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Sample records for lentic water bodies

  1. Lentic small water bodies: Variability of pesticide transport and transformation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Uta; Hörmann, Georg; Unger, Malte; Pfannerstill, Matthias; Steinmann, Frank; Fohrer, Nicola

    2018-03-15

    Lentic small water bodies have a high ecological potential as they fulfill several ecosystem services such as the retention of water and pollutants. They serve as a hot spot of biodiversity. Due to their location in or adjacent to agricultural fields, they can be influenced by inputs of pesticides and their transformation products. Since small water bodies have rarely been part of monitorings/campaigns up to now, their current exposure and processes guiding the pesticide input are not understood, yet. This study presents results of a sampling campaign of 10 lentic small water bodies from 2015 to 2016. They were sampled once after the spring application for a pesticide target screening, before autumn application and three times after rainfall events following the application. The autumn sampling focused on the herbicides metazachlor, flufenacet and their transformation products - oxalic acid and - sulfonic acid as representatives for common pesticides in the study region. The concentrations were associated with rainfall before and after application, characteristics of the site and the water bodies, physicochemical parameters and the applied amount of pesticides. The key results of the pesticide screening in spring indicate positive detections of pesticides which have not been applied for years to the single fields. The autumn sampling showed frequent occurrences of the transformation products, which are formed in soil, from 39% to 94% of all samples (n=71). Discharge patterns were observed for metazachlor with highest concentrations in the first sample after application and then decreasing, but not for flufenacet. The concentrations of the transformation products increased over time and revealed highest values mainly in the last sample. Besides rainfall patterns right after application, the spatial and temporal dissemination of the pesticides to the water bodies seems to play a major role to understand the exposure of lentic small water bodies. Copyright © 2017

  2. Areal changes of lentic water bodies within an agricultural basin of the Argentinean pampas. Disentangling land management from climatic causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booman, Gisel Carolina; Calandroni, Mirta; Laterra, Pedro; Cabria, Fabián; Iribarne, Oscar; Vázquez, Pablo

    2012-12-01

    Wetland loss is a frequent concern for the environmental management of rural landscapes, but poor disentanglement between climatic and land management causes frequently constrains both proper diagnoses and planning. The aim of this study is to address areal changes induced by non-climatic factors on lentic water bodies (LWB) within an agricultural basin of the Argentinean Pampas, and the human activities that might be involved. The LWB of the Mar Chiquita basin (Buenos Aires province, Argentina) were mapped using Landsat images from 1998-2008 and then corrected for precipitation variability by considering the regional hydrological status on each date. LWB areal changes were statistically and spatially analyzed in relation to land use changes, channelization of streams, and drainage of small SWB in the catchment areas. We found that 12 % of the total LWB in the basin had changed (P climatic causes. During the evaluated decade, 30 % of the LWB that changed size had decreased while 70 % showed steady increases in area. The number of altered LWB within watersheds lineally increased or decreased according to the proportion of grasslands replaced by sown pastures, or the proportion of sown pastures replaced by crop fields, respectively. Drainage and channelization do not appear to be related to the alteration of LWB; however some of these hydrologic modifications may predate 1998, and thus earlier effects cannot be discarded. This study shows that large-scale changes in land cover (e.g., grasslands reduction) can cause a noticeable loss of hydrologic regulation at the catchment scale within a decade.

  3. Areal Changes of Lentic Water Bodies Within an Agricultural Basin of the Argentinean Pampas. Disentangling Land Management from Climatic Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booman, Gisel Carolina; Calandroni, Mirta; Laterra, Pedro; Cabria, Fabián; Iribarne, Oscar; Vázquez, Pablo

    2012-12-01

    Wetland loss is a frequent concern for the environmental management of rural landscapes, but poor disentanglement between climatic and land management causes frequently constrains both proper diagnoses and planning. The aim of this study is to address areal changes induced by non-climatic factors on lentic water bodies (LWB) within an agricultural basin of the Argentinean Pampas, and the human activities that might be involved. The LWB of the Mar Chiquita basin (Buenos Aires province, Argentina) were mapped using Landsat images from 1998-2008 and then corrected for precipitation variability by considering the regional hydrological status on each date. LWB areal changes were statistically and spatially analyzed in relation to land use changes, channelization of streams, and drainage of small SWB in the catchment areas. We found that 12 % of the total LWB in the basin had changed ( P changed size had decreased while 70 % showed steady increases in area. The number of altered LWB within watersheds lineally increased or decreased according to the proportion of grasslands replaced by sown pastures, or the proportion of sown pastures replaced by crop fields, respectively. Drainage and channelization do not appear to be related to the alteration of LWB; however some of these hydrologic modifications may predate 1998, and thus earlier effects cannot be discarded. This study shows that large-scale changes in land cover (e.g., grasslands reduction) can cause a noticeable loss of hydrologic regulation at the catchment scale within a decade.

  4. Epiphytic diatoms in lotic and lentic waters - diversity and representation of species complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kollár, J.; Fránková, Markéta; Hašler, P.; Letáková, M.; Poulíčková, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2015), s. 259-271 ISSN 1802-5439 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : diatoms * epiphyton * species comlexes * lotic and lentic waters Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.026, year: 2015

  5. About Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Diabetic Retinopathy Additional Content Medical News About Body Water By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending ... here for the Professional Version Water Balance About Body Water Dehydration Dehydration Overhydration Water accounts for about ...

  6. Habitat availability does not explain the species richness patterns of European lentic and lotic freshwater animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehling, D.M.; Hof, C.; Brandle, M.

    2010-01-01

    of species richness. We tested whether habitat availability can account for the differences in species richness patterns between European lentic and lotic freshwater animals. Location Europe. Methods We compiled occurrence data of 1959 lentic and 2445 lotic species as well as data on the amount of lentic......Aim In Europe, the relationships between species richness and latitude differ for lentic (standing water) and lotic (running water) species. Freshwater animals are highly dependent on suitable habitat, and thus the distribution of available habitat should strongly influence large-scale patterns...... with latitude. Main conclusions Habitat availability and diversity are poor predictors of species richness of the European freshwater fauna across large scales. Our results indicate that the distributions of European freshwater animals are probably not in equilibrium and may still be influenced by history...

  7. Bursting bodies of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls.......A silent threat is growing below receding glaciers: lakes are formed as the tongues of the glaciers draw back up the mountain, and huge and growing bodies of water beneath them are contained only be weak moraine walls....

  8. Development of fauna of water beetles (Coleoptera in waters bodies of a river valley – habitat factors, landscape and geomorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakulnicka Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to identify the beetle fauna of a small lowland river valley against its spatial arrangement and the directions of beetle migrations between habitats, as well as to determine which environmental factors affect the characteristics of water beetle populations in a river valley's lentic water bodies. The field studies were carried out in various types of water bodies. 112 species of beetles with various ecological characteristics were identified. It was demonstrated that the diversity of water bodies in the valley is conducive to high local species richness. At the same time, the observed high degree of faunistic individualism may be regarded as a sign of poor symmetry in the directions of fauna propagation, particularly that of stagnobionts. The authors argue that high individualism is the consequence of poor hydrological contact between the water bodies due to topography and rare instances of high tide in the river, which, in turn, is the reason for active overflights remaining the main mean of migration between those water bodies. The factors restricting migration of fauna between the water bodies include certain landscape characteristics of the catchment which form topographical obstacles, mainly numerous and dense forest areas. The character of fauna in the respective types of water bodies is affected also by internal environmental factors, particularly the degree to which they are overgrown with macrophytes, type of bottom, type of mineral and organic matter as well as physical parameters of water, such as saturation, pH, temperature and biological oxygen demand.

  9. Microcystin Prevalence throughout Lentic Waterbodies in Coastal Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith D. A. Howard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Toxin producing cyanobacterial blooms have increased globally in recent decades in both frequency and intensity. Despite the recognition of this growing risk, the extent and magnitude of cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxin prevalence is poorly characterized in the heavily populated region of southern California. Recent assessments of lentic waterbodies (depressional wetlands, lakes, reservoirs and coastal lagoons determined the prevalence of microcystins and, in some cases, additional cyanotoxins. Microcystins were present in all waterbody types surveyed although toxin concentrations were generally low across most habitats, as only a small number of sites exceeded California’s recreational health thresholds for acute toxicity. Results from passive samplers (Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT indicated microcystins were prevalent throughout lentic waterbodies and that traditional discrete samples underestimated the presence of microcystins. Multiple cyanotoxins were detected simultaneously in some systems, indicating multiple stressors, the risk of which is uncertain since health thresholds are based on exposures to single toxins. Anatoxin-a was detected for the first time from lakes in southern California. The persistence of detectable microcystins across years and seasons indicates a low-level, chronic risk through both direct and indirect exposure. The influence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms is a more complex stressor than presently recognized and should be included in water quality monitoring programs.

  10. At the forefront: evidence of the applicability of using environmental DNA to quantify the abundance of fish populations in natural lentic waters with additional sampling considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobucar, Stephen L.; Rodgers, Torrey W.; Budy, Phaedra

    2017-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has proven to be a valuable tool for detecting species in aquatic ecosystems. Within this rapidly evolving field, a promising application is the ability to obtain quantitative estimates of relative species abundance based on eDNA concentration rather than traditionally labor-intensive methods. We investigated the relationship between eDNA concentration and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) abundance in five well-studied natural lakes; additionally, we examined the effects of different temporal (e.g., season) and spatial (e.g., depth) scales on eDNA concentration. Concentrations of eDNA were linearly correlated with char population estimates ( = 0.78) and exponentially correlated with char densities ( = 0.96 by area; 0.82 by volume). Across lakes, eDNA concentrations were greater and more homogeneous in the water column during mixis; however, when stratified, eDNA concentrations were greater in the hypolimnion. Overall, our findings demonstrate that eDNA techniques can produce effective estimates of relative fish abundance in natural lakes. These findings can guide future studies to improve and expand eDNA methods while informing research and management using rapid and minimally invasive sampling.

  11. Hydrography - Water Bodies

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  12. Characterisation of selected lentic habitats of Dharwad, Haveri and Uttar Kannada districts of Karnataka State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudari, V A; Kadadevaru, G G; Kanamadi, R D

    2006-09-01

    Water quality survey was undertaken to study the current status of water quality of some lentic habitats of Dharwad, Haveri and Uttar Kannada districts, to provide a baseline data, comprising study of their main physical and chemical characteristics and also to evaluate the recent limnological changes those have occurred over a time period in some lentic habitats. Trophic status was also analysed. Present study reveals that Unkal lake, and B.K. Shigigatti tank of Dharwad district, Timmapur, Hosalli, and Krishnapur tanks of Haveri district are fast progressing towards hypereutrophication. Of the other tanks, Galgi tank of Dharwad district, Gudgur, Hanamapur, Medleri, and Kadkol tanks of Haveri district have reached the eutrophic stage. The anthropogenic activities, sewage and fertilizers used in agricultural fields appear to be the major causes of the eutrophication in these tanks. If the habitats have to be preserved for their intended use, sustainable and holistic management measures for the remediation of the tanks are an immediate necessity.

  13. Stratification in Natural Water Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob Steen

    2004-01-01

    Density stratification of natural water bodies plays an important role for a number of civil engineering problems. The origin of stratification in natural water is discussed and the Black Sea, the Gulf of Katchch, and Maarmorilik Fiord in Greenland are described and used as examples. Stratification...... of negative estuaries, immersing of tunnel elements, and others. The paper describes the methods available when the civil engineer encounters a stratification related problem: Field experimentation and monitoring, analytical methods, physical and numerical modelling. Finally the paper advocates...

  14. Detritus processing in lentic cave habitats in the neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lentic cave habitats are almost always heterotrophic habitats where there are food and oxygen input from the surface. This hydrological exchange seems to be the key factor shaping most groundwater communities. Litter processing in cave water environments has not been experimentally studied as much as it has in lotic subterranean systems, although detritus is likely a critical resource for organisms inhabiting shallow groundwater habitats. The present study sought to evaluate the processing rates and the nitrogen and phosphorous dynamics in plant debris deposited in lentic habitats of two Neotropical limestone caves during 99 days. 84–10×10 cm2 litterbags with mesh sizes of 0.04 mm2 and 9 mm2 were used. In each weighed litter bag, 50 green, intact plant leaf disks (± 2.0 gr/bag were conditioned. At the end of the experiment, the average weight loss was only 17.4%. No macroinvertebrates were found associated to the debris, but significant differences in the processing rate in relation to the cave and mesh size were observed. The weight loss rate of the plant debris was considered slow (average 0.003 K-day. The amount of nitrogen and remaining phosphorous in the plant debris in the two caves showed variations over time with a tendency to increase probably due to the development of microorganisms which assimilate nitrogen and phosphorus. The slow processing rate of the plant debris can be due mainly to the fact that these lentic cave habitats are restrictive to colonization by shredder invertebrates. Furthermore, the abrasive force of the water, which plays an important role in the processing and availability of fragmented debris for colonization by microorganisms, is absent.

  15. Characterizing lentic freshwater fish assemblages using multiple sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Quist, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing fish assemblages in lentic ecosystems is difficult, and multiple sampling methods are almost always necessary to gain reliable estimates of indices such as species richness. However, most research focused on lentic fish sampling methodology has targeted recreationally important species, and little to no information is available regarding the influence of multiple methods and timing (i.e., temporal variation) on characterizing entire fish assemblages. Therefore, six lakes and impoundments (48–1,557 ha surface area) were sampled seasonally with seven gear types to evaluate the combined influence of sampling methods and timing on the number of species and individuals sampled. Probabilities of detection for species indicated strong selectivities and seasonal trends that provide guidance on optimal seasons to use gears when targeting multiple species. The evaluation of species richness and number of individuals sampled using multiple gear combinations demonstrated that appreciable benefits over relatively few gears (e.g., to four) used in optimal seasons were not present. Specifically, over 90 % of the species encountered with all gear types and season combinations (N = 19) from six lakes and reservoirs were sampled with nighttime boat electrofishing in the fall and benthic trawling, modified-fyke, and mini-fyke netting during the summer. Our results indicated that the characterization of lentic fish assemblages was highly influenced by the selection of sampling gears and seasons, but did not appear to be influenced by waterbody type (i.e., natural lake, impoundment). The standardization of data collected with multiple methods and seasons to account for bias is imperative to monitoring of lentic ecosystems and will provide researchers with increased reliability in their interpretations and decisions made using information on lentic fish assemblages.

  16. Temperature and precipitation shape the distribution of harmful cyanobacteria in subtropical lotic and lentic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakonsson, Signe; Rodríguez-Gallego, Lorena; Somma, Andrea; Bonilla, Sylvia

    2017-12-31

    Cyanobacterial blooms are expected to become more frequent in freshwaters globally due to eutrophication and climate change effects. However, our knowledge about cyanobacterial biogeography in the subtropics, particularly in lotic ecosystems, is still very limited and the relationship of blooms to temperature and precipitation remains unclear. We took advantage of a comprehensive database of field data compiled over several years (1997 to 2015) to compare cyanobacteria biomass and distribution between lentic and lotic subtropical freshwaters (36 ecosystems, 30°-35°S) and to investigate the role of water temperature and precipitation as significant predictors in eutrophic ecosystems. A filamentous Nostocales, Dolichospermum (Anabaena), was the most widely distributed and frequent genus in the region of the study, followed by the colonial Microcystis, supporting observations of a global latitudinal pattern. Similar total cyanobacteria biovolumes (TCB) were found in lentic and lotic ecosystems, but the proportion of Dolichospermum was higher in lotic ecosystems. Using generalized linear models (GLMs), we found that temperature and rainfall explained 27% of the variation in TCB in lotic ecosystems, while temperature explained 19 and 28% of Dolichospermum and Microcystis biovolume, respectively. In lentic ecosystems, accumulated rainfall explained 34% of the variation of Microcystis biovolume while temperature explained 64%. Our results imply that the increase in extreme meteorological events and temperature predicted by climate models will promote increasingly severe cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic subtropical freshwaters. Our analysis provides new information about the occurrence of bloom-forming cyanobacteria for southeastern South America and thus fills an important knowledge gap for subtropical freshwaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Body water, extracellular water, body potassium, and exchangeable sodium in body builders using anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Colt, E.D.W.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Nine competitive male body builders aged 21 to 34 who were determined to take anabolic steroids were studied before and 6 to 10 weeks after a training cycle which included steroid administration. A control group of nine subjects matched in age and duration of competitive career, but using only natural training methods were studied on a single occasion while in training. Total body potassium (TBK) by 40 K, total body water (TBW) by 3 H 2 O dilution, extracellular water (ECW) by 35 SO 4 dilution and zero time extrapolation, and exchangeable sodium by 24 Na dilution were measured before and after training. Intracellular water (ICW) was calculated from TBW - ECW. Initially steroid users had a greater skeletal muscle mass than control subjects, and obtained a further weight gain on steroids, all in skeletal muscle, based on parallel increases in TBK and ICW. Other body composition measurements did not change significantly. A single steroid user became ill taking steroids, decreased potassium by 5%, and increased extracellular water, changes which may represent the effects of hepatic dysfunction which occurred while on anabolic steroids

  18. Mercury accumulation by lower trophic-level organisms in lentic systems within the Guadalupe River watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Moon, Gerald E.; Husby, Peter; Lincoff, Andrew; Carter, James L.; Croteau, Marie-Noële

    2005-01-01

    The water columns of four reservoirs (Almaden, Calero, Guadalupe and Lexington Reservoirs) and an abandoned quarry pit filled by Alamitos Creek drainage for recreational purposes (Lake Almaden) were sampled on September 14 and 15, 2004 to provide the first measurements of mercury accumulation by phytoplankton and zooplankton in lentic systems (bodies of standing water, as in lakes and reservoirs) within the Guadalupe River watershed, California. Because of widespread interest in ecosystem effects associated with historic mercury mining within and downgradient of the Guadalupe Riverwatershed, transfer of mercury to lower trophic-level organisms was examined. The propensity of mercury to bioaccumulate, particularly in phytoplankton and zooplankton at the base of the food web, motivated this attempt to provide information in support of developing trophic-transfer and solute-transport models for the watershed, and hence in support of subsequent evaluation of load-allocation strategies. Both total mercury and methylmercury were examined in these organisms. During a single sampling event, replicate samples from the reservoir water column were collected and processed for dissolved-total mercury, dissolved-methylmercury, phytoplankton mercury speciation, phytoplankton taxonomy and biomass, zooplankton mercury speciation, and zooplankton taxonomy and biomass. The timing of this sampling event was coordinated with sampling and analysis of fish from these five water bodies, during a period of the year when vertical stratification in the reservoirs generates a primary source of methylmercury to the watershed. Ancillary data, including dissolved organic carbon and trace-metal concentrations as well as vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance and pH, were gathered to provide a water-quality framework from which to compare the results for mercury. This work, in support of the Guadalupe River Mercury Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Study, provides

  19. Bacteriological physicochemical quality of recreational water bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tinsae

    Key words: Swimming pools, microbiological indicators, microbial water quality, recreational water quality. INTRODUCTION. Recreational ... quality of the selected recreational waters bodies in Addis. Ababa and Oromiya Region in ..... Le Chevallier MW, Evans TM, Seidler RJ (1981). Effect of Turbidity on. Chlorination ...

  20. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  1. Does the lentic-lotic character of rivers affect invertebrate metrics used in the assessment of ecological quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania ERBA

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of local hydraulic conditions on the structuring of freshwater biotic communities is widely recognized by the scientific community. In spite of this, most current methods based upon invertebrates do not take this factor into account in their assessment of ecological quality. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of local hydraulic conditions on invertebrate community metrics and to estimate their potential weight in the evaluation of river water quality. The dataset used consisted of 130 stream sites located in four broad European geographical contexts: Alps, Central mountains, Mediterranean mountains and Lowland streams. Using River Habitat Survey data, the river hydromorphology was evaluated by means of the Lentic-lotic River Descriptor and the Habitat Modification Score. To quantify the level of water pollution, a synoptic Organic Pollution Descriptor was calculated. For their established, wide applicability, STAR Intercalibration Common Metrics and index were selected as biological quality indices. Significant relationships between selected environmental variables and biological metrics devoted to the evaluation of ecological quality were obtained by means of Partial Least Squares regression analysis. The lentic-lotic character was the most significant factor affecting invertebrate communities in the Mediterranean mountains, even if it is a relevant factor for most quality metrics also in the Alpine and Central mountain rivers. Therefore, this character should be taken into account when assessing ecological quality of rivers because it can greatly affect the assignment of ecological status.

  2. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  3. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation

  4. (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from water bodies impacted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mossambicus tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from water bodies impacted by urban waste carries extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and ... Microbial Culture Collection, National Centre for Cell Science, Pune 411 007, India; Department of Biotechnology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411 007, ...

  5. Diet shift of lentic dragonfly larvae in response to reduced terrestrial prey subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Inputs of terrestrial plant detritus and nutrients play an important role in aquatic food webs, but the importance of terrestrial prey inputs in determining aquatic predator distribution and abundance has been appreciated only recently. I examined the numerical, biomass, and diet responses of a common predator, dragonfly larvae, to experimental reduction of terrestrial arthropod input into ponds. I distributed paired enclosures (n  =  7), one with a screen between the land and water (reduced subsidy) and one without a screen (ambient subsidy), near the shoreline of 2 small fishless ponds and sampled each month during the growing season in the southern Appalachian Mountains, Virginia (USA). Screens between water and land reduced the number of terrestrial arthropods that fell into screened enclosures relative to the number that fell into unscreened enclosures and open reference plots by 36%. The δ13C isotopic signatures of dragonfly larvae shifted towards those of aquatic prey in reduced-subsidy enclosures, a result suggesting that dragonflies consumed fewer terrestrial prey when fewer were available (ambient subsidy: 30%, reduced subsidy: 19% of diet). Overall abundance and biomass of dragonfly larvae did not change in response to reduced terrestrial arthropod inputs, despite the fact that enclosures permitted immigration/emigration. These results suggest that terrestrial arthropods can provide resources to aquatic predators in lentic systems, but that their effects on abundance and distribution might be subtle and confounded by in situ factors.

  6. Protection of Urban Water body Infrastructure – Policy Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, T. R.; Ramakrishnan, K.

    2017-07-01

    Water body is an important infrastructure of urban landscape. Water bodies like tanks and ponds are constructed to harvest rainwater for local use. Such water bodies serve many environmental functions including flood and soil erosion control and are useful for irrigation, drinking water supply and groundwater recharge. A large number of water bodies recently have been lost due to anthropogenic activities and the remaining water bodies are under stress due to risk of degradation. There are many phases to solve or control the problem; starting from stopping the abuse, to restoration to monitoring and maintenance. In this situation, the existing urban and peri-urban water bodies are to be preserved and rehabilitated. In this study, policy requirements for the protection (preservation and rehabilitation) of water bodies are analyzed with special reference to Thanjavur city. Thanjavur city has many water bodies and moat around the Big-Temple and the palace, and stands as an evidence for water management in ancient days. These water bodies are to be protected and used properly for sustainable growth of the city. This paper envisages the following three: (a) need for evaluation of hydraulic and hydrologic properties of the water bodies for conserving rainwater and controlling flood water in the existing urban water bodies; (b) need for evaluation of potential of socio-environmental services by the water bodies, and (c) need for developing a relative importance index for protection of water bodies to prioritize the remedial actions.

  7. Effect of ‘Water Induced Thermogenesis’ on Body Weight, Body Mass Index and Body Composition of Overweight Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Vij, Vinu A.; Joshi, Anjali S.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Drinking lots of water is commonly suggested as a part of weight loss regimens. However, only few systematic studies have addressed this notion. In this study, the effect of drinking 1500 ml of water, over and above the daily water intake on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition of overweight subjects was assessed.

  8. Changes in total body water during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Inners, L. D.; Charles, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) changes occurring in humans as a consequence of prolonged exposure to microgravity were measured in five male crewmembers of Space Shuttle missions STS-61C and STS-26. It was found that the inflight mean TBW values were significantly different from the preflight and postflight values, while the preflight TBW values were not significantly different from the postflight values. It was also found that individuals may differ in the rate at which they respond to weightlessness. Of the three crewmen who reported experiencing no symptoms of space motion sickness (SMS), two had not exhibited a decrease of TBW at the time of measurements (24 hrs after launch), while the two crewmen who reported SMS of intermediate severity showed a decrease of several kg by 24 hrs, suggesting that dehydration might be an important factor affecting the rate of TBW decrease.

  9. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  10. Machine-learning methods in the classification of water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sołtysiak Marek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amphibian species have been considered as useful ecological indicators. They are used as indicators of environmental contamination, ecosystem health and habitat quality., Amphibian species are sensitive to changes in the aquatic environment and therefore, may form the basis for the classification of water bodies. Water bodies in which there are a large number of amphibian species are especially valuable even if they are located in urban areas. The automation of the classification process allows for a faster evaluation of the presence of amphibian species in the water bodies. Three machine-learning methods (artificial neural networks, decision trees and the k-nearest neighbours algorithm have been used to classify water bodies in Chorzów – one of 19 cities in the Upper Silesia Agglomeration. In this case, classification is a supervised data mining method consisting of several stages such as building the model, the testing phase and the prediction. Seven natural and anthropogenic features of water bodies (e.g. the type of water body, aquatic plants, the purpose of the water body (destination, position of the water body in relation to any possible buildings, condition of the water body, the degree of littering, the shore type and fishing activities have been taken into account in the classification. The data set used in this study involved information about 71 different water bodies and 9 amphibian species living in them. The results showed that the best average classification accuracy was obtained with the multilayer perceptron neural network.

  11. Detection of water bodies in Saline County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, B. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A total of 2,272 water bodies were mapped in Saline County, Kansas in 1972 using ERTS-1 imagery. A topographic map of 1955 shows 1,056 water bodies in the county. The major increase took place in farm ponds. Preliminary comparison of image and maps indicates that water bodies larger than ten acres in area proved consistently detectable. Most water areas between four and ten acres are also detectable, although occasionally image context prevents detection. Water areas less than four acres in extent are sometimes detected, but the number varies greatly depending on image context and the individual interpretor.

  12. Bacteriological physicochemical quality of recreational water bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tinsae

    Key words: Swimming pools, microbiological indicators, microbial water quality, recreational water quality. INTRODUCTION. Recreational waters ... exposure, the type of water, geographical location and local conditions. Perhaps, the ... from two natural lakes and six different outdoor swimming pools that are located at Addis ...

  13. Seasonal changes in total body water; body composition and water turnover in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje S. Larsen

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Total body water and water turnover were measured at different times throughout the year in 3 captive Norwegian reindeer, using a tritiated water dilution method (Holleman et al. 1982. Total body water (percent of body weight increased during late autumn and winter, from 59.1 ± 1.5 % in October to 72.5 ± 2.0 % in April. Using the equatation by Pace and Rathbun (1945 for predicting total body fat (% fat = 100 - % water/0.732, this increase in total body water indicates a concomitant reduction in body fat, from a maximum value of 18.9 ± 2.6 % (of body weight in October to a minimum of 0.9 ± 2.7 % in April. During summer, on the other hand, fat content increased at the expense of a reduced percentage of body water. Water turnover was low in winter (December - April, ranging between 30.8 ± 5.2and43.6 ± 13.5ml.d-'. kg-1, but increased nearly fourfold during summer (June-August with a maximum of 117.7 ± 5.9 ml.d-1. kg-1 in August. Positive correlations between water turnover and food intake and between water turnover and ambient temperature were found, the latter probably resulting from an incidental correlation between food intake and ambient temperature.Sesongmessige forandringer i totalt kroppsvann, kropps-sammensetning og vannomsetning hos reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Totalt kroppsvann og vannomsetning av vann ble målt til forskjellige årstider i 3 norske reinsdyr ved hjelp av utvasking av tritiert vann (Holleman et al. 1982. Totalt kroppsvann (prosent av kroppsvekt økte utover høsten og vinteren, fra 59.1 ± 1.5 % i oktober til 72.5 ± 2.0 % i april. Ved hjelp av en ligning som er gitt av Pace og Rathbun (1945 for beregning av totalt kroppsfett (% fett = 100 - % vann/0.732, fant en at denne økningen i vanninnhold tilsvarte en samtidig reduksjon i fettinnhold, fra en maksimums-verdi på 18.9 ± 2.6 % av kroppsvekt i oktober til et minimum på 0.9 ± 2.7 % i april. Utover sommeren økte derimot innholdet av fett p

  14. Effect of physical activity on body water in sedentary young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a walking exercise on body water in order to restore body water and reduction dehydration among sedentary obese and thin women. Forty young untrained girls between the age of 20-25 years (obese n=20, BMI>30 and thin n=20, BMI <20) volunteered to ...

  15. Efficiency comparisons of fish sampling gears for a lentic ecosystem health assessments in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ho Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The key objective of this study was to analyze the sampling efficiency of various fish sampling gears for a lentic ecosystem health assessment. A fish survey for the lentic ecosystem health assessment model was sampled twice from 30 reservoirs during 2008–2012. During the study, fishes of 81 species comprising 53,792 individuals were sampled from 30 reservoirs. A comparison of sampling gears showed that casting nets were the best sampling gear with high species richness (69 species, whereas minnow traps were the worst gear with low richness (16 species. Fish sampling efficiency, based on the number of individual catch per unit effort, was best in fyke nets (28,028 individuals and worst in minnow traps (352 individuals. When we compared trammel nets and kick nets versus fyke nets and casting nets, the former were useful in terms of the number of fish individuals but not in terms of the number of fish species.

  16. Ingested water equilibrates isotopically with the body water pool of a shorebird with unrivaled water fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G.H.; Dekinga, A; Achterkamp, B.; Piersma, T.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of H-2 to measure the amount of body water (TBW) and water fluxes in relation to diet type and level of food intake in a mollusk-eating shorebird, the Red Knot (Calidris canutus). Six birds were exposed to eight experimental indoor conditions. Average fractional H-2

  17. Plump Cutthroat Trout and Thin Rainbow Trout in a Lentic Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Joshua; Abbott, Jessica; Schmidt, Kerri; Courtney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background: Much has been written about introduced rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) interbreeding and outcompeting cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii). However, the specific mechanisms by which rainbow trout and their hybrids outcompete cutthroat trout have not been thoroughly explored, and the published data is limited to lotic ecosystems. Materials and Methods: Samples of rainbow trout and cutthroat trout were obtained from a lentic ecosystem by angling. The total length and weight of...

  18. Riverine phytoplankton shifting along a lentic-lotic continuum under hydrological, physiochemical conditions and species dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yueming; Wu, Naicheng; Guse, Björn; Fohrer, Nicola

    2018-04-01

    The importance of phytoplankton-based bio-assessment has been recently recognized in lowland rivers which are affected by multi-environmental factors. However, some basic questions remain unclear to date, such as: (i) spatial and temporal variations of phytoplankton, (ii) the impact of upstream lakes on downstream community, (iii) the main drivers for species composition or (iv) the regional biodiversity along a lentic-lotic continuum. To answer these questions, we collected and analyzed the fluvial phytoplankton communities along a lentic-lotic continuum from a German lowland catchment, where a well-established ecohydrological modeling predicted long-term discharges at each sampling site. Our results revealed very high spatial and temporal variations of phytoplankton community. The changes of a lake on downstream phytoplankton assemblages were significant, especially the nearest reach after the lake. However, these influences varied along with seasons and limited in a relatively short distance to the lake. Redundancy analysis and Mantel tests showed that phytoplankton composition and dissimilarities along the lentic-lotic continuum attributed more to local hydrological and physicochemical variables than species dispersal, which confirmed the suitability of lowland phytoplankton-based bioassessment. In addition, our findings highlighted the importance of flow regime in shaping phytoplankton community composition and regional beta diversities. This study emphasized the necessity to include the hydrological variables and their relationship with phytoplankton community in future bio-monitoring investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with radioactive heavy metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhen; Yuan Shichao; Ling Hui; Xie Shuibo

    2012-01-01

    The sources of the radioactive heavy metal in the water bodies were analyzed. The factors that affect phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were discussed. The plant species, mechanism and major technology of phyto remediation of water contaminated with radioactive heavy metal were particularly introduced. The prospective study was remarked. (authors)

  20. Little ice bodies, huge ice lands, and the up-going of the big water body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultee, E.; Bassis, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Ice moving out of the huge ice lands causes the big water body to go up. That can cause bad things to happen in places close to the big water body - the land might even disappear! If that happens, people living close to the big water body might lose their homes. Knowing how much ice will come out of the huge ice lands, and when, can help the world plan for the up-going of the big water body. We study the huge ice land closest to us. All around the edge of that huge ice land, there are smaller ice bodies that control how much ice makes it into the big water body. Most ways of studying the huge ice land with computers struggle to tell the computer about those little ice bodies, but we have found a new way. We will talk about our way of studying little ice bodies and how their moving brings about up-going of the big water.

  1. Hormonal Contraception, Body Water Balance and Thermoregulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nadel, Ethan

    1998-01-01

    To test the hypothesis estrogen enhances water and sodium retention, we compared the fluid regulatory responses to 150 mm of exercise-induced dehydration, followed by 180 ruin of ad libitum drinking...

  2. Indices of quality surface water bodies in the planning of water resources

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Miranda, Juan Pablo; Serna Mosquera, Jorge Antonio; Sánchez Céspedes, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers a review of the literature major and significant methods of quality indices of water applied in surface water bodies, used and proposed for assessing the significance of parameters of water quality in the assessment of surface water currents and they are usually used in making decisions for intervention and strategic prevention measures for those responsible for the conservation and preservation of watersheds where these water bodies belong. An exploratory methodology was...

  3. Water-body preferences of dominant calanoid copepod species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of five dominant calanoid copepods was related to different water masses in the Angola-Benguela Front system. Five water bodies were identified by principal component analysis, on the basis of abiotic parameters such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, silicate, nitrate and nitrite.

  4. Ingested water equilibrates isotopically with the body water pool of a shorebird with unrivaled water fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, G H; Dekinga, A; Achterkamp, B; Piersma, T

    2000-11-01

    We investigated the applicability of (2)H to measure the amount of body water (TBW) and water fluxes in relation to diet type and level of food intake in a mollusk-eating shorebird, the Red Knot (Calidris canutus). Six birds were exposed to eight experimental indoor conditions. Average fractional (2)H turnover rates ranged between 0. 182 day(-1) (SD = 0.0219) for fasting birds and 7.759 day(-1) (SD = 0.4535) for birds feeding on cockles (Cerastoderma edule). Average TBW estimates obtained with the plateau method were within the narrow range of 75.9-85.4 g (or between 64.6 and 70.1% of the body mass). Those obtained with the extrapolation method showed strong day-to-day variations (range 55.7-83.7 g, or between 49.7 and 65.5%). Average difference between the two calculation methods ranged between 0.6% and 36.3%, and this difference was strongly negatively correlated with water flux rate. Average water influx rates ranged between 15.5 g/day (fasting) and 624.5 g/day (feeding on cockles). The latter value is at 26.6 times the allometrically predicted value and is the highest reported to date. Differences in (2)H concentrations between the blood and feces (i.e., biological fractionation) were small but significant (-3.4% when fed a pellet diet, and -1.1% for all the other diets), and did not relate to the rate of water flux (chi(2)(1) = 0.058, P < 0.81). We conclude that the ingested water equilibrated rapidly with the body water pool even in an avian species that shows record water flux rates when living on ingested marine bivalves.

  5. Keratinophilic fungi in various types of water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The keratinophilic fungi in various types of water bodies (slough. pond. beach pool. two lakes and two rivers were studied. Samples of water were collected every other month for bydrochemical analysis and once a month (1989-1990 in order to determine the fungus content. Human hair, snippings of finger-nails, chips of hoofs, feathers and snake exuviae were used as bait. Twenty-five species of keratinophilic fungi were found in various types of water bodies. Hyphochytrium catenoides, Aphanomyces stellatus, Leptolegniella caudala and Achlya oligacantha represent new records as koratinophilic fungi.

  6. Water quality of fresh water bodies in the lower Volta Basin: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out on water from lakes Kasu and Nyafie, two of the fresh water bodies situated near Asutsuare, an agricultural town in the lower Volta basin of Ghana to determine the level of water quality parameters. To be able to this, water samples were taken from designated points in both lakes. Sampling was ...

  7. Ingested water equilibrates isotopically with the body water pool of a shorebird with unrivaled water fluxes

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, G.H.; Dekinga, A; Achterkamp, B.; Piersma, T.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of H-2 to measure the amount of body water (TBW) and water fluxes in relation to diet type and level of food intake in a mollusk-eating shorebird, the Red Knot (Calidris canutus). Six birds were exposed to eight experimental indoor conditions. Average fractional H-2 turnover rates ranged between 0.182 day(-1) (SD = 0.0219) for fasting birds and 7.759 day(-1) (SD = 0.4535) for birds feeding on cockles (Cerastoderma edule). Average TBW estimates obtained with t...

  8. Impact of highway construction on water bodies: a geospatial assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Kushwaha, Vikash K; Mardikar, Trupti; Labhasetwar, P K

    2017-08-01

    India has witnessed a massive infrastructure boom in the past few years. One of such projects is National Highway-7 (NH-7), a North-South highway connecting Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, to Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, traversing many water bodies. The present study aims to assess the pre- and post-construction impact due to existing, new and widened NH-7 on the physical status of the water bodies, using remote sensing techniques. Satellite images spanning 22 years were procured and analysed for change detection in land use and land cover within the waterbodies. The study indicates that construction activities have led to transformation within the water bodies regarding reduction in area and inter-changing of land use and land cover classes, in turn leading to siltation and reduction of recharge.

  9. Water and the thermal evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Robert E.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Two hypotheses are proposed for the aqueous alteration of carbonaceous chondrites within their parent bodies, in which respectively the alteration occurs (1) throughout the parent body interior, or (2) in a postaccretional surface regolith; both models assume an initially homogeneous mixture of ice and rock that is heated through the decay of Al-26. Water is seen to exert a powerful influence on chondrite evolution through its role of thermal buffer, permitting substitution of a low temperature aqueous alteration for high temperature recrystallization. It is quantitatively demonstrated that liquid water may be introduced by either hydrothermal circulation, vapor diffusion from below, or venting due to fracture.

  10. Lidar point density analysis: implications for identifying water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worstell, Bruce B.; Poppenga, Sandra K.; Evans, Gayla A.; Prince, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Most airborne topographic light detection and ranging (lidar) systems operate within the near-infrared spectrum. Laser pulses from these systems frequently are absorbed by water and therefore do not generate reflected returns on water bodies in the resulting void regions within the lidar point cloud. Thus, an analysis of lidar voids has implications for identifying water bodies. Data analysis techniques to detect reduced lidar return densities were evaluated for test sites in Blackhawk County, Iowa, and Beltrami County, Minnesota, to delineate contiguous areas that have few or no lidar returns. Results from this study indicated a 5-meter radius moving window with fewer than 23 returns (28 percent of the moving window) was sufficient for delineating void regions. Techniques to provide elevation values for void regions to flatten water features and to force channel flow in the downstream direction also are presented.

  11. Water entry of cylindrical bodies with various aspect ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nayoung; Park, Hyungmin

    2017-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the water entry of cylindrical bodies with different aspect ratio (1.0-8.0), focusing on the deformation of free surface and resulting phenomena over and under the surface. The experiment is performed using a high-speed imaging (upto 10000 fps) and PIV. The head and tail of bodies are hemispherical and the nose part is additionally roughened with a sandpaper to see the effect of roughness as well. The release height is also adjusted to change the impact velocity at the free surface (Reynolds number is order of 105). For smooth surface (without cavity formation), a thin liquid film rises up the body after impacting, gathers at the pole and forms a jet over the free surfaces. The jet is created in the form of a thick and thin jet. The thin jet is produced by a water film riding up the surface of an object, and a thick jet is produced by rising water from underwater as the object sinks. However, as the aspect ratio increases, the liquid film does not fully ride up the body and cannot close, so there is an empty space below the free surface. With roughness (with cavity), the liquid film is detached from the body and splash/dome is formed above the free surface. The splash height and its collapsing time decrease with increasing the aspect ratio. Supported by Grants (MPSS-CG-2016-02, NRF-2017R1A4A1015523) of the Korea government.

  12. Effect of physical activity on body water in sedentary young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a walking exercise on body water among sedentary obese and thin women. Methods: Forty young untrained girls between the age of 20 and 25 years (obese, BMI>30: N=20 and thin, BMI <20: N=20) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were ...

  13. Development of predictive equations for total body water using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study aimed to derive predictive equations for total body water determinations with bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements in a population of asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive Zulu women. Design: Cross-sectional data from within an ongoing prospective study ...

  14. Development of predictive equations for total body water using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-02

    Feb 2, 2012 ... Objectives: The study aimed to derive predictive equations for total body water determinations with bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric measurements in a population of asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive Zulu women. Design: Cross-sectional data from within an ongoing ...

  15. Water Hyacinth in the Rift Valley Water Bodies of Ethiopia: Its Distribution, Socioeconomic Importance and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firehun, Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted in the Rift Valley water bodies of Ethiopia from 2009 to 2011 to (i) determine the prevalence, agro-ecological distribution and sources of infestation of water hyacinth, (ii) investigate the socio-economic impact of water hyacinth, and (iii) assess changes in its

  16. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...

  17. Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Myhre, L. G.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating total body water (TBW) using breath analyses of blood ethanol content is described. Regression analysis of ethanol concentration curves permits determination of a theoretical concentration that would have existed if complete equilibration had taken place immediately upon ingestion of the ethanol; the water fraction of normal blood may then be used to calculate TBW. The ethanol dilution method is applied to 35 subjects, and comparison with a tritium dilution method of determining TBW indicates that the correlation between the two procedures is highly significant. Lean body mass and fat fraction were determined by hydrostatic weighing, and these data also prove compatible with results obtained from the ethanol dilution method. In contrast to the radioactive tritium dilution method, the ethanol dilution method can be repeated daily with its applicability ranging from diseased individuals to individuals subjected to thermal stress, strenuous exercise, water immersion, or the weightless conditions of space flights.

  18. Diatoms from lentic and lotic systems in Antioquia, Choco and Santander Departments in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, Silvia E.; Ramirez, John J.; Plata, Yasmin

    2008-01-01

    In the tropical and subtropical regions, there is a large number of species which has not been yet described. The high possibility of extinction makes their inventory a priority. 23 diatoms taxa from Andean lotic systems and lentic waterbodies localized in the Departments of Antioquia, Santander and Choco, Colombia, are analyzed with light and scanning electron microscopy. Each taxon is described and information about environmental characteristic of the sites where they were collected and distribution in Colombia is given. The studied taxa belong to the orders Thalassiosirales (1), Aulacoseirales (1), Fragilariales (4), Cymbellales (7), Achnanthales (2), Naviculales (7), and Thalassiophysales (1). Fifteen of them are recorded for the first time in Colombia and Encyonema jemtlandicum in America del Sur. A comparison with the diatom flora of the Colombian Amazonia showed that there were only three taxa in common to these two equatorial regions probably due to the influence of altitudinal gradient. (author)

  19. Spectral measurements of underwater downwelling radiance of inland water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Potes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The apparatus exploited in this work is composed of an optical cable linked to a portable FieldSpec UV/VNIR that records the spectral downwelling radiance in underwater environment, allowing us to calculate the shortwave attenuation coefficient in water. Results for three inland water bodies are presented under different atmospheric conditions (sun zenith angle and wind speed and water composition (chlorophyll α concentration and turbidity. We show that the spectral downwelling zenith radiance profiles under high sun elevations present a positive slope in the upper layers due to relatively high scattering of direct sunlight compared to attenuation. For deeper layers, attenuation overcomes the scattering of sunlight leading to a constant negative logarithmic slope. For low sun elevations, a negative slope is observed in the entire water column since the scattering of direct sunlight is always lower than attenuation. Whenever a negative logarithmic constant slope is observed, the attenuation coefficient was computed. A relation was observed between attenuation coefficient in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR spectral region and water turbidity, for the three water bodies under study.

  20. Occupancy patterns of mammals and lentic amphibians in the Elwha River riparian zone before dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Chelgren, Nathan; Sager-Fradkin, K.A.; Happe, P.J.; Adams, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The downstream transport of sediments and organics and upstream migration of anadromous fishes are key ecological processes in unregulated riverine ecosystems of the North Pacific coast, but their influence on wildlife habitats and populations is poorly documented. Removal of two large hydroelectric dams in Washington’s Elwha Valley provides an unprecedented opportunity to study long-term responses of wildlife populations to dam removal and restoration of these key ecological processes. We compared pre-dam removal patterns in the relative abundance and occupancy of mesocarnivores, small mammals and lentic amphibians of the Elwha River riparian zone above, between and below the dams. Occupancy of riparian habitats by three mesocarnivore species diminished upriver but did not appear to be closely linked with the absence of salmon in the upper river. Although the importance of salmon in the lower river cannot be discounted, other gradients in food resources also likely contributed to observed distribution patterns of mesocarnivores. Abundance and occupancy patterns within congeneric pairs of new world mice (Peromyscus spp.) and shrews (Sorex spp.) indicated that closely related species were negatively associated with each other and responded to habitat gradients in the riparian zone. The availability of lentic habitats of amphibians was highly variable, and occupancy was low as a result of rapidly changing flows during the larval development period. We speculate that long-term changes in habitat conditions and salmon availability following dam removal will elicit long-term changes in distribution of mesocarnivores, small mammals and amphibians. Long-term monitoring will enhance understanding of the role of fish and restored ecosystem processes on wildlife communities along salmon-bearing rivers in the region.

  1. Water Transport and the Evolution of CM Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, R.; Cohen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Extraterrestrial water-bearing minerals are of great importance both for understanding the formation and evolution of the solar system and for supporting future human activities in space. Asteroids are the primary source of meteorites, many of which show evidence of an early heating episode and varying degrees of aqueous alteration. The origin and characterization of hydrated minerals (minerals containing H2O or OH) among both the main-belt and near-earth asteroids is important for understanding a wide range of solar system formation and evolutionary processes, as well as for planning for human exploration. Current hypotheses postulate asteroids began as mixtures of water ice and anhydrous silicates. A heating event early in solar system history was then responsible for melting the ice and driving aqueous alteration. The link between asteroids and meteorites is forged by reflectance spectra, which show 3-µm bands indicative of bound OH or H2O on the C-class asteroids, which are believed to be the parent bodies of the carbonaceous chondrites in our collections. The conditions at which aqueous alteration occurred in the parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrites are thought to be well-constrained: at 0-25 C for less than 15 Myr after asteroid formation. In previous models, many scenarios exhibit peak temperatures of the rock and co-existing liquid water in more than 75 percent of the asteroid's volume rising to 150 C and higher, due to the exothermic hydration reactions triggering a thermal runaway effect. However, even in a high porosity, water-saturated asteroid very limited liquid water flow is predicted (distances of 100's nm at most). This contradiction has yet to be resolved. Still, it may be possible for water to become liquid even in the near-surface environment, for a long enough time to drive aqueous alteration before vaporizing or freezing then subliming. Thus, we are using physics- and chemistry-based models that include thermal and fluid transport as well

  2. Parasitic amoebae found in water bodies of Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsyuk, Marina

    2017-12-01

    Two parasitic amoebian species are found in mollusks of the water bodies of Ukraine. Vahlkampfia sp. is found in hepatopankreas of Unio conus Spengler, 1793, and Acanthamoeba sp. is observed in mantle cavity of Viviparus viviparus Linnaeus, 1758. For these protist species, the mollusks are shown to be intermediate hosts where amoebae feed and reproduce. An experimental infection with Vahlkampfia sp. and Acanthamoeba sp. was not successful, no pathological changes in mollusks were observed. These amoebae are successfully cultured in fresh water and agar medium, hence we can safely consider them free-living. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Techniques for determining total body water using deuterium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of total body water (TBW) is fundamental to the study of body fluid changes consequent to microgravity exposure or treatment with microgravity countermeasures. Often, the use of radioactive isotopes is prohibited for safety or other reasons. It was selected and implemented for use by some Johnson Space Center (JCS) laboratories, which permitted serial measurements over a 14 day period which was accurate enough to serve as a criterion method for validating new techniques. These requirements resulted in the selection of deuterium oxide dilution as the method of choice for TBW measurement. The development of this technique at JSC is reviewed. The recommended dosage, body fluid sampling techniques, and deuterium assay options are described.

  4. Human body flotation and organic responses to water immersion

    OpenAIRE

    Llana Belloch, Salvador; Lucas Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Pérez Soriano, Pedro; Priego Quesada, José Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Swimming is a physical activity performed in an environment where human beings are not adapted from an evolutionary point of view. For this reason, swimming for humans is considered an ontogenetic movement and not a phylogenetic one such as walking or running on land. Locomotion into the water has some very specific characteristics for the human being, since the body experiences a situation of hydrostatic microgravity which in most cases enables flotation. Flotation capacity is affected by th...

  5. Illegal fishing of inland water bodies of Nigeria: Kainji experience

    OpenAIRE

    Raji, A.; Okaeme, A.N.; Omorinkoba, W.; Bwala, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    It is a common knowledge that illegal fishing which includes use of wrong gears, explosives, excessive exploitation of choice stocks, enhancement and stocking of water body and pollution has devastating effects on the critical biomass of fish biodiversity and livelihood activities associated with fishing. Efforts worldwide to arrest these menace are significant because it has been found that illegal fishing has made fishing non sustainable, resulted in poor fishermen catches, and exacerbated...

  6. Heated Discharge Control and Management Alternatives: Small Water Bodies and Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, James F.

    Basic concepts of waste heat management on shallow and deep small water bodies and rivers are reviewed and examples are given. This study defines a small water body as a body in which the far field hydrothermal effects of a heated discharge can be detected in a major portion or practically all of the water body. Environmental effects due to…

  7. Re-designating water bodies in Denmark bypasses the Water Framework Directive objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Despite the initially ambitious provisions of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) when it first entered into force, thousands of kilometres of Danish watercourses have now lost their legal protection through the application of the WFD’s provisions concerning the designation of water bodies....... This article describes the designation process and concludes that it does not conform to the obligation carefully to assign an environmental objective to discrete and significant water bodies as set out in the WFD. Neither does it ensure the same level of protection that existed prior to the implementation...

  8. Re-designating water bodies in Denmark bypasses the Water Framework Directive objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    Despite the initially ambitious provisions of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) when it first entered into force, thousands of kilometres of Danish watercourses have now lost their legal protection through the application of the WFD’s provisions concerning the designation of water bodies....... This article describes the designation process and concludes that it does not conform to the obligation carefully to assign an environmental objective to discrete and significant water bodies as set out in the WFD. Neither does it ensure the same level of protection that existed prior to the implementation...

  9. Spatial Variability of Wet Troposphere Delays Over Inland Water Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Ali; Clark, Elizabeth A.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2017-11-01

    Satellite radar altimetry has enabled the study of water levels in large lakes and reservoirs at a global scale. The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission (scheduled launch 2020) will simultaneously measure water surface extent and elevation at an unprecedented accuracy and resolution. However, SWOT retrieval accuracy will be affected by a number of factors, including wet tropospheric delay—the delay in the signal's passage through the atmosphere due to atmospheric water content. In past applications, the wet tropospheric delay over large inland water bodies has been corrected using atmospheric moisture profiles based on atmospheric reanalysis data at relatively coarse (tens to hundreds of kilometers) spatial resolution. These products cannot resolve subgrid variations in wet tropospheric delays at the spatial resolutions (of 1 km and finer) that SWOT is intended to resolve. We calculate zenith wet tropospheric delays (ZWDs) and their spatial variability from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical weather prediction model simulations at 2.33 km spatial resolution over the southwestern U.S., with attention in particular to Sam Rayburn, Ray Hubbard, and Elephant Butte Reservoirs which have width and length dimensions that are of order or larger than the WRF spatial resolution. We find that spatiotemporal variability of ZWD over the inland reservoirs depends on climatic conditions at the reservoir location, as well as distance from ocean, elevation, and surface area of the reservoir, but that the magnitude of subgrid variability (relative to analysis and reanalysis products) is generally less than 10 mm.

  10. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  11. Bromide space, total body water, and sick cell syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Hundeshagen, H.; Lehr, L.

    1982-01-01

    Displacements of the bromide space (Br-82-C, as a marker for the extracellular fluid compartment) are caused by an enhanced anatomical space and/or increased permeability of cells to bromide. The ratio Br-82-C: total body water (TBW) was evaluated to be 0.83 +- 0.17 in critically ill patients (n = 38) compared with the normal value of 0.46 +- 0.04 (n = 10). Because of normal TBW in critically ill patients (TBW = 505 +- 68 ml/kg), an increased bromide penetration into cells seems to be responsible for the enlarged ratio Br-82-C: TBW. Taking into consideration measurements in patients with malabsorption (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.56 +- 0.13; n = 13) and carcinoma of the rectum and colon (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.66 +- 0.24; n = 18) we think that the bromide space is a good measurement of the effective extracellular water. (orig.)

  12. Quantifying body water kinetics and fecal and urinary water output from lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Wagner-Riddle, C; Casper, D P; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2014-10-01

    Reliable estimates of fresh manure water output from dairy cows help to improve storage design, enhance efficiency of land application, quantify the water footprint, and predict nutrient transformations during manure storage. The objective of the study was to construct a mechanistic, dynamic, and deterministic mathematical model to quantify urinary and fecal water outputs (kg/d) from individual lactating dairy cows. The model contained 4 body water pools: reticulorumen (QRR), post-reticulorumen (QPR), extracellular (QEC), and intracellular (QIC). Dry matter (DM) intake, dietary forage, DM, crude protein, acid detergent fiber and ash contents, milk yield, and milk fat and protein contents, days in milk, and body weight were input variables to the model. A set of linear equations was constructed to determine drinking, feed, and saliva water inputs to QRR and fractional water passage from QRR to QPR. Water transfer via the rumen wall was subjected to changes in QEC and total water input to QRR. Post-reticulorumen water passage was adjusted for DM intake. Metabolic water production and respiratory cutaneous water losses were estimated with functions of heat production in the model. Water loss in urine was driven by absorbed N left after being removed via milk. Model parameters were estimated simultaneously using observed fecal and urinary water output data from lactating Holstein cows (n=670). The model was evaluated with data that were not used for model development and optimization (n=377). The observations in both data sets were related to thermoneutral conditions. The model predicted drinking water intake, fecal, urinary, and total fresh manure water output with root mean square prediction errors as a percentage of average values of 18.1, 15.6, 30.6, and 14.6%, respectively. In all cases, >97% of the prediction error was due to random variability of data. The model can also be used to determine saliva production, heat and metabolic water production, respiratory

  13. Continued decrease of open surface water body area in Oklahoma during 1984-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhenhua; Dong, Jinwei; Menarguez, Michael A; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Doughty, Russell B; Hooker, Katherine V; David Hambright, K

    2017-10-01

    Oklahoma contains the largest number of manmade lakes and reservoirs in the United States. Despite the importance of these open surface water bodies to public water supply, agriculture, thermoelectric power, tourism and recreation, it is unclear how these water bodies have responded to climate change and anthropogenic water exploitation in past decades. In this study, we used all available Landsat 5 and 7 images (16,000 scenes) from 1984 through 2015 and a water index- and pixel-based approach to analyze the spatial-temporal variability of open surface water bodies and its relationship with climate and water exploitation. Specifically, the areas and numbers of four water body extents (the maximum, year-long, seasonal, and average extents) were analyzed to capture variations in water body area and number. Statistically significant downward trends were found in the maximum, year-long, and annual average water body areas from 1984 through 2015. Furthermore, these decreases were mainly attributed to the continued shrinking of large water bodies (>1km 2 ). There were also significant decreases in maximum and year-long water body numbers, which suggested that some of the water bodies were vanishing year by year. However, remarkable inter-annual variations of water body area and number were also found. Both water body area and number were positively related to precipitation, and negatively related to temperature. Surface water withdrawals mainly influenced the year-long water bodies. The smaller water bodies have a higher risk of drying under a drier climate, which suggests that small water bodies are more vulnerable under climate-warming senarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spectral clustering for water body spectral types analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Leping; Li, Shijin; Wang, Lingli; Chen, Deqing

    2017-11-01

    In order to study the spectral types of water body in the whole country, the key issue of reservoir research is to obtain and to analyze the information of water body in the reservoir quantitatively and accurately. A new type of weight matrix is constructed by utilizing the spectral features and spatial features of the spectra from GF-1 remote sensing images comprehensively. Then an improved spectral clustering algorithm is proposed based on this weight matrix to cluster representative reservoirs in China. According to the internal clustering validity index which called Davies-Bouldin(DB) index, the best clustering number 7 is obtained. Compared with two clustering algorithms, the spectral clustering algorithm based only on spectral features and the K-means algorithm based on spectral features and spatial features, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed spectral clustering algorithm based on spectral features and spatial features has a higher clustering accuracy, which can better reflect the spatial clustering characteristics of representative reservoirs in various provinces in China - similar spectral properties and adjacent geographical locations.

  15. Rapid computer prediction of total body water in fluid overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloerb, P.R.; Palaskas, C.L.; Mintun, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Using computer analysis of the early plasma arterial disappearance curve of tritiated water (HTO), we sought the fewest points and earliest times needed to predict the final volume of dilution, total body water (TBW). In ten anesthetized adult female dogs weighing 19.1 +/- 0.5 kg, with bilateral ureteral ligation, 500 muC HTO were given IV. Arterial blood samples were taken until equilibrium (3 hours), when the approximate equivalent of extracellular fluid (ECF), 4,000 ml of lactated Ringer's solution, was given IV within 1 hour. The next day, in the second phase of the study, 1,000 muC of HTO were given IV and arterial blood samples were taken at intervals up to equilibrium (5 hours). TBW at 3 hours after the first HTO infusion was 63.3 +/- 1.2% body weight. Using a curve-fitting Fortran program (CFIT), the arterial plasma HTO concentrations were fitted to one or two exponentials. Although initial TBW could be predicted from arterial plasma concentrations of HTO during 20 minutes after injection in normally hydrated dogs, values during 60 minutes were required for accurate prediction of TBW after infusion of 4 L of fluid. TBW in normal and fluid-loaded animals was predicted within 2.3 +/- 0.6% of the final HTO equilibrium

  16. Water Reservoirs in Small Planetary Bodies: Meteorites, Asteroids, and Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Conel M. O'D.; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Altwegg, Kathrin

    2018-02-01

    Asteroids and comets are the remnants of the swarm of planetesimals from which the planets ultimately formed, and they retain records of processes that operated prior to and during planet formation. They are also likely the sources of most of the water and other volatiles accreted by Earth. In this review, we discuss the nature and probable origins of asteroids and comets based on data from remote observations, in situ measurements by spacecraft, and laboratory analyses of meteorites derived from asteroids. The asteroidal parent bodies of meteorites formed ≤ 4 Ma after Solar System formation while there was still a gas disk present. It seems increasingly likely that the parent bodies of meteorites spectroscopically linked with the E-, S-, M- and V-type asteroids formed sunward of Jupiter's orbit, while those associated with C- and, possibly, D-type asteroids formed further out, beyond Jupiter but probably not beyond Saturn's orbit. Comets formed further from the Sun than any of the meteorite parent bodies, and retain much higher abundances of interstellar material. CI and CM group meteorites are probably related to the most common C-type asteroids, and based on isotopic evidence they, rather than comets, are the most likely sources of the H and N accreted by the terrestrial planets. However, comets may have been major sources of the noble gases accreted by Earth and Venus. Possible constraints that these observations can place on models of giant planet formation and migration are explored.

  17. Water body detection from TanDEM-X data: concept and first evaluation of an accurate water indication mask

    OpenAIRE

    Wendleder, Anna; Breunig, Markus; Klaus, Martin; Wessel, Birgit; Roth, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Additionally to the global DEM which is the main product of the TanDEM-X mission a global water body mask will be produced. The main goal of this water mask is to deliver an information layer for any subsequent DEM editing process. It is derived from the SAR amplitude and coherence. In this paper, the concept of the global water body detection is explained and a first evaluation of the single coverage water body detection is presented.

  18. Association between body water status and acute mountain sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The present study determined the association between body fluid variation and the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS in adults. METHODS: Forty-three healthy participants (26 males and 17 females, age: 26 ± 6 yr, height: 174 ± 9 cm, weight: 68 ± 12 kg were passively exposed at a FiO2 of 12.6% (simulated altitude hypoxia of 4500 m, PiO2 = 83.9 mmHg for 12-h. AMS severity was assessed using the Lake Louise Score (LLS. Food and drink intakes were consumed ad libitum and measured; all urine was collected. Before and after the 12-h exposure, body weight and plasma osmolality were measured and whole-body bioimpedance analysis was performed. RESULTS: The overall AMS incidence was 43% (38% males, 50% females. Participants who developed AMS showed lower fluid losses (3.0 ± 0.9 vs. 4.5 ± 2.0 ml/kg/h, p = 0.002, a higher fluid retention (1.9 ± 1.5 vs. 0.6 ± 0.8 ml/kg/h, p = 0.022, greater plasma osmolality decreases (-7 ± 7 vs. -2 ± 5 mOsm/kg, p = 0.028 and a larger plasma volume expansion (11 ± 10 vs. 1 ± 15%, p = 0.041 compared to participants not developing AMS. Net water balance (fluid intake--fluid loss and the amount of fluid loss were strong predictors whether getting sick or not (Nagelkerkes r(2 = 0.532. The LLS score was related to net water balance (r = 0.358, p = 0.018, changes in plasma osmolality (r = -0.325, p = 0.033 and sodium concentration (r = -0.305, p = 0.047. Changes in the impedance vector length were related to weight changes (r = -0.550, p<0.001, fluid intake (r = -0.533, p<0.001 and net water balance (r = -0.590, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Participants developing AMS within 12 hours showed a positive net water balance due to low fluid loss. Thus measures to avoid excess fluid retention are likely to reduce AMS symptoms.

  19. Applying life-history strategies for freshwater macroinvertebrates to lentic waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, W.C.E.P.; Siepel, H.; Esselink, H.

    2008-01-01

    ¿ Effective environmental management requires a sound understanding of the causal mechanisms underlying the relationship of species with their environment. Mechanistic explanations linking species and environment are ultimately based on species traits. Many tools for ecological assessment and

  20. Worldwide Eutrophication of Water Bodies: Causes, Concerns, Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepas, E. E.; Charette, T.

    2003-12-01

    Eutrophication is the nutrient enrichment of waters that stimulates an array of symptomatic changes, that can include increased phytoplankton and rooted aquatic plant (macrophyte) production, fisheries and water quality deterioration, and other undesirable changes that interfere with water uses (Bartsch, 1972). The trophic state, or degree of fertility, of water bodies ranges from oligotrophic to mesotrophic to eutrophic with increasing supply of nutrients and organic matter ( Table 1). Eutrophication is most often the result of an elevated supply of nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, to surface waters that results in enhanced production of primary producers, particularly phytoplankton and aquatic plants. Table 1. Mean annual values for the trophic classification system Total phosphorus (μg L-1)Chlorophyll a (μg L-1)Secchi disk depth (m) Ultra-oligotrophic12 Oligotrophic6 Mesotrophic10-352.5-86-3 Eutrophic35-1008-253-1.5 Hypertrophic>100>25smell of clots or masses of decaying phytoplankton decreases the recreational value of most waters and usually generates concerns among the public. Furthermore, blooms of toxin-producing phytoplankton can cause widespread illness. A bloom is a conspicuous concentration of phytoplankton, often concentrated at or near the surface. It is difficult to quantify what constitutes a "bloom," but a rough estimate places it as a chlorophyll a concentration over 30 μg L-1. Toxins produced by dinoflagellates such as Pfiesteria in marine environments of the northeastern US and red tides in tropical waters have caused massive fish kills, millions of dollars in losses to seafood-related industries, human memory loss, paralysis, and even death (Van den Hoeck et al., 1995; Silbergeld et al., 2000). Bloom-forming species of cyanobacteria can produce potent hepato-(liver) toxins termed microcystins that have been implicated in poisonings of domestic livestock, pets, wildlife, and susceptible humans ( Codd, 1995; Dunn, 1996). In

  1. Sculpting of a dissolvable body by flowing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinzi Mac; Moore, M. Nicholas J.; Ristroph, Leif

    2014-11-01

    Fluid flows strongly influence the dissolution of materials in geological contexts and in chemical and pharmaceutical applications. We approach flow-driven dissolution as a moving boundary problem and conduct experiments on hard candy bodies immersed within fast flowing water. We discover that different initial shapes are sculpted into a similar final form before ultimately vanishing, suggesting convergence to a stable shape-flow state. A model linking the flow and solute concentration suggests an explanation for this state and offers scaling laws for quantities such as the volume decay rate in time. As a whimsical application, we also show how this model can be used to address the long-standing question, ``How many licks does it take to get to the center of lollipop?''

  2. Turnover of body water in relation to the hydric diet studied with tritiated water in Locusta migratoria migratorioides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscarlet, L.A.; Proux, Jacques

    1975-01-01

    The elimination of triated water injected in a locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides is described by an exponential function of the cumulative water diet and fits a one-compartment model. This result shows that body water occupies a single pool the mass of which is kept constant by an equilibrium between the water diet and the water elimination rate [fr

  3. Implications of Climate Change on the Heat Budget of Lentic Systems Used for Power Station Cooling: Case Study Clinton Lake, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; García, Marcelo H

    2016-01-05

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change-in particular higher air temperatures-on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling.

  4. Implications of climate change on the heat budget of lentic systems used for power station cooling: Case study Clinton Lake, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P. Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2016-01-01

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change--in particular higher air temperatures--on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling.

  5. Gear and seasonal bias associated with abundance and size structure estimates for lentic freshwater fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Quist, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    the future development of standardized sampling methods for freshwater fish in lentic ecosystems.

  6. Anthropogenic water bodies as drought refuge for aquatic macroinvertebrates and macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodemaide, David T; Matthews, Ty G; Iervasi, Dion; Lester, Rebecca E

    2018-03-01

    Ecological research associated with the importance of refuges has tended to focus on natural rather than anthropogenic water bodies. The frequency of disturbances, including drought events, is predicted to increase in many regions worldwide due to human-induced climate change. More frequent disturbance will affect freshwater ecosystems by altering hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, available habitat and assemblage structure. Under this scenario, many aquatic biota are likely to rely on permanent water bodies as refuge, including anthropogenic water bodies. Here, macroinvertebrate and macrophyte assemblages from waste-water treatment and raw-water storages (i.e. untreated potable water) were compared with nearby natural water bodies during autumn and winter 2013. We expected macroinvertebrate and macrophyte assemblages in raw-water storages to be representative of natural water bodies, while waste-water treatment storages would not, due to degraded water quality. However, water quality in natural water bodies differed from raw-water storages but was similar to waste-water treatment storages. Macroinvertebrate patterns matched those of water quality, with no differences occurring between natural water bodies and waste-water treatment storages, but assemblages in raw-water storages differed from the other two water bodies. Unexpectedly, differences associated with raw-water storages were attributable to low abundances of several taxa. Macrophyte assemblages in raw-water storages were representative of natural water bodies, but were less diverse and abundant in, or absent from, waste-water treatment storages. No clear correlations existed between any habitat variables and macroinvertebrate assemblages but a significant correlation between macrophyte assemblages and habitat characteristics existed. Thus, there were similarities in both water quality and macroinvertebrate assemblages between natural water bodies and waste-water treatment storages, and similarities in

  7. Cyclic variations of gonad development of an air-breathing fish, Channa striata in the lentic and lotic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Al Mahmud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was conducted to know the cyclic changes in gonadal maturation and to investigate the developmental stages of oocytes and testicular germ cells of an air-breathing fish, Channa striata. Fish were sampled monthly from lentic and lotic environments of three geographical locations of Bangladesh from December to November and the histological analysis of their gonad was done to evaluate the objectives. The highest mean GSI was 5.95 ± 0.20 for female in July and 0.14 ± 0.01 for male also in July showing that the gonadal development reached its peak during this month. The highest mean oocyte diameter was 1257.50 ± 24.17 μm observed in July implying that the oocyte reached maturity in this month. Histological study of ovary revealed the evidence of early yolk granule stage and late yolk granule stage from April to July. In case of male four stages of spermatogenesis were distinguished and spermatozoa were highly abundant in June and July. So the monthly pooled values of GSI and the analysis of gonadal histology indicated that the peak breeding season of C. striata occurred in July in the lentic and lotic environments. Samples collected from lentic and lotic habitats are suggestive of no difference in the development of the gonad. The results of the present study will be useful for selective breeding programme, conservation and sustainable fishery management of C. striata in its natural habitat.

  8. Tritium water as a marker for the measurement of body water turnover rates in desert livestock, rodent and bird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Ghosh, P.K.; Bohra, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Tritiated water has been used for estimating body water turnover rates (BWTRs) in desert livestock, rodent and birds. BWTRs in relation to adaption of these animal species to desert environment have been discussed. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  9. A Framework to Simulate Small Shallow Inland Water Bodies in Semi-arid Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, A.; Annor, F.O.; van de Giesen, N.C.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a framework for simulating the flow field and heat transfer processes in small shallow inland water bodies has been developed. As the dynamics and thermal structure of these water bodies are crucial in studying the quality of stored water , and in assessing the heat fluxes from their

  10. Contribution of some water bodies and the role of soils in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of enrichment of water bodies could be of serious crises to the mangrove ecosystem. Changes in physicochemical properties of some water bodies in the Douala-Edea mangrove ecosystem was investigated alongside the potential role of soils in controlling these parameters. Water and soil samples within the ...

  11. Contribution of some water bodies and the role of soils in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A S TENING

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... The effect of enrichment of water bodies could be of serious crises to the mangrove ecosystem. Changes in physicochemical properties of some water bodies in the Douala-Edea mangrove ecosystem was investigated alongside the potential role of soils in controlling these parameters. Water and soil.

  12. Abiotic Typology of Surface Water Bodies in the Hydrographic Basin of the Arieş River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE ŞERBAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring according to the Water Frame Directive (2000/60/E.C. guidelines demands the identification of river water bodies, typology, and investigation of reference conditions within each river basin. The identification of “water bodies” based on geographical and hydromorphological determinants is to enable the status to be accurately described and compared to environmental objectives of the Directive. A surface water body has to be a discrete element of surface water, which is not to overlap with each other or to be composed of elements of surface water that are not contiguous. Heavily modified water bodies may be identified and designated where good ecological status is not achieved because of impacts on the hydromorphological characteristics of surface water resulting from physical alterations. By applying the methodology described in the guidance document related to the WFD – Water Framework Directive, identification and designation of abiotic typology water bodies has led to a number of 32 types of water bodies related to streams and 18 types of water bodies related to natural lakes. Due to its position and its morphometric features, the Arieş Basin includes around 12 water body types (eight related to streams and four related to lakes. A detailed overview regarding the spatial distribution of these types is also exposed for inside analysis.

  13. Body water compartments during bed rest: Evaluation of analytical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H. L.; Juhos, L.; Castle, B. L.; Yusken, J.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Nine healthy young men were studied to determine the reproducibility and interchangeability of the use of radio-iodinated human serum albumin and Evans Blue dye for estimating plasma volume, sodium bromide for extracellular fluid volume, and deuterium oxide for total body water volume. All subjects were tested in a semibasal condition and allowed to rest for at least 30 min. after arriving at the laboratory. The results indicate that there was uniform distribution of I131 and Evans Blue dye 10 min. after injection and of NaBr and D2O 3 hours after oral ingestion; the buildup of residual tracer did not interfere appreciably with the measurement of either or Evans Blue spaces when they are administered at equal intervals, and the buildup of background tracer after ingestion of NaBr and D2O once per week for three consecutive weeks did not affect the accuracy of the measurement. It was found that I131 and Evans Blue may be used interchangeably for estimating plasma volume; for estimating bromide and D2O spaces, one 3-hour equilibrium blood sample gives results similar to the extrapolation of multiple samples.

  14. Estimation of total body water by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, R.F.; Schoeller, D.A.

    1986-09-01

    Total body water (TBW) measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was directly compared with deuterium-isotope dilution in a total of 58 subjects. First, sex-specific and group equations were developed by multiple regression analysis in (10 each) obese and nonobese men and women. Height/resistive impedance was the most significant variable used to predict deuterium-dilution space (D2O-TBW) and, combined with weight, yielded R = 0.99 and SE of estimate = 1.75 L. Equations predicted D2O-TBW equally well for obese and nonobese subjects. Second, the equations were prospectively tested in a heterogeneous group of 6 males and 12 females. Sex-specific equations predicted D2O-TBW with good correlation coefficients (0.96 and 0.93), total error (2.34 and 2.89 L), and a small difference between mean predicted and measured D2O-TBW (-1.4 +/- 2.05 and -0.48 +/- 2.83 L). BIA predicts D2O-TBW more accurately than weight, height, and/or age. A larger population is required to validate the applicability of our equations.

  15. Importance of body-water circulation for body-heat dissipation in hot-humid climates: a distinctive body-water circulation in swamp buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chanpongsang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-regulation in swamp buffaloes has been investigated as an adaptive system to hot-humid climates, and several distinctive physiological responses were noted. When rectal temperature increased in hot conditions, blood volume, blood flow to the skin surface and skin temperature markedly increased in buffaloes relatively to cattle. On the other hand, the correlation between blood volume and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP was compared between buffaloes and cattle under dehydration. Although plasma AVP in cattle increased immediately for reducing urine volume against a decrease in blood volume as well as the response observed in most animal species, the increase in plasma AVP was delayed in buffaloes, even after a large decrease in blood volume. In buffaloes, a marked increase in blood volume facilitated the dissipation of excess heat from the skin surface during wallowing. In addition, the change in plasma AVP observed in buffaloes was consistent with that of other animals living in habitats with the high availability of water. These results suggest that the thermo-regulatory system in buffaloes accelerates body-water circulation internally and externally. This system may be adaptive for heat dissipation in hot-humid climates, where an abundance of water is common.

  16. Eutrophication and cyanobacteria in South Africa’s standing water bodies: A view from space

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matthews, MW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing can make a significant contribution to monitoring water quality in South African standing water bodies. Eutrophication, defined as enrichment by nutrients, and toxin-producing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) blooms pose a...

  17. A Framework to Simulate Small Shallow Inland Water Bodies in Semi-arid Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasi, A.; Annor, F.O.; van de Giesen, N.C.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a framework for simulating the flow field and heat transfer processes in small shallow inland water bodies has been developed. As the dynamics and thermal structure of these water bodies are crucial in studying the quality of stored water , and in assessing the heat fluxes from their surfaces as well, the heat transfer and temperature simulations were modeled. The proposed model is able to simulate the full 3-D water flow and heat transfer in the water body by applying complex ...

  18. A new approach to inventorying bodies of water, from local to global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartout, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Having reliable estimates of the number of water bodies on different geographical scales is of great importance to better understand biogeochemical cycles and to tackle the social issues related to the economic and cultural use of water bodies. However, limnological research suffers from a lack of reliable inventories; the available scientific references are predominately based on water bodies of natural origin, large in size and preferentially located in previously glaciated areas. Artificial, small and randomly distributed water bodies, especially ponds, are usually not inventoried. Following Wetzel’s theory (1990, some authors included them in global inventories by using remote sensing or mathematical extrapolation, but fieldwork on the ground has been done on a very limited amount of territory. These studies have resulted in an explosive increase in the estimated number of water bodies, going from 8.44 million lakes (Meybeck 1995 to 3.5 billion water bodies (Downing 2010. These numbers raise several questions, especially about the methodology used for counting small-sized water bodies and the methodological treatment of spatial variables. In this study, we use inventories of water bodies for Sweden, Finland, Estonia and France to show incoherencies generated by the “global to local” approach. We demonstrate that one universal relationship does not suffice for generating the regional or global inventories of water bodies because local conditions vary greatly from one region to another and cannot be offset adequately by each other. The current paradigm for global estimates of water bodies in limnology, which is based on one representative model applied to different territories, does not produce sufficiently exact global inventories. The step-wise progression from the local to the global scale requires the development of many regional equations based on fieldwork; a specific equation that adequately reflects the actual relationship

  19. The Impact Analysis of Water Body Landscape Pattern on Urban Heat Island: A Case Study of Wuhan City

    OpenAIRE

    Bohan Yang; Fen Meng; Xinli Ke; Caixue Ma

    2015-01-01

    Based on the LST and the landscape metrics of water body with remote sensing technique and spatial analysis, the relationship between the mean LST and the attributes of water body was revealed via Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. Result showed that, in 32 class-based metrics we selected, the proportion of water body, average water body size, the isolation and fragmentation of water body, and other eight metrics have high correlation with the LST. As a ...

  20. Stable isotope composition of land snail body water and its relation to environmental waters and shell carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodfriend, G.A.; Magaritz, M.; Gat, J.R. (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel))

    1989-12-01

    Day-to-day and within-day (diel) variations in {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O of the body water of the land snail, Theba pisana, were studied at a site in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three phases of variation, which relate to isotopic changes in atmospheric water vapor, were distinguished. The isotopic variations can be explained by isotopic equilibration with atmospheric water vapor and/or uptake of dew derived therefrom. During the winter, when the snails are active, there is only very minor enrichment in {sup 18}O relative to equilibrium with water vapor or dew, apparently as a result of metabolic activity. But this enrichment becomes pronounced after long periods of inactivity. Within-day variation in body water isotopic composition is minor on non-rain days. Shell carbonate is enriched in {sup 18}O by ca. 1-2% relative to equilibrium with body water. In most regions, the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor (or dew) is a direct function of that of rain. Because the isotopic composition of snail body water is related to that of atmospheric water vapor and the isotopic composition of shell carbonate in turn is related to that of body water, land snail shell carbonate {sup 18}O should provide a reliable indication of rainfall {sup 18}O. However, local environmental conditions and the ecological properties of the snail species must be taken into account.

  1. Teaching in Uncharted Waters: Seeking Critical Body Literacy Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lorayne; Thomson, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Schools are places of learning, but they are also sites of struggle when fitness, obesity, and body image issues converge for students and teachers. Responding to teachers' concerns about their students on diets, a Canadian teachers' organization produced a body image program which included a training day for schools undertaking whole-school…

  2. CARACTERISTICS OF THE LOWER DANUBE WATER BODIES BETWEEN PORTILE DE FIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ŢUCHIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC Directive is the achievement of the “good status” of the water bodies, environmental objective which can be reached through elaboration and implementation of the River Basin Management Plan. According to the legal requirements, at the 22nd of December 2009, Romania has elaborated the first National Management Plan – synthesis of the River Basin Management Plans. This process assumes the types identification and water bodies delineation on the basis of some abiotic and biotic parameters, such: water category, abiotic and biotic typology, physical features, water status, pressures and their impacts, as well as protected areas. Therefore, for the lower Danube sector between Bazias and Isaccea 4 water bodies have been delineated: 2 reservoirs (Portile de Fier/Iron Gates and Ostrov and 2 river sectors (Ostrov – Chiciu, Chiciu – Isaccea. The procedure for assessment of the environmental objectives risk failing (on the basis of pressures and impacts has shown that all 4 water bodies have been identified at risk from the point of view of organic substances, nutrients, hazardous substances and hydro-morphological alterations. The Water Framework Directive defines the surface water status through: the ecological status - 5 classes (based on biological, hydro-morphological and physic-chemical elements and chemical status – 2 classes (based on priority substances. In present, the 4 water bodies identified on the lower Danube sector do not reach the good status, being designated as heavily modified water bodies.

  3. AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN ARGES RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Diaconu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lotic ecosystems, part of the Natural Capital, is one of the key factors functioning of socio - economic development andtheir support. An important role in their sustainable development, is the retention and recycling of nutrients, especiallyN, P and their compounds. The nutrients in lotic and lentic ecosystems are either due to natural biochemical processesor by human impact of pollution or broadcast process and characterize the ecological status of water bodies and thuscan determine the quality of services provided. A special importance have agro-ecosystems, particularly multifunctionallivestock farms. Pathways by which pollutants (especially nutrients and pesticides, and other pollutants to reach bodiesof water are different (surface drainage, percolation, etc..To ensure sustainable development of water resources is necessary for agricultural development to take place in termsof minimizing waste streams and not affect the production and support of NC.

  4. The spatial-temporal dynamics of open surface water bodies in CONUS during 1984-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Z.; Xiao, X.; Dong, J.; Qin, Y.; Doughty, R.; Menarguez, M.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Open surface water bodies provided 80% of the total water withdrawals in the Contiguous United States (CONUS) in 1985-2010. The inter-annual variability and changing trends of surface water body areas have various impacts on the human society and ecosystems. This study made use of all Landsat 5, 7, and 8 surface reflectance archives ( 370,000 images) during 1984-2016 and a water index- and pixel-based approach to detect and map open surface water bodies in the cloud-based platform of Google Earth Engine. The year-long water body area and annual average water body area were calculated for each of the last 33 years and their inter-annual variations during 1984-2016 were analyzed through anomaly analysis while their changing trends were analyzed through linear regressions. The national annual average water body areas varied from 265,000 to 281,000 km2 during 1984-2016, which is 3% below to 3% above the mean value 274,000 km2. In state level, significant decreasing trends were found in both year-long and annual average water body areas in some states of dry climates in west and southwest U.S., including Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. In comparison, significant increasing trends were found in some states of wet climates in the southeast and north U.S., including Indiana, Ohio, New Jersey, Delaware, Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia, North Dakota and South Dakota. Open surface water body areas in CONUS decreased in relatively dry areas but increased in relatively wet areas. The relationships between open surface water body area variability and climate factors (precipitation, temperature) and human impacts (water exploitation) were also analyzed.

  5. PENGARUH PERBEDAAN INTENSITAS LATIHAN ATLET SEPEDA TERHADAP BERAT BADAN DAN BODY WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Hapsari Sakti Titis Penggalih

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research intended to determine the influence of various exercise intensities to hydration status in cyclists based on body weight and body water alteration. This research was done by measured body weight and body water before and after exercise in various intensities. The data measured during April-June 2015 with nine cyclists of Pegasus Continental Cycling Team located in Yogyakarta. Sampling technique used total sampling. Based on One-Way ANOVA statistical analysis, showed significant differences between body weight alteration before and after exercise in light intensity, moderate intensity, and strong intensity. The result proofed by p-value 0,000<0,05. However, there are no significant differences between body water alteration in average intensity and strong intensity. From the result, we can conclude that in various exercise intensities, light, moderate, and high influence athletes hydration status based on body weight and body water alteration before and after exercise. But, body water change in average intensity and vigorous energy are not different. Whereas, body weight change in light intensity is different from the average intensity and strong intensity.

  6. Water body distributions across scales: a comparison of three Arctic wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muster, S.; Heim, B.; Abnizova, A.; Boike, J.

    2012-12-01

    Water bodies are ubiquitous features in Arctic wetlands, ranging from very small polygonal ponds to very large thermokarst lakes. Ponds, i.e. waters with a surface area smaller than 1 ha, have been recognized as hotspots of biological activity and greenhouse gas emissions. Regional and global models, however, cannot resolve ponds due to the coarse resolution. The aims of this study were to identify common characteristics of Arctic wetlands regarding (1) water body size and abundance, and (2) Landsat subpixel fraction of water cover. We mapped water bodies in three Arctic wetlands, i.e. Polar Bear Pass on Bathurst Island in the Canadian High Arctic, Samoylov Island in the Lena River Delta in Siberia, Russia, and Barrow Peninsula on the Alaska Coastal Plain. High-resolution (0.3 to 4 m) water body maps were overlain on to Landsat albedo maps to extract the proportion of open water within a Landsat mixed pixel. At all three sites ponds occupied 95% of the total number of surface waters. Surface waters smaller than 0.1 ha, which cannot be detected with Landsat data, still contributed 60% and higher to the total number. All study areas showed similar rates of decline in water body abundance with increasing water surface area (Fig. 1). Previous studies have fitted abundance-size distributions of water bodies to the Pareto distribution, which appears linear on a log-log plot. Our data, however, shows paretian behavior only in the upper tail of the distribution so that the Pareto distribution strongly overestimates small water bodies. Landsat albedo increased with decreasing proportion of open water cover per Landsat pixel. Linear regressions for albedo values with a subpixel water cover between 100% and less than 5% showed r-square values larger than 0.8, which constitutes a better performance than other more complex unmixing methods. In conclusion, all three wetlands showed similar properties regarding size-abundance data of water bodies, scaling errors, and retrieval of

  7. Harmful effects of wastewater disposal into water bodies: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abattoir wastes, industrial wastes from breweries, agricultural runoffs, and waste water from car wash located close to the Ikpoba River have adverse effects on the water quality. High levels of pollutants in river cause an increase in biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids ...

  8. Heavy metals concentrations in water bodies around aquamarine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples from three streams in the mining area of Eggon Hill were analysed. The Physicochemical values obtained were compared with WHO permissible standards in drinking water. Except for Cu and Zn with levels within permissible limits, other heavy metals determined were found to have levels above the WHO ...

  9. Labelled Substrate Assays of Anticholinesterase Activity in Hungarian Water Bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horváth, L.

    1981-01-01

    At Budapest the River Danube divides into two branches. The left branch called Soroksár-Danube is regulated by locks. The water level fluctuation on this quasi lake is only 50-60 cm. Along the 57 km long branch there are big industries, intensive agricultural areas and holiday resorts. The water is used among others for irrigation, for fishponds and for water sport. The pesticides applied on the neighbouring arable land and the insecticides used for mosquito controlling may pollute the water. Little is known about the fate of insecticides in water and about their impact on the aquatic biota. In June 1978 a monitoring programme of cholinesterase inhibiting pesticide residues was launched on a section of River Danube near to Budapest. Important purpose of the investigations was to test the labelled substrate enzyme inhibition assay as monitoring method for pesticide residues

  10. Image object-based water body types identification in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Hu, Yongyue; Chen, Jianyu; Chen, Peng; Hao, Zengzhou

    2017-10-01

    Water body is one of the most important natural elements in coastal zone. Water bodies in coast are subdivided into offshore sea, aquaculture ponds, inland water bodies, river and so on. Remote sensing is an effective tool to obtain coastal typical objects with high spatial resolution imageries. This paper aims at existing problems of object-based image analysis application to monitor resources and environment in coastal area. For object-based recognition for water body types, relevant works have been carried out by adding spatial semantic features to the extraction process. Through analyzing the spectral, spatial and texture features of water body, the rule set for extracting water body type is established based on the topological and contextual relationship between segments. The recognition method of water body types proposed in this paper gets rid of the traditional object-based classifications based on statistical law. Using prior knowledge to construct knowledge rules with spatial semantic information makes spatial distribution characteristics in coastal zone effective in improving the accuracy of type identification.

  11. Spectrometer for Measuring Water Ice on Airless Bodies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate breadboard of a multi-wavelength to identify possible water ice and frost on the surface. The results will enable unambiguous...

  12. Autonomous profiling device to monitor remote water bodies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Prabhudesai, S.P.

    In tropical climates, most freshwater reservoirs, dams and lakes are prone to annual summer stratification during which bottom water layers near the bed become hypoxic (<2 ml/l) with very low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO). This has serious...

  13. CHIP Regulates Aquaporin-2 Quality Control and Body Water Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Moeller, Hanne B; Stevens, Donté A; Sanchez-Hodge, Rebekah; Childers, Gabrielle; Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; Cheng, Lei; Rosenbaek, Lena L; Rubel, Carrie; Patterson, Cam; Pisitkun, Trairak; Schisler, Jonathan C; Fenton, Robert A

    2018-03-01

    The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins have a regulatory role in these cells and how these cells can be regulated by individual physiologic stimuli. By combining proteomics, bioinformatics, and cell biology approaches, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is highly expressed throughout the collecting duct; is modulated in abundance by vasopressin; interacts with aquaporin-2 (AQP2), Hsp70, and Hsc70; and can directly ubiquitylate the water channel AQP2 in vitro shRNA knockdown of CHIP in CCD cells increased AQP2 protein t 1/2 and reduced AQP2 ubiquitylation, resulting in greater levels of AQP2 and phosphorylated AQP2. CHIP knockdown increased the plasma membrane abundance of AQP2 in these cells. Compared with wild-type controls, CHIP knockout mice or novel CRISPR/Cas9 mice without CHIP E3 ligase activity had greater AQP2 abundance and altered renal water handling, with decreased water intake and urine volume, alongside higher urine osmolality. We did not observe significant changes in other water- or sodium-transporting proteins in the gene-modified mice. In summary, these results suggest that CHIP regulates AQP2 and subsequently, renal water handling. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Anthropogenic change in water bodies in the southern part of the Silesian Upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machowski Robert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the anthropogenic change in water bodies in the southern part of the Silesian Upland as exemplified by the town of Knurów. The assessment was based on topographic maps from the years 1827-1828, 1928-1936, 1960 and 1993, and on a 2011 orthophotomap. The cartographic materials used were processed as required for analysis purposes. Maps were calibrated in the Quantum GIS program on the basis of map corner coordinates and using the common points method. In Knurów, four main types of water bodies were distinguished with respect to their origins: reservoirs impounded by dams, flooded mineral workings, industrial water bodies and water bodies in subsidence basins and hollows. Historically, the first water bodies to appear were reservoirs impounded by dams, which dominated until the 1930s. They later fell into disuse and were completely dismantled. Water bodies in mineral workings formed in the early 20th century and were associated with the excavation of raw materials for producing bricks. The period of their greatest significance were the 1960s, when they constituted slightly more than 46% of water bodies in total and accounted for nearly 40% of overall surface area. At the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century, industrial reservoirs began to appear. Within the town of Knurów, those were sedimentation tanks that held mine water, washery effluent, backfill and cooling water, fire-fighting water pools and tanks, tanks at sewage treatment plants, industrial water tanks and others. Presently, these account for 41.4% (29 of the total number of water bodies and have a total surface area of 32.0 ha (25,2%. Within the study area, water bodies in subsidence basins and hollows only began to form in the second half of the 20th century. In 2011, such water bodies numbered 38 (54.3% and occupied an area of 90.4 ha (71.2%.

  15. Arsenic occurrence in water bodies in Kharaa river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzaya T

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of arsenic (As and its compound and related toxicology are serious concerns nowadays. Gold mining activity is one of the anthropogenic sources of environmental contamination regarding As and other heavy metals. In Mongolia, the most productive gold mining sites are placed in the Kharaa river basin. A hundred water samples were collected from river, spring and deep wells in this river basin. Along with total As and its species-As(III and As(V, examination of concentration levels of other key parameters, 21 heavy metals with pH, total hardness, electric conductivity, anion and cations, was also carried out. In respect to the permissible limit formulated by the Mongolian National Drinking water quality standard (MNS 0900:2005, As10 µg/l, the present study showed that most of samples were found no contamination. In Kharaa river basin, an average concentration of total As in surface water was 4.04 µg/l with wide range in 0.07−30.30 µg/l whereas it was 2.24 µg/l in groundwater. As analysis in surface water in licensed area of Gatsuurt gold mining showed a mean concentration with 24.90 µg/l presenting higher value than that of value in river basin by 6 orders of magnitude and it was 2 times higher than permissible level as well. In Boroo river nearby Boroo gold mining area, As concentration in water was ranged in 6.05−6.25 µg/l. Ammonia pollution may have present at estuary of Zuunmod river in Mandal sum with above the permissible level described in national water quality standard. Geological formation of the rocks and minerals affected to change of heavy metal concentration, especially As and uranium (U at spring water nearby Gatsuurt-Boroo improved road.

  16. What Happens Where the Water and the Rock Touch in Small Space Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, P. K.; Regensburger, P. V.; Klimczak, C.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Dombard, A. J.; Hauck, S. A., II

    2017-12-01

    There are several small space bodies that go around bigger worlds that might have a layer of water under a layer of ice. Lots of study has been done to understand the outside ice layer of these small space bodies, because the ice can tells us important things about the big water layer under it. Some of these small space bodies are very interesting because the right things for life—water, hot rock, and food—might be at the bottom of the water layer, where it touches the top of the next layer down, which is made of rock. But it is very hard to understand what this rock at the bottom of the water is like, because we can't see it. So, we are imagining what this rock is like by thinking about what the rock is like under the water layer on our own world. If hot rock comes out of the rock layer through cracks under the water, the cold of the water makes the hot rock go very cold very fast, and it makes funny rolls as it does so. This might happen on some small space bodies that are hot enough on the inside to make hot rock. We know that on our own world the rock layer under the water is wet to as far down as cracks can go, so it makes sense that this is true for small space bodies, too. We did some thinking about numbers and found out that the cracks can go a few ten hundred steps into the rock layer on small space bodies, but for bigger (well, not quite so small) space bodies, the cracks can go at least tens of ten hundred steps into the rock layer. This means that water goes into the rock layer this much, too. But get this: some small bodies are not really that small—one of them is bigger than the first world from the Sun! And on a few of these big (small) bodies, the layer of water is so heavy that the bottom of that water is pushed together from all sides and turns into a type of hot ice. This means that, for these big (small) worlds, the water can't get into the rock layer through cracks (since there is a layer of hot ice in the way), and so these bodies are

  17. Water Transport and the Evolution of CM Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Rob; Cohen, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Meteorites have amino acids and hydrated minerals which constrain the peak temperature ranges they have experienced. CMs in particular have a narrow range (273-325K). Bulk fluid motion during hydration constrained to small scales (less than mm). Some asteroids are known to have hydrated minerals on their surfaces. It is presumed these two facts may be related. Problem: hydration only occurs (significantly) with liquid water; melting water only occurs early on in nebula (1-10 Myrs ANC); in nebula asteroid surface temperature very cold (approximately 150K). Can indigenous alteration produce CMs and/or surface hydration?

  18. The Need for Regular Monitoring and Prediction of Ephemeral Water Bodies in SERVIR Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric

    2017-01-01

    With remote sensing and modeling techniques available today it is possible to regularly identify and monitor the presence of surface water globally, for a wide range of applications. Many of the available datasets and tools, however, do not adequately resolve small or ephemeral water bodies in a timely enough fashion to make local and subnational decisions about water resources management in developing regions. This presentation introduces a specific need focused on a basin in Senegal to develop a capability to identify and disseminate timely information on small and ephemeral water bodies, and we seek feedback on methods proposed to address this need.

  19. Method and apparatus for recovering oil from an oil spill on the surface of a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, R.W.; Patel, K.P.; Lau, P.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of recovering a hydrophobic hydrocarbon oil from the surface of a body of water, the body of water having a water temperature, the oil having a specific gravity which is less than the specific gravity of the water in the body of water and a viscosity which is greater than approximately 80 centipoise at the water temperature. It comprises continuously withdrawing a feed oil-water mixture from the surface of the body of water; continuously adjusting the viscosity of the oil in the feed oil-water mixture to a level below approximately 80 centipoise to form an adjusted oil-water mixture; and continuously passing the adjusted oil-water mixture through an oil-water coalescer to separate the oil in the adjusted oil-water mixture from the water in the adjusted oil-water mixture

  20. New Evidence that the Valles Marineris Interior Layered Deposits Formed in Standing Bodies of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, C. M.; Parker, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    Our results indicate that the best explanation for the origin and current morphology of the Valles Marineris interior layered deposits is by deposition of sediments, including chemical precipitates, in standing bodies of water.

  1. CHIP Regulates Aquaporin-2 Quality Control and Body Water Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qi; Moeller, Hanne B; Stevens, Donté A

    2018-01-01

    The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which protein...

  2. Dry body weight: water and sodium removal targets in PD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krediet, Raymond T.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiovascular mortality is high in peritoneal dialysis patients. This may be due to the presence of hypertension and fluid overload. Dietary intake of water and sodium are likely to be important, especially in anuric patients. METHODS: A review of the literature on assessment of

  3. Bacterial species isolated from water bodies in Rivers and Bayelsa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A total of twenty water samples were collected from rivers and cultured for the various microorganisms.The total heterotrophic counts were determined by Standard Plate Count (SPC) method. Salmonella and Vibrio species were enumerated by an enrichment procedure in Selenite F broth and Alkaline Peptone ...

  4. Fusion of radar and optical data for mapping and monitoring of water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerowicz, Agnieszka; Siok, Katarzyn

    2017-10-01

    Remote sensing techniques owe their great popularity to the possibility to obtain of rapid, accurate and information over large areas with optimal time, spatial and spectral resolutions. The main areas of interest for remote sensing research had always been concerned with environmental studies, especially water bodies monitoring. Many methods that are using visible and near- an infrared band of the electromagnetic spectrum had been already developed to detect surface water reservoirs. Moreover, the usage of an image obtained in visible and infrared spectrum allows quality monitoring of water bodies. Nevertheless, retrieval of water boundaries and mapping surface water reservoirs with optical sensors is still quite demanding. Therefore, the microwave data could be the perfect complement to data obtained with passive optical sensors to detect and monitor aquatic environment especially surface water bodies. This research presents the methodology to detect water bodies with open- source satellite imagery acquired with both optical and microwave sensors. The SAR Sentinel- 1 and multispectral Sentinel- 2 imagery were used to detect and monitor chosen reservoirs in Poland. In the research Level, 1 Sentinel- 2 data and Level 1 SAR images were used. SAR data were mainly used for mapping water bodies. Next, the results of water boundaries extraction with Sentinel-1 data were compared to results obtained after application of modified spectral indices for Sentinel- 2 data. The multispectral optical data can be used in the future for the evaluation of the quality of the reservoirs. Preliminary results obtained in the research had shown, that the fusion of data obtained with optical and microwave sensors allow for the complex detection of water bodies and could be used in the future quality monitoring of water reservoirs.

  5. Simulation model of pollution spreading in the water bodies affected by mining mill

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinkina Natalia Mikhailovna; Korosov Andrey Viktorovich

    2015-01-01

    Water bodies of the northern Karelia are polluted by liquid wastes of Kostomukshsky iron ore-dressing mill. The main components of these wastes are potassium ions. The processes of the potassium spreading in lake-river system of the River Kenty were studied using simulation modeling. For water bodies, where chemical observations were not carried out, the reconstruction of data was realized. The parameters of the model (constants of potassium transfer for seven lakes) were calculated. These co...

  6. Body water distribution and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikoline Nygård; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Ward, Leigh Cordwin

    2014-01-01

    Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent.......Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent....

  7. Predicting hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.R.; Demaison, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the on-site collection and examination of small concentrations of methane dissolved in water so as to predict hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water, said formation being a source of said methane, comprises: (i) sampling the water; (ii) continuously vacuum separating said water into liquid and gas phases; (iii) quantitatively separating interfering gas species from methane; (iv) quantitatively oxidising said methane; (v) cryogenically trapping the resulting gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor at a trapping station, and (vi) isotopically examining said trapped carbon dioxide and water vapour for carbon and deuterium distribution. (author)

  8. Hierarchical clusters of phytoplankton variables in dammed water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Eliana Costa e.; Lopes, Isabel Cristina; Correia, Aldina; Gonçalves, A. Manuela

    2017-06-01

    In this paper a dataset containing biological variables of the water column of several Portuguese reservoirs is analyzed. Hierarchical cluster analysis is used to obtain clusters of phytoplankton variables of the phylum Cyanophyta, with the objective of validating the classification of Portuguese reservoirs previewly presented in [1] which were divided into three clusters: (1) Interior Tagus and Aguieira; (2) Douro; and (3) Other rivers. Now three new clusters of Cyanophyta variables were found. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests are used to compare the now obtained Cyanophyta clusters and the previous Reservoirs clusters, in order to validate the classification of the water quality of reservoirs. The amount of Cyanophyta algae present in the reservoirs from the three clusters is significantly different, which validates the previous classification.

  9. Spatial variation of Daphnia parasite load within individual water bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolinska, J.; Seďa, Jaromír; Koerner, H.; Šmilauer, P.; Petrusek, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 8 (2011), s. 1284-1294 ISSN 0142-7873 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0190; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600960901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Daphnia * environmental gradients * infection heterogeneity * parasites * water reservoirs Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.079, year: 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbr016

  10. Relationship between Hydrodynamic Conditions and Water Quality in Landscape Water Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mengxin; Tian, Yimei; Zhang, Haiya; Wang, Dehong

    2018-01-01

    The urban landscape water usually lacks necessary water cycle and water speed is closed to zero, which easily lead to eutrophication in water system and deterioration of water quality. Therefore, understanding the impact of water circulation on the water quality is of great significance. With that significance, this research has been done to investigate the relationship between hydrodynamic conditions and water quality of urban landscape water based on adopted water quality indexes such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and nitrogen-ammonia (NH3-N). Moreover, MIKE 21 model is used to simulate the hydrodynamics and water quality under different cases in an urban landscape lake. The results of simulation show that water circulation system could effectively improve current speeds, reduce the proportion of stagnation area, and solve the problem of water quality deterioration caused by reclaimed water in the lake.

  11. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in body water and hair: modeling isotope dynamics in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Shannon P; Valenzuela, Luciano O; Remien, Christopher H; Enright, Lindsey E; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R; Wagner, Janice D; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2012-07-01

    The stable isotopic composition of drinking water, diet, and atmospheric oxygen influence the isotopic composition of body water ((2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O expressed as δ(2) H and δ(18)O). In turn, body water influences the isotopic composition of organic matter in tissues, such as hair and teeth, which are often used to reconstruct historical dietary and movement patterns of animals and humans. Here, we used a nonhuman primate system (Macaca fascicularis) to test the robustness of two different mechanistic stable isotope models: a model to predict the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of body water and a second model to predict the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of hair. In contrast to previous human-based studies, use of nonhuman primates fed controlled diets allowed us to further constrain model parameter values and evaluate model predictions. Both models reliably predicted the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of body water and of hair. Moreover, the isotope data allowed us to better quantify values for two critical variables in the models: the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of gut water and the (18)O isotope fractionation associated with a carbonyl oxygen-water interaction in the gut (α(ow)). Our modeling efforts indicated that better predictions for body water and hair isotope values were achieved by making the isotopic composition of gut water approached that of body water. Additionally, the value of α(ow) was 1.0164, in close agreement with the only other previously measured observation (microbial spore cell walls), suggesting robustness of this fractionation factor across different biological systems. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. How close do we live to water? A global analysis of population distance to freshwater bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Kummu

    Full Text Available Traditionally, people have inhabited places with ready access to fresh water. Today, over 50% of the global population lives in urban areas, and water can be directed via tens of kilometres of pipelines. Still, however, a large part of the world's population is directly dependent on access to natural freshwater sources. So how are inhabited places related to the location of freshwater bodies today? We present a high-resolution global analysis of how close present-day populations live to surface freshwater. We aim to increase the understanding of the relationship between inhabited places, distance to surface freshwater bodies, and climatic characteristics in different climate zones and administrative regions. Our results show that over 50% of the world's population lives closer than 3 km to a surface freshwater body, and only 10% of the population lives further than 10 km away. There are, however, remarkable differences between administrative regions and climatic zones. Populations in Australia, Asia, and Europe live closest to water. Although populations in arid zones live furthest away from freshwater bodies in absolute terms, relatively speaking they live closest to water considering the limited number of freshwater bodies in those areas. Population distributions in arid zones show statistically significant relationships with a combination of climatic factors and distance to water, whilst in other zones there is no statistically significant relationship with distance to water. Global studies on development and climate adaptation can benefit from an improved understanding of these relationships between human populations and the distance to fresh water.

  13. How Close Do We Live to Water? A Global Analysis of Population Distance to Freshwater Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Ward, Philip J.; Varis, Olli

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, people have inhabited places with ready access to fresh water. Today, over 50% of the global population lives in urban areas, and water can be directed via tens of kilometres of pipelines. Still, however, a large part of the world's population is directly dependent on access to natural freshwater sources. So how are inhabited places related to the location of freshwater bodies today? We present a high-resolution global analysis of how close present-day populations live to surface freshwater. We aim to increase the understanding of the relationship between inhabited places, distance to surface freshwater bodies, and climatic characteristics in different climate zones and administrative regions. Our results show that over 50% of the world's population lives closer than 3 km to a surface freshwater body, and only 10% of the population lives further than 10 km away. There are, however, remarkable differences between administrative regions and climatic zones. Populations in Australia, Asia, and Europe live closest to water. Although populations in arid zones live furthest away from freshwater bodies in absolute terms, relatively speaking they live closest to water considering the limited number of freshwater bodies in those areas. Population distributions in arid zones show statistically significant relationships with a combination of climatic factors and distance to water, whilst in other zones there is no statistically significant relationship with distance to water. Global studies on development and climate adaptation can benefit from an improved understanding of these relationships between human populations and the distance to fresh water. PMID:21687675

  14. Water in the human body: An anesthesiologist's perspective on the connection between physicochemical properties of water and physiologic relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Riveros-Perez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The unique structure and multifaceted physicochemical properties of the water molecule, in addition to its universal presence in body compartments, make water a key player in multiple biological processes in human physiology. Since anesthesiologists deal with physiologic processes where water molecules are critical at different levels, and administer medications whose pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics depend on interaction with water molecules, we consider that exploration of basic science aspects related to water and its role in physiology and pharmacology is relevant to the practice of anesthesiology. The purpose of this paper is to delineate the physicochemical basis of water that are critical in enabling it to support various homeostatic processes. The role of water in the formation of solutions, modulation of surface tension and in homeostasis of body temperature, acid-base status and osmolarity, is analyzed. Relevance of molecular water interactions to the anesthesiologist is not limited to the realm of physiology and pathophysiology. Deep knowledge of the importance of water in volatile anesthetic effects on neurons opens a window to a new comprehensive understanding of complex cellular mechanisms underlying the practice of anesthesiology. Keywords: Water, Anesthesia, Physicochemistry, Osmolarity, Surface tension

  15. Thermal, chemical and radioactive pollution of water bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liptak, L.; Gacs, A.

    1979-01-01

    From the Paks Nuclear Power Station various (thermal, chemical, radioactive) contaminants find their way into the river Danube. The environmental analyses of the river made it necessary to study dilution, dispersion and diminution of the contaminants. A diffusion model was elaborated enabling to consider movements resulting from different warm water densities and the effect of the river's turbulence. Surface heat exchange is also calculated. The model gives a good description of the real process. As for the construction phase with 1760 MW it can be established that the contamination reaching the Danube is less than the admissible degree. (author)

  16. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo-Pacheco, Johanna I.; Rös, Matthias; Escobar​, Federico; Castro-Lima, Francisco; Verdú, José R.; López Iborra, Germán M.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1) type (sw...

  17. Prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria in treated effluents and receiving water bodies and their potential health risks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Teklehaimanot, GZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available . dysenteriae and V. cholerae infection was above the lowest acceptable risk limit of 10(-4) as estimated by the World Health Organization for drinking water. This study showed that the target treated wastewater effluents and their receiving water bodies could...

  18. Chemical composition of water hyacinth (Eichhronia Crassipes) a comparison indication of heavy metal pollution in egyptian water bodies. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-sabour, M.F.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Zohny, E.

    1996-01-01

    Water hyacinth is tested as an indicator for pollution in egyptian fresh surface waters. Chemical composition of water hyacinth as affected area of collection (water bodies) was studied and the suitability of this plant as a biological indicator for water pollution is discussed. Water hyacinth samples were collected three times per year for two years (1991-1993). Sample sites include one location in the river nile (at Helwan area), one site in Ismaillia canal, (at Mostrod industrial area), and one site in Abo-Zabal drain (at Abo-Zabal city). The concentration of 19 major major and trace elements in plant samples were determined by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis. Results indicated that plant parts as well as location have a significant effect on elements content. Water hyacinth roots showed high affinity for accumulation of trace elements. 5 tabs

  19. Changes in body water distribution during treatment with inhaled steroid in pre-school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Anhøj, Jacob; Bisgaard, A M

    2004-01-01

    . At the end of each treatment period body impedance and skin ultrasonography were measured. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We measured changes in water content of the soft tissues by two methods. Skin ultrasonography was used to detect small changes in dermal water content, and bioelectrical impedance was used...... to assess body water content and distribution. MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: We found an increase in skin density of the shin from fluticasone as measured by ultrasonography (p = 0.01). There was a tendency for a consistent elevation of impedance parameters from active treatments compared to placebo although...... overall this effect was not statistically significant (0.1 generalized changes...

  20. Low species richness of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Neotropical artificial urban water bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamerlik, Ladislav; Jacobsen, Dean; Brodersen, Klaus Peter

    2011-01-01

    Chironomid assemblages of 22 artificial water bodies, mainly fountains, in two South American cities were surveyed. We found surprisingly low diversities, with a total of 11 taxa, averaging two taxa per site. The typical fountain assemblages mainly consisted of common species that have a wide...... of the water bodies of Quito and Bogota differed significantly. There was no correlation between sample similarities and distances among the sites either. The low number of taxa recorded can be attributed to the combination of naturally limited species pool and the heavy pollution in natural water bodies...... distribution pattern and are tolerant to organic pollution. Also taxa independent of the natural aquatic sources, such as tap-water and semi-terrestrial species were represented. There was no significant difference between the taxa richness of the two S. American regions, however, the assemblage structures...

  1. The Impact Analysis of Water Body Landscape Pattern on Urban Heat Island: A Case Study of Wuhan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the LST and the landscape metrics of water body with remote sensing technique and spatial analysis, the relationship between the mean LST and the attributes of water body was revealed via Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. Result showed that, in 32 class-based metrics we selected, the proportion of water body, average water body size, the isolation and fragmentation of water body, and other eight metrics have high correlation with the LST. As a resultant force, the quantity, shape, and spatial distribution of water body affect the forming of temperature. We found that the quantity and spatial pattern of city water body could be allocated reasonably to maximize its cooling effect.

  2. Providing Longitudinal Connection In Case Of Cross Sluicing On Water Bodies In Banat Hydrographic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoancă Diana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available On Banat Hydrographic Area level, there are a series of works which put hydrological pressures on bodies of water: accumulations, damming, water diversions, regulations, shore protection, etc. These works were created in order to ensure water demand, defend against floods, regulate discharges, and combat humidity excess. Speaking justly, they have an important socioeconomic role. Among the negative effects of longitudinal connection interruption of water bodies we can mention, the risk of not achieving the positive ecological potential of water bodies in accordance with the Water Framework Directive, the reduction of the aquatic biodiversity, the reduction or even extinction of certain aquatic species and the alteration of the flow process. Because the negative effects of the hydromorphological alterations, especially those due to the interruption of the longitudinal connection, have a significant impact on the aquatic biodiversity. At Banat Hydrographic Area level, a series of measures, have been identified for the rehabilitation of the affected water courses: the removal of the hydrotechnical constructions from the water body if they have lost their functional features, building of passages for the migration of the ichthyofauna, reconnecting of the affluents and the disconnected arms as well as other measures intended to bring things back to their natural state. The implementation of these measures is made according to the importance and the extent of their positive impact as opposed to the negative effect that might occur as a consequence of their application. Analyzing the measures aforementioned and taking into consideration the characteristics of the hydromorphological pressures on water bodies in Banat Hydrographic Area, a number of measures regarding control are supplied in this paper.

  3. How Trace Element Levels of Public Drinking Water Affect Body Composition in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ihsan; Nalbantcilar, Mahmut Tahir; Tosun, Kezban; Nazik, Aydan

    2017-02-01

    Since waterborne minerals appear in ionic form and are readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, drinking water could be a crucial source of mineral intake. However, no comprehensive research has yet determined how trace elements in drinking water relate to body composition. We aimed to assess the relationship between clinically important trace elements in public drinking water and body composition in average, overweight and obese individuals in Turkey. The study's population consisted of 423 participants: 143 overweight, 138 obese and 142 healthy control individuals, grouped according to clinical cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). We measured levels of lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), strontium (Sr), boron (B), aluminium (Al), barium (Ba) and rubidium (Rb) in samples from wells of municipal water by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We gauged all the participants' body composition measurements with a BC-418 body composition analyser. In all the participants, body weight values showed significant positive correlations with Ni levels in drinking water, as did BMI values with Al levels and percentage of obesity with Ni, Si and B levels. In particular, Ni levels showed significant positive correlations with the basal metabolic rate, activity calories, and total activity of participants. Giving findings showing correlations between obesity-related parameters and Al, Si, B and Ni content in drinking water, we hope that these associations will be clarified with further studies including cellular, experimental and clinical studies. Hence, medical practitioners must be aware of trace element levels in drinking water for overweight and obese patients.

  4. Quantification of surface energy fluxes from a small water body using scintillometry and eddy covariance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGloin, Ryan; McGowan, Hamish; McJannet, David

    2014-01-01

    % greater than eddy covariance measurements. We suggest possible reasons for this difference and provide recommendations for further research for improving measurements of surface energy fluxes over small water bodies using eddy covariance and scintillometry. Key Points Source areas for Eddy covariance......Accurate quantification of evaporation from small water storages is essential for water management and planning, particularly in water-scarce regions. In order to ascertain suitable methods for direct measurement of evaporation from small water bodies, this study presents a comparison of eddy...... covariance and scintillometry measurements from a reservoir in southeast Queensland, Australia. The work presented expands on a short study presented by McJannet et al. (2011) to include comparisons of eddy covariance measurements and scintillometer-derived predictions of surface energy fluxes under a wide...

  5. A framework to simulate small shallow inland water bodies in semi-arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Ali; Ohene Annor, Frank; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a framework for simulating the flow field and heat transfer processes in small shallow inland water bodies has been developed. As the dynamics and thermal structure of these water bodies are crucial in studying the quality of stored water , and in assessing the heat fluxes from their surfaces as well, the heat transfer and temperature simulations were modeled. The proposed model is able to simulate the full 3-D water flow and heat transfer in the water body by applying complex and time varying boundary conditions. In this model, the continuity, momentum and temperature equations together with the turbulence equations, which comprise the buoyancy effect, have been solved. This model is built on the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations with the widely used Boussinesq approach to solve the turbulence issues of the flow field. Micrometeorological data were obtained from an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) installed on the site and combined with field bathymetric measurements for the model. In the framework developed, a simple, applicable and generalizable approach is proposed for preparing the geometry of small shallow water bodies using coarsely measured bathymetry. All parts of the framework are based on open-source tools, which is essential for developing countries.

  6. Calculation of Water Drop Trajectories to and About Arbitrary Three-Dimensional Bodies in Potential Airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norment, H. G.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations can be performed for any atmospheric conditions and for all water drop sizes, from the smallest cloud droplet to large raindrops. Any subsonic, external, non-lifting flow can be accommodated; flow into, but not through, inlets also can be simulated. Experimental water drop drag relations are used in the water drop equations of motion and effects of gravity settling are included. Seven codes are described: (1) a code used to debug and plot body surface description data; (2) a code that processes the body surface data to yield the potential flow field; (3) a code that computes flow velocities at arrays of points in space; (4) a code that computes water drop trajectories from an array of points in space; (5) a code that computes water drop trajectories and fluxes to arbitrary target points; (6) a code that computes water drop trajectories tangent to the body; and (7) a code that produces stereo pair plots which include both the body and trajectories. Code descriptions include operating instructions, card inputs and printouts for example problems, and listing of the FORTRAN codes. Accuracy of the calculations is discussed, and trajectory calculation results are compared with prior calculations and with experimental data.

  7. Forestry and restoration of water bodies. Economic assessment on the basis of lake restoration costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeisaenen, V.; Lakso, E.; Visuri, M.; Hellsten, S.; Vaeisaenen, T.

    2001-08-01

    Pollution load to water bodies deriving from forestry activities can regionally be a significant factor deteriorating the state of water bodies. Eutrophication, silting and acidification of water bodies eventually require restoration activities. Restoration of water bodies is expensive and often there is not enough financing available to implement the needed measures. The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between loading and costs of restoration. Restoration costs for different restoration alternatives are estimated using a cost per unit method based on the area and volume of the water body. The share of restoration costs depends on the used restoration method and ranges from 0,1 to 60 % of the total stumpage price that could be gathered from the target forestry area when assessing removal of phosphorus and sediment. The costs were below 1,0 % of the stumpage value when using the most inexpensive restoration methods, precipitation of phosphorus and removal of surface sediment. On the whole, it can be stated that even though restoration costs remain percentually low in comparison with the profit gained from wood production when using the most inexpensive methods, the costs do have significance when considering the water effects of forestry on a larger scale. It has to be observed that the calculated restoration costs are not total costs when estimating the economic significance of water pollution deriving from forestry, because the estimation was based on a cost per unit method, which means that only those components were taken into consideration for which a correlation between forestry-derived pollution and restoration costs could clearly be demonstrated. For example, the costs of brook restoration have not been assessed in this study, even though the pollution to water is heaviest in the brooks and lakes of the headwater region situated in the direct vicinity of the forestry area. In addition, the costs of restoration for fishery purposes are

  8. Body

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  9. Simulation model of pollution spreading in the water bodies affected by mining mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinkina Natalia Mikhailovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water bodies of the northern Karelia are polluted by liquid wastes of Kostomukshsky iron ore-dressing mill. The main components of these wastes are potassium ions. The processes of the potassium spreading in lake-river system of the River Kenty were studied using simulation modeling. For water bodies, where chemical observations were not carried out, the reconstruction of data was realized. The parameters of the model (constants of potassium transfer for seven lakes were calculated. These constants reflect the hydrological regime of water bodies and characterize high-speed transfer of potassium in the upstream and downstream, and low transfer rate - in the middle stream. It is shown that the vast majority of potassium (70% is carried out of the system Kenty and enters the lake Srednee Kuito

  10. Certain requirements to surface water quality and monitoring of water bodies in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Storchak T. V.; Pogonysheva I. A.; Ryabukha A. V.; Arishev A. I.

    2018-01-01

    Water pollution has become a pressing issues in the European Union. EU Water protection legislature plays major role in the development of national policies in many of the EU countries. EU is currently implementing Water Framework Directive. The Directive demonstrates an innovative approach to water resources management based on river basins. According to the Directive, EU countries take a responsibility to prevent further deterioration and make effort to restore and improve the state of wate...

  11. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.

  12. Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, A.I.; Sazykina, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the “dose rate – effects” relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d −1 for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d −1 for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d −1 for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale “dose rate – effects” and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. - Highlights: ► Comparative analysis of dose rates to biota in different water bodies was performed. ► A numerical scale on the dose rates – effects relationships for fish was formulated. ► Results of assessment of exposure to biota were compared with the dose rates – effects scale. ► In the most contaminated water bodies the doses were high enough to cause radiobiological effects in fish. ► Current dose rates to biota in all considered water bodies are below the safety level of 1 mGy/day.

  13. Modeling Molecular Interactions in Water: From Pairwise to Many-Body Potential Energy Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Almost 50 years have passed from the first computer simulations of water, and a large number of molecular models have been proposed since then to elucidate the unique behavior of water across different phases. In this article, we review the recent progress in the development of analytical potential energy functions that aim at correctly representing many-body effects. Starting from the many-body expansion of the interaction energy, specific focus is on different classes of potential energy functions built upon a hierarchy of approximations and on their ability to accurately reproduce reference data obtained from state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations and experimental measurements. We show that most recent potential energy functions, which include explicit short-range representations of two-body and three-body effects along with a physically correct description of many-body effects at all distances, predict the properties of water from the gas to the condensed phase with unprecedented accuracy, thus opening the door to the long-sought “universal model” capable of describing the behavior of water under different conditions and in different environments. PMID:27186804

  14. Predation drives morphological convergence in the Gambusia panuco species group among lotic and lentic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, E K; Lozano-Vilano, M L

    2018-04-01

    Fish morphology is often constrained by a trade-off between optimizing steady vs. unsteady swimming performance due to opposing effects of caudal peduncle size. Lotic environments tend to select for steady swimming performance, leading to smaller caudal peduncles, whereas predators tend to select for unsteady swimming performance, leading to larger caudal peduncles. However, it is unclear which aspect of performance should be optimized across heterogeneous flow and predation environments and how this heterogeneity may affect parallel phenotypic evolution. We investigated this question among four Gambusia species in north-eastern Mexico, specifically the riverine G. panuco, the spring endemics G. alvarezi and G. hurtadoi, and a fourth species, G. marshi, found in a variety of habitats with varying predation pressure in the Cuatro Ciénegas Basin and Río Salado de Nadadores. We employed a geometric morphometric analysis to examine how body shapes of both male and female fish differ among species and habitats and with piscivore presence. We found that high-predation and low-predation species diverged morphologically, with G. marshi exhibiting a variable, intermediate body shape. Within G. marshi, body morphology converged in high-predation environments regardless of flow velocity, and fish from high-predation sites had larger relative caudal peduncle areas. However, we found that G. marshi from low-predation environments diverged in morphology between sub-basins of Cuatro Ciénegas, indicating other differences among these basins that merit further study. Our results suggest that a morphological trade-off promotes parallel evolution of body shape in fishes colonizing high-predation environments and that changing predation pressure can strongly impact morphological evolution in these species. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. The effect of water temperature and synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over narrow, elongated water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Simulations of the thermally induced breeze involved with a relatively narrow, elongated water body is presented in conjunction with evaluations of sensible heat fluxes in a stable marine atmospheric surface layer. The effect of the water surface temperature and of the large-scale synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over the water is examined. As implied by the sensible heat flux patterns, the simulation results reveal the following trends: (1) when the synoptic flow is absent or light, the induced surface breeze is not affected noticeably by a reduction of the water surface temperature; and (2) for stronger synoptic flow, the resultant surface flow may be significantly affected by the water surface temperature.

  16. Water Quality Dynamics of Urban Water Bodies during Flooding in Can Tho City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Quan Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution associated with flooding is one of the major problems in cities in the global South. However, studies of water quality dynamics during flood events are not often reported in literature, probably due to difficult conditions for sampling during flood events. Water quality parameters in open water (canals, rivers, and lakes, flood water on roads and water in sewers have been monitored during the extreme fluvial flood event on 7 October 2013 in the city of Can Tho, Vietnam. This is the pioneering study of urban flood water pollution in real time in Vietnam. The results showed that water quality is very dynamic during flooding, especially at the beginning of the event. In addition, it was observed that the pathogen and contaminant levels in the flood water are almost as high as in sewers. The findings show that population exposed to flood water runs a health risk that is nearly equal to that of being in contact with sewer water. Therefore, the people of Can Tho not only face physical risk due to flooding, but are also exposed to health risks.

  17. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of Liquid Water through "First-Principles" Many-Body Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medders, Gregory R; Paesani, Francesco

    2015-03-10

    Vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful technique to probe the structure and dynamics of water. However, deriving an unambiguous molecular-level interpretation of the experimental spectral features remains a challenge due to the complexity of the underlying hydrogen-bonding network. In this contribution, we present an integrated theoretical and computational framework (named many-body molecular dynamics or MB-MD) that, by systematically removing uncertainties associated with existing approaches, enables a rigorous modeling of vibrational spectra of water from quantum dynamical simulations. Specifically, we extend approaches used to model the many-body expansion of interaction energies to develop many-body representations of the dipole moment and polarizability of water. The combination of these "first-principles" representations with centroid molecular dynamics simulations enables the simulation of infrared and Raman spectra of liquid water under ambient conditions that, without relying on any ad hoc parameters, are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental results. Importantly, since the many-body energy, dipole, and polarizability surfaces employed in the simulations are derived independently from accurate fits to correlated electronic structure data, MB-MD allows for a systematic analysis of the calculated spectra in terms of both electronic and dynamical contributions. The present analysis suggests that, while MB-MD correctly reproduces both the shifts and the shapes of the main spectroscopic features, an improved description of quantum dynamical effects possibly combined with a dissociable water potential may be necessary for a quantitative representation of the OH stretch band.

  18. Estimation of extracellular and total body water by multiple-frequency bioelectrical-impedance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, K.R.; Burastero, S.; Chun, A.; Coronel, P.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.; Wang, J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-07-01

    This study evaluated a new technology of bioelectrical-impedance (BI) measurement that makes use of multiple frequencies (5, 50, and 100 kHz) for estimation of extracellular and total body water. In 36 healthy males, resistance and reactance at three frequencies were compared with extra-cellular water (ECW) and total body water (TBW) determined by isotope dilution. ECW was best predicted by resistance measured at 5 kHz, corrected for height and weight (R = 0.930, SEE = 1.94 L) whereas TBW was best predicted by resistance at 100 kHZ and weight (R = 0.947, SEE = 2.64 L). Cross-validation analysis on two randomly selected subsets (n = 18 each) indicated that the prediction equations were reproducible and valid. Thus, BI at dual frequencies is valid for determination of body-water compartments and may be useful in the nutritional assessment of patients in whom body water and hydration is of clinical concern.

  19. Analysis of key thresholds leading to upstream dependencies in global transboundary water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, Hafsa Ahmed; Guillaume, Joseph; Kummu, Matti; Mirumachi, Naho; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    Transboundary water bodies supply 60% of global fresh water flow and are home to about 1/3 of the world's population; creating hydrological, social and economic interdependencies between countries. Trade-offs between water users are delimited by certain thresholds, that, when crossed, result in changes in system behavior, often related to undesirable impacts. A wide variety of thresholds are potentially related to water availability and scarcity. Scarcity can occur because of the country's own water use, and that is potentially intensified by upstream water use. In general, increased water scarcity escalates the reliance on shared water resources, which increases interdependencies between riparian states. In this paper the upstream dependencies of global transboundary river basins are examined at the scale of sub-basin areas. We aim to assess how upstream water withdrawals cause changes in the scarcity categories, such that crossing thresholds is interpreted in terms of downstream dependency on upstream water availability. The thresholds are defined for different types of water availability on which a sub-basin relies: - reliable local runoff (available even in a dry year), - less reliable local water (available in the wet year), - reliable dry year inflows from possible upstream area, and - less reliable wet year inflows from upstream. Possible upstream withdrawals reduce available water downstream, influencing the latter two water availabilities. Upstream dependencies have then been categorized by comparing a sub-basin's scarcity category across different water availability types. When population (or water consumption) grows, the sub-basin satisfies its needs using less reliable water. Thus, the factors affecting the type of water availability being used are different not only for each type of dependency category, but also possibly for every sub- basin. Our results show that, in the case of stress (impacts from high use of water), in 104 (12%) sub- basins out of

  20. Impact of Urban Growth on Water Bodies - The Case of Hyderabad

    OpenAIRE

    C. Ramachandraiah; Sheela Prasad

    2004-01-01

    Being located in the Deccan Plateau region, Hyderabad city has been dotted with a number of lakes, which formed very important component of its physical environment. With the increasing control of the State and private agencies over the years, and rapid urban sprawl of the city, many of the water bodies have been totally lost. Many have been shrunk in size while the waters of several lakes got polluted with the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents. This study makes an atte...

  1. Water ages of 20 groundwater bodies and its relevance for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Martin; Brielmann, Heike; Humer, Franko; Grath, Johannes; Sültenfuß, Jürgen; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    The 'Mean Residence Time' (MRT) of groundwater is required to develop reliable hydrogeological concepts of groundwater bodies as a prerequisite for a qualified monitoring and risk assessment. MRTs from monitoring wells help to assess if groundwater bodies are 'at risk' or 'not at risk' failing to meet good groundwater quantitative and chemical status according to the Water Framework Directive and therefore not being able to use the groundwater as drinking water or industrial water resource. A combination of 18O/2H, 3H, 3H/3He and in some cases additional CFC, SF6, 85Kr and 35S measurements allow to calculate reliable MRTs in 20 groundwater bodies covering 13% (approx.10719 km2) of the Austrian territory. Altogether 401 groundwater wells and springs from the existing groundwater monitoring network were analysed for δ18O (n=1500), 3H (n=800) and 3He (n=327) since 2006. Considering both the fact that monitoring wells may have multiple or long well screens and the inherent uncertainties of groundwater age dating techniques, age estimations were classified into 5 categories of short ( 50years) mean residence times for each monitoring site. Subsequently, median values of the MRT categories were assigned to each investigated groundwater body. These are valuable information to fix extraction rates, to set measures to improve the land use and groundwater protection and to validate hydrogeological concepts. Generally, MRTs of groundwater bodies increase from shallow Alpine groundwater bodies over deeper Alpine valley-aquifers to longer MRTs in the Pannonian climate range in the east of Austria.

  2. Water temperature, body mass and fasting heat production of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDY A.A. AGUILAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge on fasting heat production (HEf of fish is key to develop bioenergetics models thus improving feeding management of farmed species. The core of knowledge on HEf of farmed, neotropical fish is scarce. This study assessed the effect of body mass and water temperature on standard metabolism and fasting heat production of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, an omnivore, Neotropical fresh water characin important for farming and fisheries industries all through South American continent. An automated, intermittent flow respirometry system was used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR of pacu (17 - 1,050 g at five water temperatures: 19, 23, 26, 29 and 33 °C. Mass specific SMR increased with increasing water temperature but decreased as function of body mass. The allometric exponent for scaling HEf was 0.788, and lied in the range recorded for all studied warm-water fish. The recorded van't Hoff factor (Q10 for pacu (2.06 shows the species low response to temperature increases. The model HEf = 0.04643×W0.7882×T1.837 allows to predict HEf (kJ d-1 from body mass (W, kg and water temperature (T, °C, and can be used in bioenergetical models for the species.

  3. Pythium species in 13 various types of water bodies of N-E Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pythium species and environmental factors in various types of water bodies (2 springs, 2 rivers, 3 ponds and 6 different trophic lakes were studied. Samples of water were collected every two months (springs, rivers, ponds and every three months (lakes in the years 1996-1999 for hydrochemical analysis and in order to determine the Pythium species content. From springs rivers and ponds collected were also ice blocks for determinations of presence of Pythium species. Buckwheatand hemp-seeds, cellophane and snake exuviae were used as bait. Forty-five species of Pythium were found in various types of water bodies. Pythium acanthicum, P. complectens, P. complens, P. diameson, P. dissimile, P. elongatum, P. lucens, P. megalacanthum, P. nagae, P. oedochilum, P. oryzae, P. palingenes, P. periilum and P. polysporum were recorded for the first time in Poland. The largest mean number of species was observed in spring Cypisek, a bit fewer in spring Jaroszówka and lake Białe (oligotrophic-like waters. The lowest mean number of Pythium species was noted in pond Akcent and Pałacowy (polytrophic waters. In all types of water bodies the higest mean number of species was found in winter, and the lowest in summer.

  4. Trophic state of water in the watershed of Lake Mirim, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Pereira-Ramirez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the spacetime variations in the trophic characteristics of the principal water bodies feeding Lake Mirim, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, by determination of the Trophic State Index proposed by Toledo Jr. (IETT and Lamparelli (IETL, to assess water quality data between 1996 and 1998. It was verified that the lotic environments presented greater eutrophication conditions when evaluated by the Toledo Jr. methodology, in which the IETT varied from Eutrophic to Hypereutrophic. However, the evaluated environments showed variations from Mesotrophic to Hypereutrophic for the IETL when evaluated according to the Lamparelli methodology. From the classification proposed by Toledo Jr., lentic water bodies were considered Mesotrophic (IETT > 44 and Hypereutrophic (IETT > 74, while the Lamparelli method classified them as Eutrophic (IETL > 59 and Hypereutrophic (IETL > 67. Concentrations of phosphorus encountered in all water samples were greater than the limits established by the CONAMA Resolution n. 357, 2005, for class 2 water bodies, probably due to the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial wastes into the waters.

  5. Sprectroradiometric characteristics of inland water bodies infestated by Oscillatoria rubescens algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo; Maltese, Antonino

    2010-10-01

    In December 2006 blooms of Oscillatoria rubescens were found in the reservoir Prizzi in Sicily. Oscillatoria is a genus of filamentous alga comprising approximately 6 species, between these the O. rubescens is sadly famous since this organism produces microcystins which are powerful hepatotoxins. Firstly found in Europe in 1825 on Geneva lake, recently (2006) those algae has been find out in Pozzillo, Nicoletti e Ancipa reservoirs (Enna Province), as well as in Prizzi (Palermo Province) and Garcia reservoirs (Trapani Province). Toxins produced by those bacteria (usually called microcystine LR-1 and LR-2) are highly toxic since they can activate oncogenes cells causing cancer pathologies on liver and gastrointestinal tract. Even if water treatment plants should ensure the provision of safe drinking water from surface waters contaminated with those toxic algae blooms, the contamination of reservoirs used for civil and agricultural supply highlights human health risks. International literature suggests a threshold value of 0.01 μgl-1 to avoid liver cancer using water coming from contaminated water bodies for a long period. Since O. rubescens activities is strongly related to phosphate and nitrogen compounds as well as to temperature and light transmission within water, the paper presents the comparison between optical properties of the water of an infested reservoir and those of a reservoir characterized by clear water. Field campaigns were carried out in February-March 2008 in order to quantify the spectral transparencies of two water bodies through the calculation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient, measuring underwater downwelling irradiance at different depths as well as water spectral reflectance. Results show that diffuse attenuation coefficient is reduced by approximately 15% reducing light penetration in the water column; coherently reflectance spectral signature generally decreases, exhibiting a characteristic peak around 703 nm not present in

  6. Sensitivity to Disgust and Perceptions of Natural Bodies of Water and Watercraft Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Bixler; Gwynn Powell

    2003-01-01

    A written 7-item self-report scale on sensitivity to disgust and participation in watercraft activities was administered to 450 seasonal park employees. Correlations indicate that nonparticipation in seven different watercraft sports was weakly related with reactions of disgust to contact with natural bodies of water (rpbis...

  7. Evaluating biochemical response of filamentous algae integrated with different water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelekli, Abuzer; Kapı, Emine; Soysal, Çiğdem; Arslanargun, Hamdullah; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2017-08-01

    The present study prompted the second attempts to evaluate biochemical responses of filamentous algae under different physico-chemical variables in various water bodies in Turkey. These variables were investigated by use of multivariate approach in the years of 2013 (May and November) and 2014 (May and October). Studied ecoregions had the different geographic position, climate, land-use, and anthropogenic activities, could strongly affect physico-chemical variables of water bodies, which caused to change or regulate in algal biomass composition due to the different response of filamentous species. Besides, biochemical responses of species changed at different sampling times and stations. Multivariate analyses indicated that temperature, heavy metals, and nutrient contents of aquatic systems were found to be major variables driving the spatial and temporal occurrence and biochemical contents of filamentous species. Total protein and pigment production by filamentous algae were high in water bodies having high nutrients, whereas they were low in high heavy metal contents. Amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), H 2 O 2 , total thiol group, total phenolic compounds, proline, total carbohydrate, and bioaccumulation of metals by filamentous algae were closely related with heavy metal contents of water bodies, indicated by the multivariate approach. Significant increase in aforementioned biochemical compounds with a distinct range of habitats and sensitive-tolerance to environmental conditions could make them highly valuable indicators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Indexes of the common reed's seed vitality from water-bodies of the Chernobyl exclusive zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavnuk, A.A.; Shevtsova, N.L.; Gudkov, D.I.; Levchenko, Ya.I.

    2010-01-01

    Investigation of the common reed's seed vitality (vegetation of 2009) from flood-plain water-bodies with different level of radionuclide contamination was carried out. Decrease in indexes of seed's vitality and abnormalities in seed dynamic sprouting was noticed. Dose-response relationship of germination, germinating force, survival rate of seeds of plants was determined. (authors)

  9. Effects of municipal sewage on the sessile and planctonic bacterial flora of bodies of surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorch, H.J.; Ottow, J.C.G.

    1992-01-01

    For the evaluation of the useability of bacteria as biological indicators of the water state, sections of a flowing body of water (Erms, Schwaebische Alb) with different pollutant levels were investigated between August '82 and July '85. In flowing waves (current biological indicators), the population densities of saprophytes, coliform buds and sporophytes were determined as well as the total number of bacteria number and the morphology of the bacteria. The upgrowth on artificial (glass) and natural (water plants) substrates (integrating biological indicators) was examined with the aid of light microscope and scanning electron microscope in order to measure the long-term influence of different nutrient conditions on the microflora. (orig.) [de

  10. Impact of Mass Bathing and Religious Activities on Water Quality Index of Prominent Water Bodies: A Multilocation Study in Haryana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bhatnagar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the impact of mass bathing and religious activities on water quality index (WQI of prominent water bodies (eight in Haryana, India. Water quality characteristics revealed significant increase in the values of nitrate, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS, conductivity, total hardness, total alkalinity, and MPN count after the religious activities. The computed WQI at all the eight selected sites varied from 47.55 to 211.42. The results revealed that there was a significant increase in the value of WQI after mass bathing or any other ritual performed. Out of eight water bodies studied three (sites 3, 4, and 5 were found under good water quality status; four sites (1, 2, 6, and 7 depicted medium water quality but site 8 was found under poor water quality after the religious activities. The good water quality status of water bodies was correlated with larger size of the water bodies and less number of pilgrims; however, the poor WQI values may be attributed to smaller size of the water body and heavy load of pilgrims on such sites. Therefore, water of these religious water bodies needed to be regularly changed after mass bathing to protect the aquatic component from different contaminations.

  11. The Historical Distribution of Main Malaria Foci in Spain as Related to Water Bodies

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    Arturo Sousa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible connectivity between the spatial distribution of water bodies suitable for vectors of malaria and endemic malaria foci in Southern Europe is still not well known. Spain was one of the last countries in Western Europe to be declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1964. This study combines, by means of a spatial-temporal analysis, the historical data of patients and deceased with the distribution of water bodies where the disease-transmitting mosquitos proliferate. Therefore, data from historical archives with a Geographic Information System (GIS, using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation method, was analyzed with the aim of identifying regional differences in the distribution of malaria in Spain. The reasons, why the risk of transmission is concentrated in specific regions, are related to worse socioeconomic conditions (Extremadura, the presence of another vector (Anopheles labranchiae besides A. atroparvus (Levante or large areas of water bodies in conditions to reproduce theses vectors (La Mancha and Western Andalusia. In the particular case of Western Andalusia, in 1913, the relatively high percentage of 4.73% of the surface, equal to 202362 ha, corresponds to wetlands and other unhealthy water bodies. These wetlands have been reduced as a result of desiccation policies and climate change such as the Little Ice Age and Global Climate Change. The comprehension of the main factors of these wetland changes in the past can help us interpret accurately the future risk of malaria re-emergence in temperate latitudes, since it reveals the crucial role of unhealthy water bodies on the distribution, endemicity and eradication of malaria in southern Europe.

  12. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at “JHH” due to the limit of “COD” as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them. PMID:26516623

  13. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at "JHH" due to the limit of "COD" as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them.

  14. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfraz Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU; Gankeng River (GKS; Xia Zhang River (XZY; Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR; Jiu Haogang River (JHH in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD, dissolved oxygen (DO, total phosphorus (TP, and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP. The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at “JHH” due to the limit of “COD” as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river’s water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them.

  15. Environmental monitoring and assessment of the water bodies of a pre-construction urban wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shengpeng; Wan, Kun; Zhou, Shoubiao; Ye, Liangtao; Ma, Sumin

    2014-11-01

    It is planned that the Dayanghan Wetland in China will be transformed into a national park but little is known about its current water quality and pollution status. Thus, we monitored the physical and chemical characteristics of the Dayanghan Wetland, which showed that the water quality was generally good. However, the chemical oxygen demand was more than double the reference value, which may be attributable to previous tillage for vegetable crops and other farmlands. In addition, nickel and chromium caused low-level pollution in the water bodies of the Dayanghan Wetland. The mean trophic level index and nutrient quality index were 39.1 and 2.69, respectively. Both indices suggest that the water bodies of the Dayanghan Wetland are in a mesotrophic state and that no eutrophication has occurred. The study would provide a precise report on the status of environmental quality of the water bodies of a typical pre-construction wetland for the administration and decision of the local government and the planning agent.

  16. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Pacheco, Johanna I.; Rös, Matthias; Castro-Lima, Francisco; Verdú, José R.; López-Iborra, Germán M.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1) type (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms) and (2) origins (natural, mixed and artificial). A total of 506 plant species were recorded: 80% woody and 20% aquatic. Of these, 411 species (81%) were considered species typical of the area (Meta Piedmont distribution). Diversity patterns seem to be driven by high landscape heterogeneity and wetland management. The fish farms presented the highest diversity of woody plants, while swamps ranked highest for aquatic plant diversity. Regarding wetland origin, the artificial systems were the most diverse, but natural wetlands presented the highest diversity of typical species and can therefore be considered representative ecosystems at the regional scale. Our results suggest that lentic wetlands act as refuges for native vegetation of Meta Piedmont forest, hosting 55% of the woody of Piedmont species and 29% of the aquatic species of Orinoco basin. The wetlands showed a high species turnover and the results indicated that small wetlands (mean ± SD: size = 11 ± 18.7 ha), with a small area of surrounding forest (10 ± 8.6 ha) supported high local and regional plant diversity. To ensure long-term conservation of lentic wetlands, it is necessary to develop management and conservation strategies that take both natural and created wetlands into account. PMID:27602263

  17. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean-Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Pacheco, Johanna I; Rös, Matthias; Escobar, Federico; Castro-Lima, Francisco; Verdú, José R; López-Iborra, Germán M

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean-Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1) type (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms) and (2) origins (natural, mixed and artificial). A total of 506 plant species were recorded: 80% woody and 20% aquatic. Of these, 411 species (81%) were considered species typical of the area (Meta Piedmont distribution). Diversity patterns seem to be driven by high landscape heterogeneity and wetland management. The fish farms presented the highest diversity of woody plants, while swamps ranked highest for aquatic plant diversity. Regarding wetland origin, the artificial systems were the most diverse, but natural wetlands presented the highest diversity of typical species and can therefore be considered representative ecosystems at the regional scale. Our results suggest that lentic wetlands act as refuges for native vegetation of Meta Piedmont forest, hosting 55% of the woody of Piedmont species and 29% of the aquatic species of Orinoco basin. The wetlands showed a high species turnover and the results indicated that small wetlands (mean ± SD: size = 11 ± 18.7 ha), with a small area of surrounding forest (10 ± 8.6 ha) supported high local and regional plant diversity. To ensure long-term conservation of lentic wetlands, it is necessary to develop management and conservation strategies that take both natural and created wetlands into account.

  18. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna I. Murillo-Pacheco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1 type (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms and (2 origins (natural, mixed and artificial. A total of 506 plant species were recorded: 80% woody and 20% aquatic. Of these, 411 species (81% were considered species typical of the area (Meta Piedmont distribution. Diversity patterns seem to be driven by high landscape heterogeneity and wetland management. The fish farms presented the highest diversity of woody plants, while swamps ranked highest for aquatic plant diversity. Regarding wetland origin, the artificial systems were the most diverse, but natural wetlands presented the highest diversity of typical species and can therefore be considered representative ecosystems at the regional scale. Our results suggest that lentic wetlands act as refuges for native vegetation of Meta Piedmont forest, hosting 55% of the woody of Piedmont species and 29% of the aquatic species of Orinoco basin. The wetlands showed a high species turnover and the results indicated that small wetlands (mean ± SD: size = 11 ± 18.7 ha, with a small area of surrounding forest (10 ± 8.6 ha supported high local and regional plant diversity. To ensure long-term conservation of lentic wetlands, it is necessary to develop management and conservation strategies that take both natural and created wetlands into account.

  19. Using Landsat image time series to study a small water body in Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao Rodríguez, Y; el Anjoumi, A; Domínguez Gómez, J A; Rodríguez Pérez, D; Rico, E

    2014-06-01

    Ramsar Convention and EU Water Framework Directive are two international agreements focused on the conservation and achievement of good ecological and chemical status of wetlands. Wetlands are important ecosystems holding many plant and animal communities. Their environmental status can be characterised by the quality of their water bodies. Water quality can be assessed from biophysical parameters (such as Chlorophyll-a concentration ([Chla]), water surface temperature and transparency) in the deeper or lacustrine zone, or from bioindicators (as submerged aquatic vegetation) in the shallow or palustrine zone. This paper proves the use of Landsat time series to measure the evolution of water quality parameters and the environmental dynamics of a small water body (6.57 ha) in a Ramsar wetland (Arreo Lake in the North of Spain). Our results show that Landsat TM images can be used to describe periodic behaviours such as the water surface temperature or the phenologic state of the submerged vegetation (through normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI) and thus detect anomalous events. We also show how [Chla] and transparency can be measured in the lacustrine zone using Landsat TM images and an algorithm adjusted for mesotrophic Spanish lakes, and the resulting values vary in time in accordance with field measurements (although these were not synchronous with the images). The availability of this algorithm also highlights anomalies in the field data series that are found to be related with the concentration of suspended matter. All this potential of Landsat imagery to monitor small water bodies in wetlands can be used for hindcasting of past evolution of these wetlands (dating back to 1970s) and will be also useful in the future thanks to the Landsat continuity mission and the Operational Land Imager.

  20. A global, 30-m resolution land-surface water body dataset for 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, M.; Sexton, J. O.; Huang, C.; Song, D. X.; Song, X. P.; Channan, S.; Townshend, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Inland surface water is essential to terrestrial ecosystems and human civilization. The distribution of surface water in space and its change over time are related to many agricultural, environmental and ecological issues, and are important factors that must be considered in human socioeconomic development. Accurate mapping of surface water is essential for both scientific research and policy-driven applications. Satellite-based remote sensing provides snapshots of Earth's surface and can be used as the main input for water mapping, especially in large areas. Global water areas have been mapped with coarse resolution remotely sensed data (e.g., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)). However, most inland rivers and water bodies, as well as their changes, are too small to map at such coarse resolutions. Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) and ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) imagery has a 30m spatial resolution and provides decades of records (~40 years). Since 2008, the opening of the Landsat archive, coupled with relatively lower costs associated with computing and data storage, has made comprehensive study of the dynamic changes of surface water over large even global areas more feasible. Although Landsat images have been used for regional and even global water mapping, the method can hardly be automated due to the difficulties on distinguishing inland surface water with variant degrees of impurities and mixing of soil background with only Landsat data. The spectral similarities to other land cover types, e.g., shadow and glacier remnants, also cause misidentification. We have developed a probabilistic based automatic approach for mapping inland surface water bodies. Landsat surface reflectance in multiple bands, derived water indices, and data from other sources are integrated to maximize the ability of identifying water without human interference. The approach has been implemented with open-source libraries to facilitate processing large

  1. Physico Chemical Characteristics of Lakhna Devi Temple Water Tank, Lakhna, Bakewar, Etawah, U.P. with reference to Cyanobacterial Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omesh Bajpai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water bodies in populated plains of tropical countries face various disturbances in the form of pollutant and nutrient inflow, heavy metal and elemental precipitation (wet or dry and constant silt inflow (natural or anthropogenic. The physico-chemical characteristics are very much important for any water body. In lentic water bodies these characteristics shows very much variation because in summer they have less and in rains large amount of water. These adverse constrain effectively influence the algal assemblage and can be a good indicator of overall health of the water body. In the study different Physico-chemical characteristics and algal diversity were monthly observed for one year duration (Jun. 2008 to May 2009. Some of 31 species of Cyanobacteria recorded from the study site viz. Microcystis aerughinosa, M. flos-aquae, M. robusta, Chroococcus minor, C.minutes, Gloeocapsa magma, Aphanocapsa littoralis, Aphanothece microscopis, Coelosphaerium kuetzingianum, Merismopedia glauca, M. tenuissima, Arthrospira spriulinoides, Spirulina gigantean, S. major, Oscillatoria formosa, O. subuliformis, O. princeps, Phormidium ambiguum, P. fragile, P. lucidum, Lyngbya contorta, O. epiphytica, O.majuscule, Cylindrospermum minutissimum, Nostoc commune, N. punctiforme, Anabaena oscillarioides, A. oryzae, Calothrix gloeocola, Rivularia aquatic and Gloeotrichia pisum.

  2. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  3. Effects of Intense Physical Activity with Free Water Replacement on Bioimpedance Parameters and Body Fluid Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, E B; Ulbricht, L; Krueger, E; Romaneli, E F R; Souza, M N

    2012-01-01

    Authors have emphasized the need for previous care in order to perform reliable bioimpedance acquisition. Despite of this need some authors have reported that intense physical training has little effect on Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA), while other ones have observed significant effects on bioimpedance parameters in the same condition, leading to body composition estimates considered incompatible with human physiology. The aim of this work was to quantify the changes in bioimpedance parameters, as well as in body fluids estimates by BIA, after four hours of intense physical activity with free water replacement in young males. Xitron Hydra 4200 equipment was used to acquire bioimpedance data before and immediately after the physical training. After data acquisition body fluids were estimates from bioimpedance parameters. Height and weight of all subjects were also acquired to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Results point that among the bioimpedance parameter, extracellular resistance presented the most coherent behavior, leading to reliable estimates of the extracellular fluid and part of the total body water. Results also show decreases in height and weight of the participants, which were associated to the decrease in body hydration and in intervertebral discs.

  4. Effects of Intense Physical Activity with Free Water Replacement on Bioimpedance Parameters and Body Fluid Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, E. B.; Ulbricht, L.; Krueger, E.; Romaneli, E. F. R.; Souza, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Authors have emphasized the need for previous care in order to perform reliable bioimpedance acquisition. Despite of this need some authors have reported that intense physical training has little effect on Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA), while other ones have observed significant effects on bioimpedance parameters in the same condition, leading to body composition estimates considered incompatible with human physiology. The aim of this work was to quantify the changes in bioimpedance parameters, as well as in body fluids estimates by BIA, after four hours of intense physical activity with free water replacement in young males. Xitron Hydra 4200 equipment was used to acquire bioimpedance data before and immediately after the physical training. After data acquisition body fluids were estimates from bioimpedance parameters. Height and weight of all subjects were also acquired to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Results point that among the bioimpedance parameter, extracellular resistance presented the most coherent behavior, leading to reliable estimates of the extracellular fluid and part of the total body water. Results also show decreases in height and weight of the participants, which were associated to the decrease in body hydration and in intervertebral discs.

  5. Detection of Water Bodies from AVHRR Data—A TIMELINE Thematic Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas J. Dietz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of water body dynamics is not only in itself a topic of strong demand, but the presence of water bodies is important information when it comes to the derivation of products such as land surface temperature, leaf area index, or snow/ice cover mapping from satellite data. For the TIMELINE project, which aims to derive such products for a long time series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR data for Europe, precise water masks are therefore not only an important stand-alone product themselves, they are also an essential interstage information layer, which has to be produced automatically after preprocessing of the raw satellite data. The respective orbit segments from AVHRR are usually more than 2000 km wide and several thousand km long, thus leading to fundamentally different observation geometries, including varying sea surface temperatures, wave patterns, and sediment and algae loads. The water detection algorithm has to be able to manage these conditions based on a limited amount of spectral channels and bandwidths. After reviewing and testing already available methods for water body detection, we concluded that they cannot fully overcome the existing challenges and limitations. Therefore an extended approach was implemented, which takes into account the variations of the reflectance properties of water surfaces on a local to regional scale; the dynamic local threshold determination will train itself automatically by extracting a coarse-scale classification threshold, which is refined successively while analyzing subsets of the orbit segment. The threshold is then interpolated by fitting a minimum curvature surface before additional steps also relying on the brightness temperature are included to reduce possible misclassifications. The classification results have been validated using Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data and proven an overall accuracy of 93.4%, with the majority of

  6. The use of biomarkers as integrative tools for transitional water bodies monitoring in the Water Framework Directive context - A holistic approach in Minho river transitional waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capela, R; Raimundo, J; Santos, M M; Caetano, M; Micaelo, C; Vale, C; Guimarães, L; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2016-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) provides an important legislative opportunity to promote and implement an integrated approach for the protection of inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and groundwaters. The transitional waters constitute a central piece as they are usually under high environmental pressure and by their inherent characteristics present monitoring challenges. Integrating water quality monitoring with biological monitoring can increase the cost-effectiveness of monitoring efforts. One way of doing this is with biomarkers, which effectively integrate physical-chemical status and biological quality elements, dealing holistically with adverse consequences on the health of water bodies. The new Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) already incorporates the biomarker approach. Given the recent activities of OSPAR and HELCOM to harmonize existing monitoring guidelines between MSFD and WFD the use of similar methodologies should be fostered. To illustrate the potential of the biomarker approach, juveniles of flounder (Platichthys flesus) were used to evaluate the quality of the Minho river-estuary water bodies. The use of juveniles instead of adults eliminates several confounding factors such changes on the biological responses associated with reproduction. Here, a panel of well-established biomarkers, EROD, AChE, SOD, CAT, GST, LPO, ENA and FACs (1-Hydroxyrene) were selected and measured along with a gradient of different physical conditions, and integrated with trace elements characterization on both biota and sediments. In general, a clear profile along the water bodies was found, with low seasonal and spatial variation, consistent with a low impacted area. Overall, the results support the use of both the battery of biomarkers and the use of juvenile flounders in the monitoring of the water quality status within the WFD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF SALMONELLA SPECIES FROM WATER BODIES IN DAR-ES-SALAAM CITY, TANZANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya Kweka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne diseases are the most common cause of illness and death among the poor population from developing countries. The majority of the people are inadequately aware that aquatic environment is a major source of salmonellosis. Dar es Salaam city is among the cities with most of its population live in squatter. Typhoid fever ranks second with 14.3% of all notifiable disease cases in the city. The city experience water scarcity which forces water wells and rivers to become the main sources of water for domestic use and livestock. This study therefore, characterized Salmonella strains from different water bodies of city as possible sources for enteric diseases endemicity. Methods: The Salmonella Chromogenic Agar (SC Agar and Kligler Iron Agar (KIA media were used for isolation and enumeration of the strains. The inoculated cultures were incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Salmonella colonies were confirmed by magenta colorations and hydrogen sulfide production on SC Agar and KIA Agar, respectively. The Analytical Profile Index 20 Enterobacteriaceae kit (API 20E kit was used to identify Salmonella species. Results: Based on the API 20E kit, the identified Salmonella species from different water bodies were Salmonella ser. paratyphi A (96.9%, Salmonella cholelaesuis spp choleraesuis (99.5% and Salmonella typhi (99.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that shallow wells and rivers which are mainly used by the city dwellers were highly contaminated with Salmonella and were more contaminated than deep wells and marine water bodies. This warrants further investigation on the disease mapping in the urban and peri-urban areas.

  8. Characterization of Salmonella species from water bodies in Dar-Es-Salaam city, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya Kweka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne diseases are the most common cause of illness and death among the poor population from developing countries. The majority of the people are inadequately aware that aquatic environment is a major source of salmonellosis. Dar es Salaam city is among the cities with most of its population live in squatter. Typhoid fever ranks second with 14.3% of all notifiable disease cases in the city. The city experience water scarcity which forces water wells and rivers to become the main sources of water for domestic use and livestock. This study therefore, characterized Salmonella strains from different water bodies of city as possible sources for enteric diseases endemicity. Methods: The Salmonella Chromogenic Agar (SC Agar and Kligler Iron Agar (KIA media were used for isolation and enumeration of the strains. The inoculated cultures were incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Salmonella colonies were confirmed by magenta colorations and hydrogen sulfide production on SC Agar and KIA Agar, respectively. The Analytical Profile Index 20 Enterobacteriaceae kit (API 20E kit was used to identify Salmonella species. Results: Based on the API 20E kit, the  identified Salmonella species from different water bodies were Salmonella ser. paratyphi A (96.9%, Salmonella cholelaesuis spp choleraesuis (99.5% and Salmonella typhi (99.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that shallow wells and rivers which are mainly used by the city dwellers were highly contaminated with Salmonella and were more contaminated than deep wells and marine water bodies. This warrants further investigation on the disease mapping in the urban and peri-urban areas.

  9. Efficacy of a water-cooled garment for auxiliary body cooling in heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, P K; Pradhan, C K; Nag, A; Ashtekar, S P; Desai, H

    1998-02-01

    The efficacy of a water-cooled jacket for auxiliary body cooling was examined under a simulated hot environment. The personal garment comprised of a water re-circulating three-layered vest of cotton fabric lined with 2 mm diameter latex tubing and inter-spaced coating of rubberized solution. Four subjects wearing the water-cooled jacket were tested in the environment chamber (30, 35 and 40 degrees C DB, 50-60% RH, air velocity 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m/s, with corresponding average effective temperature of 26 +/- 2.3, 33 +/- 1.1 and 36 +/- 1.5 degrees C). The inlet water temperature was maintained at 10-12 degrees C, with flow rates of 2.6 +/- 0.3, 4.3 +/- 0.3 and 5.1 +/- 0.3 l/h). At 30 degrees C DB, variation in water flow had marginal effect on microclimate, while at higher temperatures (35 and 40 degrees C DB), the re-circulating cooled water had noticeable effects in lowering microclimate, trunk and other skin temperatures, and maintaining the body core within 36.7 +/- 0.2 to 37.5 +/- 0.2 degrees C, over 2 h exposure at 35 and 40 degrees C DB. The observation indicates that the water-cooled jacket provided auxiliary cooling to maintain comfortable microclimate, skin and body core temperatures. This enabled subjects to sustain comfortable heat balance over 2 h heat exposure without any noticeable heat strain.

  10. Noninvasive measurements of body composition and body water via quantitative magnetic resonance, deuterium water, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in awake and sedated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanghi, Brian M; Cupp, Carolyn J; Pan, Yuanlong; Tissot-Favre, Delphine G; Milgram, Norton W; Nagy, Tim R; Dobson, Howard

    2013-05-01

    To compare quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and deuterium oxide (D2O) methods for measurement of total body water (TBW), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM) in healthy dogs and to assess QMR accuracy. 58 Beagles (9 months to 11.5 years old). QMR scans were performed on awake dogs. A D2O tracer was administered (100 mg/kg, PO) immediately before dogs were sedated, which was followed by a second QMR or DXA scan. Jugular blood samples were collected before and 120 minutes after D2O administration. TBW, LBM, and FM determined via QMR were not significantly different between awake or sedated dogs, and means differed by only 2.0%, 2.2%, and 4.3%, respectively. Compared with results for D2O dilution, QMR significantly underestimated TBW (10.2%), LBM (13.4%), and FM (15.4%). Similarly, DXA underestimated LBM (7.3%) and FM (8.4%). A significant relationship was detected between FM measured via D2O dilution and QMR (r(2) > 0.89) or DXA (r(2) > 0.88). Even though means of TBW and LBM differed significantly between D2O dilution and QMR or DXA, values were highly related (r(2) > 0.92). QMR was useful for determining body composition in dogs and can be used to safely and rapidly acquire accurate data without the need for sedation or anesthesia. These benefits can facilitate frequent scans, particularly in geriatric, extremely young, or ill pets. Compared with the D2O dilution method, QMR correction equations provided accurate assessment over a range of body compositions.

  11. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  12. Flux of aquatic insect productivity to land: comparison of lentic and lotic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Claudio; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-10-01

    Recently, food web studies have started exploring how resources from one habitat or ecosystem influence trophic interactions in a recipient ecosystem. Benthic production in lakes and streams can be exported to terrestrial habitats via emerging aquatic insects and can therefore link aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we develop a general conceptual model that highlights zoobenthic production, insect emergence, and ecosystem geometry (driven principally by area-to-edge ratio) as important factors modulating the flux of aquatic production across the ecosystem boundary. Emerging insect flux, defined as total insect production emerging per meter of shoreline (g C x m(-1) x yr(-1)) is then distributed inland using decay functions and is used to estimate insect deposition rate to terrestrial habitats (g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)). Using empirical data from the literature, we simulate insect fluxes across the water-land ecosystem boundary to estimate the distribution of fluxes and insect deposition inland for lakes and streams. In general, zoobenthos in streams are more productive than in lakes (6.67 vs. 1.46 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)) but have lower insect emergence to aquatic production ratios (0.19 vs. 0.30). However, as stream width is on average smaller than lake radius, this results in flux (F) estimates 2 1/2 times greater for lakes than for streams. Ultimately, insect deposition onto land (within 100 m of shore) adjacent to average-sized lakes (10-ha lakes, 0.021 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)) is greater than for average-sized streams (4 m width, 0.002 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)) used in our comparisons. For the average lake (both in size and productivity), insect deposition rate approaches estimates of terrestrial secondary production in low-productivity ecosystems (e.g., deserts and tundra, approximately 0.07 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1)). However, larger lakes (1300 ha) and streams (16 m) can have average insect deposition rates (approximately 0.01-2.4 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1

  13. Development and clinical application of a length-adjustable water phantom for total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z. W.; Yao, S. Y.; Zhang, T. N.; Zhu, Z. H.; Hu, Z. K.; Lu, X.

    2008-01-01

    A new type of water phantom which would be specialised for the absorbed dose measurement in total body irradiation (TBI) treatment is developed. Ten millimetres of thick Plexiglas plates were arranged to form a square cube with 300 mm of edge length. An appropriate sleeve-type piston was installed on the side wall, and a tabular Plexiglas piston was positioned inside the sleeve. By pushing and pulling the piston, the length of the self-made water phantom could be varied to meet the required patients' physical sizes. To compare the international standard water phantom with the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms, absorbed dose for 6-MV X ray was measured by an ionisation chamber at different depths in three kinds of phantoms. In 70 cases with TBI, midplane doses were metered using the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms for simulating human dimensions, and dose validation was synchronously carried out. There were no significant statistical differences, p > 0.05, through statistical processing of data from the international standard water phantom and the self-designed one. There were significant statistical differences, p < 0.05, between the two sets of data from the standard and the Plexiglas one. In addition, the absolute difference had a positive correlation with the varied depth of the detector in the Plexiglas phantom. Comparing the data of clinical treatment, the differences were all <1 % among the prescription doses and the validation data collected from the self-design water phantom. However, the differences collected from the Plexiglas phantom were increasing gradually from +0.77 to +2.30 % along with increasing body width. Obviously, the difference had a positive correlation with the body width. The results proved that the new length-adjustable water phantom is more accurate for simulating human dimensions than Plexiglas phantom. (authors)

  14. Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Cheng, Shuiping; Li, Zhu; Guo, Weijie; Zhong, Fei; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-10-01

    In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (pecosystem. The case study would be an example for polluted urban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base.

  15. Revitalization model of tapioca industry through environmental awareness reinforcement for minimizing water body contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banowati, E.; Indriyanti, D. R.; Juhadi

    2018-03-01

    Tapioca industry in Margoyoso District is a household industry which positively contributes to the growth of the region's economy as it is able to absorb 6,61% of productive age populationor absorb 3,300 workers.On the other hand, the industry impacts contamination of river water in the form of pollutants dissolved materials and particulates into water bodies so that the quality of water decreases even does not work anymore in accordance with the allocation for irrigation or run off of agriculture. The purpose of this research is to: strengthen environmental awareness; calculate the success of the reinforcement action and minimize water body contamination. The research was conducted in two villages of tapioca industry center in Margoyoso district - Pati Regency Administration Area. The determination coefficient of R Square is 0.802 which indicates a successful effort of 80.2%. Regression equation Y = 34.097 + 0.608 X. Industrial entrepreneur's concern increased on 8.45 from total indicator or position to 70.72 so that the gradual effort showed success to minimize water contamination of Suwatu River. The business community of tapioca should build installation of wastewater treatment.

  16. Studies on the physico-chemical parameters of Omi water body of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Omi water body, the physico-chemical parameters such as dissolved oxygen ranged from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/L; pH, 6.7 to 7.2; temperature, 26.5 to 31.5°C; alkalinity, 24.2 to 25.4 ppm; conductivity, 23.0 to 28.3 Ohms/cm; turbidity 0.11 to 0.15 m; and free carbon dioxide from 3.5 to 4.5 mg/L. Dissolved oxygen, pH and water ...

  17. Potential of a novel airborne hydrographic laser scanner for capturing shallow water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlburger, G.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Steinbacher, F.; Pfeifer, N.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present the general design of a hydrographic laser scanner (prototype instrument) manufactured by the company Riegl Laser Measurement Systems in cooperation with the University of Innsbruck, Unit of Hydraulic Engineering. The instrument utilizes very short laser pulses (1 ns) in the green wavelength domain (λ=532 nm) capable of penetrating the water column. The backscattered signal is digitized in a waveform recorder at high frequency enabling sophisticated waveform processing, both, online during the flight and in post processing. In combination with a traditional topographic airborne laser scanner (λ=1500 nm) mounted on the same platform a complete hydrographic and topographic survey of the riparian foreland, the water surface and river bed can be carried out in a single campaign. In contrast to existing bathymetric LiDAR systems, the presented system uses only medium pulse energy but a high pulse repetition rate of up to 250 kHz and, thus, focuses on a detailed description of shallow water bodies under clear water conditions. Different potential fields of applications of the instrument (hydraulic modelling, hydro-morphology, hydro-biology, ecology, river restoration and monitoring) are discussed and the results of first real-world test flights in Austria and Germany are presented. It is shown that: (i) the high pulse repetition rate enables a point density on the ground of the water body of 10-20 pts/m2, (ii) the short laser pulses together with waveform processing enable a discrimination between water and ground reflections at a water depth of less than 25 cm, (iii) the combination of a topographic and hydrographic laser scanner enable the acquisition of the geometry data for hydraulic modeling in a single survey, thus, providing a much more homogeneous data basis compared to traditional techniques, and (iv) the high point density and the ranging accuracy of less than 10 cm enable a detailed and precise description of the river bed

  18. Antioxidant activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes enriched with selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Milena D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiitake (Lentinus edodes belongs to medically important and delicious fungi. It is recognizable for its healing properties, excellent taste and rich aroma. According to the traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine, shiitake mushroom significantly increases the strength and vitality of the body. Shiitake contains immunostimulants, compounds that lower cholesterol, prevents clogging of blood vessels, regulates the pressure, balances blood sugar levels, regulates digestion, and improves the performance of respiratory organs by its antirheumatic and antiallergic activities. Shiitake is recommended to use as food, prevention and cure, usually in a form of a spice (dried and ground or tea. It can be consumed fresh, too. The objective of this study was to test the effect of enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water extracts from fruit body of Lentinus edodes. The fungus was enhanced by adding organic selenium, zinc (II complex with the ligand 2.6-bis diacetylpyridine (selenosemicarbazon and inorganic compounds (Na2SeO3 of selenium in nutritional substrate where the fungus was grown. The total selenium content in fruit body was around 50 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium originating from organic sources, and 80 ppm for the sample enriched with selenium from inorganic sources. Samples were prepared by extraction of fruiting bodies in heated water. The results indicated that water extracts of whole fruit bodies, from both control and mushrooms supplemented with selenium, had quite good antioxidant activity. However, there was no significant difference between the samples supplemented with selenium content and those that were not.

  19. Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

    2012-06-01

    Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the "dose rate - effects" relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d(-1) for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d(-1) for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d(-1) for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale "dose rate - effects" and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. European perspectives on regional estimates of standing water bodies and the relevance of man-made ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasmaa, Jaanus; Bartout, Pascal; Marzecova, Agata; Touchart, Laurent; Koff, Tiiu; Choffel, Quentin; Kapanen, Galina; Maleval, Véronique; Millot, Camille; Qsair, Zoubida; Vandel, Egert

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, the small water bodies have been disregarded in the environmental management and protection policies. For example, the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC proposes the threshold surface area of water bodies for typology and reporting as 50 ha. The inventories on state level or scientific studies took into account smaller water bodies (e.g. hydrological and biogeochemical cycles has facilitated new global and regional inventories of lakes and water bodies. Although with differences in the total counts and in the statistical estimates of abundance-size relationship, these recent global estimates reveal the quantitative importance of the terrestrial standing water bodies in the global hydrology (Downing et al., 2006; Verpoorter et al., 2014). Yet, our analysis of the abundance and distribution EU water bodies suggest that these global counts underrepresents the hydrologically complex terrain of the European territory. One of the main limits is the high cutoff limit that excludes small water bodies below ~0.2 ha. For example, in France, Bartout and Touchart (2013) report that including water bodies below 0.01 ha in the estimates resulted in 16 times higher number of water bodies with the surface area one-third higher than officially registered inventories. Also, in Estonia, the water bodies with a surface area below 1 ha are almost 50 times more abundant than those above 1 ha and 92% of all standing water bodies are smaller than 0.2 ha. Using the OpenStreetMap database we will discuss the differences between global inventories and EU-level analysis. We will show the alternative regional estimates of water bodies with the surface size threshold limit 0.01 ha which will illustrate the quantitative importance of very small often man-made ponds, which are however, abundant cultural heritage in many parts of Europe. Secondly, by comparing detailed national inventories compiled for France and Estonia, we will introduce usefulness of the the 'local

  1. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakova, Natalia; Kitada, Kento; Lerchl, Kathrin; Dahlmann, Anke; Birukov, Anna; Daub, Steffen; Kopp, Christoph; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Zhang, Yahua; Beck, Luis; Johannes, Bernd; Marton, Adriana; Müller, Dominik N; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2017-05-01

    The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant. We studied the effect of salt-driven changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid urinary excretion on day-to-day osmolyte and water balance. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology Foundation. Food products were donated by APETITO

  2. Carbamazepine and diclofenac: removal in wastewater treatment plants and occurrence in water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Geissen, Sven-Uwe; Gal, Carmen

    2008-11-01

    In the aquatic environment, pharmaceuticals have been widely found. Among them, carbamazepine and diclofenac were detected at the highest frequency. To evaluate the worldwide environmental impacts of both drugs, their global consumption volumes are estimated, based on the dose per capita. The metabolites of these pharmaceuticals are also of environmental concerns, especially trans-10,11-dihydro-10,11- dihydroxycarbamazepine (CBZ-diol) which probably has a similar concentration in water bodies to that of its parent drug. The removal efficiencies and mechanisms of both drugs in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are discussed with the actual state of knowledge. The occurrences of both drugs are examined in various water bodies including WWTP effluents, surface waters, groundwater and drinking water. Their chemical, physical and pharmacological properties are also addressed in context, which can largely influence their environmental behaviors. The ecotoxicological studies of both drugs imply that they do not easily cause acute toxic effects at their environmental concentrations. However their chronic effects need cautious attention.

  3. An Experimental Method for Measuring Water Droplet Impingement Efficiency on Two- and Three-dimensional Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, M.; Zumwalt, G. W.; Elangonan, R.; Freund, G. A., Jr.; Breer, M.; Whitmer, L.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental method was developed to determine the droplet impingement characteristics on 2-D and 3-D bodies. The experimental results provide the essential droplet impingement data required to validate water droplet trajectory codes, which are used in the analysis of aircraft icing. A body, whose water droplet impingement characteristics are required, is covered at strategic locations by thin strips of moisture absorbing (blotter) paper, and is exposed to an air stream containing a water dye solution spray cloud. Water droplet impingement data are extracted from the dyed blotter strips by measuring the optical reflectance of the dye deposit on the strips, using an automated reflectometer. Models tested include a 4-inch diameter cylinder, a NACA 652015 airfoil section, a MS(1)-0317 supercritical airfoil section, three simulated ice shapes, an axisymmetric inlet and a Boeing 737-300 inlet model. Detailed descriptions of the dye tracer technique, instrumentation, data reduction method and the results obtained are presented. Analytical predictions of collection efficiency characteristics for most test configurations are included for comparison.

  4. Turnover of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the body water, CO 2, hair, and enamel of a small mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesak, David W.; Torregrossa, Ann-Marie; Ehleringer, James R.; Dearing, M. Denise; Passey, Benjamin H.; Cerling, Thure E.

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope signatures of animal tissues are strongly correlated with the isotope signature of local precipitation and as a result, isotope signatures of tissues are commonly used to study resource utilization and migration in animals and to reconstruct climate. To better understand the mechanisms behind these correlations, we manipulated the isotope composition of the drinking water and food supplied to captive woodrats to quantify the relationships between drinking water ( δdw), body water ( δbw), and tissue ( δt). Woodrats were fed an isotopically constant food but were supplied with isotopically depleted or enriched water. Some animals were switched between these waters, allowing simultaneous determination of body water turnover, isotope change recorded in teeth and hair, and fractional contributions of atmospheric O 2, drinking water, and food to the oxygen and hydrogen budgets of the animals. The half-life of the body water turnover was 3-6 days. A mass balance model estimated that drinking water, atmospheric O 2, and food were responsible for 56%, 30%, and 15% of the oxygen in the body water, respectively. Drinking water and food were responsible for 71% and 29% of the hydrogen in the body water, respectively. Published generalized models for lab rats and humans accurately estimated δbw, as did an updated version of a specific model for woodrats. The change in drinking water was clearly recorded in hair and tooth enamel, and multiple-pool and tooth enamel forward models closely predicted these changes in hair and enamel, respectively. Oxygen and hydrogen atoms in the drinking water strongly influence the composition of the body water and tissues such as hair and tooth enamel; however, food and atmospheric O 2 also contribute oxygen and/or hydrogen atoms to tissue. Controlled experiments allow researchers to validate models that estimate δt based on δdw and so will increase the reliability of estimates of resource utilization and climate

  5. Water and the Interior Structure of Terrestrial Planets and Icy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteux, J.; Golabek, G. J.; Rubie, D. C.; Tobie, G.; Young, E. D.

    2018-02-01

    Water content and the internal evolution of terrestrial planets and icy bodies are closely linked. The distribution of water in planetary systems is controlled by the temperature structure in the protoplanetary disk and dynamics and migration of planetesimals and planetary embryos. This results in the formation of planetesimals and planetary embryos with a great variety of compositions, water contents and degrees of oxidation. The internal evolution and especially the formation time of planetesimals relative to the timescale of radiogenic heating by short-lived 26Al decay may govern the amount of hydrous silicates and leftover rock-ice mixtures available in the late stages of their evolution. In turn, water content may affect the early internal evolution of the planetesimals and in particular metal-silicate separation processes. Moreover, water content may contribute to an increase of oxygen fugacity and thus affect the concentrations of siderophile elements within the silicate reservoirs of Solar System objects. Finally, the water content strongly influences the differentiation rate of the icy moons, controls their internal evolution and governs the alteration processes occurring in their deep interiors.

  6. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-22

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole.

  7. Classifying terrestrial surface water systems using integrated residence time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Allan; Hodges, Ben; McClelland, James; Hardison, Amber; Moffett, Kevan

    2017-04-01

    Linkages between ecology and hydrology in terrestrial surface water often invoke a discussion of lentic (reservoir) vs. lotic (riverine) system behaviors. However, the literature shows a wide range of thresholds separating lentic/lotic regimes and little agreement on a quantitative, repeatable classification metric that can be broadly and reliably applied across a range of systems hosting various flow regimes and suspended/benthic taxa. We propose an integrated Residence Time (iTR) metric as part of a new Freshwater Continuum Classification (FCC) to address this issue. The iTR is computed as the transit time of a water parcel across a system given observed temporal variations in discharge and volume, which creates a temporally-varying metric applicable across a defined system length. This approach avoids problems associated with instantaneous residence times or average residence times that can lead to misleading characterizations in seasonally- or episodically-dynamic systems. The iTR can be directly related to critical flow thresholds and timescales of ecology (e.g., zooplankton growth). The FCC approach considers lentic and lotic to be opposing end-members of a classification continuum and also defines intermediate regimes that blur the line between the two ends of the spectrum due to more complex hydrological system dynamics. We also discover the potential for "oscillic" behavior, where a system switches between lentic and lotic classifications either episodically or regularly (e.g., seasonally). Oscillic behavior is difficult to diagnose with prior lentic/lotic classification schemes, but can be readily identified using iTR. The FCC approach was used to analyze 15 tidally-influenced river segments along the Texas (USA) coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The results agreed with lentic/lotic designations using prior approaches, but also identified more nuanced intermediate and oscillic regimes. Within this set of systems, the oscillic nature of some of the river

  8. A new model for estimating total body water from bioelectrical resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siconolfi, S. F.; Kear, K. T.

    1992-01-01

    Estimation of total body water (T) from bioelectrical resistance (R) is commonly done by stepwise regression models with height squared over R, H(exp 2)/R, age, sex, and weight (W). Polynomials of H(exp 2)/R have not been included in these models. We examined the validity of a model with third order polynomials and W. Methods: T was measured with oxygen-18 labled water in 27 subjects. R at 50 kHz was obtained from electrodes placed on the hand and foot while subjects were in the supine position. A stepwise regression equation was developed with 13 subjects (age 31.5 plus or minus 6.2 years, T 38.2 plus or minus 6.6 L, W 65.2 plus or minus 12.0 kg). Correlations, standard error of estimates and mean differences were computed between T and estimated T's from the new (N) model and other models. Evaluations were completed with the remaining 14 subjects (age 32.4 plus or minus 6.3 years, T 40.3 plus or minus 8 L, W 70.2 plus or minus 12.3 kg) and two of its subgroups (high and low) Results: A regression equation was developed from the model. The only significant mean difference was between T and one of the earlier models. Conclusion: Third order polynomials in regression models may increase the accuracy of estimating total body water. Evaluating the model with a larger population is needed.

  9. Origin and evolution of antibiotic resistance: the common mechanisms of emergence and spread in water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Agnese; Coyne, Sébastien; Berendonk, Thomas Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The environment, and especially freshwater, constitutes a reactor where the evolution and the rise of new resistances occur. In water bodies such as waste water effluents, lakes, and rivers or streams, bacteria from different sources, e.g., urban, industrial, and agricultural waste, probably selected by intensive antibiotic usage, are collected and mixed with environmental species. This may cause two effects on the development of antibiotic resistances: first, the contamination of water by antibiotics or other pollutants lead to the rise of resistances due to selection processes, for instance, of strains over-expressing broad range defensive mechanisms, such as efflux pumps. Second, since environmental species are provided with intrinsic antibiotic resistance mechanisms, the mixture with allochthonous species is likely to cause genetic exchange. In this context, the role of phages and integrons for the spread of resistance mechanisms appears significant. Allochthonous species could acquire new resistances from environmental donors and introduce the newly acquired resistance mechanisms into the clinics. This is illustrated by clinically relevant resistance mechanisms, such as the fluoroquinolones resistance genes qnr. Freshwater appears to play an important role in the emergence and in the spread of antibiotic resistances, highlighting the necessity for strategies of water quality improvement. We assume that further knowledge is needed to better understand the role of the environment as reservoir of antibiotic resistances and to elucidate the link between environmental pollution by anthropogenic pressures and emergence of antibiotic resistances. Only an integrated vision of these two aspects can provide elements to assess the risk of spread of antibiotic resistances via water bodies and suggest, in this context, solutions for this urgent health issue.

  10. Calculation of water drop trajectories to and about arbitrary three-dimensional lifting and nonlifting bodies in potential airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norment, H. G.

    1985-01-01

    Subsonic, external flow about nonlifting bodies, lifting bodies or combinations of lifting and nonlifting bodies is calculated by a modified version of the Hess lifting code. Trajectory calculations can be performed for any atmospheric conditions and for all water drop sizes, from the smallest cloud droplet to large raindrops. Experimental water drop drag relations are used in the water drop equations of motion and effects of gravity settling are included. Inlet flow can be accommodated, and high Mach number compressibility effects are corrected for approximately. Seven codes are described: (1) a code used to debug and plot body surface description data; (2) a code that processes the body surface data to yield the potential flow field; (3) a code that computes flow velocities at arrays of points in space; (4) a code that computes water drop trajectories from an array of points in space; (5) a code that computes water drop trajectories and fluxes to arbitrary target points; (6) a code that computes water drop trajectories tangent to the body; and (7) a code that produces stereo pair plots which include both the body and trajectories. Accuracy of the calculations is discussed, and trajectory calculation results are compared with prior calculations and with experimental data.

  11. Alternatives to isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the measurement of deuterium content of body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluck, L.J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The measurement of breast milk intake using the isotope dilution techniques is now well established. The methodology involves the administration of a bolus of tracer followed by observation of the kinetics of its passage though the system. For example in the popular 'dose to the mother' method a dose of labeled water is administered to the mother, and over the following days samples of body fluids are taken and the concentration of tracer determined in order to establish the rate of loss of tracer from her body. Likewise samples are taken from the breast fed infant in order to determine the rates of tracer intake and subsequent loss. Deuterium is the tracer of choice for these experiments since it is non-radioactive, and therefore suitable for use in these vulnerable subject groups, and also because of its relative cheapness. Conventionally isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) has been used for the determination of the amount of deuterium in the body fluids. However this methodology is expensive (an instrument might typically cost US$ 150,000), and it requires a considerable amount of dedicated technical expertise for its operation. Consequently such instrumentation is not widely available, and this has limited the number and scope of studies using this technique. Recently there have been reports of possible alternative technologies for the determination of deuterium in body water which appear attractive because of the wider general availability of the equipment required. It is the purpose of this report to assess these reported methods for their suitability for breast milk intake measurements

  12. Body water distribution in severe obesity and its assessment from eight-polar bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorio, A; Malavolti, M; Agosti, F; Marinone, P G; Caiti, O; Battistini, N; Bedogni, G

    2005-02-01

    To measure body water distribution and to evaluate the accuracy of eight-polar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for the assessment of total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) in severe obesity. Cross-sectional study. Obesity clinic. In all, 75 women aged 18-66 y, 25 with body mass index (BMI) between 19.1 and 29.9 kg/m(2) (ie not obese), 25 with BMI between 30.0 and 39.9 kg/m(2) (ie class I and II obese), and 25 with BMI between 40.0 and 48.2 kg/m(2) (ie class III obese). TBW and ECW were measured by (2)H(2)O and Br dilution. Body resistance (R) was obtained by summing the resistances of arms, trunk and legs as measured by eight-polar BIA (InBody 3.0, Biospace, Seoul, Korea). The resistance index at a frequency of x kHz (RI(x)) was calculated as height (2)/R(x). ECW : TBW was similar in women with class III (46+/-3%, mean+/-s.d.) and class I-II obesity (45+/-3%) but higher than in nonobese women (39+/-3%, P<0.05). In a random subsample of 37 subjects, RI(500) explained 82% of TBW variance (P<0.0001) and cross-validation of the obtained algorithm in the remaining 38 subjects gave a percent root mean square error (RMSE%) of 5% and a pure error (PE) of 2.1 l. In the same subjects, RI(5) explained 87% of ECW variance (P<0.0001) and cross-validation of the obtained algorithm gave a RMSE% of 8% and a PE of 1.4 l. The contribution of weight and BMI to the prediction of TBW and ECW was nil or negligible on practical grounds. ECW : TBW is similar in women with class I-II and class III obesity up to BMI values of 48.2 kg/m(2). Eight-polar BIA offers accurate estimates of TBW and ECW in women with a wide range of BMI (19.1-48.2 kg/m(2)) without the need of population-specific formulae.

  13. Computer program to plot isotherms in bodies of water. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1199

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeAngelis, D.L.

    1978-06-01

    For purposes of graphic display it is convenient to represent temperature versus depth data in bodies of water in the form of isotherms (lines of equal temperature). Because it can be tedious to draw such lines by hand from raw data, a computer code has been devised to plot these lines automatically. The procedure assumes that the temperature can be linearly interpolated between the points at which measurements are taken. Details of the code are explained by means of examples. With minor changes, the program can be used to plot isoclines of other environmental parameters

  14. Diagnostic-Photographic Determination of Drag/Lift/Torque Coefficients of High Speed Rigid Body in Water Column

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Peter C; Fan, Chenwu; Gefken, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of rigid body falling through water column with a high speed (such as Mk-84 bomb) needs formulas for drag/lift and torque coefficients, which depend on various physical processes such as supercavitation and bubbles...

  15. [Retaining and transformation of incoming soil N from highland to adjacent terrestrial water body in riparian buffer zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-cheng; Yu, Hong-li; Yao, Qin; Han, Zhuang-xing; Qiao, Shu-liang

    2007-11-01

    Highland soil nitrogen can enter adjacent water body via erosion and leaching, being one of the important pollutants in terrestrial water bodies. Riparian buffer zone is a transitional zone between highland and its adjacent water body, and a healthy riparian buffer zone can retain and transform the incoming soil N through physical, biological, and biochemical processes. In this paper, the major pathways through which soil nitrogen enters terrestrial water body and the mechanisms the nitrogen was retained and transformed in riparian buffer zone were introduced systematically, and the factors governing the nitrogen retaining and transformation were analyzed from the aspects of hydrological processes, soil characters, vegetation features, and human activities. The problems existing in riparian buffer zone study were discussed, and some suggestions for the further study in China were presented.

  16. Commented list of rare and protected vascular plants of inland water bodies of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Mäemets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This presented overview of rare and protected hydrophytes, emergent plants and hygrophytes of inland water bodies of Estonia includes 60 species. In the commented list are indicated their position in the state protection categories I–III (last version in 2014, and under the Red List of Estonia (last version in 2008; marked are Natura 2000 species of the European Union. Most typical habitats for these rare species are: I. soft-water oligotrophic and semidystrophic lakes; II. mesotrophic lakes with Najas (Caulinia flexilis and Potamogeton rutilus; III. alkaline fens and wet meadows; IV. brackish or freshwater coastal lagoons; V. undamaged river stretches; VI. open shallow littoral of the largest lakes of Peipsi (Pskovsko-Chudskoe and of Võrtsjärv. Main threats of these habitats are briefly concerned, as well as the problem of conservation value of hybrids, based on the example of Sparganium species.

  17. Coliform and metal contamination in Lago de Colina, a recreational water body in Chihuahua State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I; Quintana, Rey M; Nevarez, G Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

    2011-06-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  18. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Rubio-Arias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lago de Colina (Colina Lake is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico, and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  19. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I.; Quintana, Rey M.; Nevarez, G. Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

    2011-01-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico. PMID:21776236

  20. Modeling the movement and equilibrium of water in the body of ruminants in relation to estimating body composition by deuterium oxide dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    Deuterium oxide (D 2 O) dilution was evaluated for use in estimating body composition of ruminants. Empty body composition of cattle could not be accurately estimated by two- or three-compartment models when solved on the basis of clearance of D 2 O from blood. A 29-compartment blood-flow model was developed from measured blood flow rates and water volumes of tissues of sheep. The rates of equilibration of water in tissues that were simulated by the blood-flow model were much faster than actual rates measured in sheep and cattle. The incorporation of diffusion hindrances for movement of water into tissues enabled the blood flow model to simulate the measured equilibration rates in tissues, but the values of the diffusion coefficients were different for each tissue. The D 2 O-disappearance curve for blood simulated by the blood-flow model with diffusion limitations was comprised for four exponential components. The tissues and gastrointestinal tract contents were placed into five groups based upon the rate of equilibration. Water in the organs of the body equilibrated with water in blood within 3 min. Water in visceral fat, head, and some of the gastrointestinal tract tissues equilibrated within 8 to 16 min. Water in skeletal muscle, fat, and bone and the contents of some segments of the gastrointestinal tract equilibrated within 30 to 36 min. Water in the tissues and contents of the cecum and upper-large intestine equilibrated within 160 to 200 min. Water in ruminal tissue and contents equilibrated within 480 min

  1. Longitudinal measurements of total body water and body composition in healthy volunteers by online breath deuterium measurement and other near-subject methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engel, B.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.; Diskin, A. M.; Davis, S. J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2005), s. 99-106 ISSN 1479-456X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/00/0632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : total body water * deuterium isotope dilution * FA-MS * bio-impendance Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  2. Origin and evolution of antibiotic resistance: the common mechanisms of emergence and spread in water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese eLupo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The environment, and especially fresh water, constitutes a reactor where the evolution and the rise of new resistances occur. In rivers or streams, bacteria from different sources such as urban, industrial and agricultural waste, probably selected by intensive antibiotic usage, are collected and mixed with environmental species. This may cause two effects on the development of antibiotic resistances: First, the contamination of water by antibiotics or other pollutants lead to the rise of resistance due to selection processes. For instance, of strains over-expressing broad range defensive mechanisms, such as efflux pumps. Second, since environmental species are provided with intrinsic antibiotic resistance mechanisms, the mixture with allochthonous species is likely to cause genetic exchange. In this context, the role of phages and integrons for the spread of resistance mechanisms appears significant. Allochthonous species could acquire new resistances from environmental donors and introduce the newly acquired resistance mechanisms into the clinics. This is illustrated by clinically relevant resistance mechanisms, such as the fluoroquinolones resistance genes qnr. Freshwater appears to play an important role in the emergence and in the spread of antibiotic resistances, highlighting the necessity for strategies of water quality improvement. Moreover, further knowledge is needed to better understand the role of the environment as reservoir of antibiotic resistances and to assess the risk of spread of antibiotic resistances via water bodies.

  3. Radiative characteristics of ice-covered fresh- and brackish-water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leppäranta, Matti

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and optics of ice and snow overlying bodies of water were studied in the years 2000–2003. The data were collected in the northern temperate region (nine Estonian and Finnish lakes and one brackish water site, Santala Bay, in the Gulf of Finland. In the present paper we describe the results concerning the radiative characteristics of the system “snow + ice cover on the water”: albedo, attenuation of light, and planar and scalar irradiances through the ice. The basic data consist of irradiance measurements above and below ice cover for the PAR band of the solar spectrum (400–700 nm. Albedo varied across wide limits (0.20–0.70 for ice, 0.63–0.94 for snow, depending on the optical and physical properties of ice/snow and weather conditions. The vertically averaged light attenuation coefficient of the ice layer in the brackish waters of Santala Bay was higher than that in the lakes. The ratio of irradiance beneath the ice to incident irradiance increased 2.5–20 times after removing the snow, depending on the albedo and the thickness of ice and snow as well as on their optical properties. In the upper layer of water beneath the ice the ratio of planar to scalar quantum irradiances increased with depth (according to our earlier results obtained in summer this ratio decreased with increasing depth.

  4. Evaluation of the correlations for predicting evaporative loss from water body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, T.P.; Aybar, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Water evaporation (evaporation from here on) is a natural phenomenon that is important for system design and system safety in many engineering branches. Indeed, evaporative heat and mass loss are observed and calculated in very diverse situations, such as irrigation plants, water purification plants, cooling ponds, lakes, dams, swimming pools, health spas, management of liquid wastes as in evaporation pools, and spent fuel pools in nuclear power plants. There are a number of correlations obtained from experimental studies that predict the evaporative heat and mass loss from a water body. This study aims to summarize and to compare the existing evaporation correlations to determine the upper and lower bounding correlations for use in various thermal-hydraulic analyses of systems. Currently and widely used, six correlations found in the literature have been selected and tested using the major parameters of evaporation such as water temperature, air relative humidity, air velocity, and temperature. The comparison test cases show that ASHRAE (1991) and Ryan et al. (1974) equations result in the highest evaporative loss, while the Brady et al. (1969) equation provides the lowest evaporative loss in most conditions. Engineering designers may sometimes need the upper bound value of evaporative loss or sometimes the lower bound value for a conservative calculation. The authors conclude that using a single equation does not provide the conservative calculation for every situation and show which correlation gives the lower or upper bound for different conditions

  5. COMMERCIAL FISH HARVEST IN INLAND WATER BODIES OF GERMANY (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Didenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze scientific and statistical sources on commercial fishery in inland water bodies of Germany. To summarize German experience and identify specific features of this sector. Findings. Commercial fishery in Germany is carried out on 30% (≈250 000 hectares of inland water bodies of Germany. The main fishing regions are prealpine lakes in Bavaria, Lake Constance, lakes in Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania federal states as well as lakes and rivers of Brandenburg and Berlin. Commercial fishing on rivers usually has a local importance and is practiced in regions with poorly developed industry. There were 670 commercial fishing organizations in 2014, where 932 people were employed. Each fishing license owner is allowed deploying simultaneously a clearly defined number of fishing gears depending on season. In addition, fishing nets are regulated not only based on their mesh size and length, but also height and the minimum thread diameter. The cardinal difference of German inland fishing is the absence of the periods of total ban on commercial fishing. There are only ban periods for fishing on certain fish species during their spawning seasons. These periods differ for federal states and are listed in the relevant regional fishing rules. The total fish catch in inland waters of Germany by commercial fishermen in 2014 was 3132 tons, much lower than the catches of anglers who caught 18 450 tons at the same year. Most of fish were caught by fishing organizations in the Brandenburg Federal State. Average fish productivity in 2014 was approx. 13 kg/ha (ranging from 10 to 20 kg/ha. Whitefish was the dominant species in catches in the Lake Constance and prealpine lakes of Bavaria, while cyprinids (roach, bream, silver bream, blue bream, etc. dominated in Northern Germany. The profit of commercial fish catch in 2014 was about 12.5 million euros. Among numerous activities aimed at preserving commercial fish populations, Germans

  6. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water in Soccer Players: a Deuterium Oxide Dilution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, R; Rosa, F T; Pfrimer, K; Ferrioli, E; Jordao, A A; Freitas, E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in total body water (TBW) in soccer athletes using a deuterium oxide dilution method and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) formulas after 7 days of creatine supplementation. In a double-blind controlled manner, 13 healthy (under-20) soccer players were divided randomly in 2 supplementation groups: Placebo (Pla, n=6) and creatine supplementation (CR, n=7). Before and after the supplementation period (0.3 g/kg/d during 7 days), TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution and BIA methods. 7 days of creatine supplementation lead to a large increase in TBW (2.3±1.0 L) determined by deuterium oxide dilution, and a small but significant increase in total body weight (1.0±0.4 kg) in Cr group compared to Pla. The Pla group did not experience any significant changes in TBW or body weight. Although 5 of 6 BIA equations were sensitive to determine TBW changes induced by creatine supplementation, the Kushner et al. 16 method presented the best concordance levels when compared to deuterium dilution method. In conclusion, 7-days of creatine supplementation increased TBW determined by deuterium oxide dilution or BIA formulas. BIA can be useful to determine TBW changes promoted by creatine supplementation in soccer athletes, with special concern for formula choice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Phytoplankton diversity and their succession in water bodies of the Lednice park during 2002 season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Ramezanpoor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton communities of three water bodies in the Lednice park were studied from 22nd April till 1st October 2002. These water bodies are the Zámecký pond, Růžový pond and the Dyje River, which is water source of both ponds.Phytoplankton samples were taken every two weeks between 8 - 9 am. Collected phytoplankton samples were preserved with 4% formalin solution and Lugol solution (JJK and transported to the laboratory. They were determined and counted using inverted microscope. Water temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field using digital portable instruments. Total of 317 phytoplankton species were determined in this study.Heavy algal bloom was observed in the Zámecký pond in mid-summer coinciding with increase in water temperature. Fish diseases and partial mortality occurred during the period of algal bloom and unpleasant smell was dominant feature. A light algal bloom was also observed in the Růžový pond and the Dyje River nearly by the end of summer.The main algae species responsible for blue-green algae bloom were Anabaena flos-aquae, Microcystis aeruginosa, M. ichtyoblabe, M. flos-aquae and M. wesenbergii. Dissolved oxygen values varied between 3.4 - 19.5 mg l-1, pH ranged from 7.6 - 9.7. Secchi depth varied from 0- 65 cm in the Zámecký pond, 15-45 cm in the Růžový pond and 35-65 cm in the Dyje River. Concentration of total phosphate, nitrate and chlorophyll-a in the Dyje River before drainage into the Zámecký and Růžový pond verified heavy nutrient load (Total-P = 0.3, NO3- = 12 mg.l-1 of the river. Although the Dyje River is main water source for both ponds, presence of relatively different phytoplankton communities in these two ponds suggest that probably different nutrient sources might be responsible for differences in phytoplankton communities and eutrophication patterns in the Zámecký pond as compared to the Růžový pond.

  8. Energy benchmarks for water clusters and ice structures from an embedded many-body expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, M. J.; Alfè, D.; Bygrave, P. J.; Taylor, C. R.; Manby, F. R.

    2013-09-01

    We show how an embedded many-body expansion (EMBE) can be used to calculate accurate ab initio energies of water clusters and ice structures using wavefunction-based methods. We use the EMBE described recently by Bygrave et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 164102 (2012)], in which the terms in the expansion are obtained from calculations on monomers, dimers, etc., acted on by an approximate representation of the embedding field due to all other molecules in the system, this field being a sum of Coulomb and exchange-repulsion fields. Our strategy is to separate the total energy of the system into Hartree-Fock and correlation parts, using the EMBE only for the correlation energy, with the Hartree-Fock energy calculated using standard molecular quantum chemistry for clusters and plane-wave methods for crystals. Our tests on a range of different water clusters up to the 16-mer show that for the second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) method the EMBE truncated at 2-body level reproduces to better than 0.1 mEh/monomer the correlation energy from standard methods. The use of EMBE for computing coupled-cluster energies of clusters is also discussed. For the ice structures Ih, II, and VIII, we find that MP2 energies near the complete basis-set limit reproduce very well the experimental values of the absolute and relative binding energies, but that the use of coupled-cluster methods for many-body correlation (non-additive dispersion) is essential for a full description. Possible future applications of the EMBE approach are suggested.

  9. Radiant warmer power and body size as determinants of insensible water loss in the critically ill neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, S; Engle, W D; Fox, W W; Polin, R A

    1981-12-01

    Twelve critically ill neonates mechanically ventilated for respiratory failure (mean weight 1.33 kg, mean gestation 31 wk) were studied to quantitate the effects of radiant power from a radiant warming device, body weight, and body surface area on insensible water loss. Radiant power density (Mw/cm2) was measured using a wattmeter and thermopile transducer. Insensible water loss was measured using a Potter Baby Scale. Weight correlated inversely with insensible water loss, (r = -0.86, P less than 0.001). Radiant power density correlated inversely to weight, (r = -0.71, P less than 0.001). There was a significant increase in insensible water loss as radiant power density increased, (r = 0.54, P less than 0.05). Net radiant power received (W/kg) by infants over their exposed surface area, correlated directly to insensible water loss, (r = 0.67, P less than 0.01) irrespective of body weight. Critically ill neonates ventilated for respiratory failure and nursed under radiant warmers incurred greater insensible water losses than previously reported for well infants. The magnitude of this increased insensible water loss is inversely related to body size and is determined directly by the radiant power density required to maintain body temperature.

  10. Unintentional drowning mortality, by age and body of water: an analysis of 60 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Yih; Wang, Yi-Fong; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Kawach, Ichiro

    2015-04-01

    To examine unintentional drowning mortality by age and body of water across 60 countries, to provide a starting point for further in-depth investigations within individual countries. The latest available three years of mortality data for each country were extracted from WHO Health Statistics and Information Services (updated at 13 November 2013). We calculated mortality rate of unintentional drowning by age group for each country. For countries using International Classification of Disease 10 (ICD-10) detailed 3 or 4 Character List, we further examined the body of water involved. A huge variation in age-standardised mortality rate (deaths per 100 000 population) was noted, from 0.12 in Turkey to 9.19 in Guyana. Of the ten countries with the highest age-standardised mortality rate, six (Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia, Ukraine and Moldova) were in Eastern Europe and two (Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan) were in Central Asia. Some countries (Japan, Finland and Greece) had a relatively low rank in mortality rate among children aged 0-4 years, but had a high rank in mortality rate among older adults. On the contrary, South Africa and Colombia had a relatively high rank among children aged 0-4 years, but had a relatively low rank in mortality rate among older adults. With regard to body of water involved, the proportion involving a bathtub was extremely high in Japan (65%) followed by Canada (11%) and the USA (11%). Of the 13 634 drowning deaths involving bathtubs in Japan between 2009 and 2011, 12 038 (88%) were older adults aged 65 years or above. The percentage involving a swimming pool was high in the USA (18%), Australia (13%), and New Zealand (7%). The proportion involving natural water was high in Finland (93%), Panama (87%), and Lithuania (85%). After considering the completeness of reporting and quality of classifying drowning deaths across countries, we conclude that drowning is a high-priority public health problem in Eastern Europe, Central Asia

  11. Water bodies typology system: a Chilean case of scientific stakeholders and policy makers dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fuster

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project was to obtain a scientists-validated Typology System, which would allow to classify the surface waters bodies in Chile and, therefore, to facilitate the environmental institutional water management in the country. For this, during the years 2009 and 2011, a Typology System for the surface freshwater bodies was developed for Chile based on the methodology described by the Water Framework Directive of the European Union, which was adapted to local features through the knowledge of limnologist experts in the country, as well as policy makers' experience and their management requirements . In a first stage, national ecoregions were developed and abiotic variables were defined to compose the Typology System. The resulted Typology System for lakes and rivers was generated following an a priori and top down approach to difference biocenosis, based on geomorphologic, hydrologic and physic criteria. In a second stage, the proposed Typology System was validated by experts and policy makers, in which process new arrangements were included in the system. The working methodology used for both stages was bibliographic review, interviews to local experts in biocenosis and workshops. It is specially highlighted the participative processes and discussions in which all the agents involved were present, all of which resulted in the creation of a valid system from a scientific point of view and a product that is applicable to the necessities of the environmental institutions of the country. This work represents a successful experience in the improvement of the communication between scientists and politicians in Chile, which is a relevant factor for the elaboration of more efficient and effective environmental policies, integrating not only management and economic issues, but also more technical aspects that can influence in the final success of any long term strategy. For this reason, the replication of this kind of experiences, as well as

  12. Spatial-temporal particularities of the ecological status of surface water bodies and pollution sources from Siret river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan DĂSCĂLIȚA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecological status of surface water bodies from Siret River Basin is monitored systematically and spatial in accordance with the requirements of European Directives in the water area. Analysis temporary and spatial of qualitative and quantitative status of surface waters (rivers, lakes is achieved according to the specificities of each body of water resulting from physical and geographical conditions, climatic and hydromorphological regimes of river basin and from human activities.In order to know of those features, there are needed specific monitoring systems of water bodies. The parametersunderlying the assessment of ecological status of rivers and lakes are monitored systematically and temporary: daily, monthly, quarterly, annually, according to these characteristics. In this context, the daily variations in environmental condition, expresses the current status of surface waters. Monthly changes are correlated with climate change and characterize the seasonal variations. On annual basis are identified the mean, minimum and maximum for each parameter and the trends (increase, decrease, regularity, periodicity, changes, etc.. Based on this information, extensive to multiannual level, itcan achieve medium and long term forecasts and it might be issued the concepts and strategies for maintaining a balance and sustainable development of water resources.In this paper we have presented some issues related to the synthesis of spatial-temporal ecological status of water bodies managed by Administration of Siret Water Basin(ABAS. Results of studies on the ecological status of water bodies have been presented for the year 2009. Also, in this paper it was presented an evolution of the quantities ofpollutants from wastewater discharged in surface receptors and their purification by water users from of activity of ABAS area in 1999-2009 periods.

  13. Groundwater recharge in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam: effect of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Hayashi, Takeshi; Do, An Thuan; Canh, Vu Duc; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Funabiki, Ayako; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2017-05-01

    Over-exploited groundwater is expected to remain the predominant source of domestic water in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. In order to evaluate the effect on groundwater recharge, of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change caused by urbanization, the relevant groundwater systems and recharge pathways must be characterized in detail. To this end, water levels and water quality were monitored for 3 years regarding groundwater and adjacent surface-water bodies, at two typical suburban sites in Hanoi. Stable isotope (δ18O, δD of water) analysis and hydrochemical analysis showed that the water from both aquifers and aquitards, including the groundwater obtained from both the monitoring wells and the neighboring household tubewells, was largely derived from evaporation-affected surface-water bodies (e.g., ponds, irrigated farmlands) rather than from rivers. The water-level monitoring results suggested distinct local-scale flow systems for both a Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) and Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA). That is, in the case of the HUA, lateral recharge through the aquifer from neighboring ponds and/or irrigated farmlands appeared to be dominant, rather than recharge by vertical rainwater infiltration. In the case of the PCA, recharge by the above-lying HUA, through areas where the aquitard separating the two aquifers was relatively thin or nonexistent, was suggested. As the decrease in the local surface-water bodies will likely reduce the groundwater recharge, maintaining and enhancing this recharge (through preservation of the surface-water bodies) is considered as essential for the sustainable use of groundwater in the area.

  14. Relationship between water compartments, body composition assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis and blood pressure in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łątka, Monika; Wójtowicz, Kinga; Drożdż, Tomasz; Dąbrowska, Ewelina; Kwinta, Przemko; Pietrzyk, Jacek Antoni; Drożdż, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is becoming more widely used in clinical practice as a method of body composition analysis. In healthy children blood pressure (BP) changes with age, body mass and height. Until now the relation between water compartments and BP in healthy children has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition as well as water compartments (measured by electrical bioimpedance) and BP. The study was performed in 72 children (32 girls and 40 boys) aged: 6-7 and 12-13 years. BIA measurements were taken using Nutriguard Data Input device with Bianostic electrodes and following parameters were calculated: total body water (TBW), lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM), intra- and extracellular water (ICW, ECW) and phase angle alpha. BP was measured twice using the oscillometric method. Elevated BP > 95th percentile for gender, age and height were observed in 9 children. A significant correlation between systolic (S)BP and TBW (R = 0.4023, p obesity (BMI > 95th percentile). Growth disorders were found in 6 children (5 of them being undernourished). In the studied children SBP and DBP correlated with water compartments, lean body and fat masses derived from BIA. The problem of unrecognized hypertension and malnutrition in children and adolescents is still underestimated in the Polish population.

  15. Body water handling in response to hypertonic-saline induced diuresis in fasting northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2003-01-01

    During natural fasting conditions in postweaned northern elephant seal (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) pups, urinary water loss is minimized and percent total body water (TBW) is maintained constant. However, following infusion of hypertonic saline, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine output increased in fasting pups. Therefore, we quantified the magnitude of the hypernatremia-induced diuresis relative to the animal's total body water (TBW) pool and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed. Following a 24 h control period, naturally fasting NES pups (n=7) were infused (4 ml min(-1)) with hypertonic saline (16.7%) at a dose of 3 mmol NaCl kg(-1) body mass. Total body water was estimated prior to infusion by tritium dilution, GFR was estimated by standard creatinine clearance, and urine output (V) was measured for 24 h during the control and post infusion periods. Percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was calculated as (1-(V/GFR))x100. Twenty-four hours following the infusion, GFR (control: 69+/-12 ml min(-1) and post-infusion: 118+/-19 ml min(-1); mean+/-S.E.) increased 77+/-28% above control and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was decreased 0.4+/-0.1%. The increase in urine output (control: 218+/-47 ml d(-1) and post-infusion: 883+/-92 ml d(-1)) accounted for 1.7+/-0.2% of the pups' TBW. The hypernatremia-induced diuresis was accompanied by the loss of body water indicating the lack of water retention. Although the 77% increase in GFR was only associated with a 0.4% decrease in the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed, this decrease was significant enough to result in a 4-fold increase in urine output. Despite the observed diuresis, fasting NES pups appear to possess an efficient water recycling mechanism requiring only a small percentage of body water to excrete an excess salt load. This water recycling mechanism may allow pups to avoid negative perturbations in body water as they initiate feeding in a marine environment following the

  16. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea; Tolomio, Silvia; Berton, Linda; Sergi, Giuseppe; Zaccaria, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise protocol carried out in geothermal spring water to improve overall physical function and muscle mass in a group of healthy elderly subjects. A further aim was to compare this water-based protocol with a land-based protocol and a control group. For this purpose, 59 subjects were recruited and randomly allocated to three groups: aquatic group (AG), land group (LG), and control group (CG). AG and LG followed a 6-month, twice-weekly, multimodality exercise intervention. AG underwent the protocol in hot-spring water (36°C) while LG did it in a land-based environment. After the intervention, knee-extension strength was maintained in AG and LG. The 8-foot up-and-go test showed a reduction in both exercise groups (AG -19.3%, P decrease in AG. The back-scratch test revealed an improvement only in AG (25.8%; P decreased by 9.2% (P flexibility. Aquatic exercise appeared a better activity to improve dynamic balance. Thermal swimming pools and the use of rating of perceived exertion as a method of exercise monitoring should be considered potentially useful tools to enhance physical performance and body composition in healthy elderly.

  17. Numerical modeling of thermal regime in inland water bodies with field measurement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladskikh, D.; Sergeev, D.; Baydakov, G.; Soustova, I.; Troitskaya, Yu.

    2018-01-01

    Modification of the program complex LAKE, which is intended to compute the thermal regimes of inland water bodies, and the results of its validation in accordance with the parameters of lake part of Gorky water reservoir are reviewed in the research. The modification caused changing the procedure of input temperature profile assignment and parameterization of surface stress on air-water boundary in accordance with the consideration of wind influence on mixing process. Also the innovation consists in combined methods of gathering meteorological parameters from files of global meteorological reanalysis and data of hydrometeorological station. Temperature profiles carried out with CTD-probe during expeditions in the period 2014-2017 were used for validation of the model. The comparison between the real data and the numerical results and its assessment based on time and temperature dependences in control points, correspondence of the forms of the profiles and standard deviation for all performed realizations are provided. It is demonstrated that the model reproduces the results of field measurement data for all observed conditions and seasons. The numerical results for the regimes with strong mixing are in the best quantitative and qualitative agreement with the real profiles. The accuracy of the forecast for the ones with strong stratification near the surface is lower but all specificities of the forms are correctly reproduced.

  18. Groundwater quality across scales: impact on nutrient transport to large water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Hans; Moosdorf, Nils; Mallast, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    High concentrations of dissolved nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in groundwater are an increasing concern in many areas of the world. Especially regions with high agriculture impact see widespread declining groundwater quality, with considerable uncertainty mainly regarding the impact of phosphorus (P). Implications reach from direct impacts on different water users to discharge of nutrient-rich groundwater to rivers, lakes and coastal areas, where it can contribute to eutrophication, hypoxia or harmful algal blooms. While local-scale studies are abundant and management options exist, quantitative approaches at regional to continental scales are scarce and frequently have to deal with data inconsistencies or are temporally sparse. Here, we present the research framework to combine large databases of local groundwater quality to data sets of climatical, hydrological, geological or landuse parameters. Pooling of such information, together with robust methods such as water balances and groundwater models, can provide constraints such as upper boundaries and likely ranges of nutrient composition in various settings, or for the nutrient transport to large water bodies. Remote Sensing can provide spatial information on the location of groundwater seepage. Results will eventually help to identify focus areas and lead to improved understanding of the role of groundwater in the context of global biogeochemical cycles.

  19. Design of a decision tool for hydromorphological restoration of water bodies in Walloon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambot, Francis; de Le Court, Bernard; Petit, François; Hallot, Eric; Peeters, Alexandre; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Verniers, Gisèle; Latli, Adrien

    2010-05-01

    The pilot project WALPHY (LIFE + Environment LIFE07 ENV/B/000038, UE-funded) develops a structured approach aiming at improving hydromorphological quality of the upstream Meuse basin in order to achieve the "good ecological status" required by the Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60). It began in January 2009 for a period of 5 years. River's biological recovery needs the recovery of river's structure and physical dynamics. Returning to "good ecological status" inevitably involves physical restoration of affected rivers. Physical component of aquatic environment acts as a limiting factor for their functioning. Three types of modification are key obstacles for river good ecological status: (i) fluxes alteration (discharge, sedimentation…), (ii) forms alteration (uniform facies…) and (iii) biotopes access alteration (lateral connections breaks, modification of the continuity upstream/downstream…). Therefore hydromorphology is needed to implement the WFD. To respond to this legal necessity, we develop a unique, useful and suitable methodology in Walloon Region to determine and schedule river physical quality restoration works. This methodology has been applied on 3 "risk water bodies". The works are based on two axes : longitudinal continuity and transversal continuity. The two first selected water bodies (Bocq river, eastern tributary of the Meuse) seem to be convenient for the restoration works which concern the longitudinal continuity due to the presence of dams and other obstacles usually between 1 and 3 m high. These works consist in dam management (weir removal or fish passage) taking into account hydromorphological (bedload transport) and biological (invertebrate or fish species free movement) impacts. The third water bodies (Eau Blanche river, western tributary of the Meuse) presents straightened rivers with artificial banks, witch consequently own bad connections between the stream and its floodplain. This water bodies should therefore be appropriated

  20. Tectonics of icy satellites driven by melting and crystallization of water bodies inside their ice shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephanie Ann

    Enceladus and Europa are icy satellites that currently support bodies of liquid water in the outer solar system Additionally, they show signs of being geologically active. Developing numerical models informed by observations of these icy satellites allows for the development of additional constraints and an improved understanding of the tectonics and evolution of icy satellites. The formation mechanisms for both chaos and ridges on Europa are thought to involve water as albedo changes observed in association with them imply the deposition of salt-rich water near these features. Ridges are the most ubiquitous feature on Europa and are described as central troughs flanked by two raised edifices, range in height from tens to hundreds of meters. Europan ridges can extend hundreds of km continuously along strike but are only about 2 km across. A model of a crystallizing dike--like water intrusion is able to match the overall morphology of ridges, and is consistent the long continuous strike. However, the intrusion of a large volume of water is required to match the most common heights of the ridges. Chaos on Europa is defined as a large area of disrupted ice that contain blocks of pre-existing material separated by a hummocky matrix. A proposed mechanism for the formation of Chaos is that a region of heterogeneous ice within the shell is melted and then recrystallizes. Comparing the model results with the geology of Thera Macula, a region where it has been proposed that Chaos is currently forming, suggests that additional processes may be needed to fully understand the development of Chaos. Water-rich plumes erupt from the south pole of Enceladus, suggesting the presence of a pressurized water reservoir. If a pressurized sea is located beneath the south polar terrain, its geometry and size in the ice shell would contribute to the stress state in the ice shell. The geometry and location of such an ocean, as well as the boundary conditions and thickness of an ice shell

  1. Chronic administration of the antiretroviral nevirapine increases body weight, food, and water intake in albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoren, Elizabeth Bassey; Obembe, Agona Odeh; Osim, Eme Effiom

    2012-01-01

    Nevirapine (NVP) is an antiretroviral medication that prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cells from multiplying in the blood. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of chronic administration of NVP on body weight, food, and water intake using apparently healthy albino Wistar rats. Twenty adult albino Wistar rats (50-125 g body weight) were used for the study. Rats in the control group (n=10) were fed normal rodent chow, whereas the NVP group (n=10) were fed by gavage NVP (0.4 mg/kg body weight) two times daily (07.00 h and 18.00 h) in addition to normal rodent chow for 12 weeks. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water. Results showed that the mean daily food and water intake in the NVP group were significantly higher (pbody weight in the NVP group was significantly higher (pbody weight in rats, probably due to its stimulatory effects on food and water intake.

  2. Identifying factors linked to the occurrence of alien gastropods in isolated woodland water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyra, Aneta; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    Biological invasions are a significant component of human-caused global change and is widely regarded as one of the main threats to natural biodiversity. Isolated anthropogenic water bodies created in the areas that are deprived of natural freshwater habitats allow the survival and reproduction of alien species on newly settled sites. They are often small with water level fluctuations causing frequent environmental disturbances. The colonisation success may be the result of the rate of their degradation. The aims of the study were to determine the environmental conditions that affect the existence of alien species of gastropods in this type of aquatic environment and to examine whether the occurrence of non-native species affects the community structure of the native species. This study made it possible to group woodland ponds according to the occurrence of the three invasive species in snail communities and discuss the environmental conditions present in these pond types. Analysis of water properties emphasised the distinctiveness of the selected pond types. In ponds of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum type, we found the highest values of some parameters mainly hardness, conductivity, and content of calcium and chlorides, in contrast with the Physella acuta type, which were characterised by the lowest values except for phosphates and nitrites. In the Ferrissia fragilis type, we found the highest nitrate content. Data on the occurrence of alien species in different water environments play an important role in actions which are taken to prevent new invasions and spread of non-native species as well as to reduce future impacts of invaders.

  3. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergamin M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Marco Bergamin,1 Andrea Ermolao,1 Silvia Tolomio,1 Linda Berton,2 Giuseppe Sergi,2 Marco Zaccaria1 1Sports Medicine Division, 2Geriatrics Division, University of Padova, Padua, Italy Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise protocol carried out in geothermal spring water to improve overall physical function and muscle mass in a group of healthy elderly subjects. A further aim was to compare this water-based protocol with a land-based protocol and a control group. For this purpose, 59 subjects were recruited and randomly allocated to three groups: aquatic group (AG, land group (LG, and control group (CG. AG and LG followed a 6-month, twice-weekly, multimodality exercise intervention. AG underwent the protocol in hot-spring water (36°C while LG did it in a land-based environment. After the intervention, knee-extension strength was maintained in AG and LG. The 8-foot up-and-go test showed a reduction in both exercise groups (AG −19.3%, P < 0.05; LG −12.6%, P < 0.05, with a significantly greater decrease in AG. The back-scratch test revealed an improvement only in AG (25.8%; P < 0.05, while the sit-and-reach test improved in all groups. Finally, AG reduced fat mass by 4% (P < 0.05, and dominant forearm fat decreased by 9.2% (P < 0.05. In addition, calf muscle density increased by 1.8% (P < 0.05. In summary, both water- and land-based activities were beneficial in maintaining strength and in improving lower-body flexibility. Aquatic exercise appeared a better activity to improve dynamic balance. Thermal swimming pools and the use of rating of perceived exertion as a method of exercise monitoring should be considered potentially useful tools to enhance physical performance and body composition in healthy elderly. Keywords: aging, multimodality exercise, performance, muscle mass

  4. Hybrid Wing Body Model Identification Using Forced-Oscillation Water Tunnel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Kramer, Brian; Kerho, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Static and dynamic testing of the NASA 0.7 percent scale Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration was conducted in the Rolling Hills Research Corporation water tunnel to investigate aerodynamic behavior over a large range of angle-of-attack and to develop models that can predict aircraft response in nonlinear unsteady flight regimes. This paper reports primarily on the longitudinal axis results. Flow visualization tests were also performed. These tests provide additional static data and new dynamic data that complement tests conducted at NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. HWB was developed to support the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project goals of lower noise, emissions, and fuel burn. This study also supports the NASA Aviation Safety Program efforts to model and control advanced transport configurations in loss-of-control conditions.

  5. Effects of 17β-estradiol on emissions of greenhouse gases in simulative natural water body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Aidong; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Chenxiao; Zong, Fengjiao; Yu, Zhongbo

    2015-05-01

    Environmental estrogens are widely spread across the world and are increasingly thought of as serious contaminators. The present study looks at the influence of different concentrations of 17β-estradiol on greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O) in simulated systems to explore the relationship between environmental estrogen-pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in natural water bodies. The present study finds that 17β-estradiol pollution in simulated systems has significant promoting effects on the emissions of CH4 and CO2 , although no significant effects on N2 O emissions. The present study indicates that 17β-estradiol has different effects on the different elements cycles; the mechanism of microbial ecology is under review. © 2015 SETAC.

  6. Africa-Wide Monitoring of Small Surface Water Bodies Using Multisource Satellite Data: A Monitoring System for FEWS NET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, N. M.; Senay, G. B.; Rowland, J.; Budde, M. E.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Continental Africa has the largest volume of water stored in wetlands, large lakes, reservoirs and rivers, yet it suffers with problems such as water availability and access. Furthermore, African countries are amongst the most vulnerable to the impact of natural hazards such as droughts and floods. With climate change intensifying the hydrologic cycle and altering the distribution and frequency of rainfall, the problem of water availability and access is bound to increase. The U.S Geological Survey Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, has initiated a large-scale project to monitor small to medium surface water bodies in Africa. Under this project, multi-source satellite data and hydrologic modeling techniques are integrated to monitor these water bodies in Africa. First, small water bodies are mapped using satellite data such as Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Landsat, and high resolution Google Earth imagery. Stream networks and watersheds for each water body are identified using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data. Finally, a hydrologic modeling approach that uses satellite-derived precipitation estimates and evapotranspiration data calculated from global data assimilation system climate parameters is applied to model water levels. This approach has been implemented to monitor nearly 300 small water bodies located in 10 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Validation of modeled scaled depths with field-installed gauge data in East Africa demonstrated the ability of the model to capture both the spatial patterns and seasonal variations. Modeled scaled estimates captured up to 60% of the observed gauge variability with an average RMSE of 22%. Current and historic data (since 2001) on relative water level, precipitation, and evapotranspiration for each water body is made available in near real time. The water point monitoring network

  7. Free Energy Landscapes of Alanine Oligopeptides in Rigid-Body and Hybrid Water Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Divya; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2015-08-27

    Replica exchange molecular dynamics is used to study the effect of different rigid-body (mTIP3P, TIP4P, SPC/E) and hybrid (H1.56, H3.00) water models on the conformational free energy landscape of the alanine oligopeptides (acAnme and acA5nme), in conjunction with the CHARMM22 force field. The free energy landscape is mapped out as a function of the Ramachandran angles. In addition, various secondary structure metrics, solvation shell properties, and the number of peptide-solvent hydrogen bonds are monitored. Alanine dipeptide is found to have similar free energy landscapes in different solvent models, an insensitivity which may be due to the absence of possibilities for forming i-(i + 4) or i-(i + 3) intrapeptide hydrogen bonds. The pentapeptide, acA5nme, where there are three intrapeptide backbone hydrogen bonds, shows a conformational free energy landscape with a much greater degree of sensitivity to the choice of solvent model, though the three rigid-body water models differ only quantitatively. The pentapeptide prefers nonhelical, non-native PPII and β-sheet populations as the solvent is changed from SPC/E to the less tetrahedral liquid (H1.56) to an LJ-like liquid (H3.00). The pentapeptide conformational order metrics indicate a preference for open, solvent-exposed, non-native structures in hybrid solvent models at all temperatures of study. The possible correlations between the properties of solvent models and secondary structure preferences of alanine oligopeptides are discussed, and the competition between intrapeptide, peptide-solvent, and solvent-solvent hydrogen bonding is shown to be crucial in the relative free energies of different conformers.

  8. Estimation of total body water and extracellular water with bioimpedance in athletes: A need for athlete-specific prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Júdice, Pedro B; Magalhães, João P; Minderico, Cláudia S; Fields, David A; Lukaski, Henry C; Sardinha, Luís B; Silva, Analiza M

    2016-04-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations can predict total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) in non-athletic healthy populations. This study aimed: a) to develop BIA-based models for TBW and ECW prediction based on dilution methods in a sample of national level athletes; and b) to validate the new models with a cross-validation approach in a separate cohort using dilution methods as criterion. Two hundred and eight highly trained athletes (21.3 ± 5.0 years) were evaluated during their respective competitive seasons. Athletes were randomly split into development (n = 139) and validation groups (n = 69). The criterion method for TBW was deuterium dilution and for ECW was bromide dilution, where ICW was the respective difference between both. Resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) were obtained with a phase-sensitive 50 kHz BIA device and used for the estimation of TBW and ECW. Athletic BIA-based models were developed for TBW and ECW [TBW = 0.286 + 0.195*S(2)/R + 0.385*Wt + 5.086*Sex; ECW = 1.579 + 0.055*S(2)/R + 0.127*Wt + 0.006*S(2)/Xc + 0.932*Sex, where sex is 0 if female or 1 if male, Wt is weight (kg), S is stature (cm), and R and Xc are in ohm (Ω)]. Cross validation revealed R(2) of 0.91 for TBW and R(2) 0.70 for ECW and no mean bias. The new equations can be considered valid, with no observed bias, thus affording practical means to quantify TBW and ECW in national level athletes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Modeling the time-varying interaction between surface water and groundwater bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliege, Steffen; Steidl, Jörg; Lischeid, Gunnar; Merz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The countless kettle holes (small lakes) in the Late Pleistocene landscapes of Northern Europe have important ecological and hydrological functions. On the one hand they act as depressions in which water and solutes of mainly agriculturally used catchments accumulate. On the other hand they operate as biochemical reactors with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, carbon sequestration, and as major sinks for nutrients and contaminants. Even small kettle holes often are hydraulically connected to the uppermost groundwater system: Groundwater discharges into the kettle hole on one side, and the aquifer is recharged from the kettle hole water body on the other side. Thus kettle hole biogeochemical processes are both affected by groundwater and vice versa. Groundwater flow direction and velocity into and out of the kettle hole often is not stable over time. Groundwater flow direction might reverse at the downstream part, resulting in repeated recycling of groundwater and corresponding solute turnover within the kettle holes. A sound understanding of this intricate interplay is a necessary prerequisite for better understanding of the biogeochemistry of this terrestrial-aquatic interface. A numerical experiment was used to quantify the lateral solute exchange between a kettle hole and the surrounding groundwater. A vertical cross section through the real existing catchment of a kettle hole was chosen. Glacial till represents the lower boundary. The heterogeneity of the subsurface was reproduced by various parameterizations of the soil hydraulic properties as well as varying the thickness of the unconfined aquifer or the lateral boundary conditions. In total 24 different parameterizations were implemented in the modeling software HydroGeoSphere (HGS). HGS is suitable to calculate the fluid exchange between surface and subsurface simultaneously and in a physically based way. The simulation runs were done for the period from November 1994 to October 2014. All results were

  10. Total body water estimations in healthy men and women using bioimpedance spectroscopy: a deuterium oxide comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemben Michael G

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total body water (TBW estimations have been used to estimate body composition, particularly fat-free mass, to aid in nutritional interventions, and to monitor hydration status. In the past, bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS devices have been used to estimate TBW. Previous investigations have examined the validity of the XiTRON 4000B (XiTRON Technologies BIS device for estimating TBW. Recently, a new BIS device (Imp™ SFB7 has become available, claiming greater precision when estimating TBW. The Imp™ SFB7 (SFB7 is based on similar BIS principles, while offering increased portability and a greater range of frequencies when compared to older devices, such as the XiTRON 4000B (4000B. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the SFB7 for estimating total body water in healthy college-age men and women compared to the 4000B and deuterium oxide (D2O. Methods Twenty-eight Caucasian men and women (14 men, 14 women; 24 ± 4 yrs; 174.6 ± 8.7 cm; 72.80 ± 17.58 kg had their TBW estimated by the SFB7, the 4000B, and D2O. Results Both BIS devices produced similar standard error of estimate (SEE and r values (SFB7, SEE = 2.12L, r = 0.98; 4000B, SEE = 2.99L, r = 0.96 when compared to D2O, though a significant constant error (CE was detected for the 4000B (2.26L, p ≤ 0.025. The 4000B produced a larger total error (TE and CE (TE = 3.81L, CE = 2.26L when compared to the SFB7 (TE = 2.21L, CE = -0.09L. Additionally, the limits of agreement were larger for the 4000B (-3.88 to 8.39L than the SFB7 (-4.50 to 4.31L. These results were consistent when sex was analyzed separately, though women produced lower SEE and TE values for both devices. Conclusion The 4000B and SFB7 are valid BIS devices when compared to D2O to estimate TBW in college-age Caucasian men and women. Furthermore, the new SFB7 device displayed greater precision in comparison to the 4000B, which may decrease the error when estimating TBW on an individual basis.

  11. Effects of a water aerobics program on the body composition of active middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Manzano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe and analyze changes in body composition of middle-aged women after participating in a water aerobics physical activity program and a subsequent detraining period. Materials and Methods: The group analyzed consisted of 17 women from Arroyo de San Serván (Badajoz, who were physically active (had participated in fitness gymnastics programs one to three sessions per week for the past three months, with an average age of 53.6 ± 9.1 years. The program was comprised of sixty minute-sessions five days a week, for 6 weeks, with a 4-week detraining period. Three anthropometric evaluations were conducted: at the beginning and at the end of the program and after the detraining period. Size and weight were recorded during each measurement, including six skinfolds, four body circumferences and three bone diameters. Fat percentage was obtained from four skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and abdominal using the Yuhasz formula modified by Faulkner (1968. The muscle percentage was calculated from total mass percentage less bone percentage (Rocha, 1975, body fat percentage (Faulkner, 1968 and the residual percentage using the Wurch ́s equation (Esparza, 1993 of subjects measured, based on Matiegka ́s basic proposal (four components model. Results: after the program a significant increase was observed in muscle percentage: 32.69 ± 2.69% vs. 33.44 ± 2.89% (p <0.05, in muscle weight: 23.45 ± 3.53 kg vs. 24.02 ± 3.33 kg (p <0.05, as well as a significant decrease in the fat component reflected in the sum of skinfolds: 193.66 ± 25.54 mm vs. 188.38 ± 25.67 mm (p <0.05 and more specifically in the suprailiac skinfold, 30.47 ± 8.49 mm. vs 28.00 ± 8.78 mm (p <0.05. These trends were maintained during the detraining period, specifically in muscle percentage: 33.44 ± 2.89% vs. 34.25 ± 3.04% (p <0.01 compared to initial measurement, muscle weight: 24.02 ± 3.33 kg vs 24.74 ± 3.64 kg (p <0.01 compared to initial measurement, the sum

  12. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  13. Sugar cane vinasse in water bodies: impact assessed by liver histopathology in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Júlia Fernanda Urbano; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marcato, Ana Claudia de Castro; Pedro-Escher, Janaína; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are the main receptors of toxic substances from human activities. With the increase in sugar cane production, vinasse - the main residue of ethanol production - is a potential contaminant of water resources, due to its high organic matter content. This study was aimed at evaluating the toxicity of vinasse by examining the liver of the fish Oreochromis niloticus exposed to different dilutions of sugar cane vinasse (1%, 2%, 5%, 5% and 10%) in laboratory bioassays. Portions of liver were collected and fixed for histological and histochemical techniques to detect total proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. In the histological analysis, the groups treated with vinasse exhibited significant alterations, such as loss of cytoplasmic integrity, loss of cell limit and tissue disorganization. Protein and lipid profiles were not altered. Higher accumulation of polysaccharides was detected in fish exposed to lower concentrations of vinasse, with a gradual decrease in animals treated with vinasse in higher concentrations. We concluded that vinasse has a dose-dependent toxic and cytotoxic potential in water bodies and that the liver is strongly affected when acutely exposed to this contaminant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. USING LANDSAT IMAGES IN MAPPING AND MONITORING WATER BODIES IN MĂGURA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEREUȚĂ M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The work is part of a wider range of interdisciplinary studies undertaken in Măgura catchment, a right-side tributary of Bahlui River. The Măgura River flows from the massif Great Hill-Hârlău. Before the year 2000 there were 11 lakes, and today are only 4. The purpose of this project is to determine the accuracy of the simple techniques in digital image processing for mapping and monitoring lakes and wetlands. Landsat 7 ETM + and Landsat 8 OLI TIRS data sets are used. The paper highlights the bands’ thematic classification accuracy using minimum technical and digital (software resources. The water bodies’ delineated boundaries of each digital classification procedure were compared with the limits obtained by digitizing the topographical plans (1973 and aerial images (2008. The comparisons show that the Landsat data can be used to map accurately the water bodies. It is a simple method of determining the silting degree, especially for lakes with an area of at least 1 ha. Măgura basin has a high archaeological potential (prehistory up to the modern period, part of the national and international cultural heritage. Creating a GIS database, in order to analyze the human-environment relationship, began by studying the hydrological variables. This factor has an important role in the society’s development, both prehistoric and current.

  15. Development and Implementation of Flood Risk Mapping, Water Bodies Monitoring and Climate Information for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, P.; McDonald, K. C.; Jensen, K.; Podest, E.; De La Torre Juarez, M.

    2013-12-01

    Public health professionals are increasingly concerned about the potential impact that climate variability and change can have on infectious disease. The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), City College of New York (CCNY) and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are developing new products to increase the public health community's capacity to understand, use, and demand the appropriate climate data and climate information to mitigate the public health impacts of climate on vector-borne diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, rift valley fever. In this poster we present the new and improved products that have been developed for monitoring water bodies for monitoring and forecasting risks of vector-borne disease epidemics. The products include seasonal inundation patterns in the East African region based on the global mappings of inundated water fraction derived at the 25-km scale from both active and passive microwave instruments QuikSCAT, AMSR-E, SSM/I, ERS, ASCAT, and MODIS and LANDSAT data. We also present how the products are integrated into a knowledge system (IRI Data Library Map room, SERVIR) to support the use of climate and environmental information in climate-sensitive health decision-making.

  16. Using hedonic property models to value public water bodies: An analysis of specification issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Nicholas Z.

    2009-01-01

    The hedonic literature has established that public water bodies provide external benefits that are reflected in the value of nearby residential real estate. The literature has employed several approaches to quantify these nonmarket services. With a residential hedonic model, this paper tests whether model specification affects resource valuation using an actively managed reservoir in Indiana and a passively managed lake in Connecticut. The results indicate that valuation is quite sensitive to model specification and that omitting either the waterview or waterfront variables from the hedonic function likely results in a misspecified model. The findings from this study are important for researchers and public agencies charged with managing water resources to bear in mind as the external benefits from existing or proposed man-made lakes and reservoirs are estimated. Therefore, while it requires considerably more effort to determine which properties are in waterfront locations and which properties have a view, the potential mispecification of "distance-only" models likely justifies these extra research costs. Further, the findings in this analysis call into question results from distance-only models in the literature.

  17. Down the Tubes: Vetting the Apparent Water-rich Parent Body being Accreted by the White Dwarf GD 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Carl

    2015-10-01

    How water is distributed in a planetary system critically affects the formation, evolution, and habitability of its constituent rocky bodies. White dwarf stars provide a unique method to probe the prevalence of water-rich rocky bodies outside of our Solar system and where they preferentially reside in a planetary system. However, as evidenced by the case of GD 362, some parent bodies that at first glance might appear to be water-rich can actually be quite water-scarce. At this time there are only a small number of plausibly water-rich rocky bodies that are being actively accreted by their host white dwarf star. Given such a sample size it is crucial to characterize each one in sufficient detail to remove interlopers like GD 362 that might otherwise affect future statistical analyses. In this proposal we seek to vet GD 16, a water-rich candidate yet to be observed with HST-COS that is the brightest remaining such target in the UV.

  18. Body Water Distribution and Risk of Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in a Healthy Population: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Leigh Cordwin; Sæbye, Ditte; Holst, Claus; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2014-01-01

    Background Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent. Objective This study examined the association between the proportion of total body water that is extracellular water and subsequent development of non-fatal or fatal cardiovascular disease in a healthy population. Method Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is an easy-to-use, non-invasive and relatively inexpensive technique to evaluate changes in body water distribution. A random subset (n = 2120) of Danes aged 41-71 years, examined in 1993–1994 for body water distribution by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy was included. Cox-proportional hazard models and linear splines were performed. The ratio between resistance estimates from an infinite-frequency and from no-frequency (R∞/R0) was used as a surrogate measure of ratio between extracellular water and total body water. The outcome was 13.5 years of follow-up for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Results A high proportion of total body water that is extracellular water was associated with increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease. A threshold effect was evident, with greatly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality above R∞/R0 = 0.68. Below the threshold there seemed to be no additional benefit of having a low ratio. Conclusion Our findings suggest that non-clinically evident oedema, measured as an increased proportion of total body water that is extracellular, above a threshold of 0.68, may be an early marker of pre-clinical cardiovascular disease. This simple, safe, cheap and easily obtainable measure of R∞/R0 from bioelectrical impedance may help the early identification of these otherwise clinically healthy individuals who are at an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease. However

  19. Urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate spaces and their relationship to total body water during chronic hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, F.; Odar-Cederloef, I.E.; Eriksson, C.G.; Lindgren, S.; Kjellstrand, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors determined total body water (TBW) with tritium in 11 patients on chronic hemodialysis and compared this space to that estimated by 60% of body weight, and removal spaces of urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate (PO 4 ). The latter spaces were determined by dividing the total amount of substance (measured in total dialysate) by pre- minus post-dialysis concentrations. Body water X 0.6 was more than 10% less than the tritium space, and showed a maximal variation of 10 liters, or 24%. The removal space of urea was 80% of the tritium space, but correlated closely with it. The difference between total body water and urea removal space was variable and dependent on fluid excess (edema) in the patients. Creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate removal spaces were highly variable and not correlated to total body water. The authors suggest that actual measured TBW should be used, rather than estimations using BW X 0.6, for V in K X T/V, where K = clearance, T = duration of dialysis, and V = the removal space of urea. Furthermore, one may need to introduce a correction factor for urea removal space over TBW in the equation to allow better quantification of dialysis in edematous patients and during very fast dialyses

  20. Effects of voluntarily-ingested buprenorphine on plasma corticosterone levels, body weight, water intake, and behaviour in permanently catheterised rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldkuhl, Renée; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas

    2010-01-01

    were drawn up to 18 h after surgery and the plasma concentrations of corticosterone were quantified. Postoperative changes in water intake and body weight were recorded, and the behaviour of the rats was analysed during two 30-min periods. Pre-emptive oral buprenorphine treatment reduced the plasma...... corticosterone levels in the postoperative period, compared to controls treated with local anaesthetics. Buprenorphine-treated rats consumed more water and maintained body weight better. Behavioural observations indicated that buprenorphine changed the behaviour in non-operated rats but there was no difference...

  1. Development of Anthropometry-Based Equations for the Estimation of the Total Body Water in Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoung Woo; Kim, Gyeong A; Lim, Hee Jung; Lee, Sun Young; Park, Geun Ho; Song, Joon Ho

    2005-01-01

    For developing race-specific anthropometry-based total body water (TBW) equations, we measured TBW using bioelectrical impedance analysis (TBWBIA) in 2,943 healthy Korean adults. Among them, 2,223 were used as a reference group. Two equations (TBWK1 and TBWK2) were developed based on age, sex, height, and body weight. The adjusted R2 was 0.908 for TBWK1 and 0.910 for TBWK2. The remaining 720 subjects were used for the validation of our results. Watson (TBWW) and Hume-Weyers (TBWH) formulas were also used. In men, TBWBIA showed the highest correlation with TBWH, followed by TBWK1, TBWK2 and TBWW. TBWK1 and TBWK2 showed the lower root mean square errors (RMSE) and mean prediction errors (ME) than TBWW and TBWH. On the Bland-Altman plot, the correlations between the differences and means were smaller for TBWK2 than for TBWK1. On the contrary, TBWBIA showed the highest correlation with TBWW, followed by TBWK2, TBWK1, and TBWH in females. RMSE was smallest in TBWW, followed by TBWK2, TBWK1 and TBWH. ME was closest to zero for TBWK2, followed by TBWK1, TBWW and TBWH. The correlation coefficients between the means and differences were highest in TBWW, and lowest in TBWK2. In conclusion, TBWK2 provides better accuracy with a smaller bias than the TBWW or TBWH in males. TBWK2 shows a similar accuracy, but with a smaller bias than TBWW in females. PMID:15953867

  2. Automated Recognition of Vegetation and Water Bodies on the Territory of Megacities in Satellite Images of Visible and IR Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozgovoy, Dmitry k.; Hnatushenko, Volodymyr V.; Vasyliev, Volodymyr V.

    2018-04-01

    Vegetation and water bodies are a fundamental element of urban ecosystems, and water mapping is critical for urban and landscape planning and management. A methodology of automated recognition of vegetation and water bodies on the territory of megacities in satellite images of sub-meter spatial resolution of the visible and IR bands is proposed. By processing multispectral images from the satellite SuperView-1A, vector layers of recognized plant and water objects were obtained. Analysis of the results of image processing showed a sufficiently high accuracy of the delineation of the boundaries of recognized objects and a good separation of classes. The developed methodology provides a significant increase of the efficiency and reliability of updating maps of large cities while reducing financial costs. Due to the high degree of automation, the proposed methodology can be implemented in the form of a geo-information web service functioning in the interests of a wide range of public services and commercial institutions.

  3. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate total body water in young children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kristie L; Boyd, Roslyn N; Walker, Jacqueline L; Stevenson, Richard D; Davies, Peter S W

    2013-08-01

    Body composition assessment is an essential component of nutritional evaluation in children with cerebral palsy. This study aimed to validate bioelectrical impedance to estimate total body water in young children with cerebral palsy and determine best electrode placement in unilateral impairment. 55 young children with cerebral palsy across all functional ability levels were included. Height/length was measured or estimated from knee height. Total body water was estimated using a Bodystat 1500MDD and three equations, and measured using the gold standard, deuterium dilution technique. Comparisons were made using Bland Altman analysis. For children with bilateral impairment, the Fjeld equation estimated total body water with the least bias (limits of agreement): 0.0 L (-1.4 L to 1.5 L); the Pencharz equation produced the greatest: 2.7 L (0.6 L-4.8 L). For children with unilateral impairment, differences between measured and estimated total body water were lowest on the unimpaired side using the Fjeld equation 0.1 L (-1.5 L to 1.6 L)) and greatest for the Pencharz equation. The ability of bioelectrical impedance to estimate total body water depends on the equation chosen. The Fjeld equation was the most accurate for the group, however, individual results varied by up to 18%. A population specific equation was developed and may enhance the accuracy of estimates. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) number: ACTRN12611000616976. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment for reuse in water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Han; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Dao, Guo-Hua; Xu, Xue-Qiao; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Hu, Hong -Ying

    2017-04-01

    Reuse of secondary municipal effluent from wastewater treatment plants in water bodies could effectively alleviate freshwater resource shortage. However, excessive nutrients must be efficiently removed to prevent eutrophication. Compared with other means of advanced wastewater treatment, microalgae-based processes display overwhelming advantages including efficient and simultaneous N and P removal, no requirement of additional chemicals, O 2 generation, CO 2 mitigation, and potential value-added products from harvested biomass. One particular challenge of microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment compared to treatment of other types of wastewater is that concentrations of nutrients and N:P ratios in secondary municipal effluent are much lower and imbalanced. Therefore, there should be comprehensive considerations on nutrient removal from this specific type of effluent. Removal of nutrients and organic substances, and other environmental benefits of microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment systems were summarized. Among the existing studies on microalgal advanced nutrient removal, much information on major parameters is absent, rendering performances between studies not really comparable. Mechanisms of microalgae-based nitrogen and phosphorus removal were respectively analyzed to better understand advanced nutrient removal from municipal secondary effluent. Factors influencing microalgae-based nutrient removal were divided into intrinsic, environmental, and operational categories; several factors were identified in each category, and their influences on microalgal nutrient removal were discussed. A multiplicative kinetic model was integrated to estimate microalgal growth-related nutrient removal based majorly on environmental and intrinsic factors. Limitations and prospects of future full-scale microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment were also suggested. The manuscript could offer much valuable information for future

  5. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available to explore desalination for future capacity. Water is essential to life: the human body is about 75 percent water, with up to 85 percent of brain cells liquid. Around 71 percent of the planet is covered in water, but 97,5 percent of it is salt water... risen to 90 percent, leaving only 10 percent for animals and plants. Yet 40 percent of the water used globally is for sanitation and other uses in buildings. The operation of buildings places a strain on raw water reserves, while wastewater and sewage...

  6. THERMAL CONDUCTANCE IN AQUATIC BIRDS IN RELATION TO THE DEGREE OF WATER CONTACT, BODY-MASS, AND BODY-FAT - ENERGETIC IMPLICATIONS OF LIVING IN A STRONG COOLING ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, J; VANEERDEN, MR

    1995-01-01

    Thermal conductance of carcasses of 14 aquatic bird species was determined by the warming constant technique. The effect on thermal conductance of body mass, age sex, fat deposits, and the degree of contact with water were studied. Only body mass and the degree of submergence in water had an effect.

  7. Carnivory during Ontogeny of the Plagioscion squamosissimus: A Successful Non-Native Fish in a Lentic Environment of the Upper Paraná River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Mayara Pereira; Delariva, Rosilene Luciana; Guimarães, Ana Tereza Bittencourt; Sanches, Paulo Vanderlei

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated feeding patterns and ontogenetic variations in a non-native fish species (Plagioscion squamosissimus) in an isolated lake in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Quarterly samplings were performed from April 2005 to February 2006 using plankton nets to capture larvae, seining nets for juveniles, and gill nets and trammel for adults. Stomach contents (n = 378) were examined according to the volumetric method in which the volume of each food item was estimated using graduated test tubes or a glass counting plate. During early development (larval stage), P. squamosissimus consumed mainly Cladocera and Copepoda. Juveniles showed a more diverse diet, including shrimp (Macrobrachium amazonicum), fish, aquatic insects (Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Chironomidae and pupae of Diptera) and plants. It was notable the high proportion of cannibalism (23.3%) in this stage. Adults consumed predominantly shrimp and fish. The use of food resources varied significantly between development stages (ANOSIM; r = 0.458; pamazonicum and Chironomidae were responsible for the differences between juvenile and larval stages, while M. amazonicum and other fishes caused the differences between adults and other ontogenetic stages. These results are confirmed by the relationship between standard length and developmental periods (ANCOVA; r2 = 0.94; pamazonicum by adults have important roles in feeding patterns of the species, suggesting a major contribution to its success and establishment, especially in lentic environments.

  8. Determination of chlorophyll content of small water bodies (kettle holes) using hyperspectral airborne data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igamberdiev, Rahmatulla M.; Grenzdoerffer, Goerres; Bill, Ralf; Schubert, Hendrik; Bachmann, Martin; Lennartz, Bernd

    2011-12-01

    This study presents an approach for chlorophyll content determination of small shallow water bodies (kettle holes) from hyperspectral airborne ROSIS and HyMap data (acquired on 15 May and 29 July 2008 respectively). Investigated field and airborne spectra for almost all kettle holes do not correspond to each other due to differences in ground sampling distance. Field spectra were collected from the height of 30-35 cm (i.e. area of 0.01-0.015 m 2). Airborne pixels of ROSIS and HyMap imageries cover an area of 4 m 2 and 16 m 2 respectively and their spectra are highly influenced by algae or bottom properties of the kettle holes. Analysis of airborne spectra revealed that chlorophyll absorption near 677 nm is the same for both datasets. In order to enhance absorption properties, both airborne hyperspectral datasets were normalized by the continuum removal approach. Linear regression algorithms for ROSIS and HyMap datasets were derived using normalized average chlorophyll absorption spectra for each kettle hole. Overall accuracy of biomass mapping for ROSIS data was 71%, and for HyMap 64%. Biomass mapping results showed that, depending on the type of kettle hole, algae distribution, the 'packaging effect' and bottom reflection lead to miscalculations of the chlorophyll content using hyperspectral airborne data.

  9. CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE AVIFAUNA IN MARIA LIZAMBA AND ASSOCIATED BODIES OF WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Fuentes-Moreno

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The state of Veracruz, Mexico has many water bodies which are used by both men and birds. This study surveyed the avifauna of the lagoons Maria Lizamba, la Piedra, and small sections of the rivers Camaron and Estanzuela in Tierra Blanca, Veracruz. During February 2010 visual surveys of these aquatic habitats were conducted by walking and motorboat, including vegetated areas and surrounding villages. Species were identified by comparing to field guides both visually using binoculars and identification of songs and calls. Forty nine species were documented and comprised 25 families. The most diverse families were the Ardeidae with 7 and Icteridae 6 species respectively. Sixteen families were represented by only a single species. We found 14 species of migratory birds and we found three species (Cathartes burrovianus, Psarocolius montezuma and Campylorhynchus rufinucha rufinucha considered to be at risk status according to the Mexican list of endangered and threatened species (NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010. The avifauna was similar to that of the Alvarado Lagoon System, with between 17 % and 22 % of the species recently recorded there. The areas surrounding Maria Lizamba are used by numerous species of birds, however many species were aquatic and wintering migratory birds.

  10. Comparison of total body water estimates from O-18 and bioelectrical response prediction equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Inners, L. Daniel; Stricklin, Marcella D.; Klein, Peter D.; Wong, William W.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1993-01-01

    Identification of an indirect, rapid means to measure total body water (TBW) during space flight may aid in quantifying hydration status and assist in countermeasure development. Bioelectrical response testing and hydrostatic weighing were performed on 27 subjects who ingested O-18, a naturally occurring isotope of oxygen, to measure true TBW. TBW estimates from three bioelectrical response prediction equations and fat-free mass (FFM) were compared to TBW measured from O-18. A repeated measures MANOVA with post-hoc Dunnett's Test indicated a significant (p less than 0.05) difference between TBW estimates from two of the three bioelectrical response prediction equations and O-18. TBW estimates from FFM and the Kushner & Schoeller (1986) equation yielded results that were similar to those given by O-18. Strong correlations existed between each prediction method and O-18; however, standard errors, identified through regression analyses, were higher for the bioelectrical response prediction equations compared to those derived from FFM. These findings suggest (1) the Kushner & Schoeller (1986) equation may provide a valid measure of TBW, (2) other TBW prediction equations need to be identified that have variability similar to that of FFM, and (3) bioelectrical estimates of TBW may prove valuable in quantifying hydration status during space flight.

  11. Substituting sugar-sweetened beverages with water or milk is inversely associated with body fatness development from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Olsen, Nanna Julie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between different types of beverage intake and substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by water, milk, or 100% fruit juice in relation to 6-y change in body fatness. METHODS: A cohort of 9-y-old children (N = 358) who partic...

  12. Chryse Planitia region, Mars: Channeling history, flood-volume estimates, and scenarios for bodies of water in the northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotto, Susan L.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1992-01-01

    The Chryse Planitia region of Mars includes several outflow channels that debouched into a single basin. Here we evaluate possible volumes and areal extents of standing bodies of water that collected in the northern lowland plains, based on evidence provided by topography, fluvial relations, and channel chronology and geomorphology.

  13. Water aerobics II: maternal body composition and perinatal outcomes after a program for low risk pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Ana L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of water aerobics during pregnancy. Methods A randomized controlled trial carried out in 71 low-risk sedentary pregnant women, randomly allocated to water aerobics or no physical exercise. Maternal body composition and perinatal outcomes were evaluated. For statistical analysis Chi-square, Fisher's or Student's t-tests were applied. Risk ratios and their 95% CI were estimated for main outcomes. Body composition was evaluated across time using MANOVA or Friedman multiple analysis. Results There were no significant differences between the groups regarding maternal weight gain, BMI or percentage of body fat during pregnancy. Incidence of preterm births (RR = 0.84; 95%CI:0.28–2.53, vaginal births (RR = 1.24; 95%CI:0.73–2.09, low birthweight (RR = 1.30; 95%CI:0.61–2.79 and adequate weight for gestational age (RR = 1.50; 95%CI:0.65–3.48 were also not significantly different between groups. There were no significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate between before and immediately after the water aerobics session. Conclusion Water aerobics for sedentary pregnant women proved to be safe and was not associated with any alteration in maternal body composition, type of delivery, preterm birth rate, neonatal well-being or weight.

  14. On the origin of spurious errors in many-body expansion for water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many-body expansion (MBE) has been carried out to investigate two- to five-body energy terms and their contributions to the interaction energy (IE) of (H₂O)₁₅ cluster. We have observed that the erroneous contribution of many-body terms on IE originated from cheaper convergence thresholds set as default in popular ...

  15. Tribocorrosion in pressurized high temperature water: a mass flow model based on the third body approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guadalupe Maldonado, S.

    2014-07-01

    Pressurized water reactors (PWR) used for power generation are operated at elevated temperatures (280-300 °C) and under higher pressure (120-150 bar). In addition to these harsh environmental conditions some components of the PWR assemblies are subject to mechanical loading (sliding, vibration and impacts) leading to undesirable and hardly controllable material degradation phenomena. In such situations wear is determined by the complex interplay (tribocorrosion) between mechanical, material and physical-chemical phenomena. Tribocorrosion in PWR conditions is at present little understood and models need to be developed in order to predict component lifetime over several decades. The goal of this project, carried out in collaboration with the French company AREVA NP, is to develop a predictive model based on the mechanistic understanding of tribocorrosion of specific PWR components (stainless steel control assemblies, stellite grippers). The approach taken here is to describe degradation in terms of electro-chemical and mechanical material flows (third body concept of tribology) from the metal into the friction film (i.e. the oxidized film forming during rubbing on the metal surface) and from the friction film into the environment instead of simple mass loss considerations. The project involves the establishment of mechanistic models for describing the single flows based on ad-hoc tribocorrosion measurements operating at low temperature. The overall behaviour at high temperature and pressure in investigated using a dedicated tribometer (Aurore) including electrochemical control of the contact during rubbing. Physical laws describing the individual flows according to defined mechanisms and as a function of defined physical parameters were identified based on the obtained experimental results and from literature data. The physical laws were converted into mass flow rates and solved as differential equation system by considering the mass balance in compartments

  16. The temporal dynamics of zooplankton communities of different types of water bodies within Ichniansky National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Burian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the influence of anthropogenic impact on aquatic ecosystems has increased. This has led to a restructuring of aquatic ecosystems and affected the structural and functional organization of groups of aquatic organisms, causing qualitative and quantitative changes. Particular attention is drawn to the different types of water bodies of protected areas like IchnyanskyNational Park, which is located in Ichnyansky district of Chernihiv region. This park is a newly created one, so the reduction in intensity of anthropogenic pressure can be traced within its waters. Zooplankton plays an important role in the functioning of trophic networks because it transfers energy from producers and primary consumers to young fish and planktonophagous fish. Therefore, three main groups of zooplankton were chosen as the object of study: rotifers (class Eurotatoria, cladocerans (class Branchiopoda, order Cladocera, different age stages of copepods (class Copepoda, and also ostracods (Class Ostracoda. The zooplankton used as research material was collected in the daytime in spring (April, summer (late July – early August and autumn (late September – early October in the years 2015–2016 from ten experimental stations. During this period 81 species of zooplankton were recorded within heterogeneous reservoirs of IchnianskyNational Park. Monogonont rotifers (subclass Monogononta included 35 species (43% of all species and bdelloid rotifers (subclass Bdelloidea, cladocerns, comprised 28 species (35%, and copepods included 18 species (22%. The faunal range of zooplankton over different years and seasons was characterized by the predominance of the rotator complex in spring, rotator-cladocerans and cladocerans in summer, and of the cladocerans complex in autumn. This was due to the formation during spring and summer of favourable conditions in the waters for filter feeders, which consist generally of rotifers and cladocerans. In autumn the water

  17. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate tolerance in bacteria isolated from sediment of tropical water bodies polluted with detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eniola, Kehinde I T; Olayemi, Albert B

    2008-12-01

    The discharge of untreated detergent-bearing waste introduces linear alklcylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) to the aquatic environment. The surfactant persists in some streams and rivers in Nigeria, some is adsorbed to suspended materials and end in the sediment of the receiving water bodies. In this study, bacteria isolated from sediments of some tropical detergent-effluent-polluted streams were tested for tolerance to LAS using the media dilution technique. LAS-tolerance was indicated by growth of the bacteria in the presence of the surfactant. The pH, concentrations of surfactant, population of heterotrophic bacteria and population of LAS-tolerant bacteria in the sediments were determined. A direct relationship (r = 0.9124) was found between the alkaline conditions (pH= 8.2-12.0) and high surfactant concentrations (45-132 mg/g) in the sediment. The sediments harboured a high population and a wide variety of bacteria; the populations of viable heterotrophic bacteria (VHB: 2.9 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(7) cfu/g) and LAS tolerant bacteria (LTB: 1.5 x 10(4) to 1.2 x 10(6) cfu/g) had a direct relationship (r = 0.9500). An inverse relationship resulted between each of them and the concentration of surfactant in the sediment, r(VHB/LAS) = -0.9303 and r(LTB/LAS) = -0.9143, respectively. Twelve bacteria species were isolated from the sediment: Alcaligenes odorans, Bacillus subtilis, Burkholderia cepacia, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter diversus, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus albus, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcusfaecalis. Most of them were adapted to the surfactant with their maximum acceptable concentrations ranging between 0.03 and >1.0% (w/v). The sediments could serve as source of adapted organisms which can be used in bio-treatment of LAS-bearing waste.

  18. The 3-Attractor Water Model: Monte-Carlo Simulations with a New, Effective 2-Body Potential (BMW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Muguet

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the precepts of the 3-attractor (3-A water model, effective 2-body water potentials should feature as local minima the bifurcated and inverted water dimers in addition to the well-known linear water dimer global minimum. In order to test the 3-A model, a new pair wise effective intermolecular rigid water potential has been designed. The new potential is part of new class of potentials called BMW (Bushuev-Muguet-Water which is built by modifying existing empirical potentials. This version (BMW v. 0.1 has been designed by modifying the SPC/E empirical water potential. It is a preliminary version well suited for exploratory Monte-Carlo simulations. The shape of the potential energy surface (PES around each local minima has been approximated with the help of Gaussian functions. Classical Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out for liquid water in the NPT ensemble for a very wide range of state parameters up to the supercritical water regime. Thermodynamic properties are reported. The radial distributions functions (RDFs have been computed and are compared with the RDFs obtained from Neutron Scattering experimental data. Our preliminary Monte-Carlo simulations show that the seemingly unconventional hypotheses of the 3-A model are most plausible. The simulation has also uncovered a totally new role for 2-fold H-bonds.

  19. Assessment of Pressure Sources and Water Body Resilience: An Integrated Approach for Action Planning in a Polluted River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirauda, Domenica; Ostoich, Marco

    2018-02-23

    The present study develops an integrated methodology combining the results of the water-quality classification, according to the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC-WFD, with those of a mathematical integrity model. It is able to analyse the potential anthropogenic impacts on the receiving water body and to help municipal decision-makers when selecting short/medium/long-term strategic mitigation actions to be performed in a territory. Among the most important causes of water-quality degradation in a river, the focus is placed on pollutants from urban wastewater. In particular, the proposed approach evaluates the efficiency and the accurate localisation of treatment plants in a basin, as well as the capacity of its river to bear the residual pollution loads after the treatment phase. The methodology is applied to a sample catchment area, located in northern Italy, where water quality is strongly affected by high population density and by the presence of agricultural and industrial activities. Nearly 10 years of water-quality data collected through official monitoring are considered for the implementation of the system. The sample basin shows different real and potential pollution conditions, according to the resilience of the river and surroundings, together with the point and diffuse pressure sources acting on the receiving body.

  20. Substituting sugar-sweetened beverages with water or milk is inversely associated with body fatness development from childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wedderkopp, Niels; Kristensen, Peter; Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Lempert, Susanne Merethe; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between different types of beverage intake and substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by water, milk, or 100% fruit juice in relation to 6-y change in body fatness. A cohort of 9-y-old children (N = 358) who participated in the Danish part of the European Youth Heart Study was followed for development of body fatness over 6 y. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the associations between beverage intake at baseline and change in body fatness (body mass index z score [BMIz]), waist circumference (WC), and sum of four skinfolds (Σ4SF) over 6 y with adjustment for potential confounders. Substitution models were used to evaluate various beverages as alternatives to SSBs. SSB intake at age 9 y, but not intake of other beverages, was directly associated with subsequent 6-y changes in BMIz (β = 0.05; P = 0.02) and Σ4SF (β = 0.86; P = 0.02). Daily substitution of 100 g water for 100 g SSB was inversely associated with changes in BMIz (β = -0.04; P = 0.02), WC (β =-0.29; P = 0.04), and Σ4SF (β = -0.91; P = 0.02) over 6 y. Daily substitution of 100 g milk for 100 g SSB was also inversely associated with changes in BMIz (β = -0.05; P = 0.02), WC (β = -0.33; P = 0.046), and Σ4SF (β = -0.79; P = 0.06). No effect was observed for substitution of SSB by 100% fruit juice. Our results suggest that SSB intake is associated with long-term changes in body fatness in children, and replacing SSBs with water or milk, but not 100% fruit juice, is inversely associated with body fatness development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Protection Level in the Hydroperiod of Water Bodies on Doñana’s Aeolian Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Bustamante

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean temporary ponds on Doñana’s aeolian sands form an extensive system of small dynamic water bodies, dependent on precipitation and groundwater, of considerable importance for biodiversity conservation. Different areas of the aeolian sands have received different levels of environmental protection since 1969, and this has influenced the degree of conservation and the flooding dynamic of these temporary surface waters. We use the Landsat series of satellite images from 1985 to 2014 to study the temporal dynamic of small temporary water bodies on the aeolian sands in relation to the protection level and to distance to water abstraction pressures from agriculture and residential areas. The results show that even with small and ephemeral water bodies optical remote sensing time-series are an effective way to study their flooding temporal dynamics. The protected areas of the aeolian sands hold a better preserved system of temporary ponds, with a flooding dynamic that fluctuates with precipitation. The unprotected area shows an increase in mean hydroperiod duration, and surface flooded, and a decline in hydroperiod variability. This seems to be due to the creation of irrigation ponds and the artificialization of the flooding regime of the natural temporary ponds, that either receive excess irrigation water or dry-up due to the lowering of the groundwater table level. Although a decline in hydroperiod duration of temporary ponds is seen as negative to the system, an increase in hydroperiod of surface waters due to artificialization, or a decline in variability cannot be considered as positive compensatory effects.

  2. A Multi-Stage Ultra-Endurance Run over 1,200 KM Leads to a Continuous Accumulation of Total Body Water

    OpenAIRE

    Knechtle, Beat; Duff, Brida; Schulze, Ingo; Kohler, Götz

    2008-01-01

    We determined whether ultra-runners in a multi-stage ultra-endurance run lose body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass or total body water in a descriptive field study at the 'Deutschlandlauf' 2007 a 1,200 km run within 17 consecutive days with 10 male non-professional Caucasian ultra-runners (mean +/- SD, 43.8 +/- 6.2 years, 73.8 +/- 6.0 kg body mass, 1.77 +/- 0.05 m body height, BMI 23.3 +/- 1.8 kg.m(-2)). Body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass and percent total body wat...

  3. High levels of activity of bats at gold mining water bodies: implications for compliance with the International Cyanide Management Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Coulson, Graeme; Lumsden, Linda F

    2014-06-01

    Wildlife and livestock are known to visit and interact with tailings dam and other wastewater impoundments at gold mines. When cyanide concentrations within these water bodies exceed a critical toxicity threshold, significant cyanide-related mortality events can occur in wildlife. Highly mobile taxa such as birds are particularly susceptible to cyanide toxicosis. Nocturnally active bats have similar access to uncovered wastewater impoundments as birds; however, cyanide toxicosis risks to bats remain ambiguous. This study investigated activity of bats in the airspace above two water bodies at an Australian gold mine, to assess the extent to which bats use these water bodies and hence are at potential risk of exposure to cyanide. Bat activity was present on most nights sampled during the 16-month survey period, although it was highly variable across nights and months. Therefore, despite the artificial nature of wastewater impoundments at gold mines, these structures present attractive habitats to bats. As tailings slurry and supernatant pooling within the tailings dam were consistently well below the industry protective concentration limit of 50 mg/L weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide, wastewater solutions stored within the tailings dam posed a minimal risk of cyanide toxicosis for wildlife, including bats. This study showed that passively recorded bat echolocation call data provides evidence of the presence and relative activity of bats above water bodies at mine sites. Furthermore, echolocation buzz calls recorded in the airspace directly above water provide indirect evidence of foraging and/or drinking. Both echolocation monitoring and systematic sampling of cyanide concentration in open wastewater impoundments can be incorporated into a gold mine risk-assessment model in order to evaluate the risk of bat exposure to cyanide. In relation to risk minimisation management practices, the most effective mechanism for preventing cyanide toxicosis to wildlife

  4. Seasonal variation of nutrient loads in treated wastewater effluents and receiving water bodies in Sedibeng and Soshanguve, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaimanot, G Z; Kamika, I; Coetzee, M A A; Momba, M N B

    2015-09-01

    The discharge of inadequately treated wastewater effluent presents a major threat to the aquatic environment and public health worldwide. As a water-scarce country, South Africa is facing an alarming situation since most of its wastewater discharges are not meeting the permissible limit. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical quality of treated wastewater effluents and their impact on receiving water bodies. During the study period, pH, temperature, free chlorine residue (Cl(-)), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate (NO3 (-1)), orthophosphate (PO4 (-3)) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured in order to ascertain whether the selected wastewater systems in Sedibeng and Soshanguve complied with the South African and World Health Organization standards during wet and dry seasons. These parameters were analysed for samples collected from raw wastewater influent, treated wastewater effluent and receiving water bodies. The study was carried out between August 2011 and May 2012, and samples were collected on a weekly basis during both seasons. The physicochemical quality of effluents did not comply with the regulatory limits set by South Africa in terms of pH in Meyerton, Rietgat and Sandspruit (pH 7.6 to 8.1); free chlorine in Sandspruit (0.27 ± 0.05 mg/L); nitrate in Leeuwkuil and Rietgat (2.1 and 3.8 mg/L, respectively) during the wet season; orthophosphate in Meyerton during the wet season and in Sandspruit during the dry season (1.3 mg PO4 (-3) as P/L and 1.1 mg PO4 (-3) as P/L, respectively); and chemical oxygen demand in Rietgat during the dry season and in Sandspruit during the wet season (75.5 and 35 mg/L, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of the receiving water bodies did not comply with the South African standards recommended for pH, chemical oxygen demand and orthophosphate and DO (5 mg/L) in Rietgat during the wet season. The geometric mean of the water quality index values ranged between 32.4 and 36.9 for the effluent samples

  5. Carnivory during Ontogeny of the Plagioscion squamosissimus: A Successful Non-Native Fish in a Lentic Environment of the Upper Paraná River Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Pereira Neves

    Full Text Available This study evaluated feeding patterns and ontogenetic variations in a non-native fish species (Plagioscion squamosissimus in an isolated lake in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Quarterly samplings were performed from April 2005 to February 2006 using plankton nets to capture larvae, seining nets for juveniles, and gill nets and trammel for adults. Stomach contents (n = 378 were examined according to the volumetric method in which the volume of each food item was estimated using graduated test tubes or a glass counting plate. During early development (larval stage, P. squamosissimus consumed mainly Cladocera and Copepoda. Juveniles showed a more diverse diet, including shrimp (Macrobrachium amazonicum, fish, aquatic insects (Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Chironomidae and pupae of Diptera and plants. It was notable the high proportion of cannibalism (23.3% in this stage. Adults consumed predominantly shrimp and fish. The use of food resources varied significantly between development stages (ANOSIM; r = 0.458; p<0.005, showing changes in food preferences during ontogeny. The Similarity Percentage Analysis (SIMPER indicated that Cladocera and Copepoda were responsible for the differences observed between the larval stages of pre-flexion, flexion and post-flexion. M. amazonicum and Chironomidae were responsible for the differences between juvenile and larval stages, while M. amazonicum and other fishes caused the differences between adults and other ontogenetic stages. These results are confirmed by the relationship between standard length and developmental periods (ANCOVA; r2 = 0.94; p<0.0001. In general, there were low values of trophic niche breadth. The essentially carnivorous habit from the early stages of P. squamosissimus and the predominant use of M. amazonicum by adults have important roles in feeding patterns of the species, suggesting a major contribution to its success and establishment, especially in lentic environments.

  6. Contribution of some water bodies and the role of soils in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A S TENING

    2013-05-08

    Edea mangrove ecosystem was investigated alongside the potential ... Edea Mangrove Ecosystem is being degraded. Key words: Soils, water, ... (potential pollutants in soils, water and vegetation) from households, industries and ...

  7. History, contamination and monitoring of water bodies at the P/A Mayak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozhko, E.G.; Sharalapov, V.I.; Posokhov, A.K.; Kuzina, N.V.; Postovalova, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The facts concerning the history and contamination data of surface water at Mayak Production Association are given in the article. Data about the monitoring of contaminated water are presented. The monitoring program solved three main problems: assessment of the water quality of basins, examination of water quality in accordance with actual specifications, and reception of new data about the migration of the most important radionuclides

  8. Climate Change and European Water Bodies, a Review of Existing Gaps and Future Research Needs: Findings of the ClimateWater Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Monica; Harper, David M; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Hancz, Gabriella; Janauer, Georg A; Jolánkai, Zsolt; Lanz, Eva; Lo Porto, Antonio; Mándoki, Monika; Pataki, Beata; Rahuel, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Victoria J; Stoate, Chris; Tóth, Eszter; Jolánkai, Géza

    2015-08-01

    There is general agreement among scientists that global temperatures are rising and will continue to increase in the future. It is also agreed that human activities are the most important causes of these climatic variations, and that water resources are already suffering and will continue to be greatly impaired as a consequence of these changes. In particular, it is probable that areas with limited water resources will expand and that an increase of global water demand will occur, estimated to be around 35-60% by 2025 as a consequence of population growth and the competing needs of water uses. This will cause a growing imbalance between water demand (including the needs of nature) and supply. This urgency demands that climate change impacts on water be evaluated in different sectors using a cross-cutting approach (Contestabile in Nat Clim Chang 3:11-12, 2013). These issues were examined by the EU FP7-funded Co-ordination and support action "ClimateWater" (bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies). The project studied adaptation strategies to minimize the water-related consequences of climate change and assessed how these strategies should be taken into consideration by European policies. This article emphasizes that knowledge gaps still exist about the direct effects of climate change on water bodies and their indirect impacts on production areas that employ large amounts of water (e.g., agriculture). Some sectors, such as ecohydrology and alternative sewage treatment technologies, could represent a powerful tool to mitigate climate change impacts. Research needs in these still novel fields are summarized.

  9. Climate Change and European Water Bodies, a Review of Existing Gaps and Future Research Needs: Findings of the ClimateWater Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Monica; Harper, David M.; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Hancz, Gabriella; Janauer, Georg A.; Jolánkai, Zsolt; Lanz, Eva; Porto, Antonio Lo; Mándoki, Monika; Pataki, Beata; Rahuel, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Victoria J.; Stoate, Chris; Tóth, Eszter; Jolánkai, Géza

    2015-08-01

    There is general agreement among scientists that global temperatures are rising and will continue to increase in the future. It is also agreed that human activities are the most important causes of these climatic variations, and that water resources are already suffering and will continue to be greatly impaired as a consequence of these changes. In particular, it is probable that areas with limited water resources will expand and that an increase of global water demand will occur, estimated to be around 35-60 % by 2025 as a consequence of population growth and the competing needs of water uses. This will cause a growing imbalance between water demand (including the needs of nature) and supply. This urgency demands that climate change impacts on water be evaluated in different sectors using a cross-cutting approach (Contestabile in Nat Clim Chang 3:11-12, 2013). These issues were examined by the EU FP7-funded Co-ordination and support action "ClimateWater" (bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies). The project studied adaptation strategies to minimize the water-related consequences of climate change and assessed how these strategies should be taken into consideration by European policies. This article emphasizes that knowledge gaps still exist about the direct effects of climate change on water bodies and their indirect impacts on production areas that employ large amounts of water (e.g., agriculture). Some sectors, such as ecohydrology and alternative sewage treatment technologies, could represent a powerful tool to mitigate climate change impacts. Research needs in these still novel fields are summarized.

  10. Management of aguatic biodiversity and ecological status in transboundary surface waters along the Green Belt of Fennoscandia

    OpenAIRE

    Luotonen, Hannu; Xokkanen, Timo; Xelsten, Seppo; Liljaniemi, Petri; Kolstrцm, Taneli; Filatov, Nikolai

    2009-01-01

    The Green Belt of Fennoscandia offers an interesting area for environmental research and monitoring activities. The aquatic ecosystems of the western edge of boreal coniferous zone enable assessment of the pristine characteristics of various water ecosystems and the relationship of catchment areas to lotic and lentic ecosystems. The differences of land use in catchment areas also make it possible to assess the human impacts on water ecosystems and to distinguish between natural and anthropoge...

  11. The dynamics of pico-sized and bloom-forming cyanobacteria in large water bodies in the Mekong River Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Fukushima

    Full Text Available In the face of plans for increased construction of dams and reservoirs in the Mekong River Basin, it is critically important to better understand the primary-producer community of phytoplankton, especially the warm-water cyanobacteria. This is because these algae can serve as the primary source of carbon for higher trophic levels, including fishes, but can also form harmful blooms, threatening local fisheries and environmental and human health. We monitored the dynamics of three cyanobacteria-Synechococcus spp., Microcystis aeruginosa, and Dolichospermum spp.-for two years in nine large lakes and reservoirs in the Mekong River Basin. The densities of these algae were largely system-specific such that their abundance was uniquely determined within individual water bodies. However, after accounting for the system-specific effect, we found that cell densities of Synechococcus spp., M. aeruginosa, and Dolichospermum spp. varied in response to changes in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, total nitrogen, and water level, respectively. Because both PAR and water level tend to fluctuate concordantly over a wide geographic area, Synechococcus spp., and to a lesser extent Dolichospermum spp., varied synchronously among the water bodies. Sustaining the production of pico-sized primary producers while preventing harmful algal blooms will be a key management goal for the proposed reservoirs in the Mekong Basin.

  12. Monitoring of total body water to examine the progress of acclimatization of runners at varying altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Semerád

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our pilot study was to find out if total body water (TBW changes could objectively modify the course of adaptation during training for elite runners at different altitudes. The aim of this pilot study is to summarize the indication of the progress of acclimatization at high altitudes (1000–2700 meters above sea level during alpine conditioning. In three training camps at various altitudes the TBW of elite runners (F = 3, M = 1; n = 4; age 23 } 0.9 was monitored, in order to check the progress of acclimatization. We used BIA measurement methods (Bodystat 1500 at different high altitude running camps at the Czech Republic, Morocco and Ethiopia. Changes in TBW were used to check the progress of acclimatization. We discovered that the retention peaks of TBW corresponded with critical days (p ≤ 0.04; Cohen’s d. The highest measured increases of TBW at an altitude of 1000 m were for runner 1, 1.7 litres and for runner 2, 2.1 litres with retention peaks for both occurring on the 5th day. At an altitude of 1770 m runner 1 reached an increase of TBW of 6.3 litres, with a retention peak on the 11th day, and runner 3 had an increase of 5.1 litres with a peak on the 8th day. In the acclimatization phase we found two critical periods, from the 4th–6th day, and after the 10th–12th day. For runner 4 in altitude 2700m who completed the camp at a higher altitude, the situation is more complicated because there were fluctuations of the content of TBW in the range of 1.25 litres, with the highest depression on the 5th and then again an unsettled rise and reaching a maximum on the 12th, when she nearly returned to the initial value. Detected retention peaks reflected different levels of altitude (5th–12th days.We can conclude that the measuring of changes in TBW during camps at higher altitudes may be one of the biomarkers during acclimatization to altitude.

  13. Geological Factors Affecting Flow Spatial Continuity in Water Injection of Units Operating in the LGITJ–0102 Ore Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilver M. Soto-Loaiza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to identify the geological factors affecting the spatial continuity of the flow during the process of flank water injection in the units operating in the Lower Lagunilla Hydrocarbon Ore Body. This included the evaluation of the recovery factor, the petro-physic properties such as porosity, permeability, water saturation and rock type and quality in each flow unit. it was observed that the rock type of the geologic structure in the ore body is variable. The lowest values for the petro-physic properties were found in the southern area while a high variability of these parameters was observed in the northern and central areas. It was concluded that the northern area has a great potential for the development of new injection projects for petroleum recovery.

  14. Effects of voluntarily-ingested buprenorphine on plasma corticosterone levels, body weight, water intake, and behaviour in permanently catheterised rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldkuhl, Renée; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the peri- and postoperative effect of pre-emptive analgesia through voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine in Nutella, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. An arterial catheter was inserted and the rats were connected to an automated blood sampling device (AccuSampler). Blood samples...... were drawn up to 18 h after surgery and the plasma concentrations of corticosterone were quantified. Postoperative changes in water intake and body weight were recorded, and the behaviour of the rats was analysed during two 30-min periods. Pre-emptive oral buprenorphine treatment reduced the plasma...... corticosterone levels in the postoperative period, compared to controls treated with local anaesthetics. Buprenorphine-treated rats consumed more water and maintained body weight better. Behavioural observations indicated that buprenorphine changed the behaviour in non-operated rats but there was no difference...

  15. Impact of changed trophic status on the zooplankton composition in six water bodies of Dharwad district, Karnataka state (South India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudari, Vijaykumar A; Kanamadi, Ravishankar D

    2008-09-01

    The present paper cites results of zooplankton composition that carried out in the six water bodies of Dharwad district during September-November 2004 (post monsoon) and February-April 2005 (pre monsoon). Comparison of the obtained results with those of earlier investigations performed during 1978-1979 showed that changes have occurred in the interval. The total zooplankton composition is significantly changed in all the six water bodies. The lower value of Sorenson and Jaccard indices suggests that significant changes have occurred in the group rotifera and cladocera whereas the higher values for copepoda group suggests least changes. Concurrent occurrence of six Brachionus species in Unkal Lake, four species in Kelgeri, Nuggikeri and Navalur tanks indicate intensified eutrophication. If these habitats have to be preserved for their intended use there is a need for sustainable and holistic management.

  16. Effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of the red sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Senhao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Ren, Yichao; Wang, Fang

    2015-05-01

    Three color variants of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are recognized, the red one is highly valued in the market. When the red variant is cultured in ponds in China, its body color changes from red to celadon in 3-6 months. The effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of this animal were investigated. Juveniles of red A. japonicus were cultured in cages suspended at a range of water depths (20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm). The specific growth rate of red sea cucumbers was significantly higher in animals cultured at deeper water layers compared with those grown at shallowers. Body weights were greatest for sea cucumbers cultured at a depth of 150 cm and their survival rates were highest at a depth of 200 cm. A scale to evaluate the color of red sea cucumbers ( R value) was developed using a Pantone standard color card. All stocked animals in the 9-month trial retained a red color, however the red body color was much more intense in sea cucumbers cultured at shallower depths, while animals suspended in deeper layers became pale. In a separate trial, A. japonicus were cultured in suspended cages with seven different colored substrates. Substrate color had a significant effect on the growth and body-color of red A. japonicus. The yield were greatest for A. japonicus cultured on a yellow substrate, followed by green > white > orange > red > black and blue. All sea cucumbers in the 7-month trial retained a red color, although the red was most intense (highest R value) in animals cultured on a blue substrate and pale (lowest R value) for animals cultured on a green substrate.

  17. Microbiological water quality and its relation to nitrogen and phosphorus at the Pareja limno-reservoir (Guadalajara, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Navarro, E; Martínez-Pérez, S; Sastre-Merlín, A; Soliveri, J; Fernández-Monistrol, I; Copa-Patiño, J L

    2011-03-01

    Bordering on the edge of the Entrepeñas reservoir (Guadalajara, Spain), next to the village of Pareja, a small dam that allows a body of water to develop with a constant level has been built. Initiatives like this (which we have termed "limno-reservoirs") are innovative in Spain and around the world. Earlier reservoirs such as this one were constructed to create a habitat for birds, but the Pareja limno-reservoir is the first to promote socio-economic development. In order to study this limno-reservoir, this research group set up an environmental observatory, analyzing, among other variables, microbiological water quality and nutrient content. After a year and a half of research, it was observed that the concentration of microorganisms is lower in the limno-reservoir than in the river that feeds it, possibly due to the nutrient depletion in the lentic ecosystem. In the limno-reservoir, the total coliforms and enterococci concentrations fall within the European Bathing Water Directive limits, but in the river these concentrations are sometimes higher. The nutrient load in the limno-reservoir is low, with nutrient variations influencing native microorganisms, but not for total coliforms and enterococci. However, the development of special conditions in the bottom has been observed in winter, facilitating coliforms and enterococci survival. This research is very interesting since the creation of limno-reservoirs is rising in Spain and no research is being done on their behaviour. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term ionizing radiation impact on seed progeny of common reed in water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusive zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevtsova, N.L.; Yavnyuk, A.A.; Gudkov, D.Yi.

    2012-01-01

    Results of the investigation of common reed's (Phragmites australis (Trin) Ex. Steud.) biological characteristics under conditions of long-term ionizing radiation impact are represented. Indices of seeds' vitality and disorders are analyzed. Low vitality indices, significant ontogenesis disorders, and high percent of abnormalities of germs are determined in water bodies, where littoral plants receive the absorbed dose in a low-dose range of 1-12 cGy year -1 .

  19. Characterization of the permittivity of controlled porous water ice-dust mixtures to support the radar exploration of icy bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Brouet, Y.; Neves, L.; Sabouroux, P.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Poch, O.; Encrenaz, P.; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, N.; Kofman, W.

    2016-01-01

    The internal properties of porous and icy bodies in the solar system can be investigated by ground-penetrating radars (GPRs), like the COmet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft which has sounded the interior of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Accurate constraints on the permittivity of icy media are needed for the interpretation of the data. We report novel permittivity measurements performed on water ice samples and...

  20. SEM, FTIR and EDAX Studies for the Removal of Safranin Dye from Water Bodies using Modified Biomaterial - Bambusa Tulda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Nirban; Kumar, Upendra

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, removal of safranin dye from water bodies was investigated using modified biomaterial - Bambusa Tulda. Initial experiments were conducted with NaOH, HCI and distilled washed bambusa tulda, out of which NaOH treated bambusa tulda (NHBT) showed best results. FTIR, SEM and EDAX were done to identify the functional characterization, surface morphology and elemental composition of adsorbent. Presence of hydroxyl groups and carboxyl group at the surface of NHBT results in the adsorption of safranin dye from water bodies. The operation parameters such as pH (3-10), contact time (0 - 90 mins) and dose (1 to 10) gm/l were taken for investigation. The best removal takes place at pH 7, 200 rpm, dose at 10 gm/l, initial concentration 50 mg/l, at equilibrium time 60 minutes and at 298 K temperature with maximum adsorption capacity of 32.26 mg/gm. Langmuir isotherm model found to be best suited with experimental data out of 4 isotherm i.e Langmuir, Freuindlich, Temkin and D-R isotherm. The adsorption process followed pseudo second order model. Taking above results into consideration, it is concluded that NHBT is a promising and efficient bioadsorbent for the removal of safranin dye from water bodies.

  1. Bioimpedance index for measurement of total body water in severely malnourished children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girma, Tsinuel; Kæstel, Pernille; Workeneh, Netsanet

    2016-01-01

    . SUBJECTS/METHODS: Children with SAM (mid-arm circumference nutritional oedema) admitted to Jimma University Hospital were included. Tetrapolar-whole-body impedance (Z), resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) were measured at 50 and 200 k...

  2. Late Permian marine ecosystem collapse began in deeper waters: evidence from brachiopod diversity and body size changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W-H; Shi, G R; Twitchett, R J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, K-X; Song, H-J; Yue, M-L; Wu, S-B; Wu, H-T; Yang, T-L; Xiao, Y-F

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Permian-Triassic brachiopod diversity and body size changes from different water depths spanning the continental shelf to basinal facies in South China provides insights into the process of environmental deterioration. Comparison of the temporal changes of brachiopod diversity between deepwater and shallow-water facies demonstrates that deepwater brachiopods disappeared earlier than shallow-water brachiopods. This indicates that high environmental stress commenced first in deepwater settings and later extended to shallow waters. This environmental stress is attributed to major volcanic eruptions, which first led to formation of a stratified ocean and a chemocline in the outer shelf and deeper water environments, causing the disappearance of deep marine benthos including brachiopods. The chemocline then rapidly migrated upward and extended to shallow waters, causing widespread mass extinction of shallow marine benthos. We predict that the spatial and temporal patterns of earlier onset of disappearance/extinction and ecological crisis in deeper water ecosystems will be recorded during other episodes of rapid global warming. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. THE IMPROVEMENT OF LOW-WASTE TECHNOLOGIES OF WORKING BODY OF WATER PREPARATION AT THERMAL AND NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Rymasheuskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the main directions of water desalination technologies improving have been analyzed. Possible techniques of high-quality treatment of water that enable the reduction of amounts of environmentally hazardous substances to be discharged into the hydrosphere are indicated. The purpose of the work was to improve the ecological efficiency and the effectiveness of water treatment equipment at heat power plants when designing new and the modernizing existing water treatment schemes. In order to achieve this goal the following problems have been solved: the one of analyzing the main directions of the improvement of technologies of working body of water preparation at thermal and nuclear power plants; of analyzing the main directions of reduction of total volume of highly mineralized power plant wastewaters; of developing the technological scheme of recycling of concentrate of membrane installations and regenerants of ionite filters in acid and alkali; of developing the technological scheme of transformation of the sludge in pre-processing waste into valuable commodity products. The results of research can be applied for the design of new and the modernization of existing water treatment installations of thermal and nuclear power plants. It will enable to reduce considerably the use of natural water and the amount of chemicals added as well as the volume of wastewater and the concentration of dissolved solids in it. As a consequence, the negative impact of thermal and nuclear power plants on the hydrosphere will be reduced. 

  4. Full and sub-waveform retracking to assess the ability of pulse limited altimeter in monitoring water level variations of inland water body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi, Shirzad; Sneeuw, Nico; Tseng, Kuo-Hsin; Shum, CK

    2014-05-01

    Pulse-limited-satellite altimetry was originally designed for oceanographic observations but has been extended to monitor inland water bodies. So far, studying water level variations of inland water bodies, e.g. lakes, has been a challenge for this type of altimetry in terms of data quality. The returned altimetry waveforms could be seriously contaminated by topography and environmental error sources. Retracking is an efficacious method against this contamination to improve the accuracy of range measurement and consequently robust water level determination. In addition, the choice of an optimal retracking algorithm appropriate for the specific regional water bodies is very important in this respect. In this study we processed 18 Hz Envisat RA2 altimetry data, i.e. Sensor Geophysical Data records (SGDR), with respective different retrackers and 1 Hz Geophysical Data Records (GDRs) of this mission by on-board retrackers. First, for a given waveform the whole waveform, called full-waveform, was processed to estimate retracked water level variation using OCOG, Threshold and β-parameter retrackers. In the next step we assumed that the reflecting surface inside the radar foot print is a complex surface with different responses. Therefore a given waveform considered as a combination of a number of small waveforms, called sub-waveform. Each sub-waveform was processed by all of the mentioned retrackers to determine water level variations. Finally the result of different retracked heights were compared with on-board retrackers, and with available in-situ gauge data. The largest salt lake in the middle east, Urmia lake, has been selected as a testing area in this study. This lake is drying up due to climate change and human activities, e.g. irrigation and dam construction. Our retracking analysis shows that the sub-waveform retracking outperforms the full-waveform retracking. The minimum RMS, i.e. 18 cm, was obtained by sub-waveform, retracked with Threshold 50% algorithm

  5. Waste Field Characteristics, Ultimate Mixing and Dilution in Surface Discharge of Dense Jets into Stagnant Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct discharges of municipal and industrial waste waters into water bodies through marine outfalls are considered as a common way to dispose the generated waste in coastal zones. Marine discharge, intensifying flow mixing and entrainment, decrease the concentration of polutant up to accepted concentration and meet the guideline values and to make possible continues discharge of flow into matine environment. During last years due to quick development of coastal desalination plants, surface discharge of preduced salty water into seas and oceans has increased significantly. In this study, releases of dense jets from surface rectangular channel into stagnant bodies are experimentally studied. The location of flow plunge point, impact point and discharge ultimate dilution were drown out by a digital video technology. In addition, using some conductivity probes located in ambient floor, waste filed dilution in flow impact point and discharge ultimate dilution were identified. Finally the obtained results were plotted and explained along with some diagrams to show flow non-dimensional behavior. The results showed that the properties of flow are changing directly with ambient water depth and discharge initial fluxes.

  6. [Mercury dynamics of several plants collected from the water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area during flooding and its impact on water body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Rong-guo; Wang, Ding-yong

    2014-12-01

    Submerged plants are a major source for the abnormal elevation of methylmercury in reservoir. Several specific plants (Echinochloa crusgalli, Cynodondactylon and Corn stover) were collected and inundated in a simulated aquatic environment in the laboratory for investigating the mercury (Hg) dynamics in plants and the release process into water, aiming to find out the properties of Hg dynamics of plants under inundation conditions and its impact on water body in the Water-Level Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the contents of total mercury in several plants were in the range of 9. 21-12.07 ng x g(-1), and the percentage content of methylmercury (MeHg) was about 1%-2%. The content of total mercury (THg) in plants gradually decreased, by 35.81%-55.96%, whereas that of the dissolved mercury (DHg) increased sharply, by 103.23% -232.15%, which indicated an emission of Hg from plants to water in the process of decomposition. Furthermore, the state of inundation provided sufficient conditions for the methylation process in plants and therefore caused an increase of the content of methylmercury in the plant residues, which was 3.04-6.63 times as much as the initial content. The concentration of dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) in the overlying water also increased significantly by 14.84- 16.05 times compared with the initial concentration. Meanwhile, the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the overlying water was significantly and negatively correlated with DMeHg. On the other hand, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the overlying water was significantly and positively correlated with DMeHg. During the whole inundation period, the increase of DHg in the overlying water accounted for 41.74% -47.01% of the total amount of THg emission, and there was a negative correlation between the content of THg in plant residues and that of DHg in the overlying water.

  7. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Biological Data for Three Water Bodies, Texas Gulf Coast Plain, 2000-2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    East, Jeffery W; Hogan, Jennifer L

    2003-01-01

    During July 2000 September 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed site-specific hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data in Dickinson Bayou, Armand Bayou, and the San Bernard River in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas...

  8. The effect of heat stress and other factors on total body water and some blood constituents in lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, A.M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Goats mostly live in the desert or semidesert areas in egypt. Such areas are under adverse environmental conditions. They represent indispensable source of meat and milk for the natives of these areas . Few studies are carried out on goats in connection with their biochemical and physiological response to the high environmental temperature. The present investigation carried out was constructed to study the state of heat stress(35 C and 25% ) in nine Baladi lactating goats as compared with the reactions under mild conditions (15 C and 50% RH). Animals were Kept under each of these controlled conditions for 7 days - eight hours / day. The study included blood haemoglobin level, erythrocyte count, haematocrit value, serum activity of alkaline and acid phosphatases, creatinine, urea and prolactin. The effect of heat stress on body water content and water turnover rate using tritiated water diulation technique was studied

  9. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  10. Spatial and seasonal variations of the contamination within water body of the Grand Canal, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.L.; Han, Jingyi; Xu, L.G.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-01-01

    To delineate the character of contaminations in the Grand Canal, China, a three-year study (2004-2006) was conducted to investigate variations the water quality in the canal. Results showed that the variation of water quality within the Grand Canal was of there is remarkable spatial and seasonal

  11. Emission standards versus immission standards for assessing the impact of urban drainage on ephemeral receiving water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2010-01-01

    In the past, emission standard indicators have been adopted by environmental regulation authorities in order to preserve the quality of a receiving water body. Such indicators are based on the frequency or magnitude of a polluted discharge that may be continuous or intermittent. In order to properly maintain the quality of receiving waters, the Water Framework Directive, following the basic ideas of British Urban Pollution Manual, has been established. The Directive has overtaken the emission-standard concept, substituting it with the stream-standard concept that fixes discharge limits for each polluting substance depending on the self-depurative characteristics of receiving waters. Stream-standard assessment requires the deployment of measurement campaigns that can be very expensive; furthermore, the measurement campaigns are usually not able to provide a link between the receiving water quality and the polluting sources. Therefore, it would be very useful to find a correlation between the quality status of the natural waters and the emission-based indicators. Thus, this study is aimed to finding a possible connection between the receiving water quality indicators drawn by environmental regulation authorities and emission-based indicators while considering both continuous (i.e. from the wastewater treatment plants) and intermittent pollution discharges (mainly from combined sewer overflows). Such research has been carried out by means of long-term analysis adopting a holistic modelling approach. The different parts of the integrated urban drainage system were modelled by a parsimonious integrated model. The analysis was applied to an ephemeral river bounding Bologna (Italy). The study concluded that the correlation between receiving water quality and polluting emissions cannot be generally stated. Nevertheless, specific analyses on polluting emissions were pointed out in the study highlighting cause-effect link between polluting sources and receiving water quality.

  12. Seasonal variation and speciation of dissolved iron in an artificial surface water body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birghila Semaghiul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic chemistry of iron is an important issue since iron is a micronutrient for the growth of phytoplankton. Its concentration in surface waters involves many environmental aspects, from the quality of a particular water to the control of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Dissolved iron can exist in water as ferrous and ferric iron, and the equilibrium between these two forms, as well as the precipitation and solubilization of iron, depends on many natural and anthropic factors. We studied the variation for an year of Fe(II and total iron concentration into Poarta Alba - Midia Navodari Canal, an artificial surface water which connects Danube River with Black Sea. The results indicate a high iron concentration in surface water and a seasonal variation of iron concentration and speciation, which can be correlated with the oxidable matter content.

  13. Incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in the Vaishali district of Bihar, India: spatial patterns and role of inland water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Sankar Bhunia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of the distribution of inland water bodies with respect to the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL and its dominant vector, Phlebotomous argentipes, has been studied at the regional scale in Bihar, eastern India. The Landsat TM sensor multispectral scanning radiometer, with a spatial resolution of 30 m in the visible, reflective-infrared and shortwave- infrared (SWIR bands, was used to identify water bodies using the normalized differential pond index (NDPI calculated as follows: (Green – SWIR I/(Green + SWIR I. Nearest neighbour and grid square statistics were used to delineate spatial patterns and distribution of the sandfly vector and the disease it transmits. The female P. argentipes sandfly was found to be associated with the distance from open water and particularly abundant near non-perennial river banks (68.4%; P <0.001, while its association with rivers was focused further away from the water source (X2 = 26.3; P <0.001. The results also reveal that the distribution of VL is clustered around non-perennial riverbanks, while the pattern is slightly random around the perennial river banks. The grid square technique illustrate that the spatial distribution of the disease has a much stronger correlation with lower density of open waters surfaces as well as with sandfly densities (X2 = 26.0; P <0.001. The results of our study suggest that inland water presence poses a risk for VL by offering suitable breeding sites for P. argentipes, a fact that should be taken into account when attempting to control disease transmission.

  14. ArcNLET: A GIS-based software to simulate groundwater nitrate load from septic systems to surface water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, J. Fernando; Ye, Ming; Wang, Liying; Lee, Paul Z.; Davis, Hal; Hicks, Rick

    2013-03-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), or septic systems, can be a significant source of nitrates in groundwater and surface water. The adverse effects that nitrates have on human and environmental health have given rise to the need to estimate the actual or potential level of nitrate contamination. With the goal of reducing data collection and preparation costs, and decreasing the time required to produce an estimate compared to complex nitrate modeling tools, we developed the ArcGIS-based Nitrate Load Estimation Toolkit (ArcNLET) software. Leveraging the power of geographic information systems (GIS), ArcNLET is an easy-to-use software capable of simulating nitrate transport in groundwater and estimating long-term nitrate loads from groundwater to surface water bodies. Data requirements are reduced by using simplified models of groundwater flow and nitrate transport which consider nitrate attenuation mechanisms (subsurface dispersion and denitrification) as well as spatial variability in the hydraulic parameters and septic tank distribution. ArcNLET provides a spatial distribution of nitrate plumes from multiple septic systems and a load estimate to water bodies. ArcNLET's conceptual model is divided into three sub-models: a groundwater flow model, a nitrate transport and fate model, and a load estimation model which are implemented as an extension to ArcGIS. The groundwater flow model uses a map of topography in order to generate a steady-state approximation of the water table. In a validation study, this approximation was found to correlate well with a water table produced by a calibrated numerical model although it was found that the degree to which the water table resembles the topography can vary greatly across the modeling domain. The transport model uses a semi-analytical solution to estimate the distribution of nitrate within groundwater, which is then used to estimate a nitrate load using a mass balance argument. The estimates given by ArcNLET are

  15. Summary of water body extraction methods based on ZY-3 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Sun, Li Jian; Zhang, Chuan Yin

    2017-12-01

    Extracting from remote sensing images is one of the main means of water information extraction. Affected by spectral characteristics, many methods can be not applied to the satellite image of ZY-3. To solve this problem, we summarize the extraction methods for ZY-3 and analyze the extraction results of existing methods. According to the characteristics of extraction results, the method of WI& single band threshold and the method of texture filtering based on probability statistics are explored. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of all methods are compared, which provides some reference for the research of water extraction from images. The obtained conclusions are as follows. 1) NIR has higher water sensitivity, consequently when the surface reflectance in the study area is less similar to water, using single band threshold method or multi band operation can obtain the ideal effect. 2) Compared with the water index and HIS optimal index method, object extraction method based on rules, which takes into account not only the spectral information of the water, but also space and texture feature constraints, can obtain better extraction effect, yet the image segmentation process is time consuming and the definition of the rules requires a certain knowledge. 3) The combination of the spectral relationship and water index can eliminate the interference of the shadow to a certain extent. When there is less small water or small water is not considered in further study, texture filtering based on probability statistics can effectively reduce the noises in result and avoid mixing shadows or paddy field with water in a certain extent.

  16. The roles of predators, competitors, and secondary salinization in structuring mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) assemblages in ephemeral water bodies of the Wheatbelt of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Scott; Spafford, Helen; Storey, Andrew; Weinstein, Philip

    2010-06-01

    Studies that consider both biotic and abiotic determinants of organisms are rare, but critical to delineate underlying determinants of community richness (number of taxa) and abundance (number of larvae per water body). In this study, we consider the importance of disturbance (salinity) and predator and competitor variables on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in small ephemeral water bodies across the Wheatbelt of Western Australia. Similar to mosquitoes, and contrary to general perceptions, nonculicid aquatic fauna (aquatic fauna) had a common occurrence (number or percentage of water bodies occupied) and were abundant (average density) in ephemeral water bodies, albeit with a simplified trophic structure. The occurrence and density (number per unit area) of aquatic fauna between water bodies were highly variable, but general relationships of aquatic fauna with rainfall, water body surface area, salinity, and mosquitoes were apparent. In contrast to mosquitoes, the density of aquatic fauna declined with recent rainfall, implying mosquitoes may colonize newly created water bodies more quickly than aquatic fauna. Assemblages (richness and density of taxa) of aquatic fauna changed along a salinity gradient, as did mosquitoes, and this was pronounced for predator groups. Densities of mosquitoes were not limited by any single taxonomic group, by a negative relationship. However, the density and richness of mosquitoes generally declined in association with increased richness of predators and density of all other taxa (taxa not specifically classified as predators or competitors of mosquitoes). These relationships may account for higher densities of mosquitoes in smaller water bodies, where richness of predators is reduced and the density of other taxa does not differ from larger water bodies. Our results also suggest salinity in the Western Australia Wheatbelt may facilitate greater abundance of halotolerant mosquitoes, Aedes alboannulatus Macquart and Aedes

  17. Changes in body temperature and water intake following intracerebral implantation of carbachol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, S.G.T.; Wied, D. de

    1967-01-01

    Intracerebral carbachol produced a fall in core temperature in the rat when implanted in the area preoptica, the nucleus lateralis septi and the area between the thalamic nuclei and the nucleus ruber. Cholinergic stimulation of the anterohypothalamic region did not affect body temperature, while

  18. Intracerebral implantation of carbachol in the rat: Its effect on water intake and body temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, S.G.Th.

    Intracerebral carbachol produces a fall in body temperature as well as drinking in the rat when implanted in various subcortical structures, related to the emotion-motivation limbic circuit. These effects are due to a central cholinergic stimulation since they can be prevented by the systemic

  19. Boxfish swimming paradox resolved : forces by the flow of water around the body promote manoeuvrability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wassenbergh, S.; van Manen, K.; Marcroft, T. A.; Alfaro, M. E.; Stamhuis, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    The shape of the carapace protecting the body of boxfishes has been attributed an important hydrodynamic role in drag reduction and in providing automatic, flow-direction realignment and is therefore used in bioinspired design of cars. However, tight swimming-course stabilization is paradoxical

  20. The effects of floor heating on body temperature, water consumption, stress response and immune competence around parturition in loose-housed sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B M; Malmkvist, J; Pedersen, L J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study whether floor heating from 12 h after onset of nest building until 48 h after birth of the first piglet had any effect on measures related to body temperature, water consumption, stress response and immune competence in loose-housed sows (n = 23......). In conclusion, the present results indicate that floor heating for a limited period around parturition did not compromise physiological and immunological parameters, water intake and body temperature in loose-housed sows. The water intake peaked the day before parturition and the body temperature peaked...

  1. Fishery intensification in small water bodies: a review for North America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moehl, John Frederic; Davies, William D

    1993-01-01

    .... Intensification is also achieved by enhancing water fertility through liming and fertilization. Case studies are presented representing contrasting climatic regions of North America while demonstrating similarities in management style...

  2. Location and Permanency of Water Bodies in the African Sahel Region from 2003-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides an estimate of the spatial and temporal extent of surface water at 250-m resolution over nine years (2003-2011) for the African Sahel region...

  3. Contrasting Eutrophication Risks and Countermeasures in Different Water Bodies: Assessments to Support Targeted Watershed Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Chu, Chunli; Zhang, Yinan; Ju, Meiting; Wang, Yuqiu

    2017-06-29

    Eutrophication is a major problem in China. To combat this issue, the country needs to establish water quality targets, monitoring systems, and intelligent watershed management. This study explores a new watershed management method. Water quality is first assessed using a single factor index method. Then, changes in total nitrogen/total phosphorus (TN/TP) are analyzed to determine the limiting factor. Next, the study compares the eutrophication status of two water function districts, using a comprehensive nutritional state index method and geographic information system (GIS) visualization. Finally, nutrient sources are qualitatively analyzed. Two functional water areas in Tianjin, China were selected and analyzed: Qilihai National Wetland Nature Reserve and Yuqiao Reservoir. The reservoir is a drinking water source. Results indicate that total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) pollution are the main factors driving eutrophication in the Qilihai Wetland and Yuqiao Reservoir. Phosphorus was the limiting factor in the Yuqiao Reservoir; nitrogen was the limiting factor in the Qilihai Wetland. Pollution in Qilihai Wetland is more serious than in Yuqiao Reservoir. The study found that external sources are the main source of pollution. These two functional water areas are vital for Tianjin; as such, the study proposes targeted management measures.

  4. An Alternative Method of Spatial Autocorrelation for Chlorophyll Detection in Water Bodies Using Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá T. Guimarães

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Additional measures of in situ water quality monitoring in natural environments can be obtained through remote sensing because certain elements in water modify its spectral behavior. One of the indicators of water quality is the presence of algae, and the aim of this study was to propose an alternative method for the quantification of chlorophyll in water by correlating spectral data, infrared images, and limnology data. The object of study was an artificial lake located at Unisinos University, São Leopoldo/RS, Brazil. The area has been mapped with a modified NGB (near infrared (N, green (G and blue (B camera coupled to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. From the orthorectified and georeferenced images, a modified normalized difference vegetation index (NDVImod image has been generated. Additionally, 20 sampling points have been established on the lake. At these points, in situ spectral analysis with a spectroradiometer has been performed, and water samples have been collected for laboratory determination of chlorophyll concentrations. The correlation resulted in two models. The first model, based on the multivariate analysis of spectral data, and the second model, based on polynomial equations from NDVI, had coefficients of determination (R2 of 0.86 and 0.51, respectively. This study confirmed the applicability of remote sensing for water resource management using UAVs, which can be characterized as a quick and easy methodology.

  5. Distribution of NORM in the Threatened Wadi Maryut Lake: A Comparative Case for South Mediterranean Coastal Water Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badran, H. [Taif University (Saudi Arabia); Hassan, M. [Tanta University (Egypt)

    2014-07-01

    Wadi Maryut Lake is one of the remaining two parts of the ancient Lake Mareotis and is hardly mentioned in the scientific literature. It has a very long history and a doubtful and uncertain future. The lake is in its way to disappearances because of salt refining, agricultural and land reclamation projects. Compared with other North African water bodies, it is stable because it is relatively far from any possible effect of Nile sediments for few centuries and it has not been subject to discharge of industrial wastewater and very little urban activities. Therefore, this lake represents a good reference site that could be used in the evaluation of the pollution of other water bodies. This study includes sediment, water, wild vegetation and soil samples. Generally, locations in the southwestern part of the lake have the highest activity concentrations in sediment and soil. The concentrations of {sup 232}Th in different plant species are higher than that of {sup 226}Ra. The mean soil-to-plant transfer factor for {sup 40}K is higher than that of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th, which are in principle the same. Gamma-radiation hazard indices of soil and sediment in some locations are larger than unity which suggests possible health concerns when used as construction materials. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  6. Microbial ecology of Rum Jungle II: environmental study of two flooded opencuts and smaller, associated water bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, A.E.; Khalid, A.M.; Ralph, B.J.

    1981-12-01

    The microbial status of the flooded Intermediate and White's opencuts of the abandoned uranium mine at Rum Jungle was investigated by sampling the water column and sediments of several areas in each opencut. Smaller water bodies, associated with the experimental heap-leach pile, were also investigated. Several groups of bacteria were identified and population sizes were estimated using selective media techniques. Various physicochemical parameters of each sample were determined and correlated with the occurence of bacteria. Both opencuts, although behaving differently, were found to be heavily polluted by sulphuric acid and heavy metals, White's more so than Intermediate. White's opencut was found to be stratified into an aerobic zone, about five metres deep, and a microaerophilic zone below this. Large populations of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and autotrophic sulphur-oxidising bacteria indicated that degradation of sulphidic minerals in the walls and floors of the opencuts was still occurring. The isolation of T. ferrooxidans from sediments also containing anaerobic bacterial species suggested that T. ferrooxidans was degrading sulphidic minerals, either anaerobically or microaerophilically. The smaller water bodies also were found to be heavily polluted by acid and heavy metals from drainage and seepage from the sulphidic heap-leach pile

  7. Salt partitioning between water and high-pressure ices. Implication for the dynamics and habitability of icy moons and water-rich planetary bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journaux, Baptiste; Daniel, Isabelle; Petitgirard, Sylvain; Cardon, Hervé; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Caracas, Razvan; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Water-rich planetary bodies including large icy moons and ocean exoplanets may host a deep liquid water ocean underlying a high-pressure icy mantle. The latter is often considered as a limitation to the habitability of the uppermost ocean because it would limit the availability of nutrients resulting from the hydrothermal alteration of the silicate mantle located beneath the deep ice layer. To assess the effects of salts on the physical properties of high-pressure ices and therefore the possible chemical exchanges and habitability inside H2O-rich planetary bodies, we measured partitioning coefficients and densities in the H2O-RbI system up to 450 K and 4 GPa; RbI standing as an experimentally amenable analog of NaCl in the H2O-salt solutions. We measured the partitioning coefficient of RbI between the aqueous fluid and ices VI and VII, using in-situ Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). With in-situ X-ray diffraction, we measured the unit-cell parameters and the densities of the high-pressure ice phases in equilibrium with the aqueous fluid, at pressures and temperatures relevant to the interior of planetary bodies. We conclude that RbI is strongly incompatible towards ice VI with a partitioning coefficient Kd(VI-L) = 5.0 (± 2.1) ṡ10-3 and moderately incompatible towards ice VII, Kd(VII-L) = 0.12 (± 0.05). RbI significantly increases the unit-cell volume of ice VI and VII by ca. 1%. This implies that RbI-poor ice VI is buoyant compared to H2O ice VI while RbI-enriched ice VII is denser than H2O ice VII. These new experimental results might profoundly impact the internal dynamics of water-rich planetary bodies. For instance, an icy mantle at moderate conditions of pressure and temperature will consist of buoyant ice VI with low concentration of salt, and would likely induce an upwelling current of solutes towards the above liquid ocean. In contrast, a deep and/or thick icy mantle of ice VII will be enriched in salt and hence would form a stable chemical boundary

  8. Monitoring of nutrients concentration in surface waters of small mid-field water bodies in agricultural watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Ligocka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted on surface waters of mid-field ponds in agricultural watershed. The resarch were aimed to perform introductory assessment of ammoniacal nitrogen's and nitric nitrogen's aswell as phosphates concentrations in surface waters. The studies have been performed from March to October, 2015 to 2017. The highest concentration of phosphates were detected in year 2017, whereas the highest concentrations of these were experienced in June in every year. The lowest concentration of phosphates were detected in the first year of studies (2015. The average concentration of phosphate got higher every year. Phosphates' concentrations got higher from March to October, however, the decline were experienced in later period. Conducted research confirmed the dependence, that in lower temperatures the concentrations of ammonia cal nitrogen were generally lower than in the months with higher average temperature. The highest average concentration of ammonia cal nitrogen (0,29 mg•kg -1 was detected in the first year of studies (2015. Average concentrations of nitric nitrogen’s fluctuates from from 0,15 to 0,24 mg•kg -1 . In every year, the concentrations of nitrates were highest in June. The lowest concentrations of nitrates in 2015 and 2016 were experienced in August, and in July of 2017.

  9. Accuracy of an eight-point tactile-electrode impedance method in the assessment of total body water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, G; Malavolti, M; Severi, S; Poli, M; Mussi, C; Fantuzzi, A L; Battistini, N

    2002-11-01

    To establish the accuracy of an eight-polar tactile-electrode impedance method in the assessment of total body water (TBW). Transversal study. University department. Fifty healthy subjects (25 men and 25 women) with a mean (s.d.) age of 40 (12) y. TBW measured by deuterium oxide dilution; resistance (R) of arms, trunk and legs measured at frequencies of 5, 50, 250 and 500 kHz with an eight-polar tactile-electrode impedance-meter (InBody 3.0, Biospace, Seoul, Korea). An algorithm for the prediction of TBW from the whole-body resistance index at 500 kHz (height (2)/R(500) where R is the sum of the segmental resistances of arms, trunk and legs) was developed in a randomly chosen subsample of 35 subjects. This algorithm had an adjusted coefficient of determination (r2(adj)) of 0.81 (P<0.0001) and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 3.6 l (9%). Cross-validation of the predictive algorithm in the remaining 15 subjects gave an r2(adj) of 0.87 (P<0.0001) and an RMSE of 3.0 l (8%). The precision of eight-polar BIA, determined by measuring R three times a day for five consecutive days in a fasting subject, was < or =2.8% for all segments and frequencies. Eight-polar BIA is a precise method that offers accurate estimates of TBW in healthy subjects. This promising method should undergo further studies of precision and its accuracy in assessing extracellular water and appendicular body composition should be determined. Modena and Reggio Emilia University.

  10. Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate tolerance in bacteria isolated from sediment of tropical water bodies polluted with detergents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T Kehinde

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of untreated detergent-bearing waste introduces linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS to the aquatic environment. The surfactant persists in some streams and rivers in Nigeria, some is adsorbed to suspended materials and end in the sediment of the receiving water bodies. In this study, bacteria isolated from sediments of some tropical detergent-effluent-polluted streams were tested for tolerance to LAS using the media dilution technique. LAS-tolerance was indicated by growth of the bacteria in the presence of the surfactant. The pH, concentrations of surfactant, population of heterotrophic bacteria and population of LAS-tolerant bacteria in the sediments were determined. A direct relationship (r= 0.9124 was found between the alkaline conditions (pH= 8.2-12.0 and high surfactant concentrations (45-132 mg/g in the sediment. The sediments harboured a high population and a wide variety of bacteria; the populations of viable heterotrophic bacteria (vHB: 2.9×10(5 to 1.2×10(7 cfu/g and LAS tolerant bacteria (LTB: 1.5×10(4 to 1.2×10(6 cfu/g had a direct relationship (r= 0.9500. An inverse relationship resulted between each of them and the concentration of surfactant in the sediment, r vHB/ LAS = -0.9303 and rLTB/ LAS = -0.9143, respectively. Twelve bacteria species were isolated from the sediment: Alcaligenes odorans, Bacillus subtilis, Burkholderia cepacia, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter diversus, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus albus, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. Most of them were adapted to the surfactant with their maximum acceptable concentrations ranging between 0.03 and >1.0% (w/v. The sediments could serve as source of adapted organisms which can be used in bio-treatment of LAS-bearing waste. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4:7-15. Epub 2008 December 12.La descarga de desechos que contienen detergentes liberan sulfonatos de alquibenceno lineal (LAS al

  11. The estimation of future surface water bodies at Olkiluoto area based on statistical terrain and land uplift models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohjola, J.; Turunen, J.; Lipping, T.; Ikonen, A.

    2014-03-01

    In this working report the modelling effort of future landscape development and surface water body formation at the modelling area in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island is presented. Estimation of the features of future surface water bodies is based on probabilistic terrain and land uplift models presented in previous working reports. The estimation is done using a GIS-based toolbox called UNTAMO. The future surface water bodies are estimated in 10 000 years' time span with 1000 years' intervals for the safety assessment of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site. In the report a brief overview on the techniques used for probabilistic terrain modelling, land uplift modelling and hydrological modelling are presented first. The latter part of the report describes the results of the modelling effort. The main features of the future landscape - the four lakes forming in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island - are identified and the probabilistic model of the shoreline displacement is presented. The area and volume of the four lakes is modelled in a probabilistic manner. All the simulations have been performed for three scenarios two of which are based on 10 realizations of the probabilistic digital terrain model (DTM) and 10 realizations of the probabilistic land uplift model. These two scenarios differ from each other by the eustatic curve used in the land uplift model. The third scenario employs 50 realizations of the probabilistic DTM while a deterministic land uplift model, derived solely from the current land uplift rate, is used. The results indicate that the two scenarios based on the probabilistic land uplift model behave in a similar manner while the third model overestimates past and future land uplift rates. The main features of the landscape are nevertheless similar also for the third scenario. Prediction results for the volumes of the future lakes indicate that a couple of highly probably lake formation scenarios can be identified with other

  12. Pharmacokinetic Models for the Elimination of Drinking Water Contaminants from the Body,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    report was funded in part by Interagency Agreement (lAG) 88PP8864 between the U.S. EPA and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command...level reached during infinite repeated dosing intervals MAP W Medical Removal Plan 5 Mss = Amount of contaminant in the body at steady-state n = Number...1970s (Rabinowitz, 1973; Rabino- witz et al., 1974, 1976). Dietary lead intakes of some relatively uncommon stable lead ’ sotopes were carefully

  13. Food chain model to predict westslope cutthroat trout ovary selenium concentrations from water concentrations in the Elk Valley, BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, P.; Wiramanaden, C.; Franklin, W.; Fraser, C.

    2010-01-01

    The 5 coal mines operated by Teck Coal Ltd. in British Columbia's Elk River watershed release selenium during weathering of mine waste rock. Since 1966, several field studies have been conducted in which selenium concentrations in biota were measured. They revealed that tissue concentrations are higher in aquatic biota sampled in lentic compared to lotic habitats of the watershed with similar water selenium concentrations. Two food chain models were developed based on the available data. The models described dietary selenium accumulation in the ovaries of lotic versus lentic westslope cutthroat trout (WCT), a valued aquatic resource in the Elk River system. The following 3 trophic transfer relationships were characterized for each model: (1) water to base of the food web, (2) base of the food web to benthic invertebrates, and (3) benthic invertebrates to WCT ovaries. The lotic and lentic models combined the resulting equations for each trophic transfer relationships to predict WCT ovary concentrations from water concentrations. The models were in very good agreement with the available data, despite fish movement and the fact that composite benthic invertebrate sample data were only an approximation of the feeding preferences of individual fish. Based on the observed rates of increase in water selenium concentrations throughout the watershed, the models predicted very small/slow increases in WCT ovary concentrations with time.

  14. Process and device to extract raw material, and especially uranium, from natural bodies of water, and especially the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitkamp, D.; Inden, P.

    1980-01-01

    In order to extract the raw materials contained in seawater in very low concentrations, it is proposed to have sinkable carrier bodies (diameters about 10-100 mm) pass a large layer of water in free descent, then to collect them in about 100 m depth and to direct them to subsequent treatment. The absorption or enrichment by ion exchange can be performed by material, shaping and kind of surface, appropriate variants are proposed. The transporting device for the particles should be hydraulic according to the principle of the communicating tubes. (UWI) [de

  15. Evaluation of surface water quality in aquatic bodies under the influence of uranium mining (MG, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgher, Suzelei; de Azevedo, Heliana; Ferrari, Carla Rolim; Roque, Cláudio Vítor; Ronqui, Leilane Barbosa; de Campos, Michelle Burato; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes

    2013-03-01

    The quality of the water in a uranium-ore-mining area located in Caldas (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and in a reservoir (Antas reservoir) that receives the neutralized acid solution leaching from the waste heaps generated by uranium mining was investigated. The samples were collected during four periods (October 2008, January, April and July 2009) from six sampling stations. Physical and chemical analyses were performed on the water samples, and the data obtained were compared with those of the Brazilian Environmental Standards and WHO standard. The water samples obtained from waste rock piles showed high uranium concentrations (5.62 mg L(-1)), high manganese values (75 mg L(-1)) and low average pH values (3.4). The evaluation of the water quality at the point considered the limit between the Ore Treatment Unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries and the environment (Consulta Creek) indicated contamination by fluoride, manganese, uranium and zinc. The Antas reservoir showed seasonal variations in water quality, with mean concentrations for fluoride (0.50 mg L(-1)), sulfate (16 mg L(-1)) and hardness (20 mg L(-1)) which were low in January, evidencing the effect of rainwater flowing into the system. The concentrations for fluoride, sulfate and manganese were close or above to the limits established by current legislation at the point where the treated mining effluent was discharged and downstream from this point. This study demonstrated that the effluent discharged by the UTM affected the quality of the water in the Antas reservoir, and thus the treatments currently used for effluent need to be reviewed.

  16. Yeast Estrogen Screen Assay as a Tool for Detecting Estrogenic Activity in Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Bistan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds in wastewater, surface water, groundwater and even drinking water has become a major concern worldwide, since they negatively affect wildlife and humans. Therefore, these substances should be effectively removed from effluents before they are discharged into surface water to prevent pollution of groundwater, which can be a source of drinking water. Furthermore, an efficient control of endocrine-disrupting compounds in wastewater based on biological and analytical techniques is required. In this study, a yeast estrogen screen (YES bioassay has been introduced and optimized with the aim to assess potential estrogenic activity of waters. First, assay duration, concentration of added substrate to the assay medium and wavelength used to measure the absorbance of the substrate were estimated. Several compounds, such as 17-β-estradiol, 17-α-ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, genisteine, hydrocortisone, dieldrin, atrazine, methoxychlor, testosterone and progesterone were used to verify its specificity and sensitivity. The optimized YES assay was sensitive and responded specifically to the selected estrogenic and nonestrogenic compounds in aqueous samples. Potential estrogenicity of influent and effluent samples of two wastewater treatment plants was assessed after the samples had been concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE procedure using Oasis® HLB cartridges and methanol as eluting solvent. Up to 90 % of relative estrogenic activity was detected in concentrated samples of influents to wastewater treatment plants and estrogenic activity was still present in the concentrated effluent samples. We found that the introduced YES assay is a suitable screening tool for monitoring the potential estrogenicity of effluents that are discharged into surface water.

  17. Statistics concerning the Apollo command module water landing, including the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, sucessful impact, and body X-axis loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1971-01-01

    Statistical information for the Apollo command module water landings is presented. This information includes the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, a successful impact, and body X-axis loads of various magnitudes.

  18. Lake levels and water quality in comparison to fish mercury body burdens, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Kissane, Claire; LeDuc, Jamie F.

    2017-01-18

    Within Voyageurs National Park in Minnesota, lake levels are controlled by a series of dams to support a variety of uses. Previous research indicates a link between these artificially maintained water levels, referred to as rule curves, and mercury concentrations in fish owing to the drying and rewetting of wetlands and other nearshore areas, which may release methylmercury into the water when inundated. The U.S. Geological Survey, National Park Service, and University of Wisconsin-La Crosse cooperated in a study to assess the importance of lake-level fluctuation and other factors affecting mercury concentrations in Perca flavescens (yellow perch) in the lakes of Voyageurs National Park. For this study, mercury body burdens were determined for young-of-the-year yellow perch collected from the large lakes within Voyageurs National Park during 2013–15. These mercury body burdens were compared to lake levels and water-quality constituents from the same period.Field properties and profiles of lake water quality indicated that Sand Point, Little Vermilion, and Crane Lakes were anoxic at times near the lake bottom sediments, where sulfate-reducing bacteria may convert mercury to methylmercury. The median dissolved sulfate concentration was highest in Crane Lake, the median total organic carbon concentration was highest in Sand Point Lake, and the median total phosphorus concentration was highest in Kabetogama Lake, all of which is consistent with previous research. All lakes had median chlorophyll a concentrations of 3.6 micrograms per liter or less with the exception of Kabetogama Lake, where the median concentrations were 4.3 micrograms per liter for the midlake sites and 7.1 micrograms per liter and 9.0 micrograms per liter for the nearshore sites.Mercury concentrations in sampled fish varied widely between years and among lakes, from 14.7 nanograms per gram in fish samples from Kabetogama Lake in 2015 to 178 nanograms per gram in fish samples from Crane Lake in

  19. 1D and 3D inversion of VES data to outline a fresh water zone floating over saline water body at the northwestern coast of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Massoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seawater intrusion is a widespread environmental problem in the Egyptian coastal aquifers. It affects the groundwater used in domestic and agricultural activities along these coasts. In this study, resistivity survey in the form of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES was conducted at ZAWYET EL HAWALA cultivated site, northwest coast of Egypt to outline a freshwater zone overlies the main saltwater body, and to determine the most suitable location for drilling water well for irrigation purposes. The VES data were measured at 11 stations in the studied site. After processing, the data were inverted in 1-D and 3-D schemes and the final model was presented as resistivity slices with depth. The results indicate that the effect of saltwater intrusion was observed, as low resistivity values, at 7.5 m below ground surface (bgs at the northern part of the study area (toward the Mediterranean Sea, and extends southward with increasing depth covering the whole area at about 30 m bgs. The fresh water zone shows a minimum thickness of less than 7.5 m at the northern side and a maximum thickness of about 20 m at the southern side of the area. The proper site for drilling water well tap and the freshwater zone is the location of VES6 or VES9 with a maximum well depth of about 20 m bgs. The water withdrawal from the proposed well should be controlled not to raise the main saline water table in the well site. The main sources of the freshwater zone are the rainfall and surface runoff descending from the southern tableland. Excess rainfall and surface runoff can be avoided from direct discharge to the sea by collecting them in man-made outlined trenches and re-using the stored water in irrigation during the dry seasons.

  20. Letter to the editor: Generation of self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM of randomly situated water bodies during flooding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents a brief framework based on nonlinear morphological transformations to generate a self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM in 2-dimensional space. This simple and elegant framework is implemented on a section that contains a few simulated water bodies to generate SOCCNM. This is based on a postulate that the randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes self organize during flooding process.

  1. Letter to the editor: Generation of self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM) of randomly situated water bodies during flooding process

    OpenAIRE

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    2001-01-01

    This letter presents a brief framework based on nonlinear morphological transformations to generate a self organized critical connectivity network map (SOCCNM) in 2-dimensional space. This simple and elegant framework is implemented on a section that contains a few simulated water bodies to generate SOCCNM. This is based on a postulate that the randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes self organize during flooding process.

  2. Occurrences and regional distributions of 20 antibiotics in water bodies during groundwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yeping; Li, Miao; Wu, Miaomiao; Li, Zhen; Liu, Xiang

    2015-06-15

    To develop a better understanding of the pollution conditions of antibiotics during the groundwater recharge process, a nation-wide survey was conducted across China for the first time. Overall, 15 recharge sites employing reclaimed water located in different humid, semi-humid and semi-arid regions were selected for analysis of the presence of the 20 most commonly used antibiotics, including tetracyclines (TCs), fluoroquinolones (FQNs), sulfonamides (SAs) and macrolides. All types of antibiotics were detected at concentrations of 212-4035 ng/L in reclaimed water and 19-1270 ng/L in groundwater. FQNs were the predominant antibiotics in reclaimed water samples (38%), followed by SAs (34%). In the SAs group, sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) and sulfamonomethoxine together with trimethoprim accounted for 78% of the total, while ofloxacin (OFL) and norfloxacin accounted for 90% of the FQNs, and doxycycline and oxytetracycline accounted for 82% of the TCs. The concentrations in groundwater were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than in reclaimed water. The three most common antibiotics were OFL, erythromycin (ERY) and SMZ. Similar occurrences of different group antibiotics might be evidence of the influence of groundwater recharge by reclaimed water. FQNs were predominant in northern China, while SAs were predominant in the south. Ecotoxicological risk assessment showed that SMZ, ERY and OFL had the top three hazard quotient values, indicating they should receive preferential treatment before recharging. Overall, these results provide a theoretical basis for development of a recharge standard in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Different Species Mercury in Water Body of Changshou Lake in Three Gorges Reservoir Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wei-yang; Zhang, Cheng; Zhao, Zheng; Tang, Zhen-ya; Wang, Ding-yong

    2015-08-01

    An investigation on the concentrations and the spatial distribution characteristics of different species of mercury in the water body of Changshou Lake in Three Gorges Reservoir region was carried out based on the AreGIS statistics module. The results showed that the concentration of the total mercury in Changshou Lake surface water ranged from 0.50 to 3.78 ng x L(-1), with an average of 1.51 ng x L(-1); the concentration of the total MeHg (methylmercury) ranged from 0.10 to 0.75 ng x L(-1), with an average of 0.23 ng x L(-1). The nugget effect value of total mercury in surface water (50.65%), dissolved mercury (49.80%), particulate mercury (29.94%) and the activity mercury (26.95%) were moderate spatial autocorrelation. It indicated that the autocorrelation was impacted by the intrinsic properties of sediments (such as parent materials and rocks, geological mineral and terrain), and on the other hand it was also disturbed by the exogenous input factors (such as aquaculture, industrial activities, farming etc). The nugget effect value of dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) in Changshou lake surface water (3.49%) was less than 25%, showing significant strong spatial autocorrelation. The distribution was mainly controlled by environmental factors in water. The proportion of total MeHg in total Hg in Changshou Lake water reached 30% which was the maximum ratio of the total MeHg to total Hg in freshwater lakes and rivers. It implied that mercury was easily methylated in the environment of Chanashou Lake.

  4. Environmental heterogeneity at different scales: key factors affecting caddisfly larvae assemblages in standing waters within a lowland river catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Buczyńska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the importance of environmental parameters at different spatial scales influencing the occurrence of caddisfly larvae at different levels of their organization (species, faunistic metrics and functional groups in lentic floodplain waters, in order to gain information on the ecological status and management of a small lowland river catchment. At the lowest spatial level – pH, sediment grain size, insolation and the presence of aquatic macrophytes proved significant for caddisfly larvae, at higher and the highest level (including buffer zones and the catchment – the surface areas of watercourses and the river, distance from standing waters and distance from broadleaf forests, respectively. Rheophilous hydropsychids accounted for 17% of the whole fauna of the examined water bodies. They spread from the river via water during flood in the spring. We also detected some significant correlations between functional groups of caddisfly larvae and parameters describing buffer zones and the river catchment against the sub-catchment type use. Information provided by the Caddisfly Habitat Index showed an overall  good ecological status of the river-floodplain. Caddisfly larvae may be good indicators of numerous factors and processes, but they should be studied comprehensively, at different levels of organization. Our results can be useful for preservation of biodiversity and management of river valleys. We suggest: 1 maintaining the varied structure of aquatic macrophytes in water bodies, 2 securing the long-term presence of broadleaf trees in buffer zones in order to provide detritus input, varied insolation and shelter for caddisflies, 3 limiting drainage activities in the river valley in order to save varied habitats, especially temporary ones, 4 providing heterogeneous landscape in the river catchment (homogenous land use is inappropriate. 

  5. A stochastic dynamic model to assess land use change scenarios on the ecological status of fluvial water bodies under the Water Framework Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Samantha Jane, E-mail: shughes@utad.pt [Fluvial Ecology Laboratory, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Cabral, João Alexandre, E-mail: jcabral@utad.pt [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Bastos, Rita, E-mail: ritabastos@utad.pt [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Cortes, Rui, E-mail: rcortes@utad.pt [Fluvial Ecology Laboratory, CITAB – Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real (Portugal); Vicente, Joana, E-mail: jsvicente@fc.up.pt [Centro de Investigacão em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos (CIBIO), Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Eitelberg, David, E-mail: d.a.eitelberg@vu.nl [Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yu, Huirong, E-mail: h.yu@vu.nl [Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuanmingyuan W. Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

    2016-09-15

    This method development paper outlines an integrative stochastic dynamic methodology (StDM) framework to anticipate land use (LU) change effects on the ecological status of monitored and non-monitored lotic surface waters under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Tested in the Alto Minho River Basin District in North West Portugal, the model is an innovative step towards developing a decision-making and planning tool to assess the influence impacts such as LU change and climate change on these complex systems. Comprising a series of sequential steps, a Generalized Linear Model based, competing model Multi Model Inference (MMI) approach was used for parameter estimation to identify principal land use types (distal factors) driving change in biological and physicochemical support elements (proximal factors) in monitored water bodies. The framework integrated MMI constants and coefficients of selected LU categories in the StDM simulations and spatial projections to simulate the ecological status of monitored and non-monitored lotic waterbodies in the test area under 2 scenarios of (1) LU intensification and (2) LU extensification. A total of 100 simulations were run for a 50 year period for each scenario. Spatially dynamic projections of WFD metrics were obtained, taking into account the occurrence of stochastic wildfire events which typically occur in the study region and are exacerbated by LU change. A marked projected decline to “Moderate” ecological status for most waterbodies was detected under intensification but little change under extensification; only a few waterbodies fell to “moderate” status. The latter scenario describes the actual regional socio-economic situation of agricultural abandonment due to rural poverty, partly explaining the projected lack of change in ecological status. Based on the WFD “one out all out” criterion, projected downward shifts in ecological status were due to physicochemical support elements, namely increased

  6. Adaptive re-tracking algorithm for retrieval of water level variations and wave heights from satellite altimetry data for middle-sized inland water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Lebedev, Sergey; Soustova, Irina; Rybushkina, Galina; Papko, Vladislav; Baidakov, Georgy; Panyutin, Andrey

    One of the recent applications of satellite altimetry originally designed for measurements of the sea level [1] is associated with remote investigation of the water level of inland waters: lakes, rivers, reservoirs [2-7]. The altimetry data re-tracking algorithms developed for open ocean conditions (e.g. Ocean-1,2) [1] often cannot be used in these cases, since the radar return is significantly contaminated by reflection from the land. The problem of minimization of errors in the water level retrieval for inland waters from altimetry measurements can be resolved by re-tracking satellite altimetry data. Recently, special re-tracking algorithms have been actively developed for re-processing altimetry data in the coastal zone when reflection from land strongly affects echo shapes: threshold re-tracking, The other methods of re-tracking (threshold re-tracking, beta-re-tracking, improved threshold re-tracking) were developed in [9-11]. The latest development in this field is PISTACH product [12], in which retracking bases on the classification of typical forms of telemetric waveforms in the coastal zones and inland water bodies. In this paper a novel method of regional adaptive re-tracking based on constructing a theoretical model describing the formation of telemetric waveforms by reflection from the piecewise constant model surface corresponding to the geography of the region is considered. It was proposed in [13, 14], where the algorithm for assessing water level in inland water bodies and in the coastal zone of the ocean with an error of about 10-15 cm was constructed. The algorithm includes four consecutive steps: - constructing a local piecewise model of a reflecting surface in the neighbourhood of the reservoir; - solving a direct problem by calculating the reflected waveforms within the framework of the model; - imposing restrictions and validity criteria for the algorithm based on waveform modelling; - solving the inverse problem by retrieving a tracking point

  7. Model assessment of additional contamination of water bodies as a result of wildfires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, Yu I; Navumau, A D; Nikitin, A N; Brown, J; Dowdall, M

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires and wild fires are recognized as a possible cause of resuspension and redistribution of radioactive substances when occurring on lands contaminated with such materials, and as such are a matter of concern within the regions of Belarus and the Ukraine which were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Modelling the effects of such fires on radioactive contaminants is a complex matter given the number of variables involved. In this paper, a probabilistic model was developed using empirical data drawn from the Polessie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve (PSRER), Belarus, and the Maximum Entropy Method. Using the model, it was possible to derive estimates of the contribution of fire events to overall variability in the levels of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu in ground air as well as estimates of the deposition of these radionuclides to specific water bodies within the contaminated areas of Belarus. Results indicate that fire events are potentially significant redistributors of radioactive contaminants within the study area and may result in additional contamination being introduced to water bodies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effectiveness of Whole Body Cryotherapy Compared to Cold Water Immersion: Implications for Sport and Exercise Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Holmes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryotherapy is the process of cooling the body, is typically used therapeutically, and is often used as a method of recovery relative to sport and exercise performance.  The purpose of this review is to compare the current literature on WBC to that of CWI and determine whether WBC provides any additional enhancements for sport and exercise recovery. These include tissue temperature reduction, markers of muscle damage, markers of inflammation, and parasympathetic reactivation. Method: Common methods of cryotherapy include cold water immersion (CWI, ice packs, ice massages, and gel or cooling creams. CWI is the most common method among athletes; however, a new form of cryotherapy, known as whole-body cryotherapy (WBC, has recently emerged.  Since its introduction, WBC has grown in popularity among practitioners and athletes. WBC involves short exposures (generally between 2-4 minutes to very cold air (-100o C to -140o C in a controlled room and setting. Furthermore, many of the studies on WBC were observational and did not contain a control group. Conclusion: Despite its growing popularity, the alleged benefits of WBC are largely based on anecdotal evidence as randomized, clinically-controlled studies regarding its efficacy are limited.  Keywords: cryotherapy, cold water immersion, exercise, recovery, muscle damage, inflammation

  9. Water exercise in coronary artery disease patients, effects on heart rate variability, and body composition: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiogbé, Elie; Ferreira, Rafaela; Sindorf, Márcio Antônio Gonçalves; Tavares, Silvia Aparecida; de Souza, Keiti Passoni; de Castro Cesar, Marcelo; Lopes, Charles Ricardo; Moreno, Marlene Aparecida

    2018-03-14

    It is important to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of water-based training programs in order to prescribe it as an alternative in cardiac rehabilitation for patients who have coronary artery disease (CAD). In these patients, autonomic dysfunction is an important physiological change strongly associated with adverse outcomes, morbidity, and mortality. Given that the beneficial effects of physical training in CAD patients have been traditionally evidenced with programs involving land-based aerobic exercises, this study aims to evaluate the effects of water aerobic exercise training (WAET) on the autonomic modulation of heart rate (HR) and body composition, in the rehabilitation of CAD patients. Twenty-six male subjects with CAD were randomly divided into a training group (n = 14), submitted to the WAET, and a control group (n = 12). The WAET consisted of 3 weekly sessions on alternate days, totalling 48 sessions. The analysis of HR variability was used to evaluate the autonomic modulation of HR, from the recording of R-R intervals for 15 min, at rest in the supine position, and the body composition was evaluated through the bioelectrical impedance analysis. Only the training group participants had improvement in the HR variability indices; patterns without variation decreased (0V, p = .005) and an increase of patterns of two different variations (p exercise training strategy in cardiac rehabilitation programs. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Natural inactivation of phosphorus by aluminum in atmospherically acidified water bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Ulrich, K. U.; Hejzlar, Josef; Borovec, Jakub; Stuchlík, E.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 16 (2001), s. 3783-3790 ISSN 0043-1354 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0063 Grant - others:EC EMERGE(XE) EVK1-CT-1999-00032; BMBF(DE) 02WT9315/0 Keywords : lakes and reservoirs * acidification * pH gradients Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.376, year: 2001

  11. Computer modelling of technogenic thermal pollution zones in large water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshakova, Ya N.; Lyubimova, T. P.

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, the thermal pollution zones created due to discharge of heated water from thermal power plants are investigated using the example of the Permskaya Thermal Power Plant (Permskaya TPP or Permskaya GRES), which is one of the largest thermal power plants in Europe. The study is performed for different technological and hydrometeorological conditions. Since the vertical temperature distribution in such wastewater reservoirs is highly inhomogeneous, the computations are performed in the framework of 3D model.

  12. Study of gases and volatiles in samples of underground water bodies in the State of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, N.; Segovia, N.; Cisniega, G.; Tamez, E.

    2000-01-01

    It was realized a preliminary study of radon and volatile organic compounds (VOC ) in spring water of the State of Mexico. The radon was determined by the liquid scintillation method and the VOC by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy. The radon concentration range was between 0.50 - 4.42 KBq/m 3 . Its were found some VOC of probably anthropogenic origin. (Author)

  13. Existing Condition of Plankton in the Water Body of Muria NPP Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norma-Afiati; Yarianto-S-Budi-Susilo; Mauritz-L- Tobing; Heni-Susiati

    2007-01-01

    NPP development project is predicted have a potential impact to the water ecosystem. The source of impact is the activities at the both construction and operation stage. The scale of impact will be depending on the existing condition compared to the environmental condition changes after the project activity. Plankton is the organisms that have the significant role in terms of food chain and they are sensitive to the environmental change. Phytoplankton is the food producer in the water ecosystem; meanwhile zooplankton is the first level of consumer. The method used in this work was random sampling. Plankton sampling was using plankton net. Identification for micro-organism used microscope, while for larger organism used binocular. Calculation of abundance and species diversity index used Shannon formula. The result showed that in the vicinity of Ujung Lemahabang Site was found about 23 species of phytoplankton; number of marine phytoplankton was more than that of the fresh water ecosystem, trend of zooplankton population follows phytoplankton trend. (author)

  14. Tritium as a Tracer for the Discrimination of Water Bodies in the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerjürgens, Jens; Badewien, Thomas; Sültenfuß, Jürgen; Zielinski, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Tritium (3H) in the atmosphere has declined to natural levels, after above ground nuclear weapon tests ended five decades ago. Currently tritium is present in the marine environment of the North Sea mainly due to liquid discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants (NRP) in La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) and different nuclear power plants (NPP) discharging their effluent to the English Channel or directly into the North Sea. This work deals with seawater samples collected in the German Bight in October 2014 onboard the research vessel Heincke that were analyzed for tritium activity concentration. The major research question of this study is the characterization of different water masses due to their tritium activity concentration. Tritium activity concentration in the coastal area is very high compared to samples taken in the central German Bight. Especially samples from the estuaries of the Elbe, Weser and Ems show high tritium activity concentrations. In correlation with salinity values, riverine freshwater masses were discriminated from oceanic influenced water masses. Activity concentrations from the coastal areas to the central bight are characterized by an exponentially decreasing gradient. It is shown that tritium can be utilized as a tracer for the discrimination of riverine freshwater from oceanic water masses.

  15. Evaluation of Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for the Assessment of Extracellular Body Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören Weyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS measurements to detect body fluid status. The multifrequency impedance measurements were performed in five female pigs. Animals were connected to an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation device during a lung disease experiment and fluid balance was recorded. Every 15 min the amount of fluid infusion and the weight of the urine drainage bag was recorded. From the fluid intake and output, the fluid balance was calculated. These data were compared with values calculated from a mathematical model, based on the extracellular tissue resistance and the Hanai Mixture theory. The extracellular tissue resistance was also measured with BIS. These experimental results strongly support the feasibility and clinical value of BIS for in vivo assessment of the hydration status.

  16. Indirect prediction of total body water content in healthy adult Beagles by single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguiyan-Colliard, Laurence; Daumas, Caroline; Bousbiat, Sana; Jaffrin, Michel; Cardot, Philippe; Grandjean, Dominique; Priymenko, Nathalie; Nguyen, Patrick; Roux, Françoise

    2015-06-01

    To develop equations for prediction of total body water (TBW) content in unsedated dogs by combining impedance (resistance and reactance) and morphological variables and to compare the results of those equations with TBW content determined by deuterium dilution (TBW(d)). 26 healthy adult Beagles. TBW content was determined directly by deuterium dilution and indirectly with equations developed from measurements obtained by use of a portable bioelectric impedance device and morphological variables including body length, height, weight, and thoracic and abdominal circumferences. Impedance and morphological data from 16 of the 26 dogs were used to determine coefficients for the following 2 equations: TBW(1) = -0.019 (BL(2)/R) + -0.199 (RC + AC) + 0.996 W + 0.081 H + 12.31; and TBW(2) = 0.048 (BL(2)/R) + -0.144 (RC + AC) + 0.777 W + 0.066 H + 0.031 X + 7.47, where AC is abdominal circumference, H is height, BL is body length, R is resistance, RC is rib cage circumference, W is body weight, and × is reactance. Results for TBW(1) (R(2)(1) = 0.843) and TBW(2) (R(2)(2) = 0.816) were highly correlated with the TBW(d). When the equations were validated with data from the remaining 10 dogs, the respective mean differences between TBW(d) and TBW(1) and TBW(2) were 0.17 and 0.11 L, which equated to a nonsignificant underestimation of TBW content by 2.4% and 1.6%, respectively. Results indicated that impedance and morphological data can be used to accurately estimate TBW content in adult Beagles. This method of estimating TBW content is less expensive and easier to perform than is measurement of TBW(d), making it appealing for daily use in veterinary practice.

  17. Novel Algorithms for Retrieval of Hydrology and Ice Regimes of Middle-sized Inland Water Bodies from Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Y. I.; Rybushkina, G. V.; Kuznetsova, A. M.; Baidakov, G. A.; Soustova, I.

    2014-12-01

    A novel method of regional adaptive re-tracking based on constructing a theoretical model describing the formation of telemetric waveforms by reflection from the piecewise constant model surface corresponding to the geography of the region is considered. The algorithm includes four consecutive steps: a) constructing a local piecewise model of a reflecting surface in the neighbourhood of the reservoir; b) solving a direct problem by calculating the reflected waveforms within the framework of the model; c) imposing restrictions and validity criteria for the algorithm based on waveform modelling; d) solving the inverse problem by retrieving a tracking point by the improved threshold algorithm. The results obtained on the basis of standard algorithm and method for adaptive re-tracking at Rybinsk , Gorky, Kuibyshev, Saratov and Volgograd reservoirs and middle-sized lakes of Russia: Chany, Segozero, Hanko, Onego, Beloye are compared to each other and to the field data of hydrological stations in reservoirs and lakes. The possibility of determination of significant wave height (SWH) in the lakes through a two-step adaptive retracking is investigated. Comparing results of retracting of SGDR data and ground measurements shows, that retrieving wave parameters in medium sized water bodies still meets difficulties. The direction of improvement of the existing algorithm is associated with comprehensive use of altimetry data, field studies and numerical modeling of high resolution. A simple method for timing of water freezing and ice break-up in lakes based on analysis of along-track dependencies of brightness temperatures at 18.7 and 34 GHz registered by microwave radiometer of altimetry satellite Jason-2. Comparison with in situ data of Russian Register of hydraulic structures on the example of reservoirs of the Volga River and the Don River confirms ability of the proposed method to determine quantitatively the freezing and break-up times for middle-sized inland water bodies.

  18. Abating coal tar seepage into surface water bodies using sheet piles with sealed interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingwood, B.I.; Boscardin, M.D.; Murdock, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    A former coal tar processing facility processed crude coal tar supplied from manufactured gas plants in the area. Coal-tar-contaminated ground water from the site was observed seeping through an existing timber bulkhead along a tidal river and producing a multicolored sheen on the surface of the river. As part of a short-term measure to abate the seepage into the river, 64-m long anchored sheet pile wall with sheet pile wing walls at each end was constructed inland of the of the timber bulkhead. The sheet piles extended to low-permeability soils at depth and the interlocks of the sheet piles were provided with polyurethane rubber seals. Based on postconstruction observations for leakage and sheens related to leakage, the steel sheet piles with polyurethane rubber interlock seals appeared to provide a successful seal and abate coal-tar-contaminated ground water seepage into the river. The tie rod penetration sealing proved to be a more problematic detail, but through several postconstruction grouting episodes, an effective seal was produced

  19. ICHTHYOFAUNA OF WATER BODIES OF THE NATIONAL NATURE PARK “TUZLA LAGOONS” AND ITS COMMERCIAL FISHERIES EXPLOITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shekk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study of the current species diversity of fish fauna in the water bodies included in the National Park “Tuzla lagoons”, to assess the perspectives of their commercial fisheries exploitation. Methodology. Collection of ichthyological material was performed in different seasons of 2011–2014 across the entire area of lagoons and coastal zone of the Black Sea included in the National Nature Park “Tuzla lagoons”. During commercial fish harvest, the material was collected from commercial fishing gear (gillnets, traps, hoop nets, beach seines. In fall, during the work of the fish catch-release channel, we analyzed the data describing the species composition, abundance and length-weight characteristics of fish migrating through the channel in the sea. We used the method of average representative sampling. During the closed period, ichthyologic material for the analysis was collected from the survey fishing gears. All catches were sorted by species composition. We recorded the total catch and the ratio of different species. Collection and processing of data were carried out using generally accepted methods. Findings. It 2011–2014, 72 fish species belonging to 30 families were detected in waters included in the National Nature Park “Tuzla lagoons”: 58 species in the coastal zone of the sea, 28 species in Dzhenshei and Maly Sasyk, 31 species in Tuzla lagoons. Among the fish detected in sea and freshwaters of the National Nature Park “Tuzla lagoons”, 6 species are listed in the Red Book of Ukraine, 7 are protected by Bern Convention, 4 are lusted in the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, and 16 species are listed in the Red Book of the Black Sea. Before 2001, a mullet-rearing fish farm operated in Tuzla lagoons. Its fish productivity depended on the intensity and amounts of stocking which were determined by the regime of the work of lagoon–sea channels, state of natural

  20. The method of neutron imaging as a tool for the study of the dynamics of water movement in wet aramid-based ballistic body armour panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifler, Felix A.; Lehmann, Eberhard H.; Frei, Gabriel; May, Hans; Rossi, René

    2006-07-01

    A new non-destructive method based on neutron imaging (neutron radiography) to determine the exact water content in aramid-based soft body armour panels is presented. While investigating the ballistic resistance of aramid-based body armour panels under a wet condition, it is important to precisely determine their water content and its chronological development. Using the presented method, the influence of water amount and location on impact testing as well as its time dependence was shown. In the ballistic panels used, spreading of water strongly depended on the kind of quilting. Very fast water migration could be observed when the panels were held vertically. Some first results regarding the water distribution in wet panels immediately after the impact are presented. On the basis of the presented results, requirements for a standard for testing the performance of ballistic panels in the wet state are deduced.

  1. Boxfish swimming paradox resolved: forces by the flow of water around the body promote manoeuvrability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, S; van Manen, K; Marcroft, T A; Alfaro, M E; Stamhuis, E J

    2015-02-06

    The shape of the carapace protecting the body of boxfishes has been attributed an important hydrodynamic role in drag reduction and in providing automatic, flow-direction realignment and is therefore used in bioinspired design of cars. However, tight swimming-course stabilization is paradoxical given the frequent, high-performance manoeuvring that boxfishes display in their spatially complex, coral reef territories. Here, by performing flow-tank measurements of hydrodynamic drag and yaw moments together with computational fluid dynamics simulations, we reverse several assumptions about the hydrodynamic role of the boxfish carapace. Firstly, despite serving as a model system in aerodynamic design, drag-reduction performance was relatively low compared with more generalized fish morphologies. Secondly, the current theory of course stabilization owing to flow over the boxfish carapace was rejected, as destabilizing moments were found consistently. This solves the boxfish swimming paradox: destabilizing moments enhance manoeuvrability, which is in accordance with the ecological demands for efficient turning and tilting. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. A Multi-Stage Ultra-Endurance Run over 1,200 KM Leads to a Continuous Accumulation of Total Body Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Duff, Brida; Schulze, Ingo; Kohler, Götz

    2008-01-01

    We determined whether ultra-runners in a multi-stage ultra- endurance run lose body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass or total body water in a descriptive field study at the 'Deutschlandlauf' 2007 a 1,200 km run within 17 consecutive days with 10 male non-professional Caucasian ultra-runners (mean ± SD, 43.8 ± 6.2 years, 73.8 ± 6.0 kg body mass, 1.77 ± 0.05 m body height, BMI 23.3 ± 1.8 kg·m(-2)). Body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass and percent total body water were determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis and the anthropometric method before the race and after each stage. In addition, urinary specific gravity was measured in order to quantify hydration status. Fat mass (bioelectrical impedance analysis) decreased by 3.9 kg (p runners in a multi-stage ultra-endurance event over 1,200 km, with 17 consecutive stages, showed a cumulative increase in percent total body water, a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in fat mass, depending upon the method used. We presume that the eccentric component of running leads to damage of skeletal muscle, leading to rhabdomyolysis, with impaired renal function. Key pointsUltra-runners in a multi-stage ultra-endurance run over 1,200 km in 17 consecutive stages suffered a decrease in fat mass, skeletal muscle mass and an increase in total body water, whereas overall body mass showed no change.

  3. Apparatus for collecting oil slick from a body of water. [Conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Voss, E.A.

    A system for removing oil slicks from water surfaces such as the ocean, harbors, lakes, or ponds uses an endless conveyor, for example, the surface of a drum or of a belt. The surface contacts the oil slick which adheres to it. The slick is conveyed by the conveyor to a means for its removal such as a wringer. The invention uses a flexible, relatively limber, flat blade-like cover for the conveyor such as the well-known artificial grass Astroturf. The conveyor overhangs and presses against the top of the oil slick so that the oil slick can adhere to the conveyor. A second convey on aft of the first conveyor extends below the elevation of the first conveyor so that they form a wedgeshaped path in which the oil tends to be trapped and drawn. The system can be mounted to floating support means and for moving it along the oil slick.

  4. Argentine development of the ARCAL RLA/1/010 Project on the improvement of the regional management of the pollution of water bodies contaminated by metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicerone, Daniel S.; Sanchez Proano, Paula; Magallanes, Jorge F.; Nader, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    The countries of the Latin American region face the challenge of an adequate management of their water resources in order to satisfy not only quantitatively, but also qualitatively its different uses: irrigation, stock breeding, industrial, rural and municipal supply and recreational. The regional ARCAL project RLA/1/010, according to international recommendations (PAHO and WHO), set out to contribute to the improvement of the management of the water quality of surface water bodies. (author) [es

  5. The physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae with the increase of N and P concentrations in water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Jin-Qi; Gao, Yong-Xia; Xie, Xue-Jian

    2015-06-01

    To reveal the mechanism of submerged plants decline in progressively eutrophicated freshwaters, physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae were studied in simulation lab by measuring plant physiological indexes of chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity based on a 2 × 4 factorial design with two epiphytic conditions (with epiphytic algae and without) and four levels of N and P concentrations in water (N-P[mg.L(-1)]: 0.5, 0.05; 2.5, 0.25; 4.5, 0.45; 12.5, 1.25). Compared with control (non-presence of epiphytic algae), chlorophyll contents of V. natans were significantly decreased (p algae under any concentrations of N and P in water bodies. While the presence of epiphytic algae induced peroxidation of membrane lipids, MDA contents of V. natans had significantly increased (p algae in the treatments of T2 and T3 in the whole culture process by comparing with control, sometimes reaching an extremely significant level (p algae (p algae on chlorophyll content and SOD activity in the leaves of V. natans were increased at first and then decreased with the concentrations of N and P in water, and MDA content became higher with the increase of N and P. concentrations. Repeated measurement data testing showed that the effects of epiphytic algae on the chlorophyll content and MDA content and SOD activity were significant, respectively (p algae were combining with effects of concentrations of N and P (p algae directly produced adverse effects on physiology of V. natans and epiphytic algal biomass were positively correlated with nutrient available in the water column.

  6. LakeSST: Lake Skin Surface Temperature in French inland water bodies for 1999-2016 from Landsat archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, Jordi; Reynaud, Nathalie; Rebière, Delphine; Peroux, Tiphaine; Tormos, Thierry; Danis, Pierre-Alain

    2018-04-01

    The spatial and temporal coverage of the Landsat satellite imagery make it an ideal resource for the monitoring of water temperature over large territories at a moderate spatial and temporal scale at a low cost. We used Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 archive images to create the Lake Skin Surface Temperature (LakeSST) data set, which contains skin water surface temperature data for 442 French water bodies (natural lakes, reservoirs, ponds, gravel pit lakes and quarry lakes) for the period 1999-2016. We assessed the quality of the satellite temperature measurements by comparing them to in situ measurements and taking into account the cool skin and warm layer effects. To estimate these effects and to investigate the theoretical differences between the freshwater and seawater cases, we adapted the COARE 3.0 algorithm to the freshwater environment. We also estimated the warm layer effect using in situ data. At the reservoir of Bimont, the estimated cool skin effect was about -0.3 and -0.6 °C most of time, while the warm layer effect at 0.55 m was negligible on average, but could occasionally attain several degrees, and a cool layer was often observed in the night. The overall RMSE of the satellite-derived temperature measurements was about 1.2 °C, similar to other applications of satellite images to estimate freshwater surface temperatures. The LakeSST data can be used for studies on the temporal evolution of lake water temperature and for geographical studies of temperature patterns. The LakeSST data are available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1193745.

  7. Estimating ammonium and nitrate load from septic systems to surface water bodies within ArcGIS environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Ye, Ming; Roeder, Eberhard; Hicks, Richard W.; Shi, Liangsheng; Yang, Jinzhong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a recently developed software, ArcGIS-based Nitrogen Load Estimation Toolkit (ArcNLET), for estimating nitrogen loading from septic systems to surface water bodies. The load estimation is important for managing nitrogen pollution, a world-wide challenge to water resources and environmental management. ArcNLET simulates coupled transport of ammonium and nitrate in both vadose zone and groundwater. This is a unique feature that cannot be found in other ArcGIS-based software for nitrogen modeling. ArcNLET is designed to be flexible for the following four simulating scenarios: (1) nitrate transport alone in groundwater; (2) ammonium and nitrate transport in groundwater; (3) ammonium and nitrate transport in vadose zone; and (4) ammonium and nitrate transport in both vadose zone and groundwater. With this flexibility, ArcNLET can be used as an efficient screening tool in a wide range of management projects related to nitrogen pollution. From the modeling perspective, this paper shows that in areas with high water table (e.g. river and lake shores), it may not be correct to assume a completed nitrification process that converts all ammonium to nitrate in the vadose zone, because observation data can indicate that substantial amount of ammonium enters groundwater. Therefore, in areas with high water table, simulating ammonium transport and estimating ammonium loading, in addition to nitrate transport and loading, are important for avoiding underestimation of nitrogen loading. This is demonstrated in the Eggleston Heights neighborhood in the City of Jacksonville, FL, USA, where monitoring well observations included a well with predominant ammonium concentrations. The ammonium loading given by the calibrated ArcNLET model can be 10-18% of the total nitrogen load, depending on various factors discussed in the paper.

  8. Radar Satellite Imagery and Automatic Detection of Water Bodies : Radarski satelitski snimci i automatsko otkrivanje vodenih površina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Čotar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available System for mapping of water bodies in Slovenia and its immediate neighbourhood with Sentinel-1 radar satellites have implemented. Algorithms automatically detect presence of new data in the archive, download the data, analyse it, write the results, and upload them to a web portal. New acquisitions are currently available every six days, but this time will be halved when the second Sentinel-1 starts delivering the data. : Implementiran je sistem za kartiranje vodenih površina u Sloveniji i u neposrednoj blizini sa Sentinel-1 radarskim satelitima. Algoritmi automatski otkrivaju prisutnost novih podataka u arhivu, preuzimaju podatake, analiziraju, objavljuju rezultate, te ih prenose na web-portal. Nove akvizicije su trenutno dostupne svakih šest dana, ali ovaj puta će vrijeme biti prepolovljeno, kada drugi Sentinel-1 počne sa isporukom podataka.

  9. Survival and behavior of Chinese mystery snails (Bellamya chinensis) in response to simulated water body drawdowns and extended air exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unstad, Kody M.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Kill, Robert A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Nonnative invasive mollusks degrade aquatic ecosystems and induce economic losses worldwide. Extended air exposure through water body drawdown is one management action used for control. In North America, the Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an invasive aquatic snail with an expanding range, but eradication methods for this species are not well documented. We assessed the ability of B. chinensis to survive different durations of air exposure, and observed behavioral responses prior to, during, and following desiccation events. Individual B. chinensis specimens survived air exposure in a laboratory setting for > 9 weeks, and survivorship was greater among adults than juveniles. Several B. chinensis specimens responded to desiccation by sealing their opercula and/or burrowing in mud substrate. Our results indicate that drawdowns alone may not be an effective means of eliminating B. chinensis. This study lays the groundwork for future management research that may determine the effectiveness of drawdowns when combined with factors such as extreme temperatures, predation, or molluscicides.

  10. Influence of Posture and Frequency Modes in Total Body Water Estimation Using Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy in Boys and Adult Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Wishart, Connie; Hills, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine differences in total body water (TBW) measured using single-frequency (SF) and multi-frequency (MF) modes of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) in children and adults measured in different postures using the deuterium (2H) dilution technique as the reference. Twenty-three boys and 26 adult males underwent assessment of TBW using the dilution technique and BIS measured in supine and standing positions using two frequencies of the SF mode (50 kHz and 100 kHz) and the MF mode. While TBW estimated from the MF mode was comparable, extra-cellular fluid (ECF) and intra-cellular fluid (ICF) values differed significantly (p impedance. PMID:24803099

  11. Phosphate Leaching from Green Roof Substrates—Can Green Roofs Pollute Urban Water Bodies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Karczmarczyk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs are an effective stormwater measure due to high water retention capacity and the ability of delaying stormwater runoff. However, low importance is still given to the pollutant leaching potential of substrates used in green roof construction. The aim of the study is to estimate the concentrations and loads of P-PO43− in runoff from extensive and intensive substrates. To achieve this goal, several commonly-used fresh substrates were analyzed for P-PO43− leaching potential in different scale experiments, from laboratory batch tests, leaching column experiments, and long-term monitoring of open air green roof containers. The results of the study confirmed that fresh green roof substrates contain phosphorus in significant amounts of 17–145 mg∙P-PO43−/kg and, thus, can contribute to eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems. High correlation between phosphate content estimated by HCl extraction and cumulative load in leachate tests suggests that the batch HCl extraction test can be recommended for the comparison and selection of substrates with low potential P leaching. Volume-weighted mean concentrations and UALs of P-PO43− leaching from fresh substrates were higher in cases of intensive substrates, but there was no clear relationship between substrate type and the observed P-PO43− concentration range. To avoid increasing eutrophication of urban receivers the implementation of P reduction measures is strongly recommended.

  12. Evaluation of sedimentation rates by 210-Pb, in water bodies of semiarid and arid area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afif, H.; Bouhlassa, S.

    1994-01-01

    As Morocco is located in semiarid to arid area, it is subject to irregular intensity and quantity of rainfall regime. So, its reservoirs suffer from severe siltation problems resulting from severe erosion phenomenon. The dating method based on an excess of 210-Pb in reservoir sediments, successfully used in areas of low erosion rate, cannot be extend to our case owing the dilution of low concentration of atmospheric 210-Pb in high sediment flux. Whenever used, this method leads to evaluate the siltation rate, which is a very interesting parameter in dam water management. An alternative to this method has been developed, based on the variation of 210-Pb sediment cores. Its application to a set of sediment cores indicates that 210-Pb is strongly and preferentially adsorbed in the clay. This could be used, as an indication of the annual deposition limits, and to determine variations of sedimentation rates in time and space in the reservoir. 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 ref. (author)

  13. BMAA in shellfish from two Portuguese transitional water bodies suggests the marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum as a potential BMAA source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Sandra; Costa, Pedro Reis; Moita, Teresa; Eriksson, Johan; Rasmussen, Ulla; Rydberg, Sara Jonasson

    2014-07-01

    The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and its putative role in multiple neurodegenerative diseases have been intensely studied since 2005 when the toxin was discovered to be produced by worldwide-distributed cyanobacterial species inhabiting terrestrial, marine, brackish, and freshwater ecosystems. Recently, BMAA production was also associated with one eukaryotic group, namely, diatoms, raising questions about its production by other phytoplanktonic groups. To test for BMAA bioavailability in ecosystems where abundant phytoplanktonic blooms regularly occur, samples of filter-feeding shellfish were collected in two Portuguese transitional water bodies. BMAA content in cockles (Cerastoderma edule) collected weekly between September and November 2009 from Ria de Aveiro and at least once a month from May to November from Ria Formosa, fluctuated from 0.079±0.055 to 0.354±0.066μg/g DW and from below the limit of detection to 0.434±0.110μg/g DW, respectively. Simultaneously to BMAA occurrence in cockles, paralytic shellfish toxins were detected in shellfish as a result of Gymnodinium catenatum blooms indicating a possible link between this marine dinoflagellate and BMAA production. Moreover, considerable high BMAA levels, 0.457±0.186μg/g DW, were then determined in a laboratory grown culture of G. catenatum. This work reveals for the first time the presence of BMAA in shellfish from Atlantic transitional water bodies and consubstantiate evidences of G. catenatum as one of the main sources of BMAA in these ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Water-soluble chlorophyll-binding proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana and Raphanus sativus target the endoplasmic reticulum body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Aizawa, Kyoko; Nakayama, Katsumi; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-20

    Non-photosynthetic chlorophyll (Chl) proteins called water-soluble Chl-binding proteins are distributed in Brassicaceae plants. Brassica oleracea WSCP (BoWSCP) and Lepidium virginicum WSCP (LvWSCP) are highly expressed in leaves and stems, while Arabidopsis thaliana WSCP (AtWSCP) and Raphanus sativus WSCP (RshWSCP) are highly transcribed in floral organs. BoWSCP and LvWSCP exist in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) body. However, the subcellular localization of AtWSCP and RshWSCP is still unclear. To determine the subcellular localization of these WSCPs, we constructed transgenic plants expressing Venus-fused AtWSCP or RshWSCP. Open reading frames corresponding to full-length AtWSCP and RshWSCP were cloned and ligated between the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and Venus, a gene encoding a yellow fluorescent protein. We introduced the constructs into A. thaliana by the floral dip method. We succeeded in constructing a number of transformants expressing Venus-fused chimeric AtWSCP (AtWSCP::Venus) or RshWSCP (RshWSCP::Venus). We detected fluorescence derived from the chimeric proteins using a fluorescence microscope system. In cotyledons, fluorescence derived from AtWSCP::Venus and RshWSCP::Venus was detected in spindle structures. The spindle structures altered their shape to a globular form under blue light excitation. In true leaves, the number of spindle structures was drastically reduced. These observations indicate that the spindle structure was the ER body. AtWSCP and RshWSCP have the potential for ER body targeting like BoWSCP and LvWSCP.

  15. Influence of Posture and Frequency Modes in Total Body Water Estimation Using Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy in Boys and Adult Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Kagawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine differences in total body water (TBW measured using single-frequency (SF and multi-frequency (MF modes of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS in children and adults measured in different postures using the deuterium (2H dilution technique as the reference. Twenty-three boys and 26 adult males underwent assessment of TBW using the dilution technique and BIS measured in supine and standing positions using two frequencies of the SF mode (50 kHz and 100 kHz and the MF mode. While TBW estimated from the MF mode was comparable, extra-cellular fluid (ECF and intra-cellular fluid (ICF values differed significantly (p < 0.01 between the different postures in both groups. In addition, while estimated TBW in adult males using the MF mode was significantly (p < 0.01 greater than the result from the dilution technique, TBW estimated using the SF mode and prediction equation was significantly (p < 0.01 lower in boys. Measurement posture may not affect estimation of TBW in boys and adult males, however, body fluid shifts may still occur. In addition, technical factors, including selection of prediction equation, may be important when TBW is estimated from measured impedance.

  16. Validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis for measuring changes in body water and percent fat after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, Elizabeth M; Strain, Gladys; King, Wendy C; Yu, Wenwen; Lin, Susan; Goodpaster, Bret; Thornton, John; Courcoulas, Anita; Pomp, Alfons; Gallagher, Dympna

    2014-06-01

    Few studies have validated bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) following bariatric surgery. We examined agreement of BIA (Tanita 310) measures of total body water (TBW) and percent body fat (%fat) before (T0) and 12 months (T12) after bariatric surgery, and change between T0 and T12 with reference measures: deuterium oxide dilution for TBW and three-compartment model (3C) for %fat in a subset of participants (n = 50) of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2. T0 to T12 median (IQR) change in deuterium TBW and 3C %fat was -6.4 L (6.4 L) and -14.8% (13.4%), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between deuterium and BIA determined TBW [median (IQR) difference: T0 -0.1 L (7.1 L), p = 0.75; T12 0.2 L (5.7 L), p = 0.35; Δ 0.35 L(6.3 L), p = 1.0]. Compared with 3C, BIA underestimated %fat at T0 and T12 [T0 -3.3 (5.6), p obese adults. However, clinically meaningful differences in the accuracy of BIA between individuals exist.

  17. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D.; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89–93% and 24–27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82–89%, 7.7–9.1% and 48–50%, 55–59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation. PMID:24235784

  18. Entrapment of a volatile lipophilic aroma compound (d-limonene) in spray dried water-washed oil bodies naturally derived from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D; Linforth, Robert; Trophardy, Gil; Gray, David

    2013-11-01

    Oil bodies are natural emulsions that can be extracted from oil seeds and have previously been shown to be stable after spray drying. The aim of the study was to evaluate for the first time if spray dried water-washed oil bodies are an effective carrier for volatile lipophilic actives (the flavour compound d-limonene was used as an example aroma compound). Water-washed oil bodies were blended with maltodextrin and d-limonene and spray dried using a Buchi B-191 laboratory spray dryer. Lipid and d-limonene retention was 89-93% and 24-27%. Samples were compared to processed emulsions containing sunflower oil and d-limonene and stabilised by either lecithin or Capsul. Lecithin and Capsul processed emulsions had a lipid and d-limonene retention of 82-89%, 7.7-9.1% and 48-50%, 55-59% respectively indicating that water-washed oil bodies could retain the most lipids and Capsul could retain the most d-limonene. This indicates that whilst additional emulsifiers may be required for future applications of water-washed oil bodies as carriers of lipophilic actives, oil bodies are excellent agents for lipid encapsulation.

  19. Effect of Nordic Walking and Water Aerobics Training on Body Composition and the Blood Flow in Lower Extremities in Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasiński Ryszard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nordic walking and water aerobics are very popular forms of physical activity in the elderly population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of regular health training on the venous blood flow in lower extremities and body composition in women over 50 years old. Twenty-four women of mean age 57.9 (± 3.43 years, randomly divided into three groups (Nordic walking, water aerobics, and non-training, participated in the study. The training lasted 8 weeks, with one-hour sessions twice a week. Dietary habits were not changed. Before and after training vein refilling time and the function of the venous pump of the lower extremities were measured by photoplethysmography. Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance. Eight weeks of Nordic walking training improved the venous blood flow in lower extremities and normalized body composition in the direction of reducing chronic venous disorder risk factors. The average values of the refilling time variable (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, respectively decreased in both the right and the left leg. After training a statistically significant increase in the venous pump function index was found only in the right leg (p = 0.04. A significant increase in fat-free mass, body cell mass and total body water was observed (p = 0.01, whereas body mass, the body mass index, and body fat decreased (p < 0.03. With regard to water aerobic training, no similar changes in the functions of the venous system or body composition were observed.

  20. A MULTI-STAGE ULTRA-ENDURANCE RUN OVER 1,200 KM LEADS TO A CONTINUOUS ACCUMULATION OF TOTAL BODY WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Knechtle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We determined whether ultra-runners in a multi-stage ultra- endurance run lose body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass or total body water in a descriptive field study at the 'Deutschlandlauf' 2007 a 1,200 km run within 17 consecutive days with 10 male non-professional Caucasian ultra-runners (mean ± SD, 43.8 ± 6.2 years, 73.8 ± 6.0 kg body mass, 1.77 ± 0.05 m body height, BMI 23.3 ± 1.8 kg·m-2. Body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass and percent total body water were determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis and the anthropometric method before the race and after each stage. In addition, urinary specific gravity was measured in order to quantify hydration status. Fat mass (bioelectrical impedance analysis decreased by 3.9 kg (p < 0.05, skeletal muscle mass (anthropometric method decreased by 2.0 kg (p < 0.05 whereas percent total body water increased by 6.1 % (p < 0.05 by the end of the race. Ultra-runners in a multi-stage ultra-endurance event over 1,200 km, with 17 consecutive stages, showed a cumulative increase in percent total body water, a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in fat mass, depending upon the method used. We presume that the eccentric component of running leads to damage of skeletal muscle, leading to rhabdomyolysis, with impaired renal function

  1. Effect of short-term decrease in water temperature on body temperature and involvement of testosterone in steelhead and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Go; Munakata, Arimune; Yada, Takashi; Schreck, Carl B; Noakes, David L G; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-01

    The Pacific salmonid species Oncorhynchus mykiss is separated into a migratory form (steelhead trout) and a non-migratory form (rainbow trout). A decrease in water temperature is likely a cue triggering downstream behavior in the migratory form, and testosterone inhibits onset of this behavior. To elucidate differences in sensitivity to water temperature decreases between the migratory and non-migratory forms and effect of testosterone on the sensitivity, we examined two experiments. In experiment 1, we compared changes in body temperature during a short-term decrease in water temperature between both live and dead steelhead and rainbow trout. In experiment 2, we investigated effects of testosterone on body temperature decrease in steelhead trout. Water temperature was decreased by 3°C in 30min. The body temperature of the steelhead decreased faster than that of the rainbow trout. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the decrease in body temperature between dead steelhead and rainbow trout specimens. The body temperature of the testosterone-treated steelhead trout decreased more slowly than that of control fish. Our results suggest that the migratory form is more sensitive to decreases in water temperature than the non-migratory form. Moreover, testosterone might play an inhibitory role in sensitivity to such decreases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of increased intake of skimmed milk, casein, whey or water on body composition and leptin in overweight adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2015-01-01

     weeks before start of intervention. Outcomes included leptin and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. The effects of the milk-based drinks on body composition and leptin were compared with baseline, pre-test control and water. RESULTS: Lean mass index (LMI) increased compared to baseline (all 95...... and leptin in overweight adolescents. METHODS: Subjects (n = 193) aged 12-15 years were randomized to drink 1 L d(-1) of skimmed milk, whey, casein (all milk-based drinks 35 g protein L(-1) ) or water for 12 weeks. Twenty participants dropped out. A pre-test control group of 32 adolescents was examined 12......% confidence intervals 0.05-0.50 kg m(-2) , all P ≤ 0.009) and the pre-test control group (0.044-0.247 kg m(-2) , P ≤ 0.002) for all four test drinks. Fat mass index (FMI) increased only for milk-based drink groups compared with baseline (0.15-0.67 kg m(-2) , P 

  3. Correlations between cyanobacterial density and bacterial transformation to the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state in four freshwater water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huirong; Shen, Ju; Pan, Gaoshan; Liu, Jing; Li, Jiancheng; Hu, Zhangli

    2015-10-01

    Nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton density and community composition, and the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of heterotrophic bacteria were investigated in three connected reservoirs and a small isolated lake in South China to study the relationship between biotic and abiotic factors and the VBNC state in bacteria. Nutrient concentrations in the reservoirs increased in the direction of water flow, whereas Wenshan Lake was more eutrophic. Cyanobacterial blooms occurred in all four water bodies, with differing seasonal trends and dominant species. In Xili and Tiegang Reservoirs, the VBNC ratio (percent of VBNC state bacteria over total viable bacteria) was high for most of the year and negatively correlated with cyanobacterial density. Laboratory co-culture experiments were performed with four heterotrophic bacterial species isolated from Wenshan Lake (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella peneumoniae, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus) and the dominant cyanobacterial species (Microcystis aeruginosa). For the first three bacterial species, the presence of M. aeruginosa induced the VBNC state and the VBNC ratio was positively correlated with M. aeruginosa density. However, B. cereus inhibited M. aeruginosa growth. These results demonstrate that cyanobacteria could potentially regulate the transformation to the VBNC state of waterborne bacteria, and suggest a role for bacteria in cyanobacterial bloom initiation and termination.

  4. Modeling of Regionalized Emissions (MoRE into Water Bodies: An Open-Source River Basin Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Fuchs

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An accurate budget of substance emissions is fundamental for protecting freshwater resources. In this context, the European Union asks all member states to report an emission inventory of substances for river basins. The river basin management system MoRE (Modeling of Regionalized Emissions was developed as a flexible open-source instrument which is able to model pathway-specific emissions and river loads on a catchment scale. As the reporting tool for the Federal Republic of Germany, MoRE is used to model annual emissions of nutrients, heavy metals, micropollutants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, Bis(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP, and certain pharmaceuticals. Observed loads at gauging stations are used to validate the calculated emissions. In addition to its balancing capabilities, MoRE can consider different variants of input data and quantification approaches, in order to improve the robustness of different modeling approaches and to evaluate the quality of different input data. No programming skills are required to set up and run the model. Due to its flexible modeling base, the effect of reduction measures can be assessed. Within strategic planning processes, this is relevant for the allocation of investments or the implementation of specific measures to reduce the overall pollutant emissions into surface water bodies and therefore to meet the requirements of water policy.

  5. Correlation of drinking water nutritional element levels with body composition of women aged 55-70 years living in Batman province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çetin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A growing interest in cellular targets of nutritional minerals and biochemical mechanisms has attracted the attentions of researchers towards their role in formation of obesity. However, there is no study investigating the effects of nutritional element levels of drinking water on body composition of the elderly. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of nutritional element levels in drinking water on body composition of women aged 55-70. Methods: The study population consisted of 80 participants in total, and was divided into three groups as overweight, obese and control women aged between 55-70. The bioelectric impedance device was used for measurements of body composition of the participants. Iron (Fe, copper (Cu, cobalt (Co, zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn and selenium (Se levels of drinking water were measured via plasma mass spectrometry coupled inductively. Results: It was found that Se mineral content in drinking water correlated with the body mass index of the individuals living in Batman, Turkey. Moreover, it was found that Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and Se levels of drinking water significantly correlated with the abdominal adiposity of women of 55-70. Conclusion: It may be suggested that the obesity risk may be higher in women who are between 55-70 and consume drinking water with high levels of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and especially Se.

  6. [Genetic variation of the mtDNA cyt b locus in topmouth gudgeon introduced into water bodies in the northern part of the Black Sea region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slynko, Yu V; Slynko, E E; Karpova, E P; Boltachev, A R

    2017-01-01

    The up-to-date phylogeographical distribution of the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva Temminck et Schlegel 1846 in water bodies of the Northern Black Sea region is considered. Genetic variation of mtDNA cyt b gene is analyzed. It is established that topmouth gudgeon penetrated and spread in the basins of the Dnieper and Don rivers and in water bodies of Crimea from the secondary center of its dispersion— water bodies of Central Europe. It is demonstrated that haplotypes of topmouth gudgeon in the Danube delta are the most homologous to the haplotypes in the native range of the species in China. A considerable decrease in the level of genetic variation in the populations in the Black Sea region is reported.

  7. A simple trapping method of exhaled water using an ice-cooled tube to monitor the tritium level in human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogawa, Norio; Makide, Yoshihiro

    1994-01-01

    A convenient and efficient method is developed for the trapping of water in exhaled air. A bent-V-shaped glass sampling tube was immersed in iced water and exhaled air was introduced into the tube through a plastic straw. The trapping efficiency of exhaled water was equivalent to those with more complex and troublesome methods. Using anywhere available ice, the water in exhaled air can be rapidly collected with this method and the tritium level in the body will be quickly obtained. (author)

  8. Multi isotopic and geochemical constraints on interconnection and heterogeneities of water bodies in the Adour-Garonne district (SW France) - The CARISMEAU research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrel, P.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Brenot, A.; Millot, R.; Roy, S.; Dutartre, P.; Fournier, I.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is to prevent further deterioration and protect and enhance the status of aquatic ecosystems in Europe. The success of the WFD will be mainly measured by the status of water bodies. Aims of the research project Carismeau are to provide further characterization of the groundwater bodies which have been identified as being of primary importance and/or at risk in the Adour-Garonne district (1/5 of the French territory). For that purpose, combined geochemical analysis (major and trace elements), and isotopes (δ 18 O and (δ 2 H, δ 34 S SO4 , and δ 18 O SO4 , strontium, boron, lithium, uranium and lead isotopes) are applied on one demonstrative water body named the Eocene sands aquifer. Preliminary results point out the extreme heterogeneity of water signatures between the selected water bodies but also within a single aquifer. The ongoing research will set out to demonstrate the role of lateral variation of facies and the interconnections between aquifers. (author)

  9. Fate and transport of perfluoro- and polyfluoroalkyl substances including perfluorooctane sulfonamides in a managed urban water body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tung V; Reinhard, Martin; Chen, Huiting; Gin, Karina Y-H

    2016-06-01

    Transport and fate of perfluoro- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in an urban water body that receives mainly urban runoff was investigated. Water, suspended solids, and sediment samples were collected during the monsoon (wet) and inter-monsoon (dry) season at different sites and depths. Samples were analyzed for C7 to C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylate homologues (PFCAs) (PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA), perfluorohexane, perfluorooctane, and 6:2-fluorotelomer sulfonate (PFHxS, PFOS, and 6:2FtS, respectively), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), N-ethyl FOSA (sulfluramid), N-ethyl sulfonamidoethanol (N-EtFOSE), and N-methyl and N-ethyl sulfonamidoacetic acid (N-EtFOSAA and N-MeFOSAA, respectively). Concentrations in wet samples were only slightly higher. The sum total PFAS (ΣPFAS) concentrations dissolved in the aqueous phase and sorbed to suspended solids (SS) ranged from 107 to 253 ng/L and 11 to 158 ng/L, respectively. PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, PFHxS, and PFDA contributed most (approximately 90 %) to the dissolved ΣPFASs. N-EtFOSA dominated the particulate PFAS burden in wet samples. K D values of PFOA and PFOS calculated from paired SS and water concentrations varied widely (1.4 to 13.7 and 1.9 to 98.9 for PFOA and PFOS, respectively). Field derived K D was significantly higher than laboratory K D suggesting hydrophobic PFASs sorbed to SS resist desorption. The ΣPFAS concentrations in the top sedimentary layer ranged from 8 to 42 μg/kg and indicated preferential accumulation of the strongly sorbing long-chain PFASs. The occurrence of the metabolites N-MeFOSAA, N-EtFOSAA and FOSA in the water column and sediments may have resulted from biological or photochemical transformations of perfluorooctane sulfonamide precursors while the absence of FOSA, N-EtFOSA and 6:2FtS in sediments was consistent with biotransformation.

  10. NUMERICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE GROUNDWATER LEVELS CHANGE DUE TO THE RE- AND DISCHARGE OF THE ADJACENT SURFACE WATER BODIES – PROBLEMS AND CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Trendafilov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical description of the groundwater levels change due to the re- and discharge of the adjacent surface water bodies – problems and case studies. The water exchange between the surface water bodies (rivers, lakes, seas, dams, etc. and adjacent water-bearing beds is possible if a hydraulic connection between them exists. The change of the levels of the first ones causes corresponding changes of the levels of the aquifers in the surrounding territories and vice versa. In many cases this interaction is the primary mechanism determining the groundwater regime. The aim of the present study is to examine the applicability of the most general possible analytical approach for quantitative description of the phenomena in the case of short-term changes with a significant magnitude (high waves of the level of the river of Maritsa in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The study is performed through numerical simulations/calculations, with especially composed by the authors for this work computational programs.

  11. Characterization of the permittivity of controlled porous water ice-dust mixtures to support the radar exploration of icy bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouet, Y.; Neves, L.; Sabouroux, P.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Poch, O.; Encrenaz, P.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Kofman, W.

    2016-12-01

    The internal properties of porous and icy bodies in the solar system can be investigated by ground-penetrating radars (GPRs), like the COmet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft which has sounded the interior of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Accurate constraints on the permittivity of icy media are needed for the interpretation of the data. We report novel permittivity measurements performed on water ice samples and icy mixtures with porosities in the 31-91% range. The measurements have been performed between 50 MHz and 2 GHz with a coaxial cell on a total of 38 samples with a good reproducibility. We used controlled procedures to produce fine-grained and coarse-grained ice samples with a mean diameter of 4.5 μm and 67 μm, respectively, and to prepare icy mixtures. The JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant was used as the dust component in the mixtures. The results are focused on the real-part ɛ' of the permittivity, which constrains the phase velocity of the radio waves in low-loss media. The values of ɛ' show a nondispersive behavior and are within the range of 1.1 to 2.7. They decrease with the increasing porosity Φ according to E(1 - Φ), with E equal to about 3.13 for pure water ice, and in the 3.8-7.5 range for ice-dust mixtures with a dust-to-ice volumetric ratio in the 0.1-2.8 range, respectively. These measurements are also relevant for radiometers operating in the millimeter-submillimeter domains, as suggested by the nondispersive behavior of the mixtures and of the pure components.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Acanthamoeba spp. Occurring in Water Bodies and Patients in Poland and Redefinition of Polish T16 Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Acanthamoeba genus is divided into 20 genotypes (T1-T20) on the basis of the gene encoding 18S rRNA sequence. Using of at least 2 kbp gene fragments is strongly recommended to identify new genotypes and 5% difference is commonly used as a criterion of new genotypes, however, this value is questionable. In this paper, Polish Acanthamoeba strains described earlier on the basis of ~850 bp Ami fragment of 18S rRNA gene as T4, T11 and a new T16 genotype, have been analyzed using near-complete sequence of the gene. This analysis was needed because the Ami fragment does not reveal full variability within 18S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on Ami fragment is biased by artifacts in the construction of the tree, so the fragment should not be used for identification of new putative Acanthamoeba genotypes. The analysis confirmed that the Polish sequences represent T4 and T11 genotypes and that the strains described earlier as T16 genotype are in fact a new subgroup of the T20 genotype and that this genotype should be divided into two subgroups: T20a (two strains described by [J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 62 (2015) 69]) and T20b (11 Polish strains described in this study). The T20b subgroup was isolated from both clinical samples and water bodies used by people as bathing places and there is a risk of infection for humans during contact with water. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  13. Air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and total body water to evaluate body composition in preschool-age children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropometrics and body mass index are only proxies in the evaluation of adiposity in the pediatric population. Air displacement plethysmography technology was not available for children aged 6 months to 9 years until recently. Our study was designed to test the precision of air displacement plethy...

  14. IMPACT OF JUTE RETTING ON NATIVE FISH DIVERSITY AND AQUATIC HEALTH OF ROADSIDE TRANSITORY WATER BODIES: AN ASSESSMENT IN EASTERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Ghosh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Roadside transitory water bodies being manmade depressions have a great ecological and socio-economic importance from years. The effects of agricultural runoffs, jute retting, macro-phytes infestations and inadequate rainfall in changed climate often degrade transitory water bodies’ environment while the biodiversity have impacted severely because of population pressure, over exploitation and indiscriminate use of fine meshed fishing gears as a whole. Physico-chemical and biological analysis with fish species composition, relative abundance, diversity indices like species richness, evenness and Shannon-Wiener index were carried out for pre-, during and post-jute retting season and for year mean as a whole to assess impact of jute retting on the roadside transitory water body’s environmental health and indigenous fish diversity at Sahebnagar village in Nadia District, India. All the physico-chemical parameters barring biochemical oxygen demand and water transparency remained more or less same or marginally got little changed during those three seasons. As much as 19 native fish species with varied relative abundances and dominances were identified. Jute retting impacted lower native fish diversity indices like Shannon-Wiener index values (1.94 to 2.68 clearly indicated poor to moderate pollution status of the transitory water body in that area during monsoon in particular and throughout the year in general. So we opined there should be some control over the intense jute retting in the road side transitory water bodies for sustainable management of these manmade resources.

  15. About Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Concerts ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures 3D Models Images Infographics Audio Pronunciations The One-Page Manual of Health Quizzes ... Commentary ALL NEWS > Resources First Aid Videos Figures 3D Models Images Infographics Audio Pronunciations The One-Page Manual of Health Quizzes ...

  16. Seasonal variations of rotifers from a high altitude urban shallow water body, La Cantera Oriente (Mexico City, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Sergio González; Sarma, S. S. S.; Nandini, S.

    2017-11-01

    La Cantera Oriente is a shallow freshwater volcanic water body located at an altitude of 2 270 m above sea level in the Ecological Reserve of San Angel Pedregal of Mexico City (Mexico). In order to ensure the conservation of its biological heritage including zooplankton, the present work was undertaken to quantify the seasonal changes in the diversity and density of rotifers and the selected physico-chemical variables during 2013-2014. Qualitative analysis of the zooplankton samples yielded 68 rotifer species which represented 24 genera in 15 families. B rachionus calyciflorus Pallas, 1766, B. quadridentatus Hermann, 1783, Polyarthra vulgaris Carlin, 1943, Lecane closterocerca (Schmarda, 1859) and Keratella cochlearis (Gosse, 1851) were the most common species. Preston plots of species frequency-density revealed that as many as 30% of the rotifer taxa were dominant throughout the year. The species with high population densities were Brachionus quadridentatus, Lecane closterocerca, Keratella cochlearis, and Lepadella patella; their peak densities were 2 000, 1 000, 180 and 90 ind./L, all occurring in summer. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Platyias quadricornis was related to the concentration of phosphates available in the environment and the conductivity, while B. quadridentatus was positively correlated with chlorophyll- a. The trophic status of the lake was eutrophic based on Chl- a content but oligotrophic with relation to the Brachionus: Trichocerca ratio.

  17. A satellite-based climatology (1989-2012) of lake surface water temperature from AVHRR 1-km for Central European water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffler, Michael; Wunderle, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The temperature of lakes is an important parameter for lake ecosystems influencing the speed of physio-chemical reactions, the concentration of dissolved gazes (e.g. oxygen), and vertical mixing. Even small temperature changes might have irreversible effects on the lacustrine system due to the high specific heat capacity of water. These effects could alter the quality of lake water depending on parameters like lake size and volume. Numerous studies mention lake water temperature as an indicator of climate change and in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) requirements it is listed as an essential climate variable. In contrast to in situ observations, satellite imagery offers the possibility to derive spatial patterns of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) and their variability. Moreover, although for some European lakes long in situ time series are available, the temperatures of many lakes are not measured or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyze time series which cover more than 20 years. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and on the Meteorological Operational Satellites (MetOp) from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present the results from a study initiated by the Swiss GCOS office to generate a satellite-based LSWT climatology for the pre-alpine water bodies in Switzerland. It relies on the extensive AVHRR 1-km data record (1985-2012) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern (RSGB) and has been derived from the AVHRR/2

  18. Not Good, but Not All Bad: Dehydration Effects on Body Fluids, Organ Masses, and Water Flux through the Skin of Rhinella schneideri (Amphibia, Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodolfo C O; Bovo, Rafael P; Eismann, Carlos E; Menegario, Amauri A; Andrade, Denis V

    Because of their permeable skin, terrestrial amphibians are constantly challenged by the potential risk of dehydration. However, some of the physiological consequences associated with dehydration may affect aspects that are themselves relevant to the regulation of water balance. Accordingly, we examined the effects of graded levels of dehydration on the rates of evaporative water loss and water absorption through the skin in the terrestrial Neotropical toad, Rhinella schneideri. Concomitantly, we monitored the effects of dehydration on the mass of visceral organs; hematocrit and hemoglobin content; plasma osmolality; and plasma concentration of urea, sodium, chloride, and potassium. We found that dehydration caused an increase in the concentration of body fluids, as indicated by virtually all the parameters examined. There was a proportional change in the relative masses of visceral organs, except for the liver and kidneys, which exhibited a decrease in their relative masses greater than the whole-body level of dehydration. Changes-or the preservation-of relative organ masses during dehydration may be explained by organ-specific physiological adjustments in response to the functional stress introduced by the dehydration itself. As dehydration progressed, evaporative water loss diminished and water reabsorption increased. In both cases, the increase in body fluid concentration associated with the dehydration provided the osmotic driver for these changes in water flux. Additionally, dehydration-induced alterations on the cutaneous barrier may also have contributed to the decrease in water flux. Dehydration, therefore, while posing a considerable challenge on the water balance regulation of anurans, paradoxically facilitates water conservation and absorption.

  19. Novel techniques and insights into the deployment of pop-up satellite archival tags on a small-bodied deep-water chondrichthyan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Oliver N.; Howey, Lucy A.; Tolentino, Emily R.; Jordan, Lance K. B.; Brooks, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Acquiring movement data for small-bodied, deep-water chondrichthyans is challenged by extreme effects of capture and handling stress, and post-release predation, however, it is urgently required to examine important fisheries interactions and assess the ecological role of these species within deep-water food webs. Here we suggest a novel release-cage mechanism to deploy pop-up satellite archival tags, as well as present vertical habitat data for a data-deficient, small-bodied, deep-water bycatch species, the Cuban dogfish (Squalus cubensis). Data were gathered from seven of eight High Rate X-Tags deployed on mature Cuban dogfish in the Exuma Sound, The Bahamas. Recovery periods appeared variable between individuals and are likely driven by capture-and-handling stress and tag burden. Application of the cross-correlation function to time-series depth and temperature data indicated three of the seven individuals suffered mortality through predation, which occurred during daytime, and suggests Cuban dogfish may constitute a proportion of deep-water apex predator diet in the Exuma Sound. Two animals were successfully released via a novel release-cage mechanism and displayed either no, or rapid (preference for specific bathymetric structures. These techniques provide an important first step into acquiring and presenting vertical habitat data for small-bodied, deep-water chondrichthyans, which can be directly applied to fisheries and ecosystem-based management approaches.

  20. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  1. Probabilistic Prognosis of Environmental Radioactivity Concentrations due to Radioisotopes Discharged to Water Bodies from Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás Zerquera, Juan; Mora, Juan C; Robles, Beatriz

    2017-11-15

    Due to their very low values, the complexity of comparing the contribution of nuclear power plants (NPPs) to environmental radioactivity with modeled values is recognized. In order to compare probabilistic prognosis of radioactivity concentrations with environmental measurement values, an exercise was performed using public data of radioactive routine discharges from three representative Spanish nuclear power plants. Specifically, data on liquid discharges from three Spanish NPPs: Almaraz, Vandellós II, and Ascó to three different aquatic bodies (river, lake, and coast) were used. Results modelled using generic conservative models together with Monte Carlo techniques used for uncertainties propagation were compared with values of radioactivity concentrations in the environment measured in the surroundings of these NPPs. Probability distribution functions were inferred for the source term, used as an input to the model to estimate the radioactivity concentrations in the environment due to discharges to the water bodies. Radioactivity concentrations measured in bottom sediments were used in the exercise due to their accumulation properties. Of all the radioisotopes measured in the environmental monitoring programs around the NPPs, only Cs-137, Sr-90, and Co-60 had positive values greater than their respective detection limits. Of those, Sr-90 and Cs-137 are easily measured in the environment, but significant contribution from the radioactive fall-out due to nuclear explosions in the atmosphere exists, and therefore their values cannot be attributed to the NPPs. On the contrary, Co-60 is especially useful as an indicator of the radioactive discharges from NPPs because its presence in the environment can solely be attributed to the impact of the closer nuclear facilities. All the modelled values for Co-60 showed a reasonable correspondence with measured environmental data in all cases, being conservative in two of them. The more conservative predictions obtained with

  2. Probabilistic Prognosis of Environmental Radioactivity Concentrations due to Radioisotopes Discharged to Water Bodies from Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tomás Zerquera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their very low values, the complexity of comparing the contribution of nuclear power plants (NPPs to environmental radioactivity with modeled values is recognized. In order to compare probabilistic prognosis of radioactivity concentrations with environmental measurement values, an exercise was performed using public data of radioactive routine discharges from three representative Spanish nuclear power plants. Specifically, data on liquid discharges from three Spanish NPPs: Almaraz, Vandellós II, and Ascó to three different aquatic bodies (river, lake, and coast were used. Results modelled using generic conservative models together with Monte Carlo techniques used for uncertainties propagation were compared with values of radioactivity concentrations in the environment measured in the surroundings of these NPPs. Probability distribution functions were inferred for the source term, used as an input to the model to estimate the radioactivity concentrations in the environment due to discharges to the water bodies. Radioactivity concentrations measured in bottom sediments were used in the exercise due to their accumulation properties. Of all the radioisotopes measured in the environmental monitoring programs around the NPPs, only Cs-137, Sr-90, and Co-60 had positive values greater than their respective detection limits. Of those, Sr-90 and Cs-137 are easily measured in the environment, but significant contribution from the radioactive fall-out due to nuclear explosions in the atmosphere exists, and therefore their values cannot be attributed to the NPPs. On the contrary, Co-60 is especially useful as an indicator of the radioactive discharges from NPPs because its presence in the environment can solely be attributed to the impact of the closer nuclear facilities. All the modelled values for Co-60 showed a reasonable correspondence with measured environmental data in all cases, being conservative in two of them. The more conservative

  3. Aqueous extraction of oil bodies from maize germ (Zea mays) and characterization of the resulting natural oil-in-water emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforidis, Constantinos V; Kiosseoglou, Vassilios

    2009-06-24

    Oil bodies in the form of an adequately dispersed suspension were extracted from maize germ by applying aqueous extraction. The effect on the yield of oil body extraction of parameters, such as pH of aqueous medium, state of germ comminution, and number of successive extraction steps applied, was evaluated, indicating that an extraction yield as high as 95% could be reached when a finely comminuted germ material is extracted 3 times under alkaline conditions. The extracted oil body suspension was coagulated by pH manipulation, and the resulting cream, consisting of intact oil bodies, was studied with respect to protein composition, particle size distribution, and oil body zeta potential. Changes in particle mean diameter resulting during oil body cream storage as well as the creaming behavior of emulsions prepared by cream dilution with water were also investigated. The findings are discussed in terms of the presence at the oil body surface of an adsorbed mixed layer made up of phospholipids, oleosins, and extraneous germ proteins that determine the physical stability of oil droplets upon long-term storage.

  4. A bridge from bioimpedance spectroscopy to 50 kHz bioimpedance analysis: application to total body water measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, H; Jaffrin, M Y

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method for extrapolating the total body water (TBW) resistance R t50 from the resistance measured at 50 kHz (R 50 ). A DXA examination and impedance measurements were carried out in a 1st group of 57 healthy volunteers with a Xitron 4200 multifrequency impedancemeter, in order to determine their values of R t50 by comparison with resistances extrapolated at an infinite frequency by the Xitron (R ∞ ). TBW volumes were calculated using our modified BIS method (Jaffrin et al 2006 Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 44 873–82) from R ∞ , R t50 and from the fat-free mass measured by DXA, assuming a hydration rate of 73.2%. The same protocol and calculations were also carried out on a 2nd group of 21 subjects for independent validation. Data of the 1st group showed that values of R t50 , not significantly different from those of R ∞ , could be obtained by dividing R 50 by 1.231 in men and by 1.224 in women. Applying this method to the 2nd group yielded also values of R t50 not significantly different from R ∞ . TBW volumes V t50 obtained from R t50 were not significantly different from those of our modified BIS method V tn , or from TBW volumes obtained from DXA in both groups. A comparison with three BIA methods of TBW determination showed that our new method gave results in better agreement with TBW from DXA and from our modified BIS method

  5. Sensitivity analysis of a data assimilation technique for hindcasting and forecasting hydrodynamics of a complex coastal water body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lei; Hartnett, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Accurate forecasting of coastal surface currents is of great economic importance due to marine activities such as marine renewable energy and fish farms in coastal regions in recent twenty years. Advanced oceanographic observation systems such as satellites and radars can provide many parameters of interest, such as surface currents and waves, with fine spatial resolution in near real time. To enhance modelling capability, data assimilation (DA) techniques which combine the available measurements with the hydrodynamic models have been used since the 1990s in oceanography. Assimilating measurements into hydrodynamic models makes the original model background states follow the observation trajectory, then uses it to provide more accurate forecasting information. Galway Bay is an open, wind dominated water body on which two coastal radars are deployed. An efficient and easy to implement sequential DA algorithm named Optimal Interpolation (OI) was used to blend radar surface current data into a three-dimensional Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model. Two empirical parameters, horizontal correlation length and DA cycle length (CL), are inherent within OI. No guidance has previously been published regarding selection of appropriate values of these parameters or how sensitive OI DA is to variations in their values. Detailed sensitivity analysis has been performed on both of these parameters and results presented. Appropriate value of DA CL was examined and determined on producing the minimum Root-Mean-Square-Error (RMSE) between radar data and model background states. Analysis was performed to evaluate assimilation index (AI) of using an OI DA algorithm in the model. AI of the half-day forecasting mean vectors' directions was over 50% in the best assimilation model. The ability of using OI to improve model forecasts was also assessed and is reported upon.

  6. COMBINATION OF COLD PACK, WATER SPRAY, AND FAN COOLING ON BODY TEMPERATURE REDUCTION AND LEVEL OF SUCCESS TO REACH NORMAL TEMPERATURE IN CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS WITH HYPERTHERMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Eka Dzulfaijah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the effect of the combination of cold pack, water spray, and fan cooling on body temperature reduction and level of success to reach normal temperature in critically ill patients with hyperthermia. Methods: This was a randomized control trial (RCT with pretest postest control group design and repeated measurement, conducted on December 2016 – January 2017. There were 32 respondents selected using total sampling, with 16 respondents randomly assigned in the experiment and control group. A digital thermometer was used to measure hyperthermia. Paired t-test, Repeated Anova with post hoc, and Mann Whitney were used for data analysis. Results: Findings showed that the mean of body temperature in the experiment group in pretest was 38.762oC and decreased to 37.3oC after given intervention for 60 minutes. The mean difference of body temperature was 1.4625, with p-value 0.000 (<0.05. In control group, the mean of body temperature in pretest was 38.669oC and decreased to 38.188oC given intervention for 60 minutes. The mean difference of body temperature was 0.4812, with p-value 0.000 (<0.05. Conclusion: There was a significant effect of the combination of cold pack, water spray, and fan cooling on body temperature reduction and level of success to reach normal temperature in critically ill patients with hyperthermia. This combination is more effective than water compress alone.

  7. Building Daily 30-meter Spatial Resolution Maps of Surface Water Bodies from MODIS Data Using a Novel Technique for Transferring Information Across Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, A.; Karpatne, A.; Kumar, V.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present novel methods for producing surface water maps at 30 meter spatial resolution at a daily temporal resolution. These new methods will make use of the MODIS spectral data from Terra (available daily since 2000) to produce daily maps at 250 meter and 500 meter resolution, and then refine them using the relative elevation ordering of pixels at 30 meter resolution. The key component of these methods is the use of elevation structure (relative elevation ordering) of a water body. Elevation structure is not explicitly available at desired resolution for most water bodies in the world and hence it will be estimated using our previous work that uses the history of imperfect labels. In this paper, we will present a new technique that uses elevation structure (unlike existing pixel based methods) to enforce temporal consistency in surface water extents (lake area on nearby dates is likely to be very similar). This will greatly improve the quality of the MODIS scale land/water labels since daily MODIS data can have a large amount of missing (or poor quality) data due to clouds and other factors. The quality of these maps will be further improved using elevation based resolution refinement approach that will make use of elevation structure estimated at Landsat scale. With the assumption that elevation structure does not change over time, it provides a very effective way to transfer information between datasets even when they are not observed concurrently. In this work, we will derive elevation structure at Landsat scale from monthly water extent maps spanning 1984-2015, publicly available through a joint effort of Google Earth Engine and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC). This elevation structure will then be used to refine spatial resolution of Modis scale maps from 2000 onwards. We will present the analysis of these methods on a large and diverse set of water bodies across the world.

  8. Impact of shallow water bodies on the permafrost temperature and estimation of risk of thermokarst development at the Barrow Environmental Observatory area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, A. L.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Chamberlain, A. J.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Cable, W.

    2015-12-01

    Extension of the thermokarst features such as lakes and ponds had been noticed in many regions of the Arctic affected by the modern climate warming. Thermokarst is a process of permafrost thawing under the water bodies with depths larger than maximal thickness of seasonal ice in the area, i.e. with permanent positive temperature at the bottom. This process is most probable in the areas where massive ice bodies (wedges, lenses, layers etc) or ice rich deposits exist close to ground surface and even insignificant increasing of thaw depth can lead to its melting and surface subsidence. Local depressions such as low-centered polygonal ponds or interpolygonal troughs can potentially become triggers of thermokarst development. Current research was aimed on determination of warming impact of small water bodies on the permafrost temperature and seasonal thawing and estimation of risk of thermokarst development at Barrow Environmental Observatory area. Comparison of temperature measurements under shallow (10 - 40 cm deep) with relatively dry spots and active layer thickness survey show that warming impact of small water bodies (mean annual temperature at the permafrost table here is up to 2oC higher then under "dry" geomorphological features) is not realized in increasing of the thawing depth. Active layer thickness does not exceed values of 45 cm under polygonal ponds and 35 cm under troughs that is less then thickness of protective layer above ice wedges in the area. For estimation of risk of thermokarst development we used analytical equations developed by V.Kudryavtsev (1974). Results of calculations show that in this area crucial depth of water bodies required for mean annual temperature at the bottom of the pond became higher then freezing point consists of 0.95 cm. Current research was supported by US DOE as a part of research project Next Generation of Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE).

  9. Effect of drinking water supplementation with phyto-additives (horseradish, dog-rose, French tamarisk and grapes on body mass in young rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Iuliana Bohatâr

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to carry out the experiment, we made 5 hybrid rabbit groups (each one consisted of 5 individuals, homogenous in terms of age and body development, bred in cages of wire gauze. The control group was offered simple drinking water, and the other groups were offered drinking water supplemented with extracts of horseradish, dog-rose, French tamarisk and grape seeds. In each cage, we placed a stainless steel feeder for the administration of granulated forage and a plastic water supplier (300 ml capacity. During the experiment, we determined the granulated forage intake (150 g/individual/day and the weekly body mass (between 35-105 days. At the end of the experiment, the biggest mean body mass was observed in the young rabbits that used to drink water with horseradish extract (3172±377 g, followed by those with French tamarisk (3046±162 g, dog-rose (2949±366 g and finally by the rabbits that drank grape extract (2888±250 g. Along the 10 experimental weeks, the control group recorded significant differences (p<0.05 and distinctly significant (p<0.01 inferior to the experimental groups which were offered extracts of dog-rose, French tamarisk, horseradish and grapes.

  10. Determination of the distribution coefficient of pesticides in soil and potential mobility to bodies of water using isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Moreno, Marcela Angelica

    2014-01-01

    The Carbaryl, Diazinon and Chloropyrifos insecticides, herbicides Atrazine and Glyphosate and the fungicide Tebuconazole are widely used pesticides in agriculture. Due the large use of this products that is important the knowledge of their destiny after their application. This way you can prevent and minimize pollution and decreased quality of different environmental compartments like soil and water. In this work, the adsorption of pesticides 14 C-Atrazine, 14 C-Carbaryl , 14 C-Chloropyrifos, 14 C-Diazinon, 14 C-Glyphosate-and 14 C-Tebuconazol was studied by adsorption isotherms through the Batch equilibrium method in an agricultural soil in the region of Araucania in 4 depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm). To the adsorption isotherm was applied the model of Freundlich to obtain distribution Freundlich constant (Kf) and subsequently the normalized adsorption constant depending (according?) on the content of organic matter (Koc). Besides the potential mobility and toxicity of pesticides on nearby bodies of water to the study site by the Pesticide Impact Rating Index program was obtained. Was considered for adsorption curves 5 concentrations for each pesticide unchecked, this solution pesticide was marked by an addition of 14 C-so to achieve a given activity. The solutions were added to 0.1 M CaCl 2 in a ratio soil: solution of 1: 2. The equilibration time was 24 hours with continuous agitation at 170 rpm horizontally pulse. Adsorbed pesticide concentration was determined by the difference between the concentration of pesticide added and the adsorbed pesticide concentration for which no activity (dpm) in the sample was quantified in a liquid scintillation counter (CCL). In addition the ground with the adsorbed pesticide was put to combustion in a Biological Oxidizer where pesticide molecules are degraded to CO 2 marking, this methodology recovery method is determined, which are considered low in this study. Koc indicate that has a weak adsorption Atrazine (Koc

  11. The use of O, H and Sr isotopes and carbamazepine to identify the origin of water bodies supplying a shallow alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassine, Lara; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Lancelot, Joël; Verdoux, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Alluvial aquifers are of great socio-economic importance in France since they supply 82% of drinking water production, though they reveal to be very vulnerable to pesticides and emerging organic contaminants. The aim of this work is to identify the origin of water bodies which contribute to the recharge of an alluvial aquifer for a better understanding of its hydrochemistry and transfer of contaminants therein. The study is based on an isotopic and geochemical tracers approach, including major elements, trace elements (Br, Sr),and isotopes (δ18O, δ2H, 87Sr/86Sr), as well as organic molecules. Indeed, organic molecules such as pharmaceutical compounds, more precisely carbamazepine and caffeine, have shown their use as indicators of surface water in groundwater. The study area is a partially-confined shallow alluvial aquifer, the so-called Vistrenque aquifer, located at 15 km from the Mediterranean Sea, in the Quaternary alluviums deposited by an ancient arm of the Rhône River, in Southern France. This aquifer constitutes a shallow alluvial layer in a NE-SW graben structure. It is situated between a karst aquifer in lower Cretaceous limestones, on the NW border, and the Costières Plateau, on the SE border, having a similar geology as the Vistrenque. The alluvial plain is crossed by a surface water network with the Vistre as the main stream, and a canal used for irrigation essentially, the BRL canal, which is fed by the Rhône River. δ18O and δ2H allowed to differentiate the BRL canal water, depleted in heavy isotopes (δ2H = -71.5o vs V-SMOW), and the more enriched local rainwater (δ2H = -35.5o vs V-SMOW). In the Vistre surface water a binary mixing were evidenced with the BRL canal water and the rainwater, as end members. Then, in the Vistrenque groundwater both the BRL and the Vistre contributions could be identified, as they still show contrasting signature with local recharge. This allows to highlight the surface water contribution to a heavily exploited

  12. Getting the Right Answers for the Right Reasons: Toward Predictive Molecular Simulations of Water with Many-Body Potential Energy Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesani, Francesco

    2016-09-20

    The central role played by water in fundamental processes relevant to different disciplines, including chemistry, physics, biology, materials science, geology, and climate research, cannot be overemphasized. It is thus not surprising that, since the pioneering work by Stillinger and Rahman, many theoretical and computational studies have attempted to develop a microscopic description of the unique properties of water under different thermodynamic conditions. Consequently, numerous molecular models based on either molecular mechanics or ab initio approaches have been proposed over the years. However, despite continued progress, the correct prediction of the properties of water from small gas-phase clusters to the liquid phase and ice through a single molecular model remains challenging. To large extent, this is due to the difficulties encountered in the accurate modeling of the underlying hydrogen-bond network in which both number and strength of the hydrogen bonds vary continuously as a result of a subtle interplay between energetic, entropic, and nuclear quantum effects. In the past decade, the development of efficient algorithms for correlated electronic structure calculations of small molecular complexes, accompanied by tremendous progress in the analytical representation of multidimensional potential energy surfaces, opened the doors to the design of highly accurate potential energy functions built upon rigorous representations of the many-body expansion (MBE) of the interaction energies. This Account provides a critical overview of the performance of the MB-pol many-body potential energy function through a systematic analysis of energetic, structural, thermodynamic, and dynamical properties as well as of vibrational spectra of water from the gas to the condensed phase. It is shown that MB-pol achieves unprecedented accuracy across all phases of water through a quantitative description of each individual term of the MBE, with a physically correct representation

  13. Assessment of the amount of body water in the Red Knot (Calidris canutus) : An evaluation of the principle of isotope dilution with 2H, 17O, and 18O as easured with laser spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstel, Erik R.T.; Piersma, Theunis A.J.; Gessaman, G. Jim; Dekinga, Anne; Meijer, Harro A.J.; Visser, G. Henk

    We have used the isotope dilution technique to study changes in the body composition of a migratory shorebird species (Red Knot, Calidris canutus) through an assessment of the amount of body water in it. Birds were quantitatively injected with a dose of water with elevated concentrations of H-2,

  14. Fishes of water bodies within the Ukrainian part of the Chernobyl exclusion zone: current levels of radioactive contamination and absorbed dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Gudkov, Dmitri I. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the NAS of Ukraine, Geroyiv Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA- 04210, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The results of studies of radioactive contamination of ichthyofauna of water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) during 2012-2013 are presented. The fish sampled from water bodies with different hydrological mode was used: (1) stagnant lakes (Vershyna, Glyboke, Azbuchyn, Daleke); (2) reservoir with slow water exchange (cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP); (3) conditionally stagnant water bodies (separated from the main riverbed of the Pripyat River - Yanovsky and Novoshepelichesky Crawls and part of the Krasnensky former river bed); (4) semi-flowing water body (Krasnensky former river bed located outside of the dammed territory); (5) open crawls of the Pripyat river ('Schepochka' and Chernobylsky) and (6) waterway (riverbed sites of the Pripyat River). The highest levels of radionuclide concentrations were determined in fish of the stagnant water objects - 937-25907 Bq/kg (w.w.) of {sup 137}Cs and 1845-101220 Bq/kg of {sup 90}Sr. In fish of cooling pond the concentration of {sup 137}Cs registered in range 750-4200 and {sup 90}Sr - 41-512 Bq/kg. In ichthyofauna of water bodies which concern to the third group, specific activity of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr fluctuated accordingly within range of 520-3385 and 722-6210, and in a semi-flowing reservoir - 573-2948 and 97-4484 Bq/kg. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish of the fifth and sixth groups were accordingly 25-159 and 11-224 as well as {sup 90}Sr - 36-174 and 3-14 Bq/kg. The ratio of specific activity of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 137}Cs for pray fish from all studied groups of water bodies, except the second and the sixth ones, was in range 1.5-39.7. Thus intensity of water exchange is one of the defining factors, influencing on level of radionuclide specific activity in fish, especially {sup 90}Sr - the higher the flow age, the lower the level of radioactive contamination of fish inhabiting it. Calculation of the absorbed dose rate has shown that highest radiation dose was in fish inhabiting lake

  15. A new methodology to identify surface water bodies at risk by using pesticide monitoring data: The glyphosate case study in Lombardy Region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guardo, Andrea; Finizio, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    In the last decades, several monitoring programs were established as an effect of EU Directives addressing the quality of water resources (drinking water, groundwater and surface water). Plant Protection Products (PPPs) are an obvious target of monitoring activities, since they are directly released into the environment. One of the challenges in managing the risk of pesticides at the territorial scale is identifying the locations in water bodies needing implementation of risk mitigation measures. In this, the national pesticides monitoring plans could be very helpful. However, monitoring of pesticides is a challenging task because of the high number of registered pesticides, cost of analyses, and the periodicity of sampling related to pesticide application and use. Extensive high-quality data-sets are consequently often missing. More in general, the information that can be obtained from monitoring studies are frequently undervalued by risk managers. In this study, we propose a new methodology providing indications about the need to implement mitigation measures in stretches of surface water bodies on a territory by combining historical series of monitoring data and GIS. The methodology is articulated in two distinct phases: a) acquisition of monitoring data and setting-up of informative layers of georeferenced data (phase 1) and b) statistical and expert analysis for the identification of areas where implementation of limitation or mitigation measures are suggested (phase 2). Our methodology identifies potentially vulnerable water bodies, considering temporal contamination trends and relative risk levels at selected monitoring stations. A case study is presented considering glyphosate monitoring data in Lombardy Region (Northern of Italy) for the 2008-2014 period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Change Detection Processing Chain Dedicated to Sentinel Data Time Series. Application to Forest and Water Bodies Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Saavedra, L.-M.; Mercier, G.; Yesou, H.; Liege, F.; Pasero, G.

    2016-08-01

    The Copernicus program of ESA and European commission (6 Sentinels Missions, among them Sentinel-1 with Synthetic Aperture Radar sensor and Sentinel-2 with 13-band 10 to 60 meter resolution optical sensors), offers a new opportunity to Earth Observation with high temporal acquisition capability ( 12 days repetitiveness and 5 days in some geographic areas of the world) with high spatial resolution.Due to these high temporal and spatial resolutions, it opens new challenges in several fields such as image processing, new algorithms for Time Series and big data analysis. In addition, these missions will be able to analyze several topics of earth temporal evolution such as crop vegetation, water bodies, Land use and Land Cover (LULC), sea and ice information, etc. This is particularly useful for end users and policy makers to detect early signs of damages, vegetation illness, flooding areas, etc.From the state of the art, one can find algorithms and methods that use a bi-date comparison for change detection [1-3] or time series analysis. Actually, these methods are essentially used for target detection or for abrupt change detection that requires 2 observations only.A Hölder means-based change detection technique has been proposed in [2,3] for high resolution radar images. This so-called MIMOSA technique has been mainly dedicated to man-made change detection in urban areas and CARABAS - II project by using a couple of SAR images. An extension to multitemporal change detection technique has been investigated but its application to land use and cover changes still has to be validated.The Hölder Hp is a Time Series pixel by pixel feature extraction and is defined by:H𝑝[X]=[1/n∑ⁿᵢ₌1 Xᴾᵢ]1/p p∈R Hp[X] : N images * S Bandes * t datesn is the number of images in the time series. N > 2Hp (X) is continuous and monotonic increasing in p for - ∞ < p < ∞

  17. The impact of acid sulphate soils on water bodies and fish deaths in Finland; Happamien sulfaattimaiden aiheuttamat vesistoevaikutukset ja kalakuolemat Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutela, T.; Vuori, K.-M.; Louhi, P. [and others

    2012-05-15

    We have compiled in this review a comprehensive presentation of the impacts of acid sulphate soils (ASS) on water quality, biota, and fish kills in Finnish water bodies. This review is a result of extensive collaboration among research scientists in connection with the CATERMASS project co-ordinated by the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE). Acid sulphate soils were formed in the eutrophic coastal waters of the Baltic Sea 4,000-8,000 years ago as microbes reduced the sulphate contained in saline seawater into sulphide. Sulphide clay soils emerging through land uplift have since been reclaimed and drained for cultivation use. Sulphur released in the resultant oxidation process reacted with soil water to form sulphuric acid, which draws toxic metals such as aluminium, cadmium, and copper from the soil. Heavy rains and the waters of springtime thawing transported acids and metals to the water bodies. In recent decades, the drainage depth of fields has increased because of the growing popularity of subterranean drainage methods, thus exacerbating the adverse ASS impacts on water bodies. Acidity and the attendant proliferation of toxic forms of metals induce changes in all organism groups of water biota, among them fish, macroinvertebrates, macrophytes, and bottom algae. On the specimen level, malformations have been discovered, such as structural pupae impairment in aquatic insects. The defence mechanism employed by fish against harmful substances in the surrounding water is to increase mucus exudation in the gills, which results in reduced respiration function. Exposure to acidity and metals harms the reproduction cycle of fish by delaying the development of follicles into mature eggs and by hindering eggs' fertilisation and embryo development. On the biota level, the manifestation of ASS impact is often the absence of the species or species groups most vulnerable to acidity. The species of river fish that are vulnerable to acidity include, for example

  18. An Automatic Monitoring System for High-Frequency Measuring and Real-Time Management of Cyanobacterial Blooms in Urban Water Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Khac, Viet; Hong, Yi; Plec, Denis; Lemaire, Bruno,; Dubois, Philippe; Saad, Mohamed; Vinçon-Leite, Brigitte

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Urban lakes mitigate the negative impacts on the hydrological cycle and improve the quality of life in cities. Worldwide, the concern increases for the protection and management of urban water bodies. Since the physical-chemical and biological conditions of a small aquatic ecosystem can vary rapidly over time, traditional low frequency measurement approaches (weekly or monthly sampling) limits the knowledge and the transfer of research outcomes to management decision-m...

  19. Minimum daily core body temperature in western grey kangaroos decreases as summer advances: a seasonal pattern, or a direct response to water, heat or energy supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2011-06-01

    Using implanted temperature loggers, we measured core body temperature in nine western grey kangaroos every 5 min for 24 to 98 days in spring and summer. Body temperature was highest at night and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00 h, after ambient temperature and solar radiation had begun to increase. On hotter days, the minimum morning body temperature was lower than on cooler days, decreasing from a mean of 36.2°C in the spring to 34.0°C in the summer. This effect correlated better with the time of the year than with proximate thermal stressors, suggesting that either season itself or some factor correlated with season, such as food availability, caused the change. Water saving has been proposed as a selective advantage of heterothermy in other large mammals, but in kangaroos the water savings would have been small and not required in a reserve with permanent standing water. We calculate that the lower core temperature could provide energy savings of nearly 7%. It is likely that the heterothermy that we observed on hot days results either from decreased energy intake during the dry season or from a seasonal pattern entrained in the kangaroos that presumably has been selected for because of decreased energy availability during the dry season.

  20. δ2H and δ18O of human body water: a GIS model to distinguish residents from non-residents in the contiguous USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesak, David W; Bowen, Gabriel J; O'Grady, Shannon; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2012-06-01

    An understanding of the factors influencing the isotopic composition of body water is important to determine the isotopic composition of tissues that are used to reconstruct movement patterns of humans. The δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of body water (δ(2)H(bw) and δ(18)O(bw)) are related to the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of drinking water (δ(2)H(dw) and δ(18)O(dw)), but clearly distinct because of other factors including the composition of food. Here, we develop a mechanistic geographical information system (GIS) model to produce spatial projections of δ(2)H(bw) and δ(18)O(bw) values for the USA. We investigate the influence of gender, food, and drinking water on the predicted values by comparing them with the published values. The strongest influence on the predicted values was related to the source of δ(2)H(dw) and δ(18)O(dw) values. We combine the model with equations that describe the rate of turnover to produce estimates for the time required for a non-resident to reach an isotopic equilibrium with a resident population.

  1. O imaginário das águas e o aprendizado erótico do corpo The imaginary of the waters and the body's erotic learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available No decorrer da história da humanidade as águas imaginárias transbordaram de significações e simbologias no universo cultural do ser humano e brotam como símbolo de contradições. Para além das oposições, problematizar o aprendizado erótico do corpo traz perguntas sobre o processo de civilizador no ocidente. Isto é, de que forma a água perpassou as transformações da relação dos indivíduos com o seu corpo? A relação entre água e Eros é percebida como elemento importante do aprendizado erótico do corpo, tendo em vista o conjunto de regras sobre a utilização desta nos banhos. Sendo assim, o contato com esse elemento é uma das possibilidades de se desfrutar a intensidade dos sentidos? A proximidade com a água possibilita a transgressão? O artigo navega pelas discussões do imaginário das águas, assim como também pela água como suporte da imaginação e dos (desprazeres dos banhos na história.Throughout human history, imaginary waters have carried out an overflow of meanings and symbolisms in the cultural universe of human beings, springing as symbols of contradictions. Beyond all oppositions, investigating the erotic learning of the body brings forward questions about the Occident's civilizing process, such as: in which ways has water pervaded the transformations concerning the individual's relationships with hisher bodies? The relation between water and Eros is perceived as an important element for the erotic learning of the body, observed as a set of rules concerning the use of water in bath. Therefore, is contact with water one of the possibilities to enjoying intensity of the senses? Is proximity with water a possibility of transgression? The article navigates through discussions about the imaginary of the waters as well as through water as a support for the imagination and for bath's (unpleasures in history.

  2. Mapping of Urban Surface Water Bodies from Sentinel-2 MSI Imagery at 10 m Resolution via NDWI-Based Image Sharpening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiucheng Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study conducts an exploratory evaluation of the performance of the newly available Sentinel-2A Multispectral Instrument (MSI imagery for mapping water bodies using the image sharpening approach. Sentinel-2 MSI provides spectral bands with different resolutions, including RGB and Near-Infra-Red (NIR bands in 10 m and Short-Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR bands in 20 m, which are closely related to surface water information. It is necessary to define a pan-like band for the Sentinel-2 image sharpening process because of the replacement of the panchromatic band by four high-resolution multi-spectral bands (10 m. This study, which aimed at urban surface water extraction, utilised the Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI at 10 m resolution as a high-resolution image to sharpen the 20 m SWIR bands. Then, object-level Modified NDWI (MNDWI mapping and minimum valley bottom adjustment threshold were applied to extract water maps. The proposed method was compared with the conventional most related band- (between the visible spectrum/NIR and SWIR bands based and principal component analysis first component-based sharpening. Results show that the proposed NDWI-based MNDWI image exhibits higher separability and is more effective for both classification-level and boundary-level final water maps than traditional approaches.

  3. Characterizing Open Water Bodies and Their Color Properties Through Optical Remote Sensing to Identify Areas of Vector-Borne Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; McDonald, K. C.; Jensen, K.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Predicting the risk of vector-borne disease outbreaks is a required step towards their control and eradication. Satellite observations can provide needed data to support agency decisions with respect to deployment of preventative measures and control resources. The coverage and persistence of open water is one of the primary indicators of conditions suitable for mosquito breeding habitats. This is currently a poorly measured variable due to its spatial and temporal variability across landscapes, especially in remote areas. Here we develop a methodology for monitoring these conditions through optical remote sensing images from Landsat. We pansharpen the images and apply a decision tree classification approach using Random Forests to generate 15 meter resolution maps of open water. In addition, since some mosquitos breed in clear water while others in turbid water, we classify water bodies according to their water color properties and we validate the results using field knowledge. We focus in East Africa where we assses the usefulness of these products to improve prediction of malaria outbreaks. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niswender Kevin D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit, liquid (grapefruit juice and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9 were randomly assigned to (127 g grapefruit (GF, grapefruit juice (GFJ or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm. However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2% and GFJ (+8.2% preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%. Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF

  5. Body composition using deuterated water, index of insulin resistance and cortisol levels in Costa Rican school in the metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde Vindas, Allan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Body composition in the Costa Rican child population is evaluated and analyzed to determine the relationship with the index of insulin resistance and serum cortisol levels. 113 children in the metropolitan area were studied using deuterium isotope techniques as reference method for overweight and obesity. Morning cortisol levels were determined by immunoassay techniques (ELISA). The insulin resistance index of 113 Costa Rican boys and girls is obtained by the homeostatic method and the relationship between body composition with index of insulin resistance or levels of cortisol [es

  6. Stable and accurate methods for identification of water bodies from Landsat series imagery using meta-heuristic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamshadzaei, Mohammad Hossein; Rahimzadegan, Majid

    2017-10-01

    Identification of water extents in Landsat images is challenging due to surfaces with similar reflectance to water extents. The objective of this study is to provide stable and accurate methods for identifying water extents in Landsat images based on meta-heuristic algorithms. Then, seven Landsat images were selected from various environmental regions in Iran. Training of the algorithms was performed using 40 water pixels and 40 nonwater pixels in operational land imager images of Chitgar Lake (one of the study regions). Moreover, high-resolution images from Google Earth were digitized to evaluate the results. Two approaches were considered: index-based and artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. In the first approach, nine common water spectral indices were investigated. AI algorithms were utilized to acquire coefficients of optimal band combinations to extract water extents. Among the AI algorithms, the artificial neural network algorithm and also the ant colony optimization, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization (PSO) meta-heuristic algorithms were implemented. Index-based methods represented different performances in various regions. Among AI methods, PSO had the best performance with average overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of 93% and 98%, respectively. The results indicated the applicability of acquired band combinations to extract accurately and stably water extents in Landsat imagery.

  7. 3D thermohydraulic modeling of the coupling of surface water bodies to the subsurface below the major urban center of Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Maximilian; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Cacace, Mauro; Schneider, Michael

    2017-04-01

    This study aims at a better understanding of the present-day thermal and hydraulic configuration below the major urban center of Berlin, capital city of Germany. The study area is located in the Northeast German Basin, showing an infill of several kilometers of sediments. Herein, the shallow sedimentary succession is made up of a sequence of alternating aquifers and aquitards, most importantly the local aquitard of the Rupelian clay. This geological unit represents a natural barrier between the deeper saline aquifers and the shallow fresh water aquifers from whom Berlin produces 100% of its drinking water. Additionally, the shallow thermal and hydraulic configuration has been anthropogenically overprinted which may also influence deeper domains to some extent. In this study we make use of 3D thermohydraulic models of the subsurface, focusing on the coupling of surface water bodies to the underground, based on newly available hydraulic data integrated into a 3D hydrogeological model. The results of the study show, that the coupling of surface water bodies and groundwater might lead to significant modifications of predicted subsurface temperatures and fluid flow field. These modifications are most prominent, where differences in hydraulic head between surface water bodies and the adjacent aquifers are highest. Consequently, the predicted surface to groundwater flow field differs most in these areas and it also results in differences in predicted temperatures as a consequence of advective heat transport. Quantitatively, the presence of major lakes may account for temperature differences up to 5°C, while considering rivers only accounts for modifications up to 1°C. Additionally, the models created in this study set up a basis for future thermohaline simulations as saline groundwater may represent a threat to drinking water supply. First results from the models run in this study already indicate, that uprising heated water from deeper domains may rise to shallow

  8. Evaluation of total body water in canine breeds by single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis method: specific equations are needed for accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguiyan-Colliard, Laurence; Daumas, Caroline; Nguyen, Patrick; Grandjean, Dominique; Cardot, Philippe; Priymenko, Nathalie; Roux, Françoise

    2015-08-06

    Equations based on single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis at 50 kHz for determination of total body water content (TBW) have been previously validated in healthy non-sedated beagle dogs. We investigated whether these equations are predictive of TBW in various canine breeds by comparing the results of these equations with TBW values evaluated directly by deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution. Total body water content of 13 healthy adult pet dogs of various breeds was determined directly using D2O dilution and indirectly using previous equations based on values obtained with a portable bioelectric impedance device. Paired Student's t-tests were used to compare TBW obtained by single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and D2O dilution. A p-value of bioelectrical impedance analysis parameters validated at 50 kHz in healthy adult beagles need to be modified including morphological parameters such as body size and shape in a first approach. As in humans, morphological-specific equations have to be developed and validated.

  9. Physiological-biochemical status of perch (Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, 1758 and roach in conditions (Rutilus rutilus Linnaeus, 1758 of excessive anthropogenic pressure on the body of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Martseniuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To establish during the spring and summer period the physiologically-biochemical response of fish to the effect of excessive anthropogenic contamination on the indicators of the maintenance of hormones and glucose in their blood plasma, and the possibility of using these indicators to assess the ecological status of the water body. Methodology. Two Lakes in the city of Kyiv were selected for research, which are characterized by various hydrochemical and toxicological indices. These water objects were Lake Kyrylivske (Opechen Upper – a water body from the system of Lakes Opechen (polluted by the water body and Lake Babyne that is on Trukhanov Island (relatively clean Lake, control. Fishing was carried out in the early spring and in the middle of the summer by hook fishing gear. In laboratory conditions, the total content of thyroxine (T4, triiodothyronine (T3 and cortisol in blood plasma of fish was determined by enzyme immunoassay, using commercial T3-EIA, T4-EIA sets (NPL Granum, Ukraine and DS-EIA-Steroid-Cortisol ("Diagnostic Systems" NGO, Russia using the Rayto RT-2100C EIA Analyzer. The glucose content was determined by spectrophotometrically glucose oxidase method using standard commercial kits "Filisit-Diagnostika" (Ukraine. Statistical data was processed using the programs Statistica 10.0 and Excel programs from the Microsoft Office suite. Findings. In the spring, excessive anthropogenic pressure on the Lake Kyrylivske causes an energy imbalance in fish, which causes the deceleration of catabolic reactions in their tissues. In this period, the perch and roach react to the conditions of existence in the Lake Kyrylivske increase in the content of cortisol in the blood compared with fish from the Lake. Babyne, what can be their reaction to excessive anthropogenic stress. Also, during this period, the low content of thyroxin and triiodothyronine in the perch from the Lake Kyrylivske was noted compared with the Lake. Babyne, which

  10. Breath Analysis and the Measurement of Total Body Water Using Isotope Dilution - Applications in the Dialysis Clinic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davies, S. J.; Engel, B.; Chan, C.; Tan, B. K.; Yu, Z.; Asghar, R. B.; John, B.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2013), s. 593-599 ISSN 1573-4110 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0632 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : bioimpedance * body composition * dialysis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.194, year: 2013

  11. A non-invasive, on-line deuterium dilution technique for the measurement of total body water in haemodialysis patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chan, C.; Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; McIntyre, Ch. W.; Davies, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2008), s. 2064-2070 ISSN 0931-0509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : flowing after-glow mass spectrometer (FA-MS) * body composition * deuterium dilution Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.568, year: 2008

  12. Seasonal variability in physicochemical characteristics of small water bodies across a High Arctic wetland, Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.; Shakil, S.; Young, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Small water bodies (lakes, ponds) in permafrost environments make up roughly half of the total area of surface water, but their relevance to nutrient and carbon fluxes on a landscape scale still remains largely unknown. Small variations in pond water balance as a result of seasonal changes in precipitation, evaporation, or drainage processes have the potential to produce considerable changes in the carbon and nutrient budgets as small changes in the water level can have a major effect on volumes and surface areas of ponds. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrology both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured physicochemical variables; and (3) to detect seasonal trends in the hydrological and chemical characteristics of ponds located in an extensive low-gradient High Arctic wetland. We conducted detailed limnological surveys of 50 wetland ponds located at Polar Bear Pass (PBP), Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada during 2007-2010. The results indicate large seasonal variability in physicochemical parameters that is associated with pond water budget changes, especially for ponds with steady water levels vs. dynamic ponds (fluctuating water levels). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the datasets indicated that major ion content, specifically calcium (Ca2+), was responsible for much of the variability among the ponds in both 2008 and 2009. Additionally in 2009 most of the variability was also due to specific conductivity in the summer and magnesium (Mg2+) in the fall. These trends are typically identified as a result of dilution or evapo-concentration processes in small water bodies. In 2007, a warm and dry year, pH and potassium (K+) were responsible for much of variation between ponds. This is attributed to high vegetation growth in ponds and a longer growing season. While no trend was identified in 2010 (PCA analysis), calculations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 50

  13. Delineation of areas contributing groundwater to selected receiving surface water bodies for long-term average hydrologic conditions from 1968 to 1983 for Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misut, Paul E.; Monti,, Jack

    2016-10-05

    To assist resource managers and planners in developing informed strategies to address nitrogen loading to coastal water bodies of Long Island, New York, the U.S. Geological Survey and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation initiated a program to delineate a comprehensive dataset of groundwater recharge areas (or areas contributing groundwater), travel times, and outflows to streams and saline embayments on Long Island. A four-layer regional three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater-flow model of hydrologic conditions from 1968 to 1983 was used to provide delineations of 48 groundwater watersheds on Long Island. Sixteen particle starting points were evenly spaced within each of the 4,000- by 4,000-foot model cells that receive water-table recharge and tracked using forward particle-tracking analysis modeling software to outflow zones. For each particle, simulated travel times were grouped by age as follows: less than or equal to 10 years, greater than 10 years and less than or equal to 100 years, greater than 100 years and less than or equal to 1,000 years, and greater than 1,000 years; and simulated ending zones were grouped into 48 receiving water bodies, based on the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Waterbody Inventory/Priority Waterbodies List. Areal delineation of travel time zones and groundwater contributing areas were generated and a table was prepared presenting the sum of groundwater outflow for each area.

  14. Comparison of Barium and Arsenic Concentrations in Well Drinking Water and in Human Body Samples and a Novel Remediation System for These Elements in Well Drinking Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kato

    Full Text Available Health risk for well drinking water is a worldwide problem. Our recent studies showed increased toxicity by exposure to barium alone (≤700 µg/L and coexposure to barium (137 µg/L and arsenic (225 µg/L. The present edition of WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water revised in 2011 has maintained the values of arsenic (10 µg/L and barium (700 µg/L, but not elements such as manganese, iron and zinc. Nevertheless, there have been very few studies on barium in drinking water and human samples. This study showed significant correlations between levels of arsenic and barium, but not its homologous elements (magnesium, calcium and strontium, in urine, toenail and hair samples obtained from residents of Jessore, Bangladesh. Significant correlation between levels of arsenic and barium in well drinking water and levels in human urine, toenail and hair samples were also observed. Based on these results, a high-performance and low-cost adsorbent composed of a hydrotalcite-like compound for barium and arsenic was developed. The adsorbent reduced levels of barium and arsenic from well water in Bangladesh and Vietnam to <7 µg/L within 1 min. Thus, we have showed levels of arsenic and barium in humans and propose a novel remediation system.

  15. Comparison of Barium and Arsenic Concentrations in Well Drinking Water and in Human Body Samples and a Novel Remediation System for These Elements in Well Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masashi; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Furuta, Akio; Kato, Yoko; Shekhar, Hossain U; Kojima, Michiyo; Koike, Yasuko; Dinh Thang, Nguyen; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Ly, Thuy Bich; Jia, Xiaofang; Yetti, Husna; Naito, Hisao; Ichihara, Gaku; Yajima, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Health risk for well drinking water is a worldwide problem. Our recent studies showed increased toxicity by exposure to barium alone (≤700 µg/L) and coexposure to barium (137 µg/L) and arsenic (225 µg/L). The present edition of WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water revised in 2011 has maintained the values of arsenic (10 µg/L) and barium (700 µg/L), but not elements such as manganese, iron and zinc. Nevertheless, there have been very few studies on barium in drinking water and human samples. This study showed significant correlations between levels of arsenic and barium, but not its homologous elements (magnesium, calcium and strontium), in urine, toenail and hair samples obtained from residents of Jessore, Bangladesh. Significant correlation between levels of arsenic and barium in well drinking water and levels in human urine, toenail and hair samples were also observed. Based on these results, a high-performance and low-cost adsorbent composed of a hydrotalcite-like compound for barium and arsenic was developed. The adsorbent reduced levels of barium and arsenic from well water in Bangladesh and Vietnam to <7 µg/L within 1 min. Thus, we have showed levels of arsenic and barium in humans and propose a novel remediation system.

  16. Comparison of Barium and Arsenic Concentrations in Well Drinking Water and in Human Body Samples and a Novel Remediation System for These Elements in Well Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masashi; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y.; Ohnuma, Shoko; Furuta, Akio; Kato, Yoko; Shekhar, Hossain U.; Kojima, Michiyo; Koike, Yasuko; Dinh Thang, Nguyen; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Ly, Thuy Bich; Jia, Xiaofang; Yetti, Husna; Naito, Hisao; Ichihara, Gaku; Yajima, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Health risk for well drinking water is a worldwide problem. Our recent studies showed increased toxicity by exposure to barium alone (≤700 µg/L) and coexposure to barium (137 µg/L) and arsenic (225 µg/L). The present edition of WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water revised in 2011 has maintained the values of arsenic (10 µg/L) and barium (700 µg/L), but not elements such as manganese, iron and zinc. Nevertheless, there have been very few studies on barium in drinking water and human samples. This study showed significant correlations between levels of arsenic and barium, but not its homologous elements (magnesium, calcium and strontium), in urine, toenail and hair samples obtained from residents of Jessore, Bangladesh. Significant correlation between levels of arsenic and barium in well drinking water and levels in human urine, toenail and hair samples were also observed. Based on these results, a high-performance and low-cost adsorbent composed of a hydrotalcite-like compound for barium and arsenic was developed. The adsorbent reduced levels of barium and arsenic from well water in Bangladesh and Vietnam to <7 µg/L within 1 min. Thus, we have showed levels of arsenic and barium in humans and propose a novel remediation system. PMID:23805262

  17. Ecotoxicological risk assessment and seasonal variation of some pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the sewage treatment plant and surface water bodies (lakes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, G; Dhodapkar, Rita; Kumar, Anupama

    2017-08-10

    This paper reports the seasonal variation and environmental quality control data for five fingerprint pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) (acetaminophen ciprofloxacin, caffeine, irgasan and benzophenone) in the influent and the effluent of the sewage treatment plant (STP) and surface water bodies (six major lakes) in and around Nagpur, one of the "A class city" in the central India over a period of 1 year. The target compounds were analysed using developed offline solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC-PDA) method. All the five PPCPs were found in the influent, whereas four were found in the effluent of the STP. However, in the surface water bodies, three PPCPs were detected in all the seasons. Above PPCPs were present in the concentration range of 1-174 μg L -1 in the surface water bodies, 12-373 μg L -1 in the influent and 11-233 μg L -1 in the effluent of the STP. Amongst the five PPCPs, caffeine was found to be in higher concentration as compared to others. The seasonal trends indicate higher concentrations of PPCPs in summer season and lowest in the rainy season. Additionally, physico-chemical characterisations (inorganic and organic parameters) of the collected samples were performed to access the anthropogenic pollution. Ecotoxicological risk assessment was done to appraise the degree of toxicity of the targeted compounds. Hazard quotient (HQ) values were found to be < 1 indicating no adverse effect on the targeted organism.

  18. Pathways and impacts of nitrogen in water bodies: establishing a framework for integrated assessment modelling of management benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Kronvang, Brian; Carstensen, Jacob

    Monetization of environmental benefits has become relevant as an element of proportionality tests required for justifications under the EU’s Water Framework Directive article 4 (relating to benefits andcosts of measures). This study extends an impact pathway approach to analysis of aquatic...... the study demonstrates how state-of-the-art environmental modelling can be linked with valuation to provide an adequate cross-media assessment framework relevant to integrated water quality management. The results must be regarded as illustrative and more research is required in several areas to consolidate...... relationships relating to exposures. The findings nevertheless suggest the significance of health effects for overall monetary benefits related to ecological quality objectives for water....

  19. The metabolic regimes of flowing waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Emily S.; Heffernan, Jim B.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Stanley, Emily H.; Harvey, Judson; Arroita, M.; Appling, Alison; Cohen, M.J.; McDowell, William H.; Hall, R.O.; Read, Jordan S.; Roberts, B.J.; Stets, Edward; Yackulic, Charles B.

    2018-01-01

    The processes and biomass that characterize any ecosystem are fundamentally constrained by the total amount of energy that is either fixed within or delivered across its boundaries. Ultimately, ecosystems may be understood and classified by their rates of total and net productivity and by the seasonal patterns of photosynthesis and respiration. Such understanding is well developed for terrestrial and lentic ecosystems but our understanding of ecosystem phenology has lagged well behind for rivers. The proliferation of reliable and inexpensive sensors for monitoring dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide is underpinning a revolution in our understanding of the ecosystem energetics of rivers. Here, we synthesize our current understanding of the drivers and constraints on river metabolism, and set out a research agenda aimed at characterizing, classifying and modeling the current and future metabolic regimes of flowing waters.

  20. Pathways and impacts of nitrogen in water bodies: establishing a framework for integrated assessment modelling of management benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Kronvang, Brian; Carstensen, Jacob

    Monetization of environmental benefits has become relevant as an element of proportionality tests required for justifications under the EU’s Water Framework Directive article 4 (relating to benefits andcosts of measures). This study extends an impact pathway approach to analysis of aquatic...... the study demonstrates how state-of-the-art environmental modelling can be linked with valuation to provide an adequate cross-media assessment framework relevant to integrated water quality management. The results must be regarded as illustrative and more research is required in several areas to consolidate...

  1. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... environment and your health: Green living Sun Water Health effects of water pollution How to protect yourself from water pollution Air ... can hurt your health. Learn more about the health effects of polluted water. You can also learn more ... Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Here are ...

  2. Comparison of gross body fat-water magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Heidi J; Niswender, Kevin D; Kullberg, Joel; Berglund, Johan; Johansson, Lars; Bruvold, Morten; Avison, Malcolm J; Welch, E Brian

    2013-04-01

    Improved understanding of how depot-specific adipose tissue mass predisposes to obesity-related comorbidities could yield new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity as well as metabolic benefits of weight loss. We hypothesized that three-dimensional (3D) contiguous "fat-water" MR imaging (FWMRI) covering the majority of a whole-body field of view (FOV) acquired at 3 Tesla (3T) and coupled with automated segmentation and quantification of amount, type, and distribution of adipose and lean soft tissue would show great promise in body composition methodology. Precision of adipose and lean soft tissue measurements in body and trunk regions were assessed for 3T FWMRI and compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Anthropometric, FWMRI, and DXA measurements were obtained in 12 women with BMI 30-39.9 kg/m(2) . Test-retest results found coefficients of variation (CV) for FWMRI that were all under 3%: gross body adipose tissue (GBAT) 0.80%, total trunk adipose tissue (TTAT) 2.08%, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) 2.62%, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) 2.11%, gross body lean soft tissue (GBLST) 0.60%, and total trunk lean soft tissue (TTLST) 2.43%. Concordance correlation coefficients between FWMRI and DXA were 0.978, 0.802, 0.629, and 0.400 for GBAT, TTAT, GBLST, and TTLST, respectively. While Bland-Altman plots demonstrated agreement between FWMRI and DXA for GBAT and TTAT, a negative bias existed for GBLST and TTLST measurements. Differences may be explained by the FWMRI FOV length and potential for DXA to overestimate lean soft tissue. While more development is necessary, the described 3T FWMRI method combined with fully-automated segmentation is fast (<30-min total scan and post-processing time), noninvasive, repeatable, and cost-effective. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  3. EnviroAtlas - Percentage of stream and water body shoreline lengths within 30 meters of >= 5% or >= 15% impervious cover by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the percentages of stream and water body shoreline lengths within 30 meters of impervious cover by 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC)...

  4. Assessment of the amount of body water in the Red Knot (Calidris canutus): an evaluation of the principle of isotope dilution with 2H, (17)O, and (18)O as measured with laser spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstel, Erik R T; Piersma, Theunis; Piersma, Theunis A J; Gessaman, James A; Gessaman, G Jim; Dekinga, Anne; Meijer, Harro A J; Visser, G Henk

    2006-03-01

    We have used the isotope dilution technique to study changes in the body composition of a migratory shorebird species (Red Knot, Calidris canutus) through an assessment of the amount of body water in it. Birds were quantitatively injected with a dose of water with elevated concentrations of 2H, (17)O, and (18)O. Thereafter, blood samples were taken and distilled. The resulting water samples were analysed using an isotope ratio mass spectrometry (for 2H and (18)O only) and a stable isotope ratio infrared laser spectrometry (2H, (17)O, and (18)O) to yield estimates of the amount of body water in the birds, which in turn could be correlated to the amount of body fat. Here, we validate laser spectrometry against mass spectrometry and show that all three isotopes may be used for body water determinations. This opens the way to the extension of the doubly labelled water method, used for the determination of energy expenditure, to a triply labelled water method, incorporating an evaporative water loss correction on a subject-by-subject basis or, alternatively, the reduction of the analytical errors by statistically combining the (17)O and (18)O measurements.

  5. Evolution of body size, vision, and biodiversity of coral-associated organisms: evidence from fossil crustaceans in cold-water coral and tropical coral ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Jakobsen, Sten L; Lauridsen, Bodil W

    2016-06-16

    Modern cold-water coral and tropical coral environments harbor a highly diverse and ecologically important macrofauna of crustaceans that face elevated extinction risks due to reef decline. The effect of environmental conditions acting on decapod crustaceans comparing these two habitats is poorly understood today and in deep time. Here, we compare the biodiversity, eye socket height as a proxy for eye size, and body size of decapods in fossil cold-water and tropical reefs that formed prior to human disturbance. We show that decapod biodiversity is higher in fossil tropical reefs from The Netherlands, Italy, and Spain compared to that of the exceptionally well-preserved Paleocene (Danian) cold-water reef/mound ecosystem from Faxe (Denmark), where decapod diversity is highest in a more heterogeneous, mixed bryozoan-coral habitat instead of in coral and bryozoan-dominated facies. The relatively low diversity at Faxe was not influenced substantially by the preceding Cretaceous/Paleogene extinction event that is not apparent in the standing diversity of decapods in our analyses, or by sampling, preservation, and/or a latitudinal diversity gradient. Instead, the lower availability of food and fewer hiding places for decapods may explain this low diversity. Furthermore, decapods from Faxe are larger than those from tropical waters for half of the comparisons, which may be caused by a lower number of predators, the delayed maturity, and the increased life span of crustaceans in deeper, colder waters. Finally, deep-water specimens of the benthic crab Caloxanthus from Faxe exhibit a larger eye socket size compared to congeneric specimens from tropical reefs, suggesting that dim light conditions favored the evolution of relatively large eyes. The results suggest a strong habitat control on the biodiversity of crustaceans in coral-associated environments and that the diversity difference between deep, cold-water reefs and tropical reefs evolved at least ~63 million years ago

  6. First field-based observations of δ2H and δ18O values of precipitation and other water bodies in the Mongolian Gobi desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Voigt, Christian C.; Kaczensky, Petra

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope values of water are widely used to track the global hydrological cycle and the global δ2H and δ18O patterns of precipitation are increasingly used in studies on animal migration, forensics, food authentication and traceability studies. However, δ2H and δ18O values of precipitation spanning one or more years are available for only a few 100 locations worldwide and for many remote areas such as Mongolia data are still scarce. We obtained the first field-based δ2H and δ18O isotope data of event-based precipitation, rivers and other water bodies in the extreme environment of the Dzungarian Gobi desert in SW Mongolia, covering a period of 16 months (1). Our study area is located over 450 km north-east from the nearest IAEA GNIP station (Fukang station, China) from which it is separated by a mountain range at the international border between China and Mongolia. Isotope values of the collected event-based precipitation showed and extreme range and a high seasonal variability with higher and more variable values in summer and lower in winter. The high variability could not be explained by different origin of air masses alone (i.e. NW polar winds over Russia or westerlies over Central Asia; analyzed using back-trajectory HYSPLIT model), but is likely a result of a combination of different processes affecting the isotope values of precipitation in this area. The calculated field-based local meteoric water line (LMWL, δ2H=(7.42±0.16)δ18O-(23.87±3.27)) showed isotopic characteristics of precipitation in an arid region. We observed a slight discrepancy between the filed based and modelled (Online Isotope in Precipitation Calculator, OIPC) LMWL which highlighted the difficulty of modelling the δ2H and δ18O values for areas with extreme climatic conditions and thus emphasized the importance of collecting long-term field-based data. The collected isotopic data of precipitation and other water bodies provide a basis for future

  7. Atmospheric exchange of carbon dioxide and methane of a small water body and a floating mat in the Luther Marsh peatland, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Magdalena; Berger, Sina; Blodau, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Recent investigations have suggested that small water bodies cover larger areas in northern peatlands than previously assumed. Their role in the carbon cycle and gas exchange rates are poorly constrained so far. To address this issue we measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes on a small water body (ca. 700 m2) and the surrounding floating mat in the Luther Marsh peatland in Ontario, Canada from July to September 2014. To this end we used closed chambers combined with a portable Los Gatos high-resolution trace gas analyzer at different water depths and distances from the shore on the pond and with different dominating plant types on the floating mat surrounding the pond. In addition, CO2 concentrations were recorded in high temporal resolution using an infrared sensor system during selected periods. Air and water temperature, humidity and temperature of the floating mat, wind speed and direction, photosynthetically active radiation, air pressure and relative humidity were also recorded as auxiliary data at the study site. The results show that pond and floating mat were sources of methane throughout the whole measuring period. Methane emissions via the ebullition pathway occurred predominantly near the shore and on the floating mat. During the daytime measurements the floating mat acted as a net sink and the pond as a net source of CO2. The dynamics of CO2 exchange was also strongly time dependent, as CO2 emissions from the pond strongly increased after mid-August. This suggests that photosynthesis was more affected by seasonal decline than respiration process in the pond and that the allochthonous component of the CO2 flux increased in relative importance towards fall.

  8. Use pattern of pesticides and their predicted mobility into shallow groundwater and surface water bodies of paddy lands in Mahaweli river basin in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravinna, Piyal; Priyantha, Namal; Pitawala, Amarasooriya; Yatigammana, Sudharma K

    2017-01-02

    Pesticides applied on agricultural lands reach groundwater by leaching, and move to offsite water bodies by direct runoff, erosion and spray drift. Therefore, an assessment of the mobility of pesticides in water resources is important to safeguard such resources. Mobility of pesticides on agricultural lands of Mahaweli river basin in Sri Lanka has not been reported to date. In this context, the mobility potential of 32 pesticides on surface water and groundwater was assessed by widely used pesticide risk indicators, such as Attenuation Factor (AF) index and the Pesticide Impact Rating Index (PIRI) with some modifications. Four surface water bodies having greater than 20% land use of the catchment under agriculture, and shallow groundwater table at 3.0 m depth were selected for the risk assessment. According to AF, carbofuran, quinclorac and thiamethoxam are three most leachable pesticides having AF values 1.44 × 10 -2 , 1.87 × 10 -3 and 5.70 × 10 -4 , respectively. Using PIRI, offsite movement of pesticides by direct runoff was found to be greater than with the erosion of soil particles for the study area. Carbofuran and quinclorac are most mobile pesticides by direct runoff with runoff fractions of 0.01 and 0.08, respectively, at the studied area. Thiamethoxam and novaluron are the most mobile pesticides by erosion with erosion factions of 1.02 × 10 -4 and 1.05 × 10 -4 , respectively. Expected pesticide residue levels in both surface and groundwater were predicted to remain below the USEPA health advisory levels, except for carbofuran, indicating that pesticide pollution is unlikely to exceed the available health guidelines in the Mahaweli river basin in Sri Lanka.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of water bodies dynamic by means of thermal infrared and multispectral surveys on the Venetian lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberotanza, L.; Lechi, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys employing a two channel Daedalus infrared scanner and multispectral photography were performed. The spring waning tide, the velocity of the water mass, and the types of suspended matter were among the topics studied. Temperature, salinity, sediment transport, and ebb stream velocity were recorded. The bottom topography was correlated with the dynamic characteristics of the sea surface.

  10. Critical body residues linked to octanol-water partitioning, organism composition, and LC50 QSARs: Meta-analysis and model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.J.; Traas, T.P.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    To protect thousands of species from thousands of chemicals released in the environment, various risk assessment tools have been developed. Here, we link quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for response concentrations in water (LC50) to critical concentrations in organisms (C-50)

  11. Evaluation of antibiotic resistant bacteria in underground drinking water and transfer of their resistant character to normal flora of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mehboob; Khan, Naqab; Rehman, Khurram; Khan, Samiullah; Niazi, Zahid Rasul; Shah, Kifayatullah; Baloch, Natasha; Khan, Barkat Ali

    2018-03-01

    The untreated surface water for drinking and domestic use is an alarming situation to public health especially in prevalence of antibiotics resistant bacteria. This investigation aimed to isolate and identify the antibiotic resistance bacteria in underground water samples in district Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The underground water samples were collected from four different places using hand pumps (Khyber town, riverside, Gomal University and united town). Cultured on nutrient agar media, identified by Gam staining and biochemical tests. There after antibiotic resistance assay were performed by measuring zone of inhibition of different antibiotics by disc diffusion method. Six different bacterial colonies were isolated and identified as Enterobacteriaceae, Serriata specie, Proteues, Pseudomonas, all these bacterial colonies were 33% resistant to chloramphenicol with and 100% resistant to amoxicillin. Some colonies were also considered as resistant, according to the criteria of National Committee for Clinical Records (NCCL) that less than 10mm zone of inhibition are considered as resistant. Subsequently, the chloramphenicol resistance bacteria were analyzed for their ability to transfer resistant gene to sensitive bacteria. In in-vitro method, an isolate M1b (resistant) was found capable to transfer resistance gene to M1a isolate (sensitive) in nutrient rich environment. It was concluded that antibiotics resistance bacteria found in underground water, moreover capable of transferring the antibiotic resistant character to suitable recipient i.e. normal flora of the body or to other pathogens by conjugation.

  12. Influence of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA on reduction of local fat and body weight by physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz, Gerd

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Investigation, whether water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA irradiation during moderate bicycle ergometer endurance exercise has effects especially on local fat reduction and on weight reduction beyond the effects of ergometer exercise alone. Methods: Randomised controlled study with 40 obese females (BMI 30-40 (median: 34.5, body weight 76-125 (median: 94.9 kg, age 20-40 (median: 35.5 years, isocaloric nutrition, 20 in the wIRA group and 20 in the control group. In both groups each participant performed 3 times per week over 4 weeks for 45 minutes bicycle ergometer endurance exercise with a constant load according to a lactate level of 2 mmol/l (aerobic endurance load, as determined before the intervention period. In the wIRA group in addition large parts of the body (including waist, hip, and thighs were irradiated during all ergometries of the intervention period with visible light and a predominant part of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA, using the irradiation unit “Hydrosun® 6000” with 10 wIRA radiators (Hydrosun® Medizintechnik, Müllheim, Germany, radiator type 500, 4 mm water cuvette, yellow filter, water-filtered spectrum 500-1400 nm around a speed independent bicycle ergometer. Main variable of interest: change of “the sum of circumferences of waist, hip, and both thighs of each patient” over the intervention period (4 weeks. Additional variables of interest: body weight, body mass index BMI, body fat percentage, fat mass, fat-free mass, water mass (analysis of body composition by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis, assessment of an arteriosclerotic risk profile by blood investigation of variables of lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins HDL, low density lipoproteins LDL, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, clinical chemistry (fasting glucose, alanin-aminotransferase ALT (= glutamyl pyruvic transaminase GPT, gamma-glutamyl-transferase GGT, creatinine, albumin, endocrinology

  13. Permeability analysis of Asbuton material used as core layers of water resistance in the body of dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, H.; Tjaronge, M. W.; Thaha, A.; Djamaluddin, R.

    2017-11-01

    In order to increase consumption of the local materials and national products, large reserves of Asbuton material about 662.960 million tons in the Buton Islands became an alternative as a waterproof core layer in the body of dam. The Asbuton material was used in this research is Lawele Granular Asphalt (LGA). This study was an experimental study conducted in the laboratory by conducting density testing (content weight) and permeability on Asbuton material. Testing of the Asbuton material used Falling Head method to find out the permeability value of Asbuton material. The data of test result to be analyzed are the relation between compaction energy and density value also relation between density value and permeability value of Asbuton material. The result shows that increases the number of blow apply to the Asbuton material at each layer will increase the density of the Asbuton material. The density value of Asbuton material that satisfies the requirements for use as an impermeable core layer in the dam body is 1.53 grams/cm3. The increase the density value (the weight of the contents) of the Asbuton material will reduce its permeability value of the Asbuton material.

  14. Changes in body weight and eye size in female European eel kept in fresh and salt water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Nowosad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The eel is a catadromous fish which spends most of its life in freshwater and adults swim to the Sargasso Sea region to spawn. While preparing for the reproductive process, eels undergo a metamorphosis to become what is called silver eel; a process involving changes in the colour and weight of the body and an increase in the eye size. These are indicators of fish maturity and they facilitate the selection of fish for reproduction under controlled conditions. During this study, changes in the body weight (BW and eye size in female European eel were observed while being given weekly hormonal injections of 20 mg kg–1 carp pituitary homogenate and kept in 15°C freshwater and in 15°C saltwater with a salinity of 32-33‰. Fish kept in saltwater but not subjected to hormonal stimulation were used as a control group. Furthermore, after the experiment was finished, females in the control group were kept for next 5 months, with the same environmental parameters maintained. Differences between the treated groups were observed as early as week 4 of the experiment. An increase in fish BW was observed in fish kept both in salt and freshwater which were subjected to hormonal stimulation. On the other hand, changes in eye size were observed in the fish kept in saltwater, both in those hormonally stimulated and otherwise. The eye diameter in the fish kept in fresh after hormonal stimulation did not change significantly.

  15. An Automatic Monitoring System for High-Frequency Measuring and Real-Time Management of Cyanobacterial Blooms in Urban Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet Tran Khac

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban lakes mitigate the negative impacts on the hydrological cycle and improve the quality of life in cities. Worldwide, the concern increases for the protection and management of urban water bodies. Since the physical-chemical and biological conditions of a small aquatic ecosystem can vary rapidly over time, traditional low frequency measurement approaches (weekly or monthly sampling limits the knowledge and the transfer of research outcomes to management decision-making. In this context, this paper presents an automatic monitoring system including a full-scale experimental site and a data transfer platform for high-frequency observations (every 5 min in a small and shallow urban lake (Lake Champs-sur-Marne, Paris, France, 10.3 ha. Lake stratification and mixing periods can be clearly observed, these periods are compared with the dynamic patterns of chlorophyll-a, phycocyanin, dissolved oxygen and pH. The results indicate that the phytoplankton growth corresponds with dissolved oxygen cycles. However, thermal stratification cannot totally explain the entire dynamic patterns of different physical-chemical and ecological variables. Besides, the cyanobacteria is one of the dominating groups of phytoplankton blooms during the lake stratification periods (8 August–29 September 2016. During the cooling mixed period (29 September–19 October 2016, the high concentration of chlorophyll-a is mainly caused by the other phytoplankton species, such as diatoms. Perspectives are discussed in order to apply this observation system for real-time management of water bodies and lakes.

  16. Pore-scale modeling of capillary trapping in water-wet porous media: A new cooperative pore-body filling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruspini, L. C.; Farokhpoor, R.; Øren, P. E.

    2017-10-01

    We present a pore-network model study of capillary trapping in water-wet porous media. The amount and distribution of trapped non-wetting phase is determined by the competition between two trapping mechanisms - snap-off and cooperative pore-body filling. We develop a new model to describe the pore-body filling mechanism in geologically realistic pore-networks. The model accounts for the geometrical characteristics of the pore, the spatial location of the connecting throats and the local fluid topology at the time of the displacement. We validate the model by comparing computed capillary trapping curves with published data for four different water-wet rocks. Computations are performed on pore-networks extracted from micro-CT images and process-based reconstructions of the actual rocks used in the experiments. Compared with commonly used stochastic models, the new model describes more accurately the experimental measurements, especially for well connected porous systems where trapping is controlled by subtleties of the pore structure. The new model successfully predicts relative permeabilities and residual saturation for Bentheimer sandstone using in-situ measured contact angles as input to the simulations. The simulated trapped cluster size distributions are compared with predictions from percolation theory.

  17. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  18. Projection of body burdens to assess the relative risk from exposure to trace elements from coal combustion emissions, drinking water, and diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, J.R.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Surles T.G.

    1979-12-01

    This study compares the relative health risk of exposure to seven trace elements from four sources - coal-fired electricity generation with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator, coal-fired electricity generation with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator, drinking water, and diet. The measure used for comparing health risks is body burden, which is the amount of an element accumulating within an exposed subject. Body burdens were used as a measure of risk because the lack of dose-response data restricts the projection of absolute risks of exposure, such as death or illness. Thus, projection of body burdens provides a measure of relative risk that can be used for comparison of impact potential from different sources of exposure. The assessment trace elements - arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc - were chosen to represent a range of physiological, environmental, and physical characteristics that affect the amount of accumulation. These factors include: toxicity, absorption, excretion, biological half life, bioaccumulation, biotransformation, volatility, and solubility.

  19. Alternative Energy: Production of H{sub 2} by Radiolysis of Water in the Rocky Cores of Icy Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouquet, Alexis; Waite, J. Hunter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Glein, Christopher R.; Wyrick, Danielle [Southwest Research Institute, Space Science and Engineering Division, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We applied a model of radiolysis in earthly rock–water mixtures to several known or suspected ocean worlds: Enceladus, Ceres, Europa, Titania, Oberon, Pluto, and Charon. In this model, radiation emitted by the long-lived radionuclides ({sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U) contained in the ordinary chondrite-like rocks is partly absorbed by the water permeating the material of each body’s core. The physical and chemical processes that follow release molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}), which is a molecule of astrobiological interest. We compared the calculated production of H{sub 2} by radiolysis in each body’s core to published estimates of production by serpentinization. This study presents production calculations over 4.5 Gyr for several values of rock porosity. We found that radiolysis can produce H{sub 2} quantities equivalent to a few percent of what is estimated from serpentinization. Higher porosity, which is unlikely at the scale of a body’s entire core but possible just under the seafloor, can increase radiolytic production by almost an order of magnitude. The products of water radiolysis also include several oxidants, allowing for production of life-sustaining sulfates. Though previously unrecognized in this capacity, radiolysis in an ocean world’s outer core could be a fundamental agent in generating the chemical energy that could support life.

  20. Design and Development of Low P-Emission Substrate for the Protection of Urban Water Bodies Collecting Green Roof Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Karczmarczyk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization leads to higher phosphorus (P concentration in urban catchments. Among different stormwater retention measures, green roofs are the least efficient in phosphorus retention. Moreover, much research has shown that green roofs act as sources of phosphorus, and they can emit P in significant loads. In this study low P emission green roof substrate was developed based on the proposed step by step procedure for the selection of materials including laboratory tests, column experiments, and the monitoring of the open air green roof model. Developed substrate is the mixture of crushed red brick (35% of volume, crushed limestone (20% of volume, and sand (45% of volume, and is characterized by a bulk density of 1.52 g/cm3, water permeability of 9 mm/min, water capacity of 24.6% of volume, and granulometric composition that meets the Landscaping and Landscape Development Research Society (FLL guidelines. Limestone was added to limit the potential P leaching from crushed red brick and vegetated mate consisted of Sedum album, Sedum acre, Sedum kamtschaticum, Sedum spurium, Sedum reflexum, Sedum sexangulare, Dianthus deltoides, Dianthus carthusianorum, and Thymus vulgaris. The open air model experiment was run for 319 days, from March 2015 to February 2016. The total water runoff from the green roof model amounted to 43.3% of runoff from the reference roof. The only one runoff event polluted with phosphorus was connected with the outflow of melted snow from an unfreezing green roof model.

  1. The impact of a hydroelectric power plant on the sediment load in downstream water bodies, Svartisen, northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, J; Bønsnes, T E

    2001-02-05

    When the Svartisen hydroelectric power plant was put into operation, extensive sediment pollution was observed in the downstream fjord area. This paper discusses the impact of the power plant and the contribution from various sources of sediment. Computation of the sediment load was based on samples collected one to four times per day. Grain size distribution analyses of suspended sediments were carried out and used as input in a routing model to study the movement of sediments through the system. Suspended sediment delivered to the fjord before the power station was constructed was measured as 8360 metric tons as an annual mean for a 12-year period. During the years 1995-1996 when the power plant was operating, the total suspended load through the power station was measured as 32609 and 30254 metric tons, respectively. Grain size distribution analyses indicate a major change in the composition of the sediments from 9% clay before the power plant was operative to 50-60% clay afterwards. This change, together with the increase in sediment load, is believed to be one of the main causes of the drastic reduction in secchi depths in the fjord. The effect of the suspended sediment load on the fjord water turbidity was evaluated by co-plotting secchi depth and power station water discharge. Measurements during 1995 and 1996 showed that at the innermost of these locations the water failed to attain the minimum requirement of 2 m secchi depth. In later years secchi depths were above the specified level. In 1997 and 1998 the conditions improved. At the more distal locality, the conditions were acceptable with only a few exceptions. A routing model was applied to data acquired at a location 2 km from the power station in order to calculate the contributions from various sediment sources. This model indicated that the contribution from reservoir bed erosion dominated in 1994 but decreased significantly in 1995. Future operation of the power station will mostly take place with

  2. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marion County, Indiana Salt Lake County, Utah Seattle-King County, Washington Tools and Training CLPPP CAP Healthy ... wish to use tap water for drinking or cooking, especially when the water has been off and ...

  3. Development and validation of impedance-based equations for the prediction of total body water and fat-free mass in children aged 8-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jemaa, Houda; Mankaï, Amani; Khlifi, Sarra; Minaoui, Rim; Ghozzi, Dhekra; Zediri, Manel; Kortobi, Belhassen; Karmous, Inchirah; Ben Hmad, Halima; Ben Slama, Fethi; Jamoussi, Henda; Aguenaou, Hassan; El Kari, Khalid; Aouidet, Abdallah

    2018-02-08

    Accuracy of impedance analysis depends on population-specific prediction equations. The aim of this study was to propose new prediction equations to estimate body composition using impedance analysis for healthy Tunisian children and validate them using the deuterium oxide dilution (D 2 O) technique. Body composition was estimated by the Tanita impedance analyzer. The validity of this system was investigated in 134 school children aged between 8 and 11 years. The validity of other published equations was also tested in our sample. Total body water (TBW) and Fat-Free Mass (FFM) were determined using the D 2 O technique. Participants were divided equally into development (n = 67) and validation groups (n = 67) to develop prediction equation using linear regression models. The comparison between body composition obtained by Tanita system and by D 2 O technique illustrated a significant difference (p equations for TBW and FFM were developed with sex, age, weight and resistance index as possible predictor variables. The selected equations presented the highest adjusted coefficient of determination (R 2 ), the lowest standard error of the estimate (SEE) value and the lowest p-values. The pure error was 1.263 for the TBW equation and 1.646 for the FFM. The Bland Altman plot illustrated the good level of concordance between the TBW and FFM predicted by the new equations and measured by isotope dilution. Our study provides valid prediction equations for estimation of TBW, FFM from impedance analysis measures for Tunisian children. These equations are applicable to children aged between 8 and 11 years. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum osmolarity and haematocrit do not modify the association between the impedance index (Ht(2)/Z) and total body water in the very old: the Newcastle 85+ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, Mario; Prado, Carla; Hooper, Lee; Munro, Alex; Collerton, Joanna; Davies, Karen; Kingston, Andrew; Mathers, John C; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance is a non-invasive technique for the assessment of body composition; however, information on its accuracy in the very old (80+years) is limited. We investigated whether the association between the impedance index and total body water (TBW) was modified by hydration status as assessed by haematocrit and serum osmolarity. This was a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Newcastle 85+Cohort Study. Anthropometric measurements [weight, height (Ht)] were taken and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Leg-to-leg bioimpedance was used to measure the impedance value (Z) and to estimate fat mass, fat free mass and TBW. The impedance index (Ht2/Z) was calculated. Blood haematocrit, haemoglobin, glucose, sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine concentrations were measured. Serum osmolarity was calculated using a validated prediction equation. 677 men and women aged 85 years were included. The average BMI of the population was 24.3±4.2kg/m2 and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 32.6% and 9.5%, respectively. The impedance index was significantly associated with TBW in both men (n=274, r=0.76, pimpedance index remained associated with TBW after adjustment for height, weight and gender, and further adjustment for serum osmolarity and haematocrit. The impedance index values increased with BMI and the relationship was not modified by hydration status in women (p=0.69) and only marginally in men (p=0.02). The association between the impedance index and TBW was not modified by hydration status, which may support the utilisation of leg-to-leg bioimpedance for the assessment of body composition in the very old. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Water Ice Radiolytic O2, H2, and H2O2 Yields for Any Projectile Species, Energy, or Temperature: A Model for Icy Astrophysical Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teolis, B. D.; Plainaki, C.; Cassidy, T. A.; Raut, U.

    2017-10-01

    O2, H2, and H2O2 radiolysis from water ice is pervasive on icy astrophysical bodies, but the lack of a self-consistent, quantitative model of the yields of these water products versus irradiation projectile species and energy has been an obstacle to estimating the radiolytic oxidant sources to the surfaces and exospheres of these objects. A major challenge is the wide variation of O2 radiolysis yields between laboratory experiments, ranging over 4 orders of magnitude from 5 × 10-7 to 5 × 10-3 molecules/eV for different particles and energies. We revisit decades of laboratory data to solve this long-standing puzzle, finding an inverse projectile range dependence in the O2 yields, due to preferential O2 formation from an 30 Å thick oxygenated surface layer. Highly penetrating projectile ions and electrons with ranges ≳30 Å are therefore less efficient at producing O2 than slow/heavy ions and low-energy electrons (≲ 400 eV) which deposit most energy near the surface. Unlike O2, the H2O2 yields from penetrating projectiles fall within a comparatively narrow range of (0.1-6) × 10-3 molecules/eV and do not depend on range, suggesting that H2O2 forms deep in the ice uniformly along the projectile track, e.g., by reactions of OH radicals. We develop an analytical model for O2, H2, and H2O2 yields from pure water ice for electrons and singly charged ions of any mass and energy and apply the model to estimate possible O2 source rates on several icy satellites. The yields are upper limits for icy bodies on which surface impurities may be present.

  6. Elevated Serum Osmolality and Total Water Deficit Indicate Impaired Hydration Status in Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities Regardless of Low or High Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Melissa Ventura; Simmons, Sandra F; Shotwell, Matthew S; Hudson, Abbie; Hollingsworth, Emily K; Long, Emily; Kuertz, Brittany; Silver, Heidi J

    2016-05-01

    Dehydration is typically associated with underweight and malnutrition in long-term care (LTC) settings. Evidence is lacking regarding the influence of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity on risk factors, prevalence, and presentation of dehydration. The aim of this study was to objectively assess hydration status and the adequacy of total water intake, and determine relationships between hydration status, total water intake, and body mass index (BMI) in LTC residents. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was performed. Baseline data from 247 subjects recruited from eight community-based LTC facilities participating in two randomized trials comparing nutrient and cost-efficacy of between-meal snacks vs oral nutrition supplements (ONS). Hydration status was assessed by serum osmolality concentration and total water intakes were quantified by weighed food, beverage, water, and ONS intake. Simple and multiple linear regression methods were applied. Forty-nine (38.3%) subjects were dehydrated (>300 mOsm/kg) and another 39 (30.5%) had impending dehydration (295 to 300 mOsm/kg). The variance in serum osmolality was significantly accounted for by blood urea nitrogen level, mental status score, and having diabetes (R(2)=0.46; Pwater intake averaged 1,147.2±433.1 mL/day. Thus, 96% to 100% of subjects did not meet estimated requirements, with a deficit range of 700 to 1,800 mL/day. The variance in total water intake was significantly accounted for by type of liquid beverages (thin vs thick), type of ONS, total energy intake, total activities of daily living dependence, sex, and BMI (R(2)=0.56; Pwater intake is prevalent in LTC residents across all BMI categories. Type of liquid beverages, type of ONS, and type of between-meal snacks are factors that could be targeted for nutrition interventions designed to prevent or reverse dehydration. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of biological indexes of the common reed (Phragmites australis) seed progeny in the environmental safety of radioactive contaminated water bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavnyuk, A. [National Aviation University, Kiev (Ukraine); Shevtsova, N.; Gudkov, D. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the National Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental protection requires effective monitoring system of radionuclide contamination and radiobiological effects as well as development of their prevention and minimizing measures for humans and biota. There is a majority of conventional techniques for living organisms' habitat quality assessment. One of the most widespread, convenient and accessible ones, is the seed progeny analysis, for example of conifers, cereals and wild herbaceous plants. Availability of vitality, growth, mutability indexes and abnormalities of vascular plant germs for environment quality express assessment was discussed in numerous publications. However, this point is studied insufficiently concerning aquatic vascular plants, forming communities playing significant role in radionuclides distribution in contaminated water bodies. Common reed (Phragmites australis (Trin) Ex. Steud) is a widespread species mostly dominating in air-aquatic vascular plant communities of freshwater bodies; it is a first-order {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr accumulating species. To assess the common reed germs growth indexes availability, seeds were sampled in polygon water bodies of different radionuclide contamination levels and 0.7-22 mcGy h{sup -1} total absorbed dose range, within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In water bodies with background level of radionuclide contamination, for comparison, total absorbed dose varied in range of 0.03-0.3 mcGy h{sup -1}. Series of seeds germination experiments was carried out in laboratory conditions. Complex of germs indexes was investigated, conditionally divided into three groups: (1) Vitality indexes. In course of experiment series, vitality was assessed via germinating energy, germinating ability indexes, germination period (first and last germ appearance) and survivability study; (2) Growth indexes. Root and leaf length, occurrence of plant groups with different vegetative organs length were determined for germs growth speed assessment; (3) Teratological

  8. Changes in body posture in children with first-degree scoliosis taking part in corrective exercises in a water environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyk, Katarzyna; Skolimowski, Tadeusz; Zawadzka, Dominika

    2005-04-30

    Background. Swimming and aquatic exercises are a very attractive form of movement for children and young people, which is helpful in correcting posture defects. The water environment relieves pressure on the spine, relaxes muscles, and makes it easier to assume the proper posture. Swimming allows to join pleasure - water play and learning to swim - with therapeutic action. The primary purpose of our research was to evaluate the effectiveness of corrective swimming, based on our own program, and to determine the effect on swimming on spine arrangement in two position in children with posture defects. Material and methods. We studied 106 children (age 9-12). All these had been referred for corrective swimming by a specialist. The subjects were examined twice at a three-month interval. In particular we analyzed the shape of lordosis and kyphosis and the symmetry of the trunk in the frontal plane. We evaluated spinal positioning using a computer program designed to assess posture by photogramometry. Results. The initial results showed that posture defects are very common in children. The primary defects are rounded backs, concave-rounded back, and asymmetry of shoulders and shoulder blades. Conclusions. Our initial research shows that the computer photogram can be used for diagnosis and outcome measurement in hydrotherapy for children with posture defects.

  9. Morphological and Molecular Survey of Naegleria spp. in Water Bodies Used for Recreational Purposes in Rasht city, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam NIYYATI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naegleria spp. is a free-living amoeba of which some species includ­ing N. fowleri and N. australeinsis are highly pathogenic in human and ani­mals. These widespread amoebae could be found in different environmental sources particularly in aquatic resources of tropical and subtropical regions. The most important source of infection is via recreational water contact. Due to the lack of thorough research regarding species of Naegleria spp. in aquatic sources, the present study was conducted.Methods: In the present study, 60 samples were collected from recreational wa­ter resources of Rasht city, Guilan province, north of Iran. After filtering and culturing the samples, plates were examined by microscopic method and accord­ing to the page criteria. DNA of vahlkampfiid-positive samples were then ex­tracted using phe­nol-chlorophorm method. Amoebae genus was identified by targeting the ITS-region and sequencing based-approaches.Results: Nine (15% samples out of a 60 total samples were positive for Naegleria spp. of which seven belonged to potentially pathogenic N. australiensis. Two other strains were belonged to non-pathogenic N. pagei.Conclusion: The present research was the first report of occurrence of N. aus­traliensis and N. pagei in Rasht city, north Iran. This study reflects the occurrence of Naegleria spp. in water sources of Guilan Province, Iran.

  10. Scientific objectives of the primitive body sample return missions: An approach from the light-induced effect on water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Mikio

    1994-01-01

    Water is undoubtedly one of the most crucial components of the solar nebula for determining planetary composition: planets were formed from the accretion of the dust particles in the nebula, and the redox state of Fe in the particles can be determined by the reaction of Fe with water vapor diffused into the interior of the particle in the early stage of solar system formation. It has been discussed from various observations that the cores of Mercury, Venus, and the Earth might be metallic Fe, although the core of the Earth may be somewhat oxidized by the high pressure and temperature reaction of liquid Fe with perovskite at the boundary of the mantle and the core, whereas the core of Mars may be highly oxidized, as suggested by its low density. Isotopic anomalies of various elements have frequently been observed in the solar system (in planetary atmospheres and in meteorites) and some of them can be attributed to the injection of exotic particles formed in other stars into the solar nebula. Hydrogen and D anomalies in planetary atmospheres were frequently believed to correlate with the differential escape of H and D from the exospheres of Venus and Mars, although no one knows the primordial D/H ratios before thermal escape. This paper explains the decrease of the observed D/H ratios with distance from the sun by considering the light-induced drift effect to displace H2(16)O alone to the outside in the solar nebula.

  11. Porous silicon for photosensitized formation of singlet oxygen in water and in simulated body fluid: two methods of modification by undecylenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Ester; Balaguer, Maria; Bychto, Leszek; Salonen, Jarno; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Matveeva, Eugenia; Chirvony, Vladimir

    2009-06-01

    Initially H-terminated and therefore hydrophobic surface of electrochemically prepared luminescent porous silicon (PSi) powder was transformed to the hydrophilic one by means of surface modification by undecylenic acid. Physical adsorption of undecylenic acid as a non-ionic surfactant and its chemical binding through C[triple bond]C bond opening and Si-C bond formation were applied as two different methods of PSi surface modification, physical and chemical modification, respectively. Luminescence of aqueous suspensions of the both types of modified PSi powders in merely water and in simulated body fluid physiological electrolyte was measured as a function of time. Many-fold (up to 20 times) building-up of the luminescence intensity was observed for PSi aqueous suspensions during the first few days, the growth was followed by a slower (a week and more) luminescence intensity decay. As it is evidenced by FTIR spectra and SEM images, the effect of the luminescence growth and decay of PSi suspension in water can be in part attributed to the PSi surface oxidation accompanied by its dissolution and de-aggregation of large PSi particles. It is concluded also from the experiments on PSi luminescence reversible quenching by O2 that SiO-related surface states with the excitation energy about 2.2 eV are formed during water-assisted oxidation of Si nanocrystal surface. An appearance of a large number of such surface states can be also responsible for the observed PSi luminescence building-up.

  12. Influence of fluctuations of historic water bodies on fault stability and earthquake recurrence interval: The Dead Sea Rift as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belferman, Mariana; Katsman, Regina; Agnon, Amotz; Ben-Avraham, Zvi

    2017-04-01

    Despite the global, social and scientific impact of earthquakes, their triggering mechanisms remain often poorly defined. We suggest that dynamic changes in the levels of the historic water bodies occupying tectonic depressions at the Dead Sea Rift cause significant variations in the shallow crustal stress field and affect local fault systems in a way that may promote or suppress earthquakes. This mechanism and its spatial and temporal scales differ from those in tectonically-driven deformations. We use analytical and numerical poroelastic models to simulate immediate and delayed seismic responses resulting from the observed historic water level changes. The role of variability in the poroelastic and the elastic properties of the rocks composing the upper crust in inducing or retarding deformations under a strike-slip faulting regime is studied. The solution allows estimating a possible reduction in a seismic recurrence interval. Considering the historic water level fluctuation, our preliminary simulations show a promising agreement with paleo-seismic rates identified in the field.

  13. Imposex and butyltin body burden in Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), in coastal waters within the Basque Country (northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J. German, E-mail: grodriguez@pas.azti.es [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Borja, Angel; Franco, Javier [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Garcia Alonso, J. Ignacio [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Muxika, Inigo [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Sariego, Cristina [Servicio de Espectrometria de Masas, SCT' s, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria s/n, 33006, Oviedo (Spain); Valencia, Victoriano [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Levels of imposex (superimposition of male characters, upon females) and the presence of sterile females are assessed in the gastropod Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), at 22 locations in the Basque Country (northern Spain). At 18 of these localities, butyltin bioaccumulation (tributyltin (TBT); dibutyltin; monobutyltin) was analysed using isotope dilution and GC-ICP-MS. Higher imposex levels and TBT body burden were found in confined harbours, with a large vessel traffic or the presence of a fishing fleet or a shipyard. For the first time, four apparently sequential types of aborted capsules are described in this species. Another novelty is the interspecific comparison between imposex intensities in sympatrically living populations of N. nitidus and N. reticulatus. This showed that sensitivity to TBT pollution of both species is relatively similar (in terms of Relative Penis Length Index). Since N. nitidus has a restricted habitat distribution due to its low presence in wave-exposed habitats, its complementary use with other species is recommended for its use in TBT monitoring programmes.

  14. Trace analysis in the atmosphere, water bodies and uranium ores by means of X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Novara, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis with X-ray fluorescence is an instrumental method that evaluates concentrations, at trace levels, of elements in samples of all kinds. The applications of this method are broad, specially useful in the analysis of metals as contaminators in air and water, and as impurities in minerals. The preparation of the samples is very important to obtain good accuracy, and at the same time, you should make a series of standards of known concentrations so you can compare the counting of each sample against the standard, for each of the elements. You should make, depending o