5128 than for either the MW or M31. This sample provides the first quantitative picture of the chemical history of NGC 5128 that is directly comparable to what is available for the MW. Data presented here were obtained with the MIKE echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope.

  15. Chemical Abundance Evidence of Enduring High Star Formation Rates in an Early-type Galaxy: High [Ca/Fe] in NGC 5128 Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Fernanda Durán, María; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    We present [Fe/H], ages, and Ca abundances for an initial sample of 10 globular clusters in NGC 5128 obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio echelle spectra of their integrated light. All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution integrated light abundance analysis of globular clusters. The clusters have a range in [Fe/H] between -1.6 and -0.2. In this sample, the average [Ca/Fe] for clusters with [Fe/H] <-0.4 is +0.37 ± 0.07, while the average [Ca/Fe] in our Milky Way (MW) and M31 GC samples is +0.29 ± 0.09 and +0.24 ± 0.10, respectively. This may imply a more rapid chemical enrichment history for NGC 5128 than for either the MW or M31. This sample provides the first quantitative picture of the chemical history of NGC 5128 that is directly comparable to what is available for the MW. Data presented here were obtained with the MIKE echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope. This Letter includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  16. Submillimeter Imaging of NGC 891 with SHARC

    OpenAIRE

    Serabyn, E.; Lis, D. C.; Dowell, C. D.; Benford, D. J.; Hunter, T. R.; Trewhella, M.; Moseley, S. H.

    1998-01-01

    The advent of submillimeter wavelength array cameras operating on large ground-based telescopes is revolutionizing imaging at these wavelengths, enabling high-resolution submillimeter surveys of dust emission in star-forming regions and galaxies. Here we present a recent 350 micron image of the edge-on galaxy NGC 891, which was obtained with the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC) at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We find that high resolution submillimeter data ...

  17. A PAndAS view of M31 dwarf elliptical satellites: NGC 147 and NGC 185

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnojević, D.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Irwin, M. J.; McConnachie, A. W.; Bernard, E. J.; Fardal, M. A.; Ibata, R. A.; Lewis, G. F.; Martin, N. F.; Navarro, J. F.; Noël, N. E. D.; Pasetto, S.

    2014-12-01

    We exploit data from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS) to study the extended structures of M31's dwarf elliptical companions, NGC 147 and NGC 185. Our wide-field, homogeneous photometry allows us to construct deep colour-magnitude diagrams which reach down to ˜3 mag below the red giant branch (RGB) tip. We trace the stellar components of the galaxies to surface brightness of μg ˜ 32 mag arcsec-2 and show that they have much larger extents (˜5 kpc radii) than previously recognized. While NGC 185 retains a regular shape in its peripheral regions, NGC 147 exhibits pronounced isophotal twisting due to the emergence of symmetric tidal tails. We fit single Sérsic models to composite surface brightness profiles constructed from diffuse light and star counts and find that NGC 147 has an effective radius almost three times that of NGC 185. In both cases, the effective radii that we calculate are larger by a factor of ˜2 compared to most literature values. We also calculate revised total magnitudes of Mg = -15.36 ± 0.04 for NGC 185 and Mg = -16.36 ± 0.04 for NGC 147. Using photometric metallicities computed for RGB stars, we find NGC 185 to exhibit a metallicity gradient of [Fe/H] ˜ -0.15 dex kpc-1 over the radial range 0.125-0.5 deg. On the other hand, NGC 147 exhibits almost no metallicity gradient, ˜-0.02 dex kpc-1 from 0.2 to 0.6 deg. The differences in the structure and stellar populations in the outskirts of these systems suggest that tidal influences have played an important role in governing the evolution of NGC 147.

  18. Integral Field Spectroscopy of the Merger Remnant NGC 7252

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, John; Husemann, Bernd; Kuntschner, Harald; Martín-Navarro, Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    The merging of galaxies is a key aspect of the hierarchical ΛCDM Universe. The formation of massive quiescent elliptical galaxies may be explained through the merger of two star-forming disc galaxies. Despite nearly a century of effort, our understanding of this complex transformational process is remains incomplete and requires diligent observational study.NGC 7252 is one of the nearest starbursting major-merger galaxy remnants, formed about 1 Gyr after the collision of presumably two disc galaxies. It is therefore an ideal laboratory to study the underlying processes involved in transformation of two disc galaxies to an elliptical galaxy via a merger.We obtained wide-field IFU spectroscopy with the VLT-VIMOS integral-field spectrograph covering the central 50’’ × 50’’ of NGC 7252 to map the stellar and ionized gas kinematics, and the distribution and conditions of the ionized gas, revealing the extent of ongoing star formation and recent star formation history.Contrary to previous studies we find the inner gas disc not to be counter-rotating with respect to the overall stellar angular momentum. However, the stellar kinematics appear to be complex with a superposition of at least two nearly perpendicular angular momentum components. The host galaxy is still blue with g - i ~ 0.8 with an ongoing star formation rate of 2.2 ± 0.6 Msun/yr, placing NGC 7252 close to the blue cloud of galaxies and consistent with a disc-like molecular depletion time of ~2 Gyr.Although NGC 7252 appears as a fading starburst galaxy at the center, the elliptical-like major merger remnant appears to active, inconsistent with a fast quenching scenario. NGC 7252 may take several Gyr to reach the red sequence of galaxies unless star formation becomes quenched by either AGN feedback or inefficient gas conversion, leading to an H I-rich elliptical galaxy.

  19. The Nova Rate in NGC 2403

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franck, J.R.; Shafter, A.W.; Hornoch, Kamil; Misselt, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 760, č. 1 (2012), 13-1-13-8 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galaxy NGC 2403 * cataclysmic variables Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.733, year: 2012

  20. Gaia17biu/SN 2017egm in NGC 3191: The Closest Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernova to Date Is in a “Normal,” Massive, Metal-rich Spiral Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Subhash; Dong, Subo; Pastorello, A.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kochanek, C. S.; Mauerhan, Jon; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Brink, Thomas G.; Chen, Ping; Prieto, J. L.; Post, R.; Ashall, Christopher; Grupe, Dirk; Tomasella, L.; Benetti, Stefano; Shappee, B. J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Cai, Zheng; Falco, E.; Lundqvist, Peter; Mattila, Seppo; Mutel, Robert; Ochner, Paolo; Pooley, David; Stritzinger, M. D.; Villanueva, S., Jr.; Zheng, WeiKang; Beswick, R. J.; Brown, Peter J.; Cappellaro, E.; Davis, Scott; Fraser, Morgan; de Jaeger, Thomas; Elias-Rosa, N.; Gall, C.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Hestenes, Julia; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Hsiao, E. Y.; Hu, Shaoming; Jaejin, Shin; Jeffers, Ben; Koff, R. A.; Kumar, Sahana; Kurtenkov, Alexander; Lau, Marie Wingyee; Prentice, Simon; Reynolds, T.; Rudy, Richard J.; Shahbandeh, Melissa; Somero, Auni; Stassun, Keivan G.; Thompson, Todd A.; Valenti, Stefano; Woo, Jong-Hak; Yunus, Sameen

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) have been predominantly found in low-metallicity, star-forming dwarf galaxies. Here we identify Gaia17biu/SN 2017egm as an SLSN-I occurring in a “normal” spiral galaxy (NGC 3191) in terms of stellar mass (several times 1010 M⊙) and metallicity (roughly solar). At redshift z = 0.031, Gaia17biu is also the lowest-redshift SLSN-I to date, and the absence of a larger population of SLSNe-I in dwarf galaxies of similar redshift suggests that metallicity is likely less important to the production of SLSNe-I than previously believed. With the smallest distance and highest apparent brightness for an SLSN-I, we are able to study Gaia17biu in unprecedented detail. Its pre-peak near-ultraviolet to optical color is similar to that of Gaia16apd and among the bluest observed for an SLSN-I, while its peak luminosity (Mg = ‑21 mag) is substantially lower than that of Gaia16apd. Thanks to the high signal-to-noise ratios of our spectra, we identify several new spectroscopic features that may help to probe the properties of these enigmatic explosions. We detect polarization at the ∼0.5% level that is not strongly dependent on wavelength, suggesting a modest, global departure from spherical symmetry. In addition, we put the tightest upper limit yet on the radio luminosity of an SLSN-I with rules out an association of this SLSN-I with known populations of gamma-ray-burst-like central engines.

  1. Ionized Gas Outflows from the MAGNUM Survey: NGC 1365 and NGC 4945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Giacomo; Marconi, Alessandro; Mingozzi, Matilde; Carniani, Stefano; Cresci, Giovanni; Risaliti, Guido; Mannucci, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    AGN feedback, acting through strong outflows accelerated in the nuclear region of AGN hosts, is invoked as a key ingredient for galaxy evolution by many models to explain the observed BH-galaxy scaling relations. Recently, some direct observational evidence of radiative mode feedback in action has been finally found in quasars at z >1.5. However, it is not possible to study outflows in quasars at those redshifts on small scales (⪉100 pc), as spatial information is limited by angular resolution. This is instead feasible in nearby active galaxies, which are ideal laboratories to explore outflow structure and properties, as well as the effects of AGN on their host galaxies. In this proceeding we present preliminary results from the MAGNUM survey, which comprises nearby Seyfert galaxies observed with the integral field spectrograph VLT/MUSE. We focus on two sources, NGC 1365 and NGC 4945, that exhibit double conical outflows extending on distances >1 kpc. We disentangle the dominant contributions to ionization of the various gas components observed in the central 5.3 kpc of NGC 1365. An attempt to infer outflow 3D structure in NGC 4945 is made via simple kinematic modeling, suggesting a hollow cone geometry.

  2. Ionized Gas Outflows from the MAGNUM Survey: NGC 1365 and NGC 4945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturi, Giacomo; Marconi, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (INAF), Firenze (Italy); Mingozzi, Matilde [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (INAF), Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Carniani, Stefano [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cresci, Giovanni [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (INAF), Firenze (Italy); Risaliti, Guido [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (INAF), Firenze (Italy); Mannucci, Filippo, E-mail: gventuri@arcetri.astro.it [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri (INAF), Firenze (Italy)

    2017-11-24

    AGN feedback, acting through strong outflows accelerated in the nuclear region of AGN hosts, is invoked as a key ingredient for galaxy evolution by many models to explain the observed BH-galaxy scaling relations. Recently, some direct observational evidence of radiative mode feedback in action has been finally found in quasars at z >1.5. However, it is not possible to study outflows in quasars at those redshifts on small scales (≲100 pc), as spatial information is limited by angular resolution. This is instead feasible in nearby active galaxies, which are ideal laboratories to explore outflow structure and properties, as well as the effects of AGN on their host galaxies. In this proceeding we present preliminary results from the MAGNUM survey, which comprises nearby Seyfert galaxies observed with the integral field spectrograph VLT/MUSE. We focus on two sources, NGC 1365 and NGC 4945, that exhibit double conical outflows extending on distances >1 kpc. We disentangle the dominant contributions to ionization of the various gas components observed in the central ~5.3 kpc of NGC 1365. An attempt to infer outflow 3D structure in NGC 4945 is made via simple kinematic modeling, suggesting a hollow cone geometry.

  3. Ionized Gas Outflows from the MAGNUM Survey: NGC 1365 and NGC 4945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Venturi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AGN feedback, acting through strong outflows accelerated in the nuclear region of AGN hosts, is invoked as a key ingredient for galaxy evolution by many models to explain the observed BH-galaxy scaling relations. Recently, some direct observational evidence of radiative mode feedback in action has been finally found in quasars at z >1.5. However, it is not possible to study outflows in quasars at those redshifts on small scales (≲100 pc, as spatial information is limited by angular resolution. This is instead feasible in nearby active galaxies, which are ideal laboratories to explore outflow structure and properties, as well as the effects of AGN on their host galaxies. In this proceeding we present preliminary results from the MAGNUM survey, which comprises nearby Seyfert galaxies observed with the integral field spectrograph VLT/MUSE. We focus on two sources, NGC 1365 and NGC 4945, that exhibit double conical outflows extending on distances >1 kpc. We disentangle the dominant contributions to ionization of the various gas components observed in the central ~5.3 kpc of NGC 1365. An attempt to infer outflow 3D structure in NGC 4945 is made via simple kinematic modeling, suggesting a hollow cone geometry.

  4. Spatial distribution of dust in the shell elliptical NGC 5982

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    del Burgo, C.; Carter, D.; Sikkema, G.

    Aims. Shells in Ellipticals are peculiar faint sharp edged features that are thought to be formed by galaxy mergers. We determine the shell and dust distributions, and colours of a well-resolved shell and the underlying galaxy in NGC 5982, and compare the spatial distributions of the dust and gas

  5. The Hot and Cold Outflows of NGC 3079

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafi, N.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T.; Booth, R.; Smith, B.; Bastian, N.; Higdon, S.J.U.

    Very deep neutral hydrogen (HI) observations of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 3079 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) are presented. The galaxy has been studied extensively in different wavelengths and is known for its several unique and complex features. However, the new data

  6. THE AGES OF HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN NGC 2403 AND NGC 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Binder, Breanna A.; Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16803 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew, E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: bbinder@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: mce@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com [Raytheon Company, Tucson, AZ 85734 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We have examined resolved stellar photometry from HST imaging surrounding 18 high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) candidates in NGC 300 and NGC 2403 as determined from combined Chandra/HST analysis. We have fit the color-magnitude distribution of the surrounding stars with stellar evolution models. All but one region in NGC 300 and two in NGC 2403 contain a population with an age between 20 and 70 Myr. One of the candidates is the ultraluminous X-ray source in NGC 2403, which we associate with a 60 {+-} 5 Myr old population. These age distributions provide additional evidence that 16 of these 18 candidates are HMXBs. Furthermore, our results suggest that the most common HMXB age in these galaxies is 40-55 Myr. This preferred age is similar to observations of HMXBs in the Small Magellanic Cloud, providing new evidence of this formation timescale, but in higher metallicity populations. We suggest that this preferred HMXB age is the result of the fortuitous combination of two physical effects. First, this is the age of a population when the greatest rate of core-collapse events should be occurring, maximizing neutron star production. Second, this is the age when B stars are most likely to be actively losing mass. We also discuss our results in the context of HMXB feedback in galaxies, confirming HMXBs as a potentially important source of energy for the interstellar medium in low-mass galaxies.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Young massive star clusters in 2 LEGUS galaxies (Ryon+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryon, J. E.; Gallagher, J. S.; Smith, L. J.; Adamo, A.; Calzetti, D.; Bright, S. N.; Cignoni, M.; Cook, D. O.; Dale, D. A.; Elmegreen, B. E.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Kim, H.; Messa, M.; Thilker, D.; Ubeda, L.

    2018-01-01

    The Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS; Calzetti+ 2015AJ....149...51C) is a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cycle 21 Treasury program, which obtained imaging of 50 nearby galaxies (within ~13Mpc) in five filters with WFC3/UVIS and ACS/WFC. Separate catalogs are produced for each pointing on the two galaxies: NGC 628c (central pointing), NGC 628e (east pointing), NGC 1313e (east pointing), and NGC 1313w (west pointing). (2 data files).

  8. NGC6819

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, R.; Brogaard, K.; Miglio, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present an extensive peakbagging effort on Kepler data of similar to 50 red giant stars in the open star cluster NGC6819. By employing sophisticated pre-processing of the time series and Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques we extracted individual frequencies, heights and line widths for hundreds...... find a mean mass of the RGB stars and RC stars in NGC6819 to be 1.61 +/- 0.02 and 1.64 +/- 0.02M(circle dot), respectively. The difference Delta M= -0.03 +/- 0.01 M-circle dot is almost insensitive to systematics, suggesting very little RGB mass loss, if any. Stars that are outliers relative...... to the ensemble reveal overmassive members that likely evolved via mass transfer in a blue straggler phase. We suggest that KIC 4937011, a low-mass Li-rich giant, is a cluster member in the RC phase that experienced very high mass loss during its evolution. Such over- and undermassive stars need to be considered...

  9. Radio Continuum and Far-infrared Emission from the Galaxies in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    . Stotal. Galaxy. (mJy/bm). (arc sec). (mJy). Morph. NGC 1407. 0.50. 6 × 6. 99 ± 10. Diffuse. NGC 1371. 0.22. 15 × 15. 19.7 ± 2. Linear. NGC 1415. 0.12. 4 × 4. 27 ± 3. Linear. NGC 1482. 0.81. 8 × 8. 280 ± 30. Diffuse. NGC 1385. 0.41. 15 × 15.

  10. Globular star cluster systems around galaxies. II. The cases of spiral and dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadjibaev, I.U.; Nuritdinov, S.N.; Ganiev, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Our compiled catalogue of globular cluster systems (GCS) which had studied in pervious part [1] is replenished now essentially as it are not sufficient the data to search for some empirical relationships between physical GCS parameters of the spiral and dwarf galaxies with a glance host galaxy characteristics. A number of empirical relationships for GCS of spiral and dwarf galaxies is first found. These results are differing essentially from analogous relationships for GCS of elliptical and lenticular galaxies which were found in [1]. It is also offered a possible new approach to the origin theory of the poor GCS which occupy a significant portion in our list of dwarf and spiral galaxies

  11. Exploring the molecular chemistry and excitation in obscured luminous infrared galaxies. An ALMA mm-wave spectral scan of NGC 4418

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costagliola, F.; Sakamoto, K.; Muller, S.; Martín, S.; Aalto, S.; Harada, N.; van der Werf, P.; Viti, S.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Spaans, M.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Extragalactic observations allow the study of molecular chemistry and excitation under physical conditions which may differ greatly from those found in the Milky Way. The compact, obscured nuclei (CON) of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRG) combine large molecular columns with intense

  12. Dark matter in elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carollo, C. M.; Zeeuw, P. T. DE; Marel, R. P. Van Der; Danziger, I. J.; Qian, E. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present measurements of the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution out to two effective radii along the major axes of the four elliptical galaxies NGC 2434, 2663, 3706, and 5018. The velocity dispersion profiles are flat or decline gently with radius. We compare the data to the predictions of f = f(E, L(sub z)) axisymmetric models with and without dark matter. Strong tangential anisotropy is ruled out at large radii. We conclude from our measurements that massive dark halos must be present in three of the four galaxies, while for the fourth galaxy (NGC 2663) the case is inconclusive.

  13. Lopsided spiral galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lopsided distribution highlighted first: Baldwin, Lynden-Bell, & Sancisi (1980) · Lopsidedness also seen in an edge-on galaxy : NGC 891 · Slide 7 · Origin of m=1 disk distribution? Early Theoretical models: · Disk response to a lopsided halo potential (Jog 1997, 2002): · Isophotal shapes in a lopsided potential. Distribution of ...

  14. Gas flow and dark matter in the inner parts of early-type barred galaxies - I. SPH simulations and comparison with the observed kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, [No Value; Fux, R; Freeman, K

    This paper presents the dynamical simulations run in the potential derived from the light distribution of 5 late-type barred spiral galaxies (IC 5186, NGC 5728, NGC 7267, NGC 7483 and NGC 5505). The aim is to determine whether the mass distribution together with the hydrodynamical simulations can

  15. NGC 2770

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöne, Christina C.; Michalowski, Michal; Leloudas, Giorgos

    2009-01-01

    the galaxy using longslit spectroscopy covering the major axis and the three SN sites. From the spectroscopic study we find subsolar metallicities for the SN sites, a high extinction and a moderate star formation rate. In a high-resolution spectrum, we also detect diffuse interstellar bands in the line...... current models of WR stars which require high metallicities. Based on observations with the Nordic Optical Telescope, ESO proposal 080.D-0526, the GALEX and NED databases....

  16. Twins born in different environments? Nuclei of two dSphs: isolated galaxy KKS3 and ESO269-66, a close neighbor of NGC5128

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharina, Margarita; Karachentsev, Igor; Kniazev, Alexei

    2015-08-01

    The close vicinity of giant neighbors determines the environmental mechanisms that have been considered responsible for the evolution of dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). In the recent years, Karachentsev and collaborators have reported on the discovery of a few truly isolated dSphs in the Local volume. This study focuses on one of these unusual objects, KKs3 (MV=-12.3 mag). It contains a massive globular cluster (GC) (MV=-8.5 mag) near its optical center. We have performed the estimation of its radial velocity using a medium-resolution spectrum obtained with the RSS spectrograph at the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The signal-to-noise ratio in the spectrum was sufficient to estimate the age and metallicity for the GC using simple stellar population models, and the methods of full spectrum fitting and Lick index diagnostic diagrams. The results contribute to the knowledge about the origin of massive star clusters and their host dSphs.In the same way we have analyzed another luminous GC (MV=-10) in the center of ESO269-66 (MB=-15.4), a close dSph neighbor of the giant S0 Cen A. The cluster was observed with SALT in the same instrumental configuration. The structure and star formation histories of the two galaxies look rather similar. Both of them have experienced several star-forming events. The most recent ones occurred 1÷2 Gyr ago, and most powerful bursts happened 12÷14 Gyrs ago. Our analysis has shown that both GCs appear to be 1÷2 Gyr younger and 0.2÷0.3 dex more metal-rich than the most ancient metal-poor stars in the host dSphs. We examine signatures of multiple stellar population in the GCs using out data. Since central star-forming bursts were extended in time, the massive clusters might be considered as nuclei of the galaxies.

  17. Hα Velocity Fields and Galaxy Interaction in the Quartet of Galaxies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-07

    Oct 7, 2015 ... Abstract. The quartet of galaxies NGC 7769, 7770, 7771 and 7771A is a system of interacting galaxies. Close interaction between galaxies caused characteristic morphological features: tidal arms and bars, as well as an induced star formation. In this study, we performed the Fabry–Perot scanning ...

  18. Green bank telescope observations of low column density H I around NGC 2997 and NGC 6946

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisano, D. J., E-mail: djpisano@mail.wvu.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Observations of ongoing H I accretion in nearby galaxies have only identified about 10% of the fuel necessary to sustain star formation in these galaxies. Most of these observations have been conducted using interferometers and may have missed lower column density, diffuse, H I gas that may trace the missing 90% of gas. Such gas may represent the so-called cold flows predicted by current theories of galaxy formation to have never been heated above the virial temperature of the dark matter halo. As a first attempt to identify such cold flows around nearby galaxies and complete the census of H I down to N {sub H} {sub I} ∼ 10{sup 18} cm{sup –2}, I used the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to map the circumgalactic (r ≲ 100-200 kpc) H I environment around NGC 2997 and NGC 6946. The resulting GBT observations cover a 4 deg{sup 2} area around each galaxy with a 5σ detection limit of N{sub H} {sub I} ∼ 10{sup 18} cm{sup –2} over a 20 km s{sup –1} line width. This project complements absorption line studies, which are well-suited to the regime of lower N{sub H} {sub I}. Around NGC 2997, the GBT H I data reveal an extended H I disk and all of its surrounding gas-rich satellite galaxies, but no filamentary features. Furthermore, the H I mass as measured with the GBT is only 7% higher than past interferometric measurements. After correcting for resolution differences, the H I extent of the galaxy is 23% larger at the N{sub H} {sub I} = 1.2 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup –2} level as measured by the GBT. On the other hand, the H I observations of NGC 6946 reveal a filamentary feature apparently connecting NGC 6946 with its nearest companions. This H I filament has N{sub H} {sub I} ∼ 5 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup –2} and an FWHM of 55 ± 5 km s{sup –1} and was invisible in past interferometer observations. The properties of this filament are broadly consistent with being a cold flow or debris from a past tidal interaction between NGC 6946 and its satellites.

  19. Submillimeter Imaging of NGC 891 with SHARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serabyn, E.; Lis, D. C.; Dowell, C. D.; Benford, D. J.; Hunter, T. R.; Trewhella, M.; Moseley, S. H.

    The advent of submillimeter wavelength array cameras operating on large ground-based telescopes is revolutionizing imaging at these wavelengths, enabling high-resolution submillimeter surveys of dust emission in star-forming regions and galaxies. Here we present a recent 350 micron image of the edge-on galaxy NGC 891, which was obtained with the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC) at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We find that high resolution submillimeter data is a vital complement to shorter wavelength satellite data, which enables a reliable separation of the cold dust component seen at millimeter wavelengths from the warmer component which dominates the far-infrared (FIR) luminosity.

  20. The prodigious warp of NGC4013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottema, R.; Shostak, G.S.; Kruit, P.C. van der

    1987-01-01

    H I radio synthesis observations reveal that the edge-on Sbc galaxy NGC4013 has the largest regular H I warp so far observed. It extends to a large height above the plane of the galaxy, and begins abruptly at just the radius where photometry indicates the end of the luminous disk. Furthermore, at precisely this position, the rotational velocity is seen to drop by 25 km s -1 . These observations can only be explained by a situation in which not only the disk-light distribution, but also the disk-mass distribution, suddenly approach zero at the radius of the warp onset. (author)

  1. EXPLORING THE UNUSUALLY HIGH BLACK-HOLE-TO-BULGE MASS RATIOS IN NGC 4342 AND NGC 4291: THE ASYNCHRONOUS GROWTH OF BULGES AND BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdán, Ákos; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Li, Zhiyuan; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Jones, Christine; Zhuravleva, Irina; Churazov, Eugene; Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul; Guo, Qi; Schindler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    We study two nearby early-type galaxies, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, that host unusually massive black holes relative to their low stellar mass. The observed black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are 6.9 +3.8 –2.3 % and 1.9% ± 0.6%, respectively, which significantly exceed the typical observed ratio of ∼0.2%. As a consequence of the exceedingly large black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are ≈5.1σ and ≈3.4σ outliers from the M . -M bulge scaling relation, respectively. In this paper, we explore the origin of the unusually high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratio. Based on Chandra X-ray observations of the hot gas content of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, we compute gravitating mass profiles, and conclude that both galaxies reside in massive dark matter halos, which extend well beyond the stellar light. The presence of dark matter halos around NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 and a deep optical image of the environment of NGC 4342 indicate that tidal stripping, in which ∼> 90% of the stellar mass was lost, cannot explain the observed high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios. Therefore, we conclude that these galaxies formed with low stellar masses, implying that the bulge and black hole did not grow in tandem. We also find that the black hole mass correlates well with the properties of the dark matter halo, suggesting that dark matter halos may play a major role in regulating the growth of the supermassive black holes.

  2. Mapping the filaments in NGC 1275

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, Aracely Susan; Rich, Jeffrey; Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS)

    2018-01-01

    The giant elliptical brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) at the centers of many massive clusters are often surrounded by drawn-out forms of gaseous material. It is believed that this gaseous material is gas condensing from the intracluster medium (ICM) in a “cooling flow,” and it can directly impact the growth of the BCG. The galaxy NGC 1275 is one of the closest giant elliptical BCGs and lies at the center of the Perseus cluster. NGC 1275 has large filaments that are thought to be associated with a cooling flow, but they may also be affected by its AGN. To investigate the relationship between the AGN and the cooling flow we have mapped the filaments around NGC 1275 with the Cosmic Web Imager, an image-slicing integral field spectrograph at Palomar Observatories. We employ standard emission-line ratio diagnostics to determine the source of ionizing radiation. We use our analysis to investigate whether the formation of the extended filaments is a result of gas from the ICM collapsing onto the galaxy as it cools or if it is possible that the filaments are a result of the cluster’s interaction with the outflow driven by the AGN.

  3. The SAURON project - IX. A kinematic classification for early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emsellem, Eric; Cappellari, Michele; Krajnovic, Davor; van de Ven, Glenn; Bacon, R.; Bureau, M.; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional stellar kinematics of 48 representative elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies obtained with the SAURON integral-field spectrograph reveal that early-type galaxies appear in two broad flavours, depending on whether they exhibit clear large-scale rotation or not. We define a new

  4. Revealing S0 Galaxies' Formation Histories Using the Stellar Kinematics of the Faint Outer Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortesi, A.; Merrifield, M. R.; Noordermeer, E.; Coccato, L.; Bamford, S.; Napolitano, N. R.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Das, P.; Douglas, N. G.; Kuijken, K.; Freeman, K. C.; Capaccioli, M.; Debattista, Victor P.; Popescu, Cristina C.

    Lenticular galaxies display the prominent disks that are characteristic of late-type galaxies, but contain no gas, dust or star formation like early-type systems. So are they more closely related to spiral or ellipticals?. One important clue to their origin is recorded in the kinematics. If they are

  5. A ROSAT survey of Wolf-Rayet galaxies - II. The extended sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ian R.; Strickland, David K.

    1998-11-01

    We present results from an ongoing X-ray survey of Wolf-Rayet (WR) galaxies, a class of objects believed to be very young starbursts. This paper extends the first X-ray survey of WR galaxies by Stevens & Strickland by studying WR galaxies identified subsequent to the original WR galaxy catalogue of Conti. Out of a sample of 40 new WR galaxies a total of 10 have been observed with the ROSAT PSPC, and of these seven have been detected (NGC 1365, NGC 1569, I Zw 18, NGC 3353, NGC 4449, NGC 5408 and a marginal detection of NGC 2366). Of these, all are dwarf starbursts except for NGC 1365, which is a barred spiral galaxy possibly with an active nucleus. We also report on observations of the related emission-line galaxy IRAS 0833+6517. The X-ray properties of these galaxies are broadly in line with those found for the original sample; they are X-ray overluminous compared with their blue luminosity and have thermal spectra with typically kT~0.4-1.0keV. There are some oddities: NGC 5408 is very overluminous in X-rays, even compared with other WR galaxies; I Zw 18 has a harder X-ray spectrum; NGC 1365, although thought to contain an active nucleus, has X-ray properties that are broadly similar to other WR galaxies, and we suggest that the X-ray emission from NGC 1365 is due to starburst activity. A good correlation between X-ray and blue luminosity is found for the WR galaxy sample as a whole. However, when just dwarf galaxies are considered there is little evidence of correlation. We discuss the implications of these results on our understanding of the X-ray emission from WR galaxies and suggest that the best explanation for the X-ray activity is starburst activity from a young starburst region.

  6. ALMA Astrochemical Observations of the Infrared-luminous Merger NGC 3256

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Nanase; Sakamoto, Kazushi; Martín, Sergio; Aalto, Susanne; Aladro, Rebeca; Sliwa, Kazimierz

    2018-03-01

    In external galaxies, molecular composition may be influenced by extreme environments such as starbursts and galaxy mergers. To study such molecular chemistry, we observed the luminous infrared galaxy and merger NGC 3256 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. We covered most of the 3 and 1.3 mm bands for a multispecies, multitransition analysis. We first analyzed intensity ratio maps of selected lines such as HCN/HCO+, which shows no enhancement at an active galactic nucleus. We then compared the chemical compositions within NGC 3256 at the two nuclei, tidal arms, and positions with influence from galactic outflows. We found the largest variation in SiO and CH3OH, species that are likely to be enhanced by shocks. Next, we compared the chemical compositions in the nuclei of NGC 3256, NGC 253, and Arp 220; these galactic nuclei have varying star formation efficiencies. Arp 220 shows higher abundances of SiO and HC3N than NGC 3256 and NGC 253. Abundances of most species do not show a strong correlation with star formation efficiencies, although the CH3CCH abundance seems to have a weak positive correlation with the star formation efficiency. Lastly, the chemistry of spiral arm positions in NGC 3256 is compared with that of W51, a Galactic molecular cloud complex in a spiral arm. We found higher fractional abundances of shock tracers, and possibly also a higher dense gas fraction in NGC 3256 compared with W51.

  7. Feedback in the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/9): I. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Winds from Super Star Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, A; Graham, J

    2007-06-05

    We present high-resolution (R {approx} 24,600) near-IR spectroscopy of the youngest super star clusters (SSCs) in the prototypical starburst merger, the Antennae Galaxies. These SSCs are young (3-7 Myr old) and massive (10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} M{sub {circle_dot}} for a Kroupa IMF) and their spectra are characterized by broad, extended Brackett {gamma} emission, so we refer to them as emission-line clusters (ELCs) to distinguish them from older SSCs. The Br {gamma} lines of most ELCs have supersonic widths (60-110 km s{sup -1} FWHM) and non-Gaussian wings whose velocities exceed the clusters escape velocities. This high-velocity unbound gas is flowing out in winds that are powered by the clusters massive O and W-R stars over the course of at least several crossing times. The large sizes of some ELCs relative to those of older SSCs may be due to expansion caused by these outflows; many of the ELCs may not survive as bound stellar systems, but rather dissipate rapidly into the field population. The observed tendency of older ELCs to be more compact than young ones is consistent with the preferential survival of the most concentrated clusters at a given age.

  8. Osteocyte Lacunae are Lenticular/Ellipsoid Spaces or Spiral/Helical Tubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijit Kanti Guha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the current concept of bone structure, the osteocyte lacunae are lenticular or ellipsoid spaces occupied by osteocytes. These osteocytes are thought to communicate with each other through a tubular system made up of Canaliculi. The rest of the structures i.e., Haversian canal, and Volkmann’s canal are also tubular in shape. Considering this existing concept of bone microstructure described by various authors, it is highly unlikely that the lacunae alone would be lenticular/ellipsoid structure. In the present study author wanted to know that amongst the all tubular spaces, what is the reason that only the osteocyte lacunae are lenticular or ellipsoid structure? Also to investigate whether these lenticular spaces are really lenticular/ellipsoid or they are cut sections of tubes, which are lying helically or spirally. It is well known from various previous studies that Haversian canal, Volkmann’s canal and Canaliculi are tubular shaped structures and how it is possible that lenticular/ellipsoid structure can present amongst them. So we thought that, it may be possible that these lenticular spaces are not actually lenticular but this lenticular shape is due to the cut sections of any type of tubule in various possible planes (i.e., transverse, longitudinal and various degrees of oblique plane. Aim: The present study was carried out to reinvestigate the shape of the osteocyte lacunae amongst the tubular system (i.e., Haversian canal, Volkmann’s canal and Canaliculi of compact bone. Materials and Methods: The study is carried out by preparing thin sections of adult bones (ground glass preparation and visualizing them under binocular light microscope and scanelectron microscope after following proper procedure. Results: We observed that the lacunae are actually spirally/helically placed tubules with several branching. These branching are considered as canaliculi. These branching are of various diameters and they

  9. A Search for a Near-Infrared Halo around NGC 4565

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemizu, Kazunori; Bock, James J.; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Lange, Andrew E.; Matsumoto, Toshio; Watabe, Toyoki; Yost, Sarah A.

    1998-10-01

    We present a near-infrared (3.5-5 μm) search for the integrated emission from low-mass stars and/or brown dwarfs in the halo of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4565. The observation was made with a liquid-helium-cooled rocket-borne telescope using a 256×256 InSb array with a pixel scale of 17". Images of NGC 4565 were successfully obtained with sensitivity near the natural background limit. Our search reveals no evidence of a faint halo around the galaxy, in contrast with the previous reports of a halo around NGC 5907. The lower limit of the mass-to-light ratio for the halo of NGC 4565 is 260 (2 σ) in solar units at 3.5-5 μm. This implies that hydrogen-burning stars do not contribute significantly to the mass of the dark halo in NGC 4565.

  10. A Search for a Near-Infrared Halo Around NGC 4565

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemizu, Kazunori; Bock, James J.; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Lange, Andrew E.; Matsumoto, Toshio; Watabe, Toyoki; Yost, Sarah A.

    1998-01-01

    We present a near-infrared (3.5-5 micron) search for the integrated emission from low-mass stars and/or brown dwarfs in the halo of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4565. The observation was made with a liquid-helium-cooled rocket-borne telescope using a 256 x 256 InSb array with a pixel scale of 17". Images of NGC 4565 were successfully obtained with sensitivity near the natural background limit. Our search reveals no evidence of a faint halo around the galaxy, in contrast with the previous reports of a halo around NGC 5907. The lower limit of the mass-to-light ratio for the halo of NGC 4565 is 260 (2 delta) in solar units at 3.5-5 microns. This implies that hydrogen-burning stars do not contribute significantly to the mass of the dark halo in NGC 4565.

  11. Testing MOND gravity in the shell galaxy NGC 3923

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílek, Michal; Jungwiert, Bruno; Jílková, L.; Ebrová, Ivana; Bartošková, Kateřina; Křížek, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 559, November (2013), A110/1-A110/8 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravitation * elliptical and lenticular galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.479, year: 2013

  12. A far-IR and optical 3D view of the starburst driven superwind in NGC 2146

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; Armus, Lee; Groves, Brent; Lyubenova, Mariya; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Schinnerer, Eva

    Galaxy outflows are a vital mechanism in the regulation of galaxy evolution through feedback and enrichment. NGC 2146, a nearby infrared luminous galaxy (LIRG), presents evidence for outflows along the disk minor axis in all gas phases (ionized, neutral atomic and molecular). We present new far-IR

  13. SPACE VELOCITIES OF SOUTHERN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VII. NGC 6397, NGC 6626 (M28), AND NGC 6656 (M22)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.; Van Altena, William F. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Jilkova, Lucie [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Podesta, Federico; Lopez, Carlos E., E-mail: dana.casetti@yale.edu, E-mail: terry.girard@yale.edu, E-mail: william.vanaltena@yale.edu, E-mail: jilkoval@physics.muni.cz [Universidad National de San Juan, Observatorio Astronomico ' ' Felix Aguilar' ' and Yale Southern Observatory, Chimbas, 5413 San Juan (Argentina)

    2013-08-01

    We have measured the absolute proper motions of globular clusters NGC 6397, NGC 6626 (M22), and NGC 6656 (M28) as part of our ongoing Southern Proper-Motion Program. The reference system is the ICRS via Hipparcos stars for these three low-Galactic-latitude clusters. Formal errors range between {approx}0.3 and 0.7 mas yr{sup -1}. Notable is the result for NGC 6397, which differs by 2.5 mas yr{sup -1} from two Hubble Space Telescope determinations while agreeing with previous ground-based ones. We determine orbits for all three clusters in an axisymmetric and barred model of the Galaxy and discuss these in the context of globular-cluster formation. M22 is a well-known cluster with an iron abundance spread; such clusters are now believed to have formed in massive parent systems that can retain ejecta of core-collapsed supernovae. We find that the five currently accepted globular clusters with iron/calcium abundance spread show orbits unrelated to each other, thus suggesting at least five independent, massive progenitors that have contributed to the build-up of the Milky-Way halo.

  14. Powering the superwind in NGC 253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan; Gallagher, Jay; Merrill, Michael; Keppel, Jean; Phillips, Mark

    1993-01-01

    NGC 253 is a prototypical moderate nuclear starburst galaxy. It is a barred SBc spiral galaxy at a distance of approximately 3 Mpc and can be studied on scales down to 15 pc in the optical and near IR. It is a bright IRAS source with a flux of 1000 Jy at 60 microns and a FIR luminosity of 3 x 10(exp 10) solar luminosity. It has a strong Br(gamma) emission line, a signature of ongoing massive star formation and deep CO absorption bands, which are indicative of the dominance of red supergiants in the near IR. It contains a population of compact radio sources, similar to those seen in M82. Optical spectra show that the nucleus is heavily reddened, with a Balmer decrement of approximately 30. NGC 253 possesses a 'superwind,' seen both in x-ray emission and in optical line emission. Nuclear ejection was first suggested to explain the kinematics of the nuclear region. We have obtained J, H, and K images of the entire galaxy at 1.3 arcsec/pixel (18 pc/pixel) using the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) on the KPNO 1.3 m. We have constructed a mosaic of 180 s exposures which traces the galaxy over much of its optical extent. The data were shifted, rotated, magnified, and calibrated following normal practice.

  15. SWAN: NGC 253’s Nucleated Star Bursting Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Mark; Ott, Juergen; Meier, David; Momjian, Emmanuel; Walter, Fabian; Rand, Richard

    2015-08-01

    We present the first results from SWAN: Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby galaxies. Nearby galaxies are conveniently located to probe molecular gas properties on scales of 10 to 200 pc, which are appropriate for Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs). The resolution of the VLA in D and C configurations maps to a few 10’s of parsecs in these galaxies. To advance studies of galaxy evolution it is paramount to understand how processes in the molecular ISM and star formation are linked on these scales. We have observed the metastable transitions of ammonia and the 22GHz water maser line in four nearby galaxies: NGC 253, IC 342, NGC 2146, and NGC 6946. These galaxies were chosen to span an order of magnitude in star formation rate, and a range of galactic ecosystems. We use the ammonia transitions to derive kinetic temperatures, which exposes the heating and cooling balance of the ISM. We then aim to relate these conditions to energetic feedback from star formation indicated by water masers. Currently our analysis is focused on NGC 253. NGC 253 is a barred spiral galaxy with a nucleated starburst of ≈3M⊙ per year. We have observed ammonia transitions (1,1) to (5,5) and the 22GHz water maser line with a resolution of ≈63pc. We have identified nine regions across the nucleated starburst for study. The ammonia (3,3) line appears to be masing in the centermost 200pc. In combination with Large Velocity Gradient models (LVG) we find that the properties of the molecular gas is warm, ranging from 100K to 160K, with molecular hydrogen densities from 2.2e3 cm-3 to 4.8e3 cm-3. We have identified two regions of water maser emission. The first region is a north south extension, about the center of the galaxy, with a major axis of ≈7”(150pc) and a minor axis of ≈3”(90pc), and the second is a nearby region ≈6”(100pc) to the southeast of the galaxy center. By means of these measurements, we gain an understanding of the molecular ISM associated with the nucleated

  16. Fabrication of micro-lenticular patterns using WEDM-grooving and electrolytic polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Wuk; Song, Ki Young; Chung, Do Kwan; Chu, Chong Nam

    2013-12-01

    Lenticular pattern panels have been used for displaying 3D effects and their precise fabrication methods have attracted great attention. In this study, we present a novel fabrication method for lenticular patterns on a stainless steel mold (AISI 304). The fabrication process was composed of two steps. First, the lenticular shape groove was machined by wire-electrical discharge machining (EDM) (WEDM-grooving). In this step, EDM was adopted because it is useful for machining hard-to-cut material such as WC-Co, stainless steel and titanium, and a newly developed wire grooving system ensures highly accurate machining. Second, electrolytic polishing was carried out afterward to improve the surface quality since the machined surface resulting from the WEDM-grooving was rough. The entire fabrication processes required a single machine and deionized water only; thus, the step change time was minimized and the method was eco-friendly. Parametric tests for the WEDM-grooving conditions as well as for the proper electrolytic polishing conditions (voltage, offset and feedrate) were executed to fabricate the grooves with fine surface. Excessive electrolytic polishing conditions caused pitting and damage from the additional sparks on the surface of the mold. On the other hand, inadequate machining conditions resulted in an incomplete electrolytic polishing process. Using this multi-step process, a lenticular pattern mold with high surface quality was machined. The lenticular pattern PDMS lens was successfully produced using the stainless steel mold.

  17. The dark matter distribution of NGC 5921

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Israa Abdulqasim Mohammed; Hashim, Norsiah; Abidin, Zamri Zainal

    2018-04-01

    We used the neutral atomic hydrogen data of the Very Large Array for the spiral galaxy NGC 5921 with z = 0.0045 at the distance of 22.4 Mpc, to investigate the nature of dark matter. The investigation was based on two theories, namely, dark matter and Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). We presented the kinematic analysis of the rotation curve with two models of dark matter, namely, the Burkert and NFW profiles. The results revealed that the NFW halo model can reproduce the observed rotation curve, with χ 2_{red}≈ 1, while the Burkert model is unable to fit the observation data. Therefore, the dark matter density profile of NGC 5921 can be presented as a cuspy halo. We also tried to investigate the observed rotation curve of NGC 5921 with MOND, along with the possible assumption on baryonic matter and distance. We note that MOND is still incapable of mimicking the rotation curve with the observed data of the galaxy.

  18. Constraining the Physical State of the Hot Gas Halos in NGC 4649 and NGC 5846

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, Alessandro; Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Doug; D'Abrusco, Raffaele; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Gokas, Tara; Lauer, Jen; McCollough, Michael; Morgan, Doug; Mossman, Amy; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Trinchieri, Ginevra; Vrtilek, Saeqa; Pellegrini, Silvia; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean

    2017-07-01

    We present results of a joint Chandra/XMM-Newton analysis of the early-type galaxies NGC 4649 and NGC 5846 aimed at investigating differences between mass profiles derived from X-ray data and those from optical data, to probe the state of the hot interstellar medium (ISM) in these galaxies. If the hot ISM is at a given radius in hydrostatic equilibrium (HE), the X-ray data can be used to measure the total enclosed mass of the galaxy. Differences from optically derived mass distributions therefore yield information about departures from HE in the hot halos. The X-ray mass profiles in different angular sectors of NGC 4649 are generally smooth with no significant azimuthal asymmetries within 12 kpc. Extrapolation of these profiles beyond this scale yields results consistent with the optical estimate. However, in the central region (rdisappears in the NW direction, where the emission is smooth and extended. In this sector we find consistent X-ray and optical mass profiles, suggesting that the hot halo is not responding to strong nongravitational forces.

  19. Formation of S0 galaxies through mergers. Explaining angular momentum and concentration change from spirals to S0s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querejeta, M.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Tapia, T.; Borlaff, A.; van de Ven, G.; Lyubenova, M.; Martig, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Méndez-Abreu, J.

    The CALIFA team has recently found that the stellar angular momentum and concentration of late-type spiral galaxies are incompatible with those of lenticular galaxies (S0s), concluding that fading alone cannot satisfactorily explain the evolution from spirals into S0s. Here we explore whether major

  20. The ATLAS3D project - XXVII. Cold gas and the colours and ages of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Lisa M.; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the cold gas contents of the ATLAS3D early-type galaxies, in the context of their optical colours, near-ultraviolet colours and Hβ absorption line strengths. Early-type (elliptical and lenticular) galaxies are not as gas poor as previously thought, and at least 40 per cent of

  1. Dark Matter and Extragalactic Gas Clouds in the NGC 4532/DDO 137 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, G. L.; Lu, N. Y.; Salpeter, E. E.; Connell, B. M.

    1998-01-01

    H I synthesis mapping of NGC 4532 and DDO 137, a pair of Sm galaxies on the edge of the Virgo cluster, is used to determine rotation curves for each of the galaxies and to resolve the structure and kinematics of three extragalactic H I clouds embedded in an extended envelope of diffuse HI discovered in earlier Arecibo studies of the system.

  2. Moiré-reduction method for slanted-lenticular-based quasi-three-dimensional displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhenfeng; Surman, Phil; Zhang, Lei; Rawat, Rahul; Wang, Shizheng; Zheng, Yuanjin; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we present a method for determining the preferred slanted angle for a lenticular film that minimizes moiré patterns in quasi-three-dimensional (Q3D) displays. We evaluate the preferred slanted angles of the lenticular film for the stripe-type sub-pixel structure liquid crystal display (LCD) panel. Additionally, the sub-pixels mapping algorithm of the specific angle is proposed to assign the images to either the right or left eye channel. A Q3D display prototype is built. Compared with the conventional SLF, this newly implemented Q3D display can not only eliminate moiré patterns but also provide 3D images in both portrait and landscape orientations. It is demonstrated that the developed slanted lenticular film (SLF) provides satisfactory 3D images by employing a compact structure, minimum moiré patterns and stabilized 3D contrast.

  3. NGC 4945: The Milky Way's not-so-distant Cousin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    ESO has released a striking new image of a nearby galaxy that many astronomers think closely resembles our own Milky Way. Though the galaxy is seen edge-on, observations of NGC 4945 suggest that this hive of stars is a spiral galaxy much like our own, with swirling, luminous arms and a bar-shaped central region. These resemblances aside, NGC 4945 has a brighter centre that likely harbours a supermassive black hole, which is devouring reams of matter and blasting energy out into space. As NGC 4945 is only about 13 million light-years away in the constellation of Centaurus (the Centaur), a modest telescope is sufficient for skygazers to spot this remarkable galaxy. NGC 4945's designation comes from its entry number in the New General Catalogue compiled by the Danish-Irish astronomer John Louis Emil Dreyer in the 1880s. James Dunlop, a Scottish astronomer, is credited with originally discovering NGC 4945 in 1826 from Australia. Today's new portrait of NGC 4945 comes courtesy of the Wide Field Imager (WFI) instrument at the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. NGC 4945 appears cigar-shaped from our perspective on Earth, but the galaxy is actually a disc many times wider than it is thick, with bands of stars and glowing gas spiralling around its centre. With the use of special optical filters to isolate the colour of light emitted by heated gases such as hydrogen, the image displays sharp contrasts in NGC 4945 that indicate areas of star formation. Other observations have revealed that NGC 4945 has an active galactic nucleus, meaning its central bulge emits far more energy than calmer galaxies like the Milky Way. Scientists classify NGC 4945 as a Seyfert galaxy after the American astronomer Carl K. Seyfert, who wrote a study in 1943 describing the odd light signatures emanating from some galactic cores. Since then, astronomers have come to suspect that supermassive black holes cause the turmoil in the centre of Seyfert galaxies. Black holes

  4. The thickness of the HI gas layer in spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicking, Floris Jan

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, in two inclined spiral galaxies, NGC 3198 and NGC 2403, the HI random velocity dispersion and layer thickness will be measured simultaneously. This will be done from the HI velocity dispersion field (the distribution on the sky of the observed HI line of sight velocity

  5. Accretion by the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binney J.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated with star formation. These halos are naturally modelled as ensembles of clouds driven up by supernova bubbles. These models can fit the data successfully only if clouds exchange mass and momentum with the corona. As a cloud orbits, it is ablated and forms a turbulent wake where cold high-metallicity gas mixes with hot coronal gas causing the prompt cooling of the latter. As a consequence the total mass of Hi increases. This model has recently been used to model the Leiden-Argentina-Bonn survey of Galactic Hi. The values of the model’s parameters that are required to model NGC 891, NGC 2403 and our Galaxy show a remarkable degree of consistency, despite the very different natures of the two external galaxies and the dramatic difference in the nature of the data for our Galaxy and the external galaxies. The parameter values are also consistent with hydrodynamical simulations of the ablation of individual clouds. The model predicts that a galaxy that loses its cool-gas disc for instance through a major merger cannot reform it from its corona; it can return to steady star formation only if it can capture a large body of cool gas, for example by accreting a gas-rich dwarf. Thus the model explains how major mergers can make galaxies “red and dead.”

  6. The Dusty Disc of NGC 247

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This image of NGC 247, taken by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, reveals the fine details of this highly inclined spiral galaxy and its rich backdrop. Astronomers say this highly tilted orientation, when viewed from Earth, explains why the distance to this prominent galaxy was previously overestimated. The spiral galaxy NGC 247 is one of the closest spiral galaxies of the southern sky. In this new view from the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope in Chile large numbers of the galaxy's component stars are clearly resolved and many glowing pink clouds of hydrogen, marking regions of active star formation, can be made out in the loose and ragged spiral arms. NGC 247 is part of the Sculptor Group, a collection of galaxies associated with the Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253, also shown in eso0902 and eso1025). This is the nearest group of galaxies to our Local Group, which includes the Milky Way, but putting a precise value on such celestial distances is inherently difficult. To measure the distance from the Earth to a nearby galaxy, astronomers have to rely on a type of variable star called a Cepheid to act as a distance marker. Cepheids are very luminous stars, whose brightness varies at regular intervals. The time taken for the star to brighten and fade can be plugged into a simple mathematical relation that gives its intrinsic brightness. When compared with the measured brightness this gives the distance. However, this method isn't foolproof, as astronomers think this period-luminosity relationship depends on the composition of the Cepheid. Another problem arises from the fact that some of the light from a Cepheid may be absorbed by dust en route to Earth, making it appear fainter, and therefore further away than it really is. This is a particular problem for NGC 247 with its highly inclined orientation, as the line of sight to the Cepheids passes through the galaxy's dusty disc. However, a

  7. A comparison of extinction curves for dust in galaxies of different Hubble types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Leisa K.; Price, Jill S.

    1993-01-01

    A sample of 25 galaxies of various Hubble types has been observed in a variety of filters. Extinction curves have been generated for absorption regions in these galaxies using a technique which previously had been used on just a few galaxies; for example, NGC 205, NGC 185, NGC 3077, and M31. The results from these studies suggested that there may be systematic trends in dust properties with Hubble type. This would not be surprising; dust properties should vary with metallicity, for example. It is well known that some galaxies and their interstellar materials should reflect this difference.

  8. The distribution of warm ionized gas in NGC 891

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Richard J.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Hester, J. Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Narrow-band imaging is presented of the edge-on spiral NGC 891 in the H-alpha and S II 6716, 6731 A forbidden lines. Emission from H II regions confined to the plane of the galaxy and from diffuse gas up to about 4 kpc off the plane is readily detected. The full radial extent of the diffuse emission in the plane is about 30 kpc. NGC 891 is found to have a surface density of diffuse ionized gas twice the Galactic value, a thicker ionized gas layer, and a larger surface density of ionized gas relative to neutral gas. These are interpreted as consequences of a relatively high level of star formation in this galaxy. Other star formation tracers indicate the same conclusion. Many vertical H-alpha filaments, or 'worms,' extending to over 2 kpc off the plane of the galaxy are seen. These worms are interpreted in terms of chimney models for the interstellar media of spirals.

  9. The Extended Baryonic Halo of NGC 3923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan W. Miller

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Galaxy halos and their globular cluster systems build up over time by the accretion of small satellites. We can learn about this process in detail by observing systems with ongoing accretion events and comparing the data with simulations. Elliptical shell galaxies are systems that are thought to be due to ongoing or recent minor mergers. We present preliminary results of an investigation of the baryonic halo—light profile, globular clusters, and shells/streams—of the shell galaxy NGC 3923 from deep Dark Energy Camera (DECam g and i-band imaging. We present the 2D and radial distributions of the globular cluster candidates out to a projected radius of about 185 kpc, or ∼ 37 R e , making this one of the most extended cluster systems studied. The total number of clusters implies a halo mass of M h ∼ 3 × 10 13 M ⊙ . Previous studies had identified between 22 and 42 shells, making NGC 3923 the system with the largest number of shells. We identify 23 strong shells and 11 that are uncertain. Future work will measure the halo mass and mass profile from the radial distributions of the shell, N-body models, and line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD measurements of the shells using the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE.

  10. Tidal origin of NGC 1427A in the Fornax cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Waddell, K.; Serra, P.; Koribalski, B.; Venhola, A.; Iodice, E.; Catinella, B.; Cortese, L.; Peletier, R.; Popping, A.; Keenan, O.; Capaccioli, M.

    2018-02-01

    We present new HI observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array and deep optical imaging from OmegaCam on the VLT Survey Telescope of NGC 1427A, an arrow-shaped dwarf irregular galaxy located in the Fornax cluster. The data reveal a star-less HI tail that contains ˜10 per cent of the atomic gas of NGC 1427A as well as extended stellar emission that shed new light on the recent history of this galaxy. Rather than being the result of ram pressure induced star formation, as previously suggested in the literature, the disturbed optical appearance of NGC 1427A has tidal origins. The galaxy itself likely consists of two individual objects in an advanced stage of merging. The HI tail may be made of gas expelled to large radii during the same tidal interaction. It is possible that some of this gas is subject to ram pressure, which would be considered a secondary effect and implies a north-west trajectory of NGC 1427A within the Fornax cluster.

  11. A Survey of Localized Star Clusters in NGC 1427A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, John R.; Gregg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that galactic clusters provide dynamic environments in which to examine galaxy evolution. The starbursting dwarf irregular NGC 1427A presents an interesting case as it is being pulled into the nearby Fornax cluster at supersonic speeds, producing a visibly exceptional star formation rate and notably blue colors. It has been suggested that the highly deformed structure of NGC 1427A is due to ram pressure stripping as a result of interacting with a super-heated ICM provided by several nearby elliptical galaxies. The gas density profile of its leading edge is similar to a "bow-shock", containing several dozen super-star clusters (SSCs) and thousands of smaller star forming clusters. It is clearly evident that the properties of NGC 1427A change rapidly over relatively short distances. Using dithered HST/ACS images in Sloan equivalent g' r' i' z' and Hα filters, we present a morphological and photometric study of NGC 1427A using a novel approach in which stellar properties are measured from sources grouped within localized regions. Apertures are fitted for ~5000 sources at 4σ using a filter-combined master image. Four characteristic regions are chosen to study stellar properties, selected interactively through DS9. We then introduce COMET, a specially-designed source catalog handler for producing graphical figures of each region, cropping both spatially and photometrically. These are then batch-reviewed and analyzed using synthetic isochrones corresponding of each region. Hα bright sources are indicated to illustrate the significance of SSCs. Secondary analysis is carried out using smoothed color maps of source-subtracted diffuse light, yielding penetrative mapping of underlying stellar populations. We show for the first time how the dynamical stellar populations of NGC 1427A differ as a function of position across the surface of the galaxy, ultimately furthering our understanding of cluster interactions and the evolution of irregular galaxies

  12. Reduction of the thickness of lenticular stereoscopic display using full-color LED panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Muguruma, Syuji; Hayasaki, Yoshio; Nagai, Yoshifumi; Shimizu, Yoshinori; Nishida, Nobuo

    2002-05-01

    The goals of our research are to realize stereoscopic large displays for the general public in the open air. These goals impose certain design constraints. It is preferable to view stereoscopic images without any special glasses. Multiple viewing areas are necessary to crowds of viewers. The thickness of the stereoscopic large display is a problem for installations. We have developed a stereoscopic full color LED display using parallax barrier and demonstrated multiple viewing areas. However, the thickness of that stereoscopic display, which is consisted of 8-mm pitch LED panel, becomes over 2 min the case that the viewing distance is designed for 20 m. In order to reduce the thickness of stereoscopic LED display, we propose use of dual lenticular sheets. The first lenticular sheet performs multiple imaging, which allows multiple viewing areas without diffusion screen. The second lenticular sheets separates the raster images into the right and left eye positions. The thickness, which is defined as the distance between the LED panel and the second lenticular sheet, can be reduced below 50cm for the viewing distance of 20 m. Optimal parameters are discussed to reduce the thickness.

  13. THE MEGASECOND CHANDRA X-RAY VISIONARY PROJECT OBSERVATION OF NGC 3115. III. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF LMXBS AND DEPENDENCE ON STELLAR ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Wong, Ka-Wah [Eureka Scientific, Inc., 2452 Delmer Street Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Jennings, Zachary G.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P. [University of California Observatories, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Homan, Jeroen; Remillard, Ronald A. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, MI 48824 (United States); Sivakoff, Gregory R., E-mail: dacheng.lin@unh.edu [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2015-07-20

    We studied the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115, using the Megasecond Chandra X-ray Visionary Project Observation. With a total exposure time of ∼1.1 Ms, we constructed the XLF down to a limiting luminosity of ∼10{sup 36} erg s{sup −1}, which is much deeper than that typically reached for other early-type galaxies. We found significant flattening of the overall LMXB XLF from dN/dL ∝ L{sup −2.2±0.4} above 5.5 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1} to dN/dL ∝ L{sup −1.0±0.1} below it, although we could not rule out a fit with a higher break at ∼1.6 × 10{sup 38} erg s{sup −1}. We also found evidence that the XLF of LMXBs in globular clusters (GCs) is overall flatter than that of field LMXBs. Thus, our results for this galaxy do not support the idea that all LMXBs are formed in GCs. The XLF of field LMXBs seems to show spatial variation, with the XLF in the inner region of the galaxy being flatter than that in the outer region, probably due to contamination of LMXBs from undetected and/or disrupted GCs in the inner region. The XLF in the outer region is probably the XLF of primordial field LMXBs, exhibiting dN/dL ∝ L{sup −1.2±0.1} up to a break close to the Eddington limit of neutron star LMXBs (∼1.7 × 10{sup 38} erg s{sup −1}). The break of the GC LMXB XLF is lower, at ∼1.1 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1}. We also confirm previous findings that the metal-rich/red GCs are more likely to host LMXBs than the metal-poor/blue GCs, which is more significant for more luminous LMXBs, and that more massive GCs are more likely to host LMXBs.

  14. Infrared-Bright Interacting Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Ruiz, Sofia; Murphy, Eric Joseph; Armus, Lee; Smith, John-David; Bradford, Charles Matt; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2018-01-01

    We present the mid-infrared spectral mapping of eight LIRG-class interacting galaxies: NGC 6670, NGC 7592, IIZw 96, IIIZw 35, Arp 302, Arp 236, Arp 238, Arp 299. The properties of galaxy mergers, which are bright and can be studied at high resolutions at low-z, provide local analogs for sources that may be important contributors to the Far Infrared Background (FIRB.) In order to study star formation and the physical conditions in the gas and dust in our sample galaxies, we used the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) to map the galaxies over the 5-35 μm window to trace the PAH, molecular hydrogen, and atomic fine structure line emission on scales of 1.4 – 5.3 kpc. Here we present the reduction for low and high-resolution data, and preliminary results in the analysis of fine structure line ratios and dust features in the two nuclei and interacting regions from one of our sample galaxies, NGC 6670.

  15. UBVR Imaging of UV Bright Interacting Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C. H.; Weistrop, D.; Angione, R.; Cruzen, S.; Kaiser, M. E.

    1997-12-01

    Interacting galaxies are often found to contain UV-bright knots which are the sites of very recent or ongoing star-formation. To investigate the stellar populations of these complexes we have obtained UBVR images of several interacting or morphologically disturbed UV bright galaxies (NGC 3395/6, NGC 3991/4/5, NGC 4194, NGC 6090). Images of IRAS 15179+3956, an interacting galaxy in the Bootes Void, were also obtained. The images were made with the 2048x 2048 CCD camera on the 1-meter telescope at the Mount Laguna Observatory. Colors and magnitudes of star-forming regions in these objects will be presented and used to study how their properties change with age and position within each galaxy and how star-formation propagates through the system. This is part of an ongoing study of starburst galaxies that will include STIS (Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph) longslit spectroscopy of a subset of these galaxies. Mount Laguna Observatory is operated jointly by San Diego State University and the University of Illinois. This research is supported in part by NASA under contract NAS 5-31231.

  16. NGC 5626: a massive fast rotator with a twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, S.; Sarzi, M.; Baes, M.; Puerari, I.

    2018-02-01

    We present a kinematic analysis of the dust-lane elliptical NGC 5626 based on MUSE observations. These data allow us to robustly classify this galaxy as a fast rotator and to infer a virial mass of 1011.7 M⊙, making it one of the most massive fast rotators known. In addition, the depth and extent of the MUSE data reveal a strong kinematic twist in the stellar velocity field (by up to 45° beyond 1.5Re). A comparison with the ATLAS3D sample underlines the rareness of this system, although we show that such a large-scale kinematic twist could have been missed by the ATLAS3D data due to the limited spatial sampling of this survey (typically extending to 0.6Re for massive early-type galaxies). MUSE thus has the potential to unveil more examples of this type of galaxies. We discuss the environment and possible formation history of NGC 5626 and finally argue how a merger between the Milky Way and Andromeda could produce a galaxy of the same class as NGC 5626.

  17. Origin of very high energy emission in galaxy clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Perseus cluster of galaxies with the central galaxy NGC 1275 is ideally suitable for studying both the physics of relativistic jets from Active Galactic Nuclei and for revealing the feedback role of the central galaxy. We present the results of fifteen-year-long observations of the AGN NGC 1275 at energies 800 GeV–40 TeV discovered by the SHALON telescope in 1996. The data obtained at very high energies by SHALON, namely the images of the galaxy and its surroundings, and the flux variability indicate that TeV γ-ray emission is produced by a number of processes: in particular, part of this emission is generated by relativistic jets in the nucleus of NGC 1275 itself. Unique data on GK Per(Nova 1901 and the IC 310 radio galaxy TeV γ-ray emission were obtained with the SHALON experiment for the first time.

  18. DGSAT: Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Amateur Telescopes. II. A catalogue of isolated nearby edge-on disk galaxies and the discovery of new low surface brightness systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, C.; Javanmardi, B.; Martínez-Delgado, D.; Kroupa, P.; Teuwen, K.

    2017-07-01

    The connection between the bulge mass or bulge luminosity in disk galaxies and the number, spatial and phase space distribution of associated dwarf galaxies is a discriminator between cosmological simulations related to galaxy formation in cold dark matter and generalised gravity models. Here, a nearby sample of isolated Milky Way-class edge-on galaxies is introduced, to facilitate observational campaigns to detect the associated families of dwarf galaxies at low surface brightness. Three galaxy pairs with at least one of the targets being edge-on are also introduced. Approximately 60% of the catalogued isolated galaxies contain bulges of different size, while the remaining objects appear to be bulgeless. Deep images of NGC 3669 (small bulge, with NGC 3625 at the edge of the image) and NGC 7814 (prominent bulge), obtained with a 0.4 m aperture, are also presented, resulting in the discovery of two new dwarf galaxy candidates, NGC 3669-DGSAT-3 and NGC 7814-DGSAT-7. Eleven additional low surface brightness galaxies are identified, previously notified with low quality measurement flags in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Integrated magnitudes, surface brightnesses, effective radii, Sersic indices, axis ratios, and projected distances to their putative major hosts are displayed. At least one of the galaxies, NGC 3625-DGSAT-4, belongs with a surface brightness of μr ≈ 26 mag arcsec-2 and effective radius >1.5 kpc to the class of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs). NGC 3669-DGSAT-3, the galaxy with the lowest surface brightness in our sample, may also be an UDG.

  19. Atomic hydrogen bridge fueling NGC 4418 with gas from VV 655

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenius, E.; Costagliola, F.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Aalto, S.; Spoon, H.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Conway, J. E.; Privon, G. C.; König, S.

    2017-11-01

    Context. The galaxy NGC 4418 harbours a compact (well as emission and absorption from atomic hydrogen. Gaussian distributions are fitted to observed HI emission and absorption spectra. We estimate the star formation rates (SFRs) of NGC 4418 and VV 655 from the 1.4 GHz radio emission and compare them with estimates from archival 70 μm Herschel observations. Results: An atomic HI bridge is seen in emission, connecting NGC 4418 to the nearby galaxy VV 655. An HI tail is also seen extending south-west from VV 655. While NGC 4418 is bright in continuum emission and seen in HI absorption, VV 655 is barely detected in the continuum, but shows bright HI emission (MHI 109 M⊙). We estimate SFRs from the 1.4 GHz continuum of 3.2 M⊙ yr-1 and 0.13 M⊙ yr-1 for NGC 4418 and VV 655, respectively. Systemic HI velocities of 2202 ± 20 km s-1 (emission) and 2105.4 ± 10 km s-1 (absorption) are measured for VV 655 and NGC 4418, respectively. Redshifted HI absorption is seen (vc = 2194.0 ± 4.4 km s-1) towards NGC 4418, suggesting gas infall. North-west of NGC 4418, we detect HI in emission, blueshifted (vc = 2061.9 ± 5.1 km s-1) with respect to NGC 4418, consistent with an outflow perpendicular to the galaxy disk. We derive a deprojected outflow speed of 178 km s-1, which, assuming a simple cylindrical model, gives an order-of-magnitude estimate of the HI mass outflow rate of 2.5 M⊙ yr-1. Conclusions: The morphology and velocity structure seen in HI is consistent with an interaction scenario where gas was transferred from VV 655 to NGC 4418. We argue that the galaxies have passed each other once, about 190 Myr ago, and that this interaction has caused the tidal HI bridge and HI tail seen today. Some gas is falling towards NGC 4418, and may fuel the activity in the centre. We interpret blueshifted HI-emission north-west of NGC 4418 as a continuation of the outflow previously reported on smaller scales, powered by star formation and/or black hole accretion in the centre. The

  20. Current star formation in early-type galaxies and the K+A phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Helmboldt, J. F.; Walterbos, R. A. M.; Goto, T.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of an effort to identify and study a sample of the likely progenitors of elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) K+A galaxies. To achieve this, we have searched a sample ~11,000 nearby (m(r)

  1. Photoelectric UBVRI sequences in the Magellanic Cloud clusters Lindsay 1, NGC 339, NGC 361, and NGC 1466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaino, G.; Alvarado, F.; Wenderoth, E.; Liller, W.

    1990-01-01

    UBVRI sequences in three Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters Lindsay 1, NGC 339, NGC 361, and in NGC 1466, which lies between the two Magellanic Clouds, are presented. These sequences are appropriate for charge-coupled device (CCD) coverage. Only BV standards have been published in NGC 339 and UBV in NGC 1466; no sequences exist for the two other clusters. 15 refs

  2. The NGC 454 system: anatomy of a mixed ongoing merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, H.; Rampazzo, R.; Mazzei, P.; Marino, A.; Amram, Ph.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on NGC 454, a nearby interacting pair of galaxies (AM 0112-554, RR23), composed of an early-type (NGC 454 E) and a star-forming late-type companion (NGC 454 W). We aim at characterizing this wet merger candidate via a multi-λ analysis, from near-UV (NUV) to optical using Swift UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT), and mapping the H α intensity (I) distribution, velocity (Vr) and velocity dispersion (σ) fields with SAM+Fabry-Perot@SOAR observations. Luminosity profiles suggest that NGC 454 E is an S0. Distortions in its outskirts caused by the ongoing interaction are visible in both optical and NUV frames. In NGC 454 W, the NUV-UVOT images and the H α show a set of star-forming complexes connected by a faint tail. H α emission is detected along the line connecting NGC 454 E to the NGC 454 main H II complex. We investigate the (I-σ), (I-Vr) and (Vr-σ) diagnostic diagrams of the H II complexes, most of which can be interpreted in a framework of expanding bubbles. In the main H II complex, enclosed in the UV brightest region, the gas velocity dispersion is highly supersonic reaching 60 km s-1. However, H α emission profiles are mostly asymmetric indicating the presence of multiple components with an irregular kinematics. Observations point towards an advanced stage of the encounter. Our smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations with chemo-photometric implementation suggest that this mixed pair can be understood in terms of a 1:1 gas/halo encounter giving rise to a merger in about 0.2 Gyr from the present stage.

  3. Dynamic Resolution in GPU-Accelerated Volume Rendering to Autostereoscopic Multiview Lenticular Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ruijters

    2008-01-01

    The generation of multiview stereoscopic images of large volume rendered data demands an enormous amount of calculations. We propose a method for hardware accelerated volume rendering of medical data sets to multiview lenticular displays, offering interactive manipulation throughout. The method is based on buffering GPU-accelerated direct volume rendered visualizations of the individual views from their respective focal spot positions, and composing the output signal for the multiview lenticu...

  4. Relic galaxies: where are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta de Arriba, L.; Quilis, V.; Trujillo, I.; Cebrián, M.; Balcells, M.

    2017-03-01

    The finding that massive galaxies grow with cosmic time fired the starting gun for the search of objects which could have survived up to the present day without suffering substantial changes (neither in their structures, neither in their stellar populations). Nevertheless, and despite the community efforts, up to now only one firm candidate to be considered one of these relics is known: NGC 1277. Curiously, this galaxy is located at the centre of one of the most rich near galaxy clusters: Perseus. Is its location a matter of chance? Should relic hunters focus their search on galaxy clusters? In order to reply this question, we have performed a simultaneous and analogous analysis using simulations (Millennium I-WMAP7) and observations (New York University Value-Added Galaxy Catalogue). Our results in both frameworks agree: it is more probable to find relics in high density environments.

  5. Dynamic Resolution in GPU-Accelerated Volume Rendering to Autostereoscopic Multiview Lenticular Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ruijters

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The generation of multiview stereoscopic images of large volume rendered data demands an enormous amount of calculations. We propose a method for hardware accelerated volume rendering of medical data sets to multiview lenticular displays, offering interactive manipulation throughout. The method is based on buffering GPU-accelerated direct volume rendered visualizations of the individual views from their respective focal spot positions, and composing the output signal for the multiview lenticular screen in a second pass. This compositing phase is facilitated by the fact that the view assignment per subpixel is static, and therefore can be precomputed. We decoupled the resolution of the individual views from the resolution of the composited signal, and adjust the resolution on-the-fly, depending on the available processing resources, in order to maintain interactive refresh rates. The optimal resolution for the volume rendered views is determined by means of an analysis of the lattice of the output signal for the lenticular screen in the Fourier domain.

  6. Sonographic alteration of lenticular nucleus in focal task-specific dystonia of musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Uwe; Buttkus, Franziska; Benecke, Reiner; Grossmann, Annette; Dressler, Dirk; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    In distinct movement disorders, transcranial sonography detects alterations of deep brain structures with higher sensitivity than other neuroimaging methods. Lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity on transcranial sonography, thought to be caused by increased local copper content, has been reported as a characteristic finding in primary spontaneous dystonia. Here, we wanted to find out whether deep brain structures are altered in task-specific dystonia. The frequency of sonographic brainstem and basal ganglia changes was studied in an investigator-blinded setting in 15 musicians with focal task-specific hand dystonia, 15 musicians without dystonia, and 15 age- and sex-matched nonmusicians without dystonia. Lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity was found in 12 musicians with task-specific dystonia, but only in 3 nondystonic musicians (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.001) and 2 nonmusicians (p musicians correlated with age, but not with duration of music practice or duration of dystonia. In 2 of 3 affected musicians with normal echogenic lenticular nucleus, substantia nigra hyperechogenicity was found. Our findings support the idea of a pathogenetic link between primary spontaneous and task-specific dystonia. Sonographic basal ganglia alteration might indicate a risk factor that in combination with extensive fine motor training promotes the manifestation of task-specific dystonia. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The anatomy of the NGC5044 group - II. Stellar populations and star formation histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, J. Trevor; Proctor, Robert N.; Rasmussen, Jesper; Brough, Sarah; Forbes, Duncan A.

    2009-07-01

    The distribution of galaxy properties in groups and clusters holds important information on galaxy evolution and growth of structure in the Universe. While clusters have received appreciable attention in this regard, the role of groups as fundamental to formation of the present-day galaxy population has remained relatively unaddressed. Here, we present stellar ages, metallicities and α-element abundances derived using Lick indices for 67 spectroscopically confirmed members of the NGC5044 galaxy group with the aim of shedding light on galaxy evolution in the context of the group environment. We find that galaxies in the NGC5044 group show evidence for a strong relationship between stellar mass and metallicity, consistent with their counterparts in both higher and lower mass groups and clusters. Galaxies show no clear trend of age or α-element abundance with mass, but these data form a tight sequence when fitted simultaneously in age, metallicity and stellar mass. In the context of the group environment, our data support the tidal disruption of low-mass galaxies at small group-centric radii, as evident from an apparent lack of galaxies below ~109Msolar within ~100kpc of the brightest group galaxy. Using a joint analysis of absorption- and emission-line metallicities, we are able to show that the star-forming galaxy population in the NGC5044 group appears to require gas removal to explain the ~1.5dex offset between absorption- and emission-line metallicities observed in some cases. A comparison with other stellar population properties suggests that this gas removal is dominated by galaxy interactions with the hot intragroup medium.

  8. NGC 1614: A Laboratory for Starburst Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Herrero, A.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Rieke, M. J.; Rieke, G. H.; Quillen, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    The modest extinction and reasonably face-on viewing geometry make the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 1614 an ideal laboratory for study of a powerful starburst. HST/NICMOS observations show: (1) deep CO stellar absorption, tracing a starburst nucleus about 45 pc in diameter; (2) surrounded by an approx. 600 pc diameter ring of supergiant H II regions revealed in Pa-alpha line emission; (3) lying within a molecular ring indicated by its extinction shadow in H - K; and (4) all at the center of a disturbed spiral galaxy. The luminosities of the giant H II regions in the ring axe extremely high, an order of magnitude brighter than 30 Doradus; very luminous H II regions, comparable with 30 Dor, are also found in the spiral arms of the galaxy. Luminous stellar clusters surround the nucleus and lie in the spiral arms, similar to clusters observed in other infrared luminous and ultraluminous galaxies. The star forming activity may have been initiated by a merger between a disk galaxy and a companion satellite, whose nucleus appears in projection about 300 pc to the NE of the nucleus of the primary galaxy. The relation of deep stellar CO bands to surrounding ionized gas ring to molecular gas indicates that the luminous starburst started in the nucleus and is propagating outward into the surrounding molecular ring. This hypothesis is supported by evolutionary starburst modeling that shows that the properties of NGC 1614 can be fitted with two short-lived bursts of star formation separated by 5 Myr (and by inference by a variety of models with a similar duration of star formation). The total dynamical mass of the starburst region of 1.3 x 10(exp 9) solar masses is mostly accounted for by the old pre-starburst stellar population. Although our starburst models use a modified Salpeter initial mass function (turning over near one solar mass), the tight mass budget suggests that the IMF may contain relatively more 10 - 30 solar masses stars and fewer low mass stars than the

  9. NGC 1275: An Outlier of the Black Hole-Host Scaling Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Sani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The active galaxy NGC 1275 lies at the center of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, being an archetypal BH-galaxy system that is supposed to fit well with the MBH-host scaling relations obtained for quiescent galaxies. Since it harbors an obscured AGN, only recently our group has been able to estimate its black hole mass. Here our aim is to pinpoint NGC 1275 on the less dispersed scaling relations, namely the MBH-σ⋆ and MBH−Lbul planes. Starting from our previous work (Ricci et al., 2017a, we estimate that NGC 1275 falls well outside the intrinsic dispersion of the MBH-σ⋆ plane being 1.2 dex (in black hole mass displaced with respect to the scaling relations. We then perform a 2D morphological decomposition analysis on Spitzer/IRAC images at 3.6 μm and find that, beyond the bright compact nucleus that dominates the central emission, NGC 1275 follows a de Vaucouleurs profile with no sign of significant star formation nor clear merger remnants. Nonetheless, its displacement on the MBH−L3.6,bul plane with respect to the scaling relation is as high as observed in the MBH-σ⋆. We explore various scenarios to interpret such behaviors, of which the most realistic one is the evolutionary pattern followed by NGC 1275 to approach the scaling relation. We indeed speculate that NGC 1275 might be a specimen for those galaxies in which the black holes adjusted to its host.

  10. Dynamics of elliptical galaxies with planetary nebulae in modified Newtonian dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yong; Ko, Chung-Ming

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of an elliptical galaxy within a couple of effective radii can be probed effectively by stars. However, at larger distances planetary nebulae (PNe) replace stars as the tracer of the dynamics. Making use of the motion of PNe, Romanowsky et al. measured the dynamics of three luminous elliptical galaxies (NGC821, NGC3379 and NGC4494) at large distances from the galactic centre. They found that little dark matter is needed up to six effective radii. Milgrom & Sanders showed that this result can be understood in the framework of MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). As more data are available in the past decade, we revisit this problem. We combine PNe data (up to six to eight effective radii) and stellar data from SAURON of seven elliptical galaxies, including those three galaxies in Romanowsky et al. with updated data and four other galaxies which have not been analysed before. We conclude that the dynamics of these galaxies can be well explained by MOND.

  11. The Peculiar Filamentary H i Structure of NGC 6145

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Enci; Kong, Xu; Mou, Guobin [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang, Jing [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Guo, Fulai; Lin, Lin; Li, Cheng; Xiao, Ting, E-mail: ecwang16@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Astronomical Society, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we report the peculiar H i morphology of the cluster spiral galaxy NGC 6145, which has a 150 kpc H i filament on one side that is nearly parallel to its major axis. This filament is made up of several H i clouds and the diffuse H i gas between them, with no optical counterparts. We compare its H i distribution with other one-sided H i distributions in the literature and find that the overall H i distribution is very different from the typical tidal and ram-pressure stripped H i shape, and that its morphology is inconsistent with that of a pure accretion event. Only ∼30% of the total H i gas is anchored on the stellar disk, while most of the H i gas forms the filament in the west. At a projected distance of 122 kpc, we find a massive elliptical companion (NGC 6146) with extended radio emission whose axis points to an H i gap in NGC 6145. The velocity of the H i filament shows an overall line-of-sight motion of 80–180 km s{sup −1} with respect to NGC 6145. Using the long-slit spectra of NGC 6145 along its major stellar axis, we find that some outer regions show enhanced star formation, while in contrast, almost no star formation activities are found in its center (<2 kpc). Pure accretion, tidal, or ram-pressure stripping are not likely to produce the observed H i filament. An alternative explanation is the jet stripping from NGC 6146, although direct evidence for a jet-cold gas interaction has not been found.

  12. FERMI DISCOVERY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM NGC 1275

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Asano, K.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of high-energy (E > 100 MeV) γ-ray emission from NGC 1275, a giant elliptical galaxy lying at the center of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, based on observations made with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The positional center of the γ-ray source is only ∼3' away from the NGC 1275 nucleus, well within the 95% LAT error circle of ∼5'. The spatial distribution of γ-ray photons is consistent with a point source. The average flux and power-law photon index measured with the LAT from 2008 August 4 to 2008 December 5 are F γ = (2.10 ± 0.23) x 10 -7 ph (>100 MeV) cm -2 s -1 and Γ = 2.17 ± 0.05, respectively. The measurements are statistically consistent with constant flux during the four-month LAT observing period. Previous EGRET observations gave an upper limit of F γ -8 ph (>100 MeV) cm -2 s -1 to the γ-ray flux from NGC 1275. This indicates that the source is variable on timescales of years to decades, and therefore restricts the fraction of emission that can be produced in extended regions of the galaxy cluster. Contemporaneous and historical radio observations are also reported. The broadband spectrum of NGC 1275 is modeled with a simple one-zone synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton model and a model with a decelerating jet flow.

  13. Fermi Discovery of Gamma-Ray Emission from NGC 1275

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, Thompson H.; Caliandro, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of high-energy (E > 100 MeV) γ-ray emission from NGC 1275, a giant elliptical galaxy lying at the center of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, based on observations made with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The positional center of the γ-ray source is only ∼3(prime) away from the NGC 1275 nucleus, well within the 95% LAT error circle of ∼5(prime). The spatial distribution of γ-ray photons is consistent with a point source. The average flux and power-law photon index measured with the LAT from 2008 August 4 to 2008 December 5 are F γ = (2.10 ± 0.23) x 10 -7 ph (>100 MeV) cm -2 s -1 and Γ = 2.17 ± 0.05, respectively. The measurements are statistically consistent with constant flux during the four-month LAT observing period. Previous EGRET observations gave an upper limit of F γ -8 ph (>100 MeV) cm -2 s -1 to the γ-ray flux from NGC 1275. This indicates that the source is variable on timescales of years to decades, and therefore restricts the fraction of emission that can be produced in extended regions of the galaxy cluster. Contemporaneous and historical radio observations are also reported. The broadband spectrum of NGC 1275 is modeled with a simple one-zone synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton model and a model with a decelerating jet flow.

  14. Fermi Discovery of Gamma-Ray Emission from NGC 1275

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Asano, K.; /Tokyo Inst. Tech.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Blandford, R.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle; Caliandro, G.A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /SISSA, Trieste /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /ASDC, Frascati /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U.; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    We report the discovery of high-energy (E > 100 MeV) {gamma}-ray emission from NGC 1275, a giant elliptical galaxy lying at the center of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, based on observations made with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The positional center of the {gamma}-ray source is only {approx}3{prime} away from the NGC 1275 nucleus, well within the 95% LAT error circle of {approx}5{prime}. The spatial distribution of {gamma}-ray photons is consistent with a point source. The average flux and power-law photon index measured with the LAT from 2008 August 4 to 2008 December 5 are F{sub {gamma}} = (2.10 {+-} 0.23) x 10{sup -7} ph (>100 MeV) cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and {Gamma} = 2.17 {+-} 0.05, respectively. The measurements are statistically consistent with constant flux during the four-month LAT observing period. Previous EGRET observations gave an upper limit of F{sub {gamma}} < 3.72 x 10{sup -8} ph (>100 MeV) cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} to the {gamma}-ray flux from NGC 1275. This indicates that the source is variable on timescales of years to decades, and therefore restricts the fraction of emission that can be produced in extended regions of the galaxy cluster. Contemporaneous and historical radio observations are also reported. The broadband spectrum of NGC 1275 is modeled with a simple one-zone synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton model and a model with a decelerating jet flow.

  15. A WARP IN PROGRESS: H I AND RADIO CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS OF THE SPIRAL NGC 3145

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, Michele [110 Westchester Rd, Newton, MA 02458 (United States); Brinks, Elias [University of Hertfordshire, Centre for Astrophysics Research, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Struck, Curtis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Rd., Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, Debra M., E-mail: kaufmanrallis@icloud.com, E-mail: E.Brinks@herts.ac.uk, E-mail: curt@iastate.edu, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com, E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, 124 Raymond Av., Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    VLA H i observations and λ6 cm radio continuum observations are presented of the barred-spiral galaxy NGC 3145. In optical images NGC 3145 has stellar arms that appear to cross, forming “X”-features. Our radio continuum observations rule out shock fronts at three of the four “X”-features, and our H i data provide evidence of gas motions perpendicular to the disk of NGC 3145. In large portions of NGC 3145, particularly in the middle-to-outer disk, the H i line profiles are skewed. Relative to the disk, the gas in the skewed wing of the line profiles has z-motions away from us on the approaching side of the galaxy and z-motions of about the same magnitude (∼40 km s{sup −1}) toward us on the receding side. These warping motions imply that there has been a perturbation with a sizeable component perpendicular to the disk over large spatial scales. Two features in NGC 3145 have velocities indicating that they are out-of-plane tidal arms. One is an apparent branch of a main spiral arm on the northeastern side of NGC 3145; the velocity of the branch is ∼150 km s{sup −1} greater than the spiral arm where they appear to intersect in projection. The other is the arm on the southwestern side that forms three of the “X”-features. It differs in velocity by ∼56 km s{sup −1} from that of the disk at the same projected location. H i observations are presented also of the two small companions NGC 3143 and PGC 029578. Based on its properties (enhanced SFR, H i emission 50% more extended on its northeastern side, etc.), NGC 3143 is the more likely of the two companions to have interacted with NGC 3145 recently. A simple analytic model demonstrates that an encounter between NGC 3143 and NGC 3145 is a plausible explanation for the observed warping motions in NGC 3145.

  16. A WARP IN PROGRESS: H I AND RADIO CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS OF THE SPIRAL NGC 3145

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, Michele; Brinks, Elias; Struck, Curtis; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra M.

    2015-01-01

    VLA H i observations and λ6 cm radio continuum observations are presented of the barred-spiral galaxy NGC 3145. In optical images NGC 3145 has stellar arms that appear to cross, forming “X”-features. Our radio continuum observations rule out shock fronts at three of the four “X”-features, and our H i data provide evidence of gas motions perpendicular to the disk of NGC 3145. In large portions of NGC 3145, particularly in the middle-to-outer disk, the H i line profiles are skewed. Relative to the disk, the gas in the skewed wing of the line profiles has z-motions away from us on the approaching side of the galaxy and z-motions of about the same magnitude (∼40 km s −1 ) toward us on the receding side. These warping motions imply that there has been a perturbation with a sizeable component perpendicular to the disk over large spatial scales. Two features in NGC 3145 have velocities indicating that they are out-of-plane tidal arms. One is an apparent branch of a main spiral arm on the northeastern side of NGC 3145; the velocity of the branch is ∼150 km s −1 greater than the spiral arm where they appear to intersect in projection. The other is the arm on the southwestern side that forms three of the “X”-features. It differs in velocity by ∼56 km s −1 from that of the disk at the same projected location. H i observations are presented also of the two small companions NGC 3143 and PGC 029578. Based on its properties (enhanced SFR, H i emission 50% more extended on its northeastern side, etc.), NGC 3143 is the more likely of the two companions to have interacted with NGC 3145 recently. A simple analytic model demonstrates that an encounter between NGC 3143 and NGC 3145 is a plausible explanation for the observed warping motions in NGC 3145

  17. Extinction of NGC 7027

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaton, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Emission intensities of recombination lines in hydrogenic spectra are known accurately relative to intensities in the free-free radio continuum. For NGC 7027 intensities have been measured for the radio continuum and for H I and He II lines in the wavelength range from lambda = 2.17 μm to lambda = 1640 A: comparison with the calculated emission intensities gives the extinction. Determinations of the standard interstellar extinction function are critically discussed. The extinction deduced for the total radiation from NGC 7027 has a dependence on wavelength for 6563 A >= lambda >= 1640 A which is in excellent agreement with the adopted standard results, but there are some anomalies for longer wavelengths and for the ratio of total to selective extinction. These can be explained using a model which allows for a local contribution to the extinction which is variable over the surface of the nebula. (author)

  18. A galaxy lacking dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Danieli, Shany; Cohen, Yotam; Merritt, Allison; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Lokhorst, Deborah; Mowla, Lamiya; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Zhang, Jielai

    2018-03-01

    Studies of galaxy surveys in the context of the cold dark matter paradigm have shown that the mass of the dark matter halo and the total stellar mass are coupled through a function that varies smoothly with mass. Their average ratio Mhalo/Mstars has a minimum of about 30 for galaxies with stellar masses near that of the Milky Way (approximately 5 × 1010 solar masses) and increases both towards lower masses and towards higher masses. The scatter in this relation is not well known; it is generally thought to be less than a factor of two for massive galaxies but much larger for dwarf galaxies. Here we report the radial velocities of ten luminous globular-cluster-like objects in the ultra-diffuse galaxy NGC1052–DF2, which has a stellar mass of approximately 2 × 108 solar masses. We infer that its velocity dispersion is less than 10.5 kilometres per second with 90 per cent confidence, and we determine from this that its total mass within a radius of 7.6 kiloparsecs is less than 3.4 × 108 solar masses. This implies that the ratio Mhalo/Mstars is of order unity (and consistent with zero), a factor of at least 400 lower than expected. NGC1052–DF2 demonstrates that dark matter is not always coupled with baryonic matter on galactic scales.

  19. A galaxy lacking dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Danieli, Shany; Cohen, Yotam; Merritt, Allison; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Lokhorst, Deborah; Mowla, Lamiya; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Zhang, Jielai

    2018-03-28

    Studies of galaxy surveys in the context of the cold dark matter paradigm have shown that the mass of the dark matter halo and the total stellar mass are coupled through a function that varies smoothly with mass. Their average ratio M halo /M stars has a minimum of about 30 for galaxies with stellar masses near that of the Milky Way (approximately 5 × 10 10 solar masses) and increases both towards lower masses and towards higher masses. The scatter in this relation is not well known; it is generally thought to be less than a factor of two for massive galaxies but much larger for dwarf galaxies. Here we report the radial velocities of ten luminous globular-cluster-like objects in the ultra-diffuse galaxy NGC1052-DF2, which has a stellar mass of approximately 2 × 10 8 solar masses. We infer that its velocity dispersion is less than 10.5 kilometres per second with 90 per cent confidence, and we determine from this that its total mass within a radius of 7.6 kiloparsecs is less than 3.4 × 10 8 solar masses. This implies that the ratio M halo /M stars is of order unity (and consistent with zero), a factor of at least 400 lower than expected. NGC1052-DF2 demonstrates that dark matter is not always coupled with baryonic matter on galactic scales.

  20. NuSTAR Spectroscopy of Multi-Component X-Ray Reflection from NGC 1068

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Franz E.; Arevalo, Patricia; Walton, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    We report on high-energy X-ray observations of the Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with NuSTAR, which provide the best constraints to date on its >10 keV spectral shape. The NuSTAR data are consistent with those from past and current instruments to within cross-calibration uncertainties, ...

  1. Herschel/SPIRE observations of the dusty disk of NGC 4244

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Bianchi, S.; Boker, T.; Radburn-Smith, D.; de Jong, R. S.; Baes, M.; van der Kruit, P. C.; Xilouris, M.; Gordon, K. D.; Dalcanton, J. J.

    We present Herschel/SPIRE images at 250, 350, and 500 mu m of NGC 4244, a typical low-mass, disk-only and edge-on spiral galaxy. The dust disk is clumpy and shows signs of truncation at the break radius of the stellar disk. This disk coincides with the densest part of the Hi disk. We compare the

  2. Gas and stellar dynamics in NGC 1068 : probing the galactic gravitational potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emsellem, E; Fathi, K; Wozniak, H; Ferruit, P; Mundell, CG; Schinnerer, E

    2006-01-01

    We present SAURON integral field spectrography of the central 1.5 kpc of the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068, encompassing the well-known near-infrared (NIR) inner bar observed in the K band. We have successively disentangled the respective contributions of the ionized gas and stars, thus deriving

  3. Extragalactic archeology in integrated light : A test case with NGC 4030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocvirk, P.; Peletier, R.; Lancon, A.

    2008-01-01

    We reconstruct the age-velocity distribution of the central region of the Sbc galaxy NGC4030, by applying STECKMAP to very high quality WHT/ISIS data. We find that the main component is a relatively young (approximate to 2 Gyr) bulge with a approximate to 100 km/s velocity dispersion. The best fit

  4. The Many Faces of the Gas in Centaurus A (NGC 5128)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, Raffaella

    Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is ideal for investigating the characteristics and role of gas in an early-type galaxy in the presence of a radio-loud active nucleus. The different phases of the gas-hot (X-ray), warm (ionized), and cold (H I and molecular) - are all detected in this object and can be studied

  5. STATISTICS AND PROPERTIES OF H-II REGIONS IN NGC-6814

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KNAPEN, JH; ARNTHJENSEN, N; CEPA, J; BECKMAN, JE

    We present a new Halpha image of high quality of the grand-design galaxy NGC 6814, and describe statistical properties of the H II region population. We have determined positions, angular sizes, and calibrated fluxes of 735 individual H II regions. We construct luminosity functions (LFs) for the

  6. HIGH-RESOLUTION ROTATION CURVES OF NGC-7626 - DYNAMICS OF A YOUNG KINEMATICALLY PECULIAR CORE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BALCELLS, M; CARTER, D

    1993-01-01

    The velocity field of the central parts of the elliptical galaxy NGC 7626 has been mapped by obtaining high resolution rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles for four slit position angles along the major, minor and two intermediate photometric axes. Each rotation curve and dispersion

  7. An Exploration of Dusty Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    and Durham University) to identify the multi-wavelength properties of these galaxies in a pilot study that they hope to extend to many more similar galaxies in the future.Lessons from Distant GalaxiesWhat did Simpson and collaborators learn in this study?Photometric redshift distribution of the ALMA-identified submillimeter galaxies in the authors sample (grey). [Simpson et al. 2017]For the set of galaxies for which the team could measure photometric redshifts, the median redshift was z 2.65 (though redshifts ranged up to z 5).Submillimeter galaxies are cooler and larger than local far-infrared galaxies (known as ULIRGs). The authors therefore argue that its unlikely that ULIRGs are evolved versions of submillimeter galaxies.Estimates of dust mass in these galaxies suggest that effectively all of the optical-to-near-infrared light from colocated stars is obscured by dust.Estimates of the future stellar mass of these galaxies suggest that they cannot evolve into lenticular or spiral galaxies. Instead, the authors conclude, submillimeter galaxies must be the progenitors of local elliptical galaxies.CitationJ. M. Simpson et al 2017 ApJ 839 58. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa65d0

  8. Abundances of planetary nebulae NGC 7662 and NGC 6741

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA; Salas, JB; Feibelman, WA

    2001-01-01

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebulae NGC7662 and NGC6741 are presented. These spectra are combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulae is then calculated and compared to previous

  9. VEGAS-SSS. II. Comparing the globular cluster systems in NGC 3115 and NGC 1399 using VEGAS and FDS survey data. The quest for a common genetic heritage of globular cluster systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiello, Michele; D'Abrusco, Raffaele; Spavone, Marilena; Paolillo, Maurizio; Capaccioli, Massimo; Limatola, Luca; Grado, Aniello; Iodice, Enrica; Raimondo, Gabriella; Napolitano, Nicola; Blakeslee, John P.; Brocato, Enzo; Forbes, Duncan A.; Hilker, Michael; Mieske, Steffen; Peletier, Reynier; van de Ven, Glenn; Schipani, Pietro

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the globular cluster (GC) systems in two very different galaxies, NGC 3115 and NGC 1399. With the papers of this series, we aim at highlighting common and different properties in the GC systems in galaxies covering a wide range of parameter space. We compare the GCs in NGC 3115 and NGC 1399 as derived from the analysis of one square degree u-, g-, and i-band images taken with the VST telescope as part of the VST early-type galaxy survey (VEGAS) and Fornax deep survey (FDS). We selected GC candidates using as reference the morpho-photometric and color properties of confirmed GCs. The surface density maps of GCs in NGC 3115 reveal a morphology similar to the light profile of field stars; the same is true when blue and red GCs are taken separately. The GC maps for NGC 1399 are richer in structure and confirm the existence of an intra-cluster GC component. We confirm the presence of a spatial offset in the NGC 1399 GC centroid and find that the centroid of the GCs for NGC 3115 coincides well with the galaxy center. Both GC systems show unambiguous color bimodality in (g - i) and (u - i); the color-color relations of the two GC systems are slightly different with NGC 3115 appearing more linear than NGC 1399. The azimuthal average of the radial density profiles in both galaxies reveals a larger spatial extent for the total GCs population with respect to the galaxy surface brightness profile. For both galaxies, the red GCs have radial density profiles compatible with the galaxy light profile, while the radial profiles for blue GCs are shallower. As for the specific frequency of GCs, SN, we find it is a factor of two higher in NGC 1399 than for NGC 3115; this is mainly the result of extra blue GCs. By inspecting the radial behavior of the specific frequency, SN(

  10. Evidence for Dynamically Driven Formation of the GW170817 Neutron Star Binary in NGC 4993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmese, A.; Hartley, W.; Tarsitano, F.; Conselice, C.; Lahav, O.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Lin, H.; Soares-Santos, M.; Tucker, D.; Brout, D.; Banerji, M.; Bechtol, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Fruchter, A.; García-Bellido, J.; Herner, K.; Levan, A. J.; Li, T. S.; Lidman, C.; Misra, K.; Sako, M.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, M.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Davis, C.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Johnson, M. D.; Krause, E.; Kron, R.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; McMahon, R. G.; Menanteau, F.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Neilsen, E.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Schindler, R.; Smith, R. C.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, R. C.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.

    2017-11-01

    We present a study of NGC 4993, the host galaxy of the GW170817 gravitational-wave event, the GRB 170817A short gamma-ray burst (sGRB), and the AT 2017gfo kilonova. We use Dark Energy Camera imaging, AAT spectra, and publicly available data, relating our findings to binary neutron star (BNS) formation scenarios and merger delay timescales. NGC 4993 is a nearby early-type galaxy, with an I-band Sérsic index n = 4.0 and low asymmetry (A = 0.04 ± 0.01). These properties are unusual for sGRB hosts. However, NGC 4993 presents shell-like structures and dust lanes indicative of a recent galaxy merger, with the optical transient located close to a shell. We constrain the star formation history (SFH) of the galaxy assuming that the galaxy merger produced a star formation burst, but find little to no ongoing star formation in either spatially resolved broadband SED or spectral fitting. We use the best-fit SFH to estimate the BNS merger rate in this type of galaxy, as {R}{NSM}{gal}={5.7}-3.3+0.57× {10}-6{{yr}}-1. If star formation is the only considered BNS formation scenario, the expected number of BNS mergers from early-type galaxies detectable with LIGO during its first two observing seasons is {0.038}-0.022+0.004, as opposed to ˜0.5 from all galaxy types. Hypothesizing that the binary formed due to dynamical interactions during the galaxy merger, the subsequent time elapsed can constrain the delay time of the BNS coalescence. By using velocity dispersion estimates and the position of the shells, we find that the galaxy merger occurred t mer ≲ 200 Myr prior to the BNS coalescence.

  11. Faint Object Spectrograph Spectra of the UV Emission Lines in NGC 5558: Detection of Strong Narrow Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, D. Michael; Boggess, Albert; Wu, Chi-Chao

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 were obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope on 1992 July 5, when the UV continuum and broad emission lines were at their lowest ever observed level. The high resolution of the spectra, relative to previous UV observations, and the low state of NGC 5548 allow the detection and accurate measurement of strong narrow components of the emission lines of Ly alpha, C IV 1549, and C III 1909. Isolation of the UV narrow components enables a detailed comparison of narrow-line region (NLR) properties in Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies, and removal of their contribution is important for studies of the broad-line region (BLR). Relative to the other narrow lines, C IV 1549 is much stronger in NGC 5548 than in Seyfert 2 galaxies, and Mg II 2798 is very weak or absent.

  12. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  13. THE RADIO–GAMMA CORRELATION IN STARBURST GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichmann, B.; Tjus, J. Becker, E-mail: eiche@tp4.rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Plasma-Astroteilchenphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2016-04-20

    We present a systematic study of non-thermal electron–proton plasma and its emission processes in starburst galaxies in order to explain the correlation between the luminosity in the radio band and the recently observed gamma luminosity. In doing so, a steady state description of the cosmic-ray (CR) electrons and protons within the spatially homogeneous starburst is considered where continuous momentum losses are included as well as catastrophic losses due to diffusion and advection. The primary source of the relativistic CRs, e.g., supernova remnants, provides a quasi-neutral plasma with a power-law spectrum in momentum where we account for rigidity-dependent differences between the electron and proton spectrum. We examine the resulting leptonic and hadronic radiation processes by synchrotron radiation, inverse Compton scattering, Bremsstrahlung, and hadronic pion production. Finally, the observations of NGC 253, M82, NGC 4945, and NGC 1068 in the radio and gamma-ray bands as well as the observed supernova rate are used to constrain a best-fit model. In the case of NGC 253, M82, and NGC 4945 our model is able to accurately describe the data, showing that: (i) supernovae are the dominant particle accelerators for NGC 253, M82, and NGC 4945, but not for NGC 1068; (ii) all considered starburst galaxies are poor proton calorimeters in which for NGC 253 the escape is predominantly driven by the galactic wind, whereas the diffusive escape dominates in NGC 4945 and M82 (at energies >1 TeV); and (iii) secondary electrons from hadronic pion production are important to model the radio flux, but the associated neutrino flux is below the current observation limit.

  14. Meridional lenticular astigmatism associated with bilateral concurrent uveal metastases in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priluck JC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Joshua C Priluck, Sandeep Grover, KV ChalamDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USAPurpose: To demonstrate a case illustrating meridional lenticular astigmatism as a result of renal cell carcinoma uveal metastases.Methods: Case report with images.Results: Clinical findings and diagnostic testing of a patient with acquired meridional lenticular astigmatism are described. The refraction revealed best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20–1 OD (−2.50 + 0.25 × 090 and 20/50 OS (−8.25 + 3.25 × 075. Bilateral concurrent renal cell carcinoma metastases to the choroid and ciliary body are demonstrated by utilizing ultrasonography, ultrawidefield fluorescein angiography, and unique spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.Conclusions: Metastatic disease should be included in the differential of acquired astigmatism. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, ultrawidefield fluorescein angiography, and ultrasonography have roles in delineating choroidal metastases.Keywords: astigmatism, metastasis, optical coherence tomography, renal cell carcinoma

  15. Lenticular Subluxation in a Patient with Homocystinuria Undetected by Neonatal Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Hsiang Cheng

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of homocystinuria with lenticular subluxation was misdiagnosed as Marfan syndrome since the patient had no apparent mental impairment and had had a negative neonatal screen for homocystinuria. The delayed diagnosis of homocystinuria was due to a negative prior neonatal screen which was checked when he was a breastfed healthy newborn. In the absence of an autosomal dominant family history, and because of prior poor school performance, amino acid analysis and mutational analysis of the cystathionine b-synthase gene were performed, which revealed the presence of homocystinuria. Low methionine diet with vitamin B6, folic acid, betaine, dipyridamole and aspirin was prescribed for emergency ophthalmologic surgery to prevent thromboembolic events. Fortunately, the operation was completed uneventfully. The patient has been followed-up for 4 years without any significant complaints under diet and medical control. Since homocystinuria is easily missed in neonatal screening programs, it should be suspected in patients who present with lenticular subluxation, even after a negative neonatal screen.

  16. Are starburst galaxies proton calorimeters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilu; Fields, Brian D.

    2018-03-01

    Several starburst galaxies have been observed in the GeV and TeV bands. In these dense environments, gamma-ray emission should be dominated by cosmic ray (CR) interactions with the interstellar medium (pcrpism → π0 → γγ). Indeed, starbursts may act as proton `calorimeters' where a substantial fraction of CR energy input is emitted in gamma-rays. Here, we build a one-zone, `thick-target' model implementing calorimetry and placing a firm upper bound on gamma-ray emission from CR interactions. The model assumes that CRs are accelerated by supernovae (SNe), and all suffer nuclear interactions rather than escape. Our model has only two free parameters: the CR proton acceleration energy per SN ɛcr, and the proton injection spectral index s. We calculate the pionic gamma-ray emission from 10 MeV to 10 TeV, and derive thick-target parameters for six galaxies with Fermi, H.E.S.S., and/or VERITAS data. Our model provides good fits for the M82 and NGC 253, and yields ɛcr and s values suggesting that SN CR acceleration is similar in starbursts and in our Galaxy. We find that these starbursts are indeed nearly if not fully proton calorimeters. For NGC 4945 and NGC 1068, the models are consistent with calorimetry but are less well-constrained due to the lack of TeV data. However, the Circinus galaxy and the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 exceed our pionic upper-limit; possible explanations are discussed.

  17. The radial velocities of planetary nebulae in NGC 3379

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardullo, Robin; Jacoby, George H.; Dejonghe, Herwig B.

    1993-09-01

    We present the results of a radial velocity survey of planetary nebulae (PNs) in the normal elliptical galaxy NGC 3379 performed with the Kitt Peak 4 m telescope and the NESSIE multifiber spectrograph. In two half-nights, we measured 29 PNs with projected galactocentric distances between 0.4 and 3.8 effective radii with an observational uncertainty of about 7 km/s. These data extend three times farther into the halo than any previous absorption-line velocity study. The velocity dispersion and photometric profile of the galaxy agrees extremely well with that expected from a constant mass-to-light ratio, isotropic orbit Jaffe model with M/L(B) about 7; the best-fitting anisotropic models from a quadratic programming algorithm also give M/L(B) about 7. The data are consistent with models that contain no dark matter within 3.5 effective radii of the galaxy's nucleus.

  18. The distribution of dark matter in galaxies. I. Models of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, G.; Feinswog, L.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of dark matter in galaxies is studied under the assumption of a constant mass-to-light ratio for the luminous components and an isothermal model for the halo. An analysis of 37 optical rotation curves for Sb and Sc galaxies and 16 H-I rotation curves have been performed in order to constrain the halo's core radius, r(c), and the asymptotic velocity, v(max). For the cases of the Scs NGC 2403, NGC 2903, and NGC 3198, limits of about 8 kpc for r(c) and about 170 km/s for v(max) are found. It is shown that high-quality data to 6.5-8 disk scale lengths is necessary to constrain the parameters. 24 refs

  19. HST IMAGING OF DUST STRUCTURES AND STARS IN THE RAM PRESSURE STRIPPED VIRGO SPIRALS NGC 4402 AND NGC 4522: STRIPPED FROM THE OUTSIDE IN WITH DENSE CLOUD DECOUPLING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, A.; Kenney, J.; Crowl, H.; Tal, T.

    2016-01-01

    We describe and constrain the origins of interstellar medium (ISM) structures likely created by ongoing intracluster medium (ICM) ram pressure stripping in two Virgo Cluster spirals, NGC 4522 and NGC 4402, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) BVI images of dust extinction and stars, as well as supplementary H i, H α , and radio continuum images. With a spatial resolution of ∼10 pc in the HST images, this is the highest-resolution study to date of the physical processes that occur during an ICM–ISM ram pressure stripping interaction, ram pressure stripping's effects on the multi-phase, multi-density ISM, and the formation and evolution of ram-pressure-stripped tails. In dust extinction, we view the leading side of NGC 4402 and the trailing side of NGC 4522, and so we see distinct types of features in both. In both galaxies, we identify some regions where dense clouds are decoupling or have decoupled and others where it appears that kiloparsec-sized sections of the ISM are moving coherently. NGC 4522 has experienced stronger, more recent pressure and has the “jellyfish” morphology characteristic of some ram-pressure-stripped galaxies. Its stripped tail extends up from the disk plane in continuous upturns of dust and stars curving up to ∼2 kpc above the disk plane. On the other side of the galaxy, there is a kinematically and morphologically distinct extraplanar arm of young, blue stars and ISM above a mostly stripped portion of the disk, and between it and the disk plane are decoupled dust clouds that have not been completely stripped. The leading side of NGC 4402 contains two kiloparsec-scale linear dust filaments with complex substructure that have partially decoupled from the surrounding ISM. NGC 4402 also contains long dust ridges, suggesting that large parts of the ISM are being pushed out at once. Both galaxies contain long ridges of polarized radio continuum emission indicating the presence of large-scale, ordered magnetic fields. We propose that

  20. The distribution of infrared point sources in nearby elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Shalima, P.; Misra, Ranjeev

    2018-02-01

    Infrared (IR) point sources as observed by Spitzer, in nearby early-type galaxies should either be bright sources in the galaxy such as globular clusters, or they may be background sources such as AGNs. These objects are often counterparts of sources in other wavebands such as optical and X-rays and the IR information provides crucial information regarding their nature. However, many of the IR sources may be background objects and it is important to identify them or at least quantify the level of background contamination. Moreover, the distribution of these IR point sources in flux, distance from the centre and colour would be useful in understanding their origin. Archival Spitzer IRAC images provide a unique opportunity for such a study and here we present the results of such an analysis for four nearby galaxies, NGC 1399, NGC 2768, NGC 4365 and NGC 4649. We estimate the background contamination using several blank fields. Our results suggest that IR colours can be effectively used to differentiate between sources in the galaxy and background ones. In particular we find that sources having AGN like colours are indeed consistent with being background AGNs. For sources with non AGN like colours we compute the distribution of flux and normalised distance from the centre which is found to be of a power-law form. Although our sample size is small, the power-law index for the galaxies are different indicating perhaps that the galaxy environment may be playing a part in their origin and nature.

  1. Temperature distribution of dust in luminous IRAS galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carico, David P.

    1989-01-01

    Work is currently in progress to obtain temperature distributions of dust in the most infrared-luminous galaxies. The results presented are of a preliminary nature, representing a zeroth-order approximation. The objects which have been analyzed so far are all galaxies from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) Bright Galaxy Sample with infrared luminosities L sub IR greater than or equal to 10(exp 11) solar luminosity. They are: Arp 220, Mrk 231, Mrk 273, NGC 1614, NGC 3690, NGC 6285/6, and Zw 049.057. The analysis utilized 3.7 micron data from the Palomar 5 m Hale telescope, IRAS data at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, and 1 mm continuum data from the CalTech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea.

  2. Temperature distribution of dust in luminous IRAS galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carico, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Work is currently in progress to obtain temperature distributions of dust in the most infrared-luminous galaxies. The results presented are of a preliminary nature, representing a zeroth-order approximation. The objects which have been analyzed so far are all galaxies from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) Bright Galaxy Sample with infrared luminosities L sub IR greater than or equal to 10(exp 11) solar luminosity. They are: Arp 220, Mrk 231, Mrk 273, NGC 1614, NGC 3690, NGC 6285/6, and Zw 049.057. The analysis utilized 3.7 micron data from the Palomar 5 m Hale telescope, IRAS data at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, and 1 mm continuum data from the CalTech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea

  3. Investigating early-type galaxy evolution with a multiwavelength approach. II. The UV structure of 11 galaxies with Swift-UVOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampazzo, R.; Mazzei, P.; Marino, A.; Uslenghi, M.; Trinchieri, G.; Wolter, A.

    2017-06-01

    Context. GALEX detected a significant fraction of early-type galaxies, in particular S0s, showing far-UV bright structures, sometimes involving an entire galaxy out to its outskirts. These features suggest the presence of either recent ongoing and/or prolonged star formation episodes, shedding new light on the evolution of these systems. Aims: We aim at understanding the evolutionary path[s] of these early-type galaxies and the mechanisms at the origin of their UV-bright structures. We investigate with a multiwavelength approach the link between the inner and outer galaxy regions of a set of 11 early-type galaxies that were selected because of their nearly passive stage of evolution in the nuclear region. Methods: This paper, second of a series, focuses on the information coming from the comparison between UV features detected by Swift-UVOT, which trace recent star formation, and the galaxy optical structure, which maps older stellar populations. We performed a surface photometric study of these early-type galaxies, observed with the Swift-UVOT UV filters W2 2030 Å λ0, M2 2231 Å λ0, W1 2634 Å λ0 and the UBV bands. BVRI photometry from other sources in the literature was also used. Our integrated magnitude measurements were analyzed and compared with corresponding values in the literature. We characterize the overall galaxy structure that best fits the UV and optical luminosity profiles using a single Sérsic law. Results: The galaxies NGC 1366, NGC 1426, NGC 3818, NGC 3962, and NGC 7192 show featureless luminosity profiles. Excluding NGC 1366, which has a clear edge-on disk (n ≈ 1-2), and NGC 3818, the remaining three galaxies have Sérsic's indices n ≈ 3-4 in the optical and a lower index in the UV. Bright ring- or arm-like structures are revealed by UV images and luminosity profiles of NGC 1415, NGC 1533, NGC 1543, NGC 2685, NGC 2974, and IC 2006. The ring- or arm-like structures differ from galaxy to galaxy. Sérsic indices of UV profiles for these

  4. Early-type galaxies with extended HI reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan Meyer, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    I will present observations of NGC 404 and ESO 381-47, both early-type galaxies known for hosting extended HI rings and recent star formation in their outskirts. Thanks to the Green Bank Telescope, an instrument uniquely suited to observing diffuse, low column density HI around nearby galaxies, we report new measurements of the extent of the disk around NGC 404 as well as the presence of a large, coherent HI filament which appears to be accreting onto the ring surrounding the galaxy. We compare the environments of the two systems and interpret the potential utility of such gas-bearing field early-type galaxies as tracers of galaxy accretion and growth.

  5. Surface photometry and mass distributions of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, C.P.

    1979-01-01

    U, B, V and R surface photometry is presented for the two luminosity class I-II galaxies NGC 1084 and 7331. The reduced profiles of both galaxies have well-defined outer components similar to that described in an earlier paper for NGC 157. The radial variation of M/L has been studied by extrapolating the observed rotation curves. The gross structure and detailed colour and M/L variations for both galaxies are described in terms of the density wave theory of spiral structure, which implies that the rotation curves are not flat at large radii. The outer components of both galaxies are too luminous to form conventional massive haloes. In both galaxies the total luminosity exceeds that expected from their luminosity class. (author)

  6. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Agüero, M. P. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and CONICET (Argentina); Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M. [Gemini Observatory, AURA (United States); Bosch, G., E-mail: gunth@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: camperi@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mpaguero@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu, E-mail: pgomez@gemini.edu, E-mail: mschirmer@gemini.edu, E-mail: guille@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CONICET-UNLP) (Argentina)

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  7. Detections of hard X-ray emissions from bright early-type galaxies with ASCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, K.; Makishima, K.; Awaki, H.; Canizares, C. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Loewenstein, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Mihara, T.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    Five bright elliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster, NGC 4365, NGC 4374 (M84), NGC 4406 (M86), NGC 4472 (M49), and NGC 4636, were observed with ASCA. In addition to the extended thermal X-ray emission of temperature kT approximately 1 keV, harder X-rays with color temperature kT greater than or equal to 2 keV were detected from all of them. The 2-10 keV luminosities of this hard component for the five galaxies, integrated within 5 min, are distributed within a relatively narrow range of (1-4) x 10(exp 40) ergs/s. The hard X-ray component is primarily attributed to the integrated emission from discrete X-ray sources. In NGC 4406 and NGC 4374 the data indicate that the hard component is contributed additionally by foreground/background emission from the hot intracluster medium (ICM) of the Virgo Cluster. The hard component of NGC 4472 seems also contributed by the Virgo ICM emission, but in this case there is evidence that the ICM brightness is locally enhanced within approximately 10 min of NGC 4472.

  8. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-21

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day 'dormant' descendants of this population of 'active' black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall--the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600--a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes.

  9. Environmental Effects on the Metallicities of Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christine; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    We completed and published two papers in the Astrophysical Journal based on research from grant. In the first paper we analyzed nine X-ray-bright Virgo early-type galaxies observed by both ASCA and ROSAT. Through spatially resolved spectroscopy, we determined the radial temperature profiles and abundances of Mg, Si, and Fe for six galaxies. The temperature profiles are consistent with isothermal temperatures outside of cooler regions at the galaxies' centers. We present new evidence for iron abundance gradients in NGC 4472 and NGC 4649 and confirm the previous results on NGC 4636. Mg and Si abundance gradients on average are flatter than those of iron and correspond to an underabundance of α-process elements at high Fe values, while at low iron the element ratios favor enrichment by Type II supernovae (SNe). We explain the observed trend using the metallicity dependence of SN Ia metal production and present constraints on the available theoretical modeling for low-metallicity inhibition of SNe Ia. In the second paper We analyzed nine X-ray-bright Virgo early-type galaxies observed by both ASCA and ROSAT. Through spatially resolved spectroscopy, we determined the radial temperature profiles and abundances of Mg, Si, and Fe for six galaxies. The temperature profiles are consistent with isothermal temperatures outside of cooler regions at the galaxies' centers. We present new evidence for iron abundance gradients in NGC 4472 and NGC 4649 and confirm the previous results on NGC 4636. Mg and Si abundance gradients on average are flatter than those of iron and correspond to an underabundance of α-process elements at high Fe values, while at low iron the element ratios favor enrichment by Type I1 supernovae (SNe). We explain the observed trend using the metallicity dependence of SN Ia metal production and present constraints on the available theoretical modeling for low-metallicity inhibition of SNe Ia.

  10. The Obscuring Starburst of NGC 6221 and Implications for the Hard X-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, N. A.; CidFernandes, R., Jr.; Weaver, K. A.; Heckman, T. M.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present NGC 6221 as a case study of "X-ray-loud composite galaxies," which appear similar to starbursts at optical wavelengths and resemble traditional active galactic nuclei in X-rays. The net optical spectrum of NGC 6221 is properly characterized as a starburst galaxy, but in X-rays, NGC 6221 is similar to Seyfert 1 galaxies, exhibiting a power-law continuum spectrum, a broad Fe K(alpha) line, and continuum variability on timescales of days and years. High-resolution images reveal that the detected active nucleus is relatively weak, not only at optical, but also at near-infrared wavelengths. An obscuring starburst, in which the interstellar gas and dust associated with the starburst conceal the active nucleus, accounts for these peculiar features. We demonstrate quantitatively that obscuration by column density N(sub H) = 10(exp 22)/sq cm combined with relatively weak intrinsic nuclear activity can produce an optical spectrum that is characteristic of the surrounding starburst alone. While optical surveys would not identify the active nuclei that make these galaxies significant X-ray sources, such galaxies may, in fact, be important contributors to the X-ray background.

  11. The Velocity Field of the Globular Cluster System in NGC 5128 (Cen A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William; Woodley, Kristin; Geisler, Doug; Gomez, Matias; Harris, Gretchen

    2007-02-01

    We propose to carry out a comprehensive new dynamical study of the globular cluster system of NGC 5128 (Centaurus A), the nearest giant E galaxy. A key component of our proposal is a completely new catalog of globular cluster candidates that we have generated from a wide-field (1.4 sq deg) R-band imaging survey of NGC 5128 taken April 2006 with Magellan/IMACS under remarkable 0.45" seeing. We have used this new imaging survey to isolate a list of GC candidates that is far more precise, complete, and contamination-free than in any previous work. As spectroscopic followup, we will use the CTIO 4m + Hydra to measure velocities for 800 new GC candidates, of which 400 or more should be bona fide clusters. Our new data will double the known NGC 5128 GC sample and will eliminate the spatial biases inherent in all previous studies of this unique system. More importantly, the large new velocity database will be the springboard for a superior dynamical analysis of the galaxy and the halo velocity field. This work will allow us to define later programs aimed at detailed abundance and age distribution profiles for the system, and systematic trends with metallicity, that will closely connect with galaxy formation models. In addition, our GC database will rank among the largest ever assembled for a single galaxy, not only enabling us to test galaxy formation models but also providing a benchmark dataset in globular cluster research.

  12. Mrk 71/NGC 2366: The Nearest Green Pea Analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheva, Genoveva; Oey, M. S. [University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Jaskot, Anne E. [Department of Astronomy, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); James, Bethan L. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We present the remarkable discovery that the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 2366 is an excellent analog of the Green Pea (GP) galaxies, which are characterized by extremely high ionization parameters. The similarities are driven predominantly by the giant H ii region Markarian 71 (Mrk 71). We compare the system with GPs in terms of morphology, excitation properties, specific star-formation rate, kinematics, absorption of low-ionization species, reddening, and chemical abundance, and find consistencies throughout. Since extreme GPs are associated with both candidate and confirmed Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters, Mrk 71/NGC 2366 is thus also a good candidate for LyC escape. The spatially resolved data for this object show a superbubble blowout generated by mechanical feedback from one of its two super star clusters (SSCs), Knot B, while the extreme ionization properties are driven by the ≲1 Myr-old, enshrouded SSC Knot A, which has ∼10 times higher ionizing luminosity. Very massive stars (>100 M {sub ⊙}) may be present in this remarkable object. Ionization-parameter mapping indicates that the blowout region is optically thin in the LyC, and the general properties also suggest LyC escape in the line of sight. Mrk 71/NGC 2366 does differ from GPs in that it is one to two orders of magnitude less luminous. The presence of this faint GP analog and candidate LyC emitter (LCE) so close to us suggests that LCEs may be numerous and commonplace, and therefore could significantly contribute to the cosmic ionizing budget. Mrk 71/NGC 2366 offers an unprecedentedly detailed look at the viscera of a candidate LCE, and could clarify the mechanisms of LyC escape.

  13. SEARCH FOR RED DWARF STARS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Left A NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of a small region (1.4 light-years across) in the globular star cluster NGC 6397. Simulated stars (diamonds) have been added to this view of the same region of the cluster to illustrate what astronomers would have expected to see if faint red dwarf stars were abundant in the Milky Way Galaxy. The field would then contain 500 stars, according to theoretical calculations. Right The unmodified HST image shows far fewer stars than would be expected, according to popular theories of star formation. HST resolves about 200 stars. The stellar density is so low that HST can literally see right through the cluster and resolve far more distant background galaxies. From this observation, scientists have identified the surprising cutoff point below which nature apparently doesn't make many stars smaller that 1/5 the mass of our Sun. These HST findings provide new insights into star formation in our Galaxy. Technical detail:The globular cluster NGC 6397, one of the nearest and densest agglomerations of stars, is located 7,200 light-years away in the southern constellation Ara. This visible-light picture was taken on March 3, 1994 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, as part the HST parallel observing program. Credit: F. Paresce, ST ScI and ESA and NASA

  14. Spectroscopic decomposition of NGC 3521: unveiling the properties of the bulge and disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccato, Lodovico; Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Saglia, Roberto P.; Bender, Ralf; Erwin, Peter; Drory, Niv; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2018-03-01

    We study the kinematics and the stellar populations of the bulge and disc of the spiral galaxy NGC 3521. At each position in the field of view, we separate the contributions of the bulge and the disc from the total observed spectrum and study their kinematics, age, and metallicities independently. Their properties are clearly distinct: the bulge rotates more slowly, has a higher velocity dispersion, and is less luminous than the disc. We identify three main populations of stars in NGC 3521: old (≥7 Gyr), intermediate (≈ 3 Gyr), and young (≤1 Gyr). The mass and light of NGC 3521 are dominated by the intermediate stellar population. The youngest population contributes mostly to the disc component and its contribution increases with radius. We also study the luminosity-weighed properties of the stars in NGC 3521. Along the photometric major axis, we find: i) no age gradient for the stars in the bulge, and a negative age gradient for the stars in the disc; ii) negative metallicity gradients and sub-solar α-enhancement for both the bulge and the disc. We propose the following picture for the formation of NGC 3521: initial formation a long time ago (≥7 Gyr), followed by a second burst of star formation or a merger (≈ 3 Gyrs ago), which contributed predominantly to the mass-build up of the bulge. Recently (≤1 Gyr), the disc of NGC 3521 experienced an additional episode of star formation that started in the innermost regions.

  15. Infrared studies of Seyfert galaxies and of the irregular galaxy M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Espinosa, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Middle and far infrared studies of the irregular galaxy M82 and of Seyfert galaxies are presented. M 82 was observed spectrophotometrically from 8 to 13 microns at 6 different positions selected across its 10μm emitting region. The observations show that the mid-IR emitting region is fairly homogeneous and that similar physical processes are responsible for the emission observed throughout the central region of M82. A model is proposed to explain the 8 to 13μm spectrum of M82. A model accumulates 10 5 orion units in the central region of M82. The proposed model explains satisfactorily most of the observed properties of M82 from x-ray to radio wavelengths. It is also suggested that a similar model may be applied to other active nuclei, like the emission line galaxy NGC 1614 and the classical Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469. For Seyfert galaxies, the dat analyzed are drawn from the recently released IRAS catalog. It is found that Seyfert galaxies are strong far infrared sources but, unlike the near and mid-IR emission from these sources, the far-IR emission does not appear to be produced by the active nucleus. Rather it is shown that the observed far-IR properties of Seyfert galaxies are consistent with their far-IR emission being produced in intense episodes of star formation taking place in or near the central regions of these galaxies

  16. The SAURON project - XX. The Spitzer [3.6] - [4.5] colour in early-type galaxies : colours, colour gradients and inverted scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.; Kutdemir, Elif; van der Wolk, Guido; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Bacon, Roland; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Shapiro, Kristen L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    We investigate the [3.6]-[4.5] Spitzer-IRAC colour behaviour of the early-type galaxies of the SAURON survey, a representative sample of 48 nearby ellipticals and lenticulars. We investigate how this colour, which is unaffected by dust extinction, can be used to constrain the stellar populations in

  17. Chandra Observations of Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, Andrea; Lavoie, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We present early X-ray results from Chandra for two starburst galaxies, M82 and NGC3256, obtained using AXAF CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-I) and the HRC. For M82 the arcsecond spatial resolution enables us to separate the point source component from the extended emission for the first time. Astrometry reveals that most of the X-ray sources are not coincident with the family of compact radio sources believed to be Super Nova Remnants (SNRs). In addition, based on three epoch Chandra observations, several of the X-ray sources are clearly variable indicating that they are binaries. When we deconvolve the extended and point source components detected in the hard X-ray band, we find that 50 percent arises from the extended component. This fact, together with its morphology, constrains the various models proposed to explain the hard X-ray emission. For NGC3256 we resolve two closely separated nuclei. These new data support a pure starburst origin for the total X-ray emission rather than a composite AGN/starburst, thereby making NGC3256 one of the most X-ray luminous starburst galaxies known.

  18. CENSUS OF SELF-OBSCURED MASSIVE STARS IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER: IMPLICATIONS FOR UNDERSTANDING THE PROGENITORS OF SN 2008S-LIKE TRANSIENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Rubab; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Thompson, Todd A.; Beacom, J. F.; Prieto, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    A new link in the causal mapping between massive stars and potentially fatal explosive transients opened with the 2008 discovery of the dust-obscured progenitors of the luminous outbursts in NGC 6946 and NGC 300. Here, we carry out a systematic mid-IR photometric search for massive, luminous, and self-obscured stars in four nearby galaxies: M33, NGC 300, M81, and NGC 6946. For detection, we use only the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm IRAC bands, as these can still be used for multi-epoch Spitzer surveys of nearby galaxies (∼<10 Mpc). We combine familiar point-spread function and aperture photometry with an innovative application of image subtraction to catalog the self-obscured massive stars in these galaxies. In particular, we verify that stars analogous to the progenitors of the NGC 6946 (SN 2008S) and NGC 300 transients are truly rare in all four galaxies: their number may be as low as ∼1 per galaxy at any given moment. This result empirically supports the idea that the dust-enshrouded phase is a very short lived phenomenon in the lives of many massive stars and that these objects constitute a natural extension of the asymptotic giant branch sequence. We also provide mid-IR catalogs of sources in NGC 300, M81, and NGC 6946.

  19. Evolution of the Outflows in NGC 3516

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jay P.; Parvaresh, Rozhin; Kraemer, S. B.; Crenshaw, D. Michael

    2018-02-01

    We analyze the 2011 HST/COS spectrum of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516, which demonstrates clear changes in one of the intrinsic absorption troughs (component 5), slight evidence of change in a second trough (component 6), and the appearance of a new absorption trough (component 9). We interpret both the changes and the appearance of the new trough as bulk motion across the line of sight. The implied lower limit on the transverse velocity of component 5 is 360 km s‑1, compared to the earlier 2001 HST/STIS spectrum, while the lower limits for components 6 and 9 are 920 km s‑1, based on 2009 FUSE data. Component 5 also exhibits a shift in velocity centroid. This is only the second known case of this behavior in a Seyfert galaxy. Due to the high quality of the HST/COS spectrum, we identify a previously undetected trough due to an excited state of Si II for component 1. In combination with the resonance trough of Si II and photoionization modeling, we directly determine the distance of the component 1 outflow to be 67.2 pc.

  20. Dust and PAH emission in the star-forming active nucleus of NGC 1097

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, R. E.; Levenson, N. A.; Packham, C.; Elitzur, M.; Radomski, J.; Petric, A. O.; Wright, G. S.

    2007-01-01

    The nucleus of the nearby galaxy, NGC 1097, is known to host a young, compact (r < 9 parsec) nuclear star cluster as well as a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN). It has been suggested both that the nuclear stellar cluster is associated with a dusty torus, and that low-luminosity AGN like NGC 1097 do not have the torus predicted by the unified model of AGN. To investigate these contradictory possibilities we have acquired Gemini/T-ReCS 11.7 micron and 18.3 micron images of the centr...

  1. The Luminosity Functions of Old and Intermediate-Age Globular Clusters in NGC 3610

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmore, B. C.; Schweizer, F.; Kundu, A.; Miller, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    The WFPC2 Camera on board HST has been used to obtain high-resolution images of NGC 3610, a dynamically young elliptical galaxy. These observations supersede shorter, undithered HST observations where an intermediate-age population of globular clusters was first discovered. The new observations show the bimodal color distribution of globular clusters more clearly, with peaks at (V-I)o = 0.95 and 1.17. The luminosity function (LF) of the blue, metal-poor population of clusters in NGC 3610 turn...

  2. Axial growth and changes in lenticular and corneal power during emmetropization in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Donald O; Mitchell, G Lynn; Jones, Lisa A; Friedman, Nina E; Frane, Sara L; Lin, Wendy K; Moeschberger, Melvin L; Zadnik, Karla

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate the contribution made by the ocular components to the emmetropization of spherical equivalent refractive error in human infants between 3 and 9 months of age. Keratophakometry in two meridians was performed on 222 normal-birthweight infant subjects at 3 and 9 months of age. The spherical equivalent refractive error was measured by cycloplegic retinoscopy (cyclopentolate 1%). Anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and vitreous chamber depth were measured by A-scan ultrasonography over the closed eyelid. Both the mean and SD for spherical equivalent refractive error decreased between 3 and 9 months of age (+2.16 +/- 1.30 D at 3 months; +1.36 +/- 1.06 D at 9 months; P < 0.0001, for the change in both mean and SD). Average ocular component change was characterized by increases in axial length, thinning, and flattening of the crystalline lens, increases in lens equivalent refractive index, and decreases in lens and corneal power. Initial refractive error was associated in a nonlinear manner with the change in refractive error (R(2) = 0.41; P < 0.0001) and with axial growth (R(2) = 0.082; P = 0.0005). Reduction in hyperopia correlated significantly with increases in axial length (R(2) = 0.16; P < 0.0001), but not with changes in corneal and lenticular power. Decreases in lenticular and corneal power were associated with axial elongation (R(2) = 0.40, R(2) = 0.12, respectively; both P < 0.0001). Modulation in the amount of axial growth in relation to initial refractive error appeared to be the most influential factor in emmetropization of spherical equivalent refractive error. The associations between initial refractive error, subsequent axial growth, and change in refractive error were consistent with a visual basis for emmetropization. The cornea and crystalline lens lost substantial amounts of dioptric power in this phase of growth, but neither appeared to play a significant role in emmetropization.

  3. Septic implantation syndrome in dogs and cats: a distinct pattern of endophthalmitis with lenticular abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Cynthia M; Pot, Simon A; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2013-05-01

    To summarize the clinical and pathologic findings in a group of dogs and cats with progressive clinical ocular disease, which were diagnosed with suppurative endophthalmitis and lens capsule rupture. Twenty cats and forty-six dogs that underwent unilateral enucleation or evisceration for intractable uveitis and/or glaucoma. Biopsy submission requests and microscopic case material were evaluated for clinical and histological features, including history of ocular trauma, duration of ocular disease, pattern of inflammation, and the presence of intralenticular microorganisms. The median duration for cats and dogs was 6 and 5 weeks, respectively. A history of trauma was reported for four (20%) cats and 18 (39%) dogs. All confirmed cases of trauma-three in cats and 14 in dogs-were caused by a cat scratch. Microscopically, all cases had suppurative endophthalmitis centered on the lens, lens capsule rupture, cataract, and lenticular abscess. Infectious organisms were identified by Gram stain within the lens of 14 (70%) cats and 30 (65%) dogs. Gram-positive cocci were seen most commonly. Male cats were overrepresented as compared to females. There were no apparent gender, age or breed predilections in dogs. A unique pattern of slowly progressive or delayed-onset endophthalmitis with lens capsule rupture, lenticular abscess, and frequently intralenticular microorganisms is associated with traumatic penetration of the globe and lens capsule. The term Septic Implantation Syndrome (SIS) is favored in lieu of 'phacoclastic uveitis' to avoid confusion with phacolytic uveitis and to clearly implicate the role of intralenticular microorganisms in the pathogenesis. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  4. A REVISED PARALLEL-SEQUENCE MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF GALAXIES: STRUCTURE AND FORMATION OF S0 AND SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    We update van den Bergh's parallel-sequence galaxy classification in which S0 galaxies form a sequence S0a-S0b-S0c that parallels the sequence Sa-Sb-Sc of spiral galaxies. The ratio B/T of bulge-to-total light defines the position of a galaxy in this tuning-fork diagram. Our classification makes one major improvement. We extend the S0a-S0b-S0c sequence to spheroidal ('Sph') galaxies that are positioned in parallel to irregular galaxies in a similarly extended Sa-Sb-Sc-Im sequence. This provides a natural 'home' for spheroidals, which previously were omitted from galaxy classification schemes or inappropriately combined with ellipticals. To motivate our juxtaposition of Sph and Im galaxies, we present photometry and bulge-disk decompositions of four rare, late-type S0s that bridge the gap between the more common S0b and Sph galaxies. NGC 4762 is an edge-on SB0bc galaxy with a very small classical-bulge-to-total ratio of B/T = 0.13 ± 0.02. NGC 4452 is an edge-on SB0 galaxy with an even tinier pseudobulge-to-total ratio of PB/T = 0.017 ± 0.004. It is therefore an SB0c. VCC 2048, whose published classification is S0, contains an edge-on disk, but its 'bulge' plots in the structural parameter sequence of spheroidals. It is therefore a disky Sph. And NGC 4638 is similarly a 'missing link' between S0s and Sphs—it has a tiny bulge and an edge-on disk embedded in an Sph halo. In the Appendix, we present photometry and bulge-disk decompositions of all Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys Virgo Cluster Survey S0s that do not have published decompositions. We use these data to update the structural parameter correlations of Sph, S+Im, and E galaxies. We show that Sph galaxies of increasing luminosity form a continuous sequence with the disks (but not bulges) of S0c-S0b-S0a galaxies. Remarkably, the Sph-S0-disk sequence is almost identical to that of Im galaxies and spiral galaxy disks. We review published observations for galaxy transformation processes

  5. A Revised Parallel-sequence Morphological Classification of Galaxies: Structure and Formation of S0 and Spheroidal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    We update van den Bergh's parallel-sequence galaxy classification in which S0 galaxies form a sequence S0a-S0b-S0c that parallels the sequence Sa-Sb-Sc of spiral galaxies. The ratio B/T of bulge-to-total light defines the position of a galaxy in this tuning-fork diagram. Our classification makes one major improvement. We extend the S0a-S0b-S0c sequence to spheroidal ("Sph") galaxies that are positioned in parallel to irregular galaxies in a similarly extended Sa-Sb-Sc-Im sequence. This provides a natural "home" for spheroidals, which previously were omitted from galaxy classification schemes or inappropriately combined with ellipticals. To motivate our juxtaposition of Sph and Im galaxies, we present photometry and bulge-disk decompositions of four rare, late-type S0s that bridge the gap between the more common S0b and Sph galaxies. NGC 4762 is an edge-on SB0bc galaxy with a very small classical-bulge-to-total ratio of B/T = 0.13 ± 0.02. NGC 4452 is an edge-on SB0 galaxy with an even tinier pseudobulge-to-total ratio of PB/T = 0.017 ± 0.004. It is therefore an SB0c. VCC 2048, whose published classification is S0, contains an edge-on disk, but its "bulge" plots in the structural parameter sequence of spheroidals. It is therefore a disky Sph. And NGC 4638 is similarly a "missing link" between S0s and Sphs—it has a tiny bulge and an edge-on disk embedded in an Sph halo. In the Appendix, we present photometry and bulge-disk decompositions of all Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys Virgo Cluster Survey S0s that do not have published decompositions. We use these data to update the structural parameter correlations of Sph, S+Im, and E galaxies. We show that Sph galaxies of increasing luminosity form a continuous sequence with the disks (but not bulges) of S0c-S0b-S0a galaxies. Remarkably, the Sph-S0-disk sequence is almost identical to that of Im galaxies and spiral galaxy disks. We review published observations for galaxy transformation processes

  6. The Ancient Star Forming Disk of NGC 404

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Gilbert, K. M.; Stilp, A.; Dolphin, A.; Seth, A. C.; Weisz, D.; Skillman, E.

    2010-05-01

    We present HST/WFPC2 resolved stellar photometry across the disk of the nearby dwarf S0 galaxy NGC 404, which hosts an extended gas disk. The locations of our fields contain a roughly equal mixture of bulge and disk stars. Detailed modeling of the color-magnitude diagrams suggests that 70% of the stellar mass in the NGC 404 disk formed by z 2 (10 Gyr ago) and at least 90% formed prior to z 1 (8 Gyr ago). These results indicate that the stellar populations of the NGC 404 disk are on average significantly older than those of other nearby disk galaxies, suggesting that early and late type disks may have different long-term evolutionary histories, not simply differences in their current and recent star formation rates. Comparisons of the spatial distribution of the young stellar mass and FUV emission in GALEX images show that the brightest FUV regions contain the youngest stellar mass, but some young stars (law. However, 0.5-1 Gyr ago, the star formation rate was unusually low for the inferred gas density, consistent with the possibility that there was a gas accretion event that reignited star formation 0.5 Gyr ago. Such an event could explain why this dwarf S0 galaxy hosts an extended gas disk. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grants GO-10915 and GO-11719 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  7. REVISITING THE FOSSIL GROUP CANDIDATES UGC 842 AND NGC 6034

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Oliveira, R. Lopes; De Oliveira, C. Mendes; Bortoletto, D. R.; Cypriano, E.; Sodre, L.; Neto, G B. Lima; Carrasco, E. R.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new insight on NGC 6034 and UGC 842, two groups of galaxies previously reported in the literature as being fossil groups. The study is based on optical photometry and spectroscopy obtained with the CTIO Blanco telescope and Sloan Digital Sky Survey archival data. We find that NGC 6034 is embedded in a large structure, dominated by three rich clusters and other small groups. Its first and next four ranked galaxies have magnitude differences in the r band and projected distances which violate the optical criteria to classify it as a fossil group. We confirm that the UGC 842 group is a fossil group, but with about half the velocity dispersion that is reported in previous works. The velocity distribution of its galaxies reveals the existence of two structures in its line of sight, one with σ v ∼ 223 km s -1 and another with σ v ∼ 235 km s -1 , with a difference in velocity of ∼820 km s -1 . The main structure is dominated by passive galaxies, while these represent ∼60% of the second structure. The X-ray temperature for the intragroup medium of a group with such a velocity dispersion is expected to be kT ∼0.5-1 keV, against the observed value of kT ∼1.9 keV reported in the literature. This result makes UGC 842 a special case among fossil groups because (1) it represents more likely the interaction between two small groups, which warms the intragroup medium and/or (2) it could constitute evidence that member galaxies lost energy in the process of spiraling toward the group center, and decreased the velocity dispersion of the system. As far as we know, UGC 842 is the first low-mass fossil group studied in detail.

  8. Anisotropy in Dynamical Models of Elliptical Galaxy Dark Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestell, Amy; Gebhardt, K.

    2013-07-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): We discuss the orbital anisotropy results of axisymmetric orbit-superposition dynamical models of elliptical galaxies NGC 821 and NGC 4697. For NGC 821 stellar kinematics are used to determine the best-fitted dark halo (Forestell 2010), then we determine the orbital properties required for planetary nebulae to match the observed kinematic data (Romanowsky et al. 2003) in that assumed dark halo. For NGC 4697 we use both stellar and planetary nebula kinematics (Pinkney et al. 2003, Mendez et al. 2009) to model the galaxy dark halo. In both galaxies we find that the planetary nebulae, which are located at large radii, show radial anisotropy. This is consistent with the results of Dekel et al. (2005), who use disk galaxy merger simulations to show that large anisotropies can be created in the resulting elliptical galaxies and that this anisotropy in combination with the different density profile of a young population could explain how the low dispersions from planetary nebulae measurements are also consistent with typical dark matter halos.

  9. Centaurus A galaxy, type EO peculiar elliptical, also radio source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Centaurus A galaxy, type EO peculiar elliptical, also radio source. CTIO 4-meter telescope, 1975. NGC 5128, a Type EO peculiar elliptical galaxy in the constellation Centaurus. This galaxy is one of the most luminous and massive galaxies known and is a strong source of both radio and X-ray radiation. Current theories suggest that the nucleus is experiencing giant explosions involving millions of stars and that the dark band across the galactic disk is material being ejected outward. Cerro Toloto 4-meter telescope photo. Photo credit: National Optical Astronomy Observatories

  10. Hubble Space Telescope ACS wide-field photometry of the sombrero galaxy globular cluster system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitler, L.; Larsen, S.S.; Strader, J.; Brodie, J.P.; Forbes, D.A.; Beasley, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    A detailed imaging analysis of the globular cluster (GC) system of the Sombrero galaxy (NGC 4594) has been accomplished using a six-image mosaic from the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. The quality of the data is such that contamination by foreground stars and background galaxies

  11. The structure of dark and luminous matter in early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we explore new techniques to study the dark and luminous matter in the outskirts of galaxies. To determine the mass and shape of the dark matter halo around the early-type galaxy NGC 2974, we measure the kinematics of its large neutral gas ring. We combine these large-scale kinematics

  12. A Hard X-Ray Study of the Normal Star-Forming Galaxy M83 with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yukita, M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lehmer, B. D.

    2016-01-01

    , including a previously discovered ultraluminous X-ray source, are detected in our NuSTAR observations. The X-ray hardnesses and luminosities of the majority of the point sources are consistent with hard X-ray sources resolved in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. We infer that the hard X-ray emission is most...... XLF in NGC 253, which is consistent with previous measurements by Chandra at softer X-ray energies. The NuSTAR integrated galaxy spectrum of M83 drops quickly above 10 keV, which is also seen in the starburst galaxies NGC 253, NGC 3310, and NGC 3256. The NuSTAR observations constrain any active...

  13. The galaxy population of Abell 1367: the stellar mass-metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouhcine, M.; Kriwattanawong, W.; James, P. A.

    2011-04-01

    Using wide baseline broad-band photometry, we analyse the stellar population properties of a sample of 72 galaxies, spanning a wide range of stellar masses and morphological types, in the nearby spiral-rich and dynamically young galaxy cluster Abell 1367. The sample galaxies are distributed from the cluster centre out to approximately half the cluster Abell radius. The optical/near-infrared colours are compared with simple stellar population synthesis models from which the luminosity-weighted stellar population ages and metallicities are determined. The locus of the colours of elliptical galaxies traces a sequence of varying metallicity at a narrow range of luminosity-weighted stellar ages. Lenticular galaxies in the red sequence, however, exhibit a substantial spread of luminosity-weighted stellar metallicities and ages. For red-sequence lenticular galaxies and blue cloud galaxies, low-mass galaxies tend to be on average dominated by stellar populations of younger luminosity-weighted ages. Sample galaxies exhibit a strong correlation between integrated stellar mass and luminosity-weighted stellar metallicity. Galaxies with signs of morphological disturbance and ongoing star formation activity, tend to be underabundant with respect to passive galaxies in the red sequence of comparable stellar masses. We argue that this could be due to tidally driven gas flows towards the star-forming regions, carrying less enriched gas and diluting the pre-existing gas to produce younger stellar populations with lower metallicities than would be obtained prior to the interaction. Finally, we find no statistically significant evidence for changes in the luminosity-weighted ages and metallicities for either red-sequence or blue-cloud galaxies, at fixed stellar mass, with location within the cluster. We dedicate this work to the memory of our friend and colleague C. Moss who died suddenly recently.

  14. Asteroseismic inferences on red giants in open clusters NGC 6791, NGC 6819, and NGC 6811 using Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hekker, S.; Basu, S.; Stello, D.

    2011-01-01

    and metallicity contribute to the observed difference in locations in the H-R diagram of the old metal-rich cluster NGC 6791 and the middle-aged solar-metallicity cluster NGC 6819. For the young cluster NGC 6811, the explanation of the position of the stars in the H-R diagram challenges the assumption of solar...

  15. Asteroseismology of the Open Clusters NGC 6791, NGC 6811, and NGC 6819 from 19 Months of Kepler Photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsaro, Enrico; Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We studied solar-like oscillations in 115 red giants in the three open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6811, and NGC 6819, based on photometric data covering more than 19 months with NASA's Kepler space telescope. We present the asteroseismic diagrams of the asymptotic parameters δν02, δν01, and ϵ, which...

  16. VISTA Views the Sculptor Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    A spectacular new image of the Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253) has been taken with the ESO VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile as part of one of its first major observational campaigns. By observing in infrared light VISTA's view is less affected by dust and reveals a myriad of cooler stars as well as a prominent bar of stars across the central region. The VISTA image provides much new information on the history and development of the galaxy. The Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253) lies in the constellation of the same name and is one of the brightest galaxies in the sky. It is prominent enough to be seen with good binoculars and was discovered by Caroline Herschel from England in 1783. NGC 253 is a spiral galaxy that lies about 13 million light-years away. It is the brightest member of a small collection of galaxies called the Sculptor Group, one of the closest such groupings to our own Local Group of galaxies. Part of its visual prominence comes from its status as a starburst galaxy, one in the throes of rapid star formation. NGC 253 is also very dusty, which obscures the view of many parts of the galaxy (eso0902). Seen from Earth, the galaxy is almost edge on, with the spiral arms clearly visible in the outer parts, along with a bright core at its centre. VISTA, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope. After being handed over to ESO at the end of 2009 (eso0949) the telescope was used for two detailed studies of small sections of the sky before it embarked on the much larger surveys that are now in progress. One of these "mini surveys" was a detailed study of NGC 253 and its environment. As VISTA works at infrared wavelengths it can see right through most of the dust that is such a prominent feature of the Sculptor Galaxy when viewed in visible light. Huge numbers of cooler stars that are barely detectable with visible

  17. The multiwavelength spectrum of NGC 3115: hot accretion flow properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ivan; Nemmen, Rodrigo; Wong, Ka-Wah; Wu, Qingwen; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2018-04-01

    NGC 3115 is the nearest galaxy hosting a billion solar mass black hole and is also a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN). X-ray observations of this LLAGN are able to spatially resolve the hot gas within the sphere of gravitational influence of the supermassive black hole. These observations make NGC 3115 an important test bed for black hole accretion theory in galactic nuclei since they constrain the outer boundary conditions of the hot accretion flow. We present a compilation of the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) of the nucleus of NGC 3115 from radio to X-rays. We report the results from modelling the observed SED with radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) models. The radio emission can be well-explained by synchrotron emission from the RIAF without the need for contribution from a relativistic jet. We obtain a tight constraint on the RIAF density profile, ρ (r) ∝ r^{-0.73 _{-0.02} ^{+0.01}}, implying that mass-loss through subrelativistic outflows from the RIAF is significant. The lower frequency radio observation requires the synchrotron emission from a non-thermal electron population in the RIAF, similarly to Sgr A*.

  18. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of NGC 1365: Extreme absorption variability and a constant inner accretion disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Risaliti, G.; Harrison, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a spectral analysis of four coordinated NuSTAR+XMM-Newton observations of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1365. These exhibit an extreme level of spectral variability, which is primarily due to variable line-of-sight absorption, revealing relatively unobscured states in this source for the first...

  19. Molecular line emission in NGC 1068 imaged with ALMA : I. An AGN-driven outflow in the dense molecular gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Usero, A.; Aalto, S.; Krips, M.; Viti, S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hunt, L. K.; Schinnerer, E.; Baker, A. J.; Boone, F.; Casasola, V.; Colina, L.; Costagliola, F.; Eckart, A.; Fuente, A.; Henkel, C.; Labiano, A.; Martín, S.; Márquez, I.; Muller, S.; Planesas, P.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Spaans, M.; Tacconi, L. J.; van der Werf, P. P.

    Aims: We investigate the fueling and the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity in NGC 1068, a nearby (D = 14 Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy, by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the disk. We aim to understand if and how gas accretion can self-regulate.

  20. Radial gradients in initial mass function sensitive absorption features in the Coma brightest cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieleniewski, Simon; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Thatte, Niranjan; Davies, Roger L.; Vaughan, Sam P.

    2017-02-01

    Using the Oxford Short Wavelength Integral Field specTrograph, we trace radial variations of initial mass function (IMF)-sensitive absorption features of three galaxies in the Coma cluster. We obtain resolved spectroscopy of the central 5 kpc for the two central brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) NGC4889, NGC4874, and the BCG in the south-west group NGC4839, as well as unresolved data for NGC4873 as a low-σ* control. We present radial measurements of the IMF-sensitive features: sodium Na ISDSS, calcium triplet CaT, and iron-hydride FeH0.99, along with the magnesium Mg I0.88 and titanium oxide TiO0.89 features. We employ two separate methods for both telluric correction and sky subtraction around the faint FeH feature to verify our analysis. Within NGC4889 we find strong gradients of Na ISDSS and CaT but a flat FeH profile, which, from comparing to stellar population synthesis models, suggests an old, α-enhanced population with a Chabrier, or even bottom-light IMF. The age and abundance are in line with previous studies but the normal IMF is in contrast to recent results suggesting an increased IMF slope with increased velocity dispersion. We measure flat Na ISDSS and FeH profiles within NGC4874, and determine an old, possibly slightly α-enhanced and Chabrier IMF population. We find an α-enhanced, Chabrier IMF population in NGC4873. Within NGC4839 we measure both strong Na ISDSS and strong FeH, although with a large systematic uncertainty, suggesting a possible heavier IMF. The IMFs we infer for these galaxies are supported by published dynamical modelling. We stress that IMF constraints should be corroborated by further spectral coverage and independent methods on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis.

  1. The dark matter distribution of M87 and NGC 1399

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Recent X-ray observations of clusters of galaxies indicate that, outside the innermost about 100 kpc region, the ratio of dark matter density to baryonic matter density declines with radius. We show that this result is consistent with a cold dark matter simulation, suggesting the presence of dissipationless dark matter in the observed clusters. This is contrary to previous suggestions that dissipational baryonic dark matter is required to explain the decline in the density ratio. The simulation further shows that, in the inner 100 kpc region, the density ratio should rise with radius. We confirm this property in M87 and NGC 1399, which are close enough to allow the determination of the density ratio in the required inner region. X-ray mappings of the dark matter distribution in clusters of galaxies are therefore consistent with the presence of dissipationless dark matter.

  2. Estudio interferométrico de NGC 5236

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddone, M. A.; Goldes, G.; Carranza, G.; Díaz, R.; Plana, H.; Boulesteix, J.

    The kinematical properties of NGC 5236 were analyzed, by using Fabry-Perot data cubes obtained at La Silla, with a scanning interferometer associated with a TV camera photon-counting device. The parameters that define the ionized gas velocity field (Vsys, PA, Amax, Rmax, FWHM) were obtained for this galaxy, by means of a more precise technique and a better spacial sampling than previous authors. The isovelocity curves show conspicuous perturbations in the regions were the spiral arms cross, beeing the signature of deviations from uniform circular motions. For this galaxy, which has been observed by different authors and with different techniques through several years (i.e. Carranza 1972), the values here obtained for the kinematical parameters and the structure of the velocity curves, beeing more detailed, do show a general agreement with the previous ones.

  3. PCA/HEXTE Observations of M82 and NGC253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rephaeli, Yoel

    1999-01-01

    The nearby starburst galaxies M82 & NGC 253 were observed by the RXTE satellite during the period February - November 1997. Data reduction and analysis began in summer 1998, and continued through March 1999. The spectral analysis indicates that the main emission in these galaxies is from hot gas. We find a considerable degree of variability in the emission from M82, possibly due to M81 (a known AGN) in the FOV. The main spectral parameters were determined for both sources. The results of the analysis were reported in the March 1999 meeting of the AAS. Summary of the data analysis, theoretical modeling, and interpretation will be presented in a paper which is currently being prepared for publication in the Astrophysical Journal.

  4. The spatially resolved stellar population and ionized gas properties in the merger LIRG NGC 2623

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; González Delgado, R. M.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez, S. F.; Cid Fernandes, R.; de Amorim, A. L.; Di Matteo, P.; García-Benito, R.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; López Fernández, R.; Tadhunter, C.; Villar-Martín, M.; Roth, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    We report on a detailed study of the stellar populations and ionized gas properties in the merger LIRG NGC 2623, analyzing optical integral field spectroscopy from the CALIFA survey and PMAS LArr, multiwavelength HST imaging, and OSIRIS narrow band Hα and [NII]λ6584 imaging. The spectra were processed with the starlight full spectral fitting code, and the results are compared with those for two early-stage merger LIRGs (IC 1623 W and NGC 6090), together with CALIFA Sbc/Sc galaxies. We find that NGC 2623 went through two periods of increased star formation (SF), a first and widespread episode, traced by intermediate-age stellar populations ISP (140 Myr-1.4 Gyr), and a second one, traced by young stellar populations YSP (<140 Myr), which is concentrated in the central regions (<1.4 kpc). Our results are in agreement with the epochs of the first peri-center passage ( 200 Myr ago) and coalescence (<100 Myr ago) predicted by dynamical models, and with high-resolution merger simulations in the literature, consistent with NGC 2623 representing an evolved version of the early-stage mergers. Most ionized gas is concentrated within <2.8 kpc, where LINER-like ionization and high-velocity dispersion ( 220 km s-1) are found, consistent with the previously reported outflow. As revealed by the highest-resolution OSIRIS and HST data, a collection of HII regions is also present in the plane of the galaxy, which explains the mixture of ionization mechanisms in this system. It is unlikely that the outflow in NGC 2623 will escape from the galaxy, given the low SFR intensity ( 0.5 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2), the fact that the outflow rate is three times lower than the current SFR, and the escape velocity in the central areas is higher than the outflow velocity.

  5. Dwarf elliptical galaxies with kinematically decoupled cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, S.; Dejonghe, H.; Zeilinger, W. W.; Hau, G. K. T.

    2004-10-01

    We present, for the first time, photometric and kinematical evidence, obtained with FORS2 on the VLT, for the existence of kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf elliptical galaxies; FS76 in the NGC 5044 group and FS373 in the NGC 3258 group. Both kinematically peculiar subcomponents rotate in the same sense as the main body of their host galaxy but betray their presence by a pronounced bump in the rotation velocity profiles at a radius of about 1''. The KDC in FS76 rotates at 10 ± 3 km s-1, with the host galaxy rotating at 15 ± 6 km s-1; the KDC in FS373 has a rotation velocity of 6 ± 2 km s-1 while the galaxy itself rotates at 20 ± 5 km s-1. FS373 has a very complex rotation velocity profile with the velocity changing sign at 1.5 Re. The velocity and velocity dispersion profiles of FS76 are asymmetric at larger radii. This could be caused by a past gravitational interaction with the giant elliptical NGC 5044, which is at a projected distance of 50 kpc. We argue that these decoupled cores are most likely not produced by mergers in a group or cluster environment because of the prohibitively large relative velocities. A plausible alternative is offered by flyby interactions between a dwarf elliptical or its disky progenitor and a massive galaxy. The tidal forces during an interaction at the relative velocities and impact parameters typical for a group environment exert a torque on the dwarf galaxy that, according to analytical estimates, transfers enough angular momentum to its stellar envelope to explain the observed peculiar kinematics.

  6. An evolutionary link between Seyfert I and II galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penston, M.V.; Perez, E.

    1984-01-01

    First spectra from the newly sited Isaac Newton Telescope show NGC 4151 and 3C 390.3 to have taken on a classification very close to Seyfert II. It is proposed that Seyfert II galaxies are Seyfert Is in which the continuum source is temporarily off. (author)

  7. Two high-velocity encounters of elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcells, Marc; Borne, Kirk D.; Hoessel, John G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes results obtained on a simulation of two high-velocity encounters of NGC 4782/4783 and NGC 2672/2673 binary elliptical galaxies which differ substantially in mass ratio (about 1 for the first pair, and about 10 for the second). CCD images and velocities obtained from digital spectra were used to constrain simulations of the galaxy collisions. The binary orbital elements, the orientation of the orbit in the sky, the time since pericenter, and the dynamical mass of the pair were derived. Results suggested that the dumb-bell galaxy NGC 4782/4783 is not a supermassive galaxy, as was claimed earlier on the basis of the high relative velocity and high central dispersion, but has a moderate mass to luminosity ratio M/L(B) of about 10. It was concluded that its trajectory changed from hyperbolic to elliptical as a result of energy lost during the collision. It was found that the NGC 2672/2673 also has a moderate M/L(B) of about 7.

  8. Birth of a new galaxy

    CERN Multimedia

    Rodgers, L

    2001-01-01

    Scientists using the Hubble telescope have been amazed by the number of stars being created in galaxy NGC 3310. But while some scientists are observing the birth of new stars, others are predicting the end of the universe. According to supersymmetry it is possible that the universe could spontaneously change to a state where the electric force is switched off, resulting in the disintegration of all matter. Called 'vacuum fluctuation', this event is even less likely than winning the lottery jackpot twice in the same day however (1/2 page).

  9. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  10. Nature of the ionizing source of the nuclear gas in NGC 1052

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, W.C.; Miller, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    We examine the ionization and physical state of the emission-line region in the nucleus of elliptical galaxy NGC 1052. The [O III] lambda4363/lambda5007 ratio, frequently used as a diagnostic for ionization mechanisms, is very poorly determined because of difficulties in matching the underlying stellar continuum spectrum, which is unusual in having very strong lines for the galaxy luminosity. Within these limitations, we find the [O III] temperature to be only marginally compatible with shock models, and the overall emission spectrum to be better fitted by photoionization models with a very dilute flat-spectrum central source. In any event, the case for NGC 1052 as a shock-heated nucleus is not strong

  11. Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters and ROSAT Observations of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Raymond E., III

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results on the elliptical galaxy NGC 1407 were published in the proceedings of the first ROSAT symposium. NGC 1407 is embedded in diffuse X-ray-emitting gas which is extensive enough that it is likely to be related to the surrounding group of galaxies, rather than just NGC 1407. Spectral data for NGC 1407 (AO2) and IC 1459 (AO3) are also included in a complete sample of elliptical galaxies I compiled in collaboration with David Davis. This allowed us to construct the first complete X-ray sample of optically-selected elliptical galaxies. The complete sample allows us to apply Malmquist bias corrections to the observed correlation between X-ray and optical luminosities. I continue to work on the implications of this first complete X-ray sample of elliptical galaxies. Paul Eskridge Dave Davis and I also analyzed three long ROSAT PSPC observations of the small (but not dwarf) elliptical galaxy M32. We found the X-ray spectra and variability to be consistent with either a Low Mass X-Ray Binary (LMXRB) or a putative 'micro"-AGN.

  12. High-resolution spectra of distant compact narrow emission line galaxies: Progrenitors of spheroidal galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, David C.; Guzman, Rafael; Faber, S. M.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Kron, Richard G.; Takamiya, Marianne

    1995-01-01

    Emission-line velocity widths have been determined for 17 faint (B approximately 20-23) very blue, compact galaxies whose redshifts range from z = 0.095 to 0.66. The spectra have a resolution of 8 Km/s and were taken with the HIRES echelle spectrograph of the Keck 10 m telescope. The galaxies are luminous with all but two within 1 mag of M(sub B) approximately -21. Yet they exhibit narrow velocity widths between sigma = 28-157 km/s, more consistent with typical values of extreme star-forming galaxies than with those of nearby spiral galaxies of similar luminosity. In particular, objects with sigma is less than or equal to 65 km/s follow the same correlations between sigma and both blue and H beta luminosities as those of nearby H II galaxies. These results strengthen the identification of H II glaxies as thier local counterparts. The blue colors and strong emission lines suggest these compact galaxies are undergoing a recent, strong burst of star formation. Like those which characterize some H II galaxies, this burst could be a nuclear star-forming event within a much larger, older stellar population. If the burst is instead a major episode in the total star-forming history, these distant galaxies could fade enough to match the low luminosities and surface brightnesses typical of nearby spheroidals like NGC 185 or NGC 205. Together with evidence for recent star formation, exponential light profiles, and subsolar metallicities, the postfading correlations between luminosity and velocity width and bewtween luminosity and surface brightness suggest that among the low-sigma galaxies, we may be witnessing, in situ, the progenitors of today's spheroidal galaxies.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio haloes in nearby galaxies (Heesen+, 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, V.; Krause, M.; Beck, R.; Adebahr, B.; Bomans, D. J.; Carretti, E.; Dumke, M.; Heald, G.; Irwin, J.; Koribalski, B. S.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Westmeier, T.; Dettmar, R.-J.

    2018-02-01

    We present radio continuum observations of 12 nearby (D=2-27Mpc) edge-on galaxies at two different frequencies, namely at 1.4 and 5GHz (one galaxy at 8.5GHz instead of 5GHz). Our sample includes 11 late-type spiral (Sb or Sc) galaxies and one Magellanic-type barred galaxy (SBm), which are all highly inclined (i>=76°). As part of our study we have obtained several additional radio continuum maps. We make these maps publicly available (as well as all the other radio continuum maps in the paper). For 4 galaxies (NGC 55, 253, 891 and 4631) we have used single-dish maps, to correct for the missing zero-spacing flux where necessary. The Effelsberg maps of NGC 253 and 4631 were already presented in Heesen et al. (2009A&A...494..563H) and Mora & Krause (2013A&A...560A..42M), respectively, and the Effelsberg map of NGC 891 was already presented in Dumke (1997, PhD thesis, University of Bonn). We present these maps for completeness. The 4.80-GHz map of NGC 55 obtained with the 64-m Parkes telescope is so far unpublished. Furthermore, we show two maps of NGC 4631 at 1.35 and 1.65GHz observed with the VLA in D- configuration (R. Beck 2016, priv. comm.). The data were observed in August 1996, with 12 h on-source (ID: AG486) and reduced in standard fashion with AIPS. The maps have an angular resolution of 52 arcsec, so that we did not use them in the analysis, but they also show the halo of this galaxy very well. Lastly, we obtained maps of three further edge-on galaxies observed with the VLA (NGC 4157, 4217 and 4634). We reduced the data as described in Section 2, but since we had only one frequency available and no spectral index map, we did not use them in the analysis. The maps of NGC 4157 and 4217 were created by re-reducing archive data (IDs AI23, AF85, AH457 and AS392 for NGC 4157 and ID AM573 for NGC 4217). The map of NGC 4634 was created by using so far unpublished data from the VLA (ID: AD538). (3 data files).

  14. Classical radio source propagating into outer HI disc in NGC 3801

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emonts, B. H. C.; Burnett, C.; Morganti, R.; Struve, C.

    We present observations of a large-scale disc of neutral hydrogen (H I) in the nearby Fanaroff-Riley type I (FR I) radio galaxy NGC 3801 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The HI disc (34 kpc in diameter and with M-HI = 1.3 x 10(9)M(circle dot)) is aligned with the radio jet axis. This

  15. Ages of the Bulge Globular Clusters NGC 6522 and NGC 6626 (M28) from HST Proper-motion-cleaned Color–Magnitude Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, L. O.; Nardiello, D.; Ortolani, S.; Barbuy, B.; Bica, E.; Cassisi, S.; Libralato, M.; Vieira, R. G.

    2018-01-01

    Bulge globular clusters (GCs) with metallicities [Fe/H] ≲ ‑1.0 and blue horizontal branches are candidates to harbor the oldest populations in the Galaxy. Based on the analysis of HST proper-motion-cleaned color–magnitude diagrams in filters F435W and F625W, we determine physical parameters for the old bulge GCs NGC 6522 and NGC 6626 (M28), both with well-defined blue horizontal branches. We compare these results with similar data for the inner halo cluster NGC 6362. These clusters have similar metallicities (‑1.3 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ ‑1.0) obtained from high-resolution spectroscopy. We derive ages, distance moduli, and reddening values by means of statistical comparisons between observed and synthetic fiducial lines employing likelihood statistics and the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. The synthetic fiducial lines were generated using α-enhanced BaSTI and Dartmouth stellar evolutionary models, adopting both canonical (Y ∼ 0.25) and enhanced (Y ∼ 0.30–0.33) helium abundances. RR Lyrae stars were employed to determine the HB magnitude level, providing an independent indicator to constrain the apparent distance modulus and the helium enhancement. The shape of the observed fiducial line could be compatible with some helium enhancement for NGC 6522 and NGC 6626, but the average magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars tend to rule out this hypothesis. Assuming canonical helium abundances, BaSTI and Dartmouth models indicate that all three clusters are coeval, with ages between ∼12.5 and 13.0 Gyr. The present study also reveals that NGC 6522 has at least two stellar populations, since its CMD shows a significantly wide subgiant branch compatible with 14% ± 2% and 86% ± 5% for first and second generations, respectively. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  16. The Environmental Impact of Intra-Cluster Medium on the Interstellar Medium in Early Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Ginevra

    1997-01-01

    High resolution X-ray images of three early type galaxies observed with the ROSAT HRI are presented. Data for NGC 1553 and NGC 5846 indicate that the emission is highly irregular, with interesting features on scales from a few arcsec to a few arcmin. The gas temperatures also vary both with the galactocentric radius and in correspondence to regions of higher emission and denser material. Strikingly similar features are observed in the X-ray and H(alpha) morphologies of NGC 1553 and NGC 5846, while smoother, more regular isophotes are observed in NGC 4649 at both wavelengths. A connection between these two kinds of emission therefore seems likely. In the light of our observations we discuss possible scenarios that can and account for the connection between X-ray and H(alpha) emissions.

  17. Dust and PAH Emission in the Star-forming Active Nucleus of NGC 1097

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. E.; Levenson, N. A.; Packham, C.; Elitzur, M.; Radomski, J.; Petric, A. O.; Wright, G. S.

    2007-04-01

    The nucleus of the nearby galaxy NGC 1097 is known to host a young, compact (ractive galactic nucleus (AGN). It has been suggested both that the nuclear stellar cluster is associated with a dusty torus and that low-luminosity AGNs like NGC 1097 do not have the torus predicted by the unified model of AGNs. To investigate these contradictory possibilities we have acquired Gemini/T-ReCS 11.7 and 18.3 μm images of the central few hundred parsecs of this galaxy at warm dust close to the central engine. Fitting of torus models shows that the observed mid-IR emission cannot be accounted for by dust heated by the central engine. Rather, the principal source heating the dust in this object is the nuclear star cluster itself, suggesting that the detected dust is not the torus of AGN unified schemes (although it is also possible that the dusty starburst itself could provide the obscuration invoked by the unified model). Comparison of Spitzer IRS and Gemini GNIRS spectra shows that, although PAH bands are strong in the immediate circumnuclear region of the galaxy, PAH emission is weak or absent in the central 19 pc. The lack of PAH emission can probably be explained largely by destruction/ionization of PAH molecules by hard photons from the nuclear star cluster. If NGC 1097 is typical, PAH emission bands may not be a useful tool with which to find very compact nuclear starbursts even in low-luminosity AGNs.

  18. Eight Hundred New Candidates for Globular Clusters in NGC 5128 (Centaurus A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gretchen L. H.; Gómez, Matías; Harris, William E.; Johnston, Kyle; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang; Geisler, Doug; Woodley, Kristin A.

    2012-04-01

    We have used new wide-field imaging with the Magellan IMACS camera to search for globular cluster (GC) candidates around NGC 5128, the nearest giant E galaxy. The imaging data are in the B and R broadband filters and cover a 1.55 deg2 field centered on the galaxy, corresponding to an area about 90 × 90 kpc2 at the distance of NGC 5128. All the fields were taken under exceptionally high-quality seeing conditions (FWHM = 0farcs4-0farcs5 in R). Using this material we are able, for the first time in the literature, to construct a homogeneous list of GC candidates covering a wide span of the NGC 5128 halo and unusually free of field contaminants (foreground stars and faint background galaxies). Selecting the measured objects by color, magnitude, ellipticity, and profile size gives us a final catalog of 833 new high-quality GC candidates brighter than R = 21 (0.8 mag fainter than the standard GC luminosity function turnover point). The measured positions have better than 0farcs2 precision in both coordinates. This list can be used as the basis for spectroscopic follow-up, leading to a more comprehensive kinematic and dynamic study of the halo. This Paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  19. THE ODD OFFSET BETWEEN THE GALACTIC DISK AND ITS BAR IN NGC 3906

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swardt, Bonita de [South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, 7935 Cape Town (South Africa); Sheth, Kartik; Kim, Taehyun; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Stephen Pardy; Elena D’ Onghia; Eric Wilcots [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hinz, Joannah [MMTO, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Regan, Michael W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Buta, Ronald J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Cisternas, Mauricio; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Comerón, Sébastien [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, FI-90014 (Finland); Gadotti, Dimitri A. [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Paz, Armando Gil de [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Jarrett, Thomas H. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Hts., NY 10598 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2015-07-20

    We use mid-infrared 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging of NGC 3906 from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S{sup 4}G) to understand the nature of an unusual offset between its stellar bar and the photometric center of an otherwise regular, circular outer stellar disk. We measure an offset of ∼910 pc between the center of the stellar bar and photometric center of the stellar disk; the bar center coincides with the kinematic center of the disk determined from previous HI observations. Although the undisturbed shape of the disk suggests that NGC 3906 has not undergone a significant merger event in its recent history, the most plausible explanation for the observed offset is an interaction. Given the relatively isolated nature of NGC 3906 this interaction could be with dark matter substructure in the galaxy's halo or from a recent interaction with a fast moving neighbor that remains to be identified. Simulations aimed at reproducing the observed offset between the stellar bar/kinematic center of the system and the photometric center of the disk are necessary to confirm this hypothesis and constrain the interaction history of the galaxy.

  20. A GALAXY BLAZES WITH STAR FORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Most galaxies form new stars at a fairly slow rate, but members of a rare class known as 'starburst' galaxies blaze with extremely active star formation. Scientists using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope are perfecting a technique to determine the history of starburst activity in galaxies by using the colors of star clusters. Measuring the clusters' colors yields information about stellar temperatures. Since young stars are blue, and older stars redder, the colors can be related to the ages, somewhat similar to counting the rings in a fallen tree trunk in order to determine the tree's age. The galaxy NGC 3310 is forming clusters of new stars at a prodigious rate. Astronomer Gerhardt Meurer of The Johns Hopkins University leads a team of collaborators who are studying several starburst galaxies, including NGC 3310, which is showcased in this month's Hubble Heritage image. There are several hundred star clusters in NGC 3310, visible in the Heritage image as the bright blue diffuse objects that trace the galaxy's spiral arms. Each of these star clusters represents the formation of up to about a million stars, a process that takes less than 100,000 years. In addition, hundreds of individual young, luminous stars can be seen throughout the galaxy. Once formed, the star clusters become redder with age as the most massive and bluest stars exhaust their fuel and burn out. Measurements in this image of the wide range of cluster colors show that they have ages ranging from about one million up to more than one hundred million years. This suggests that the starburst 'turned on' over 100 million years ago. It may have been triggered when a companion galaxy collided with NGC 3310. These observations may change astronomers' view of starbursts. Starbursts were once thought to be brief episodes, resulting from catastrophic events like a galactic collision. However, the wide range of cluster ages in NGC 3310 suggests that the starbursting can continue for an extended interval, once

  1. Dark matter in central galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, R.; Richtler, T.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Schuberth, Y.; Gomez, M.; Hilker, M.

    The study of the dynamics of globular clusters systems (GCSs) is a powerful tool to test the dark matter (DM) content at galactic scales, especially in early type galaxies which present a lack of suitable DM probes (Romanowsky 2006). So far, this method has been only applied to a handful of nearby ellipticals, mainly due to the observational difficulties (Cote et al. 2001; Richtler et al. 2004; Schuberth et al. 2006; Woodley et al. 2007). In this talk I will present the first results of our VLT-VIMOS study of the dynamics of the GCS of NGC 3311, the nearest cD galaxy, which hosts an enormous GC population (McLaughlin et al. 1995). These results include the spectroscopic confirmation of the first ultra compact dwarf in Hydra I, from the candidate list of Wehner & Harris (2007).

  2. Galaxy mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, N.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis contains a series of four papers dealing with the effects of interactions among galaxies during the epoch of cluster formation. Galaxy interactions are investigated and the results incorporated in numerical simulations of the formation of groups and clusters of galaxies. The role of galaxy interactions is analysed in the more general context of simulations of an expanding universe. The evolution of galaxies in rich clusters is discussed. The results of the investigations are presented and their relation to other work done in the field are briefly reviewed and an attempt is made to link galaxy mergers to the occurrence of activity in galactic nuclei. (Auth.)

  3. MAPPING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF DUST EXTINCTION IN NGC 959 USING BROADBAND VISIBLE AND MID-INFRARED FILTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, K.; Jansen, R. A.; Windhorst, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to estimate and map the two-dimensional distribution of dust extinction in the late-type spiral galaxy NGC 959 from the theoretical and observed flux ratio of optical V and mid-IR (MIR) 3.6 μm images. Our method is applicable to both young and old stellar populations for a range of metallicities, and is not restricted to lines of sight toward star-formation (SF) regions. We explore this method using a pixel-based analysis on images of NGC 959 obtained in the V band at the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope and at 3.6 μm (L band) with Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera. We present the original and extinction corrected Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) images, as well as optical UBVR images of NGC 959. While the dust lanes are not clearly evident at GALEX resolution, our dust map clearly traces the dust that can be seen silhouetted against the galaxy's disk in the high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of NGC 959. The advantages of our method are (1) it only depends on two relatively common broadband images in the optical V band and in the MIR at 3.6 μm (but adding a near-UV band improves its fidelity); and (2) it is able to map the two-dimensional spatial distribution of dust within a galaxy. This powerful tool could be used to measure the detailed distribution of dust extinction within higher redshift galaxies to be observed with, e.g., the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 (optical near-IR) and James Webb Space Telescope (mid-IR), and to distinguish properties of dust within galaxy bulges, spiral arms, and inter-arm regions.

  4. The Metal-poor non-Sagittarius (?) Globular Cluster NGC 5053: Orbit and Mg, Al, and Si Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baitian; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Geisler, Doug; Zamora, Olga; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Masseron, Thomas; Cohen, Roger E.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Dell’Agli, Flavia; Beers, Timothy C.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Hasselquist, Sten; Robin, Annie C.; Shetrone, Matthew; Majewski, Steven R.; Villanova, Sandro; Schiappacasse Ulloa, Jose; Lane, Richard R.; Minnti, Dante; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Almeida, Andres; Moreno, E.

    2018-03-01

    Metal-poor globular clusters (GCs) exhibit intriguing Al–Mg anti-correlations and possible Si–Al correlations, which are important clues to decipher the multiple-population phenomenon. NGC 5053 is one of the most metal-poor GCs in the nearby universe and has been suggested to be associated with the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy, due to its similarity in location and radial velocity with one of the Sgr arms. In this work, we simulate the orbit of NGC 5053, and argue against a physical connection between Sgr and NGC 5053. On the other hand, the Mg, Al, and Si spectral lines, which are difficult to detect in the optical spectra of NGC 5053 stars, have been detected in the near-infrared APOGEE spectra. We use three different sets of stellar parameters and codes to derive the Mg, Al, and Si abundances. Regardless of which method is adopted, we see a large Al variation, and a substantial Si spread. Along with NGC 5053, metal-poor GCs exhibit different Mg, Al, and Si variations. Moreover, NGC 5053 has the lowest cluster mass among the GCs that have been identified to exhibit an observable Si spread until now.

  5. Proposed Ames M2-F1, M1-L half-cone, and Langley lenticular bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Dale Reed, who inaugurated the lifting-body flight research at NASA's Flight Research Center (later, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA), originally proposed that three wooden outer shells be built. These would then be attached to the single internal steel structure. The three shapes were (viewer's left to right) the M2-F1, the M1-L, and a lenticular shape. Milt Thompson, who supported Reed's advocacy for a lifting-body research project, recommended that only the M2-F1 shell be built, believing that the M1-L shape was 'too radical,' while the lenticular one was 'too exotic.' Although the lenticular shape was often likened to that of a flying saucer, Reed's wife Donna called it the 'powder puff.' The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey

  6. A physical process of the radial acceleration of disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Klaus; Dwivedi, Bhola N.

    2018-03-01

    An impact model of gravity designed to emulate Newton's law of gravitation is applied to the radial acceleration of disc galaxies. Based on this model (Wilhelm et al. 2013), the rotation velocity curves can be understood without the need to postulate any dark matter contribution. The increased acceleration in the plane of the disc is a consequence of multiple interactions of gravitons (called `quadrupoles' in the original paper) and the subsequent propagation in this plane and not in three-dimensional space. The concept provides a physical process that relates the fit parameter of the acceleration scale defined by McGaugh et al. (2016) to the mean free path length of gravitons in the discs of galaxies. It may also explain the gravitational interaction at low acceleration levels in MOdification of the Newtonian Dynamics (MOND, Milgrom 1983, 1994, 2015, 2016). Three examples are discussed in some detail: the spiral galaxies NGC 7814, NGC 6503 and M 33.

  7. Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece

    Galaxy formation and evolution is one of the main research themes of modern astronomy. Active galaxies such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are important evolutionary stages of galaxies. The ULIRG stage is mostly associated with galaxy mergers...... and interactions. During the interactions of gas-rich galaxies, the gas inflows towards the centers of the galaxies and can trigger both star formation and AGN activity. The ULIRG stage includes rapid star formation activity and fast black hole growth that is enshrouded by dust. Once the AGN emission...... one is related to the mass estimates of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Mass estimates of SMBHs are important to understand the formation and evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. Black hole masses in Type 1 AGN are measured with the reverberation mapping (RM) technique. Reverberation mapping...

  8. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  9. Photoelectric UBVRI sequences in the Galactic globular clusters NGC 6752 and NGC 6864

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, F.; Wenderoth, E.; Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.

    1990-01-01

    UBVRI photoelectric sequences for the Galactic globular clusters NGC 6752 and NGC 6864 are presented. Both of them include fields suitable for CCD exposures. From five UBV sequences in NGC 6572, only five stars are in common with the previous works. 15 refs

  10. New Seismic Members in NGC 6791 and NGC 6819

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellamy B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results of an asteroseismic analysis of the open clusters NGC 6791 and NGC 6819 in the Kepler field of view. We analysed over 400 stars to extract the asteroseismic properties νmax and Δν to make them available to the scientific community. We developed an interactive stitching algorithm that is used to correct for the instrumental drifts in the Kepler light curves and stitch the jumps between each quarter together. We use the SYD pipeline to extract the asteroseismic values and compare these to the expected values for cluster membership to find new member stars for each cluster. We compare our results to previous membership studies.

  11. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES IN NGC 5053: A VERY METAL-POOR AND DYNAMICALLY COMPLEX GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boberg, Owen M.; Friel, Eileen D.; Vesperini, Enrico [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2015-05-10

    NGC 5053 provides a rich environment to test our understanding of the complex evolution of globular clusters (GCs). Recent studies have found that this cluster has interesting morphological features beyond the typical spherical distribution of GCs, suggesting that external tidal effects have played an important role in its evolution and current properties. Additionally, simulations have shown that NGC 5053 could be a likely candidate to belong to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr dSph) stream. Using the Wisconsin–Indiana–Yale–NOAO–Hydra multi-object spectrograph, we have collected high quality (signal-to-noise ratio ∼ 75–90), medium-resolution spectra for red giant branch stars in NGC 5053. Using these spectra we have measured the Fe, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, Na, and O abundances in the cluster. We measure an average cluster [Fe/H] abundance of −2.45 with a standard deviation of 0.04 dex, making NGC 5053 one of the most metal-poor GCs in the Milky Way (MW). The [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and [Ba/Fe] we measure are consistent with the abundances of MW halo stars at a similar metallicity, with alpha-enhanced ratios and slightly depleted [Ba/Fe]. The Na and O abundances show the Na–O anti-correlation found in most GCs. From our abundance analysis it appears that NGC 5053 is at least chemically similar to other GCs found in the MW. This does not, however, rule out NGC 5053 being associated with the Sgr dSph stream.

  12. Chemical Abundances in NGC 5053: A Very Metal-poor and Dynamically Complex Globular Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, Owen M.; Friel, Eileen D.; Vesperini, Enrico

    2015-05-01

    NGC 5053 provides a rich environment to test our understanding of the complex evolution of globular clusters (GCs). Recent studies have found that this cluster has interesting morphological features beyond the typical spherical distribution of GCs, suggesting that external tidal effects have played an important role in its evolution and current properties. Additionally, simulations have shown that NGC 5053 could be a likely candidate to belong to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr dSph) stream. Using the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO-Hydra multi-object spectrograph, we have collected high quality (signal-to-noise ratio ˜ 75-90), medium-resolution spectra for red giant branch stars in NGC 5053. Using these spectra we have measured the Fe, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, Na, and O abundances in the cluster. We measure an average cluster [Fe/H] abundance of -2.45 with a standard deviation of 0.04 dex, making NGC 5053 one of the most metal-poor GCs in the Milky Way (MW). The [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and [Ba/Fe] we measure are consistent with the abundances of MW halo stars at a similar metallicity, with alpha-enhanced ratios and slightly depleted [Ba/Fe]. The Na and O abundances show the Na-O anti-correlation found in most GCs. From our abundance analysis it appears that NGC 5053 is at least chemically similar to other GCs found in the MW. This does not, however, rule out NGC 5053 being associated with the Sgr dSph stream.

  13. The nature of the high-velocity gas in NGC 1275: first results with TAURUS-2 on the William Herschel telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, S.W.; Taylor, K.; Pedlar, A.; Ghataure, H.S.; Penston, M.V.; Robinson, A.

    1990-01-01

    Observations with a new imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer, TAURUS-2, show that there is a close spatial association between the two systems of emission-line gas in the active galaxy NGC 1275 (Perseus A, 3C84). It therefore seems likely that, as first suggested by previous authors, we are witnessing two galaxies in the process of colliding. We show that this hypothesis is consistent with all available observations of this object. (author)

  14. Searching for the Nearest Extragalactic Binary Black Hole: A Spectroscopic Study of NGC 4736

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Annika; Kwan, Teiler J.; Fisher, Robert Scott; Mason, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In 1995 and 1996, Maoz et al. concluded that the nearby galaxy NGC 4736 (d=16 million light years) is in the late stages of a merger event. After further investigation, in 2005, Maoz et al. observed UV variability in the nuclear region of NGC 4736, revealing a second unknown source in the nucleus. Since late stage mergers are an ideal location to search for binary black holes (BBH), members of our team hypothesized that the second source could be a second black hole, making this a potential BBH system. This is important since observational evidence for their existence remains sparse, even though BBH are predicted by many theories and potentially play an important role in galaxy evolution. In January of 2008, NGC 4736 was observed with the GMOS-N instrument on Gemini North. Optical longslit spectra of the nuclear region were obtained with spatial resolution of 0.1454''/pixel and a spectral resolution of R~1700. At this resolution, the two nuclear sources are spatially resolved at a projected separation of 2.5''. As a result, we can classify the nature of the second source by looking at the optical line ratios following Ho et al. (1997). High signal-to-noise spectra of the unknown source displayed strong emission of [SII] and [NII], but an extremely weak [OIII] emission line. The unknown source has a calculated [NII]/[Hα] ratio of 1.37 and an upper limit of 0.6 for the [OIII]/[Hβ] ratio. Placing the unknown source on the BPT-NII diagram (Baldwin et al., 1981), we tentatively conclude that it is a low-luminosity second black hole potentially making NGC 4736 the nearest BBH system. The result will enable future high-spectral and spatial resolution observations of a low-luminosity system in extremely late stages of merging, which will be a significant step forward in validating models of galaxy mergers and AGN activity.

  15. Black Holes Shed Light on Galaxy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This videotape is comprised of several segments of animations on black holes and galaxy formation, and several segments of an interview with Dr. John Kormendy. The animation segments are: (1) a super massive black hole, (2) Centarus A active black hole found in a collision, (3) galaxy NGC-4261 (active black hole and jet model), (4) galaxy M-32 (orbits of stars are effected by the gravity of the black hole), (5) galaxy M-37 (motion of stars increases as mass of black hole increases), (6) Birth of active galactic nuclei, (7) the collision of two galaxy leads to merger of the black holes, (8) Centarus A and simulation of the collision of 2 galaxies. There are also several segments of an interview with John Kormendy. In these segments he discusses the two most important aspects of his recent black hole work: (1) the correlations between galaxies speed and the mass of the black holes, and (2) the existence of black holes and galactic formation. He also discusses the importance of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to the study of black holes. He also shows the methodology of processing images from the spectrograph in his office.

  16. A Portrait of One Hundred Thousand and One Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    Rich and Inspiring Experience with NGC 300 Images from the ESO Science Data Archive Summary A series of wide-field images centred on the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 300 , obtained with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory , have been combined into a magnificent colour photo. These images have been used by different groups of astronomers for various kinds of scientific investigations, ranging from individual stars and nebulae in NGC 300, to distant galaxies and other objects in the background. This material provides an interesting demonstration of the multiple use of astronomical data, now facilitated by the establishment of extensively documented data archives, like the ESO Science Data Archive that now is growing rapidly and already contains over 15 Terabyte. Based on the concept of Astronomical Virtual Observatories (AVOs) , the use of archival data sets is on the rise and provides a large number of scientists with excellent opportunities for front-line investigations without having to wait for precious observing time. In addition to presenting a magnificent astronomical photo, the present account also illustrates this important new tool of the modern science of astronomy and astrophysics. PR Photo 18a/02 : WFI colour image of spiral galaxy NGC 300 (full field) . PR Photo 18b/02 : Cepheid stars in NGC 300 PR Photo 18c/02 : H-alpha image of NGC 300 PR Photo 18d/02 : Distant cluster of galaxies CL0053-37 in the NGC 300 field PR Photo 18e/02 : Dark matter distribution in CL0053-37 PR Photo 18f/02 : Distant, reddened cluster of galaxies in the NGC 300 field PR Photo 18g/02 : Distant galaxies, seen through the outskirts of NGC 300 PR Photo 18h/02 : "The View Beyond" ESO PR Photo 18a/02 ESO PR Photo 18a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 412 pix - 112k] [Normal - JPEG: 1200 x 1237 pix - 1.7M] [Hi-Res - JPEG: 4000 x 4123 pix - 20.3M] Caption : PR Photo 18a/02 is a reproduction of a colour-composite image of the nearby spiral galaxy

  17. Distance determinations to shield galaxies from Hubble space telescope imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M.; Cave, Ian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Adams, Elizabeth; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Elson, Ed C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Ott, Juërgen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Saintonge, Amélie, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2014-04-10

    The Survey of H I in Extremely Low-mass Dwarf (SHIELD) galaxies is an ongoing multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies. The galaxies were selected from the first ∼10% of the H I Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey based on their inferred low H I mass and low baryonic mass, and all systems have recent star formation. Thus, the SHIELD sample probes the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function for star-forming galaxies. Here, we measure the distances to the 12 SHIELD galaxies to be between 5 and 12 Mpc by applying the tip of the red giant method to the resolved stellar populations imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. Based on these distances, the H I masses in the sample range from 4 × 10{sup 6} to 6 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, with a median H I mass of 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. The tip of the red giant branch distances are up to 73% farther than flow-model estimates in the ALFALFA catalog. Because of the relatively large uncertainties of flow-model distances, we are biased toward selecting galaxies from the ALFALFA catalog where the flow model underestimates the true distances. The measured distances allow for an assessment of the native environments around the sample members. Five of the galaxies are part of the NGC 672 and NGC 784 groups, which together constitute a single structure. One galaxy is part of a larger linear ensemble of nine systems that stretches 1.6 Mpc from end to end. Three galaxies reside in regions with 1-9 neighbors, and four galaxies are truly isolated with no known system identified within a radius of 1 Mpc.

  18. Gravitational instability and star formation in NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchuk, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The gas-stars instability criterion for infinitesimally thin disc was applied to the galaxy NGC 628. Instead of using the azimuthally averaged profiles of data, the maps of the gas surface densities (THINGS, HERACLES), of the velocity dispersions of stars (VENGA) and gas (THINGS), and of the surface brightness of the galaxy (S4G) were analysed. All these maps were collected for the same region with a noticeable star formation rate and were superimposed on each other. Using the data on the rotation, curve values of Qeff were calculated for each pixel in the image. The areas within the contours Qeff 0.007 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2) and showed a good coincidence between them. The Romeo-Falstad disc instability diagnostics taking into account the thickness of the stellar and gas layers does not change the result. If the one-fluid instability criterion is used, the coincidence is worse. The analysis was carried out for the area r galaxies, the distribution of hydrogen and the regions of star formation is often patchy, the relationship between gravitational instability and star formation should be sought using data maps rather than azimuthally averaged data.

  19. "Missing Mass" Found in Recycled Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Astronomers studying dwarf galaxies formed from the debris of a collision of larger galaxies found the dwarfs much more massive than expected, and think the additional material is "missing mass" that theorists said should not be present in this kind of dwarf galaxy. Multiwavelength Image of NGC 5291 Multiwavelength image of NGC 5291 and dwarf galaxies around it. CREDIT: P-A Duc, CEA-CNRS/NRAO/AUI/NSF/NASA. Click on image for page of more graphics and full information The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study a galaxy called NGC 5291, 200 million light-years from Earth. This galaxy collided with another 360 million years ago, and the collision shot streams of gas and stars outward. Later, the dwarf galaxies formed from the ejected debris. "Our detailed studies of three 'recycled' dwarf galaxies in this system showed that the dwarfs have twice as much unseen matter as visible matter. This was surprising, because they were expected to have very little unseen matter," said Frederic Bournaud, of the French astrophysics laboratory AIM of the French CEA and CNRS. Bournaud and his colleagues announced their discovery in the May 10 online issue of the journal Science. "Dark matter," which astronomers can detect only by its gravitational effects, comes, they believe, in two basic forms. One form is the familiar kind of matter seen in stars, planets, and humans -- called baryonic matter -- that does not emit much light or other type of radiation. The other form, called non-baryonic dark matter, comprises nearly a third of the Universe but its nature is unknown. The visible portion of spiral galaxies, like our own Milky Way, lies mostly in a flattened disk, usually with a bulge in the center. This visible portion, however, is surrounded by a much larger halo of dark matter. When spiral galaxies collide, the material expelled outward by the interaction comes from the galaxies' disks. For this reason, astronomers did

  20. Automated morphological classification of galaxies based on projection gradient nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, I. M.; Abd El Aziz, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    The development of automated morphological classification schemes can successfully distinguish between morphological types of galaxies and can be used for studies of the formation and subsequent evolution of galaxies in our universe. In this paper, we present a new automated machine supervised learning astronomical classification scheme based on the Nonnegative Matrix Factorization algorithm. This scheme is making distinctions between all types roughly corresponding to Hubble types such as elliptical, lenticulars, spiral, and irregular galaxies. The proposed algorithm is performed on two examples with different number of image (small dataset contains 110 image and large dataset contains 700 images). The experimental results show that galaxy images from EFIGI catalog can be classified automatically with an accuracy of ˜93% for small and ˜92% for large number. These results are in good agreement when compared with the visual classifications.

  1. CO mapping of the nuclear region of NGC 6946 and IC 342 with Nobeyama millimeter array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuki, Sumio; Kawabe, Ryohei; Okumura, Sachiko K.; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Ishiguro, Masato

    1990-01-01

    CO observations of nearby galaxies with nuclear active star forming regions (and starburst galaxies) with angular resolutions around 7 seconds revealed that molecular bars with a length of a few kiloparsecs have been formed in the central regions of the galaxies. The molecular bar is interpreted as part of shock waves induced by an oval or barred potential field. By shock dissipation or dissipative cloud-cloud collisions, the molecular gas gains an infall motion and the nuclear star formation activity is fueled. But the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the nuclear regions, which are sites of active star formation, remain unknown. Higher angular resolutions are needed to investigate the gas in the nuclear regions. Researchers made aperture synthesis observations of the nuclear region of the late-type spiral galaxies NGC 6946 and IC 342 with resolutions of 7.6 seconds x 4.2 seconds (P.A. = 147 deg) and 2.4 seconds x 2.3 seconds (P.A. = 149 deg), respectively. The distances to NGC 6496 and IC 342 are assumed to be 5.5 Mpc and 3.9 Mpc, respectively. Researchers have found 100-300 pc nuclear gas disk and ring inside a few kpc molecular gas bars. Researchers present the results of the observations and propose a possible mechanism of active star formation in the nuclear region.

  2. THE DENSEST GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San José State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Brodie, Jean P.; Arnold, Jacob A. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Conroy, Charlie, E-mail: strader@pa.msu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We report the discovery of a remarkable ultra-compact dwarf galaxy around the massive Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 (M60), which we call M60-UCD1. With a dynamical mass of 2.0 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} but a half-light radius of only ∼24 pc, M60-UCD1 is more massive than any ultra-compact dwarfs of comparable size, and is arguably the densest galaxy known in the local universe. It has a two-component structure well fit by a sum of Sérsic functions, with an elliptical, compact (r{sub h} = 14 pc; n ∼ 3.3) inner component and a round, exponential, extended (r{sub h} = 49 pc) outer component. Chandra data reveal a variable central X-ray source with L{sub X} ∼ 10{sup 38} erg s{sup –1} that could be an active galactic nucleus associated with a massive black hole or a low-mass X-ray binary. Analysis of optical spectroscopy shows the object to be old (∼> 10 Gyr) and of solar metallicity, with elevated [Mg/Fe] and strongly enhanced [N/Fe] that indicates light-element self-enrichment; such self-enrichment may be generically present in dense stellar systems. The velocity dispersion (σ ∼ 70 km s{sup –1}) and resulting dynamical mass-to-light ratio (M/L{sub V} = 4.9 ± 0.7) are consistent with—but slightly higher than—expectations for an old, metal-rich stellar population with a Kroupa initial mass function. The presence of a massive black hole or a mild increase in low-mass stars or stellar remnants is therefore also consistent with this M/L{sub V} . The stellar density of the galaxy is so high that no dynamical signature of dark matter is expected. However, the properties of M60-UCD1 suggest an origin in the tidal stripping of a nucleated galaxy with M{sub B} ∼ –18 to –19.

  3. Galaxies and clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salpeter, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    Stellar populations and massive halos, the properties of individual galaxies, and the clusters of galaxies are discussed. Baade's concept of the two stellar populations in our Galaxy had an important influence on the theories of stellar evolution. In Baade's day, there were two puzzling questions. Population II stars manage to form more rapidly than population I stars. Population II has lower rotational velocity than population I. This story is affected by the presence of an extended, massive halo which was not known in Baade's day. It is known from galaxy rotation curves that massive halos extend much further out. The most striking feature about the variation amongst galaxies is the separation between elliptical and spiral galaxies, with SO-galaxies occupying an intermediate position. The absolute luminosity L of a galaxy provides the second parameter in a two-dimensional classification scheme. In many ways, elliptical galaxies bear the same relationship to late-type spirals as does our stellar population II to population I. Most galaxies occur in some kind of groupings, ranging from a small group such as Local Group to a rich and dense cluster such as the Coma cluster. The formation of galaxies is connected with the formation of clusters. Various models are presented and discussed. (Kato, T.)

  4. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Variation of the Stellar Initial Mass Function in Spiral and Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Ge, Junqiang; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Emsellem, Eric; Dutton, Aaron A.; Li, Cheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Drory, Niv; Lopes, Alexandre Roman

    2017-04-01

    We perform Jeans anisotropic modeling (JAM) on elliptical and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR13 sample. By comparing the stellar mass-to-light ratios estimated from stellar population synthesis and from JAM, we find a systematic variation of the initial mass function (IMF) similar to that in the earlier {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} results. Early-type galaxies (elliptical and lenticular) with lower velocity dispersions within one effective radius are consistent with a Chabrier-like IMF, while galaxies with higher velocity dispersions are consistent with a more bottom-heavy IMF such as the Salpeter IMF. Spiral galaxies have similar systematic IMF variations, but with slightly different slopes and larger scatters, due to the uncertainties caused by the higher gas fractions and extinctions for these galaxies. Furthermore, we examine the effects of stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients on our JAM modeling, and we find that the trends become stronger after considering the gradients.

  5. NGC 4945: Bridging the Gap Between Starbursts and AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, Roberto

    1997-07-01

    The nearby edge-on galaxy NGC 4945 shows evidence for both a Seyfert nucleus and an outward propagating starburst. It is also characterized by a prominent cone-shaped cavity generated by a starburst driven superwind. We believe the nucleus of NGC 4945 is experiencing the earliest stage of an evolution from starburst to AGN activity, as predicted by some theories. We propose to use NICMOS broad band, PaAlpha, H_2 and FeII images to i} confirm the presence of an outward propagating burst, including a burned out nucleus and a circumnuclear ring of star formation, ii} trace the superwind evacuated cavity and the ionization cone in the close vicinity of the nucleus {where optical lines are completely obscured}, iii} determine the location of the {optically hidden} AGN with respect to the nuclear star cluster and the cone-shaped cavity. Such observations will tackle the following issues: 1} the SB->AGN evolution, 2} the connection between starburst driven superwinds and AGN light cones, and 3} the relation between SN driven cavity and AGN torii. The angular scales of these structures are below the resolution of groundbased observations and the intrinsic optical extinction is A_V eq 20, thus making NICMOS an optimal tool to tackle these issues.

  6. On the extended stellar structure around NGC 288

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2018-01-01

    We report on observational evidence of an extra-tidal clumpy structure around NGC 288 from homogeneous coverage of a large area with the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) PS1 data base. The extra-tidal star population has been disentangled from that of the Milky Way (MW) field by using a cleaning technique that successfully reproduces the stellar density, luminosity function and colour distributions of MW field stars. We have produced the cluster stellar density radial profile and a stellar density map from independent approaches, and we found the results to be in excellent agreement - the feature extends up to 3.5 times further than the cluster tidal radius. Previous works based on shallower photometric data sets have speculated on the existence of several long tidal tails, similar to that found in Pal 5. The present outcome shows that NGC 288 could hardly have such tails, but it favours the notion that the use of interactions with the MW tidal field has been a relatively inefficient process for stripping stars off the cluster. These results point to the need for a renewed overall study of the external regions of Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) in order to reliably characterize them. It will then be possible to investigate whether there is any connection between detected tidal tails, extra-tidal stellar populations and extended diffuse halo-like structures, and the dynamical histories of GGCs in the Galaxy.

  7. Optical Observations of X-ray Bright, Optically Normal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadun, Alberto C.; Aryan, N. S.; Ghosh, K. K.

    2007-05-01

    X-ray bright, optically normal galaxies (XBONGs) are galaxies that seem to have normal spectra and morphology, but are relatively bright x-ray sources. The large ratio of the x-ray to optical emission suggests that some activity, similar to that of active galactic nuclei (AGN), is occurring. Since the galaxies do not show any obvious sign of nuclear activity in their optical spectra, one possible explanation is that these galaxies do not have an optically thick accretion disk at small radii, as previously assumed. Previous data for NGC 7626 classifies it as an XBONG, and so we are studying optical features of this galaxy in order to determine better its features. After confirming an x-ray jet, we are now comparing this to optical features that we have found, including warped dust lanes and a possible optical jet.

  8. Spectral Energy Distribution and Radio Halo of NGC 253 at Low Radio Frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapińska, A. D.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Meurer, G. R.; For, B.-Q. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, WA 6009 (Australia); Crocker, R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bhandari, S.; Callingham, J. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Hancock, P. J.; Lenc, E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Sydney NSW (Australia); Hurley-Walker, N.; Seymour, N. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Offringa, A. R. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), P.O. Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Hanish, D. J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ekers, R. D.; Bell, M. E. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Dwarakanath, K. S. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Hindson, L. [Centre of Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); McKinley, B., E-mail: anna.kapinska@uwa.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); and others

    2017-03-20

    We present new radio continuum observations of NGC 253 from the Murchison Widefield Array at frequencies between 76 and 227 MHz. We model the broadband radio spectral energy distribution for the total flux density of NGC 253 between 76 MHz and 11 GHz. The spectrum is best described as a sum of a central starburst and extended emission. The central component, corresponding to the inner 500 pc of the starburst region of the galaxy, is best modeled as an internally free–free absorbed synchrotron plasma, with a turnover frequency around 230 MHz. The extended emission component of the spectrum of NGC 253 is best described as a synchrotron emission flattening at low radio frequencies. We find that 34% of the extended emission (outside the central starburst region) at 1 GHz becomes partially absorbed at low radio frequencies. Most of this flattening occurs in the western region of the southeast halo, and may be indicative of synchrotron self-absorption of shock-reaccelerated electrons or an intrinsic low-energy cutoff of the electron distribution. Furthermore, we detect the large-scale synchrotron radio halo of NGC 253 in our radio images. At 154–231 MHz the halo displays the well known X-shaped/horn-like structure, and extends out to ∼8 kpc in the z -direction (from the major axis).

  9. UBV photometry of 262 southern galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, G.

    1979-01-01

    Multi-aperture photometry of 262 bright southern galaxies in the Johnson UBV system is given. Most of these are south of delta = -30 0 , although some northward to delta = -10 0 are included. A total of 169 objects have published radial velocity determinations. These provide distances, and enable construction of colour-magnitude diagrams for this subset of objects througha physical diameter of 2.0 kpc (with H 0 = 100). The two-colour diagrams for the inner regions of the galaxies differ from those of integrated galaxies due to the colour changes towards their centres. Comparison with theoretical models of Larson and Tinsley (1978) suggest that the colours of the inner portions of most ellipticals and lenticulars are consistent with their having all stars formed at nearly one epoch with little subsequent star formation, while for spirals larger amounts of star formation, either in bursts of continuously, are suggested. This simple picture is complicated by the presence of certain objects having peculiar colours indicative of large amounts of recent star formation. (Auth.)

  10. Detailed observations of NGC 4151 with IUE. Paper 1. Low dispersion data up to 1979 January

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penston, M.V.; Boksenberg, A.; Bromage, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports low resolution ultraviolet spectroscopic monitoring of NGC 4151 with IUE in the period 1978 February to 1979 January. Observations were made at 7 different epochs. Continuum points can be isolated in both long-wave (1950 to 3250 A) and, with some difficulty, short-wave (1150 to 1950 A) regions. 15 absorption features are identified and their equivalent widths measured. Some arise from metastable levels, some are variable and others are stronger than can be accounted for by the interstellar media of our galaxy and of the NGC 4151 galaxy alone. Most arise in the nucleus of NGC 4151. Velocity variations in the absorption region are indicated by changing V/R ratios in the overall C IV feature. The Si IV lines are unsaturated and must therefore be broad. The lower limit to the absorbing column is much less than the X-ray column but this latter amount could be present but escape detection if in the form of clouds with low velocity dispersions. The strong emission lines include those seen in quasars; weaker features including some unidentified ones are also discussed. The intensities of the high-ionization emission lines are variable, as are the line widths of C IV. Most variable parameters vary in phase or anti-phase with the continuum and may be explained in terms of changing ionization conditions in the absorption and emission regions. (author)

  11. The Newtonian and MOND dynamical models of NGC 5128: Investigation of the dark matter contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the well-known nearby early-type galaxy NGC 5128 (Centaurus A and use the sample of its globular clusters to analyze its dynamics. We study both Newtonian and MOND models assuming three cases of orbital anisotropies: isotropic case, mildly tangentially anisotropic case and the radially anisotropic case based on the literature. We find that there are two regions with different values of the velocity dispersion: interior to ~ 3 effective radii the value of the velocity dispersion is approximately 150 km s−1 , whereas beyond ~ 3 effective radii its value increases to approximately 190 km s−1 , thus implying the increase of the total cumulative mass which is indicative of the existence of dark matter there in the Newtonian approach: the mass-to-light increases from M/LB = 7 in the inner regions to M/LB = 26 in the outer regions. We found that the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW model with dark halo provides good description of the dynamics of NGC 5128. Using three MOND models (standard, simple and toy, we find that they all provide good fits to the velocity dispersion of NGC 5128 and that no additional dark component is needed in MOND. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021: Visible and Invisible Matter in Nearby Galaxies: Theory and Observations

  12. Na abundances in NGC6752 (Campbell+, 2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; D'Orazi, V.; Yong, D.

    2013-01-01

    We obtained high-resolution spectra (R~24000) for a sample of 20 AGB stars and 24 red giant branch stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6752. (1 data file).......We obtained high-resolution spectra (R~24000) for a sample of 20 AGB stars and 24 red giant branch stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6752. (1 data file)....

  13. CO(4-3) and CO(7-6) maps of the nucleus of NGC 253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güsten, R.; Philipp, S. D.; Weiß, A.; Klein, B.

    2006-08-01

    Context: .Molecular line excitation studies of the nuclei of nearby starburst galaxies yield important information on the starburst phenomena, in particular on the temperature and density of the star-forming gas. Such studies also provide templates for high redshift galaxies with even more extreme star formation. Aims: .Fundamental constraints on the physical properties in the nuclear regions of external galaxies can be derived from the spectral energy distribution (i.e., integrated flux density vs. rotational quantum number) of CO rotational emission arising from warm gas. Methods: .The resolution and sensitivity of the APEX telescope makes it feasible to perform spatially resolved studies of submillimeter (submm) CO emission from the warm, dense gas in nearby starburst nuclei. Using the FLASH dual-channel heterodyne receiver we mapped emission in the CO J=4-3 and 7-6 lines toward the archetypical nuclear starburst galaxy NGC 253. Results: .Combining our new observations with data from the literature, we derive the CO line SED in the central 250 pc of NGC 253, which peaks near the 6-5 transition and has a shape very similar to that of M 82. All CO transitions in the central region can well be fitted with a single temperature/density Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) model. A good match to the observations is found by assuming kinetic gas temperatures that are comparable to the dust temperature ({T}kin ≈ 60 K) and a H2 density of order 104 cm-3. Conclusions: .Our very first APEX submm study of a nearby starburst nucleus (NGC 253) meaningfully constrains the physical properties of the star-forming molecular gas it contains. With broader band spectrometers and a chopping secondary coming soon, the impact of APEX on extragalactic astrophysics will be foreseeably significant.

  14. Galaxy evolution in Local Group analogs. I. A GALEX study of nearby groups dominated by late-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, A.; Bianchi, L.; Rampazzo, R.; Buson, L. M.; Bettoni, D.

    2010-02-01

    Context. Understanding the astrophysical processes acting within galaxy groups and their effects on the evolution of the galaxy population is one of the crucial topics of modern cosmology, as almost 60% of galaxies in the Local Universe are found in groups. Aims: We aim at learning about galaxy evolution within nearby groups dominated by late-type galaxies, specifically by studying their ultraviolet-emitting stellar population. Methods: We imaged in the far (FUV, λ_eff = 1539 Å) and near ultraviolet (NUV, λ_eff = 2316 Å) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) three nearby groups, namely LGG 93, LGG 127 and LGG 225. We obtained the UV galaxy surface photometry and, for LGG 225, the only group covered by the SDSS, the photometry in u, g, r, i, z bands. We discuss galaxy morphologies looking for interaction signatures and we analyze the spectral energy distribution of galaxies to infer their luminosity-weighted ages. The UV and optical photometry was also used to perform a luminosity-weighted kinematical and dynamical analysis of each group and to evaluate the stellar mass. Results: A few member galaxies in LGG 225 show a distorted UV morphology due to ongoing interactions. (FUV-NUV) colors suggest that spirals in LGG 93 and LGG 225 host stellar populations in their outskirts younger than that of M 31 and M 33 in the Local Group or with less extinction. The irregular interacting galaxy NGC 3447A has a significantly younger stellar population (a few Myr old) than the average of the other irregular galaxies in LGG 225 suggesting that the encounter triggered star formation. The early-type members of LGG 225, NGC 3457 and NGC 3522, have masses of the order of a few 10^9~M_⊙, comparable to the Local Group ellipticals. For the most massive spiral in LGG 225, we estimate a stellar mass of ≈4 × 1010~M_⊙, comparable to M 33 in the Local Group. Ages of stellar populations range from a few to ≈7 Gyr for the galaxies in LGG 225. The kinematical and dynamical

  15. Galactic Starburst NGC 3603 from X-Rays to Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, A. F. J.; Corcoran, M. F.; Stevens, I. R.; Skalkowski, G.; Marchenko, S. V.; Muecke, A.; Ptak, A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Brenneman, L.; Mushotzky, R.; hide

    2002-01-01

    NGC 3603 is the most massive and luminous visible starburst region in the Galaxy. We present the first Chandra/ACIS-I X-ray image and spectra of this dense, exotic object, accompanied by deep cm-wavelength ATCA radio image at similar or less than 1 inch spatial resolution, and HST/ground-based optical data. At the S/N greater than 3 level, Chandra detects several hundred X-ray point sources (compared to the 3 distinct sources seen by ROSAT). At least 40 of these sources are definitely associated with optically identified cluster O and WR type members, but most are not. A diffuse X-ray component is also seen out to approximately 2 feet (4 pc) form the center, probably arising mainly from the large number of merging/colliding hot stellar winds and/or numerous faint cluster sources. The point-source X-ray fluxes generally increase with increasing bolometric brightnesses of the member O/WR stars, but with very large scatter. Some exceptionally bright stellar X-ray sources may be colliding wind binaries. The radio image shows (1) two resolved sources, one definitely non-thermal, in the cluster core near where the X-ray/optically brightest stars with the strongest stellar winds are located, (2) emission from all three known proplyd-like objects (with thermal and non-thermal components, and (3) many thermal sources in the peripheral regions of triggered star-formation. Overall, NGC 3603 appears to be a somewhat younger and hotter, scaled-down version of typical starbursts found in other galaxies.

  16. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND GALAXY FORMATION REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Fall, S. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j * and mass M * (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii are generally sufficient to estimate total j * reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j * in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of ∼100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j * versus M * . The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j * -M * tracks, with log-slopes of ∼0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of ∼3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and ∼7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j * -M * trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that follow separate, fundamental j * -M * scaling relations. This provides a

  17. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND GALAXY FORMATION REVISITED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanowsky, Aaron J. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Fall, S. Michael [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j{sub *} and mass M{sub *} (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii are generally sufficient to estimate total j{sub *} reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j{sub *} in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of {approx}100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j{sub *} versus M{sub *}. The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j{sub *}-M{sub *} tracks, with log-slopes of {approx}0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of {approx}3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and {approx}7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j{sub *}-M{sub *} trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that follow

  18. The fate of the Antennae galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahén, Natalia; Johansson, Peter H.; Rantala, Antti; Naab, Thorsten; Frigo, Matteo

    2018-04-01

    We present a high-resolution smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulation of the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/4039) and follow the evolution 3 Gyr beyond the final coalescence. The simulation includes metallicity-dependent cooling, star formation, and both stellar feedback and chemical enrichment. The simulated best-match Antennae reproduce well both the observed morphology and the off-nuclear starburst. We also produce for the first time a simulated two-dimensional (2D) metallicity map of the Antennae and find good agreement with the observed metallicity of off-nuclear stellar clusters; however, the nuclear metallicities are overproduced by ˜0.5 dex. Using the radiative transfer code SKIRT, we produce multiwavelength observations of both the Antennae and the merger remnant. The 1-Gyr-old remnant is well fitted with a Sérsic profile of n = 7.07, and with an r-band effective radius of re = 1.6 kpc and velocity dispersion of σe = 180 km s-1 the remnant is located on the Fundamental Plane of early-type galaxies (ETGs). The initially blue Antennae remnant evolves on to the red sequence after ˜2.5 Gyr of secular evolution. The remnant would be classified as a fast rotator, as the specific angular momentum evolves from λRe ≈ 0.11 to 0.14 during its evolution. The remnant shows ordered rotation and a double peaked maximum in the mean 2D line-of-sight velocity. These kinematical features are relatively common amongst local ETGs and we specifically identify three local ETGs (NGC 3226, NGC 3379, and NGC 4494) in the atlas3D sample, whose photometric and kinematic properties most resemble the Antennae remnant.

  19. A Multi-wavelength Study of the Turbulent Central Engine of the Low-mass AGN Hosted by NGC 404

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Kristina; Davis, Timothy A.; Nguyen, Dieu D.; Seth, Anil; Wrobel, Joan M.; Kamble, Atish; Lacy, Mark; Alatalo, Katherine; Karovska, Margarita; Maksym, W. Peter; Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Young, Lisa M.

    2017-08-01

    The nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 404 harbors a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus powered by the lowest-mass (seeds” that formed in the early universe. Here, we present new imaging of the nucleus of NGC 404 at 12-18 GHz with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and observations of the CO(2-1) line with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). For the first time, we have successfully resolved the nuclear radio emission, revealing a centrally peaked, extended source spanning 17 pc. Combined with previous VLA observations, our new data place a tight constraint on the radio spectral index and indicate an optically thin synchrotron origin for the emission. The peak of the resolved radio source coincides with the dynamical center of NGC 404, the center of a rotating disk of molecular gas, and the position of a compact, hard X-ray source. We also present evidence for shocks in the NGC 404 nucleus from archival narrowband HST imaging, Chandra X-ray data, and Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy, and discuss possible origins for the shock excitation. Given the morphology, location, and steep spectral index of the resolved radio source, as well as constraints on nuclear star formation from the ALMA CO(2-1) data, we find the most likely scenario for the origin of the radio source in the center of NGC 404 to be a radio outflow associated with a confined jet driven by the active nucleus.

  20. Population studies in groups and clusters of galaxies. III. A catalog of galaxies in five nearby groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, H.C.; Sandage, A.

    1990-01-01

    Five nearby groups of galaxies have been surveyed using large-scale plates from the 2.5 m duPont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Catalogs of galaxies brighter than B(T) = 20 are presented for the Leo, Dorado, NGC 1400, NGC 5044, and Antlia groups. A total of 1044 galaxies are included, from visual inspection of 14 plates, covering 31 deg square. Galaxies have been classified in the extended Hubble system, and group memberships have been assigned based on velocity (where available) and morphology. About half the galaxies listed are likely members of one of the nearby groups. The catalogs are complete to B(T) = 18, although the completeness limits vary slightly from group to group. Based on King model fits to the surface density profiles, the core radii of the groups range from 0.3 to 1 Mpc, and central densities range from 120 to 1900 galaxies Mpc exp-3 brighter than M(BT) = -12.5. Dynamical analysis indicates that all of the groups are likely to be gravitationally bound. 64 refs

  1. The Ultraviolet Attenuation Law in Backlit Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; Manning, Anna M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Lintott, Chris J.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    The effective extinction law (attenuation behavior) in galaxies in the emitted ultraviolet (UV) regime is well known only for actively star-forming objects and combines effects of the grain properties, fine structure in the dust distribution, and relative distributions of stars and dust. We use Galaxy Evolution Explorer, XMM Optical Monitor, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to explore the UV attenuation in the outer parts of spiral disks which are backlit by other UV-bright galaxies, starting with the candidate list of pairs provided by Galaxy Zoo participants. New optical images help to constrain the geometry and structure of the target galaxies. Our analysis incorporates galaxy symmetry, using non-overlapping regions of each galaxy to derive error estimates on the attenuation measurements. The entire sample has an attenuation law across the optical and UV that is close to the Calzetti et al. form; the UV slope for the overall sample is substantially shallower than found by Wild et al., which is a reasonable match to the more distant galaxies in our sample but not to the weighted combination including NGC 2207. The nearby, bright spiral NGC 2207 alone gives an accuracy almost equal to the rest of our sample, and its outer arms have a very low level of foreground starlight. Thus, this widespread, fairly "gray" law can be produced from the distribution of dust alone, without a necessary contribution from differential escape of stars from dense clouds. Our results indicate that the extrapolation needed to compare attenuation between backlit galaxies at moderate redshifts from HST data, and local systems from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and similar data, is mild enough to allow the use of galaxy overlaps to trace the cosmic history of dust in galaxies. For NGC 2207, HST data in the near-UV F336W band show that the covering factor of clouds with small optical attenuation becomes a dominant factor farther into the UV, which opens the possibility that widespread

  2. An Elegant Galaxy in an Unusual Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    A new image taken with the powerful HAWK-I camera on ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory in Chile shows the beautiful barred spiral galaxy NGC 1365 in infrared light. NGC 1365 is a member of the Fornax cluster of galaxies, and lies about 60 million light-years from Earth. NGC 1365 is one of the best known and most studied barred spiral galaxies and is sometimes nicknamed the Great Barred Spiral Galaxy because of its strikingly perfect form, with the straight bar and two very prominent outer spiral arms. Closer to the centre there is also a second spiral structure and the whole galaxy is laced with delicate dust lanes. This galaxy is an excellent laboratory for astronomers to study how spiral galaxies form and evolve. The new infrared images from HAWK-I are less affected by the dust that obscures parts of the galaxy than images in visible light (potw1037a) and they reveal very clearly the glow from vast numbers of stars in both the bar and the spiral arms. These data were acquired to help astronomers understand the complex flow of material within the galaxy and how it affects the reservoirs of gas from which new stars can form. The huge bar disturbs the shape of the gravitational field of the galaxy and this leads to regions where gas is compressed and star formation is triggered. Many huge young star clusters trace out the main spiral arms and each contains hundreds or thousands of bright young stars that are less than ten million years old. The galaxy is too remote for single stars to be seen in this image and most of the tiny clumps visible in the picture are really star clusters. Over the whole galaxy, stars are forming at a rate of about three times the mass of our Sun per year. While the bar of the galaxy consists mainly of older stars long past their prime, many new stars are born in stellar nurseries of gas and dust in the inner spiral close to the nucleus. The bar also funnels gas and dust gravitationally into the very centre of the galaxy

  3. Probing the super star cluster environment of NGC 1569 using FISICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Raines, S. N.; Gruel, N.; Elston, R.; Guzman, R.; Boreman, G.; Glenn, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present near-IR JH spectra of the central regions of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569 using the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA). The dust-penetrating properties and available spectral features of the near-IR, combined with the integral field unit (IFU) capability to take spectra of a field, make FISICA an ideal tool for this work. We use the prominent [He i] (1.083 μm) and Paβ (1.282 μm) lines to probe the dense star-forming regions as well as characterize the general star-forming environment around the super star clusters (SSCs) in NGC 1569. We find [He i] coincident with CO clouds to the north and west of the SSCs, which provides the first, conclusive evidence for embedded star clusters here.

  4. A rapidly spinning supermassive black hole at the centre of NGC 1365

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risaliti, G.; Harrison, F. A.; Madsen, K. K.

    2013-01-01

    and relativistic effects near the black hole, the line shape being sensitive to its spin. Alternative models in which the distortions result from absorption by intervening structures provide an equally good description of the data, and there has been no general agreement on which is correct. Recent claims...... that the black hole (2 × 10(6) solar masses) at the centre of the galaxy NGC 1365 is rotating at close to its maximum possible speed rest on the assumption of relativistic reflection. Here we report X-ray observations of NGC 1365 that reveal the relativistic disk features through broadened Fe-line emission...... and an associated Compton scattering excess of 10-30 kiloelectronvolts. Using temporal and spectral analyses, we disentangle continuum changes due to time-variable absorption from reflection, which we find arises from a region within 2.5 gravitational radii of the rapidly spinning black hole. Absorption...

  5. Chandra Studies of Nearby Radio and Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. S.

    2001-09-01

    I shall describe some of the results of a Chandra ACIS program on the extended, universally bi-polar, X-ray emission of nearby radio galaxies and Seyfert galaxies, with emphasis on the diversity of the radiation mechanisms involved and the implications for our understanding of the AGN phenomenon. a) Radio galaxies. The X-ray emission from the hot spots of Cygnus A are synchrotron self-Compton emission from the synchrotron radio emitting electrons in a magnetic field which is close to equipartition (the papers by Young et al. and Smith et al. describe our Chandra results on the nucleus and cluster gas of Cygnus A, respectively). The X-ray knots of the M87 jet are almost certainly synchrotron radiation, as judged by their steep spectra. Preliminary results of a long integration on the Virgo cluster ICM will be presented. The X-ray radiation mechanism of the jet and western hot spot of Pictor A remains uncertain, with evidence favoring synchrotron radiation and bulk relativistic outflow of the jet and, remarkably, the western hot spot. b) Seyfert galaxies. For the Circinus galaxy, NGC 1068 and NGC 4151, the bulk of the X-ray emitting gas is photoionized by the nucleus. There is some evidence for thermal plasma emission powered by the starburst in Circinus and by the jet-driven outflows in NGC 1068. In M51, the bi-polar nuclear lobes previously found in radio continuum and optical line emission show up in X-rays as thermal plasma emission from shocked gas with kT ~ 0.5 keV. The nucleus is obscured by a column density in excess of 1024 cm-2 (see paper by Terashima et al.). In NGC 4258, the X-rays (which are thermal plasma emission from gas with kT ~ 0.3 - 0.6 keV) are dominated by the ``anomalous arms''. These arms represent dense gas in the galaxy disk shocked by mass motions driven into the low density halo gas (which then collides with the disk) by the out-of-disk radio jet. The extended X-ray emission powered by active galaxies thus depends on the relative

  6. High-resolution Spectroscopic Observations of Single Red Giants in Three Open Clusters: NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Suárez, V. J.; Sales Silva, J. V.; Katime Santrich, O. J.; Drake, N. A.; Pereira, C. B.

    2018-02-01

    Single stars in open clusters with known distances are important targets in constraining the nucleosynthesis process since their ages and luminosities are also known. In this work, we analyze a sample of 29 single red giants of the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822 using high-resolution spectroscopy. We obtained atmospheric parameters, abundances of the elements C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd, as well as radial and rotational velocities. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium atmospheric models of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. Rotational velocities and light-element abundances were derived using spectral synthesis. Based on our analysis of the single red giants in these three open clusters, we could compare, for the first time, their abundance pattern with that of the binary stars of the same clusters previously studied. Our results show that the abundances of both single and binary stars of the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822 do not have significant differences. For the elements created by the s-process, we observed that the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822 also follow the trend already raised in the literature that young clusters have higher s-process element abundances than older clusters. Finally, we observed that the three clusters of our sample exhibit a trend in the [Y/Mg]-age relation, which may indicate the ability of the [Y/Mg] ratio to be used as a clock for the giants. Based on the observations made with the 2.2 m telescope at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) under an agreement with Observatório Nacional and under an agreement between Observatório Nacional and Max-Planck Institute für Astronomie.

  7. On the Relationship between Star Formation and Activity in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Delgado, Rosa M.

    1995-11-01

    This thesis is made of three main parts. In the first one a sample of 55 galaxies with an active nucleus (Seyfert 1, Seyfert2 and LINERs) is analysed; these were observed with the 4.2m WHT and 1m JKT in CCD narrow band H-alpha +[NII] and [OIII] to map the distribution of HII regions and the morphology of the circumnuclear extended emission associated with the active nucleus. The analysis of the extended emission and HII regions is carried out, as a function of the level of activity and of the Hubble type. One third of the sample shows circumnuclear HII regions, but only 9% of these are S1. The number surface density of the star forming sites and the location of the brightest HII region, indicates that in S2 the star formation is more important in the inner disk; however, in S1 the distribution of the star forming sites is more uniform with distance, and the brighest HII regions are farther away from the nucleus than in S2. The luminosity function, size distribution, the relationship between the Ha flux and the size, the emission measure, and the radial distribution of the HII regions in 27 out of the 55 galaxies of the sample are studied. This comprises a statistical analysis of more than 2000 HII regions. In the second part of this thesis the giant extragalactic HII region NGC 2363 and the starburst galaxy NGC 7714 are studied; they were observed in narrow band CCD H-alpha image with the JKT and spectroscopically from 3700 to 9600 A with the WHT. Both objects are experiencing intense star formation activity. Evidence of this comes from the detection of WC and WN emission features in NGC 2363 and in NGC 7714 respectively; this suggests an age of the present burst between 3 and 5 Myr. However, evidence for the existence of a previous burst in NGC 7714 comes from the detection of the infrared CaII triplet in absorption. The physical conditions and chemical composition of the gas are derived. In both cases, the metallicity is low (12+log O/H=7.89 for NGC 2363) and

  8. Galaxy Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruit, P. C.; Freeman, K. C.

    The disks of disk galaxies contain a substantial fraction of their baryonic matter and angular momentum, and much of the evolutionary activity in these galaxies, such as the formation of stars, spiral arms, bars and rings, and the various forms of secular evolution, takes place in their disks. The

  9. Disk mass densities in edge-on spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupen, Michael P.

    1990-01-01

    Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the neutral hydrogen (HI) gas in two nearby edge-on spirals (NGC 4565 and NGC 891) successfully resolve the thickness of the gas layers in both disks over a wide range in radii. The combination of B, C, and D array data produces a 4 arcsec (approx. 200 pc) beam and 21 km s(exp -1) velocity resolution, combined with sensitivity to structures as large as 18 arcmin (approx. 54 kpc). These observations directly constrain the mid-plane disk mass densities, under the assumption of an equilibrium between the thermal pressure of the gas and the gravitational attraction of the disk. The results of a preliminary analysis are given regarding the z-velocity dispersion of the gas, the mass-to-light ratio of the disk in NGC 4565, and the roles of atomic and molecular gases. The data also allow a detailed study of the HI in these galaxies; in general their brightness temperature distributions seem similar to that in the Milky Way. Both galaxies show asymmetric HI extensions beyond the optical disk. In NGC 4565 the extension is a surprisingly abrupt warp, which may bend back to parallel the galactic plane; the velocity structure implies the warp is continuous around the disk.

  10. Wide-Field Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Globular Cluster System in NGC 1399*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzia, Thomas H.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Goudfrooij, Paul; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Angelini, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive high spatial resolution imaging study of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 1399, thecentral giant elliptical cD galaxy in the Fornax galaxy cluster, conducted with the Advanced Camera for Surveys(ACS) aboard theHubble Space Telescope(HST).Using a novel technique to construct drizzled point-spreadfunction libraries for HSTACS data, we accurately determine the fidelity of GC structural parameter measurementsfrom detailed artificial star cluster experiments and show the superior robustness of the GC half-light radius,rh,compared with other GC structural parameters, such as King core and tidal radius. The measurement ofrhfor themajor fraction of the NGC 1399 GC system reveals a trend of increasingrhversus galactocentric distance,Rgal,out to about 10 kpc and a flat relation beyond. This trend is very similar for blue and red GCs, which are found tohave a mean size ratio ofrh,redrh,blue0.820.11 at all galactocentric radii from the core regions of the galaxyout to40 kpc. This suggests that the size difference between blue and red GCs is due to internal mechanismsrelated to the evolution of their constituent stellar populations. Modeling the mass density profile of NGC 1399shows that additional external dynamical mechanisms are required to limit the GC size in the galaxy halo regionstorh2 pc. We suggest that this may be realized by an exotic GC orbit distribution function, an extended darkmatter halo, andor tidal stress induced by the increased stochasticity in the dwarf halo substructure at largergalactocentric distances. We compare our results with the GCrhdistribution functions in various galaxies and findthat the fraction of extended GCs withrh5 pc is systematically larger in late-type galaxies compared with GCsystems in early-type galaxies. This is likely due to the dynamically more violent evolution of early-type galaxies.We match our GCrhmeasurements with radial velocity data from the literature and split the resulting sample at

  11. Star clusters in evolving galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Florent

    2018-04-01

    Their ubiquity and extreme densities make star clusters probes of prime importance of galaxy evolution. Old globular clusters keep imprints of the physical conditions of their assembly in the early Universe, and younger stellar objects, observationally resolved, tell us about the mechanisms at stake in their formation. Yet, we still do not understand the diversity involved: why is star cluster formation limited to 105M⊙ objects in the Milky Way, while some dwarf galaxies like NGC 1705 are able to produce clusters 10 times more massive? Why do dwarfs generally host a higher specific frequency of clusters than larger galaxies? How to connect the present-day, often resolved, stellar systems to the formation of globular clusters at high redshift? And how do these links depend on the galactic and cosmological environments of these clusters? In this review, I present recent advances on star cluster formation and evolution, in galactic and cosmological context. The emphasis is put on the theory, formation scenarios and the effects of the environment on the evolution of the global properties of clusters. A few open questions are identified.

  12. THE GAS DYNAMICS OF NGC 4472 REVEALED BY XMM-NEWTON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, R. P.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Raychaudhury, S.; Evans, D. A.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Sarazin, C. L.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a 100 ks XMM-Newton observation of the hot gas in the Virgo cluster elliptical galaxy NGC 4472. We find a surface brightness discontinuity ∼21 kpc north of the nucleus, consistent with being a contact discontinuity between two moving fluids. We also detect a >60 kpc long ram-pressure stripped tail. The pressure across the discontinuity implies an infall velocity, v infall , of 1000 km s -1 infall -1 depending on what assumptions are made about the density and pressure of the external gas. We suggest that the NGC 4472 group is falling into a collapsing filament, which is itself falling into the Virgo cluster. The gas of a collapsing filament is rapidly decelerated as it crosses the standoff shock, but the apparent high velocity of infall for NGC 4472 could be simply due to the fact that the gravitating potential of the NGC 4472 group is unaffected by this shock. While the group falls through the shock its gas will be stripped as it passes through the stalled gas of the filament. Additionally, we find two sets of cool filamentary arms to the east and the southwest of the nucleus. One of the southwest arms is coincident with a sharp filament seen with Chandra. We interpret these arms as filaments of cool gas that have been driven out from the center of the galaxy by the buoyant evolution of a radio bubble. The age of this outburst is ∼10 8 yr assuming that the buoyant bubble rises with a velocity of ∼0.4c s = 200 km s -1 ; the energy of the outburst is a modest ∼2 x 10 56 erg.

  13. H I debris in the IC 1459 galaxy group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponara, Juliana; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Benaglia, Paula; Fernández López, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    We present H I synthesis imaging of the giant elliptical galaxy IC 1459 and its surroundings with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Our search for extended H I emission revealed a large complex of H I clouds near IC 1459, likely to be the debris from tidal interactions with neighbouring galaxies. The total H I mass (∼109 M⊙) in the detected clouds spans 250 kpc from the north-east of the gas-rich spiral NGC 7418A to the south-east of IC 1459. The extent and mass of the H I debris, which shows rather irregular morphology and kinematics, are similar to those in other nearby groups. Together with H I clouds recently detected near two other IC 1459 group members, namely IC 5270 and NGC 7418, using phased-array feeds on the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder, the detected debris make up a significant fraction of the group's intergalactic medium.

  14. AN IN-DEPTH STUDY OF THE ABUNDANCE PATTERN IN THE HOT INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN NGC 4649

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewenstein, Michael; Davis, David S.

    2012-01-01

    We present our X-ray imaging spectroscopic analysis of data from deep Suzaku and XMM-Newton Observatory exposures of the Virgo Cluster elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 (M60), focusing on the abundance pattern in the hot interstellar medium (ISM). All measured elements show a radial decline in abundance, with the possible exception of O. We construct steady-state solutions to the chemical evolution equations that include infall in addition to stellar mass return and Type Ia supernova (SNIa) enrichment, and consider recently published SNIa yields. By adjusting a single model parameter to obtain a match to the global abundance pattern in NGC 4649, we infer that introduction of subsolar metallicity external gas has reduced the overall ISM metallicity and diluted the effectiveness of SNIa to skew the pattern toward low α/Fe ratios, and estimate the combination of SNIa rate and level of dilution. Evidently, newly introduced gas is heated as it is integrated into, and interacts with, the hot gas that is already present. These results indicate a complex flow and enrichment history for NGC 4649, reflecting the continual evolution of elliptical galaxies beyond the formation epoch. The heating and circulation of accreted gas may help reconcile this dynamic history with the mostly passive evolution of elliptical stellar populations. In an Appendix, we examine the effects of the recent updated atomic database AtomDB in spectral fitting of thermal plasmas with hot ISM temperatures in the elliptical galaxy range.

  15. An In-Depth Study of the Abundance Pattern in the Hot Interstellar Medium in NGC 4649

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Michael; Davis, David S.

    2012-01-01

    We present our X-ray imaging spectroscopic analysis of data from deep Suzaku and XMM-Newton Observatory exposures of the Virgo Cluster elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 (M60), focusing on the abundance pattern in the hot interstellar medium (ISM). All measured elements show a radial decline in abundance, with the possible exception of Oxygen. We construct steady state solutions to the chemical evolution equations that include infall in addition to stellar mass return and Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) enrichment, and consider recently published SNIa yields. By adjusting a single model parameter to obtain a match to the global abundance pattern in NGC 4649 we infer that introduction of subsolar metallicity external gas has reduced the overall ISM metallicity and diluted the effectiveness of SNIa to skew the pattern towards low alpha/Fe ratios, and estimate the combination of SNIa rate and level of dilution. Evidently, newly-introduced gas is heated as it is integrated into, and interacts with, the hot gas that is already present. These results indicate a complex flow and enrichment history for NGC 4649, reflecting the continual evolution of elliptical galaxies beyond the formation epoch. The heating and circulation of accreted gas may help reconcile this dynamic history with the mostly passive evolution of elliptical stellar populations. In an appendix we examine the effects of the recent updated atomic database AtomDB in spectral fitting of thermal plasmas with hot ISM temperatures in the elliptical galaxy range.

  16. Investigation of an optical method for determining the average radius of curvature of micro-optical lenticular lens arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Theis Faber Quist; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Kirkegaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    variations that have arisen in the moulding process. The experimental results are compared with a model, based on the Fraunhofer approximation to the Huygens-Fresnel principle. Furthermore, the optical elements under investigation are probed using a scanning probe microscope. Hence, access to accurate......Micro-optical elements are of great importance in areas of optoelectronics and information processing. Establishing fast, reliable methods for characterization and quality control of these elements is important in order to maintain the optical performance in a high volume production process. We...... investigate an optical technique, applied to a polymer-based, injection moulded, lenticular array, but the method is also applicable for the tooling for these elements. The cylindrical lenses have feature sizes of 1-15 mu m. The method is based on observation of the intensity distribution, which can...

  17. THE SLUGGS SURVEY: NGC 3115, A CRITICAL TEST CASE FOR METALLICITY BIMODALITY IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Conroy, Charlie; Arnold, Jacob A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J. [University of California Observatories and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Strader, Jay, E-mail: brodie@ucolick.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    Due to its proximity (9 Mpc) and the strongly bimodal color distribution of its spectroscopically well-sampled globular cluster (GC) system, the early-type galaxy NGC 3115 provides one of the best available tests of whether the color bimodality widely observed in GC systems generally reflects a true metallicity bimodality. Color bimodality has alternatively been attributed to a strongly nonlinear color-metallicity relation reflecting the influence of hot horizontal-branch stars. Here, we couple Subaru Suprime-Cam gi photometry with Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to accurately measure GC colors and a CaT index that measures the Ca II triplet. We find the NGC 3115 GC system to be unambiguously bimodal in both color and the CaT index. Using simple stellar population models, we show that the CaT index is essentially unaffected by variations in horizontal-branch morphology over the range of metallicities relevant to GC systems (and is thus a robust indicator of metallicity) and confirm bimodality in the metallicity distribution. We assess the existing evidence for and against multiple metallicity subpopulations in early- and late-type galaxies and conclude that metallicity bi/multimodality is common. We briefly discuss how this fundamental characteristic links directly to the star formation and assembly histories of galaxies.

  18. NGC 5195 in M51: Feedback `Burps' after a Massive Meal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Eric M.; Jones, Christine; Machacek, Marie E.; Vega, Laura D.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a double-arc-like X-ray structure lying ˜15-30'' (~0.8-1.7 kpc) south of the NGC 5195 nucleus visible in the merged exposures of long Chandra pointings of M51. The curvature and orientation of the arcs argues for a nuclear origin. We interpret the arcs as episodic outbursts from the central super-massive black hole (SMBH). The arcs are radially spaced by ~15'' (~1$ kpc), but are rotated relative to each other by ~30°, requiring episodic activity. We also find aslender Hα-emitting region just outside the outer edge of the outer X-ray arc, suggesting that the X-ray-emitting gas plowed up and displaced the Hα-emitting material from the galaxy core.Star formation may have commenced in that arc. Hα emission is present at the inner arc, but appears more complex in structure. In contrast to an explosion expected to be azimuthally symmetric, the X-ray arcs suggest a focused outflow. We conclude that NGC 5195 represents the nearest galaxy exhibiting on-going, large-scale outflows of gas, in particular, two episodes of a focused outburst of the SMBH. The observation has implications for SMBH feedback and the subsequent galaxy evolution.

  19. VERITAS discovery of VHE emission from the FRI radio galaxy 3C 264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Reshmi

    2018-03-01

    We report the VERITAS discovery of very-high-energy emission (VHE; > 100 GeV) from the FRI radio galaxy 3C 264, also known as NGC 3862. Nearly 12 hours of quality selected data, collected by VERITAS between 09 February 2018 and 16 March 2018 (UTC), were analyzed.

  20. The ultraviolet attenuation law in backlit spiral galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keel, William C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Manning, Anna M. [Stennis Space Center, MS 39522 (United States); Holwerda, Benne W. [ESA-ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2201-AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Lintott, Chris J. [Astrophysics, Oxford University, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Schawinski, Kevin, E-mail: wkeel@ua.edu, E-mail: ammanning@bama.ua.edu, E-mail: bholwerd@rssd.esa.int, E-mail: Twitter@BenneHolwerda, E-mail: cjl@astro.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: Twitter@chrislintott, E-mail: kevin.schawinski@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: Twitter@kevinschawinski [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The effective extinction law (attenuation behavior) in galaxies in the emitted ultraviolet (UV) regime is well known only for actively star-forming objects and combines effects of the grain properties, fine structure in the dust distribution, and relative distributions of stars and dust. We use Galaxy Evolution Explorer, XMM Optical Monitor, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to explore the UV attenuation in the outer parts of spiral disks which are backlit by other UV-bright galaxies, starting with the candidate list of pairs provided by Galaxy Zoo participants. New optical images help to constrain the geometry and structure of the target galaxies. Our analysis incorporates galaxy symmetry, using non-overlapping regions of each galaxy to derive error estimates on the attenuation measurements. The entire sample has an attenuation law across the optical and UV that is close to the Calzetti et al. form; the UV slope for the overall sample is substantially shallower than found by Wild et al., which is a reasonable match to the more distant galaxies in our sample but not to the weighted combination including NGC 2207. The nearby, bright spiral NGC 2207 alone gives an accuracy almost equal to the rest of our sample, and its outer arms have a very low level of foreground starlight. Thus, this widespread, fairly 'gray' law can be produced from the distribution of dust alone, without a necessary contribution from differential escape of stars from dense clouds. Our results indicate that the extrapolation needed to compare attenuation between backlit galaxies at moderate redshifts from HST data, and local systems from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and similar data, is mild enough to allow the use of galaxy overlaps to trace the cosmic history of dust in galaxies. For NGC 2207, HST data in the near-UV F336W band show that the covering factor of clouds with small optical attenuation becomes a dominant factor farther into the UV, which opens the possibility that

  1. The ultraviolet attenuation law in backlit spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, William C.; Manning, Anna M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Lintott, Chris J.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The effective extinction law (attenuation behavior) in galaxies in the emitted ultraviolet (UV) regime is well known only for actively star-forming objects and combines effects of the grain properties, fine structure in the dust distribution, and relative distributions of stars and dust. We use Galaxy Evolution Explorer, XMM Optical Monitor, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to explore the UV attenuation in the outer parts of spiral disks which are backlit by other UV-bright galaxies, starting with the candidate list of pairs provided by Galaxy Zoo participants. New optical images help to constrain the geometry and structure of the target galaxies. Our analysis incorporates galaxy symmetry, using non-overlapping regions of each galaxy to derive error estimates on the attenuation measurements. The entire sample has an attenuation law across the optical and UV that is close to the Calzetti et al. form; the UV slope for the overall sample is substantially shallower than found by Wild et al., which is a reasonable match to the more distant galaxies in our sample but not to the weighted combination including NGC 2207. The nearby, bright spiral NGC 2207 alone gives an accuracy almost equal to the rest of our sample, and its outer arms have a very low level of foreground starlight. Thus, this widespread, fairly 'gray' law can be produced from the distribution of dust alone, without a necessary contribution from differential escape of stars from dense clouds. Our results indicate that the extrapolation needed to compare attenuation between backlit galaxies at moderate redshifts from HST data, and local systems from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and similar data, is mild enough to allow the use of galaxy overlaps to trace the cosmic history of dust in galaxies. For NGC 2207, HST data in the near-UV F336W band show that the covering factor of clouds with small optical attenuation becomes a dominant factor farther into the UV, which opens the possibility that

  2. Spatially-resolved mid-IR spectroscopy of NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. E.; Geballe, T. R.; Packham, C.; Levenson, N. A.; Elitzur, M.; Fisher, R. S.; Perlman, E.

    2006-06-01

    We present spatially-resolved, near-diffraction-limited 10μm spectra of the nucleus of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC068. The spectra reveal striking variations in continuum slope, silicate feature profile and depth, and fine structure line fluxes on subarcsecond scales, illustrating in unprecedented detail the complexity of the circumnuclear regions of this galaxy at mid-IR wavelengths. The acquisition images show two distinct components: a compact (radius dust in the ionization cones. The observed spectrum of the compact source is compared with clumpy torus models, the first detailed comparison of such models with observational data. The models require most of the clouds to be located within a few parsecs of the central engine, in good agreement with recent mid-IR interferometric observations. However, the mid-IR flux measured with apertures larger than about 1 arcsec dominated by the dust emission from the ionization cones. Many previous attempts to determine the torus spectral energy distribution are thus likely to be significantly affected by contamination from the extended emission, highlighting the importance of spatial resolution in IR studies of nearby AGN.

  3. Metallicities of young massive clusters in NGC 5236 (M83)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Svea; Larsen, Søren; Trager, Scott; Kaper, Lex; Groot, Paul

    2018-01-01

    We present integrated-light (IL) spectra of eight young massive clusters (YMCs) in the metal-rich spiral galaxy NGC 5236 (M83). The observations were taken with the X-Shooter spectrograph on the ESO Very Large Telescope. Through the use of theoretical isochrones and synthetic IL spectra, we derive metallicities and study the radial metallicity gradient observed through these young populations. For the inner regions of the galaxy, we observe a relatively shallow metallicity gradient of -0.37 ± 0.29 dex R_{25}^{-1}, agreeing with chemical evolution models with an absence of infall material and a relatively low mass-loss due to winds in the inner parts of the disc. We estimate a central metallicity of [Z] = +0.17 ± 0.12 dex, finding excellent agreement with that obtained via other methods (e.g. blue supergiants and J band). We infer a metallicity of 12+log(O/H) = 8.75 ± 0.08 dex at R/R25 = 0.4, which fits the stellar mass-metallicity relation compilation of blue supergiants and IL studies.

  4. Necessity for High Accuracy Rotation Curves in Spiral Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien; Carignan, Claude; Amram, Philippe

    1998-01-01

    In the last 20 years, rotation curves derived from H I kinematics obtained on radio synthesis instruments were used to probe the dark matter distribution in spiral and dwarf irregular galaxies. It is shown, with the aid of the Sd galaxy NGC 5585, that high resolution 2--D H II kinematics is necessary to determine accurately the mass distribution of spirals. New CFHT Fabry--Perot Hff observations are combined with low resolution Westerbork H I data to study its mass distribution. Using the com...

  5. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND M/L RATIOS IN NGC 5953/5954

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández Toledo, H. M.; Moreno, E.; García-Barreto, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    In this first paper, we combine a structural analysis of the near-IR surface brightness profiles and [N II] rotation curves for the galaxies in the pair NGC 5953/5954 to model the mass distribution in each member by using two independent axisymmetric analytical mass models: (1) a standard model given by the sum of a spherical bulge with the Sérsic law, a stellar exponential disk, and a cold dark matter halo represented by the improved fitting formula of Navarro et al.; and (2) a simple model given by the sum of a spherical bulge, a finite oblate spheroid representing the disk, and a spherical dark halo, all three mass components with simple density laws. In our surface brightness fits, a central luminous source is considered in both galaxies. We obtained K-band M/L ratios, Y D , Y B , for the disks and bulges, and total masses for each mass component in both galaxies. With the standard model we find in NGC 5953, (Y D ,Y B ) = (0.29 -0.29 +1 , 0.37 ± 0.03) M ☉ /L ☉ , and in NGC 5954, (Y D ,Y B ) = (0.88 ± 0.18, 0.21 ± 0.09) M ☉ /L ☉ . Corresponding values found with the simple model are (Y D ,Y B ) = (1.41 ± 0.15, 0.29 ± 0.04) M ☉ /L ☉ and (Y D ,Y B ) = (0.51 ± 0.05, 0.52 -0.12 +0.23 ) M ☉ /L ☉ . Our M/L estimates are compared with predictions from other methods in the literature, finding reasonable agreement. The dark halos estimated using the simple model have a small mass, of the order of 10 7 M ☉ , within the maximum distance in the rotation velocity data

  6. Chemical Complexity in the Eu-enhanced Monometallic Globular NGC 5986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Caldwell, Nelson; Rich, R. Michael; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Olszewski, Edward W.; Walker, Matthew G.

    2017-06-01

    NGC 5986 is a poorly studied but relatively massive Galactic globular cluster that shares several physical and morphological characteristics with “iron-complex” clusters known to exhibit significant metallicity and heavy-element dispersions. In order to determine whether NGC 5986 joins the iron-complex cluster class, we investigated the chemical composition of 25 red giant branch and asymptotic giant branch cluster stars using high-resolution spectra obtained with the Magellan-M2FS instrument. Cluster membership was verified using a combination of radial velocity and [Fe/H] measurements, and we found the cluster to have a mean heliocentric radial velocity of +99.76 km s-1 (σ = 7.44 km s-1). We derived a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.54 dex (σ = 0.08 dex), but the cluster’s small dispersion in [Fe/H] and low [La/Eu] abundance preclude it from being an iron-complex cluster. NGC 5986 has =+0.76 {dex} (σ = 0.08 dex), which is among the highest ratios detected in a Galactic cluster, but the small [Eu/Fe] dispersion is puzzling because such high values near [Fe/H] ˜ -1.5 are typically only found in dwarf galaxies exhibiting large [Eu/Fe] variations. NGC 5986 exhibits classical globular cluster characteristics, such as uniformly enhanced [α/Fe] ratios, a small dispersion in Fe-peak abundances, and (anti)correlated light-element variations. Similar to NGC 2808, we find evidence that NGC 5986 may host at least four to five populations with distinct light-element compositions, and the presence of a clear Mg-Al anticorrelation along with an Al-Si correlation suggests that the cluster gas experienced processing at temperatures ≳65-70 MK. However, the current data do not support burning temperatures exceeding ˜100 MK. We find some evidence that the first- and second-generation stars in NGC 5986 may be fully spatially mixed, which could indicate that the cluster has lost a significant fraction of its original mass. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m

  7. Formation of massive clouds and dwarf galaxies during tidal encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michele; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Thomasson, Magnus; Elmegreen, Debra M.

    1993-01-01

    Gerola et al. (1983) propose that isolated dwarf galaxies can form during galaxy interactions. As evidence of this process, Mirabel et al. (1991) find 10(exp 9) solar mass clouds and star formation complexes at the outer ends of the tidal arms in the Antennae and Superantennae galaxies. We describe observations of HI clouds with mass greater than 10(exp 8) solar mass in the interacting galaxy pair IC 2163/NGC 2207. This pair is important because we believe it represents an early stage in the formation of giant clouds during an encounter. We use a gravitational instability model to explain why the observed clouds are so massive and discuss a two-dimensional N-body simulation of an encounter that produces giant clouds.

  8. The origin of coronal lines in Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korista, K.T.; Ferland, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility that the coronal line region in Seyfert galaxies may be the result of an interstellar medium (ISM) exposed to, and subsequently photoionized by, a 'bare' Seyfert nucleus. It is shown that a 'generic' AGN continuum illuminating the warm-phase of the ISM of a spiral galaxy can produce the observed emission. In this picture the same UV-radiation cone that is responsible for the high-excitation extended narrow-line emission clouds observed out to 1-2 kpc or farther from the nuclei of some Seyfert galaxies also produces the coronal lines. Soft X-rays originating in the nucleus are Compton-scattered off the ISM, thus producing extended soft X-ray emission, as observed in NGC 4151. The results of the calculations show a basic insensitivity to the ISM density, which explains why similar coronal line spectra are found in many Seyfert galaxies of varying physical environments. 60 refs

  9. Characterizing the Stellar Population of NGC 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Megeath, Tom, E-mail: mkounkel@umich.edu [Ritter Astrophsical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    NGC 1980 is a young cluster that is located about 0.°5 south of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). Recent studies by Bouy et al. and Pillitteri et al. have suggested that NGC 1980 contains an older population of stars compared to a much younger ONC, and that it belongs to a foreground population that may be located in front of the Orion A molecular gas by as much as 40 pc. In this work, we present low-resolution spectra toward 148 young stars found toward the NGC 1980 region. We determine the spectral types of these stars, examine accretion signatures and measure the extinction toward them. We determine that based on these observations, the age of the population of NGC 1980 is indistinguishable from L1641, estimated to be ∼3 Myr, comparable with the study by Fang et al.

  10. Characterizing the Stellar Population of NGC 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria; Megeath, Tom

    2017-07-01

    NGC 1980 is a young cluster that is located about 0.°5 south of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). Recent studies by Bouy et al. and Pillitteri et al. have suggested that NGC 1980 contains an older population of stars compared to a much younger ONC, and that it belongs to a foreground population that may be located in front of the Orion A molecular gas by as much as 40 pc. In this work, we present low-resolution spectra toward 148 young stars found toward the NGC 1980 region. We determine the spectral types of these stars, examine accretion signatures and measure the extinction toward them. We determine that based on these observations, the age of the population of NGC 1980 is indistinguishable from L1641, estimated to be ˜3 Myr, comparable with the study by Fang et al.

  11. Deficiency of normal galaxies among Markaryan galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyeveer, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Comparison of the morphological types of Markaryan galaxies and other galaxies in the Uppsala catalog indicates a strong deficiency of normal ellipticals among the Markaryan galaxies, for which the fraction of type E galaxies is ≤ 1% against 10% among the remaining galaxies. Among the Markaryan galaxies, an excess of barred galaxies is observed - among the Markaryan galaxies with types Sa-Scd, approximately half or more have bars, whereas among the remaining galaxies of the same types bars are found in about 1/3

  12. Cannibalization and rebirth in the NGC 5387 system. I. The stellar stream and star-forming region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaton, Rachael L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Verbiscer, Anne; Martínez-Delgado, David; D'Onghia, Elena; Zibetti, Stefano; Gabany, R. Jay; Blanton, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We have identified a low surface brightness stellar stream from visual inspection of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging for the edge-on, spiral galaxy NGC 5387. An optically blue overdensity coincident with the stream intersection with the NGC 5387 disk was also identified in SDSS and in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Deep Imaging Survey contributing 38% of the total far-UV integrated flux from NGC 5387. Deeper optical imaging was acquired with the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope that confirmed the presence of both features. The stellar stream is red in color, (B – V) = 0.7, has a stellar mass of 6 × 10 8 M ☉ , which implies a 1:50 merger ratio, has a circular radius, R circ ∼ 11.7 kpc, formed in ∼240 Myr, and the progenitor had a total mass of ∼4 × 10 10 M ☉ . Spectroscopy from LBT+MODS1 was used to determine that the blue overdensity is at the same redshift as NGC 5387, consists of young stellar populations (∼10 Myr), is metal-poor (12 + log (O/H) = 8.03), and is forming stars at an enhanced rate (∼1-3 M ☉ yr –1 ). The most likely interpretations are that the blue overdensity is (1) a region of enhanced star formation in the outer disk of NGC 5387 induced by the minor accretion event or (2) the progenitor of the stellar stream experiencing enhanced star formation. Additional exploration of these scenarios is presented in a companion paper.

  13. Cannibalization and rebirth in the NGC 5387 system. I. The stellar stream and star-forming region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, Rachael L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Verbiscer, Anne [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Martínez-Delgado, David [Max Planck Institut fur Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); D' Onghia, Elena [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zibetti, Stefano [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Gabany, R. Jay [Black Bird II Observatory, Alder Springs, CA 93602 (United States); Blanton, Michael, E-mail: rbeaton@virginia.edu [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We have identified a low surface brightness stellar stream from visual inspection of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging for the edge-on, spiral galaxy NGC 5387. An optically blue overdensity coincident with the stream intersection with the NGC 5387 disk was also identified in SDSS and in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Deep Imaging Survey contributing 38% of the total far-UV integrated flux from NGC 5387. Deeper optical imaging was acquired with the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope that confirmed the presence of both features. The stellar stream is red in color, (B – V) = 0.7, has a stellar mass of 6 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ☉}, which implies a 1:50 merger ratio, has a circular radius, R{sub circ} ∼ 11.7 kpc, formed in ∼240 Myr, and the progenitor had a total mass of ∼4 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}. Spectroscopy from LBT+MODS1 was used to determine that the blue overdensity is at the same redshift as NGC 5387, consists of young stellar populations (∼10 Myr), is metal-poor (12 + log (O/H) = 8.03), and is forming stars at an enhanced rate (∼1-3 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). The most likely interpretations are that the blue overdensity is (1) a region of enhanced star formation in the outer disk of NGC 5387 induced by the minor accretion event or (2) the progenitor of the stellar stream experiencing enhanced star formation. Additional exploration of these scenarios is presented in a companion paper.

  14. The Possible Submillimeter Bump and Accretion-jet in the Central Supermassive Black Hole of NGC 4993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingwen; Feng, Jianchao; Fan, Xuliang

    2018-03-01

    NGC 4993, as a host galaxy of the electromagnetic counterpart of the first gravitational-wave detection of a binary neutron-star merger, was observed by many powerful telescopes from radio to γ-ray wavebands. The weak nuclear activities of NGC 4993 suggest that it is a low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). We build the multiwaveband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of NGC 4993 from the literature. We find that the radio spectrum at ∼100–300 GHz is much steeper than that of the low-frequency waveband (e.g., 6–100 GHz), where this break was also found in the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in our galaxy center (Sgr A*), and in some other nearby AGNs. The radio emission above and below this break may have different physical origins, which provide an opportunity to probe the accretion and jet properties. We model the multiwaveband SEDs of NGC 4993 with an advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) jet model. We find that the high-frequency steep radio emission at the millimeter waveband is consistent with the prediction of the ADAF, while the low-frequency flat radio spectrum is better fitted by the jet. Furthermore, the X-ray emission can also be simultaneously explained by the ADAF model. From the model fits, we estimate important parameters of the central engine (e.g., the accretion rate near the horizon of the black hole and the mass-loss rate in the jet) for NGC 4993. This result strengthens the theory that the millimeter, submillimeter, and deep X-ray observations are crucial to understanding the weak or quiescent activities in SMBH systems. Further simultaneous millimeter and X-ray monitoring of this kind of LLAGN will help us to better understand the physical origin of multiwaveband emission.

  15. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  16. Embedded clusters in NGC1808 central starburst - Near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Galliano, E.; Alloin, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the course of a mid-infrared imaging campaign of close-by active galaxies, we discovered the mid-infrared counterparts of bright compact radio sources in the central star-forming region of NGC1808. We aim at confirming that these sources are deeply embedded, young star clusters and at deriving some of their intrinsic properties. To complement the mid-infrared data, we have collected a set of near-infrared data with ISAAC at the VLT: J, Ks, and L' images, as well as low-resolution, long-sli...

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Young star groups in NGC 300 (Rodriguez+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M. J.; Baume, G.; Feinstein, C.

    2016-08-01

    Fundamental characteristics of 1147 young star groups identified in 6 ACS/WFC fields of the galaxy NGC 300. For each group: field of the ACS/WFC, equatorial coordinates, radius, number of stars (the suffix bri indicates bright stars with F555W<25, the suffix dct indicate stars belonging to the decontaminated region, the suffixes blue and red refer to blue and red stars respectively), the magnitude of the brightest star in the group, PDMF slope with its error, and galactocentric distance. (1 data file).

  18. UBVRI CCD photometric studies of open clusters Berkeley 15, Czernik 18 and NGC 2401.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, S.; Babu, G. S. D.; Ananthamurthy, Sharath

    2004-12-01

    CCD photometric observations of three open clusters Berkeley 15 (=OCl 414), Czernik 18 (=OCl 426) and NGC 2401 (=OCl 588), obtained for the first time in UBVRI filters down to V=20 mag, are presented here. They are located at distances of 1259, 955 and 3467 parsecs with their respective ages estimated as ~5 x 109 years, ~0.8 to 1 x 109 years and ~1 x 109 years. While OCl 414 and OCl 426 are in the direction of the Auriga - Perseus constellations, OCl 588 is placed in the direction of Ophiuchus constellation in our Galaxy. The clusters studied here are of intermediate and old age category.

  19. Multi-wavelength campaign on NGC 7469. I. The rich 640 ks RGS spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Ehud; Peretz, Uria; Kriss, Gerard A.; Kaastra, Jelle; Arav, Nahum; Bianchi, Stefano; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Cappi, Massimo; Costantini, Elisa; De Marco, Barbara; Di Gesu, Laura; Ebrero, Jacobo; Kaspi, Shai; Mehdipour, Missagh; Paltani, Stéphane; Petrucci, Pierre-Olivier; Ponti, Gabriele; Ursini, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Aims: Outflows in active galaxies (AGNs) are common, although their launching mechanism, location, and physical impact on the host galaxy remain controversial. We conducted a multi-wavelength six-month campaign to observe the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469 with several observatories in order to better understand and quantify the outflow in this AGN. Methods: We report on the time-integrated line-resolved X-ray spectrum of NGC 7469 obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) on board XMM-Newton. We used the RGS spectrum to discern the many AGN outflow components and applied a global fit to obtain their physical parameters. Results: We find that the AGN wind can be well described by three narrow velocity components at -650, -950, and -2050 km s-1. The RGS clearly resolves the -2050 km s-1 component in C5+ Ly α, while the -650 km s-1 and -950 km s-1 velocities are blended. Similar velocities (±200 km s-1) are resolved in the UV. The H-equivalent column densities of these components are, respectively, NH 7 × 1020, 2.2 × 1021, and 1020 cm-2, for a total of 3 × 1021 cm-2, which was also measured in 2004, indicating the absorber did not significantly change. The -650 km s-1 component shows a broad ionization distribution (-1 ≲ log ξ ≲ 2,ξ being the ionization parameter in erg s-1 cm). We identify a photo-ionized emission component blue-shifted by -450 km s-1, somewhat broad (FWHM = 1400 km s-1), and with -1 ≲ log ξ ≲ 1 erg s-1 cm, which we ascribe to the same outflow that produces the absorption lines. We also find a collisionally ionized component at kT = 0.35 keV that we associate with the circum-nuclear star-formation activity of NGC 7469, as it follows the LFIR/LX ≈ 104 relation found in star forming galaxies. The elemental abundance ratios of C, N, Ne, S, and Fe to O in the outflow tend to be between one and two times solar. Preliminary estimates of the absorber distance from the AGN center suggest it is at least a few pc away from the

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chandra ACIS survey in nearby galaxies. II (Wang+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Qiu, Y.; Liu, J.; Bregman, J. N.

    2018-03-01

    Based on the recently completed Chandra/ACIS survey of X-ray point sources in nearby galaxies, we study the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for X-ray point sources in different types of galaxies and the statistical properties of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Uniform procedures are developed to compute the detection threshold, to estimate the foreground/background contamination, and to calculate the XLFs for individual galaxies and groups of galaxies, resulting in an XLF library of 343 galaxies of different types. With the large number of surveyed galaxies, we have studied the XLFs and ULX properties across different host galaxy types, and confirm with good statistics that the XLF slope flattens from lenticular (α{\\sim}1.50{\\pm}0.07) to elliptical ({\\sim}1.21{\\pm}0.02), to spirals ({\\sim}0.80{\\pm}0.02), to peculiars ({\\sim}0.55{\\pm}0.30), and to irregulars ({\\sim}0.26{\\pm}0.10). The XLF break dividing the neutron star and black hole binaries is also confirmed, albeit at quite different break luminosities for different types of galaxies. A radial dependency is found for ellipticals, with a flatter XLF slope for sources located between D25 and 2D25, suggesting the XLF slopes in the outer region of early-type galaxies are dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters. This study shows that the ULX rate in early-type galaxies is 0.24{\\pm}0.05 ULXs per surveyed galaxy, on a 5σ confidence level. The XLF for ULXs in late-type galaxies extends smoothly until it drops abruptly around 4x1040erg/s, and this break may suggest a mild boundary between the stellar black hole population possibly including 30M{\\sun} black holes with super-Eddington radiation and intermediate mass black holes. (1 data file).

  1. Spatial Distribution of Star Formation in High Redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnyngham, Ian; Takamiya, M.; Willmer, C.; Chun, M.; Young, M.

    2011-01-01

    Integral field unit spectroscopy taken of galaxies with redshifts between 0.6 and 0.8 utilizing Gemini Observatory’s GMOS instrument were used to investigate the spatial distribution of star-forming regions by measuring the Hβ and [OII]λ3727 emission line fluxes. These galaxies were selected based on the strength of Hβ and [OII]λ3727 as measured from slit LRIS/Keck spectra. The process of calibrating and reducing data into cubes -- possessing two spatial dimensions, and one for wavelength -- was automated via a custom batch script using the Gemini IRAF routines. Among these galaxies only the bluest sources clearly show [OII] in the IFU regardless of total galaxy luminosity. The brightest galaxies lack [OII] emission and it is posited that two different modes of star formation exist among this seemingly homogeneous group of z=0.7 star-forming galaxies. In order to increase the galaxy sample to include redshifts from 0.3 to 0.9, public Gemini IFU data are being sought. Python scripts were written to mine the Gemini Science Archive for candidate observations, cross-reference the target of these observations with information from the NASA Extragalactic Database, and then present the resultant database in sortable, searchable, cross-linked web-interface using Django to facilitate navigation. By increasing the sample, we expect to characterize these two different modes of star formation which could be high-redshift counterparts of the U/LIRGs and dwarf starburst galaxies like NGC 1569/NGC 4449. The authors acknowledge funds provided by the National Science Foundation (AST 0909240).

  2. Pattern Speeds of BIMA SONG Galaxies with Molecule-dominated Interstellar Mediums Using the Tremaine-Weinberg Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Richard J.; Wallin, John F.

    2004-10-01

    We apply the Tremaine-Weinberg method of pattern speed determination to data cubes of CO emission in six spiral galaxies from the BIMA Survey of Nearby Galaxies, each with an interstellar medium dominated by molecular gas. We compare derived pattern speeds with estimates based on other methods, usually involving the identification of a predicted behavior at one or more resonances of the pattern(s). In two cases (NGC 1068 and NGC 4736), we find evidence for a central bar pattern speed that is greater than that of the surrounding spiral and roughly consistent with previous estimates. However, the spiral pattern speed in both cases is much larger than previous determinations. For the barred spirals NGC 3627 and NGC 4321, the method is insensitive to the bar pattern speed (the bar in each is nearly parallel to the major axis; in this case the method will not work), but for the former galaxy the spiral pattern speed found agrees with previous estimates of the bar pattern speed, suggesting that these two structures are part of a single pattern. For the latter, the spiral pattern speed found is in agreement with several previous determinations. For the flocculent spiral NGC 4414 and the ``Evil Eye'' galaxy NGC 4826, the method does not support the presence of a large-scale coherent pattern. We also apply the method to a simulated barred galaxy in order to demonstrate its validity and to understand its sensitivity to various observational parameters. In addition, we study the results of applying the method to a simulated, clumpy axisymmetric disk with no wave present. The Tremaine & Weinberg method in this case may falsely indicate a well-defined pattern.

  3. A Search for Near-Infrared Emission from the Halo of NGC 5907 at Radii of 10-30 Kiloparsecs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Sarah A.; Bock, James J.; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Lange, Andrew E.; Matsumoto, Toshio; Uemizu, Kazunori; Watabe, Toyoki; Wada, Takehiko

    2000-06-01

    We present a search for near-infrared (3.5-5 μm) emission from baryonic dark matter in the form of low-mass stars and/or brown dwarfs in the halo of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 5907. The observations were made using a 256×256 InSb array with a pixel scale of 17" at the focus of a liquid-helium-cooled telescope carried above the Earth's atmosphere by a sounding rocket. In contrast to previous experiments that have detected a halo around NGC 5907 in the V, R, I, J, and K bands at galactic radii 6 kpcNGC 5907 is 250 (2 σ) in solar units. This is comparable to the lower limit we have found previously for NGC 4565. Based on recent models, our nondetection implies that hydrogen-burning stars contribute less than 15% of the mass of the dark halo of NGC 5907. Our results are consistent with the previous detection of extended emission at r<=10 kpc if the latter is caused by a stellar population that has been ejected from the disk because of tidal interactions. We conclude that the dark halo of NGC 5907, which is evident from rotation curves that extend far beyond 10 kpc, is not made up of hydrogen-burning stars.

  4. ESO 103-G35 - A new Seyfert galaxy and possible X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M. M.; Feldman, F. R.; Marshall, F. E.; Wamsteker, W.

    1979-01-01

    By means of an objective prism plate, two emission-line galaxies have been identified within the 0.7-sq deg HEAO-A2 error box for the X-ray source H1834-653. Optical spectrophotometric observations are reported for