WorldWideScience

Sample records for lensing excursion angle

  1. Emission-angle and polarization-rotation effects in the lensed CMB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Antony [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Hall, Alex [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Challinor, Anthony, E-mail: antony@cosmologist.info, E-mail: ahall@roe.ac.uk, E-mail: a.d.challinor@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-01

    Lensing of the CMB is an important effect, and is usually modelled by remapping the unlensed CMB fields by a lensing deflection. However the lensing deflections also change the photon path so that the emission angle is no longer orthogonal to the background last-scattering surface. We give the first calculation of the emission-angle corrections to the standard lensing approximation from dipole (Doppler) sources for temperature and quadrupole sources for temperature and polarization. We show that while the corrections are negligible for the temperature and E-mode polarization, additional large-scale B-modes are produced with a white spectrum that dominates those from post-Born field rotation (curl lensing). On large scales about one percent of the total lensing-induced B-mode amplitude is expected to be due to this effect. However, the photon emission angle does remain orthogonal to the perturbed last-scattering surface due to time delay, and half of the large-scale emission-angle B modes cancel with B modes from time delay to give a total contribution of about half a percent. While not important for planned observations, the signal could ultimately limit the ability of delensing to reveal low amplitudes of primordial gravitational waves. We also derive the rotation of polarization due to multiple deflections between emission and observation. The rotation angle is of quadratic order in the deflection angle, and hence negligibly small: polarization typically rotates by less than an arcsecond, orders of magnitude less than a small-scale image rotates due to post-Born field rotation (which is quadratic in the shear). The field-rotation B modes dominate the other effects on small scales.

  2. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF ACTION CAMERAS WITH WIDE-ANGLE LENSES IN UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hastedt, H.; Ekkel, T.; Luhmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    The application of light-weight cameras in UAV photogrammetry is required due to restrictions in payload. In general, consumer cameras with normal lens type are applied to a UAV system. The availability of action cameras, like the GoPro Hero4 Black, including a wide-angle lens (fish-eye lens) offers new perspectives in UAV projects. With these investigations, different calibration procedures for fish-eye lenses are evaluated in order to quantify their accuracy potential in UAV photogrammetry....

  3. Applicability of contact angle techniques used in the analysis of contact lenses, part 1: comparative methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Darren; Carnell, Sarah Maria; Eden, Russell John

    2013-05-01

    Contact angle, as a representative measure of surface wettability, is often employed to interpret contact lens surface properties. The literature is often contradictory and can lead to confusion. This literature review is part of a series regarding the analysis of hydrogel contact lenses using contact angle techniques. Here we present an overview of contact angle terminology, methodology, and analysis. Having discussed this background material, subsequent parts of the series will discuss the analysis of contact lens contact angles and evaluate differences in published laboratory results. The concepts of contact angle, wettability and wetting are presented as an introduction. Contact angle hysteresis is outlined and highlights the advantages in using dynamic analytical techniques over static methods. The surface free energy of a material illustrates how contact angle analysis is capable of providing supplementary surface characterization. Although single values are able to distinguish individual material differences, surface free energy and dynamic methods provide an improved understanding of material behavior. The frequently used sessile drop, captive bubble, and Wilhelmy plate techniques are discussed. Their use as both dynamic and static methods, along with the advantages and disadvantages of each technique, is explained. No single contact angle technique fully characterizes the wettability of a material surface, and the application of complimenting methods allows increased characterization. At present, there is not an ISO standard method designed for soft materials. It is important that each contact angle technique has a standard protocol, as small protocol differences between laboratories often contribute to a variety of published data that are not easily comparable.

  4. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF ACTION CAMERAS WITH WIDE-ANGLE LENSES IN UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hastedt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of light-weight cameras in UAV photogrammetry is required due to restrictions in payload. In general, consumer cameras with normal lens type are applied to a UAV system. The availability of action cameras, like the GoPro Hero4 Black, including a wide-angle lens (fish-eye lens offers new perspectives in UAV projects. With these investigations, different calibration procedures for fish-eye lenses are evaluated in order to quantify their accuracy potential in UAV photogrammetry. Herewith the GoPro Hero4 is evaluated using different acquisition modes. It is investigated to which extent the standard calibration approaches in OpenCV or Agisoft PhotoScan/Lens can be applied to the evaluation processes in UAV photogrammetry. Therefore different calibration setups and processing procedures are assessed and discussed. Additionally a pre-correction of the initial distortion by GoPro Studio and its application to the photogrammetric purposes will be evaluated. An experimental setup with a set of control points and a prospective flight scenario is chosen to evaluate the processing results using Agisoft PhotoScan. Herewith it is analysed to which extent a pre-calibration and pre-correction of a GoPro Hero4 will reinforce the reliability and accuracy of a flight scenario.

  5. Evaluation of the Quality of Action Cameras with Wide-Angle Lenses in Uav Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, H.; Ekkel, T.; Luhmann, T.

    2016-06-01

    The application of light-weight cameras in UAV photogrammetry is required due to restrictions in payload. In general, consumer cameras with normal lens type are applied to a UAV system. The availability of action cameras, like the GoPro Hero4 Black, including a wide-angle lens (fish-eye lens) offers new perspectives in UAV projects. With these investigations, different calibration procedures for fish-eye lenses are evaluated in order to quantify their accuracy potential in UAV photogrammetry. Herewith the GoPro Hero4 is evaluated using different acquisition modes. It is investigated to which extent the standard calibration approaches in OpenCV or Agisoft PhotoScan/Lens can be applied to the evaluation processes in UAV photogrammetry. Therefore different calibration setups and processing procedures are assessed and discussed. Additionally a pre-correction of the initial distortion by GoPro Studio and its application to the photogrammetric purposes will be evaluated. An experimental setup with a set of control points and a prospective flight scenario is chosen to evaluate the processing results using Agisoft PhotoScan. Herewith it is analysed to which extent a pre-calibration and pre-correction of a GoPro Hero4 will reinforce the reliability and accuracy of a flight scenario.

  6. Losing focus: how lens position and viewing angle affect the function of multifocal lenses in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Wilby, David; Temple, Shelby Eric

    2016-09-01

    Light rays of different wavelengths are focused at different distances when they pass through a lens (longitudinal chromatic aberration [LCA]). For animals with color vision this can pose a serious problem, because in order to perceive a sharp image the rays must be focused at the shallow plane of the photoreceptor's outer segments in the retina. A variety of fish and tetrapods have been found to possess multifocal lenses, which correct for LCA by assigning concentric zones to correctly focus specific wavelengths. Each zone receives light from a specific beam entrance position (BEP) (the lateral distance between incoming light and the center of the lens). Any occlusion of incoming light at specific BEPs changes the composition of the wavelengths that are correctly focused on the retina. Here, we calculated the effect of lens position relative to the plane of the iris and light entering the eye at oblique angles on how much of the lens was involved in focusing the image on the retina (measured as the availability of BEPs). We used rotational photography of fish eyes and mathematical modeling to quantify the degree of lens occlusion. We found that, at most lens positions and viewing angles, there was a decrease of BEP availability and in some cases complete absence of some BEPs. Given the implications of these effects on image quality, we postulate that three morphological features (aphakic spaces, curvature of the iris, and intraretinal variability in spectral sensitivity) may, in part, be adaptations to mitigate the loss of spectral image quality in the periphery of the eyes of fishes.

  7. 25G compared with 20G vitrectomy under Resight non-contact wide-angle lenses for Terson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinbang; You, Zhipeng

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of 25G vitrectomy to standard 20G vitrectomy for treatment of Terson syndrome under Resight non-contact wide-angle lenses. This was a case-control study of 20 patients with Terson syndrome (study group) that underwent 25G vitrectomy under Resight non-contact wide-angle lenses, with those of 20 matched patients that underwent 20G vitrectomy (control group). Medical records were reviewed from between July 2011 and October 2013. Data included results of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study examination, ophthalmology B-scan ultrasonography and fundus photography. The mean age, follow-up time, the preoperative visual acuity of LogMAR and the preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) were all comparable in the two groups (all P>0.05). There were statistically significant differences in postoperative visual acuity of LogMAR compared with preoperative visual acuity (Pcontact wide-angle lenses can achieve a significantly shorter operative time and lower post-operative IOP compared with 20G Vitrectomy.

  8. A novel full-angle scanning light scattering profiler to quantitatively evaluate forward and backward light scattering from intraocular lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Bennett N., E-mail: bennett.walker@fda.hhs.gov [Optical Therapeutics and Medical Nanophotonics Laboratory, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States); Office of Device Evaluation, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States); James, Robert H.; Ilev, Ilko K. [Optical Therapeutics and Medical Nanophotonics Laboratory, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States); Calogero, Don [Office of Device Evaluation, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Glare, glistenings, optical defects, dysphotopsia, and poor image quality are a few of the known deficiencies of intraocular lenses (IOLs). All of these optical phenomena are related to light scatter. However, the specific direction that light scatters makes a critical difference between debilitating glare and a slightly noticeable decrease in image quality. Consequently, quantifying the magnitude and direction of scattered light is essential to appropriately evaluate the safety and efficacy of IOLs. In this study, we introduce a full-angle scanning light scattering profiler (SLSP) as a novel approach capable of quantitatively evaluating the light scattering from IOLs with a nearly 360° view. The SLSP method can simulate in situ conditions by controlling the parameters of the light source including angle of incidence. This testing strategy will provide a more effective nonclinical approach for the evaluation of IOL light scatter.

  9. A novel full-angle scanning light scattering profiler to quantitatively evaluate forward and backward light scattering from intraocular lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Bennett N.; James, Robert H.; Ilev, Ilko K.; Calogero, Don

    2015-01-01

    Glare, glistenings, optical defects, dysphotopsia, and poor image quality are a few of the known deficiencies of intraocular lenses (IOLs). All of these optical phenomena are related to light scatter. However, the specific direction that light scatters makes a critical difference between debilitating glare and a slightly noticeable decrease in image quality. Consequently, quantifying the magnitude and direction of scattered light is essential to appropriately evaluate the safety and efficacy of IOLs. In this study, we introduce a full-angle scanning light scattering profiler (SLSP) as a novel approach capable of quantitatively evaluating the light scattering from IOLs with a nearly 360° view. The SLSP method can simulate in situ conditions by controlling the parameters of the light source including angle of incidence. This testing strategy will provide a more effective nonclinical approach for the evaluation of IOL light scatter

  10. Enlarged acceptance angle of a finite size detector in photoacoustic imaging using acoustic lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, W.; Piras, D.; Heijblom, Michelle; van Hespen, Johannes C.G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; van Veldhoven, Spiridon; Prins, Christian; van Leeuwen, Ton

    2011-01-01

    A large surface area transducer is preferable to be used to detect extremely weak photoacoustic signals in mammography due to its high sensitivity. The lateral resolution is limited by the small acceptance angle of such a transducer. We introduce an excellent material for an acoustic lens used to

  11. All-angle negative refraction and active flat lensing of ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Agrawal, Amit; Abashin, Maxim; Chau, Kenneth J; Lezec, Henri J

    2013-05-23

    flat lensing, in free space, of arbitrarily shaped, two-dimensional objects beyond the near field. We further demonstrate active, all-optical modulation of the image transferred by the flat lens.

  12. Cruise tourism shore excursions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    João Lopes, Maria; Dredge, Dianne

    2018-01-01

    Very complex yet highly integrated business logics characterise cruise tourism with shore excursions frequently identified as a key source of value. This paper presents a case study of cruise tourism and shore excursion planning in Copenhagen, Denmark. The aim of this paper is to investigate...... the characteristics of cruise tourism, itinerary and shore excursion planning with a view to understanding the value generated from cruise tourism shore excursions. We argue that economic value is a blunt measure, and there are other types of value, positive and negative, that are also generated. This research...... reveals that a range of local conditions and structural characteristics create barriers and opportunities for generating different types of value. Using a case study of shore excursions in Copenhagen, the Baltic’s most important port, this paper explains the dynamics between cruise tourism and shore...

  13. Acoustic lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittmer, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    Acoustic lenses focus ultrasound to produce pencil-like beams with reduced near fields. When fitted to conventional (flat-faced) transducers, such lenses greatly improve the ability to detect and size defects. This paper describes a program developed to design acoustic lenses for use in immersion or contact inspection, using normal or angle beam mode with flat or curved targets. Lens surfaces are circular in geometry to facilitate machining. For normal beam inspection of flat plate, spherical or cylindrical lenses are used. For angle beam or curved surface inspections, a compound lens is required to correct for the extra induced aberration. Such a lens is aspherical with one radius of curvature in the plane of incidence, and a different radius of curvature in the plane perpendicular to the incident plane. The resultant beam profile (i.e., location of the acoustic focus, beam diameter, 6 dB working range) depends on the degree of focusing and the transducer used. The operating frequency and bandwidth can be affected by the instrumentation used. Theoretical and measured beam profiles are in good agreement. Various applications, from zone focusing used for defect sizing in thick plate, to line focusing for pipe weld inspection, are discussed

  14. Educational role of excursion tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Stanić-Jovanović Sara

    2015-01-01

    Excursion tourism as a mode of travelling to closer destinations has had a long tradition and a cognitive character. Excursions belong to the specific forms of tourism trends and as such, can be viewed in terms of their significant impact on tourist trade within the Serbian tourism market. The demand for this type of tourist travel is constant, thereby highlighting its economic importance. Themed excursions of children in protected areas are developing an interest in nature and are building e...

  15. Educational role of excursion tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanić-Jovanović Sara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excursion tourism as a mode of travelling to closer destinations has had a long tradition and a cognitive character. Excursions belong to the specific forms of tourism trends and as such, can be viewed in terms of their significant impact on tourist trade within the Serbian tourism market. The demand for this type of tourist travel is constant, thereby highlighting its economic importance. Themed excursions of children in protected areas are developing an interest in nature and are building environmental practices. Thus, children are introduced to the ways of environmental protection, fostering a positive attitude towards the values of preserved natural environment as an opportunity to raise environmental awareness of future generations.

  16. Quaternary magnetic excursions recorded in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channell, J. E. T.

    2017-12-01

    This year is the golden (50th) anniversary of the first documentation of a magnetic excursion, the Laschamp excursion in volcanics from the Chaine des Puys (Bonhommet and Babkine, 1967). The first recording of an excursion in sediments was from the Blake Outer Ridge (Smith and Foster, 1969). Magnetic excursions are directional aberrations of the geomagnetic field apparently involving short-lived reversal of the main dipole field. They have durations of a few kyrs, and are therefore rarely recorded in sediments with mean sedimentation rates Palma), and 670 ka (Osaka Bay), implying at least 11 excursions in the Brunhes Chron. For the Matuyama Chron, excursions have been recorded in marine sediments at 868 ka (Kamikatsura?), 932 ka (Santa Rosa), 1051 ka (Intra-Jaramillo), 1115 ka (Punaruu), 1255 ka (Bjorn), 1476 ka (Gardar), 1580 ka (Gilsa), and 2737 ka (Porcupine). Excursions coincide with minima in relative paleointensity (RPI) records. Ages are from correlation of excursion records to oxygen isotope records in the same cores, and ice-volume calibration of the oxygen isotope template. The marine sediment record of excursions, combined with independent documentation of excursions in lavas with Ar/Ar age control, is progressively strengthening our knowledge of the excursion inventory in the Quaternary, and enhancing the importance of excursions and RPI in Quaternary stratigraphy.

  17. Gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Dodelson, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational lensing is a consequence of general relativity, where the gravitational force due to a massive object bends the paths of light originating from distant objects lying behind it. Using very little general relativity and no higher level mathematics, this text presents the basics of gravitational lensing, focusing on the equations needed to understand the phenomena. It then applies them to a diverse set of topics, including multiply imaged objects, time delays, extrasolar planets, microlensing, cluster masses, galaxy shape measurements, cosmic shear, and lensing of the cosmic microwave background. This approach allows undergraduate students and others to get quickly up to speed on the basics and the important issues. The text will be especially relevant as large surveys such as LSST and Euclid begin to dominate the astronomical landscape. Designed for a one semester course, it is accessible to anyone with two years of undergraduate physics background.

  18. Gabor lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobley, R.M.; Gamml, G.; Maschke, A.W.

    1979-01-01

    Stable operation of Gabor lenses has been reported by at least three experimental groups. At Brookhaven, several lens designs have been tried since February, 1978 with very good results. The lens concept is simple, operation is less complicated than anticipated, and the focussing strengths attainable make them very attractive alternatives to magnetic focussing for heavy ion beams at low energies. Results obtained with five different configurations are presented. The lenses work well, concern is now with fine details of their beam-optical performance

  19. Gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses how gravitational lens studies is becoming a major focus of extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. This review is organized into five parts: an overview of the observational situation, a look at the state of theoretical work on lenses, a detailed look at three recently discovered types of lensing phenomena (luminous arcs, radio rings, quasar-galaxy associations), a review of progress on two old problems in lens studies (deriving unique lens mass distribution models, measurements of differential time delays), and an attempt to look into the future of lens studies

  20. Gravitational lensing by spinning and radially moving lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereno, M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of currents of mass on bending of light rays is considered in the weak field regime. Following Fermat's principle and the standard theory of gravitational lensing, we derive the gravito-magnetic correction to time delay function and deflection angle caused by a geometrically-thin lens. The cases of both rotating and shifting deflectors are discussed

  1. Lensing smoothing of BAO wiggles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dio, Enea Di, E-mail: enea.didio@oats.inaf.it [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy)

    2017-03-01

    We study non-perturbatively the effect of the deflection angle on the BAO wiggles of the matter power spectrum in real space. We show that from redshift z ∼2 this introduces a dispersion of roughly 1 Mpc at BAO scale, which corresponds approximately to a 1% effect. The lensing effect induced by the deflection angle, which is completely geometrical and survey independent, smears out the BAO wiggles. The effect on the power spectrum amplitude at BAO scale is about 0.1 % for z ∼2 and 0.2 % for z ∼4. We compare the smoothing effects induced by the lensing potential and non-linear structure formation, showing that the two effects become comparable at z ∼ 4, while the lensing effect dominates for sources at higher redshifts. We note that this effect is not accounted through BAO reconstruction techniques.

  2. Additive functionals and excursions of Kuznetsov processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacène Boutabia

    2005-01-01

    semigroup of transition. In this paper, we give the excursion laws of (Xtt∈ℝ+ conditioned on the strict past and future without duality hypothesis. We study excursions of a general regenerative system and of a regenerative system consisting of the closure of the set of times the regular points of B are visited. In both cases, those conditioned excursion laws depend only on two points Xg− and Xd, where ]g,d[ is an excursion interval of the regenerative set M. We use the (FDt-predictable exit system to bring together the isolated points of M and its perfect part and replace the classical optional exit system. This has been a subject in literature before (e.g., Kaspi (1988 under the classical duality hypothesis. We define an “additive functional” for (Ytt∈ℝ with B, we generalize the laws cited before to (Ytt∈ℝ, and we express laws of pairs of excursions.

  3. On excursion increments in heartbeat dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzmán-Vargas, L.; Reyes-Ramírez, I.; Hernández-Pérez, R.

    2013-01-01

    We study correlation properties of excursion increments of heartbeat time series from healthy subjects and heart failure patients. We construct the excursion time based on the original heartbeat time series, representing the time employed by the walker to return to the local mean value. Next, the detrended fluctuation analysis and the fractal dimension method are applied to the magnitude and sign of the increments in the time excursions between successive excursions for the mentioned groups. Our results show that for magnitude series of excursion increments both groups display long-range correlations with similar correlation exponents, indicating that large (small) increments (decrements) are more likely to be followed by large (small) increments (decrements). For sign sequences and for both groups, we find that increments are short-range anti-correlated, which is noticeable under heart failure conditions

  4. Power excursion models applied to the study of secundary excursion in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messainguiral, Christiane.

    1980-06-01

    An evaluation of the energy that a secondary power excursion could release has been sought throughout the present work. A parametric study was therefore made by means of a power excursion code in fast reactors. The work submitted is therefore made up of the three following parts: Part 1. - (a), the secondary excursion is situated in the generally envisaged programmes and (b) the role of the principal parameters is studied in the calculation effected by the nuclear excursion code that was available at the start of the study. Part 2. - the results obtained for the power excursion calculations made are presented, Part 3. - the insufficient modelling of the reactivity present during the secondary power excursion is deduced from the parametric study just made. A definition is made of the characteristics of a model adapted to the calculation of this hypothetical accident and a new model as worked out within the scope of this work is submitted [fr

  5. Geomagnetic field evolution during the Laschamp excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Roman; Fabian, Karl; Winklhofer, Michael; Ferk, Annika; Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine

    2009-02-01

    Since the last geomagnetic reversal, 780,000 years ago, the Earth's magnetic field repeatedly dropped dramatically in intensity. This has often been associated with large variations in local field direction, but without a persistent global polarity flip. The structure and dynamics of geomagnetic excursions, and especially the difference between excursions and polarity reversals, have remained elusive so far. For the best documented excursion, the Laschamp event at 41,000 years BP, we have reconstructed the evolution of the global field morphology by using a Bayesian inversion of several high-resolution palaeomagnetic records. We have obtained an excursion scenario in which inverse magnetic flux patches at the core-mantle boundary emerge near the equator and then move poleward. Contrary to the situation during the last reversal (Leonhardt, R., Fabian, K., 2007. Paleomagnetic reconstruction of the global geomagnetic field evolution during the Matuyama/Brunhes transition: Iterative Bayesian inversion and independent verification. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 253, 172-195), these flux patches do not cross the hydrodynamic boundary of the inner-core tangent cylinder. While the last geomagnetic reversal began with a substantial increase in the strength of the non-dipolar field components, prior to the Laschamp excursion, both dipolar and non-dipolar field decay at the same rate. This result suggests that the nature of an upcoming geomagnetic field instability can be predicted several hundred years in advance. Even though during the Laschamp excursion the dipolar field at the Earth's surface was dominant, the reconstructed dynamic non-dipolar components lead to considerable deviations among predicted records at different locations. The inverse model also explains why at some locations no directional change during the Laschamp excursion is observed.

  6. Gravitational lensing in plasmic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S., E-mail: gkogan@iki.rssi.ru; Tsupko, O. Yu., E-mail: tsupko@iki.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    The influence of plasma on different effects of gravitational lensing is reviewed. Using the Hamiltonian approach for geometrical optics in a medium in the presence of gravity, an exact formula for the photon deflection angle by a black hole (or another body with a Schwarzschild metric) embedded in plasma with a spherically symmetric density distribution is derived. The deflection angle in this case is determined by the mutual combination of different factors: gravity, dispersion, and refraction. While the effects of deflection by the gravity in vacuum and the refractive deflection in a nonhomogeneous medium are well known, the new effect is that, in the case of a homogeneous plasma, in the absence of refractive deflection, the gravitational deflection differs from the vacuum deflection and depends on the photon frequency. In the presence of a plasma nonhomogeneity, the chromatic refractive deflection also occurs, so the presence of plasma always makes gravitational lensing chromatic. In particular, the presence of plasma leads to different angular positions of the same image if it is observed at different wavelengths. It is discussed in detail how to apply the presented formulas for the calculation of the deflection angle in different situations. Gravitational lensing in plasma beyond the weak deflection approximation is also considered.

  7. Random-process excursions in radioisotope instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galochkin, D.V.; Polovko, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Approximate expressions are derived for the mathematical expectation, variance, and distribution of the durations of the excursions of the output signal from a ratemeter in a radioisotope relay instrument. The tabulated comparison of results from Monte Carlo simulation and analytical calculation shows good agreement over the mean value and the variance of the excursion duration for T 0.2 sec as calculated and as obtained by Monte Carlo simulation with a computer using 5000 realizations. It is suggested that the results should be used in choosing the optimum parameters of radioisotope relay instruments

  8. Clericalization of the Russian Excursion Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Rodoman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the modern Russia almost every secular excursion is starting to resemble a religious pilgrimage, while reducing itself to a visit to Orthodox monasteries and temples. A lot of stories are told about saints and their actions, an unconcealed religious propaganda is carried on, and the history of the country is presented in a cleric-monarchical manner.

  9. Stationary nonimaging lenses for solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsidas, Panagiotis; Chatzi, Eleni; Modi, Vijay

    2010-09-20

    A novel approach for the design of refractive lenses is presented, where the lens is mounted on a stationary aperture and the Sun is tracked by a moving solar cell. The purpose of this work is to design a quasi-stationary concentrator by replacing the two-axis tracking of the Sun with internal motion of the miniaturized solar cell inside the module. Families of lenses are designed with a variation of the simultaneous multiple surface technique in which the sawtooth genetic algorithm is implemented to optimize the geometric variables of the optic in order to produce high fluxes for a range of incidence angles. Finally, we show examples of the technique for lenses with 60° and 30° acceptance half-angles, with low to medium attainable concentrations.

  10. International excursion hydrogeology, Slovakia, [September 8 - 15, 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksma, R.

    1996-01-01

    This is a report of the hydrogeological excursion to Slovakia, held in the period from September 8 up to September 15, 1996. This report is a compilation of the work of the participating students, parts of the excursion guide and also information, provided by the Slovak excursion guides.

  11. Bounded excursion stable gravastars and black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, P [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Avenida Litoranea, s/n, Boa Viagem 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Miguelote, A Y; Chan, R [Coordenacao de Astronomia e Astrofisica, Observatorio Nacional, Rua General Jose Cristino, 77, Sao Cristovao 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Da Silva, M F; Wang, Anzhong [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Maracana 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Santos, N O, E-mail: pedrosennarocha@gmail.com, E-mail: yasuda@on.br, E-mail: chan@on.br, E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com, E-mail: N.O.Santos@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu [LERMA/CNRS-FRE 2460, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, ERGA, Boite 142, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2008-06-15

    Dynamical models of prototype gravastars were constructed in order to study their stability. The models are the Visser-Wiltshire three-layer gravastars, in which an infinitely thin spherical shell of stiff fluid divides the whole spacetime into two regions, where the internal region is de Sitter, and the external one is Schwarzschild. It is found that in some cases the models represent the 'bounded excursion' stable gravastars, where the thin shell is oscillating between two finite radii, while in other cases they collapse until the formation of black holes occurs. In the phase space, the region for the 'bounded excursion' gravastars is very small in comparison to that of black holes, but not empty. Therefore, although the possibility of the existence of gravastars cannot be excluded from such dynamical models, our results indicate that, even if gravastars do indeed exist, that does not exclude the possibility of the existence of black holes.

  12. ORNITHOLOGICAL EXCURSIONS IN MURMANSK: GEOINFORMATION ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Kharlamova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The method to use efficiently GIS-technologies in arranging the field practice of students on ornithology has been proposed. The ornithological excursions were performed in surroundings of the City of Murmansk in the conditions of weakly urbanized landscape. Using the facilities of freely distributed cartographic «SAS-Planet» software a simple GIS was formed in its environment where to the data on bird nest location with their description, the information about the route nodal points, water body crossing, stay places and others were put down. The mentioned data were obtained as a result of preliminary field research with the aid of satellite navigator including accumulating and summing up the information for a number of previous similar investigations. As a result, a final route in the current year was developed using which during the field practice the ornithological excursions were arranged.

  13. Excursion Processes Associated with Elliptic Combinatorics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hiroya; Katori, Makoto

    2018-06-01

    Researching elliptic analogues for equalities and formulas is a new trend in enumerative combinatorics which has followed the previous trend of studying q-analogues. Recently Schlosser proposed a lattice path model in the square lattice with a family of totally elliptic weight-functions including several complex parameters and discussed an elliptic extension of the binomial theorem. In the present paper, we introduce a family of discrete-time excursion processes on Z starting from the origin and returning to the origin in a given time duration 2 T associated with Schlosser's elliptic combinatorics. The processes are inhomogeneous both in space and time and hence expected to provide new models in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. By numerical calculation we show that the maximum likelihood trajectories on the spatio-temporal plane of the elliptic excursion processes and of their reduced trigonometric versions are not straight lines in general but are nontrivially curved depending on parameters. We analyze asymptotic probability laws in the long-term limit T → ∞ for a simplified trigonometric version of excursion process. Emergence of nontrivial curves of trajectories in a large scale of space and time from the elementary elliptic weight-functions exhibits a new aspect of elliptic combinatorics.

  14. Educational Excursions in Technical Schools of Pre-revolutionary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur A. Magsumov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author, using the data of pre-revolutionary technical schools, traces the genesis and trends of educational excursions development in the Russian Empire. Special attention is attached to the types, organizational forms and methods of excursion activities, educational policy, concerning its development. The article presents author’s classification of educational excursions, notes that educational excursions have become traditional and were operated systematically by the early XX century. Field excursions, which in fact displaced introductive training, prevailed in technical schools

  15. Estimates of the effectiveness of automatic control in alleviating wake vortex induced roll excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinling, B. E.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of the effectiveness of a model following type control system in reducing the roll excursion due to a wake vortex encounter were obtained from single degree of freedom computations with inputs derived from the results of wind tunnel, flight, and simulation experiments. The analysis indicates that the control power commanded by the automatic system must be roughly equal to the vortex induced roll acceleration if effective limiting of the maximum bank angle is to be achieved.

  16. Virtual reality excursions with programs in C

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Christopher D

    1994-01-01

    Virtual Reality Excursions with Programs in C provides the history, theory, principles and an account of the milestones in the development of virtual reality technology.The book is organized into five chapters. The first chapter explores the applications in the vast field of virtual reality. The second chapter presents a brief history of the field and its founders. Chapter 3 discusses human perception and how it works. Some interesting notes and much of the hot debate in the field are covered in Chapter 4. The fifth chapter describes many of the complexities involved in implementing virtual en

  17. Simulation of power excursions - Osiris reactor; Simulation des excursions de puissance - pile Osiris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascouet, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Following the experimental work accomplished in the U.S.A. on Borax 1 and SPERT 1 and the accident of SL 1, the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' started a research program about the safety of its own swimming Pool reactors, with regard to power excursions. The first research work led to the design of programmed explosive charges, adapted to the simulation of a power excursion. This report describes the application of these methods to the investigation of Osiris safety. (author) [French] A la suite des essais effectues aux U.S.A. sur BORAX 1 et SPERT 1 et de l'accident survenu a SL 1, le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique a lance un programme d'etudes sur la surete de ses reacteurs piscines vis-a-vis des excursions de puissance. Les premieres etudes ont abouti A la mise au point de charges programmees capables de simuler une excursion de puissance. On trouvera dans le present rapport l'application de ces methodes a l'etude de la surete d'OSIRIS. (auteur)

  18. One Episode, Two Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijvers, Paul; Godino, Juan D.; Font, Vicenc; Trouche, Luc

    2013-01-01

    A deep understanding of students' learning processes is one of the core challenges of research in mathematics education. To achieve this, different theoretical lenses are available. The question is how these different lenses compare and contrast, and how they can be coordinated and combined to provide a more comprehensive view on the topic of…

  19. Reduced Bearing Excursion After Mobile-Bearing Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty is Associated With Poor Functional Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahal, Naman; Gaba, Sahil; Malhotra, Rajesh; Kumar, Vijay; Pegg, Elise C; Pandit, Hemant

    2018-02-01

    A small proportion of patients with mobile unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) report poor functional outcomes in spite of optimal component alignment on postoperative radiographs. The purpose of this study is to assess whether there is a correlation between functional outcome and knee kinematics. From a cohort of consecutive cases of 150 Oxford medial UKA, patients with fair/poor functional outcome at 1-year postsurgery (Oxford Knee Score [OKS] bearing position with knee flexion angle. Mean OKS in the fair/poor group was 29.9 and the mean OKS in the good/excellent group was 41.1. The tibial slope, time taken to complete the exercises, and patellar tendon angle trend over the flexion range were similar in both the groups; however, bearing position and the extent of bearing excursion differed significantly. The total bearing excursion in the OKS bearing was positioned 1.7 mm more posterior on the tibia in the OKS bearing excursion and positioning, are associated with worse functional outcomes after mobile UKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Are Disposable and Standard Gonioscopy Lenses Comparable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonny; Szirth, Bernard C; Fechtner, Robert D; Khouri, Albert S

    2017-04-01

    Gonioscopy is important in the evaluation and treatment of glaucoma. With increased scrutiny of acceptable sterilization processes for health care instruments, disposable gonioscopy lenses have recently been introduced. Single-time use lenses are theorized to decrease infection risk and eliminate the issue of wear and tear seen on standard, reusable lenses. However, patient care would be compromised if the quality of images produced by the disposable lens were inferior to those produced by the reusable lens. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of images produced by disposable versus standard gonioscopy lenses. A disposable single mirror lens (Sensor Medical Technology) and a standard Volk G-1 gonioscopy lens were used to image 21 volunteers who were prospectively recruited for the study. Images of the inferior and temporal angles of each subject's left eye were acquired using a slit-lamp camera through the disposable and standard gonioscopy lens. In total, 74 images were graded using the Spaeth gonioscopic system and for clarity and quality. Clarity was scored as 1 or 2 and defined as either (1) all structures perceived or (2) all structures not perceived. Quality was scored as 1, 2, or 3, and defined as (1) all angle landmarks clear and well focused, (2) some angle landmarks clear, others blurred, or (3) angle landmarks could not be ascertained. The 74 images were divided into images taken with the disposable single mirror lens and images taken with the standard Volk G-1 gonioscopy lens. The clarity and quality scores for each of these 2 image groups were averaged and P-values were calculated. Average quality of images produced with the standard lens was 1.46±0.56 compared with 1.54±0.61 for those produced with the disposable lens (P=0.55). Average clarity of images produced with the standard lens was 1.47±0.51 compared with 1.49±0.51 (P=0.90) with the disposable lens. We conclude that there is no significant difference in quality of images

  1. On an illusion of superluminal velocities produced by gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingel, L.Kh.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that gravitational lenses, by focusing the radiation of an object, increase the angle which it subtends. This in turn produces the illusion of an increase in velocities at right angles to the line of sight. Preliminary estimates are made which indicate a rather high probability of strong distortion of the observed velocities

  2. Strong gravitational lensing by Sgr A*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin-Nun, Amitai Y

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the potential to use the galactic center as a probe of general relativity in the strong field. There is almost certainly a black hole at Sgr A* in the galactic center, and this would allow us to have the opportunity to probe dynamics near the exterior of the black hole. In the last decade, there has been theoretical research into extreme gravitational lensing in the galactic center. Unlike in most applications of gravitational lensing, where the bending angle is of the order of, at most, an arc minute, very large bending angles are possible for light that closely approaches a black hole. Photons may even loop multiple times around a black hole before reaching the observer. There have been many proposals to use light's close approach to the black hole as a probe of the black hole metric. Of particular interest are the properties of images formed from the light of S stars orbiting in the galactic center. This paper will review some of the attempts made to study extreme lensing as well as extend the analysis of S star lensing. In particular, we are interested in the effect of a Reissner-Nordstrom like 1/r 2 term in the metric and how this would affect the properties of relativistic images.

  3. Gravitational lensing of quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Eigenbrod, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The universe, in all its richness, diversity and complexity, is populated by a myriad of intriguing celestial objects. Among the most exotic of them are gravitationally lensed quasars. A quasar is an extremely bright nucleus of a galaxy, and when such an object is gravitationally lensed, multiple images of the quasar are produced – this phenomenon of cosmic mirage can provide invaluable insights on burning questions, such as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. After presenting the basics of modern cosmology, the book describes active galactic nuclei, the theory of gravitational lensing, and presents a particular numerical technique to improve the resolution of astronomical data. The book then enters the heart of the subject with the description of important applications of gravitational lensing of quasars, such as the measurement of the famous Hubble constant, the determination of the dark matter distribution in galaxies, and the observation of the mysterious inner parts of quasars with much higher r...

  4. Gravitational lensing by a Horndeski black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badia, Javier [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-11-15

    In this article we study gravitational lensing by non-rotating and asymptotically flat black holes in Horndeski theory. By adopting the strong deflection limit, we calculate the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to black holes in General Relativity. We analyze the astrophysical consequences in the case of the nearest supermassive black holes. (orig.)

  5. Gravitational lensing by a Horndeski black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badia, Javier; Eiroa, Ernesto F.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we study gravitational lensing by non-rotating and asymptotically flat black holes in Horndeski theory. By adopting the strong deflection limit, we calculate the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to black holes in General Relativity. We analyze the astrophysical consequences in the case of the nearest supermassive black holes. (orig.)

  6. Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereno, Mauro

    2003-01-01

    Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity is discussed. I introduce a generalized approximate metric element, inclusive of both post-post-Newtonian contributions and a gravitomagnetic field. Following Fermat's principle and standard hypotheses, I derive the time delay function and deflection angle caused by an isolated mass distribution. Several astrophysical systems are considered. In most of the cases, the gravitomagnetic correction offers the best perspectives for an observational detection. Actual measurements distinguish only marginally different metric theories from each other

  7. Gauge-invariant formalism of cosmological weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jaiyul; Grimm, Nastassia; Mitsou, Ermis; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre

    2018-04-01

    We present the gauge-invariant formalism of cosmological weak lensing, accounting for all the relativistic effects due to the scalar, vector, and tensor perturbations at the linear order. While the light propagation is fully described by the geodesic equation, the relation of the photon wavevector to the physical quantities requires the specification of the frames, where they are defined. By constructing the local tetrad bases at the observer and the source positions, we clarify the relation of the weak lensing observables such as the convergence, the shear, and the rotation to the physical size and shape defined in the source rest-frame and the observed angle and redshift measured in the observer rest-frame. Compared to the standard lensing formalism, additional relativistic effects contribute to all the lensing observables. We explicitly verify the gauge-invariance of the lensing observables and compare our results to previous work. In particular, we demonstrate that even in the presence of the vector and tensor perturbations, the physical rotation of the lensing observables vanishes at the linear order, while the tetrad basis rotates along the light propagation compared to a FRW coordinate. Though the latter is often used as a probe of primordial gravitational waves, the rotation of the tetrad basis is indeed not a physical observable. We further clarify its relation to the E-B decomposition in weak lensing. Our formalism provides a transparent and comprehensive perspective of cosmological weak lensing.

  8. Weakly oval electron lense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daumenov, T.D.; Alizarovskaya, I.M.; Khizirova, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The method of the weakly oval electrical field getting generated by the axially-symmetrical field is shown. Such system may be designed with help of the cylindric form coaxial electrodes with the built-in quadrupole duplet. The singularity of the indicated weakly oval lense consists of that it provides the conducting both mechanical and electronic adjustment. Such lense can be useful for elimination of the near-axis astigmatism in the electron-optical system

  9. Analysis of luminosity distributions of strong lensing galaxies: subtraction of diffuse lensed signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernaux, J.; Magain, P.; Hauret, C.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Strong gravitational lensing gives access to the total mass distribution of galaxies. It can unveil a great deal of information about the lenses' dark matter content when combined with the study of the lenses' light profile. However, gravitational lensing galaxies, by definition, appear surrounded by lensed signal, both point-like and diffuse, that is irrelevant to the lens flux. Therefore, the observer is most often restricted to studying the innermost portions of the galaxy, where classical fitting methods show some instabilities. Aims: We aim at subtracting that lensed signal and at characterising some lenses' light profile by computing their shape parameters (half-light radius, ellipticity, and position angle). Our objective is to evaluate the total integrated flux in an aperture the size of the Einstein ring in order to obtain a robust estimate of the quantity of ordinary (luminous) matter in each system. Methods: We are expanding the work we started in a previous paper that consisted in subtracting point-like lensed images and in independently measuring each shape parameter. We improve it by designing a subtraction of the diffuse lensed signal, based only on one simple hypothesis of symmetry. We apply it to the cases where it proves to be necessary. This extra step improves our study of the shape parameters and we refine it even more by upgrading our half-light radius measurement method. We also calculate the impact of our specific image processing on the error bars. Results: The diffuse lensed signal subtraction makes it possible to study a larger portion of relevant galactic flux, as the radius of the fitting region increases by on average 17%. We retrieve new half-light radii values that are on average 11% smaller than in our previous work, although the uncertainties overlap in most cases. This shows that not taking the diffuse lensed signal into account may lead to a significant overestimate of the half-light radius. We are also able to measure

  10. Mass functions from the excursion set model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiotelis, Nicos; Del Popolo, Antonino

    2017-11-01

    Aims: We aim to study the stochastic evolution of the smoothed overdensity δ at scale S of the form δ(S) = ∫0S K(S,u)dW(u), where K is a kernel and dW is the usual Wiener process. Methods: For a Gaussian density field, smoothed by the top-hat filter, in real space, we used a simple kernel that gives the correct correlation between scales. A Monte Carlo procedure was used to construct random walks and to calculate first crossing distributions and consequently mass functions for a constant barrier. Results: We show that the evolution considered here improves the agreement with the results of N-body simulations relative to analytical approximations which have been proposed from the same problem by other authors. In fact, we show that an evolution which is fully consistent with the ideas of the excursion set model, describes accurately the mass function of dark matter haloes for values of ν ≤ 1 and underestimates the number of larger haloes. Finally, we show that a constant threshold of collapse, lower than it is usually used, it is able to produce a mass function which approximates the results of N-body simulations for a variety of redshifts and for a wide range of masses. Conclusions: A mass function in good agreement with N-body simulations can be obtained analytically using a lower than usual constant collapse threshold.

  11. Electron Lenses for the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio [Fermilab; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab; Bruce, Roderik [CERN; Redaelli, Stefano [CERN; Rossi, Adriana [CERN; Salvachua, Belen [CERN

    2014-07-01

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in RHIC at BNL. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program and the European HiLumi LHC Design Study, hollow electron beam collimation was studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the LHC upgrades. This project is moving towards a technical design in 2014, with the goal to build the devices in 2015-2017, after resuming LHC operations and re-assessing needs and requirements at 6.5 TeV. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compensation in LHC luminosity upgrade scenarios with small crossing angles.

  12. Axion excursions of the landscape during inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Gonzalo A.; Riquelme, Walter

    2017-07-01

    Because of their quantum fluctuations, axion fields had a chance to experience field excursions traversing many minima of their potentials during inflation. We study this situation by analyzing the dynamics of an axion field ψ , present during inflation, with a periodic potential given by v (ψ )=Λ4[1 -cos (ψ /f )]. By assuming that the vacuum expectation value of the field is stabilized at one of its minima, say, ψ =0 , we compute every n -point correlation function of ψ up to first order in Λ4 using the in-in formalism. This computation allows us to identify the distribution function describing the probability of measuring ψ at a particular amplitude during inflation. Because ψ is able to tunnel between the barriers of the potential, we find that the probability distribution function consists of a non-Gaussian multimodal distribution such that the probability of measuring ψ at a minimum of v (ψ ) different from ψ =0 increases with time. As a result, at the end of inflation, different patches of the Universe are characterized by different values of the axion field amplitude, leading to important cosmological phenomenology: (a) Isocurvature fluctuations induced by the axion at the end of inflation could be highly non-Gaussian. (b) If the axion defines the strength of standard model couplings, then one is led to a concrete realization of the multiverse. (c) If the axion corresponds to dark matter, one is led to the possibility that, within our observable Universe, dark matter started with a nontrivial initial condition, implying novel signatures for future surveys.

  13. Flow-excursion-induced dryout at low-heat-flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Cazzoli, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    Flow-excursion-induced dryout at low-heat-flux natural-convection boiling, typical of liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, is addressed. Steady-state calculations indicate that low-quality boiling is possible up to the point of Ledinegg instability leading to flow excursion and subsequent dryout in agreement with experimental data. A flow-regime-dependent dryout heat flux relationship based upon saturated boiling criterion is also presented. Transient analysis indicates that premature flow excursion can not be ruled out and sodium boiling is highly transient dependent. Analysis of a high-heat-flux forced convection, loss-of-flow transient shows a significantly faster flow excursion leading to dryout in excellent agreement with parallel calculations using the two-dimensional THORAX code. 17 figures

  14. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Shark Predation Mitigation Fishing Excursions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishing excursion information, including summary tables of: Fishing/culling efforts, including date, islets, latitude/longitude, fishing method, soak times, culled...

  15. Calibration of fisheye lenses for hemispherical photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaci, J.; Kolar, U.

    2000-01-01

    Hemispherical photography represents one of the most appropriate methods of estimating averages of solar radiation over extended periods of time. This method is based upon the use of extremely wide-angle fisheye lenses, which produce large projection distortion. To correctly interpret hemispherical photography we have to know the projection characteristics of the fisheye lens in combination with a camera body. This can be achieved through lens calibration. The first part of the article explains in detail the calibration method for fisheye lenses which are used to assess the solar radiation in forest ecology research. In the second part the results of calibration for fisheye lens Sigma 8 mm, f/4 (MF, N) are presented. The lens was used on a Nikon F50 camera body

  16. Fresnel's Lighthouse Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    One of the rewards of walking up the scores of steps winding around the inside of the shaft of a lighthouse is turning inward and examining the glass optical system. This arrangement of prisms, lenses, and reflectors is used to project the light from a relatively small source in a beam that can be seen far at sea.

  17. X-ray lenses with large aperture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Up to now, most X-ray imaging setups are based on absorption contrast imaging. There is a demand for focused X-rays in many X-ray analysis applications, either to increase the resolution of an imaging system, or, to reduce the time effort of an experiment through higher photon flux. For photon energies higher than 15 keV refractive X-ray optics are more efficient in comparison to non-refractive X-ray optics. The aim of this work was to develop X-ray lenses with large apertures and high transparency. By increasing the number of refracting surfaces while removing unnecessary lens material such lenses have been developed. Utilizing this approach the overall beam deflection angle is large with respect to the lens material it propagates through and so the transparency of the lens is increased. Within this work, X-ray lenses consisting of several thousands of prisms with an edge length in the range of micrometers have been developed and fabricated by deep X-ray lithography. Deep X-ray lithography enables high precision microstrucures with smooth sidewalls and large aspect ratios. The aperture of high-transparency X-ray lenses made this way is greater than 1 mm. They are suitable for photon energies in the range of 8 keV to 24 keV and offer a focal width of smaller than 10 μm at a transparency of around 40%. Furthermore, rolled X-ray lenses have been developed, that are made out of a microstructured polyimide film, which is cut according to the requirements regarding focal length and photon energy. The microstructured film is fabricated by molding, using an anisotropically etched silicon wafer as molding tool. Its mean roughness is in the range of nanometers. The film features prismatic structures, its surface topology is similar to an asparagus field. The measured diameter of the point focus was 18 μm to 31 μm, the calculated opticla efficiency was 37%. Future work will concentrate on increasing the aspect ratio of Prism Lenses and on increasing the rolling accuracy

  18. Towards a global view of the Laschamp excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laj, C.; Kissel, C.; Leonhardt, R.; Fabian, K.; Winklhofer, M.; Ferk, A.; Ninnemann, U.

    2009-04-01

    A new record of a geomagnetic excursion has been obtained from Core MD07-3128 taken at (75° 34' W ; 52° 40' S) off the Pacific coast of Southern Chile, during the IMAGES XV-MD159-PACHIDERME cruise of the R/V Marion Dufresne (IPEV). Radiocarbon datings extend for the moment to 36.3 kyr BP at 18 meters. Linear extrapolation of the last 2 dates downcore, gives an age of 40.7 for the middle point of the excursion at 20.5 m. This age is virtually identical to the most precise and reliable dating of the Laschamp excursion (obtained by K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar) at the type locality at Laschamp, where Norbert Bonhommet first discovered the excursion during his PhD research work. We therefore consider that we have obtained a new record of the Laschamp Excursion. Because of the extraordinarily high sediment accumulation rate, the directional excursion is recorded over about 2 meters of sediment (between 19,65 and 21,5) and corresponds to a prolonged marked low in the relative paleointensity record. Details of the directional and relative paleointensity changes will be discussed. The high southern latitude at which this new record was obtained and its very detailed nature make it ideal to further constrain the inverse model of the Laschamp Excursion (IMOLEe) (Leonhardt et al. EPSL in press). The results obtained when these new data are considered in the model will be discussed in terms of dipolar versus non-dipolar components of the transistional field and comparison between predicted (modeled) and observed directions at all the sites used for the construction of this last version of the inverse model (IMOLEf).

  19. Buoyancy-driven flow excursions in fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.; Paul, P.K.; Menna, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    A power limit criterion was developed for a postulated Loss of Pumping Accident (LOPA) in one of the recently shut down heavy water production reactors at the Savannah River Site. These reactors were cooled by recirculating heavy water moderator downward through channels in cylindrical fuel tubes. Powers were limited to safeguard against a flow excursion in one of more of these parallel channels. During-full-power operation, limits safeguarded against a boiling flow excursion. At low flow rates, during the addition of emergency cooling water, buoyant forces reverse the flow in one of the coolant channels before boiling occurs. As power increased beyond the point of flow reversal, the maximum wall temperature approaches the fluid saturation temperature, and a thermal excursion occurs. The power limit criterion for low flow rates was the onset of flow reversal. To determine conditions for flow reversal, tests were performed in a mock-up of a fuel assembly that contained two electrically heated concentric tubes surrounded by three flow channels. These tests were modeled using a finite difference thermal-hydraulic code. According to code calculations, flow reversed in the outer flow channel before the maximum wall temperature reached the local fluid saturation temperature. Thermal excursions occurred when the maximum wall temperature approximately equaled the saturation temperature. For a postulated LOPA, the flow reversal criterion for emergency cooling water addition was more limiting than the boiling excursion criterion for full power operation. This criterion limited powers to 37% of the limiting power for previous long-term reactor operations

  20. Diaphragmatic excursion: does it predict successful weaning from mechanical ventilation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, A.; Khalil, A.

    2017-01-01

    To measure the diaphragmatic excursion and its outcome on weani ng from mechanical ventilation. Study Design: Cross-sectional comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Military Hospital (MH), Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January to December 2014. Methodology: Diaphragmatic excursion (DE) in cm was measured through ultrasound by marking liver and spleen displacement in patients who fulfilled the criteria of removal from ventilatory support. The patients were followed up for 48 hours and classified according to the outcome as successful weaning and weaning failure. Results: Out of 100 cases, 76 patients had a successful weaning while 24 had a failed weaning outcome. At a diaphragmatic excursion of 1.2 cm and more, out of 67 cases, 60 had a successful weaning (89.55%) while 7 cases (10.45%) had a weaning failure. At an excursion of less than 1. 2 cm, 17 out of 33 cases (51.5%) had successful weaning while 16 (48.48%) had weaning failure. At this cut off point (1.2 cm), the sensitivity and specificity for successful weaning were 78.95% and 70.83%, respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR) for these values being 2.70 and 0.29, respectively. The positive predictive value was 82.35% and negative predictive value 60.00%. Conclusion: Ultrasonographic measurement of diaphragmatic excursion is a good method for predicting weaning outcome from mechanical ventilation. (author)

  1. K-Ar ages of the Auckland geomagnetic excursions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Nobutatsu; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Tagami, Takahiro; Ozawa, Ayako; Cassidy, John; Smith, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    K-Ar age determinations were made on two monogenetic volcanoes in the Auckland volcanic field, New Zealand, which have recorded the Auckland geomagnetic excursions. For the Wiri volcano with the north-down intermediate paleomagnetic direction, five samples gave a weighted mean age of 27±5 (1σ) ka. For the Hampton Park volcano with the west-up intermediate direction, three samples gave a weighted mean of 55±5(1σ) ka. Since these two K-Ar ages are distinguished at 2σ level, it is inferred that at least two geomagnetic excursions can be recognized in Auckland. The age of the Hampton Park is barely distinguished from the established age range of the Laschamp excursion (39-45 ka) at 2σ level. The age of the Wiri coincides with the age of c. 30 ka in which excursions have been found from sedimentary and volcanic records. The reported excursions from volcanic rocks show a VGP cluster in the central to northern Pacific region which is distinct from the VGP paths or clusters during polarity reversals. (author)

  2. Buoyancy-driven flow excursions in fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.E.; Paul, P.K.; Menna, J.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A power limit criterion was developed for a postulated Loss of Pumping Accident (LOPA) in one of the recently shut down heavy water production reactors at the Savannah River Site. These reactors were cooled by recirculating heavy water moderator downward through channels in cylindrical fuel tubes. Powers were limited to safeguard against a flow excursion in one of more of these parallel channels. During-full-power operation, limits safeguarded against a boiling flow excursion. At low flow rates, during the addition of emergency cooling water, buoyant forces reverse the flow in one of the coolant channels before boiling occurs. As power increased beyond the point of flow reversal, the maximum wall temperature approaches the fluid saturation temperature, and a thermal excursion occurs. The power limit criterion for low flow rates was the onset of flow reversal. To determine conditions for flow reversal, tests were performed in a mock-up of a fuel assembly that contained two electrically heated concentric tubes surrounded by three flow channels. These tests were modeled using a finite difference thermal-hydraulic code. According to code calculations, flow reversed in the outer flow channel before the maximum wall temperature reached the local fluid saturation temperature. Thermal excursions occurred when the maximum wall temperature approximately equaled the saturation temperature. For a postulated LOPA, the flow reversal criterion for emergency cooling water addition was more limiting than the boiling excursion criterion for full power operation. This criterion limited powers to 37% of the limiting power for previous long-term reactor operations.

  3. Buoyancy-driven flow excursions in fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.; Paul, P.K.; Menna, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    A power limit criterion was developed for a postulated Loss of Pumping Accident (LOPA) in one of the recently shut down heavy water production reactors at the Savannah River Site. These reactors were cooled by recirculating moderator downward through channels in cylindrical fuel tubes. Powers were limited to prevent a flow excursion from occurring in one or more of these parallel channels. During full-power operation, limits prevented a boiling flow excursion from taking place. At low flow rates, during the addition of emergency cooling water, buoyant forces reverse the flow in one of the coolant channels before boiling occurs. As power increases beyond the point of flow reversal, the maximum wall temperature approaches the fluid saturation temperature, and a thermal excursion occurs. The power limit criterion for low flow rates was the onset of flow reversal. To determine conditions for flow reversal, tests were performed in a mock-up of a fuel assembly that contained two electrically heated concentric tubes surrounded by three flow channels. These tests were modeled using a finite difference thermal-hydraulic code. According to code calculations, flow reversed in the outer flow channel before the maximum wall temperature reached the local fluid saturation temperature. Thermal excursions occurred when the maximum wall temperature approximately equaled the saturation temperature. For a postulated LOPA, the flow reversal criterion for emergency cooling water addition was more limiting than the boiling excursion criterion for full power operation. This criterion limited powers to 37% of historical levels

  4. Observations of gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, B.

    1990-01-01

    During the last tow years a burst of results has come from radio and optical surveys of ''galaxy lenses'' (where the main deflector is a galaxy). These are reviewed. On the other hand, in September 1985 we pointed out a very strange blue ring-like structure on a Charge-Coupled Device image of the cluster of galaxies Abell 370. This turned out to be Einstein arcs discovery. Following this discovery, new observational results have shown that many rich clusters of galaxies can produce numerous arclets: tangentially distorted images of an extremely faint galaxy population probably located at redshift larger than 1. This new class of gravitational lenses proves to be an important observational topic and this will be discussed in the second part of the paper. (author)

  5. Oskarshamn site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp (this guide) areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at eight representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Laxemar-Simpevarp and at one locality north of this area, i.e. at a total of nine localities

  6. Forsmark site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark (this guide) and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at ten representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Forsmark. All localities are located within or immediately adjacent to the proposed repository volume selected by SKB

  7. Forsmark site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.

    2010-09-01

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark (this guide) and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at ten representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Forsmark. All localities are located within or immediately adjacent to the proposed repository volume selected by SKB

  8. Oskarshamn site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric

    2010-09-01

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp (this guide) areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at eight representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Laxemar-Simpevarp and at one locality north of this area, i.e. at a total of nine localities

  9. Direct probe of dark energy through gravitational lensing effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Hong-Jian [T. D. Lee Institute, and School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Zhen, E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: zh.zhang@pku.edu.cn [Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-08-01

    We show that gravitational lensing can provide a direct method to probe the nature of dark energy at astrophysical scales. For lensing system as an isolated astrophysical object, we derive the dark energy contribution to gravitational potential as a repulsive power-law term, containing a generic equation of state parameter w . We find that it generates w -dependent and position-dependent modification to the conventional light orbital equation of w =−1. With post-Newtonian approximation, we compute its direct effect for an isolated lensing system at astrophysical scales and find that the dark energy force can deflect the path of incident light rays. We demonstrate that the dark-energy-induced deflection angle Δα{sub DE}∝ M {sup (1+1/3} {sup w} {sup )} (with 1+1/3 w > 0), which increases with the lensing mass M and consistently approaches zero in the limit M → 0. This effect is distinctive because dark energy tends to diffuse the rays and generates concave lensing effect . This is in contrast to the conventional convex lensing effect caused by both visible and dark matter. Measuring such concave lensing effect can directly probe the existence and nature of dark energy. We estimate this effect and show that the current gravitational lensing experiments are sensitive to the direct probe of dark energy at astrophysical scales. For the special case w =−1, our independent study favors the previous works that the cosmological constant can affect light bending, but our prediction qualitatively and quantitatively differ from the literature, including our consistent realization of Δα{sub DE} → 0 (under 0 M → ) at the leading order.

  10. Additive manufacturing of tunable lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Katja; Novak, Tobias; Heinrich, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Individual additive manufacturing of optical systems based on 3D Printing offers varied possibilities in design and usage. In addition to the additive manufacturing procedure, the usage of tunable lenses allows further advantages for intelligent optical systems. Our goal is to bring the advantages of additive manufacturing together with the huge potential of tunable lenses. We produced tunable lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps, like polishing. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. The dynamic optical lenses were filled with an oil. The focal length of the lenses changes due to a change of the radius of curvature. This change is caused by changing the pressure in the inside of the lens. In addition to that, we designed lenses with special structures to obtain different areas with an individual optical power. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. Further, an appropriate controlling system is needed. Wéll show the possibilities to control and regulate the optical power of the lenses. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design which completely fulfills the requirements for any specific application.

  11. Potential Cislunar and Interplanetary Proving Ground Excursion Trajectory Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Strange, Nathan J.; Burke, Laura M.; MacDonald, Mark A.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Landau, Damon F.; Lantoine, Gregory; Hack, Kurt J.; Lopez, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    NASA has been investigating potential translunar excursion concepts to take place in the 2020s that would be used to test and demonstrate long duration life support and other systems needed for eventual Mars missions in the 2030s. These potential trajectory concepts could be conducted in the proving ground, a region of cislunar and near-Earth interplanetary space where international space agencies could cooperate to develop the technologies needed for interplanetary spaceflight. Enabled by high power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technologies, the excursion trajectory concepts studied are grouped into three classes of increasing distance from the Earth and increasing technical difficulty: the first class of excursion trajectory concepts would represent a 90-120 day round trip trajectory with abort to Earth options throughout the entire length, the second class would be a 180-210 day round trip trajectory with periods in which aborts would not be available, and the third would be a 300-400 day round trip trajectory without aborts for most of the length of the trip. This paper provides a top-level summary of the trajectory and mission design of representative example missions of these three classes of excursion trajectory concepts.

  12. Compensation for large thorax excursions in EIT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullcke, B; Krueger-Ziolek, S; Gong, B; Mueller-Lisse, U; Moeller, K

    2016-09-01

    Besides the application of EIT in the intensive care unit it has recently also been used in spontaneously breathing patients suffering from asthma bronchiole, cystic fibrosis (CF) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In these cases large thorax excursions during deep inspiration, e.g. during lung function testing, lead to artifacts in the reconstructed images. In this paper we introduce a new approach to compensate for image artifacts resulting from excursion induced changes in boundary voltages. It is shown in a simulation study that boundary voltage change due to thorax excursion on a homogeneous model can be used to modify the measured voltages and thus reduce the impact of thorax excursion on the reconstructed images. The applicability of the method on human subjects is demonstrated utilizing a motion-tracking-system. The proposed technique leads to fewer artifacts in the reconstructed images and improves image quality without substantial increase in computational effort, making the approach suitable for real-time imaging of lung ventilation. This might help to establish EIT as a supplemental tool for lung function tests in spontaneously breathing patients to support clinicians in diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression.

  13. Relationship of medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursion and ankle joint power and work performance during gait in typically developing children: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Lorenzo, Teresa; Albi Rodríguez, Gustavo; Rocon, Eduardo; Martínez Caballero, Ignacio; Lerma Lara, Sergio

    2017-07-01

    Muscle fascicles lengthen in response to chronic passive stretch through in-series sarcomere addition in order to maintain an optimum sarcomere length. In turn, the muscles' force generating capacity, maximum excursion, and contraction velocity is enhanced. Thus, longer fascicles suggest a greater capacity to develop joint power and work. However, static fascicle length measurements may not be taking sarcomere length differences into account. Thus, we considered relative fascicle excursions through passive ankle dorsiflexion may better correlate with the capacity to generate joint power and work than fascicle length. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine if medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursions correlate with ankle joint power and work generation during gait in typically developing children. A sample of typically developing children (n = 10) were recruited for this study and data analysis was carried out on 20 legs. Medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursion from resting joint angle to maximum dorsiflexion was estimated from trigonometric relations of medial gastrocnemius pennation angle and thickness obtained from B-mode real-time ultrasonography. Furthermore, a three-dimensional motion capture system was used to obtain ankle joint work and power during the stance phase of gait. Significant correlations were found between relative fascicle excursion and peak power absorption (-) r(14) = -0.61, P = .012 accounting for 31% variability, positive work r(18) = 0.56, P = .021 accounting for 31% variability, and late stance positive work r(15) = 0.51, P = .037 accounting for 26% variability. The large unexplained variance may be attributed to mechanics of neighboring structures (e.g., soleus or Achilles tendon mechanics) and proximal joint kinetics which may also contribute to ankle joint power and work performance, and were not taken into account. Further studies are encouraged to provide greater insight

  14. Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis to silicone-hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Mariana; Sousa, Cláudia; Lira, Madalena; Elisabete, M; Oliveira, Real; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the adhesion capabilities of the most important etiologic agents of microbial ocular infection to the recently available silicone-hydrogel lenses with those to a conventional hydrogel lens. In vitro static adhesion assays of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10,145, Staphylococcus epidermidis 9142 (biofilm-positive), and 12,228 (biofilm-negative) to two extended-wear silicone-hydrogel lenses (balafilcon A and lotrafilcon A), a daily wear silicone-hydrogel lens (galyfilcon A) and a conventional hydrogel (etafilcon A) were performed. To interpret the adhesion results, lens surface relative hydrophobicity was assessed by water contact angle measurements. P. aeruginosa and S. epidermidis 9142 exhibited greater adhesion capabilities to the extended wear silicone-hydrogel lenses than to the daily wear silicone- and conventional hydrogel lenses (p adhesion extent of these strains to galyfilcon A and etafilcon A. The biofilm negative strain of S. epidermidis adhered in larger extents to the silicone-hydrogel lenses than to the conventional hydrogel (p contact angle measurements revealed that the extended wear silicone-hydrogel lenses are hydrophobic, whereas the daily wear silicone- and conventional hydrogel lenses are hydrophilic. As a result of their hydrophobicity, the extended wear silicone-hydrogel lenses (lotrafilcon A and balafilcon A) may carry higher risk of microbial contamination than both the hydrophilic daily wear silicone-hydrogel lens, galyfilcon A and the conventional hydrogel lens, etafilcon A.

  15. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Binello, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Costanzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Shrey, T. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  16. Fermat potentials for nonperturbative gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frittelli, Simonetta; Kling, Thomas P.; Newman, Ezra T.

    2002-01-01

    The images of many distant galaxies are displaced, distorted and often multiplied by the presence of foreground massive galaxies near the line of sight; the foreground galaxies act as gravitational lenses. Commonly, the lens equation, which relates the placement and distortion of the images to the real source position in the thin-lens scenario, is obtained by extremizing the time of arrival among all the null paths from the source to the observer (Fermat's principle). We show that the construction of envelopes of certain families of null surfaces constitutes an alternative variational principle or version of Fermat's principle that leads naturally to a lens equation in a generic spacetime with any given metric. We illustrate the construction by deriving the lens equation for static asymptotically flat thin lens spacetimes. As an application of the approach, we find the bending angle for moving thin lenses in terms of the bending angle for the same deflector at rest. Finally we apply this construction to cosmological spacetimes (FRW) by using the fact they are all conformally related to Minkowski space

  17. Magnetic electron lenses

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    No single volume has been entirely devoted to the properties of magnetic lenses, so far as I am aware, although of course all the numerous textbooks on electron optics devote space to them. The absence of such a volume, bringing together in­ formation about the theory and practical design of these lenses, is surprising, for their introduction some fifty years ago has created an entirely new family of commercial instruments, ranging from the now traditional transmission electron microscope, through the reflection and transmission scanning microscopes, to co­ lumns for micromachining and microlithography, not to mention the host of experi­ mental devices not available commercially. It therefore seemed useful to prepare an account of the various aspects of mag­ netic lens studies. These divide naturally into the five chapters of this book: the theoretical background, in which the optical behaviour is described and formu­ lae given for the various aberration coefficients; numerical methods for calculat­ ing...

  18. Gravitational lenses and cosmological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of gravitational lensing on the apparent cosmological evolution of extragalactic radio sources is investigated. Models for a lens population consisting of galaxies and clusters of galaxies are constructed and used to calculate the distribution of amplification factors caused by lensing. Although many objects at high redshifts are predicted to have flux densities altered by 10 to 20 per cent relative to a homogeneous universe, flux conservation implies that de-amplification is as common as amplification. The effects on cosmological evolution as inferred from source counts and redshift data are thus relatively small; the slope of the counts is not large enough for intrinsically rare lensing events of high amplitude to corrupt observed samples. Lensing effects may be of greater importance for optically selected quasars, where lenses of mass as low as approximately 10 -4 solar mass can cause large amplifications. (author)

  19. Direct Laser Writing of Nanophotonic Structures on Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQattan, Bader; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider

    2018-04-24

    Contact lenses are ubiquitous biomedical devices used for vision correction and cosmetic purposes. Their application as quantitative analytical devices is highly promising for point-of-care diagnostics. However, it is a challenge to integrate nanoscale features into commercial contact lenses for application in low-cost biosensors. A neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (1064 nm, 3 ns pulse, 240 mJ) in holographic interference patterning mode was utilized to produce optical nanostructures over the surface of a hydrogel contact lens. One-dimensional (925 nm) and two-dimensional (925 nm × 925 nm) nanostructures were produced on contact lenses and analyzed by spectroscopy and angle-resolve measurements. The holographic properties of these nanostructures were tested in ambient moisture, fully hydrated, and artificial tear conditions. The measurements showed a rapid tuning of optical diffraction from these nanostructures from 41 to 48°. The nanostructures were patterned near the edges of the contact lens to avoid any interference and obstruction to the human vision. The formation of 2D nanostructures on lenses increased the diffraction efficiency by more than 10%. The versatility of the holographic laser ablation method was demonstrated by producing four different 2D nanopattern geometries on contact lenses. Hydrophobicity of the contact lens was characterized by contact angle measurements, which increased from 59.0° at pristine condition to 62.5° at post-nanofabrication. The holographic nanostructures on the contact lens were used to sense the concentration of Na + ions. Artificial tear solution was used to simulate the conditions in dry eye syndrome, and nanostructures on the contact lenses were used to detect the electrolyte concentration changes (±47 mmol L -1 ). Nanopatterns on a contact lens may be used to sense other ocular diseases in early stages at point-of-care settings.

  20. Effect of Unifocal versus Multifocal Lenses on Cervical Spine Posture in Patients with Presbyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Rami L; Houri, Mohamad T; Rayyan, Mohammad M; Hamada, Hamada Ahmad; Saab, Ibtissam M

    2018-04-04

    There are many environmental considerations which may or may not lead to the development of faulty cervical mechanics. The design of near vision lenses could contribute to the development of such cervical dysfunction and consequently neck pain. Decision making regarding proper type of lens prescription seems important for presbyopic individuals. To investigate the effect of unifocal and multifocal lenses on cervical posture. Thirty subjects (18 females and 12 males) participated in the study with an age range from 40 to 64 years. Each subject wore consequently both unifocal and multifocal lenses randomly while reading. Then lateral cervical spine X-ray films were taken for each subject during each lens wearing. X-ray films were analyzed with digital software (Autocad software, 2 D) to measure segmental angles of the cervical vertebrae (Occiput/C1, C1/C2, C2/C3, C3/C4, C4/C5, C5/C6, C6/C7, C3/C7, C0/C3, and occiput/C7). Higher significant extension angle in the segments C0/C7, C1/C2, C5/C6, C6/C7, and C3/C7 (p<0.05) during multifocal lenses wearing were observed in contrast with higher flexion angle between C3/C4 and C4/C5 (p<0.05) with unifocal lenses wear. Multifocal lens spectacles produces increased extension in the cervical vertebrae angles when compared with the use of unifocal lenses.

  1. Correlation between glycemic excursion by CGMS and diabetic retinopathy among Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Li; Ji Ning; Zhu Wei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate correlation between glycemic excursion by CGMS and diabetic retinopathy among type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Used continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) to monitoring glycemic excursion within a day of twenty four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inspect fundus photography, correlation was analyzed. Results: Glycemic excursion might reveal the risk for diabetic retinopathy better than HbA1c does. Conclusion: Diabetic retinopathy may correlate with glycemic excursion. (authors)

  2. Subaru Weak Lensing Measurements of Four Strong Lensing Clusters: Are Lensing Clusters Over-Concentrated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Gladders, Michael D.; Dahle, Haakon; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Dalal, Neal; Koester, Benjamin P.; Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew

    2009-01-29

    We derive radial mass profiles of four strong lensing selected clusters which show prominent giant arcs (Abell 1703, SDSS J1446+3032, SDSS J1531+3414, and SDSS J2111-0115), by combining detailed strong lens modeling with weak lensing shear measured from deep Subaru Suprime-cam images. Weak lensing signals are detected at high significance for all four clusters, whose redshifts range from z = 0.28 to 0.64. We demonstrate that adding strong lensing information with known arc redshifts significantly improves constraints on the mass density profile, compared to those obtained from weak lensing alone. While the mass profiles are well fitted by the universal form predicted in N-body simulations of the {Lambda}-dominated cold dark matter model, all four clusters appear to be slightly more centrally concentrated (the concentration parameters c{sub vir} {approx} 8) than theoretical predictions, even after accounting for the bias toward higher concentrations inherent in lensing selected samples. Our results are consistent with previous studies which similarly detected a concentration excess, and increases the total number of clusters studied with the combined strong and weak lensing technique to ten. Combining our sample with previous work, we find that clusters with larger Einstein radii are more anomalously concentrated. We also present a detailed model of the lensing cluster Abell 1703 with constraints from multiple image families, and find the dark matter inner density profile to be cuspy with the slope consistent with -1, in agreement with expectations.

  3. Probabilities for gravitational lensing by point masses in a locally inhomogeneous universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacson, J.A.; Canizares, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Probability functions for gravitational lensing by point masses that incorporate Poisson statistics and flux conservation are formulated in the Dyer-Roeder construction. Optical depths to lensing for distant sources are calculated using both the method of Press and Gunn (1973) which counts lenses in an otherwise empty cone, and the method of Ehlers and Schneider (1986) which projects lensing cross sections onto the source sphere. These are then used as parameters of the probability density for lensing in the case of a critical (q0 = 1/2) Friedmann universe. A comparison of the probability functions indicates that the effects of angle-averaging can be well approximated by adjusting the average magnification along a random line of sight so as to conserve flux. 17 references

  4. Tube to tube excursive instability - sensitivities and transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.; Layland, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    A simple basic analysis of excursive instability in a boiler tube shows how it depends upon operating conditions and physical properties. A detailed mathematical model of an AGR boiler is used to conduct a steady state parameter sensitivity survey. It is possible from this basis to anticipate the effects of changes in operating conditions and changes in design parameters upon tube to tube stability. Dynamic responses of tubes operating near the stability threshold are examined using a mathematical model. Simulated excursions are triggered by imparting small abrupt pressure changes on the boiler inlet pressure. The influences of the magnitude of the pressure change, waterside friction factor and gas side coupling between tubes are examined. (author)

  5. Magnetosheath excursion and the relevant transport process at the magnetopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Cai

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A large-amplitude excursion of the magnetosheath (MS in quiet solar wind conditions on 17 March 2004 was recorded simultaneously by the Cluster and TC-1 spacecraft. During this period, the IMF Bz was entirely northward. The coherence between the bow shock motion and magnetopause (MP motion is revealed and the excursion velocities of the bow shock motion are analyzed. In addition, the relevant plasma transport phenomenon in the form of flux fluctuations below the ion gyrofrequency at the MP is exposed and is interpreted as manifestation of the drift instability. Correlated observations on charge accumulation and electrostatic potential perturbation are recorded by electron measurements in high energy regime, and also the eventual cross-field vortex motion in the nonlinear stage and the consequential mass exchange are exhibited. The present investigation gives some new insight into the MS plasma transport mechanism across the subsolar MP region in quiet solar wind conditions during a period of northward IMF.

  6. Estimates of fission yields in nuclear criticality excursions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.S.; Thompson, J.W.; Reed, R.

    1995-06-01

    There is a need for computer simulation of hypothetical criticality excursions involving significant quantities of fissionable materials, especially in fissile aqueous system. The need arises due to the requirements for the emergency planning of facilities where the fissionable materials are handled, processed, or stored; and the regulatory requirements associated with facility operation or conversion. It is proposed here that a data base of fission yeilds for critical experiments and known accidents (both aqueous and solid) should be generated by using existing or new computer codes. The success in compiling this data base would provide useful source-terms for criticality excursions, realistic estimates of emergency-response boundary, as well as a replacement for the ''rule-of-thumb'' or ''bounding'' method. 10 refs

  7. Geology and prospecting in the Carpatians conference excursion guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacko Stanislav

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We would like to welcome you to the excursions finalizing the Geology and prospecting in the Carpathians Conference, Her¾any –2000. The aim of the excursions is to provide you an overview of these Western Carpathian lithostructural units – and their mineralization respectively, research progress of which has been (at that time closely connected with personal investigation enthusiasm of our Professors - the founders of our Faculty. The current state of geological development knowledge of principal structural units of the Western Carpathians is outlined in papers included in special issue of Mineralia Slovaca magazine you have received at the begining of the Conference. For this reason the content of this Excursion quide is exclusively concentrated to description of routes localities. Broader geological relationships of particular outcrops is possible to find in attached Geological map of the Slovak Republic 1:100 000. The organizers of the excursions gratefully acknowledge the efforts of all colleagues who contributed to this quide. We also like to express our thanks for the financial support to Slovak VEGA grant Agency (Grant No:1/7389/2 and to the following organizations: Association of Metallurgy, Minig Industry and Geology of Slovak Republic, Slovak Geological Society, Management of TU Košice, SAPTU Foundation of TU Košice, Geological Survey of the Slovak Republic Betox JSC. Košice, SMW JSC. Jelšava, Uranpress Ltd. Spišská Nová Ves, TESCO Košice, ŽELBA-Siderite JSC. Nižná Slaná and ŽELBA –JSC. Spišská Nová Ves.

  8. Age and Structure of the Laschamp Geomagnetic Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaillet, S.; Laj, C.; Kissel, C.; Guillou, H.; Singer, B. S.

    2004-12-01

    The age of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion has been recently re-investigated using unspiked K/Ar and Ar/Ar techniques (Guillou et al., Session V01, this conference). The new age determination of 40.4 +/- 2.0 ka (2 sigma) is more precise than those previously reported in the literature and agrees precisely with that deduced from the GLOPIS-75 sedimentary paleointensity stack calibrated against the GISP2 ice core chronology. Two of the North Atlantic cores used in GLOPIS-75 (MD95-2034 and PS2644-5) yield rather detailed transitional VGP paths. In the two cases the paths show large similarities, with the VGP initially descending along mid-western Pacific, then returning to normal polarities with a large clockwise loop over Africa and Europe. Differences in the highest southern latitudes reached by the VGP can be explained assuming more different degrees of smearing of the paleomagnetic record due to differences in sedimentation rate in the two cores. In the most detailed record, MD95-2034 , two smaller loops are present preceding the main excursion. In the two cores, the excursion is characterized by a significant drop in intensity. The reversal paths observed for the Laschamp event are very close in position to those reported for the Icelandic Basin Event (IBE) from sites in the North Atlantic and the South China Sea (Laj et al., this conference) but differ in the sense of looping: while a clockwise loop is observed here, a counterclockwise loop is observed for the IBE. Despite this difference, the similarity of the transitional records tends to suggest that a similar, relatively simple, geometry has dominated the two excursions and therefore that similar dynamo mechanisms have prevailed during the reversal process.

  9. New magic angle bumps and magic translation bumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.

    1983-01-01

    SLC beams of opposite charge can be transversely deflected in the same direction by RF fields in the accelerating cavities caused by girder tilts, coupler-asymmetries, or manufacturing errors. A symmetric deflection can be corrected by a magic angle bump if the deflection is located adjacent to one of the linac quadrupoles. However, if the deflection is located between quadrupoles, two magic angle bumps or a magic angle bump and a magic translation bump are needed for the correction. Several examples of translation bumps are included. A new magic angle bump is also presented which is longitudinally compressed and has significantly reduced particle excursions. Finally, if new correctors are added midway along the girders so that the number of correctors are doubled, then the longitudinal extent and the maximum particle excursion of these new magic bumps can be further reduced

  10. CMB lensing and giant rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathaus, Ben; Itzhaki, Nissan, E-mail: nitzhaki@post.tau.ac.il, E-mail: ben.rathaus@gmail.com [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2012-05-01

    We study the CMB lensing signature of a pre-inationary particle (PIP), assuming it is responsible for the giant rings anomaly that was found recently in the WMAP data. Simulating Planck-like data we find that generically the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio associated with such a PIP is quite small and it would be difficult to cross correlate the temperature giant rings with the CMB lensing signal. However, if the pre-inationary particle is also responsible for the bulk flow measured from the local large scale structure, which happens to point roughly at the same direction as the giant rings, then the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio is fairly significant.

  11. KINOFORM LENSES - TOWARD NANOMETER RESOLUTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEIN, A.; EVANS-LUTTERODT, K.; TAYLOR, A.

    2004-10-23

    While hard x-rays have wavelengths in the nanometer and sub-nanometer range, the ability to focus them is limited by the quality of sources and optics, and not by the wavelength. A few options, including reflective (mirrors), diffractive (zone plates) and refractive (CRL's) are available, each with their own limitations. Here we present our work with kinoform lenses which are refractive lenses with all material causing redundant 2{pi} phase shifts removed to reduce the absorption problems inherently limiting the resolution of refractive lenses. By stacking kinoform lenses together, the effective numerical aperture, and thus the focusing resolution, can be increased. The present status of kinoform lens fabrication and testing at Brookhaven is presented as well as future plans toward achieving nanometer resolution.

  12. Astrophysical Applications of Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Muñoz, Jose A.; Garzón, Francisco; Mahoney, Terence J.

    2016-10-01

    Contributors; Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Lensing basics Sherry H. Suyu; 2. Exoplanet microlensing Andrew Gould; 3. Case studies of microlensing Veronica Motta and Emilio Falco; 4. Microlensing of quasars and AGN Joachim Wambsganss; 5. DM in clusters and large-scale structure Peter Schneider; 6. The future of strong lensing Chris Fassnacht; 7. Methods for strong lens modelling Charles Keeton; 8. Tutorial on inverse ray shooting Jorge Jimenez-Vicente.

  13. Scoliosis angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, T.

    1978-01-01

    The most commonly used methods of assessing the scoliotic deviation measure angles that are not clearly defined in relation to the anatomy of the patient. In order to give an anatomic basis for such measurements it is proposed to define the scoliotic deviation as the deviation the vertebral column makes with the sagittal plane. Both the Cobb and the Ferguson angles may be based on this definition. The present methods of measurement are then attempts to measure these angles. If the plane of these angles is parallel to the film, the measurement will be correct. Errors in the measurements may be incurred by the projection. A hypothetical projection, called a 'rectified orthogonal projection', is presented, which correctly represents all scoliotic angles in accordance with these principles. It can be constructed in practice with the aid of a computer and by performing measurements on two projections of the vertebral column; a scoliotic curve can be represented independent of the kyphosis and lordosis. (Auth.)

  14. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick; Waerbeke, Ludovic van; Heavens, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also

  15. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munshi, Dipak [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: munshi@ast.cam.ac.uk; Valageas, Patrick [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Waerbeke, Ludovic van [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Heavens, Alan [SUPA - Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also

  16. Age-related compaction of lens fibers affects the structure and optical properties of rabbit lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ghoul Walid M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this investigation was to correlate particular age-related structural changes (compaction to the amount of scatter in rabbit lenses and to determine if significant fiber compaction occurred in the nuclear and inner cortical regions. Methods New Zealand White rabbits at 16–20 months old (adult; n = 10 and at 3.5–4 years old (aged; n = 10 were utilized for this study. Immediately after euthanising, scatter was assessed in fresh lenses by low power helium-neon laser scan analysis. Scatter data was analyzed both for whole lenses and regionally, to facilitate correlation with morphometric data. After functional analysis, lenses were fixed and processed for scanning electron microcopy (SEM; right eyes and light microscopy (LM; left eyes. Morphometric analysis of SEM images was utilized to evaluate compaction of nuclear fibers. Similarly, measurements from LM images were used to assess compaction of inner cortical fibers. Results Scatter was significantly greater in aged lenses as compared to adult lenses in all regions analyzed, however the difference in the mean was slightly more pronounced in the inner cortical region. The anterior and posterior elliptical angles at 1 mm (inner fetal nucleus were significantly decreased in aged vs. adult lenses (anterior, p = 0.040; posterior, p = 0.036. However, the average elliptical angles at 2.5 mm (outer fetal nucleus were not significantly different in adult and aged lenses since all lenses examined had comparable angles to inner fetal fibers of aged lenses, i.e. they were all compacted. In cortical fibers, measures of average cross-sectional fiber area were significantly different at diameters of both 6 and 7 mm as a function of age (p = 0.011 and p = 0.005, respectively. Accordingly, the estimated fiber volume was significantly decreased in aged as compared to adult lenses at both 6 mm diameter (p = 0.016 and 7 mm diameter (p = 0.010. Conclusion Morphometric data indicates

  17. Statistics of gravitational lenses. III. Astrophysical consequences of quasar lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostriker, J.P.; Vietri, M.

    1986-01-01

    The method of Schmidt and Green (1983) for calculating the luminosity function of quasars is combined with gravitational-lensing theory to compute expected properties of lensed systems. Multiple quasar images produced by galaxies are of order 0.001 of the observed quasars, with the numbers over the whole sky calculated to be (0.86, 120, 1600) to limiting B magnitudes of (16, 19, 22). The amount of false evolution is small except for an interesting subset of apparently bright, large-redshift objects for which minilensing by starlike objects may be important. Some of the BL Lac objects may be in this category, with the galaxy identified as the parent object really a foreground object within which stars have lensed a background optically violent variable quasar. 24 references

  18. The impact of round window vs cochleostomy surgical approaches on interscalar excursions in the cochlea: Preliminary results from a flat-panel computed tomography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole T. Jiam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate incidence of interscalar excursions between round window (RW and cochleostomy approaches for cochlear implant (CI insertion. Methods: This was a retrospective case-comparison. Flat-panel CT (FPCT scans for 8 CI users with Med-El standard length electrode arrays were collected. Surgical technique was identified by a combination of operative notes and FPCT imaging. Four cochleae underwent round window insertion and 4 cochleae underwent cochleostomy approaches anterior and inferior to the round window. Results: In our pilot study, cochleostomy approaches were associated with a higher likelihood of interscalar excursion. Within the cochleostomy group, we found 29% of electrode contacts (14 of 48 electrodes to be outside the scala tympani. On the other hand, 8.5% of the electrode contacts (4 of 47 electrodes in the round window insertion group were extra-scalar to the scala tympani. These displacements occurred at a mean angle of occurrence of 364° ± 133°, near the apex of the cochlea. Round window electrode displacements tend to localize at angle of occurrences of 400° or greater. Cochleostomy electrodes occurred at an angle of occurrence of 19°–490°. Conclusions: Currently, the optimal surgical approach for standard CI electrode insertion is highly debated, to a certain extent due to a lack of post-operative assessment of intracochlear electrode contact. Based on our preliminary findings, cochleostomy approach is associated with an increased likelihood of interscalar excursions, and these findings should be further evaluated with future prospective studies. Keywords: Cochlear implantation, Round window insertion, Cochleostomy, Interscalar excursion, Electrode position, Flat-panel computed tomography, Surgical approach

  19. Contact Lenses for Color Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Abdel-Rahman; Hassan, Muhammad Umair; Elsherif, Mohamed; Ahmed, Zubair; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider

    2018-06-01

    Color vision deficiency (color blindness) is an inherited genetic ocular disorder. While no cure for this disorder currently exists, several methods can be used to increase the color perception of those affected. One such method is the use of color filtering glasses which are based on Bragg filters. While these glasses are effective, they are high cost, bulky, and incompatible with other vision correction eyeglasses. In this work, a rhodamine derivative is incorporated in commercial contact lenses to filter out the specific wavelength bands (≈545-575 nm) to correct color vision blindness. The biocompatibility assessment of the dyed contact lenses in human corneal fibroblasts and human corneal epithelial cells shows no toxicity and cell viability remains at 99% after 72 h. This study demonstrates the potential of the dyed contact lenses in wavelength filtering and color vision deficiency management. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Aspheric lenses for terahertz imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yat Hei; Leonhardt, Rainer

    2008-09-29

    We present novel designs for aspheric lenses used in terahertz (THz) imaging. As different surfaces result in different beam shaping properties and in different losses from reflection and absorption, the resultant imaging resolution (i.e. the focal spot size) depends critically on the design approach. We evaluate the different lens designs using Kirchhoff's scalar diffraction theory, and test the predictions experimentally. We also show that our lenses can achieve sub-wavelength resolution. While our lens designs are tested with THz radiation, the design considerations are applicable also to other regions of the electro-magnetic spectrum.

  1. Global characteristics of geomagnetic excursions as seen in global empirical models and a numerical geodynamo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, M. C.; Wardinski, I.; Brown, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    Paleomagnetic results from sediments and lava flows provide observational evidence of numerous geomagnetic excursions throughout Earth's history. Two new spherical harmonic geomagnetic field models covering 50-30 ka, including the Laschamp ( 41ka) and Mono Lake ( 32-35 ka) excursions allow us to characterize the global behaviour of these events, both at Earth's surface and the core-mantle boundary. We investigate the evolution of dipole and large-scale non-dipole power throughout the duration of the model and the morphology of the large-scale radial field at the core-mantle boundary. The models suggest clear differences in both the decrease in axial dipole strength and dipole tilt between the two excursions and unlike the previously published model by Leonhardt et al. (2009), they suggest some increase of non-dipole power during the early and late stages of the Laschamp excursion. Global characteristics from the models can be directly compared with results from numerical simulations. We do so for several excursions generated by a numerical simulation driven by purely compositional convection, which appears Earth-like in terms of excursion and reversal occurrence frequency. Excursions from this simulation show differing characteristics, including differences in spectral power evolution. Some cases show similarities to the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions in the spherical harmonic models. In particular they all indicate that excursions are mainly governed by the axial dipole term and equatorial dipole terms play a minor role.

  2. The effect of Limber and flat-sky approximations on galaxy weak lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Pablo; Challinor, Anthony; Efstathiou, George, E-mail: pl411@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: a.d.challinor@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: gpe@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    We review the effect of the commonly-used Limber and flat-sky approximations on the calculation of shear power spectra and correlation functions for galaxy weak lensing. These approximations are accurate at small scales, but it has been claimed recently that their impact on low multipoles could lead to an increase in the amplitude of the mass fluctuations inferred from surveys such as CFHTLenS, reducing the tension between galaxy weak lensing and the amplitude determined by Planck from observations of the cosmic microwave background. Here, we explore the impact of these approximations on cosmological parameters derived from weak lensing surveys, using the CFHTLenS data as a test case. We conclude that the use of small-angle approximations for cosmological parameter estimation is negligible for current data, and does not contribute to the tension between current weak lensing surveys and Planck.

  3. MERIDIONAL COMA OF NEGATIVE ANASTIGMATIC LENSES AT THE FINAL POSITION OF AN OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bezrukov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the findings of negative anastigmatic lenses at the final position of an object. The negative lenses are considered with refraction index n=1.7849 (type of glass is TF12 and thickness d=5 mm, working with paraxial magnifications β=1,1x;1,3x;1,5x with account of the distances from the first lens surface to the object S1=9; 25 mm and the size of the object y=15 mm. Dependences of negative lens forms from the position of anastigmatic pupils and from radii of meridional caustics which are convenient for understanding aberrational properties of anastigmatic lenses. The findings give the possibility to synthesize wide-angle lenses with the corrected aberrations of image curvature and meridional coma without geometrical vignetting of wide sloping bunches.

  4. Deflection of light and particles by moving gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wucknitz, Olaf; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    Various authors have investigated the problem of light deflection by radially moving gravitational lenses, but the results presented so far do not appear to agree on the expected deflection angles. Some publications claim a scaling of deflection angles with 1-v to first order in the radial lens velocity v, while others obtained a scaling with 1-2v. In this paper we generalize the calculations for arbitrary lens velocities and show that the first result is the correct one. We discuss the seeming inconsistency of relativistic light deflection with the classical picture of moving test particles by generalizing the lens effect to test particles of arbitrary velocity, including light as a limiting case. We show that the effect of radial motion of the lens is very different for slowly moving test particles and light and that a critical test particle velocity exists for which the motion of the lens has no effect on the deflection angle to first order. An interesting and not immediately intuitive result is obtained in the limit of a highly relativistic motion of the lens towards the observer, where the deflection angle of light reduces to zero. This phenomenon is elucidated in terms of moving refractive media. Furthermore, we discuss the dragging of inertial frames in the field of a moving lens and the corresponding Lense-Thirring precession, in order to shed more light on the geometrical effects in the surroundings of a moving mass. In a second part we discuss the effect of transversal motion on the observed redshift of lensed sources. We demonstrate how a simple kinematic calculation explains the effects for arbitrary velocities of the lens and test particles. Additionally we include the transversal motion of the source and observer to show that all three velocities can be combined into an effective relative transversal velocity similar to the approach used in microlensing studies

  5. Probing supervoids with weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yuichi; Inoue, Kaiki Taro

    2018-05-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) has non-Gaussian features in the temperature fluctuations. An anomalous cold spot surrounded with a hot ring, called the Cold Spot, is one of such features. If a large underdense region (supervoid) resides towards the Cold Spot, we would be able to detect a systematic shape distortion in the images of background source galaxies via weak lensing effect. In order to estimate the detectability of such signals, we used the data of N-body simulations to simulate full-sky ray-tracing of source galaxies. We searched for a most prominent underdense region using the simulated convergence maps smoothed at a scale of 20° and obtained tangential shears around it. The lensing signal expected in a concordant Λ cold dark matter model can be detected at a signal-to-noise ratio S/N ˜ 3. If a supervoid with a radius of ˜200 h-1 Mpc and a density contrast δ0 ˜ -0.3 at the centre resides at a redshift z ˜ 0.2, on-going and near-future weak gravitational lensing surveys would detect a lensing signal with S/N ≳ 4 without resorting to stacking. From the tangential shear profile, we can obtain a constraint on the projected mass distribution of the supervoid.

  6. Weak lensing and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, Dragan

    2002-01-01

    We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance. With reasonable prior information on other cosmological parameters, we find that a survey covering 1000 sq deg down to a limiting magnitude of R=27 can impose constraints comparable to those expected from upcoming type Ia supernova and number-count surveys. This result, however, is contingent on the control of both observational and theoretical systematics. Concentrating on the latter, we find that the nonlinear power spectrum of matter perturbations and the redshift distribution of source galaxies both need to be determined accurately in order for weak lensing to achieve its full potential. Finally, we discuss the sensitivity of the three-point statistics to dark energy

  7. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  8. Scientific visualization of gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magallon, M.

    1999-01-01

    Concepts related to gravitational lenses are discussed and applied to develop an interactive visualization tool that allow us to investigate them. Optimization strategies were performed to elaborate the tool. Some results obtained from the application of the tool are shown [es

  9. Vertical orbit excursion fixed field alternating gradient accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Brooks

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG accelerators with vertical orbit excursion (VFFAGs provide a promising alternative design for rings with fixed-field superconducting magnets. They have a vertical magnetic field component that increases with height in the vertical aperture, yielding a skew quadrupole focusing structure. Scaling-type VFFAGs are found with fixed tunes and no intrinsic limitation on momentum range. This paper presents the first multiparticle tracking of such machines. Proton driver rings to accelerate the 800 MeV beam from the ISIS synchrotron are presented, in terms of both magnet field geometry and longitudinal behavior during acceleration with space charge. The 12 GeV ring produces an output power of at least 2.18 MW. Possible applications of VFFAGs to waste transmutation, hadron therapy, and energy-recovery electron accelerators are also discussed.

  10. Proofs of the Cantor-Bernstein theorem a mathematical excursion

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkis, Arie

    2013-01-01

    This book offers an excursion through the developmental area of research mathematics. It presents some 40 papers, published between the 1870s and the 1970s, on proofs of the Cantor-Bernstein theorem and the related Bernstein division theorem. While the emphasis is placed on providing accurate proofs, similar to the originals, the discussion is broadened to include aspects that pertain to the methodology of the development of mathematics and to the philosophy of mathematics. Works of prominent mathematicians and logicians are reviewed, including Cantor, Dedekind, Schröder, Bernstein, Borel, Zermelo, Poincaré, Russell, Peano, the Königs, Hausdorff, Sierpinski, Tarski, Banach, Brouwer and several others mainly of the Polish and the Dutch schools. In its attempt to present a diachronic narrative of one mathematical topic, the book resembles Lakatos’ celebrated book Proofs and Refutations. Indeed, some of the observations made by Lakatos are corroborated herein. The analogy between the two books is clearly an...

  11. The main problems of Cycling excursions on the Moscow market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeev A.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available the article discusses the reasons of rejection of Bicycle transport. It is noted that the main causes are the heavy ecological situation in Moscow and a large number of vehicles. The authors note that according to the Department of natural resources 90% of pollution is caused by the road transport. To solve this problem, the authors offer to use bicycles and to develop a network of cycle routes and excursions, improve the quality of bike paths to connect them together, to approve the rules of the road (SDA for cyclists, which will reduce the number of accidents with their participation. The article presents strong arguments in favor of the development and use of bicycles and bicycle tours.

  12. Excursions to nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    Promoting young talents in the field of nuclear technology is considered one of the most important tasks the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft e.V. (Society for Nuclear Engineering) tries to fulfill in many ways. It has developed a curriculum for the specialty of nuclear technology, provides funds for attending conferences and gives financial support to student members. In line with these efforts to promote young talents, the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft now submits a list of nuclear facilities where to special excursions may be made in the course of corresponding training programmes. State-owned and private research and development centres, industrial factories and electricity-generating nuclear power plants as well as nuclear fuel cycle centres are thus concerned. (orig.) [de

  13. Achromatic X-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, Marion

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents first results on the development of achromatic refractive X-ray lenses which can be used for scientific experiments at synchrotron sources. First of all the different requirements for achromatic X-ray lenses have been worked out. There are different types of lenses, one type can be used for monochromatized sources when the energy is scanned while the spot size should be constant. The other type can be used at beamlines providing a broad energy band. By a combination of focusing and defocusing elements we have developed a lens system that strongly reduces the chromatic aberration of a refractive lens in a given energy range. The great challenge in the X-ray case - in contrast to the visible range - the complex refractive index, which is very similar for the possible materials in the X-ray spectrum. For precise studies a numerical code has been developed, which calculates the different rays on their way through the lenses to the detector plane via raytracing. In this numerical code the intensity distribution in the detector plane has been analyzed for a chromatic and the corresponding achromatic system. By optimization routines for the two different fields of applications specific parameter combinations were found. For the experimental verification an achromatic system has been developed, consisting of biconcave SU-8 lenses and biconvex Nickel Fresnel lenses. Their fabrication was based on the LIGA-process, including a further innovative development, namely the fabrication of two different materials on one wafer. In the experiment at the synchrotron source ANKA the energy was varied in a specific energy range in steps of 0.1 keV. The intensity distribution for the different energies was detected at a certain focal length. For the achromatic system a reduction of the chromatic aberration could be clearly shown. Achromatic refractive X-ray lenses, especially for the use at synchrotron sources, have not been developed so far. As a consequence of the

  14. Translator’s inferential excursions, with imagination in the background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Tokarz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a literary work, signals that trigger reader’s inferential excursions allow the reader’s imagination to identify with and control the represented world. They constitute an important element of sense-generating mechanism. Thanks to imagination, the translator imitates the inferential mechanism of the original on various level’s of the text’s structure, activating the imagination of the reader. The translator’s imagination is bi- or multivalent in having the linguistic-semiotic, literary, and cultural quality. Although it manifests itself in language, it goes beyond the boundaries of language. Imagination is a form of consciousness which has no object of its own, and a medium connecting a specific non-imaginary knowledge with representations. It constitutes a mind faculty shaped on the basis of sensory and mental perception. It is derived from individual principles of perception and cognition data processing. It usually requires a stymulus to activate the capabilities of the imagining subject. As a mind faculty, imagination is based on the mental capability common to all people, which is the ability to create chains of associations.Translator’s respect for inferential excursions in the original text is necessary for retaining the original meaning, regardless of whether they occur on the phonetic-phonological level (as in Ionesco’s The Chairs, or on the level of image-semantic and syntactic relations (as in translation of Apollinaire’s Zone, or on the level of syntax (as in translation of Mrożek’s short stories into Slovenian, or on the level of cultural communication (as in Slovenian translation of Gombrowicz’s Trans-Atlantic.

  15. Extended release of hyaluronic acid from hydrogel contact lenses for dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Soni, Tejal G; Shah, Dinesh O

    2015-01-01

    Current dry eye treatment includes delivering comfort enhancing agents to the eye via eye drops, but low residence time of eye drops leads to low bioavailability. Frequent administration leads to incompliance in patients, so there is a great need for medical device such as contact lenses to treat dry eye. Studies in the past have demonstrated the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the treatment of dry eyes using eye drops. In this paper, we present two methods to load HA in hydrogel contact lenses, soaking method and direct entrapment. The contact lenses were characterized by studying their optical and physical properties to determine their suitability as extended wear contact lenses. HA-laden hydrogel contact lenses prepared by soaking method showed release up to 48 h with acceptable physical and optical properties. Hydrogel contact lenses prepared by direct entrapment method showed significant sustained release in comparison to soaking method. HA entrapped in hydrogels resulted in reduction in % transmittance, sodium ion permeability and surface contact angle, while increase in % swelling. The impact on each of these properties was proportional to HA loading. The batch with 200-μg HA loading showed all acceptable values (parameters) for contact lens use. Results of cytotoxicity study indicated the safety of hydrogel contact lenses. In vivo pharmacokinetics studies in rabbit tear fluid showed dramatic increase in HA mean residence time and area under the curve with lenses in comparison to eye drop treatment. The study demonstrates the promising potential of delivering HA through contact lenses for the treatment of dry eye syndrome.

  16. Effective wavefront aberration measurement of spectacle lenses in as-worn status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhigang; Xu, Kai; Fang, Fengzhou

    2018-04-01

    An effective wavefront aberration analysis method for measuring spectacle lenses in as-worn status was proposed and verified using an experimental apparatus based on an eye rotation model. Two strategies were employed to improve the accuracy of measurement of the effective wavefront aberrations on the corneal sphere. The influences of three as-worn parameters, the vertex distance, pantoscopic angle, and face form angle, together with the eye rotation and corresponding incident beams, were objectively and quantitatively obtained. The experimental measurements of spherical single vision and freeform progressive addition lenses demonstrate the accuracy and validity of the proposed method and experimental apparatus, which provide a potential means of achieving supernormal vision correction with customization and personalization in optimizing the as-worn status-based design of spectacle lenses and evaluating their manufacturing and imaging qualities.

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2007-11-01

    Gravitational lensing emerged as an observational field following the 1979 discovery of a doubly imaged quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy. In the 1980s and '90s dozens of other multiply imaged systems were observed, as well as time delay measurements, weak and strong lensing by galaxies and galaxy clusters, and the discovery of microlensing in our galaxy. The rapid pace of advances has continued into the new century. Lensing is currently one of best techniques for finding and mapping dark matter over a wide range of scales, and also addresses broader cosmological questions such as understanding the nature of dark energy. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics presents a snapshot of current research in some of the exciting areas of lensing. It provides an occasion to look back at the advances of the last decade and ahead to the potential of the coming years. Just about a decade ago, microlensing was discovered through the magnification of stars in our galaxy by invisible objects with masses between that of Jupiter and a tenth the mass of the Sun. Thus a new component of the mass of our galaxy, dubbed MACHOs, was established (though a diffuse, cold dark matter-like component is still needed to make up most of the galaxy mass). More recently, microlensing led to another exciting discovery—of extra-solar planets with masses ranging from about five times that of Earth to that of Neptune. We can expect many more planets to be discovered through ongoing surveys. Microlensing is the best technique for finding Earth mass planets, though it is not as productive overall as other methods and does not allow for follow up observations. Beyond planet hunting, microlensing has enabled us to observe previously inaccessible systems, ranging from the surfaces of other stars to the accretion disks around the black holes powering distant quasars. Galaxies and galaxy clusters at cosmological distances can produce dramatic lensing effects: multiple images of background galaxies

  18. Polycapillary neutron lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mildner, D.F.R.

    1997-01-01

    The principle of multiple mirror reflection from smooth surfaces at small grazing angles enables the transport and guiding of high intensity slow neutron beams to locations of low background for neutron scattering and absorption experiments and to provide facilities for multiple instruments. Curved guides have been widely used at cold neutron facilities to remove the unwanted radiation (fast neutrons and gamma rays) from the beam without the use of filters. A typical guide has transverse dimensions of 50 mm and, with a radius of curvature of 1 km, transmits wavelengths longer than 5 A. Much tighter curves requires narrower transverse dimensions, otherwise there is little transmission. Typical neutron benders have a number of slots with transverse dimensions of ∼5 mm. Based on the same principle but using a different technology, recent developments in glass polycapillary fibers have produced miniature versions of neutron guides. Fibers with many thousands of channels having sizes of ∼ 10 μm enable beams of long wavelength neutrons (λ > 4 A) to be transmitted efficiently in a radius of curvature as small as a fraction of 1 m. A large collection of these miniature versions of neutron guides can be used to bend the neutron trajectories such that the incident beam can be focused. (author)

  19. 49 CFR 38.177 - Ferries, excursion boats and other vessels. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferries, excursion boats and other vessels... DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 38.177 Ferries, excursion boats and other vessels. [Reserved] ...

  20. New case of gravitational lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdej, J.; Swings, J.-P.; Magain, P.; Borgeest, U.; Kayser, R.; Refsdal, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Kellermann, K.I.; Kuehr, H.

    1987-10-22

    The authors report a brief description of a gravitational lens system UM673 = Q0142 - 100 = PHL3703. It consists of two images, A and B, separated by 2.2 arc s at a redshift zsub(q) = 2.719. The lensing galaxy has also been found. It lies very near the line connecting the two QSO (quasi-stellar objects) images, approx. 0.8 arc s from the fainter one. Application of gravitational optometry to this system leads to a value Msub(o) or approx. = 2.4 x 10/sup 11/ M solar masses for the mass of the lensing galaxy and to ..delta..t approx. 7 weeks for the most likely travel-time difference between the two light paths to the QSO.

  1. A system of catoptric lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, P.J.; Rambauske, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a system of catoptric lenses for combining energies provided by a certain number of sources, e.g. optical energies provided by a certain number of lasers. This system comprises sets of mirrors the reflecting surfaces of which have their focuses spaced from a common axis. The mirrors of all these sets are arranged on a common frame, which makes aperture-locking impossible. This can be applied to thermonuclear fusion [fr

  2. [Scheimpflug photography for the examination of phakic intraocular lenses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, M

    2014-10-01

    High myopia phakic intraocular lenses (IOL) have become an established means of surgical correction for high ametropia. Scheimpflug photography is one of the methods which are frequently applied for postoperative examination of the implants. Results from published studies employing Scheimpflug photography for examination of anterior chamber angle-fixated, iris-fixated and sulcus-fixated phakic IOLs were evaluated. In several published studies Scheimpflug photography was used to examine the position of the implant and opacification of the crystalline lens. The results provided valuable evidence for the improvement of phakic IOL design. Scheimpflug photography offers an easy to use, rapid non-contact examination of phakic IOLs.

  3. Applications of Electronstatic Lenses to Electron Gun and Energy Analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sise, O.

    2004-01-01

    Focal properties and geometries are given for several types of electrostatic lens systems commonly needed in electron impact studies. One type is an electron gun which focuses electrons over a wide range of energy onto a fixed point, such as target, and the other type is an analyzer system which focuses scattered electrons of variable energy onto a fixed position, such as the entrance plane of an analyzer. There are many different types and geometries of these lenses for controlling and focusing of the electron beams. In this presentation we discussed the criteria used for the design of the electrostatic lenses associated with the electron gun and energy analyzers and determined the fundamental relationships between the operation and behaviour of multi-element electrostatic lenses, containing five, six and seven elements. The focusing of the electron beam was achieved by applying suitable voltages to the series of these lens elements, Design of the lens system for electron gun was based on our requirements that the beam at the target had a small spot size and zero beam angle, that is, afocal mode. For energy analyzer systems we considered the entrance of the hemispherical analyzer which determines the energy of the electron beam and discussed the focusing condition of this lens systems

  4. Optimization of vehicle weight for Mars excursion missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferebee, Melvin J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The excursion class mission to Mars is defined as a mission with one year durations coupled with a stay time of up to 30 days. The fuel budget for such a mission is investigated. The overall figure of merit in such an assessment is the vehicle weight ratio, the ratio between the wet vehicle weight to the dry vehicle weight. It is necessary to minimize the overall fuel budget for the mission in order to maximize the benefits that could be obtained by sending humans to Mars. Assumptions used in the analysis are: each mission will depart and terminate in low-earth-orbit (LEO) (500 km circular) and the maximum stay time at Mars is 30 days. The maximum mission duration is one year (355-375 days). The mass returned to LEO is 135,000 kg, the dropoff mass left at Mars is 168,000 kg. Three propulsive techniques for atmospheric interface are investigated: aerobraking, all-chemical propulsion, and nuclear thermal propulsion. By defining the fuel requirements, the space transfer vehicle's configuration is defined.

  5. Hydrodynamic analysis of the LMFBR prompt burst excursion (PBE) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.F.

    1977-01-01

    A series of in-pile experiments has been conducted at Sandia Laboratories to provide information on pressure levels and conversion of thermal energy into mechanical work in LMFBR cores during hypothetical, superprompt-critical excursions. Pressures generated in these experiments are recorded by a pressure transducer located at the top and bottom of a sodium channel surrounding a single, fresh UO 2 fuel pin. Work energy conversion is measured by a linear motion transducer connected to a piston at the top of the sodium column. Since the pressure transducers are located fairly far from the location of pin failure, it becomes necessary to determine the effect of channel geometry and piston motion on the observed pressure data. A two-dimensional, hydrodynamic analysis of pressure pulse propagation in the fuel pin-coolant channel geometry was therefore performed using the CSQII computer code. The initial series of PBE experiments consists of single, fresh UO 2 pins surrounded by a sodium-filled or dry-coolant channel contained in a closed test capsule. The capsule is subjected to a maximum pulse in the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) resulting in an energy deposition of from 2350 to 2900 J/g (14 and 20 percent enriched pins). The pulse width at half maximum (PWHM) is about 5 ms

  6. Scope Complexity Options Risks Excursions (SCORE) Factor Mathematical Description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Samberson, Jonell Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shettigar, Subhasini [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jungels, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Welch, Kimberly M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Dean A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the Scope, Complexity, Options, Risks, Excursions (SCORE) model is to estimate the relative complexity of design variants of future warhead options, resulting in scores. SCORE factors extend this capability by providing estimates of complexity relative to a base system (i.e., all design options are normalized to one weapon system). First, a clearly defined set of scope elements for a warhead option is established. The complexity of each scope element is estimated by Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), including a level of uncertainty, relative to a specific reference system. When determining factors, complexity estimates for a scope element can be directly tied to the base system or chained together via comparable scope elements in a string of reference systems that ends with the base system. The SCORE analysis process is a growing multi-organizational Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) effort, under the management of the NA-12 led Enterprise Modeling and Analysis Consortium (EMAC). Historically, it has provided the data elicitation, integration, and computation needed to support the out-year Life Extension Program (LEP) cost estimates included in the Stockpile Stewardship Management Plan (SSMP).

  7. Power Excursion Accident Analysis of Research Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaled, S.M.; Doaa, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional neutronic code POWEX-K has been developed, and it has been coupled with the sub-channel thermal-hydraulic core analysis code SV based on the Single Mass Velocity Model. This forms the integrated neutronic/thermal hydraulics code system POWEX-K/SV for the accident analysis. The Training and Research Reactors at Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME-Reactor) has been taken as a reference reactor. The cross-section generation procedure based on WIMS. The code uses an implicit difference approach for both the diffusion equations and thermal-hydraulics modules, with reactivity feedback effects due to coolant and fuel temperatures. The code system was applied to analyzing power excursion accidents initiated by ramp reactivity insertion of 1.2 $. The results show that the reactor is inherently safe in case of such accidents i.e. no core melt is expected even if the safety rods do not fall into the core

  8. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed in...

  9. Planck 2015 results. XV. Gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40 sigma), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator we detect lensing at a significance of 5 sigma. We cross-check the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40lensing potential power spectrum and that found in the best-fitting LCDM model based on the Planck temperature and polarization power spectra. Using the lensing likelihood alone we obtain a percent-level measurement of ...

  10. Static Linear Fresnel Lenses as LCPV System in a Greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneveld, P. J.; Swinkels, G. L. A. M.; van Tuijl, B. A. J.; Janssen, H. J. J.; de Zwart, H. F.

    2011-12-01

    A low concentrating PV system with water cooling (LCPVT system) will result in electrical and thermal energy output from the solar energy excess entering a building or greenhouse. All the direct radiation could be converted, which corresponds to 75% of the incoming solar energy. This will significantly reduce the demand of cooling of the building. For an optimal performance it is beneficial to construct asymmetric roof elements with a steep inclination at the north side (the exact angle of course depends on the latitude of the building site). The Fresnel lens structure is oriented in upwards direction. In the current design, two of them are placed between an AR-coated double glass structure to prevent pollution and condensation on the lenses. Compared with a previous system, the number of lenses is reduced from 3 to 2 lenses, which reduces the costs of the system by limiting the number of receivers. By the upward facing of the lens structure, the focus quality is preserved over a much broader range of angles of incidence compared to a lens with downward facing structures. Each PMMA lens with a size of 1.20 m×1.60 m is composed of 12 `tiles' for easy production. The focal distance of the lens is 1,875 m and the concentration factor 50x. In most cases the focus line is thinner than 3 cm and the transmission is above 80%. The performance of these lenses with respect of the shape of the focal area and the position of the focal line has been analyzed with ray tracing techniques. From this analyses it was concluded that tracking of the receiver module is possible with two motors. One motor controls the distance between lens and receiver and one motor controls the translocation of the receivers parallel to the lens. The second conclusion was that the positions of the focal line are within the bounds of the greenhouse construction for almost the whole year. Only in winter, the focal line will be unreachable from time to time. A 480 m2 greenhouse with the LCPVT system

  11. Instrumental systematics and weak gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelbaum, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present a pedagogical review of the weak gravitational lensing measurement process and its connection to major scientific questions such as dark matter and dark energy. Then we describe common ways of parametrizing systematic errors and understanding how they affect weak lensing measurements. Finally, we discuss several instrumental systematics and how they fit into this context, and conclude with some future perspective on how progress can be made in understanding the impact of instrumental systematics on weak lensing measurements

  12. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The ...

  13. Extreme depth-of-field intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kenneth M.

    1996-05-01

    A new technology brings the full aperture single vision pseudophakic eye's effective hyperfocal distance within the half-meter range. A modulated index IOL containing a subsurface zeroth order coherent microlenticular mosaic defined by an index gradient adds a normalizing function to the vergences or parallactic angles of incoming light rays subtended from field object points and redirects them, in the case of near-field images, to that of far-field images. Along with a scalar reduction of the IOL's linear focal range, this results in an extreme depth of field with a narrow depth of focus and avoids the focal split-up, halo, and inherent reduction in contrast of multifocal IOLs. A high microlenticular spatial frequency, which, while still retaining an anisotropic medium, results in a nearly total zeroth order propagation throughout the visible spectrum. The curved lens surfaces still provide most of the refractive power of the IOL, and the unique holographic fabrication technology is especially suitable not only for IOLs but also for contact lenses, artificial corneas, and miniature lens elements for cameras and other optical devices.

  14. The Excursion Set Theory of Halo Mass Functions, Halo Clustering, and Halo Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentner, Andrew R.

    I review the excursion set theory with particular attention toward applications to cold dark matter halo formation and growth, halo abundance, and halo clustering. After a brief introduction to notation and conventions, I begin by recounting the heuristic argument leading to the mass function of bound objects given by Press and Schechter. I then review the more formal derivation of the Press-Schechter halo mass function that makes use of excursion sets of the density field. The excursion set formalism is powerful and can be applied to numerous other problems. I review the excursion set formalism for describing both halo clustering and bias and the properties of void regions. As one of the most enduring legacies of the excursion set approach and one of its most common applications, I spend considerable time reviewing the excursion set theory of halo growth. This section of the review culminates with the description of two Monte Carlo methods for generating ensembles of halo mass accretion histories. In the last section, I emphasize that the standard excursion set approach is the result of several simplifying assumptions. Dropping these assumptions can lead to more faithful predictions and open excursion set theory to new applications. One such assumption is that the height of the barriers that define collapsed objects is a constant function of scale. I illustrate the implementation of the excursion set approach for barriers of arbitrary shape. One such application is the now well-known improvement of the excursion set mass function derived from the "moving" barrier for ellipsoidal collapse. I also emphasize that the statement that halo accretion histories are independent of halo environment in the excursion set approach is not a general prediction of the theory. It is a simplifying assumption. I review the method for constructing correlated random walks of the density field in the more general case. I construct a simple toy model to illustrate that excursion set

  15. Weak lensing of the Lyman α forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Rupert A. C.; Romeo, Alessandro; Metcalf, R. Benton

    2018-06-01

    The angular positions of quasars are deflected by the gravitational lensing effect of foreground matter. The Lyman α (Lyα) forest seen in the spectra of these quasars is therefore also lensed. We propose that the signature of weak gravitational lensing of the Lyα forest could be measured using similar techniques that have been applied to the lensed cosmic microwave background (CMB), and which have also been proposed for application to spectral data from 21-cm radio telescopes. As with 21-cm data, the forest has the advantage of spectral information, potentially yielding many lensed `slices' at different redshifts. We perform an illustrative idealized test, generating a high-resolution angular grid of quasars (of order arcminute separation), and lensing the Lyα forest spectra at redshifts z = 2-3 using a foreground density field. We find that standard quadratic estimators can be used to reconstruct images of the foreground mass distribution at z ˜ 1. There currently exists a wealth of Lyα forest data from quasar and galaxy spectral surveys, with smaller sightline separations expected in the future. Lyα forest lensing is sensitive to the foreground mass distribution at redshifts intermediate between CMB lensing and galaxy shear, and avoids the difficulties of shape measurement associated with the latter. With further refinement and application of mass reconstruction techniques, weak gravitational lensing of the high-redshift Lyα forest may become a useful new cosmological probe.

  16. Full-sky formulae for weak lensing power spectra from total angular momentum method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Taruya, Atsushi; Namikawa, Toshiya

    2013-01-01

    We systematically derive full-sky formulae for the weak lensing power spectra generated by scalar, vector and tensor perturbations from the total angular momentum (TAM) method. Based on both the geodesic and geodesic deviation equations, we first give the gauge-invariant expressions for the deflection angle and Jacobi map as observables of the CMB lensing and cosmic shear experiments. We then apply the TAM method, originally developed in the theoretical studies of CMB, to a systematic derivation of the angular power spectra. The TAM representation, which characterizes the total angular dependence of the spatial modes projected along a line-of-sight, can carry all the information of the lensing modes generated by scalar, vector, and tensor metric perturbations. This greatly simplifies the calculation, and we present a complete set of the full-sky formulae for angular power spectra in both the E-/B-mode cosmic shear and gradient-/curl-mode lensing potential of deflection angle. Based on the formulae, we give illustrative examples of non-vanishing B-mode cosmic shear and curl-mode of deflection angle in the presence of the vector and tensor perturbations, and explicitly compute the power spectra

  17. Hyolaryngeal excursion as the physiological source of swallowing accelerometry signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoratto, D C B; Chau, T; Steele, C M

    2010-01-01

    Swallowing dysfunction, or dysphagia, is a serious condition that can result from any structural or neurological impairment (such as stroke, neurodegenerative disease or brain injury) that affects the swallowing mechanism. The gold-standard method of instrumental swallowing assessment is an x-ray examination known as the videofluoroscopic swallowing study, which involves radiation exposure. Consequently, there is interest in exploring the potential of less invasive methods, with lesser risks of biohazard, to accurately detect swallowing abnormalities. Accelerometry is one such technique, which measures the epidermal vibration signals on a patient's neck during swallowing. Determining the utility of accelerometry signals for detecting dysphagia requires an understanding of the physiological source of the vibrations that are measured on the neck during swallowing. The purpose of the current study was to determine the extent to which movement of the hyoid bone and larynx contributes to the vibration signal that is registered during swallowing accelerometry. This question was explored by mapping the movement trajectories of the hyoid bone and the arytenoid cartilages from lateral videofluoroscopy recordings collected during thin liquid swallowing, and comparing these trajectories to time-linked signals obtained from a dual-axis accelerometer placed on the neck, just anterior to the cricoid cartilage. Participants for this study included 43 adult patients referred for videofluoroscopic swallowing studies to characterize the nature and severity of suspected neurogenic dysphagia. A software program was created to allow frame-by-frame tracking of structural movement on the videofluoroscopy recordings. These movement data were then compared to the integrated acceleration data using multiple linear regressions. The results concur with previous studies, implicating hyolaryngeal excursion as the primary physiological source of swallowing accelerometry signals, with both

  18. Multi-unit shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'B' consists of four 935 W CANDU units located on the east shore of Lake Huron in the province of Ontario, Canada. On July 25 and 26, 1989 three of the four operating units were shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursions initiated by a process upset in the Water Treatment Plant that provides demineralized make-up water to all four units. The chemicals that escaped from an ion exchange vessel during a routine regeneration very quickly spread through the condensate make-up system and into the boiler feedwater systems. This resulted in boiler sulfate levels exceeding shutdown limits. A total of 260 GWH of electrical generation was unexpectedly made unavailable to the grid at a time of peak seasonal demand. This event exposed several unforeseen deficiencies and vulnerabilities in the automatic demineralized water make-up quality protection scheme, system designs, operating procedures and the ability of operating personnel to recognize and appropriately respond to such an event. The combination of these factors contributed towards turning a minor system upset into a major multi-unit shutdown. This paper provides the details of the actual event initiation in the Water Treatment Plant and describes the sequence of events that led to the eventual shutdown of three units and near shutdown of the fourth. The design inadequacies, procedural deficiencies and operating personnel responses and difficulties are described. The process of recovering from this event, the flushing out of system piping, boilers and the feedwater train is covered as well as our experiences with setting up supplemental demineralized water supplies including trucking in water and the use of rental trailer mounted demineralizing systems. System design, procedural and operational changes that have been made and that are still being worked on in response to this event are described. The latest evidence of the effect of this event on boiler tube

  19. Spatial and temporal patterns of subtidal and intertidal crabs excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. C. F.; Boaventura, D. M.; Thompson, R. C.; Hawkins, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Highly mobile predators such as fish and crabs are known to migrate from the subtidal zone to forage in the intertidal zone at high-tide. The extent and variation of these habitat linking movements along the vertical shore gradient have not been examined before for several species simultaneously, hence not accounting for species interactions. Here, the foraging excursions of Carcinus maenas (L.), Necora puber (Linnaeus, 1767) and Cancer pagurus (Linnaeus, 1758) were assessed in a one-year mark-recapture study on two replicated rocky shores in southwest U.K. A comparison between the abundance of individuals present on the shore at high-tide with those present in refuges exposed at low-tide indicated considerable intertidal migration by all species, showing strong linkage between subtidal and intertidal habitats. Estimates of population size based on recapture of marked individuals indicated that an average of ~ 4000 individuals combined for the three crab species, can be present on the shore during one tidal cycle. There was also a high fidelity of individuals and species to particular shore levels. Underlying mechanisms for these spatial patterns such as prey availability and agonistic interactions are discussed. Survival rates were estimated using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model from multi-recapture analysis and found to be considerably high with a minimum of 30% for all species. Growth rates were found to vary intraspecifically with size and between seasons. Understanding the temporal and spatial variations in predation pressure by crabs on rocky shores is dependent on knowing who, when and how many of these commercially important crab species depend on intertidal foraging. Previous studies have shown that the diet of these species is strongly based on intertidal prey including key species such as limpets; hence intertidal crab migration could be associated with considerable impacts on intertidal assemblages.

  20. The Scales of Gravitational Lensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco De Paolis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available After exactly a century since the formulation of the general theory of relativity, the phenomenon of gravitational lensing is still an extremely powerful method for investigating in astrophysics and cosmology. Indeed, it is adopted to study the distribution of the stellar component in the Milky Way, to study dark matter and dark energy on very large scales and even to discover exoplanets. Moreover, thanks to technological developments, it will allow the measure of the physical parameters (mass, angular momentum and electric charge of supermassive black holes in the center of ours and nearby galaxies.

  1. Maximum Acceptable Vibrato Excursion as a Function of Vibrato Rate in Musicians and Non-musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien; Pontoppidan, Niels H.

    2014-01-01

    and, in most listeners, exhibited a peak at medium vibrato rates (5–7 Hz). Large across-subject variability was observed, and no significant effect of musical experience was found. Overall, most listeners were not solely sensitive to the vibrato excursion and there was a listener-dependent rate...... for which larger vibrato excursions were favored. The observed interaction between maximum excursion thresholds and vibrato rate may be due to the listeners’ judgments relying on cues provided by the rate of frequency changes (RFC) rather than excursion per se. Further studies are needed to evaluate......Human vibrato is mainly characterized by two parameters: vibrato extent and vibrato rate. These parameters have been found to exhibit an interaction both in physical recordings of singers’ voices and in listener’s preference ratings. This study was concerned with the way in which the maximum...

  2. Further development and verification of the calculating programme Felix for the simulation of criticality excursions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.; Denk, W.

    1985-01-01

    An improved version of the FELIX programme was applied to varify excursion experiments 01, 03 through 07, and 13. The correspondence of experiments and verification was good. Programme points to be further developed are shown. (orig.) [de

  3. Sedimentary and Volcanic Records of the Laschamp and Mono Lake Excursions from Australia and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, E. M.; Roberts, A. P.; Turner, G. M.; Heslop, D.; Ronge, T.; Conway, C.; Leonard, G.; Townsend, D.; Tiedemann, R.; Lamy, F.; Calvert, A. T.

    2014-12-01

    Geomagnetic excursions are short-lived deviations of the geomagnetic field from the normal range of secular variation. Despite significant advances in geomagnetic excursion research over the past 20 years, fundamental questions remain concerning the typical duration and global morphology of excursional geomagnetic fields. To answer such questions, more high-resolution, chronologically well-constrained excursion records are required, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere. We present preliminary paleomagnetic records of the Laschamp (~41 ka) and Mono Lake (~35 ka) excursions from three marine sediment cores from the Bounty Trough, New Zealand margin, and complementary volcanic records of the Laschamp excursion from lavas of Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand. Relatively high sedimentation rates of 12 - 26 cm/kyr in the Bounty Trough during glacial periods allow identification of excursional field behavior at each of the studied core locations. Each core displays one or two excursional events, with rapid directional swings between stable normal polarity and reversed excursional directions, each associated with coincident relative paleointensity minima. These anomalous paleomagnetic directions are interpreted to represent the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions, based on a combination of tephrochronology, radiocarbon dating, and cyclostratigraphy (defined from core-scanning X-ray fluorescence and magnetic susceptibility records). Beside these records, we present results from fourteen lava flows, on Mt Ruapehu, for which 40Ar-39Ar dating indicates ages of between 39 and 45 ka. The step heating 40Ar-39Ar experiments produced particularly flat age plateaus, with corresponding 2 s.d. errors mostly approaching 1 kyr. The youngest and oldest flows carry normal polarity magnetization, however six flows, dated between 41 and 43 ka, display transitional field characteristics. Three of these flows display a declination swing of around 180o, which coincides with a previously published

  4. Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.; Nilsson, B.

    2012-01-01

    Tills dominate large parts of the superficial sediments on the Northern hemisphere. These glacial diamictons are extremely heterogeneous and riddled with fractures and lenses of sand or gravel. The frequency and geometry of sand lenses within tills are strongly linked to glaciodynamic processes...

  5. Planck 2015 results: XV. Gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40σ), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator, we detect lensing at a significance of 5σ. We...

  6. Lenses and Perception: Investigations with Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Hakan

    2005-01-01

    The main goals of these activities are to help students learn how a convex lens can serve as a magnifying lens and how light travels and creates images. These explorations will introduce middle school students to different types of lenses and how they work. Students will observe and describe how lenses bend light that passes through them and how…

  7. BAYESIAN INFERENCE OF CMB GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderes, Ethan [Department of Statistics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Lavaux, Guilhem [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06 and CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014, Paris (France)

    2015-08-01

    The Planck satellite, along with several ground-based telescopes, has mapped the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at sufficient resolution and signal-to-noise so as to allow a detection of the subtle distortions due to the gravitational influence of the intervening matter distribution. A natural modeling approach is to write a Bayesian hierarchical model for the lensed CMB in terms of the unlensed CMB and the lensing potential. So far there has been no feasible algorithm for inferring the posterior distribution of the lensing potential from the lensed CMB map. We propose a solution that allows efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling from the joint posterior of the lensing potential and the unlensed CMB map using the Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. The main conceptual step in the solution is a re-parameterization of CMB lensing in terms of the lensed CMB and the “inverse lensing” potential. We demonstrate a fast implementation on simulated data, including noise and a sky cut, that uses a further acceleration based on a very mild approximation of the inverse lensing potential. We find that the resulting Markov Chain has short correlation lengths and excellent convergence properties, making it promising for applications to high-resolution CMB data sets in the future.

  8. Electron beams, lenses, and optics. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kareh, A.B.; El-Kareh, J.C.J.

    1970-01-01

    This book treats the ideal case where all lenses are assumed to be free from errors. It presents a thorough mathematical analysis of the electrostatic immersion lens, both symmetrical and asymetrical, and covers the einzel lens and the symmetrical magnetic lens in detail. The authors have obtained data on these lenses by means of a digital computer and present them in tabular form

  9. Halo mass and weak galaxy-galaxy lensing profiles in rescaled cosmological N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneby, Malin; Hilbert, Stefan; Angulo, Raúl E.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate 3D density and weak lensing profiles of dark matter haloes predicted by a cosmology-rescaling algorithm for N-body simulations. We extend the rescaling method of Angulo & White (2010) and Angulo & Hilbert (2015) to improve its performance on intra-halo scales by using models for the concentration-mass-redshift relation based on excursion set theory. The accuracy of the method is tested with numerical simulations carried out with different cosmological parameters. We find that predictions for median density profiles are more accurate than ˜5 % for haloes with masses of 1012.0 - 1014.5h-1 M⊙ for radii 0.05 baryons, are likely required for interpreting future (dark energy task force stage IV) experiments.

  10. Optical performance of random anti-reflection structured surfaces (rARSS) on spherical lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Courtney D.

    Random anti-reflection structured surfaces (rARSS) have been reported to improve transmittance of optical-grade fused silica planar substrates to values greater than 99%. These textures are fabricated directly on the substrates using reactive-ion/inductively-coupled plasma etching (RIE/ICP) techniques, and often result in transmitted spectra with no measurable interference effects (fringes) for a wide range of wavelengths. The RIE/ICP processes used in the fabrication process to etch the rARSS is anisotropic and thus well suited for planar components. The improvement in spectral transmission has been found to be independent of optical incidence angles for values from 0° to +/-30°. Qualifying and quantifying the rARSS performance on curved substrates, such as convex lenses, is required to optimize the fabrication of the desired AR effect on optical-power elements. In this work, rARSS was fabricated on fused silica plano-convex (PCX) and plano-concave (PCV) lenses using a planar-substrate optimized RIE process to maximize optical transmission in the range from 500 to 1100 nm. An additional set of lenses were etched in a non-optimized ICP process to provide additional comparisons. Results are presented from optical transmission and beam propagation tests (optimized lenses only) of rARSS lenses for both TE and TM incident polarizations at a wavelength of 633 nm and over a 70° full field of view in both singlet and doublet configurations. These results suggest optimization of the fabrication process is not required, mainly due to the wide angle-of-incidence AR tolerance performance of the rARSS lenses. Non-optimized recipe lenses showed low transmission enhancement, and confirmed the need to optimized etch recipes prior to process transfer of PCX/PCV lenses. Beam propagation tests indicated no major beam degradation through the optimized lens elements. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirmed different structure between optimized and non-optimized samples

  11. Solutions for care of silicone hydrogel lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Mark D P

    2013-01-01

    During wear of contact lenses on a daily wear basis, it is necessary to disinfect the lens overnight before reinserting the lens the next day. The ability of the solutions used for this to disinfect lenses and lens cases is important for safe lens wear. The literature on the disinfecting ability of multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPDS) commonly used with silicone hydrogel lenses reported during the period 2000 to 2012 is reviewed, as this is the period of time during which these lenses have been commercially available. Particular emphasis is placed on the ability of disinfecting solutions to control colonization of lens cases by microbes and changes in composition and use of the solutions. In addition, the literature is reviewed on ways of minimizing lens case microbial contamination. Maintaining the hygiene of contact lenses and lens cases is important in minimizing various forms of corneal infiltrative events that occur during lens wear. Although lens case contamination is not associated with different lenses, it is determined by use of different MPDS. MPDS that allow more frequent or heavy contamination of cases by Gram-negative bacteria are associated with a higher incidence of corneal infiltrative events. MPDS are now available that contain dual disinfectants. Wiping lens cases with tissues or using lens cases that incorporate silver are associated with reductions in contamination in clinical trials. Similarly, using MPDS to rub and rinse lenses before disinfection may reduce levels of microbes on lenses. The MPDS also contain surfactants that help reduce deposition and denaturation of proteins on lenses. Improvements in MPDS formulations and hygiene practices may help to reduce the incidence of adverse events that are seen during use with silicone hydrogel lenses.

  12. Strong gravitational lensing in f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campigotto, M.C.; Diaferio, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125, Torino (Italy); Hernandez, X. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad de Mexico 04510 (Mexico); Fatibene, L., E-mail: martacostanza.campigotto@to.infn.it, E-mail: antonaldo.diaferio@unito.it, E-mail: xavier@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: lorenzo.fatibene@unito.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Torino, Via C. Alberto 10, 10123, Torino (Italy)

    2017-06-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of gravitational lensing in the purely metric f (χ) gravity, an f ( R ) gravity where the action of the gravitational field depends on the source mass. We focus on the strong lensing regime in galaxy-galaxy lens systems and in clusters of galaxies. By adopting point-like lenses and using an approximate metric solution accurate to second order of the velocity field v / c , we show how, in the f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} gravity, the same light deflection can be produced by lenses with masses smaller than in General Relativity (GR); this mass difference increases with increasing impact parameter and decreasing lens mass. However, for sufficiently massive point-like lenses and small impact parameters, f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} and GR yield indistinguishable light deflection angles: this regime occurs both in observed galaxy-galaxy lens systems and in the central regions of galaxy clusters. In the former systems, the GR and f (χ) masses are compatible with the mass of standard stellar populations and little or no dark matter, whereas, on the scales of the core of galaxy clusters, the presence of substantial dark matter is required by our point-like lenses both in GR and in our approximate f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} solution. We thus conclude that our approximate metric solution of f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} is unable to describe the observed phenomenology of the strong lensing regime without the aid of dark matter.

  13. On the Contribution of Large-Scale Structure to Strong Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, C.; Kneib, J.-P.; Hilbert, S.; Massey, R.; Covone, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Leauthaud, A.; Taylor, J. E.; Pires, S.; Scoville, N.; Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2009-04-01

    We study the correlation between the locations of galaxy-galaxy strong-lensing candidates and tracers of large-scale structure from both weak lensing (WL) or X-ray emission. The Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS) is a unique data set, combining deep, high resolution and contiguous imaging in which strong lenses have been discovered, plus unparalleled multiwavelength coverage. To help interpret the COSMOS data, we have also produced mock COSMOS strong- and WL observations, based on ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation. In agreement with the simulations, we find that strongly lensed images with the largest angular separations are found in the densest regions of the COSMOS field. This is explained by a prevalence among the lens population in dense environments of elliptical galaxies with high total-to-stellar mass ratios, which can deflect light through larger angles. However, we also find that the overall fraction of elliptical galaxies with strong gravitational lensing is independent of the local mass density; this observation is not true of the simulations, which predict an increasing fraction of strong lenses in dense environments. The discrepancy may be a real effect, but could also be explained by various limitations of our analysis. For example, our visual search of strong lens systems could be incomplete and suffer from selection bias; the luminosity function of elliptical galaxies may differ between our real and simulated data; or the simplifying assumptions and approximations used in our lensing simulations may be inadequate. Work is therefore ongoing. Automated searches for strong lens systems will be particularly important in better constraining the selection function.

  14. Influence of day and night wear on surface properties of silicone hydrogel contact lenses and bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeltfoort, Pit B J; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; de Vries, Joop; Bruinsma, Gerda M; Busscher, Henk J; van der Linden, Matthijs L; Hooymans, Johanna M M; van der Mei, Henny C

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of continuous wear on physicochemical surface properties of silicone hydrogel (S-H) lenses and their susceptibility to bacterial adhesion. In this study, volunteers wore 2 pairs of either "lotrafilcon A" or "balafilcon A" S-H contact lenses. The first pair was worn continuously for a week and the second pair for 4 weeks. One lens of each pair was used for surface characterization and the other one for bacterial adhesion experiments. Lens surfaces were characterized by examination of their wettability, roughness, elemental composition, and proteins attached to their surfaces. Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus 835 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa #3 to a lens was studied using a parallel plate flow chamber. Before use, the lotrafilcon A lens was rougher than the balafilcon A lens and had a lower water contact angle and a higher affinity for S. aureus 835. After wear, both lens types had similar water contact angles, whereas the differences in elemental surface composition decreased as well. S. aureus 835 adhered in higher numbers to worn balafilcon A lenses, whereas the opposite was seen for P. aeruginosa #3. The initial deposition rates of both bacterial strains to lotrafilcon A lenses decreased by wearing and were found to correlate significant (P lenses. In this study, the differences in surface properties between 2 types of S-H lenses were found to change after 1 week of continuous wear. Generally, bacteria adhered in lower numbers and less tenaciously to worn lenses, except S. aureus 835, adhering in higher numbers to worn balafilcon A lenses.

  15. An End of Service Life Assessment of PMMA Lenses from Veteran Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C.; Khonkar, Hussameldin I.; Herrero, Rebecca; Anton, Ignacio; Johnson, David K.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Deutch, Steve; To, Bobby; Sala, Gabriel; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2017-03-21

    The optical performance of poly(methyl methacrylate) lenses from veteran concentrator photovoltaic modules was examined after the end of their service life. Lenses from the Martin-Marietta and Intersol module designs were examined from the 'Solar Village' site near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, as well as the Phoenix Sky Harbor airport, followed by the Arizona Public Service Solar Test and Research (APS-STaR) center in Tempe, Arizona. The various lens specimens were deployed for 20, 27, and 22 years, respectively. Optical characterizations included lens efficiency (Solar Simulator instrument), material transmittance and haze (of coupons cut from veteran lenses, then measured again after their faceted back surface was polished, and then measured again after the incident front surface was polished), and direct transmittance (as a function of detector's acceptance angle, using the Very Low Angular Beam Spread ('VLABS') instrument). Lens efficiency measurements compared the central region to the entire lens, also using hot and cold mirror measurements to diagnose differences in performance. A series of subsequent characterizations was performed because a decrease in performance of greater than 10% was observed for some of the veteran lenses. Surface roughness was examined using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Facet geometry (tip and valley radius) was quantified on cross-sectioned specimens. Molecular weight was compared between the incident and faceted surfaces of the lenses.

  16. Evaluation of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measured with cardiac MRI in children with tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soslow, Jonathan H; Usoro, Emem; Wang, Li; Parra, David A

    2016-04-01

    Aneurysmal dilation of the right ventricular outflow tract complicates assessment of right ventricular function in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion is commonly used to estimate ejection fraction. We hypothesised that tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measured by cardiac MRI approximates global and segmental right ventricular function, specifically right ventricular sinus ejection fraction, in children with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was measured retrospectively on cardiac MRIs in 54 patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Values were compared with right ventricular global, sinus, and infundibular ejection fractions. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was indexed to body surface area, converted into a fractional value, and converted into published paediatric Z-scores. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measurements had good agreement between observers. Right ventricular ejection fraction did not correlate with the absolute or indexed tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and correlated weakly with fractional tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (r=0.41 and p=0.002). Segmental right ventricular function did not appreciably improve correlation with any of the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measures. Paediatric Z-scores were unable to differentiate patients with normal and abnormal right ventricular function. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measured by cardiac MRI correlates poorly with global and segmental right ventricular ejection fraction in children with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion is an unreliable approximation of right ventricular function in this patient population.

  17. Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to contact lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examined the interactions of P. aeruginosa with hydrogel contact lenses and other substrata, and characterize adherence to lenses under various physiological and physicochemical conditions. Isolates adhered to polystyrene, glass, and hydrogel lenses. With certain lens types, radiolabeled cells showed decreased adherence with increasing water content of the lenses, however, this correlation with not found for all lenses. Adherence to rigid gas permeable lenses was markedly greater than adherence to hydrogels. Best adherence occurred near pH 7 and at a sodium chloride concentration of 50 mM. Passive adhesion of heat-killed cells to hydrogels was lower than the adherence obtained of viable cells. Adherence to hydrogels was enhanced by mucin, lactoferrin, lysozyme, IgA, bovine serum albumin, and a mixture of these macromolecules. Adherence to coated and uncoated lenses was greater with a daily-wear hydrogel when compared with an extended-wear hydrogel of similar polymer composition. Greater adherence was attributed to a higher concentration of adsorbed macromolecules on the 45% water-content lens in comparison to the 55% water-content lens

  18. Investigations of Galaxy Clusters Using Gravitational Lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Matthew P. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2014-08-01

    In this dissertation, we discuss the properties of galaxy clusters that have been determined using strong and weak gravitational lensing. A galaxy cluster is a collection of galaxies that are bound together by the force of gravity, while gravitational lensing is the bending of light by gravity. Strong lensing is the formation of arcs or rings of light surrounding clusters and weak lensing is a change in the apparent shapes of many galaxies. In this work we examine the properties of several samples of galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing. In Chapter 1 we introduce astrophysical theory of galaxy clusters and gravitational lensing. In Chapter 2 we examine evidence from our data that galaxy clusters are more concentrated than cosmology would predict. In Chapter 3 we investigate whether our assumptions about the number of galaxies in our clusters was valid by examining new data. In Chapter 4 we describe a determination of a relationship between mass and number of galaxies in a cluster at higher redshift than has been found before. In Chapter 5 we describe a model of the mass distribution in one of the ten lensing systems discovered by our group at Fermilab. Finally in Chapter 6 we summarize our conclusions.

  19. Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boye, Pit

    2010-02-05

    This thesis is concerned with the optimization and development of the production of nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses. These optics made of either silicon or diamond are well-suited for high resolution X-ray microscopy. The goal of this work is the design of a reproducible manufacturing process which allows the production of silicon lenses with high precision, high quality and high piece number. Furthermore a process for the production of diamond lenses is to be developed and established. In this work, the theoretical basics of X-rays and their interaction with matter are described. Especially, aspects of synchrotron radiation are emphasized. Important in X-ray microscopy are the different optics. The details, advantages and disadvantages, in particular those of refractive lenses are given. To achieve small X-ray beams well beyond the 100 nm range a small focal length is required. This is achieved in refractive lenses by moving to a compact lens design where several single lenses are stacked behind each other. The, so-called nanofocusing refractive lenses (NFLs) have a parabolic cylindrical shape with lateral structure sizes in the micrometer range. NFLs are produced by using micro-machining techniques. These micro-fabrication processes and technologies are introduced. The results of the optimization and the final fabrication process for silicon lenses are presented. Subsequently, two experiments that are exemplary for the use of NFLs, are introduced. The rst one employs a high-resolution scanning fluorescence mapping of a geological sample, and the second one is a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiment. CXDI is able to reconstruct the illuminated object from recorded coherent diffraction patterns. In a scanning mode, referred to as ptychography, this method is even able to reconstruct the illumination and the object simultaneously. Especially the reconstructed illumination and the possibility of computed propagation of the wave field along the

  20. Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye, Pit

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the optimization and development of the production of nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses. These optics made of either silicon or diamond are well-suited for high resolution X-ray microscopy. The goal of this work is the design of a reproducible manufacturing process which allows the production of silicon lenses with high precision, high quality and high piece number. Furthermore a process for the production of diamond lenses is to be developed and established. In this work, the theoretical basics of X-rays and their interaction with matter are described. Especially, aspects of synchrotron radiation are emphasized. Important in X-ray microscopy are the different optics. The details, advantages and disadvantages, in particular those of refractive lenses are given. To achieve small X-ray beams well beyond the 100 nm range a small focal length is required. This is achieved in refractive lenses by moving to a compact lens design where several single lenses are stacked behind each other. The, so-called nanofocusing refractive lenses (NFLs) have a parabolic cylindrical shape with lateral structure sizes in the micrometer range. NFLs are produced by using micro-machining techniques. These micro-fabrication processes and technologies are introduced. The results of the optimization and the final fabrication process for silicon lenses are presented. Subsequently, two experiments that are exemplary for the use of NFLs, are introduced. The rst one employs a high-resolution scanning fluorescence mapping of a geological sample, and the second one is a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiment. CXDI is able to reconstruct the illuminated object from recorded coherent diffraction patterns. In a scanning mode, referred to as ptychography, this method is even able to reconstruct the illumination and the object simultaneously. Especially the reconstructed illumination and the possibility of computed propagation of the wave field along the

  1. Comparison of clinical utility between diaphragm excursion and thickening change using ultrasonography to predict extubation success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jung-Wan; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Jong Deog; Kim, Ho Cheol

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aims Both diaphragmatic excursion and change in muscle thickening are measured using ultrasonography (US) to assess diaphragm function and mechanical ventilation weaning outcomes. However, which parameter can better predict successful extubation remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical utility of these two diaphragmatic parameters to predict extubation success. Methods This study included patients subjected to extubation trial in the medical or surgical intensive care unit of a university-affiliated hospital from May 2015 through February 2016. Diaphragm excursion and percent of thickening change (Δtdi%) were measured using US within 24 hours before extubation. Results Sixty patients were included, and 78.3% (47/60) of these patients were successfully extubated, whereas 21.7% (13/60) were not. The median degree of excursion was greater in patients with extubation success than in those with extubation failure (1.65 cm vs. 0.8 cm, p success had a greater Δtdi% than those with extubation failure (42.1% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.03). The areas under the receiver operating curve for excursion and Δtdi% were 0.836 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.717 to 0.919) and 0.698 (95% CI, 0.566 to 0.810), respectively (p = 0.017). Conclusions Diaphragm excursion seems more accurate than a change in the diaphragm thickness to predict extubation success. PMID:29050461

  2. Nanofocusing Parabolic Refractive X-Ray Lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, C.G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Hunger, U.T.; Guenzler, T.F.; Kurapova, O.; Feste, S.; Lengeler, B.; Drakopoulos, M.; Somogyi, A.; Simionovici, A. S.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.

    2004-01-01

    Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses with short focal distance can generate intensive hard x-ray microbeams with lateral extensions in the 100nm range even at short distance from a synchrotron radiation source. We have fabricated planar parabolic lenses made of silicon that have a focal distance in the range of a few millimeters at hard x-ray energies. In a crossed geometry, two lenses were used to generate a microbeam with a lateral size of 330nm by 110nm at 25keV in a distance of 41.8m from the synchrotron radiation source. First microdiffraction and fluorescence microtomography experiments were carried out with these lenses. Using diamond as lens material, microbeams with lateral size down to 20nm and below are conceivable in the energy range from 10 to 100keV

  3. Strong deflection lensing by charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Sendra, Carlos M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-11-15

    We examine a class of charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity as gravitational lenses. We find the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to the Reissner-Norstroem spacetime and we analyze the observational aspects in the case of the Galactic supermassive black hole. (orig.)

  4. Null Geodesics and Strong Field Gravitational Lensing in a String Cloud Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, Sehrish; Sharif, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to studying two interesting issues of a black hole with string cloud background. Firstly, we investigate null geodesics and find unstable orbital motion of particles. Secondly, we calculate deflection angle in strong field limit. We then find positions, magnifications, and observables of relativistic images for supermassive black hole at the galactic center. We conclude that string parameter highly affects the lensing process and results turn out to be quite different from the Schwarzschild black hole

  5. On the joint distribution of excursion duration and amplitude of a narrow-band Gaussian process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghane, Mahdi; Gao, Zhen; Blanke, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    of amplitude and period are limited to excursion through a mean-level or to describe the asymptotic behavior of high level excursions. This paper extends the knowledge by presenting a theoretical derivation of probability of wave exceedance amplitude and duration, for a narrow-band Gaussian process......The probability density of crest amplitude and of duration of exceeding a given level are used in many theoretical and practical problems in engineering. The joint density is essential for design of constructions that are subjected to waves and wind. The presently available joint distributions...... distribution, as expected, and that the marginal distribution of excursion duration works both for asymptotic and non-asymptotic cases. The suggested model is found to be a good replacement for the empirical distributions that are widely used. Results from simulations of narrow-band Gaussian processes, real...

  6. Revised Unfilling Procedure for Solid Lithium Lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveling, A.

    2003-01-01

    A procedure for unfilling used lithium lenses to has been described in Pbar Note 664. To date, the procedure has been used to disassemble lenses 20, 21, 17, 18, and 16. As a result of this work, some parts of the original procedure were found to be time consuming and ineffective. Modifications to the original procedure have been made to streamline the process and are discussed in this note. The revised procedure is included in this note.

  7. Microbial adherence to cosmetic contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Yin; Cho, Pauline; Boost, Maureen

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether cosmetic contact lenses (CCL) with surface pigments affect microbial adherence. Fifteen brands of CCL were purchased from optical, non-optical retail outlets, and via the Internet. A standardized rub-off test was performed on each CCL (five lenses per brand) to confirm the location of the pigments. The rub-off test comprised gentle rubbing on the surfaces of each CCL with wetted cotton buds for a maximum of 20 rubs per surface. A new set of CCL (five lenses per brand) were incubated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa overnight. Viable counts of adhered bacteria were determined by the number of colony-forming units (CFU) on agar media on each lens. The adherence of P. aeruginosa as well as Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens to three brands of CCL (A-C) (five lenses per brand) were also compared to their adherences on their clear counterparts. Only two of the 15 brands of CCL tested (brands B and C) had pigments that did not detach with the rub-off test. The remaining 13 brands of CCL all failed the rub-off test and these lenses showed higher P. aeruginosa adherence (8.7 × 10(5)-1.9 × 10(6) CFU/lens). Brands B and C lenses showed at least six times less bacterial adhesion than the other 13 brands. Compared to their clear counterparts, bacterial adherence to brands B and C lenses did not differ significantly, whereas brand A lenses showed significantly higher adherence. Surface pigments on CCL resulted in significantly higher bacterial adherence. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comments on the Gravitational lensing Magnification

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi, HAMANA; Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University

    1998-01-01

    We rederive a relation between gravitational lensing magnification relative to the standard Friedmann distance and one relative to the Dyer-Roeder distance by investigating the null geodesic deviation equation. We show that the relation comes from a natural consequence of the definition of the lensing magnification matrices and is not based on the averaging of the magnifications, which has conventionally been used to derive it. We therefore conclude that the relation is true for each individu...

  9. Comments on the gravitational lensing magnification

    OpenAIRE

    Hamana, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    We rederive a relation between gravitational lensing magnification relative to the standard Friedmann distance and one relative to the Dyer-Roeder distance by investigating the null geodesic deviation equation. We show that the relation comes from a natural consequence of the definition of the lensing magnification matrices and is not based on the averaging of the magnifications, which has conventionally been used to derive it. We therefore conclude that the relation is true for each individu...

  10. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The adhesion of this strain reaches maximum numbers within 1h in most in vitro studies and a biofilm has generally formed within 24 h of cells adhering to the lens surface. Physical and chemical properties of contact lens material affect bacterial adhesion. The water content of hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA)-based lenses and their iconicity affect the ability of bacteria to adhere. The higher hydrophobicity of silicone hydrogel lenses compared to HEMA-based lenses has been implicated in the higher numbers of bacteria that can adhere to their surfaces. Lens wear has different effects on bacterial adhesion, partly due to differences between wearers, responses of bacterial strains and the ability of certain tear film proteins when bound to a lens surface to kill certain types of bacteria.

  11. Predicting gravitational lensing by stellar remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alexander J.; Stefano, R. Di; Lépine, S.; Urama, J.; Pham, D.; Baker, C.

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational lensing provides a means to measure mass that does not rely on detecting and analysing light from the lens itself. Compact objects are ideal gravitational lenses, because they have relatively large masses and are dim. In this paper, we describe the prospects for predicting lensing events generated by the local population of compact objects, consisting of 250 neutron stars, five black holes, and ≈35 000 white dwarfs. By focusing on a population of nearby compact objects with measured proper motions and known distances from us, we can measure their masses by studying the characteristics of any lensing event they generate. Here, we concentrate on shifts in the position of a background source due to lensing by a foreground compact object. With Hubble Space Telescope, JWST, and Gaia, measurable centroid shifts caused by lensing are relatively frequent occurrences. We find that 30-50 detectable events per decade are expected for white dwarfs. Because relatively few neutron stars and black holes have measured distances and proper motions, it is more difficult to compute realistic rates for them. However, we show that at least one isolated neutron star has likely produced detectable events during the past several decades. This work is particularly relevant to the upcoming data releases by the Gaia mission and also to data that will be collected by JWST. Monitoring predicted microlensing events will not only help to determine the masses of compact objects, but will also potentially discover dim companions to these stellar remnants, including orbiting exoplanets.

  12. Volcanic records of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, E.; Turner, G. M.; Conway, C. E.; Heslop, D.; Roberts, A. P.; Leonard, G.; Townsend, D.; Calvert, A.

    2017-08-01

    We present palaeodirectional records of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from lavas on Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand. Fourteen lava flows on the northwestern and southern flanks of Mt Ruapehu, with 40Ar/39Ar weighted mean plateau ages that range from 46.3 ± 2.0 to 39.9 ± 1.4 ka, were studied. The youngest and older flows carry a normal polarity magnetization; however, six flows, dated between 46.3 ± 2.0 and 42.7 ± 1.8 ka, record excursional directions. Three of these flows record southerly palaeomagnetic declinations and negative inclinations that agree well with a published Laschamp record from the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF). Together, the AVF and Mt Ruapehu lavas currently represent the only volcanic records of the Laschamp excursion outside the Chaîne des Puys region, France. Thus, they make an important contribution to the global set of Laschamp excursion records. Virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) groups for the New Zealand and French records early in the excursion are compatible with a dipole-dominated field that rotated to an equatorial orientation while simultaneously decaying in strength. In contrast, younger excursional flows from France and New Zealand yield separate VGP groups, which suggest either that the field had a nondipolar morphology in this later phase, or that the VGP groups were not synchronous. 40Ar/39Ar ages for the Mt Ruapehu record are on average slightly older than published northern hemisphere ages and from the relative palaeointensity minimum in the GLOPIS sedimentary stack. Although few individual ages differ significantly at the 2σ level, the spread suggests an overall excursion duration that is longer than the currently accepted 1500 years. This age spread may result from excess Ar in magmas at the time of the eruption biasing the results to slightly older ages, or from non-synchronous excursional field behaviour at near-antipodal locations, or, possibly, a precursory phase prior to the main excursion.

  13. FELIX - a computer code for simulation of criticality excursions in liquid fissile solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmal, B.; Weber, J.

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge of characteristic parameters like evolved power fission yield during an accidental excursion is of essential importance to estimate possible radiological consequences and resulting safety hazards. The computer code 'FELIX' simulates excursion characteristics of aqueous critical assemblies: Starting out from given initial conditions the space-dependent neutron kinetic equations are solved in one-dimensional geometry. Power, fission yield, reactivity and temperature are calculated as a function of time. Reactivity-feedback includes density effects and radiolytic gas voids. Results from calculations are compared with CRAC-experiments. (orig.)

  14. The Hirnantian δ13C Positive Excursion in the Nabiullino Section (South Urals)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakupov, R. R.; Mavrinskaya, T. M.; Smoleva, I. V.

    2018-02-01

    The upper Sandbian, Katian, and Hirnantian complexes of conodonts in the upper Ordovician section of the western slope of the Southern Urals near the village of Nabiullino were studied. The δ13C positive excursion with a maximum of 3.3‰ associated with the global Hirnantian isotopic event, HICE, was fixed for the first time. This excursion shows the beginning of the Hirnantian stage in the terrigenous-carbonate section of the upper Ordovician in the Southern Urals. It coincides with the first occurrence of the Hirnantian conodont species of Gamachignathus ensifer and the conodonts of shallow-water biophacies, Aphelognathus-Ozarkodina, reflecting the global glacio-eustatic event.

  15. Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to orthokeratology and alignment lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jennifer D; Holden, Brien A; Papas, Eric B; Willcox, Mark D P

    2009-02-01

    To determine whether contact lenses designed for orthokeratology (OK) are colonized by greater numbers of bacteria compared with standard (alignment fitted) design rigid gas permeable lenses before and after lens wear. Eighteen 1-year-old cats were randomly fitted with an OK lens in one eye and an alignment fitted (AF) lens in the other eye. Both lenses were made in the same diameter and central thickness and of the same material. Two separate wearing periods of 2 weeks and 6 weeks were used. After each wearing period, lenses were soaked in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6294 or 6206) for 10 min. The lenses were then reinserted onto their respective corneas for a wearing period of 16 hours after which lenses were collected and remaining adhered bacteria quantified. Unworn control lenses were also soaked and bacteria enumerated for comparison. There were no significant differences in the number of bacteria adherent to unworn AF and OK lenses. Analysis of lenses after wear showed OK lenses retained significantly higher numbers of viable bacteria than AF lenses in all studies. OK lenses retain more bacteria than AF rigid gas permeable lenses after bacteria-loaded overnight lens wear. This may increase the risk for an infection in OK patients should suitable conditions be present. Specific education on the cleaning of OK lenses is essential.

  16. Precision cosmology with weak gravitational lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearin, Andrew P.

    In recent years, cosmological science has developed a highly predictive model for the universe on large scales that is in quantitative agreement with a wide range of astronomical observations. While the number and diversity of successes of this model provide great confidence that our general picture of cosmology is correct, numerous puzzles remain. In this dissertation, I analyze the potential of planned and near future galaxy surveys to provide new understanding of several unanswered questions in cosmology, and address some of the leading challenges to this observational program. In particular, I study an emerging technique called cosmic shear, the weak gravitational lensing produced by large scale structure. I focus on developing strategies to optimally use the cosmic shear signal observed in galaxy imaging surveys to uncover the physics of dark energy and the early universe. In chapter 1 I give an overview of a few unsolved mysteries in cosmology and I motivate weak lensing as a cosmological probe. I discuss the use of weak lensing as a test of general relativity in chapter 2 and assess the threat to such tests presented by our uncertainty in the physics of galaxy formation. Interpreting the cosmic shear signal requires knowledge of the redshift distribution of the lensed galaxies. This redshift distribution will be significantly uncertain since it must be determined photometrically. In chapter 3 I investigate the influence of photometric redshift errors on our ability to constrain dark energy models with weak lensing. The ability to study dark energy with cosmic shear is also limited by the imprecision in our understanding of the physics of gravitational collapse. In chapter 4 I present the stringent calibration requirements on this source of uncertainty. I study the potential of weak lensing to resolve a debate over a long-standing anomaly in CMB measurements in chapter 5. Finally, in chapter 6 I summarize my findings and conclude with a brief discussion of my

  17. Ultra-small-angle neutron scattering. History, developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Daisuke

    2011-01-01

    Ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS), which is a scattering method observing in a q-region of q=10 -3 nm -1 , was initiated by double crystal (Bonse-Hart) method. Recently, a focusing USANS method was developed by combining a pin-hole type spectrometer and focusing lenses. These two methods, which are complementary to each other, were employed to achieve wide q-observations on microbial cellulose, actin cytoskeleton, tire, and membrane-electrolyte assembly of fuel cell. (author)

  18. Gravitational lensing and extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X-G.; University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC; Joshi, G.C.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1999-08-01

    We study gravitational tensing and the bending of light in low energy scale (M s ) gravity theories with extra space-time dimensions 'n'. We find that due to the presence of spin-2 Kaluza-Klein states from compactification, a correction to the deflection angle with a strong quadratic dependence on the photon energy is introduced. No deviation from the Einstein General Relativity prediction for the deflection angle for photons grazing the Sun in the visible band with 15% accuracy (90% c.l.) implies that the scale M s has to be larger than 1.4(2/(n-2)) 1/4 TeV and approximately 4 TeV for n=2. This lower bound is comparable with that from collider physics constraints. Gravitational tensing experiments with higher energy photons can provide stronger constraints. (authors)

  19. Gravitationally Lensed Quasars in Gaia: II. Discovery of 24 Lensed Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Cameron A.; Auger, Matthew W.; McMahon, Richard G.; Ostrovski, Fernanda

    2018-04-01

    We report the discovery, spectroscopic confirmation and preliminary characterisation of 24 gravitationally lensed quasars identified using Gaia observations. Candidates were selected in the Pan-STARRS footprint with quasar-like WISE colours or as photometric quasars from SDSS, requiring either multiple detections in Gaia or a single Gaia detection near a morphological galaxy. The Pan-STARRS grizY images were modelled for the most promising candidates and 60 candidate systems were followed up with the William Herschel Telescope. 13 of the lenses were discovered as Gaia multiples and 10 as single Gaia detections near galaxies. We also discover 1 lens identified through a quasar emission line in an SDSS galaxy spectrum. The lenses have median image separation 2.13″ and the source redshifts range from 1.06 to 3.36. 4 systems are quadruply-imaged and 20 are doubly-imaged. Deep CFHT data reveal an Einstein ring in one double system. We also report 12 quasar pairs, 10 of which have components at the same redshift and require further follow-up to rule out the lensing hypothesis. We compare the properties of these lenses and other known lenses recovered by our search method to a complete sample of simulated lenses to show the lenses we are missing are mainly those with small separations and higher source redshifts. The initial Gaia data release only catalogues all images of ˜ 30% of known bright lensed quasars, however the improved completeness of Gaia data release 2 will help find all bright lensed quasars on the sky.

  20. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Statistics and Data » Glaucoma, Open-angle Listen Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...

  1. Relative radiosensitivity of rat lenses as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriam, G.R. Jr.; Szechter, A.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of age on the development of radiation cataracts in rat lenses has been investigated using the Columbia--Sherman rat as an experiment model. A detailed pattern of age dependence was obtained at several different dose levels. In general at dose levels from 200 to 300 rads the lens changes occurred sooner and progressed faster in the adult lenses than in young lenses. In the dose range from 300 rads to 900 rads opacities developed sooner in the young lenses but progression was faster and severe opacities developed sooner in adult lenses. Above 900 rads opacities developed sooner and progressed faster in the young lenses. (U.S.)

  2. A one night stand? Reproductive excursions of female roe deer as a breeding dispersal tactic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Debeffe, L.; Focardi, S.; Bonenfant, Ch.; Hewison, A. J. M.; Morellet, N.; Vanpé, C.; Heurich, M.; Kjellander, P.; Linnell, J. D. C.; Mysterud, A.; Pellerin, M.; Šustr, Pavel; Urbano, F.; Cagnacci, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 176, č. 2 (2014), s. 431-443 ISSN 0029-8549 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Mate choice * Inbreeding avoidance * GPS telemetry * Rut excursion * Ungulate Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.093, year: 2014

  3. Multicultural Group Work on Field Excursions to Promote Student Teachers' Intercultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Nina; Aksit, Fisun; Aksit, Selahattin; Schrüfer, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    As a response to the intercultural challenges of Geography Education, this study seeks to determine factors fostering intercultural competence of student teachers. Based on a one-week multicultural field excursion of eight German and eight Turkish students in Kayseri (Turkey) on Education for Sustainable Development, we used qualitative interviews…

  4. Study of thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a rapid power excursion on a heating channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyer, M.

    1989-01-01

    This document provides a study of power excursion phenomena and is divided into five sections. In the first chapter a summary of the principal research conducted world-wide on the thermal and hydrodynamic aspects of power excursions actualized either in the reactors or on installations outside of the pile is provided. In a second chapter, on the basis of the bibliographic study conducted previously, the characteristics and performance that an installation capable of correctly simulating a power excursion are indicated and the experimental device designed and developed is described with emphasis on the measurement methods used. In the third chapter the principal experimental results obtained, as well as their physical interpretation, are given. In the fourth chapter a simplified theoretical model that makes it possible to determine the manner of variation of the phenomena observed during our experiments is proposed, and in the fifth chapter what our study has added to the understanding of the phenomena that arise during a power excursion and the direction that the research should be continued is discussed. 38 refs., 69 figs

  5. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; Ghio, Stefano; St John Sutton, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) as a predictor of left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling and clinical benefit of cardiac synchronization therapy (CRT) and to evaluate the effect of CRT on TAPSE in patients with mildly symptomatic systol...

  6. Enabling the Development of Student Teacher Professional Identity through Vicarious Learning during an Educational Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenekamp, Karen; van der Merwe, Martyn; Mehmedova, Aygul Salieva

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the views of student teachers who were provided vicarious learning opportunities during an educational excursion, and how the learning enabled them to develop their teacher professional identity. This qualitative research study, using a social-constructivist lens highlights how vicarious learning influenced student teachers'…

  7. Traverse across the Nelspruit batholith and the geology of the excursion route between Sabie and Witbank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, L.J.; Anhaeusser, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic survey was done on the traverse across the Nelspruit batholith and the geology of the excursion route between Sabie and Witbank. Rubidium isotopes, strontium 86 and strontium 87 were used to determine the rock age. The petrogenetic aspects relating to the Nelspruit batholith were also studied

  8. Excursions in the catazonal rock complexes of the polyorogenic terrain of Cabo Ortegal (NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, D.E.

    1967-01-01

    This excursion program anticipates the publication of a PhD. thesis (Vogel, in preparation) in this periodical and is intended as a guide to those points at Cabo Ortegal, that are readily accessible, well exposed and of general petrological interest. The described localities are indicated on a small

  9. The impact of feedwater and condensate return excursions on boiler system component failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmacher, Mel J. [GE Water and Process Technologies, The Woodlands, TX (United States); Rossi, Anthony [GE Water and Process Technologies, Trevose, PA (United States)

    2010-02-15

    During boiler operation, the transport of contaminants in boiler feedwater or condensate return via hardness excursions or transport of metal oxides due to corrosion can cause fouling and subsequent tube failure due to under-deposit corrosion or overheating. Case histories are reviewed and suitable corrective actions discussed. (orig.)

  10. DESIGN OF THE MULTIORDER INTRAOCULAR LENSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kolobrodov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraocular lenses (IOLs are used to replace the natural crystalline lens of the eye. Just few basic designs of IOLs are used clinically. Multiorder diffractive lenses (MODL which operate simultaneously in several diffractive orders were proposed to decrease the chromatic aberration. Properties analysis of MODL showed a possibility to use them to develop new designs of IOLs. The purpose of this paper was to develop a new method of designing of multiorder intraocular lenses with decreased chromatic aberration. The theoretical research of the lens properties was carried out. The diffraction efficiency dependence with the change of wavelength was studied. A computer simulation of MODL in a schematic model of the human eye was carried out. It is found the capability of the multiorder diffractive lenses to focus polychromatic light into a segment on the optical axis with high diffraction efficiency. At each point of the segment is present each component of the spectral range, which will build a color image in combination. The paper describes the new design method of intraocular lenses with reduced chromaticism and with endless adaptation. An optical system of an eye with an intraocular lens that provides sharp vision of objects located at a distance of 700 mm to infinity is modeled.

  11. Plasma lenses for focusing relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, R.; Wheeler, S.; Leemans, W.

    1997-01-01

    The next generation of colliders require tightly focused beams with high luminosity. To focus charged particle beams for such applications, a plasma focusing scheme has been proposed. Plasma lenses can be overdense (plasma density, n p much greater than electron beam density, n b ) or underdense (n p less than 2 n b ). In overdense lenses the space-charge force of the electron beam is canceled by the plasma and the remaining magnetic force causes the electron beam to self-pinch. The focusing gradient is nonlinear, resulting in spherical aberrations. In underdense lenses, the self-forces of the electron beam cancel, allowing the plasma ions to focus the beam. Although for a given beam density, a uniform underdense lens produces smaller focusing gradients than an overdense lens, it produces better beam quality since the focusing is done by plasma ions. The underdense lens can be improved by tapering the density of the plasma for optimal focusing. The underdense lens performance can be enhanced further by producing adiabatic plasma lenses to avoid the Oide limit on spot size due to synchrotron radiation by the electron beam. The plasma lens experiment at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) is designed to study the properties of plasma lenses in both overdense and underdense regimes. In particular, important issues such as electron beam matching, time response of the lens, lens aberrations and shot-to-shot reproducibility are being investigated

  12. Weak lensing in generalized gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Perrotta, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    We extend the theory of weak gravitational lensing to cosmologies with generalized gravity, described in the Lagrangian by a generic function depending on the Ricci scalar and a nonminimal coupled scalar field. We work out the generalized Poisson equations relating the dynamics of the fluctuating components to the two gauge-invariant scalar gravitational potentials, fixing the contributions from the modified background expansion and fluctuations. We show how the lensing equation gets modified by the cosmic expansion as well as by the presence of anisotropic stress, which is non-null at the linear level both in scalar-tensor gravity and in theories where the gravitational Lagrangian term features a nonminimal dependence on the Ricci scalar. Starting from the geodesic deviation, we derive the generalized expressions for the shear tensor and projected lensing potential, encoding the spacetime variation of the effective gravitational constant and isolating the contribution of the anisotropic stress, which introduces a correction due to the spatial correlation between the gravitational potentials. Finally, we work out the expressions of the lensing convergence power spectrum as well as the correlation between the lensing potential and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect affecting cosmic microwave background total intensity and polarization anisotropies. To illustrate phenomenologically the effects, we work out approximate expressions for the quantities above in extended quintessence scenarios where the scalar field coupled to gravity plays the role of the dark energy

  13. Weak deflection gravitational lensing for photons coupled to Weyl tensor in a Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei-Guang; Xie, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Beyond the Einstein-Maxwell model, electromagnetic field might couple with gravitational field through the Weyl tensor. In order to provide one of the missing puzzles of the whole physical picture, we investigate weak deflection lensing for photons coupled to the Weyl tensor in a Schwarzschild black hole under a unified framework that is valid for its two possible polarizations. We obtain its coordinate-independent expressions for all observables of the geometric optics lensing up to the second order in the terms of ɛ which is the ratio of the angular gravitational radius to angular Einstein radius of the lens. These observables include bending angle, image position, magnification, centroid and time delay. The contributions of such a coupling on some astrophysical scenarios are also studied. We find that, in the cases of weak deflection lensing on a star orbiting the Galactic Center Sgr A*, Galactic microlensing on a star in the bulge and astrometric microlensing by a nearby object, these effects are beyond the current limits of technology. However, measuring the variation of the total flux of two weak deflection lensing images caused by the Sgr A* might be a promising way for testing such a coupling in the future.

  14. Glucose and triglyceride excursions following a standardized meal in individuals with diabetes: ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, Bárbara P; Luft, Vivian C; de Castilhos, Cristina D; de Cardoso, Letícia O; Schmidt, Maria I; Barreto, Sandhi M; de Sander, Maria F; Alvim, Sheila M; Duncan, Bruce B

    2015-02-13

    To assess glucose and triglyceride excursions 2 hours after the ingestion of a standardized meal and their associations with clinical characteristics and cardiovascular complications in individuals with diabetes. Blood samples of 898 subjects with diabetes were collected at fasting and 2 hours after a meal containing 455 kcal, 14 g of saturated fat and 47 g of carbohydrates. Self-reported morbidity, socio-demographic characteristics and clinical measures were obtained by interview and exams performed at the baseline visit of the ELSA-Brasil cohort study. Median (interquartile range, IQR) for fasting glucose was 150.5 (123-198) mg/dL and for fasting triglycerides 140 (103-199) mg/dL. The median excursion for glucose was 45 (15-76) mg/dL and for triglycerides 26 (11-45) mg/dL. In multiple linear regression, a greater glucose excursion was associated with higher glycated hemoglobin (10.7, 95% CI 9.1-12.3 mg/dL), duration of diabetes (4.5; 2.6-6.4 mg/dL, per 5 year increase), insulin use (44.4; 31.7-57.1 mg/dL), and age (6.1; 2.5-9.6 mg/dL, per 10 year increase); and with lower body mass index (-5.6; -8.4- -2.8 mg/dL, per 5 kg/m2 increase). In adjusted logistic regression models, a greater glucose excursion was marginally associated with the presence of cardiovascular comorbidities (coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and angina) in those with obesity. A greater postprandial glycemic response to a small meal was positively associated with indicators of a decreased capacity for insulin secretion and negatively associated with obesity. No pattern of response was observed with a greater postprandial triglyceride excursion.

  15. Evaluation of Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion Measured with Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pediatric Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soslow, Jonathan H.; Usoro, Emem; Wang, Li; Parra, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal dilation of the right ventricular outflow tract complicates assessment of right ventricular function in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion is commonly used to estimate ejection fraction. We hypothesized that tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging approximates global and segmental right ventricular function, specifically right ventricular sinus ejection fraction, in pediatric patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Methods Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was measured retrospectively on cardiac magnetic resonance images in 54 patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Values were compared with right ventricular global, sinus, and infundibular ejection fractions. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was: 1) indexed to body surface area, 2) converted into a fractional value, and 3) converted into published pediatric Z-scores. Results Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measurements had good agreement between observers. Right ventricular ejection fraction did not correlate with the absolute or indexed tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and correlated weakly with fractional tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (r=0.41 and p=0.002). Segmental right ventricular function did not appreciably improve correlation with any of the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measures. Pediatric Z-scores were unable to differentiate patients with normal and abnormal right ventricular function. Conclusions Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measured on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging correlates poorly with global and segmental right ventricular ejection fraction in pediatric patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion is an unreliable approximation of right ventricular function in this patient population. PMID:26279488

  16. The range of excursion of flexor tendons in Zone V: a comparison of active vs passive flexion mobilisation regimes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Panchal, J

    1997-10-01

    A number of early postoperative mobilisation regimes have been developed in an attempt to increase tendon excursion and gliding and thereby reduce formation of adhesions following repair of flexor tendons. Early active flexion mobilisation regimes are becoming more popular, and have replaced early passive flexion regimes in many centres. The aim of the present study was: (a) to determine the range of excursion of flexor tendons in Zone V, and (b) to compare the excursion ranges between active (Belfast) and passive (modified Duran) flexion mobilisation regimes postoperatively. This was done (a) in two cadavers, and (b) in two patients intraoperatively, and postoperatively at 10 days, 3 weeks and 6 weeks. With passive flexion, the mean tendon excursion in Zone V in cadavers was 1 mm for flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendons respectively. With simulated active flexion, the mean tendon excursion was 14 mm, 10 mm and 11 mm respectively. The mean tendon excursion in clinical cases intraoperatively following passive flexion was 2 mm for FDS, FDP and FPL respectively; following simulated active flexion it was 10 mm, 11 mm and 11 mm for FDS, FDP and FPL respectively. On the tenth day following repair, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL were 1 mm, 4 mm and 4 mm on passive flexion as compared to 3 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm on active flexion respectively. Three weeks postoperatively, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL tendons were 1 mm, 2 mm and 1 mm on passive flexion as compared to 5 mm, 15 mm on active flexion respectively. Six weeks postoperatively, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL tendons were 9 mm, 7 mm and 4 mm on passive flexion as compared to 12 mm, 33 mm and 20 mm on active flexion respectively. These results demonstrate an increased excursion of repaired flexor tendons in Zone V following an active flexion mobilisation regime as compared to a passive flexion mobilisation regime.

  17. Gravitational Lensing from a Spacetime Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlick Volker

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory of gravitational lensing is reviewed from a spacetime perspective, without quasi-Newtonian approximations. More precisely, the review covers all aspects of gravitational lensing where light propagation is described in terms of lightlike geodesics of a metric of Lorentzian signature. It includes the basic equations and the relevant techniques for calculating the position, the shape, and the brightness of images in an arbitrary general-relativistic spacetime. It also includes general theorems on the classification of caustics, on criteria for multiple imaging, and on the possible number of images. The general results are illustrated with examples of spacetimes where the lensing features can be explicitly calculated, including the Schwarzschild spacetime, the Kerr spacetime, the spacetime of a straight string, plane gravitational waves, and others.

  18. Weak lensing in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    I will present the current status of weak lensing results from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES will survey 5000 square degrees in five photometric bands (grizY), and has already provided a competitive weak lensing catalog from Science Verification data covering just 3% of the final survey footprint. I will summarize the status of shear catalog production using observations from the first year of the survey and discuss recent weak lensing science results from DES. Finally, I will report on the outlook for future cosmological analyses in DES including the two-point cosmic shear correlation function and discuss challenges that DES and future surveys will face in achieving a control of systematics that allows us to take full advantage of the available statistical power of our shear catalogs.

  19. Aberration characteristics of immersion lenses for LVSEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khursheed, Anjam

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the on-axis aberration characteristics of various immersion objective lenses for low voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM). A simple aperture lens model is used to generate smooth axial field distributions. The simulation results show that mixed field electric-magnetic immersion lenses are predicted to have between 1.5 and 2 times smaller aberration limited probe diameters than their pure-field counterparts. At a landing energy of 1 keV, mixed field immersion lenses operating at the vacuum electrical field breakdown limit are predicted to have on-axis aberration coefficients between 50 and 60 μm, yielding an ultimate image resolution of below 1 nm. These aberrations lie in the same range as those for LVSEM systems that employ aberration correctors

  20. Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, C.G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Hunger, U.T.; Guenzler, T.F.; Kurapova, O.; Feste, S.; Frehse, F.; Lengeler, B.; Drakopoulos, M.; Somogyi, A.; Simionovici, A.S.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.; Schug, C.; Schroeder, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses with short focal distance can generate intensive hard x-ray microbeams with lateral extensions in the 100 nm range even at a short distance from a synchrotron radiation source. We have fabricated planar parabolic lenses made of silicon that have a focal distance in the range of a few millimeters at hard x-ray energies. In a crossed geometry, two lenses were used to generate a microbeam with a lateral size of 380 nm by 210 nm at 25 keV in a distance of 42 m from the synchrotron radiation source. Using diamond as the lens material, microbeams with a lateral size down to 20 nm and below are conceivable in the energy range from 10 to 100 keV

  1. Soft-contact-lenses-induced complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvajac Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Soft contact lenses occupy significant place in ophthalmology, both in the correction of refraction anomalies and in the treatment of many eye diseases. The number of patients that wear soft contact lenses for the purpose of correcting ametropia is constantly increasing. Due to the increasing number of wearers, the percentage of complications that can lead to serious eye damage and serious vision loss is also increasing. The aim of this study was to point out the most common complications related to soft contact lens use. Methods. In the period from 1995−2004 this prospective study included 510 patients wearing soft contact lenses for correcting ametropia. None of the patients wore contact lenses before and none suffered from any system or local diseases that could affected the development of eventual complications. The study took seven years with the patients who wore conventional lenses and three years with those who wore replacement contact lenses. All the necessary ophthalmologic examinations were done (visual acuity, refractokeratometry, the quantity of tear film, biomicroscopic examination of anterior eye segment. All the complications were filmed by video camera. Results. Of all the patients, 19 had blepharitis, 73 suffered from “dry eye”, 57 had conjunctival hyperemia, 12 had conjunctivitis, 34 had gigantopapillary conjunctivitis (GPC, 93 had punctiform epitheliopathy, 20 had corneal infiltration, one patient had keratitis, 91 had corneal vascularisation, and 95 patients had corneal deposits. Conclusion. Both the type and frequency of complications related to soft contact lens use in our group of patients, proved to be significant. Some of this complications (keratitis can significantly damage vision and lead to loss of vision and sometimes can require operative treatment.

  2. The Mathematical Theory of Multifocal Lenses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacob RUBINSTEIN

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the fundamental optical concepts of designing multifocal ophthalmic lenses and the mathematical methods associated with them.In particular,it is shown that the design methodology is heavily based on differential geometric ideas such as Willmore surfaces.A key role is played by Hamilton's eikonal functions.It is shown that these functions capture all the information on the local blur and distortion created by the lenses.Along the way,formulas for computing the eikonal functions are derived.Finally,the author lists a few intriguing mathematical problems and novel concepts in optics as future projects.

  3. Achromatic Cooling Channel with Li Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2002-04-29

    A linear cooling channel with Li lenses, solenoids, and 201 MHz RF cavities is considered. A special lattice design is used to minimize chromatic aberrations by suppression of several betatron resonances. Transverse emittance of muon beam decreases from 2 mm to 0.5 mm at the channel of about 110 m length. Longitudinal heating is modest, therefore transmission of the channel is rather high: 96% without decay and 90% with decay. Minimal beam emittance achievable by similar channel estimated as about 0.25 mm at surface field of Li lenses 10 T.

  4. Strong gravitational lensing by a Konoplya-Zhidenko rotating non-Kerr compact object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shangyun; Chen, Songbai; Jing, Jiliang, E-mail: shangyun_wang@163.com, E-mail: csb3752@hunnu.edu.cn, E-mail: jljing@hunnu.edu.cn [Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Konoplya and Zhidenko have proposed recently a rotating non-Kerr black hole metric beyond General Relativity and make an estimate for the possible deviations from the Kerr solution with the data of GW 150914. We here study the strong gravitational lensing in such a rotating non-Kerr spacetime with an extra deformation parameter. We find that the condition of existence of horizons is not inconsistent with that of the marginally circular photon orbit. Moreover, the deflection angle of the light ray near the weakly naked singularity covered by the marginally circular orbit diverges logarithmically in the strong-field limit. In the case of the completely naked singularity, the deflection angle near the singularity tends to a certain finite value, whose sign depends on the rotation parameter and the deformation parameter. These properties of strong gravitational lensing are different from those in the Johannsen-Psaltis rotating non-Kerr spacetime and in the Janis-Newman-Winicour spacetime. Modeling the supermassive central object of the Milk Way Galaxy as a Konoplya-Zhidenko rotating non-Kerr compact object, we estimated the numerical values of observables for the strong gravitational lensing including the time delay between two relativistic images.

  5. High-speed optical signal processing using time lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Hu, Hao; Guan, Pengyu

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle.......This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle....

  6. Dynamics of Fermat potentials in nonperturbative gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frittelli, Simonetta; Newman, Ezra T.

    2002-01-01

    We present a framework, based on the null-surface formulation of general relativity, for discussing the dynamics of Fermat potentials for gravitational lensing in a generic situation without approximations of any kind. Additionally, we derive two lens equations: one for the case of thick compact lenses and the other one for lensing by gravitational waves. These equations in principle generalize the astrophysical scheme for lensing by removing the thin-lens approximation while retaining the weak fields

  7. Small angle spectrometers: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices

  8. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  9. Strong gravitational lensing by a charged Kiselev black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Engineering Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Jamil, Mubasher [National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Department of Mathematics, School of Natural Sciences (SNS), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-06-15

    We study the gravitational lensing scenario where the lens is a spherically symmetric charged black hole (BH) surrounded by quintessence matter. The null geodesic equations in the curved background of the black hole are derived. The resulting trajectory equation is solved analytically via perturbation and series methods for a special choice of parameters, and the distance of the closest approach to black hole is calculated. We also derive the lens equation giving the bending angle of light in the curved background. In the strong field approximation, the solution of the lens equation is also obtained for all values of the quintessence parameter w{sub q}. For all w{sub q}, we show that there are no stable closed null orbits and that corrections to the deflection angle for the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole when the observer and the source are at large, but finite, distances from the lens do not depend on the charge up to the inverse of the distances squared. A part of the present work, analyzed, however, with a different approach, is the extension of Younas et al. (Phys Rev D 92:084042, 2015) where the uncharged case has been treated. (orig.)

  10. The ellipticity of galaxy cluster haloes from satellite galaxies and weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Tae-hyeon; Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Bernstein, Gary; Neil, Andrew; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli

    2018-04-01

    We study the ellipticity of galaxy cluster haloes as characterized by the distribution of cluster galaxies and as measured with weak lensing. We use Monte Carlo simulations of elliptical cluster density profiles to estimate and correct for Poisson noise bias, edge bias and projection effects. We apply our methodology to 10 428 Sloan Digital Sky Survey clusters identified by the redMaPPer algorithm with richness above 20. We find a mean ellipticity =0.271 ± 0.002 (stat) ±0.031 (sys) corresponding to an axis ratio = 0.573 ± 0.002 (stat) ±0.039 (sys). We compare this ellipticity of the satellites to the halo shape, through a stacked lensing measurement using optimal estimators of the lensing quadrupole based on Clampitt and Jain (2016). We find a best-fitting axis ratio of 0.56 ± 0.09 (stat) ±0.03 (sys), consistent with the ellipticity of the satellite distribution. Thus, cluster galaxies trace the shape of the dark matter halo to within our estimated uncertainties. Finally, we restack the satellite and lensing ellipticity measurements along the major axis of the cluster central galaxy's light distribution. From the lensing measurements, we infer a misalignment angle with an root-mean-square of 30° ± 10° when stacking on the central galaxy. We discuss applications of halo shape measurements to test the effects of the baryonic gas and active galactic nucleus feedback, as well as dark matter and gravity. The major improvements in signal-to-noise ratio expected with the ongoing Dark Energy Survey and future surveys from Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Euclid, and Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope will make halo shapes a useful probe of these effects.

  11. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...

  12. A gravitationally lensed quasar discovered in OGLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Kozłowski, Szymon; Lemon, Cameron; Anguita, T.; Greiner, J.; Auger, M. W.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Apostolovski, Y.; Bolmer, J.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.

    2018-05-01

    We report the discovery of a new gravitationally lensed quasar (double) from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) identified inside the ˜670deg2 area encompassing the Magellanic Clouds. The source was selected as one of ˜60 `red W1 - W2' mid-infrared objects from WISE and having a significant amount of variability in OGLE for both two (or more) nearby sources. This is the first detection of a gravitational lens, where the discovery is made `the other way around', meaning we first measured the time delay between the two lensed quasar images of -132 Technology Telescope spectra. The spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting with the fixed source redshift provided the estimate of the lensing galaxy redshift of z ≈ 0.9 ± 0.2 (90 per cent CL), while its type is more likely to be elliptical (the SED-inferred and lens-model stellar mass is more likely present in ellipticals) than spiral (preferred redshift by the lens model).

  13. Weak lensing probes of modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Fabian

    2008-01-01

    We study the effect of modifications to general relativity on large-scale weak lensing observables. In particular, we consider three modified gravity scenarios: f(R) gravity, the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model, and tensor-vector-scalar theory. Weak lensing is sensitive to the growth of structure and the relation between matter and gravitational potentials, both of which will in general be affected by modified gravity. Restricting ourselves to linear scales, we compare the predictions for galaxy-shear and shear-shear correlations of each modified gravity cosmology to those of an effective dark energy cosmology with the same expansion history. In this way, the effects of modified gravity on the growth of perturbations are separated from the expansion history. We also propose a test which isolates the matter-potential relation from the growth factor and matter power spectrum. For all three modified gravity models, the predictions for galaxy and shear correlations will be discernible from those of dark energy with very high significance in future weak lensing surveys. Furthermore, each model predicts a measurably distinct scale dependence and redshift evolution of galaxy and shear correlations, which can be traced back to the physical foundations of each model. We show that the signal-to-noise for detecting signatures of modified gravity is much higher for weak lensing observables as compared to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, measured via the galaxy-cosmic microwave background cross-correlation.

  14. Electron beams, lenses, and optics. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kareh, A.B.; El-Kareh, J.C.J.

    1970-01-01

    This volume presents a systematic coverage of aberrations. It analyzes the geometrical aberrations and treats the spherical and chromatic aberrations in great detail. The coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration have been computed for a series of electrostatic and magnetic lenses and are listed in table form. The book also covers space charge and its effect on highly focused electron beams

  15. Quantum Spin Lenses in Atomic Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Glaetzle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose and discuss quantum spin lenses, where quantum states of delocalized spin excitations in an atomic medium are focused in space in a coherent quantum process down to (essentially single atoms. These can be employed to create controlled interactions in a quantum light-matter interface, where photonic qubits stored in an atomic ensemble are mapped to a quantum register represented by single atoms. We propose Hamiltonians for quantum spin lenses as inhomogeneous spin models on lattices, which can be realized with Rydberg atoms in 1D, 2D, and 3D, and with strings of trapped ions. We discuss both linear and nonlinear quantum spin lenses: in a nonlinear lens, repulsive spin-spin interactions lead to focusing dynamics conditional to the number of spin excitations. This allows the mapping of quantum superpositions of delocalized spin excitations to superpositions of spatial spin patterns, which can be addressed by light fields and manipulated. Finally, we propose multifocal quantum spin lenses as a way to generate and distribute entanglement between distant atoms in an atomic lattice array.

  16. Software for Fermat's Principle and Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihas, Pavlos

    2012-01-01

    Fermat's principle is considered as a unifying concept. It is usually presented erroneously as a "least time principle". In this paper we present some software that shows cases of maxima and minima and the application of Fermat's principle to the problem of focusing in lenses. (Contains 12 figures.)

  17. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  18. Tear exchange and contact lenses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntz, Alex; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Sorbara, Luigina; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Tear exchange beneath a contact lens facilitates ongoing fluid replenishment between the ocular surface and the lens. This exchange is considerably lower during the wear of soft lenses compared with rigid lenses. As a result, the accumulation of tear film debris and metabolic by-products between the cornea and a soft contact lens increases, potentially leading to complications. Lens design innovations have been proposed, but no substantial improvement in soft lens tear exchange has been reported. Researchers have determined post-lens tear exchange using several methods, notably fluorophotometry. However, due to technological limitations, little remains known about tear hydrodynamics around the lens and, to-date, true tear exchange with contact lenses has not been shown. Further knowledge regarding tear exchange could be vital in aiding better contact lens design, with the prospect of alleviating certain adverse ocular responses. This article reviews the literature to-date on the significance, implications and measurement of tear exchange with contact lenses. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiply imaged Transient Events in Cluster Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha, Delampady

    2018-04-01

    ARIES had a successful gravitational microlens project during 1998-2002. A similar monitor for Transient Events in galaxies at high redshift lensed by rich galaxy-clusters provides a challenging possibility with important cosmological implications. Rich galaxy-clusters at intermediate redshifts are powerful gravitational lenses which produce multiple images, in the shape of giant arcs of 5-20" extent, of distant background galaxies in their field. Weak lens shear of the background galaxy distribution can reliably trace the lens mass profile. Multiple images of supernovae or GRBs in the background galaxies can be recorded in a systematic monitor of the system. An unlensed high redshift supernova might not be observable, but when lensed by a galaxy-cluster, it will stand out because the point event brightens relative to the host. The color profile of a high redshift lensed point event will be much more reliable than an unlensed one due to much less host contamination. An estimate of the time delay enables observation of the full light curve of the subsequent images of the event. ARIES can have outside collaboration for multiband simultaneous lightcurves of other images. The measured time delay and position of images of the transient event provide better cosmological constraints including distance scale of the Universe. The Devasthal telescope can detect one or more events by monitoring half a dozen cluster fields over three years time.

  20. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1 Anti-reflection coatings, 2 Hard coatings, 3 Clean coat, 4 Mirror coatings, 5 Color tint coating (one of coloring processes, 6 Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes, and 7 Anti-fog coatings. Anti-reflection coatings reduce unwanted reflections from the lens surfaces and increase light transmission. Hard coatings are applied for preventing the plastic lens surface from scratches and abrasion. Hard coatings are not required for the mineral lenses due to their hardness. Clean coat makes the lens surface smooth and hydrophobic. Thus, it prevents the adherence of dust, tarnish, and dirt particles on the lens surface. Mirror coatings are applied onto the sunglasses for cosmetic purpose. Color tinted and photochromic lenses are used for sun protection and absorption of the harmful UV radiations. Anti-fog coatings make the lens surface hydrophilic and prevent the coalescence of tiny water droplets on the lens surface that reduces light transmission. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 359-69

  1. Teaching the Theory of Real Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an approach to the study of real lenses that would not contradict Fermat's principle. Shows how the rudiments of the correct theory can be incorporated into courses to provide students a clearer notion of what they can expect in laboratory situations. (DDR)

  2. A long-term geomagnetic excursion from Plio-Pleistocene sediments in Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Masayuki; Sunata, Wahyu; Susanto, Eko E.

    1992-06-01

    Duplicate records of a geomagnetic excursion at two sites separated by 200 km in Java, Indonesia, are reported. The existence of a large-scale wing of declination between the Olduvai and Jaramillo event is revealed. The field directions in reverse polarity show a gradual clockwise swing to almost west-pointing directions, followed by a rapid return to south-pointing directions. At both sites, the declinations have maximum deflection more than 70 deg from the axial dipole field direction, and the inclinations remain low during the swing. An upward-pointing eccentric radial dipole model rather than a downward-pointing one seems plausible to explain the geomagnetic behavior during the excursion.

  3. Revealing the Microscopic Real-Space Excursion of a Laser-Driven Electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko G. Kurz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High-order harmonic spectroscopy allows one to extract information on fundamental quantum processes, such as the exit time in the tunneling of an electron through a barrier with attosecond time resolution and molecular structure with angstrom spatial resolution. Here, we study the spatial motion of the electron during high-order harmonic generation in an in situ pump-probe measurement using high-density liquid water droplets as a target. We show that molecules adjacent to the emitting electron-ion pair can disrupt the electron’s trajectory when positioned within the range of the maximum electronic excursion distance. This allows us to use the parent ion and the neighboring molecules as boundaries for the electronic motion to measure the maximum electronic excursion distance during the high-order harmonic generation process. Our analysis of the process is relevant for optimizing high-harmonic yields in dense media.

  4. Report of the excursion Energy from Biomass to Germany, 26-28 November 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigler, J.K.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the title excursion was to provide participants with up-to-date information of different aspects with respect to the production of energy from biomass. Visits were paid to the main office and the research centre of 'Lurgi Umwelt' in Frankfurt am Main, the cogeneration installation 'Pflanzenoel-Blockheizkraftwerk' in Greussenheim, a local government organization, involved in the management of biomass projects, CARMEN ('Centrales Agrar Rohstoff Marketing und Entwicklungs-Netzwerk' or Central Agricultural Raw Material Marketing and Development Network) in Wuerzburg, the 22 MW biomass heating power plant 'Biomasse-Heizkraftwerk Sulzbach-Rosenberg' in Sulzbach-Rosenberg, and the research institute (in particular with respect to miscanthus) 'Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Weinbau und Gartenbau' in Wuerzburg. Next to an evaluation of the excursion and an overview of the experiences of the participants background information from the visited sites is presented

  5. The use of genetic programming to develop a predictor of swash excursion on sandy beaches

    OpenAIRE

    M. Passarella; E. B. Goldstein; S. De Muro; G. Coco

    2018-01-01

    We use genetic programming (GP), a type of machine learning (ML) approach, to predict the total and infragravity swash excursion using previously published data sets that have been used extensively in swash prediction studies. Three previously published works with a range of new conditions are added to this data set to extend the range of measured swash conditions. Using this newly compiled data set we demonstrate that a ML approach can reduce the prediction errors compared ...

  6. Cerium anomaly across the mid-Tournaisian carbon isotope excursion (TICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, G.; Morales, D. C.; Maharjan, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Mississippian (ca. 359-345 Ma) represents one of the most important greenhouse-icehouse climate transitions in Earth history. Closely associated with this critical transition is a prominent positive carbon isotope excursion (δ13C ≥ +5‰) that has been documented from numerous stratigraphic successions across the globe. This δ13C excursion, informally referred to as the TICE (mid-Tournaisian carbon isotope excursion) event, has been interpreted as resulting from enhanced organic carbon burial, with anticipated outcomes including the lowering of atmospheric CO2 and global cooling, the growth of continental ice sheets and sea-level fall, and the increase of ocean oxygenation and ocean redox changes. The casual relationship between these events has been addressed from various perspectives but not yet clearly demonstrated. To document the potential redox change associated with the perturbation of the carbon cycle, we have analyzed rare earth elements (REE) and trace elements across the TICE in two sections across a shallow-to-deep water transect in the southern Great Basin (Utah and Nevada), USA. In both sections, the REE data show a significant positive cerium (Ce) anomaly (Ce/Ce* = Ce/(0.5La+0.5Pr)). Prior to the positive δ13C shift, most Ce/Ce* values are around 0.3 (between 0.2 and 0.4). Across the δ13C peak, Ce/Ce* values increase up to 0.87, followed by a decrease back to 0.2~0.3 after the δ13C excursion (Figure 1). The positive Ce anomaly is best interpreted as recording expansion of oxygen minimum zone and anoxia resulted from increased primary production. This is consistent with a significant increase of nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) across the δ13C peak. Integration of the carbon, nitrogen, and REE data demonstrates a responsive earth systems change linked to the perturbation of the Early Mississippian carbon cycle.

  7. Fuel-steel mixing and radial mesh effects in power excursion simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.-N.; Rineiski, A.; Gabrielli, F.; Andriolo, L.; Vezzoni, B.; Li, R.; Maschek, W.; Kiefhaber, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel-steel mixing and radial mesh effects are significant on power excursion. • The earliest power peak is reduced and retarded by these two effects. • Unprotected loss of coolant transients in ESFR core are calculated. - Abstract: This paper deals with SIMMER-III once-through simulations of the earliest power excursion initiated by an unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) in the Working Horse design of the European Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (ESFR). Since the sodium void effect is strictly positive in this core and dominant in the transient, a power excursion is initiated by sodium boiling in the ULOF case. Two major effects, namely (1) reactivity effects due to fuel-steel mixing after melting and (2) the radial mesh size, which were not considered originally in SIMMER simulations for ESFR, are studied. The first effect concerns the reactivity difference between the heterogeneous fuel/clad/wrapper configuration and the homogeneous mixture of steel and fuel. The full core homogenization (due to melting) effect is −2 $, though a smaller effect takes place in case of partial core melting. The second effect is due to the SIMMER sub-assembly (SA) coarse mesh treatment, where a simultaneous sodium boiling onset in all SAs belonging to one ring leads to an overestimated reactivity ramp. For investigating the influence of fuel/steel mixing effects, a lumped “homogenization” reactivity feedback has been introduced, being proportional to the molten steel mass. For improving the coarse mesh treatment, we employ finer radial meshes to take the subchannel effects into account, where the side and interior channels have different coolant velocities and temperatures. The simulation results show that these two effects have significant impacts on the earliest power excursion after the sodium boiling.

  8. Frequency modulation excursion and rate discrimination in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindwolf, Isabel; Vatti, Marianna; Santurette, Sébastien

    Most natural sounds contain frequency fluctuations over time such as changes in their fundamental frequency, non-periodic speech formant transitions, or periodic fluctuations like musical vibrato. These are sometimes characterized as frequency modulation (FM) with a given excursion (FMe) and rate......, this study investigated the effects of age and SNHL on FMe and FMr difference limens (DLs) for reference values typical of frequency fluctuations observed in speech and music signals....

  9. Glucose and triglyceride excursions following a standardized meal in individuals with diabetes: ELSA-Brasil study

    OpenAIRE

    Riboldi, B?rbara P; Luft, Vivian C; de Castilhos, Cristina D; de Cardoso, Let?cia O; Schmidt, Maria I; Barreto, Sandhi M; de Sander, Maria F; Alvim, Sheila M; Duncan, Bruce B

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess glucose and triglyceride excursions 2 hours after the ingestion of a standardized meal and their associations with clinical characteristics and cardiovascular complications in individuals with diabetes. Research design and methods: Blood samples of 898 subjects with diabetes were collected at fasting and 2 hours after a meal containing 455 kcal, 14 g of saturated fat and 47 g of carbohydrates. Self-reported morbidity, socio-demographic characteristics and clinical measure...

  10. X-ray lenses with large aperture; Roentgenlinsen mit grosser Apertur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Markus

    2010-07-01

    Up to now, most X-ray imaging setups are based on absorption contrast imaging. There is a demand for focused X-rays in many X-ray analysis applications, either to increase the resolution of an imaging system, or, to reduce the time effort of an experiment through higher photon flux. For photon energies higher than 15 keV refractive X-ray optics are more efficient in comparison to non-refractive X-ray optics. The aim of this work was to develop X-ray lenses with large apertures and high transparency. By increasing the number of refracting surfaces while removing unnecessary lens material such lenses have been developed. Utilizing this approach the overall beam deflection angle is large with respect to the lens material it propagates through and so the transparency of the lens is increased. Within this work, X-ray lenses consisting of several thousands of prisms with an edge length in the range of micrometers have been developed and fabricated by deep X-ray lithography. Deep X-ray lithography enables high precision microstrucures with smooth sidewalls and large aspect ratios. The aperture of high-transparency X-ray lenses made this way is greater than 1 mm. They are suitable for photon energies in the range of 8 keV to 24 keV and offer a focal width of smaller than 10 {mu}m at a transparency of around 40%. Furthermore, rolled X-ray lenses have been developed, that are made out of a microstructured polyimide film, which is cut according to the requirements regarding focal length and photon energy. The microstructured film is fabricated by molding, using an anisotropically etched silicon wafer as molding tool. Its mean roughness is in the range of nanometers. The film features prismatic structures, its surface topology is similar to an asparagus field. The measured diameter of the point focus was 18 {mu}m to 31 {mu}m, the calculated opticla efficiency was 37%. Future work will concentrate on increasing the aspect ratio of Prism Lenses and on increasing the rolling

  11. Estimation method for first excursion probability of secondary system with impact and friction using maximum response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeru Aoki

    2005-01-01

    The secondary system such as pipings, tanks and other mechanical equipment is installed in the primary system such as building. The important secondary systems should be designed to maintain their function even if they are subjected to destructive earthquake excitations. The secondary system has many nonlinear characteristics. Impact and friction characteristic, which are observed in mechanical supports and joints, are common nonlinear characteristics. As impact damper and friction damper, impact and friction characteristic are used for reduction of seismic response. In this paper, analytical methods of the first excursion probability of the secondary system with impact and friction, subjected to earthquake excitation are proposed. By using the methods, the effects of impact force, gap size and friction force on the first excursion probability are examined. When the tolerance level is normalized by the maximum response of the secondary system without impact or friction characteristics, variation of the first excursion probability is very small for various values of the natural period. In order to examine the effectiveness of the proposed method, the obtained results are compared with those obtained by the simulation method. Some estimation methods for the maximum response of the secondary system with nonlinear characteristics have been developed. (author)

  12. Comparison of dynamic balance in collegiate field hockey and football players using star excursion balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rashi; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2013-09-01

    The preliminary study aimed to compare dynamic balance between collegiate athletes competing or training in football and hockey using star excursion balance test. A total thirty university level players, football (n = 15) and field hockey (n = 15) were participated in the study. Dynamic balance was assessed by using star excursion balance test. The testing grid consists of 8 lines each 120 cm in length extending from a common point at 45° increments. The subjects were instructed to maintain a stable single leg stance with the test leg with shoes off and to reach for maximal distance with the other leg in each of the 8 directions. A pencil was used to point and read the distance to which each subject's foot reached. The normalized leg reach distances in each direction were summed for both limbs and the total sum of the mean of summed normalized distances of both limbs were calculated. There was no significant difference in all the directions of star excursion balance test scores in both the groups. Additionally, composite reach distances of both groups also found non-significant (P=0.5). However, the posterior (P=0.05) and lateral (P=0.03) normalized reach distances were significantly more in field hockey players. Field hockey players and football players did not differ in terms of dynamic balance.

  13. Conditional Probabilities in the Excursion Set Theory. Generic Barriers and non-Gaussian Initial Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    De Simone, Andrea; Riotto, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The excursion set theory, where density perturbations evolve stochastically with the smoothing scale, provides a method for computing the dark matter halo mass function. The computation of the mass function is mapped into the so-called first-passage time problem in the presence of a moving barrier. The excursion set theory is also a powerful formalism to study other properties of dark matter halos such as halo bias, accretion rate, formation time, merging rate and the formation history of halos. This is achieved by computing conditional probabilities with non-trivial initial conditions, and the conditional two-barrier first-crossing rate. In this paper we use the recently-developed path integral formulation of the excursion set theory to calculate analytically these conditional probabilities in the presence of a generic moving barrier, including the one describing the ellipsoidal collapse, and for both Gaussian and non-Gaussian initial conditions. The non-Markovianity of the random walks induced by non-Gaussi...

  14. Angle sensitive single photon avalanche diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Changhyuk, E-mail: cl678@cornell.edu; Johnson, Ben, E-mail: bcj25@cornell.edu; Molnar, Alyosha, E-mail: am699@cornell.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States)

    2015-06-08

    An ideal light sensor would provide exact information on intensity, timing, location, and angle of incoming photons. Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) provide such desired high (single photon) sensitivity with precise time information and can be implemented at a pixel-scale to form an array to extract spatial information. Furthermore, recent work has demonstrated photodiode-based structures (combined with micro-lenses or diffraction gratings) that are capable of encoding both spatial and angular information of incident light. In this letter, we describe the implementation of such a grating structure on SPADs to realize a pixel-scale angle-sensitive single photon avalanche diode (A-SPAD) built in a standard CMOS process. While the underlying SPAD structure provides high sensitivity, the time information of the two layers of diffraction gratings above offers angle-sensitivity. Such a unique combination of SPAD and diffraction gratings expands the sensing dimensions to pave a path towards lens-less 3-D imaging and light-field time-of-flight imaging.

  15. Plasma surface modification of rigid contact lenses decreases bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingming; Qian, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xia, Wei; Zhong, Lei; Sun, Zhengtai; Xia, Jing

    2013-11-01

    Contact lens safety is an important topic in clinical studies. Corneal infections usually occur because of the use of bacteria-carrying contact lenses. The current study investigated the impact of plasma surface modification on bacterial adherence to rigid contact lenses made of fluorosilicone acrylate materials. Boston XO and XO2 contact lenses were modified using plasma technology (XO-P and XO2-P groups). Untreated lenses were used as controls. Plasma-treated and control lenses were incubated in solutions containing Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MTT colorimetry, colony-forming unit counting method, and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure bacterial adhesion. MTT colorimetry measurements showed that the optical density (OD) values of XO-P and XO2-P were significantly lower than those of XO and XO2, respectively, after incubation with S. aureus (P lenses and to the XO2-P versus XO2 lenses incubated with S. aureus (P lenses incubated with P. aeruginosa (P lenses. Plasma surface modification can significantly decrease bacterial adhesion to fluorosilicone acrylate contact lenses. This study provides important evidence of a unique benefit of plasma technology in contact lens surface modification.

  16. A new case of gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdej, J.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Kayser, R.; Refsdal, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Kellermann, K.I.; Kuehr, H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report a brief description of a gravitational lens system UM673 = Q0142 - 100 = PHL3703. It consists of two images, A and B, separated by 2.2 arc s at a redshift zsub(q) = 2.719. The lensing galaxy has also been found. It lies very near the line connecting the two QSO (quasi-stellar objects) images, approx. 0.8 arc s from the fainter one. Application of gravitational optometry to this system leads to a value Msub(o) or approx. = 2.4 x 10 11 M solar masses for the mass of the lensing galaxy and to Δt approx. 7 weeks for the most likely travel-time difference between the two light paths to the QSO. (author)

  17. Nulling tomography with weak gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, Dragan; White, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We explore several strategies of eliminating (or nulling) the small-scale information in weak lensing convergence power spectrum measurements in order to protect against undesirable effects, for example, the effects of baryonic cooling and pressure forces on the distribution of large-scale structures. We selectively throw out the small-scale information in the convergence power spectrum that is most sensitive to the unwanted bias, while trying to retain most of the sensitivity to cosmological parameters. The strategies are effective in the difficult but realistic situations when we are able to guess the form of the contaminating effect only approximately. However, we also find that the simplest scheme of simply not using information from the largest multipoles works about as well as the proposed techniques in most, although not all, realistic cases. We advocate further exploration of nulling techniques and believe that they will find important applications in the weak lensing data mining

  18. Poisson equation for weak gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, Thomas P.; Campbell, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Using the Newman and Penrose [E. T. Newman and R. Penrose, J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 3, 566 (1962).] spin-coefficient formalism, we examine the full Bianchi identities of general relativity in the context of gravitational lensing, where the matter and space-time curvature are projected into a lens plane perpendicular to the line of sight. From one component of the Bianchi identity, we provide a rigorous, new derivation of a Poisson equation for the projected matter density where the source term involves second derivatives of the observed weak gravitational lensing shear. We also show that the other components of the Bianchi identity reveal no new results. Numerical integration of the Poisson equation in test cases shows an accurate mass map can be constructed from the combination of a ground-based, wide-field image and a Hubble Space Telescope image of the same system

  19. Astrophysical observations: lensing and eclipsing Einstein's theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L

    2005-02-11

    Albert Einstein postulated the equivalence of energy and mass, developed the theory of special relativity, explained the photoelectric effect, and described Brownian motion in five papers, all published in 1905, 100 years ago. With these papers, Einstein provided the framework for understanding modern astrophysical phenomena. Conversely, astrophysical observations provide one of the most effective means for testing Einstein's theories. Here, I review astrophysical advances precipitated by Einstein's insights, including gravitational redshifts, gravitational lensing, gravitational waves, the Lense-Thirring effect, and modern cosmology. A complete understanding of cosmology, from the earliest moments to the ultimate fate of the universe, will require developments in physics beyond Einstein, to a unified theory of gravity and quantum physics.

  20. Antifouling leaching technique for optical lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahle, William J.; Perez, C. L.; Martini, Marinna A.

    1994-01-01

    The effectiveness of optical lenses deployed in water less than 100 m deep is significantly reduced by biofouling caused by the settlement of macrofauna, such as barnacles, hydroids, and tunicates. However, machineable porous plastic rings can be used to dispense antifoulant into the water in front of the lens to retard macrofaunal growth without obstructing the light path. Unlike coatings which can degrade the optical performance, antifouling rings do not interfere with the instrument optics. The authors have designed plastic, reusable cup-like antifouling rings to slip over the optical lenses of a transmissometer. These rings have been used for several deployments on shallow moorings in Massachusetts Bay, MA and have increased the time before fouling degrades optical characteristics

  1. Microbial adhesion to silicone hydrogel lenses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Mark D P

    2013-01-01

    Microbial adhesion to contact lenses is believed to be one of the initiating events in the formation of many corneal infiltrative events, including microbial keratitis, that occur during contact lens wear. The advent of silicone hydrogel lenses has not reduced the incidence of these events. This may partly be related to the ability of microbes to adhere to these lenses. The aim of this study was to review the published literature on microbial adhesion to contact lenses, focusing on adhesion to silicone hydrogel lenses. The literature on microbial adhesion to contact lenses was searched, along with associated literature on adverse events that occur during contact lens wear. Particular reference was paid to the years 1995 through 2012 because this encompasses the time when the first clinical trials of silicone hydrogel lenses were reported, and their commercial availability and the publication of epidemiology studies on adverse events were studied. In vitro studies of bacterial adhesion to unworn silicone hydrogel lens have shown that generally, bacteria adhere to these lenses in greater numbers than to the hydroxyethyl methacrylate-based soft lenses. Lens wear has different effects on microbial adhesion, and this is dependent on the type of lens and microbial species/genera that is studied. Biofilms that can be formed on any lens type tend to protect the bacteria and fungi from the effects on disinfectants. Fungal hyphae can penetrate the surface of most types of lenses. Acanthamoeba adhere in greater numbers to first-generation silicone hydrogel lenses compared with the second-generation or hydroxyethyl methacrylate-based soft lenses. Microbial adhesion to silicone hydrogel lenses occurs and is associated with the production of corneal infiltrative events during lens wear.

  2. Automatic centring and bonding of lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Stefan; Heinisch, J.; Dumitrescu, E.

    2007-05-01

    We present an automatic bonding station which is able to center and bond individual lenses or doublets to a barrel with sub micron centring accuracy. The complete manufacturing cycle includes the glue dispensing and UV curing. During the process the state of centring is continuously controlled by the vision software, and the final result is recorded to a file for process statistics. Simple pass or fail results are displayed to the operator at the end of the process.

  3. Space Photovoltaic Concentrator Using Robust Fresnel Lenses, 4-Junction Cells, Graphene Radiators, and Articulating Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mark; McDanal, A. J.; Brandhorst, Henry; Spence, Brian; Iqbal, Shawn; Sharps, Paul; McPheeters, Clay; Steinfeldt, Jeff; Piszczor, Michael; Myers, Matt

    2016-01-01

    At the 42nd PVSC, our team presented recent advances in our space photovoltaic concentrator technology. These advances include more robust Fresnel lenses for optical concentration, more thermally conductive graphene radiators for waste heat rejection, improved color-mixing lens technology to minimize chromatic aberration losses with 4-junction solar cells, and an articulating photovoltaic receiver enabling single-axis sun-tracking, while maintaining a sharp focal line despite large beta angles of incidence. In the past year, under a NASA Phase II SBIR program, our team has made much additional progress in the development of this new space photovoltaic concentrator technology, as described in this paper.

  4. Strong lensing of a regular black hole with an electrodynamics source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Tuhina; Rahaman, Farook; Molla, Sabiruddin; Bhadra, Jhumpa; Shah, Hasrat Hussain

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we have investigated the gravitational lensing phenomenon in the strong field regime for a regular, charged, static black holes with non-linear electrodynamics source. We have obtained the angle of deflection and compared it to a Schwarzschild black hole and Reissner Nordström black hole with similar properties. We have also done a graphical study of the relativistic image positions and magnifications. We hope that this method may be useful in the detection of non-luminous bodies like this current black hole.

  5. Automation Enhancement of Multilayer Laue Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer K. R.; Conley R.

    2010-12-01

    X-ray optics fabrication at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been facilitated by a new, state of the art magnetron sputtering physical deposition system. With its nine magnetron sputtering cathodes and substrate carrier that moves on a linear rail via a UHV brushless linear servo motor, the system is capable of accurately depositing the many thousands of layers necessary for multilayer Laue lenses. I have engineered a versatile and automated control program from scratch for the base system and many subsystems. Its main features include a custom scripting language, a fully customizable graphical user interface, wireless and remote control, and a terminal-based interface. This control system has already been successfully used in the creation of many types of x-ray optics, including several thousand layer multilayer Laue lenses.Before reaching the point at which a deposition can be run, stencil-like masks for the sputtering cathodes must be created to ensure the proper distribution of sputtered atoms. Quality of multilayer Laue lenses can also be difficult to measure, given the size of the thin film layers. I employ my knowledge of software and algorithms to further ease these previously painstaking processes with custom programs. Additionally, I will give an overview of an x-ray optic simulator package I helped develop during the summer of 2010. In the interest of keeping my software free and open, I have worked mostly with the multiplatform Python and the PyQt application framework, utilizing C and C++ where necessary.

  6. Gravitational lensing of the SNLS supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronborg, T.

    2011-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae have become an essential tool of modern observational cosmology. By studying the distance-redshift relation of a large number of supernovae, the nature of dark energy can be unveiled. Distances to Type Ia SNe are however affected by gravitational lensing which can induce systematic effects in the measurement of cosmology. The majority of the supernovae is slightly de-magnified whereas a small fraction is significantly magnified due to the mass distribution along the line of sight. This causes naturally an additional dispersion in the observed magnitudes. There are two different ways to estimate the magnification of a supernova. A first method consists in comparing the supernova luminosity, which is measured to about 15% precision, to the mean SN luminosity at the same redshift. Another estimate can be obtained from predicting the magnification induced by the foreground matter density modeled from the measurements of the luminosity of the galaxies with an initial prior on the mass-luminosity relation of the galaxies. A correlation between these 2 estimates will make it possible to tune the initially used mass-luminosity relation resulting in an independent measurement of the dark matter clustering based on the luminosity of SNe Ia. Evidently, this measurement depends crucially on the detection of this correlation also referred to as the lensing signal. This thesis is dedicated to the measurement of the lensing signal in the SNLS 3-year sample. (author)

  7. Primordial black holes survive SN lensing constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bellido, Juan; Clesse, Sébastien; Fleury, Pierre

    2018-06-01

    It has been claimed in [arxiv:1712.02240] that massive primordial black holes (PBH) cannot constitute all of the dark matter (DM), because their gravitational-lensing imprint on the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae (SN) would be incompatible with present observations. In this note, we critically review those constraints and find several caveats on the analysis. First of all, the constraints on the fraction α of PBH in matter seem to be driven by a very restrictive choice of priors on the cosmological parameters. In particular, the degeneracy between Ωm and α was ignored and thus, by fixing Ωm, transferred the constraining power of SN magnitudes to α. Furthermore, by considering more realistic physical sizes for the type-Ia supernovae, we find an effect on the SN lensing magnification distribution that leads to significantly looser constraints. Moreover, considering a wide mass spectrum of PBH, such as a lognormal distribution, further softens the constraints from SN lensing. Finally, we find that the fraction of PBH that could constitute DM today is bounded by fPBH < 1 . 09(1 . 38) , for JLA (Union 2.1) catalogs, and thus it is perfectly compatible with an all-PBH dark matter scenario in the LIGO band.

  8. Electron lenses for the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari†, G; Bruce, R; Redaelli, S; Rossi, A; Salvachua Ferrando, B

    2014-01-01

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beamswhose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-bybunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beamcompensation, and for the demonstration of halo scrapingwith hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in RHIC at BNL. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program and the European HiLumi LHC Design Study, hollow electron beam collimation was studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the LHC upgrades. A conceptual design was recently completed, and the project is moving towards a technical design in 2014–2015 for construction in 2015–2017, if needed, after resuming LHC operations and re-assessing collimation needs and requirements at 6.5 TeV. Because of the...

  9. Beryllium parabolic refractive x-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, B.; Schroer, C.G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Benner, B.; Guenzler, T.F.; Kurapova, O.; Somogyi, A.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.

    2004-01-01

    Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses are novel optical components for the hard x-ray range from about 5 keV to about 120 keV. They focus in both directions. They are compact, robust, and easy to align and to operate. They can be used like glass lenses are used for visible light, the main difference being that the numerical aperture N.A. is much smaller than 1 (of order 10-4 to 10-3). Their main applications are in micro- and nanofocusing, in imaging by absorption and phase contrast and in fluorescence mode. In combination with tomography they allow for 3-dimensional imaging of opaque media with submicrometer resolution. Finally, they can be used in speckle spectroscopy by means of coherent x-ray scattering. Beryllium as lens material strongly enhances the transmission and the field of view as compared to aluminium. With increased N.A. the lateral resolution is also considerably improved with Be lenses. References to a number of applications are given

  10. Role of short-wavelength filtering lenses in delaying myopia progression and amelioration of asthenopia in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Lan Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the positive effects of blue-violet light filtering lenses in delaying myopia and relieving asthenopia in juveniles. METHODS: Sixty ametropia juveniles (aged range, 11-15y were randomized into two groups: the test group (30 children, 60 eyes, wearing blue-violet light filtering lenses; and the control group (30 children, 60 eyes, wearing ordinary aspherical lenses. Baseline refractive power of the affected eyes and axial length of the two groups was recorded. After 1-year, the patients underwent contrast sensitivity (glare and non-glare under bright and dark conditions, accommodation-related testing, asthenopia questionnaire assessment, and adverse reaction questionnaire assessment. RESULTS: After 1y of wearing the filtering lenses, changes in refractive power and axial length were not significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05. Under bright conditions, the contrast sensitivities at low and medium-frequency grating (vision angles of 6.3°, 4.0°, and 2.5° with glare in the test group were significantly higher than in the control group (P0.05. In the test group, the amplitude of accommodation, accommodative lag, and accommodative sensitivity of patients wearing glasses for 6 and 12mo were significantly elevated (P0.05, and the asthenopia grating was not significantly decreased (P>0.05. In addition, after wearing glasses for 6 to 12mo, the asthenopia grating of patients in the test group decreased significantly compared with the control group (P0.05. CONCLUSION: A 1-year follow-up reveal that compare with ordinary glasses, short-wavelength filtering lenses (blue/violet-light filters increase the low- and medium-frequency contrast sensitivity under bright conditions and improved accommodation. They effectively relieved asthenopia without severe adverse reactions, suggesting potential for clinical application. However, no significant advantages in terms of refractive power or axial length progression were found compared

  11. Neutronics simulations on hypothetical power excursion and possible core melt scenarios in CANDU6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yonghee

    2015-01-01

    LOCA (Loss of coolant accident) is an outstanding safety issue in the CANDU reactor system since the coolant void reactivity is strongly positive. To deal with the LOCA, the CANDU systems are equipped with specially designed quickly-acting secondary shutdown system. Nevertheless, the so-called design-extended conditions are requested to be taken into account in the safety analysis for nuclear reactor systems after the Fukushima accident. As a DEC scenario, the worst accident situation in a CANDU reactor system is a unprotected LOCA, which is supposed to lead to a power excursion and possibly a core melt-down. In this work, the hypothetical unprotected LOCA scenario is simulated in view of the power excursion and fuel temperature changes by using a simplified point-kinetics (PK) model accounting for the fuel temperature change. In the PK model, the core reactivity is assumed to be affected by a large break LOCA and the fuel temperature is simulated to account for the Doppler effect. In addition, unlike the conventional PK simulation, we have also considered the Xe-I model to evaluate the impact of Xe during the LOCA. Also, we tried to simulate the fuel and core melt-down scenario in terms of the reactivity through a series of neutronics calculations for hypothetical core conditions. In case of a power excursion and possible fuel melt-down situation, the reactor system behavior is very uncertain. In this work, we tried to understand the impacts of fuel melt and relocation within the pressure vessel on the core reactivity and failure of pressure and calandria tubes. (author)

  12. Star Excursion Balance Test Anterior Asymmetry Is Associated With Injury Status in Division I Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, Mikel R; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Hetzel, Scott J; Pickett, Kristen A; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2017-05-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) performance differs by sport in healthy collegiate athletes, and lower extremity injury rates also vary by sport, sex, and athletic exposure. The relationship between SEBT performance and injury risk has not been evaluated with consideration of these additional variables, which may be necessary to fully describe the relationship between SEBT performance and injury risk. Objectives To assess the association between preseason SEBT performance and noncontact injury occurrence to the knee or ankle in Division I collegiate athletes when controlling for sport, sex, and athletic exposure. Methods Star Excursion Balance Test performance, starting status, and injury status were reviewed retrospectively in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes from a single institution. A total of 147 athletes were healthy at the time of preseason SEBT testing and either remained healthy (n = 118) or sustained a noncontact injury to the knee or ankle (n = 29) during their sport's subsequent competitive season. Side-to-side asymmetries were calculated in each direction as the absolute difference in reach distance between limbs. Star Excursion Balance Test reach distances and asymmetries were compared between groups using multivariable regression, controlling for sport, sex, and athletic exposure (starter, nonstarter). Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine optimal sensitivity and specificity for significant models. Results When controlling for sport, sex, and athletic exposure, SEBT side-to-side asymmetry in the anterior direction, expressed as an absolute or normalized to limb length, discriminated between injured and noninjured athletes (area under the curve greater than 0.82). Conclusion Assessing side-to-side reach asymmetry in the anterior direction of the SEBT may assist in identifying collegiate athletes who are at risk for sustaining noncontact

  13. Analyses of hypothetical nuclear criticality excursions in 10- and 20-MW freezer/sublimer vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haught, C.F.; Jordan, W.C.; Basoglu, B.; Dodds, H.L.; Wilkinson, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    A theoretical model is used to predict the consequences of a postulated hypothetical nuclear criticality excursion in a freezer/sublimer (F/S). Previous work has shown that an intrusion of water into a F/S may result in a critical configuration. A first attempt is made to model the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic phenomena occurring during a criticality excursion involving both uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) and uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 2 ) solution, which is present in the F/S during upset conditions. The model employs point neutronics coupled with simple thermal hydraulics. Reactivity feedback from changes in the properties of the system are included in the model. The excursion is studied in a 10-MW F/S with an initial load of 3,500 kg of 5% weight enriched UF 6 and in a 20-MW F/S with an initial load of 6,800 kg of 2% weight enriched UF 6 . The magnitude of the fission release determined in this work is 5.93 x 10 18 fissions in the 10-MW F/S and 4.21 x 10 18 fissions in the 20-MW F/S. In order to demonstrate the reliability of the techniques used in this work, a limited validation study was conducted by comparing the fission release and peak fission rate determined by this work with experimental results for a limited number of experiments. The agreement between calculations and experiments in the validation study is considered to be satisfactory. The calculational results for the hypothetical accidents in the two F/S vessels appear reasonable

  14. Optimal reconstruction angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.O. Jr.; Knight, L.

    1979-07-01

    The question of optimal projection angles has recently become of interest in the field of reconstruction from projections. Here, studies are concentrated on the n x n pixel space, where literative algorithms such as ART and direct matrix techniques due to Katz are considered. The best angles are determined in a Gauss--Markov statistical sense as well as with respect to a function-theoretical error bound. The possibility of making photon intensity a function of angle is also examined. Finally, the best angles to use in an ART-like algorithm are studied. A certain set of unequally spaced angles was found to be preferred in several contexts. 15 figures, 6 tables

  15. Galaxy–Galaxy Weak-lensing Measurements from SDSS. I. Image Processing and Lensing Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wentao [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China); Yang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Jun; Tweed, Dylan [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Fu, Liping; Shu, Chenggang [Shanghai Key Lab for Astrophysics, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, 200234, Shanghai (China); Mo, H. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Bosch, Frank C. van den [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Li, Ran [Key Laboratory for Computational Astrophysics, Partner Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Li, Nan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Yiran [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Radovich, Mario, E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: xyang@sjtu.edu.cn [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Napoli, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2017-02-10

    We present our image processing pipeline that corrects the systematics introduced by the point-spread function (PSF). Using this pipeline, we processed Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 imaging data in r band and generated a galaxy catalog containing the shape information. Based on our shape measurements of the galaxy images from SDSS DR7, we extract the galaxy–galaxy (GG) lensing signals around foreground spectroscopic galaxies binned in different luminosities and stellar masses. We estimated the systematics, e.g., selection bias, PSF reconstruction bias, PSF dilution bias, shear responsivity bias, and noise rectification bias, which in total is between −9.1% and 20.8% at 2 σ levels. The overall GG lensing signals we measured are in good agreement with Mandelbaum et al. The reduced χ {sup 2} between the two measurements in different luminosity bins are from 0.43 to 0.83. Larger reduced χ {sup 2} from 0.60 to 1.87 are seen for different stellar mass bins, which is mainly caused by the different stellar mass estimator. The results in this paper with higher signal-to-noise ratio are due to the larger survey area than SDSS DR4, confirming that more luminous/massive galaxies bear stronger GG lensing signals. We divide the foreground galaxies into red/blue and star-forming/quenched subsamples and measure their GG lensing signals. We find that, at a specific stellar mass/luminosity, the red/quenched galaxies have stronger GG lensing signals than their counterparts, especially at large radii. These GG lensing signals can be used to probe the galaxy–halo mass relations and their environmental dependences in the halo occupation or conditional luminosity function framework.

  16. Visual evidence of the Sterno-Etrussia geomagnetic excursion (~2700 BP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopov, O. M.; Dergachev, V. A.; Goos'kova, E. G.; Morner, N.-A.

    2003-04-01

    In the Bible's Old Testament Book of Ezekiel there is a description of the Ezekiel's vision of "a great cloud with brightness round about it" to the north of the observation site. The event described in the Bible occurred in 593 BC, i.e., approximately 2600 years ago. Ezekiel was at that time approximately 100 km south of Babylon (latitude ~ 32 N, longitude ~ 45 E). Auroral specialists interpret the Ezekiel's vision as observation of coronal auroral displays at low latitudes. However, to support this hypothesis, it is necessary to understand the physical mechanism responsible for generation of these forms of auroras at low latitudes. Analysis of palaeo- and archaeomagnetic data, including our data on magnetic properties of sediments of the Barents and White Seas and the literature data, has shown that about 2700 BP, i.e., in Ezekiel's time, development of a geomagnetic "Sterno-Etrussia" excursion took place. The duration of the excursion during which the northern geomagnetic pole wandered to the Southern Hemisphere was no more than 200-300 years. Manifestations of this excursion were found in 16 regions of the Eurasian continent and adjacent seas and also in the North and South America. By plotting the path along which the northern geomagnetic pole wandered to the southern latitudes during this excursion on the basis of palaeomagnetic data, we have found that it wandered in the longitude sector plus or minus 30 degrees, and about 2700 BP the northern geomagnetic pole was at the longitude close to the Babylon longitude, where Ezekiel had his vision. Thus, at that time Babylon was at high geomagnetic latitudes where regular coronal auroral displays occur. Records of observation of the unusual brightness of the sky in the V-VI centuries BC can also be found in Greek chronicles. This indicates that the Ezekiel's vision was not the only observation of auroras at low latitudes during the period considered here. This work was supported by INTAS, Grant 97-31008 and PFBR

  17. Postmeal exercise blunts postprandial glucose excursions in people on metformin monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Melissa L; Little, Jonathan P; Gay, Jennifer L; McCully, Kevin K; Jenkins, Nathan T

    2017-08-01

    Metformin is used clinically to reduce fasting glucose with minimal effects on postprandial glucose. Postmeal exercise reduces postprandial glucose and may offer additional glucose-lowering benefit beyond that of metformin alone, yet controversy exists surrounding exercise and metformin interactions. It is currently unknown how postmeal exercise and metformin monotherapy in combination will affect postprandial glucose. Thus, we examined the independent and combined effects of postmeal exercise and metformin monotherapy on postprandial glucose. A randomized crossover design was used to assess the influence of postmeal exercise on postprandial glucose excursions in 10 people treated with metformin monotherapy (57 ± 10 yr, HbA 1C  = 6.3 ± 0.6%). Each participant completed the following four conditions: sedentary and postmeal exercise (5 × 10-min bouts of treadmill walking at 60% V̇o 2max ) with metformin and sedentary and postmeal exercise without metformin. Peak postprandial glucose within a 2-h time window and 2-h total area under the curve was assessed after a standardized breakfast meal, using continuous glucose monitoring. Postmeal exercise significantly blunted 2-h peak ( P = 0.001) and 2-h area under the curve ( P = 0.006), with the lowest peak postprandial glucose excursion observed with postmeal exercise and metformin combined ( P exercise: 9.7 ± 2.3, washout/sedentary: 13.3 ± 3.2, washout/exercise: 11.1 ± 3.4 mmol/l). Postmeal exercise and metformin in combination resulted in the lowest peak postprandial glucose excursion compared with either treatment modality alone. Exercise timed to the postprandial phase may be important for optimizing glucose control during metformin monotherapy. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The interactive effects of metformin and exercise on key physiological outcomes remain an area of controversy. Findings from this study show that the combination of metformin monotherapy and moderate-intensity postmeal exercise led to

  18. Temperature measurement on Zircaloy-clad fuel pins during high temperature excursions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meservey, R.H.

    1976-04-01

    The development of a sheathed thermocouple suitable for attachment to zircaloy-clad fuel rods and for use during high temperature (2,800 0 F) excursions under loss-of-coolant accident conditions is described. Development, fabrication, and testing of the thermocouples is covered in detail. In addition, the development of a process for laser welding the thermocouples to fuel rods is discussed. The thermocouples and attachment welds have been tested for resistance to corrosion and nuclear radiation and have been subjected to fast thermal cycle, risetime, and blowdown accident tests

  19. [IOP measurement through frequent-replacement soft contact lenses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, J

    2008-07-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) can be measured through soft contact lenses with an air-puff tonometer. These measurements seemed accurate for low-power negative lenses. For positive soft contact lenses, IOP is overestimated. The measurement of IOP through a soft contact lens is acceptable in clinical practice only for glaucoma screening. In glaucomatous patients or patients with ocular hypertension, IOP measurements should be performed without a contact lens. The main technique for IOP measurement remains Goldmann applanation tonometry.

  20. Do swimming goggles limit microbial contamination of contact lenses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yvonne T; Tran, Jess; Truong, Michelle; Harmis, Najat; Zhu, Hua; Stapleton, Fiona

    2011-04-01

    Wearing goggles over contact lenses while swimming is often recommended by eye care professionals. Limited data are available to assess this recommendation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether wearing goggles while swimming limits bacterial colonization on contact lenses and whether the type of lens worn affects contamination rates. Twenty-three subjects underwent two swimming sessions at an ocean (salt water) pool (Maroubra beach Rock Pool, Sydney, Australia). Silicone hydrogel (Ciba Focus Night and Day) or hydrogel lenses (Ciba Focus Daily) were inserted into subjects' eyes before 30 min of swimming sessions, and subjects used modified goggles to mimic goggled and non-goggled conditions. At the end of each session, lenses were collected for microbial investigation. Viable bacterial colonies were classified as gram positive and gram negative and enumerated. The level of bacterial colonization on contact lenses between goggled and non-goggled conditions and between the two lens materials were compared. The range of colony forming units recovered from goggled lenses were 0 to 930 compared with 0 to 1210 on non-goggled lenses. The majority of subjects (16/23) had more microorganisms in the non-goggled condition than when wearing goggles (p = 0.03). Gram negative organisms were found in three non-goggled lenses. No significant difference was shown in the number of bacteria isolated from silicone hydrogel and hydrogel lenses (p > 0.6) irrespective of wearing goggles. Water samples had consistently higher numbers of bacterial counts than those adhered to the lenses; however, no association was found between the number of bacteria in the water sample and those found on the contact lenses. Consistently, fewer bacterial colonies were found on the goggled contact lens, thus suggesting goggles offer some protection against bacterial colonization of contact lenses while swimming. These data would support the recommendation encouraging lens wearers to use goggles

  1. Plasma lenses for SLAC Final Focus Test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betz, D.; Cline, D.; Joshi, C.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rosenzweig, J.; Su, J.J.; Williams, R.; Chen, P.; Gundersen, M.; Katsouleas, T.; Norem, J.

    1991-01-01

    A collaborative group of accelerator and plasma physicists and engineers has formed with an interest in exploring the use of plasma lenses to meet the needs of future colliders. Analytic and computational models of plasma lenses are briefly reviewed and several design examples for the SLAC Final Focus Test Beam are presented. The examples include discrete, thick, and adiabatic lenses. A potential plasma source with desirable lens characteristics is presented

  2. Corrections for gravitational lensing of supernovae: better than average?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Christofer; Dahlen, Tomas; Goobar, Ariel; Jonsson, Jakob; Mortsell, Edvard

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of correcting for the magnification due to gravitational lensing of standard candle sources, such as Type Ia supernovae. Our method uses the observed properties of the foreground galaxies along the lines-of-sight to each source and the accuracy of the lensing correction depends on the quality and depth of these observations as well as the uncertainties in translating the observed luminosities to the matter distribution in the lensing galaxies. The current work i...

  3. Customized computer models of eyes with intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, P; Marcos, S

    2007-03-05

    We compared experimental wave aberrations in pseudophakic eyes with aspheric intraocular lenses (IOLs) to simulate aberrations from numerical ray tracing on customized computer eye models using corneal topography, angle lambda, ocular biometry, IOL geometry, and IOL tilt and decentration measured on the same eyes. We found high correlations between real and simulated aberrations even for the eye with only the cornea, and these increased on average when the IOL geometry and position were included. Relevant individual aberrations were well predicted by the complete eye model. Corneal spherical aberration and horizontal coma were compensated by the IOL, and in 58.3% of the cases IOL tilt and decentration contributed to compensation of horizontal coma. We conclude that customized computer eye models are a good representation of real eyes with IOLs and allow understanding of the relative contribution of optical, geometrical and surgically-related factors to image quality. Corneal spherical aberration is reduced by aspheric IOLs, although other corneal high order aberrations are still a major contributor to total aberrations in pseudophakic eyes. Tilt and decentration of the IOLs represent a relatively minor contribution of the overall optical quality of the eye.

  4. Three-dimensional quadrupole lenses made with permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of accelerator systems with quadrupole magnets can be improved by using permanent magnets in quadrupole lenses. This requires better methods for treating the three-dimensional nature of the magnetic fields and the nonlinear characteristics of the magnets. A numerical method is described for simulating three-dimensional magnetic fields and used to analyze quadrupole lenses and doublets with permanent magnets. The results, which are confirmed experimentally, indicate that both the quadrupole magnetic gradient and the effective field length are changed in permanent-magnet quadrupole lenses when the pole lengths and the gap between the lenses are varied while the other characteristics of the magnets remain unchanged

  5. Contact lenses fitting after intracorneal ring segments implantation in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Bugmann Moreira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate contact lenses fitting after intracorneal ring implantation for keratoconus, its visual acuity and comfort. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients undergoing contact lenses fitting, after intracorneal ring for keratoconus. The criterion for contact lens fitting was unsatisfactory visual acuity with spectacle correction as referred by the patients. All patients were intolerants to contact lenses prior to intracorneal implantation. Visual acuity analysis was done by conversion of Snellen to logMAR scales. The comfort was evaluated according subjective questioning of good, medium or poor comfort. RESULTS: Nineteen patients were included in the study. Two patients (10.5% did not achieved good comfort with contact lenses and underwent penetrating keratoplasties. All the others 17 patients showed good or medium comfort. Four rigid gas-permeable contact lenses were fitted, one piggyback approach, 3 toric soft contact lenses, 2 soft lenses specially design for keratoconus and 7 disposable soft lenses. The average visual acuity improved from 0.77 ± 0.37 to 0.19 ± 0.13 logMAR units after contact lenses fitting. CONCLUSION: Contact lens fitting after intracorneal ring is possible, provides good comfort, improves visual acuity, and therefore, may postpone the need for penetrating keratoplasty.

  6. Bacterial adhesion to unworn and worn silicone hydrogel lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ajay Kumar; Zhu, Hua; Ozkan, Jerome; Wu, Duojia; Masoudi, Simin; Bandara, Rani; Borazjani, Roya N; Willcox, Mark D P

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial adhesion to various silicone hydrogel lens materials and to determine whether lens wear modulated adhesion. Bacterial adhesion (total and viable cells) of Staphylococcus aureus (31, 38, and ATCC 6538) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6294, 6206, and GSU-3) to 10 commercially available different unworn and worn silicone hydrogel lenses was measured. Results of adhesion were correlated to polymer and surface properties of contact lenses. S. aureus adhesion to unworn lenses ranged from 2.8 × 10 to 4.4 × 10 colony forming units per lens. The highest adhesion was to lotrafilcon A lenses, and the lowest adhesion was to asmofilcon A lenses. P. aeruginosa adhesion to unworn lenses ranged from 8.9 × 10 to 3.2 × 10 colony forming units per lens. The highest adhesion was to comfilcon A lenses, and the lowest adhesion was to asmofilcon A and balafilcon A lenses. Lens wear altered bacterial adhesion, but the effect was specific to lens and strain type. Adhesion of bacteria, regardless of genera/species or lens wear, was generally correlated with the hydrophobicity of the lens; the less hydrophobic the lens surface, the greater the adhesion. P. aeruginosa adhered in higher numbers to lenses in comparison with S. aureus strains, regardless of the lens type or lens wear. The effect of lens wear was specific to strain and lens. Hydrophobicity of the silicone hydrogel lens surface influenced the adhesion of bacterial cells.

  7. Using Strong Gravitational Lensing to Identify Fossil Group Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lucas E.; Irwin, Jimmy A.; White, Raymond E., III; Wong, Ka-Wah; Maksym, W. Peter; Dupke, Renato A.; Miller, Eric D.; Carrasco, Eleazar R.

    2018-04-01

    Fossil galaxy systems are classically thought to be the end result of galaxy group/cluster evolution, as galaxies experiencing dynamical friction sink to the center of the group potential and merge into a single, giant elliptical that dominates the rest of the members in both mass and luminosity. Most fossil systems discovered lie within z fossil criteria within the look forward time. Since strong gravitational lensing preferentially selects groups merging along the line of sight, or systems with a high mass concentration like fossil systems, we searched the CASSOWARY survey of strong-lensing events with the goal of determining whether lensing systems have any predisposition to being fossil systems or progenitors. We find that ∼13% of lensing groups are identified as traditional fossils while only ∼3% of nonlensing control groups are. We also find that ∼23% of lensing systems are traditional fossil progenitors compared to ∼17% for the control sample. Our findings show that strong-lensing systems are more likely to be fossil/pre-fossil systems than comparable nonlensing systems. Cumulative galaxy luminosity functions of the lensing and nonlensing groups also indicate a possible, fundamental difference between strong-lensing and nonlensing systems’ galaxy populations, with lensing systems housing a greater number of bright galaxies even in the outskirts of groups.

  8. Prevention of the adverse photic effects of peripheral light-focusing using UV-blocking contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, L Stephen; Kuznetsov, Valerian A; Ho, Arthur; Coroneo, Minas T

    2003-04-01

    Peripheral light-focusing (PLF) is an occult form of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) hazardous to the human eye. In PLF, obliquely incident light is refracted from the peripheral cornea to concentrated sites inside the anterior segment. In the current study, the directionality of this phenomenon for UVR and whether PLF is established in outdoor settings exposed to sunlight were investigated. The protection provided by a UV-blocking contact lens was also evaluated. UVA and UVB sensors were placed on the nasal limbus of an anatomically based model eye. The temporal limbus was exposed to a UV light source placed at various angles behind the frontal plane. PLF was quantified with the sensor output. The ensemble was mounted in the orbit of a mannequin head and exposed to sunlight in three insolation environments within the region of Sydney, Australia. PLF for UVA and UVB was determined with no eyewear or with sunglasses and commercially available soft contact lenses, with and without UV-blocking capability. The intensity of UVA peaked at approximately 120 degrees incidence, the level at which the UVB response was also at its maximum. The intensification of UVA was up to x18.3. The intensity of PLF for UVA and UVB was reduced by an order of magnitude by a UV-blocking contact lens, whereas a clear contact lenses had a much lesser effect. Only the UV-blocking contact lens achieved a significant effect on UVA and UVB irradiance in the urban, beach, and mountain locales (P UV-blocking soft contact lenses. Sunglasses may be unable to shield oblique rays, unless side protection is incorporated. Contact lenses can offer UVR protection against all angles of incidence, including the peak-response angle. They can also protect the eye in settings in which the wearing of sunglasses is not feasible or convenient.

  9. Mary Poppins and the Soviet Pilgrimage: P.L.Travers's Moscow Excursion (1934

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McNair

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Like the journey it chronicles, Moscow Excursion, P.L.Travers’s account of her 1932 visit to Russia, was in part inspired by the genre it effectively parodies: the ‘Soviet pilgrimage’ ‘truth about Russia’ narrative characteristic of the Stalin decades and exemplified (in the Australian context by Katharine Susannah Prichard’s The Real Russia, also published in 1934. The paper examines the ways in which Travers’s book is written against this genre to produce an avowedly ‘un-political’ record whose narrator rejects the restrictions of organized travel, and whose idiosyncratic and critical observations on Soviet reality contrast with the admiration of her more orthodox fellow-travellers for the usual showcase institutions on the official itinerary. At the same time, it is argued that in its blend of self-deprecating irony, whimsy and disillusioned idealism Moscow Excursion suggests parallels with Travers’s personal quest for ‘the truth’ and even with Mary Poppins, published only two months later.

  10. Variations in Star Excursion Balance Test Performance Between High School and Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Ryan S; Kosik, Kyle B; Beard, Megan Q; Terada, Masafumi; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Gribble, Phillip A

    2015-10-01

    The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) is a reliable inexpensive tool used to assess dynamic postural control deficits and efficacy in the prediction of musculoskeletal injuries, but with little previous consideration for performance differences across age and skill levels. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in SEBT scores between high school and collegiate football players. Three-hundred eighteen high school football players and 180 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate football players volunteered to participate. Star Excursion Balance Test scores were obtained bilaterally for anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions, and for an overall composite (COMP) score. The mean of 3 trials from each leg was normalized to stance leg length and presented as a percentage score. Bilaterally averaged scores were compared between high school and collegiate football players using separate independent t-tests. A multiple linear backward regression determined the amount of variance in SEBT scores explained by age, mass, and height. Compared with collegiate athletes, high school athletes had lower PL (72.8 ± 11.4% vs. 77.1 ± 10.2%; p football players.

  11. Metasurface Enabled Wide-Angle Fourier Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwei; Li, Zhancheng; Cheng, Hua; Tang, Chengchun; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2018-06-01

    Fourier optics, the principle of using Fourier transformation to understand the functionalities of optical elements, lies at the heart of modern optics, and it has been widely applied to optical information processing, imaging, holography, etc. While a simple thin lens is capable of resolving Fourier components of an arbitrary optical wavefront, its operation is limited to near normal light incidence, i.e., the paraxial approximation, which puts a severe constraint on the resolvable Fourier domain. As a result, high-order Fourier components are lost, resulting in extinction of high-resolution information of an image. Other high numerical aperture Fourier lenses usually suffer from the bulky size and costly designs. Here, a dielectric metasurface consisting of high-aspect-ratio silicon waveguide array is demonstrated experimentally, which is capable of performing 1D Fourier transform for a large incident angle range and a broad operating bandwidth. Thus, the device significantly expands the operational Fourier space, benefitting from the large numerical aperture and negligible angular dispersion at large incident angles. The Fourier metasurface will not only facilitate efficient manipulation of spatial spectrum of free-space optical wavefront, but also be readily integrated into micro-optical platforms due to its compact size. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Applications of electron lenses: scraping of high-power beams, beam-beam compensation, and nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-09-11

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Hollow electron beam collimation and halo control were studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN; a conceptual design was recently completed. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compensation in LHC luminosity upgrade scenarios with small crossing angles. At Fermilab, we are planning to install an electron lens in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA, a 40-m ring for 150-MeV electrons) as one of the proof-of-principle implementations of nonlinear integrable optics to achieve large tune spreads and more stable beams without loss of dynamic aperture.

  13. Angles in hyperbolic lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Morten S.; Södergren, Carl Anders

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior of the den......It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior...... of the density function in both the small and large variable limits. This extends earlier results by Boca, Pasol, Popa and Zaharescu and Kelmer and Kontorovich in dimension 2 to general dimension n . Our proofs use the decay of matrix coefficients together with a number of careful estimates, and lead...

  14. Spurious Shear in Weak Lensing with LSST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; Kahn, S.M.; Jernigan, J.G.; Peterson, J.R.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R.R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.A.; Jee, M.J.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, P.J.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.

    2012-09-19

    The complete 10-year survey from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will image {approx} 20,000 square degrees of sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to r {approx} 27.5, with over 4 billion well measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of algorithm-independent, additive systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing analysis techniques. We find that the main source of the errors comes from an inability to adequately characterise the atmospheric point spread function (PSF) due to its high frequency spatial variation on angular scales smaller than {approx} 10{prime} in the single short exposures, which propagates into a spurious shear correlation function at the 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} level on these scales. With the large multi-epoch dataset that will be acquired by LSST, the stochastic errors average out, bringing the final spurious shear correlation function to a level very close to the statistical errors. Our results imply that the cosmological constraints from LSST will not be severely limited by these algorithm-independent, additive systematic effects.

  15. The Strong Lensing Time Delay Challenge (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kai; Dobler, G.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Rumbaugh, N.; Linder, E.; Hojjati, A.

    2014-01-01

    Time delays between multiple images in strong lensing systems are a powerful probe of cosmology. At the moment the application of this technique is limited by the number of lensed quasars with measured time delays. However, the number of such systems is expected to increase dramatically in the next few years. Hundred such systems are expected within this decade, while the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is expected to deliver of order 1000 time delays in the 2020 decade. In order to exploit this bounty of lenses we needed to make sure the time delay determination algorithms have sufficiently high precision and accuracy. As a first step to test current algorithms and identify potential areas for improvement we have started a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). An "evil" team has created realistic simulated light curves, to be analyzed blindly by "good" teams. The challenge is open to all interested parties. The initial challenge consists of two steps (TDC0 and TDC1). TDC0 consists of a small number of datasets to be used as a training template. The non-mandatory deadline is December 1 2013. The "good" teams that complete TDC0 will be given access to TDC1. TDC1 consists of thousands of lightcurves, a number sufficient to test precision and accuracy at the subpercent level, necessary for time-delay cosmography. The deadline for responding to TDC1 is July 1 2014. Submissions will be analyzed and compared in terms of predefined metrics to establish the goodness-of-fit, efficiency, precision and accuracy of current algorithms. This poster describes the challenge in detail and gives instructions for participation.

  16. Effect of cholesterol deposition on bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei Omali, Negar; Zhu, Hua; Zhao, Zhenjun; Ozkan, Jerome; Xu, Banglao; Borazjani, Roya; Willcox, Mark D P

    2011-08-01

    To examine the effect of cholesterol on the adhesion of bacteria to silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Contact lenses, collected from subjects wearing Acuvue Oasys or PureVision lenses, were extracted in chloroform:methanol (1:1, v/v) and amount of cholesterol was estimated by thin-layer chromatography. Unworn lenses were soaked in cholesterol, and the numbers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains or Staphylococcus aureus strains that adhered to the lenses were measured. Cholesterol was tested for effects on bacterial growth by incubating bacteria in medium containing cholesterol. From ex vivo PureVision lenses, 3.4 ± 0.3 μg/lens cholesterol was recovered, and from Acuvue Oasys lenses, 2.4 ± 0.2 to 1.0 ± 0.1 μg/lens cholesterol was extracted. Cholesterol did not alter the total or viable adhesion of any strain of P. aeruginosa or S. aureus (p > 0.05). However, worn PureVision lenses reduced the numbers of viable cells of P. aeruginosa (5.8 ± 0.4 log units) compared with unworn lenses (6.4 ± 0.2 log units, p = 0.001). Similarly, there were fewer numbers of S. aureus 031 adherent to worn PureVision (3.05 ± 0.8 log units) compared with unworn PureVision (4.6 ± 0.3 log units, p = 0.0001). Worn Acuvue Oasys lenses did not affect bacterial adhesion. Cholesterol showed no effect on the growth of any test strain. Although cholesterol has been shown to adsorb to contact lenses during wear, this lipid does not appear to modulate bacterial adhesion to a lens surface.

  17. ALGORITHMS AND PROGRAMS FOR STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING IN KERR SPACE-TIME INCLUDING POLARIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bin; Maddumage, Prasad [Research Computing Center, Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie, E-mail: bchen3@fsu.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python.

  18. ALGORITHMS AND PROGRAMS FOR STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING IN KERR SPACE-TIME INCLUDING POLARIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Maddumage, Prasad; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python

  19. The lensing properties of the Einasto profile

    OpenAIRE

    Retana-Montenegro, E.; Frutos-Alfaro, F.

    2011-01-01

    In recent high resolution N-body CDM simulations, it has been had found that nonsingular three-parameter models, e.g. the Einasto profile has a better performance better than the singular two-parameter models, e.g. the Navarro, Frenk and White in the fitting of a wide range of dark matter halos. A problem with this profile is that the surface mass density is non-analytical for general values of the Einasto index. Therefore, its other lensing properties have the same problem. We obtain an exac...

  20. Optimizing outcomes with multifocal intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitansha Shreyas Sachdev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern day cataract surgery is evolving from a visual restorative to a refractive procedure. The advent of multifocal intraocular lenses (MFIOLs allows greater spectacle independence and increased quality of life postoperatively. Since the inception in 1980s, MFIOLs have undergone various technical advancements including trifocal and extended depth of vision implants more recently. A thorough preoperative workup including the patients' visual needs and inherent ocular anatomy allows us to achieve superior outcomes. This review offers a comprehensive overview of the various types of MFIOLs and principles of optimizing outcomes through a comprehensive preoperative screening and management of postoperative complications.

  1. Electron Beam Generation in Tevatron Electron Lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Solyak, N.; Tiunov, M.

    2006-01-01

    New type of high perveance electron guns with convex cathode has been developed. Three guns described in this article are built to provide transverse electron current density distributions needed for Electron Lenses for beam-beam compensation in the Tevatron collider. The current distribution can be controlled either by the gun geometry or by voltage on a special control electrode located near cathode. We present the designs of the guns and report results of beam measurements on the test bench. Because of their high current density and low transverse temperature of electrons, electron guns of this type can be used in electron cooling and beam-beam compensation devices

  2. Electron beam generation in Tevatron electron lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Solyak, N.; Tiunov, M.

    2006-01-01

    New type of high perveance electron guns with convex cathode has been developed. Three guns described in this article are built to provide transverse electron current density distributions needed for Electron Lenses for beam-beam compensation in the Tevatron collider. The current distribution can be controlled either by the gun geometry or by voltage on a special control electrode located near cathode. We present the designs of the guns and report results of beam measurements on the test bench. Because of their high current density and low transverse temperature of electrons, electron guns of this type can be used in electron cooling and beam-beam compensation devices

  3. Magnified Weak Lensing Cross Correlation Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, Melville P., Clowe, Douglas I.

    2010-11-30

    This project carried out a weak lensing tomography (WLT) measurement around rich clusters of galaxies. This project used ground based photometric redshift data combined with HST archived cluster images that provide the WLT and cluster mass modeling. The technique has already produced interesting results (Guennou et al, 2010,Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol 523, page 21, and Clowe et al, 2011 to be submitted). Guennou et al have validated that the necessary accuracy can be achieved with photometric redshifts for our purposes. Clowe et al titled "The DAFT/FADA survey. II. Tomographic weak lensing signal from 10 high redshift clusters," have shown that for the **first time** via this purely geometrical technique, which does not assume a standard rod or candle, that a cosmological constant is **required** for flat cosmologies. The intent of this project is not to produce the best constraint on the value of the dark energy equation of state, w. Rather, this project is to carry out a sustained effort of weak lensing tomography that will naturally feed into the near term Dark Energy Survey (DES) and to provide invaluable mass calibration for that project. These results will greatly advance a key cosmological method which will be applied to the top-rated ground-based project in the Astro2020 decadal survey, LSST. Weak lensing tomography is one of the key science drivers behind LSST. CO-I Clowe is on the weak lensing LSST committee, and senior scientist on this project, at FNAL James Annis, plays a leading role in the DES. This project has built on successful proposals to obtain ground-based imaging for the cluster sample. By 1 Jan, it is anticipated the project will have accumulated complete 5-color photometry on 30 (or about 1/3) of the targeted cluster sample (public webpage for the survey is available at http://cencos.oamp.fr/DAFT/ and has a current summary of the observational status of various clusters). In all, the project has now been awarded the equivalent of over 60

  4. Characterisation of adaptive fluidic silicone membrane lenses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schneider, F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available membrane shapes for a lens volume of 1 µl at divorce homogeneous membrane thicknesses. The measurement of the system behaviour is realized by the laser-profilometer in the dynamic mode. For the lens with a homogeneous membrane the membrane surface..., inhomogeneous membranes is application specific. On the one hand, systems with planar mem- branes are reasonable for a large focal length range, a constant optical lens quality and a short response time. On the other hand, the application of lenses...

  5. Singular lensing from the scattering on special space-time defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatos, Nick E. [University of Valencia - CSIC, Department of Theoretical Physics and IFIC, Valencia (Spain); King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Papavassiliou, Joannis [University of Valencia - CSIC, Department of Theoretical Physics and IFIC, Valencia (Spain)

    2018-01-15

    It is well known that certain special classes of self-gravitating point-like defects, such as global (non gauged) monopoles, give rise to non-asymptotically flat space-times characterized by solid angle deficits, whose size depends on the details of the underlying microscopic models. The scattering of electrically neutral particles on such space-times is described by amplitudes that exhibit resonant behaviour when thescattering and deficit angles coincide. This, in turn, leads to ring-like structures where the cross sections are formally divergent (''singular lensing''). In this work, we revisit this particular phenomenon, with the twofold purpose of placing it in a contemporary and more general context, in view of renewed interest in the theory and general phenomenology of such defects, and, more importantly, of addressing certain subtleties that appear in the particular computation that leads to the aforementioned effect. In particular, by adopting a specific regularization procedure for the formally infinite Legendre series encountered, we manage to ensure the recovery of the Minkowski space-time, and thus the disappearance of the lensing phenomenon, in the no-defect limit, and the validity of the optical theorem for the elastic total cross section. In addition, the singular nature of the phenomenon is confirmed by means of an alternative calculation, which, unlike the original approach, makes no use of the generating function of the Legendre polynomials, but rather exploits the asymptotic properties of the Fresnel integrals. (orig.)

  6. Singular lensing from the scattering on special space-time defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.; Papavassiliou, Joannis

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that certain special classes of self-gravitating point-like defects, such as global (non gauged) monopoles, give rise to non-asymptotically flat space-times characterized by solid angle deficits, whose size depends on the details of the underlying microscopic models. The scattering of electrically neutral particles on such space-times is described by amplitudes that exhibit resonant behaviour when thescattering and deficit angles coincide. This, in turn, leads to ring-like structures where the cross sections are formally divergent (''singular lensing''). In this work, we revisit this particular phenomenon, with the twofold purpose of placing it in a contemporary and more general context, in view of renewed interest in the theory and general phenomenology of such defects, and, more importantly, of addressing certain subtleties that appear in the particular computation that leads to the aforementioned effect. In particular, by adopting a specific regularization procedure for the formally infinite Legendre series encountered, we manage to ensure the recovery of the Minkowski space-time, and thus the disappearance of the lensing phenomenon, in the no-defect limit, and the validity of the optical theorem for the elastic total cross section. In addition, the singular nature of the phenomenon is confirmed by means of an alternative calculation, which, unlike the original approach, makes no use of the generating function of the Legendre polynomials, but rather exploits the asymptotic properties of the Fresnel integrals. (orig.)

  7. Singular lensing from the scattering on special space-time defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.; Papavassiliou, Joannis

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that certain special classes of self-gravitating point-like defects, such as global (non gauged) monopoles, give rise to non-asymptotically flat space-times characterized by solid angle deficits, whose size depends on the details of the underlying microscopic models. The scattering of electrically neutral particles on such space-times is described by amplitudes that exhibit resonant behaviour when thescattering and deficit angles coincide. This, in turn, leads to ring-like structures where the cross sections are formally divergent ("singular lensing"). In this work, we revisit this particular phenomenon, with the twofold purpose of placing it in a contemporary and more general context, in view of renewed interest in the theory and general phenomenology of such defects, and, more importantly, of addressing certain subtleties that appear in the particular computation that leads to the aforementioned effect. In particular, by adopting a specific regularization procedure for the formally infinite Legendre series encountered, we manage to ensure the recovery of the Minkowski space-time, and thus the disappearance of the lensing phenomenon, in the no-defect limit, and the validity of the optical theorem for the elastic total cross section. In addition, the singular nature of the phenomenon is confirmed by means of an alternative calculation, which, unlike the original approach, makes no use of the generating function of the Legendre polynomials, but rather exploits the asymptotic properties of the Fresnel integrals.

  8. A school excursion to a museum can promote physical activity in children by integrating movement into curricular activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Lærke; Kryger, Tine; Sidenius, Gry

    2017-01-01

    Since children spend a large proportion of their time in institutional settings such as schools, health promotion researchers have identified this as an important setting to promote physical activity (PA). Apart from physical education, PA could be integrated into the school curriculum in other...... consisted of an excursion day to a museum. While an increase in light physical activity and reduction in the amount of sedentary time was observed, students did not spend more time in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during the visit to the museum than on a regular school day. However, over the full excursion...... day, the students accumulated more MVPA. One school used active transportation to and from the museum, which contributed to significantly more MVPA compared to the other schools. An excursion to a museum significantly reduced sedentary time, but was in itself not sufficient to increase MVPA....

  9. Analysis of LOF/TOP excursions in the SNR-300 Zielkern core with a stress controlled rip extension after failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royl, P.

    1987-07-01

    An unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) accident can result in energetic power excursions due to reactivity effects from in-pile fuel motion and compaction after a near midplane failure of fuel pins in unvoided regions of the core (loss of flow driven transient overpower or LOF/TOP excursions). These excursions are strongly mitigated by a propagation of the failure rip, which reduces the fuel compaction and enhances fuel sweep-out. A simple model has been introduced into the SAS3D code in which this propagation is restricted to the expansion of the void zone that is firmed in the coolant channel due to thermal interactions of fuel and sodium (FCI) after failure. The rip propagation is demonstrated in this report in all investigated cases to be a strong mitigator that will limit the fuel compaction effects in the region where they originate

  10. A school excursion to a museum can promote physical activity in children by integrating movement into curricular activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Lærke; Kryger, Tine B; Sidenius, Gry

    2018-01-01

    day, the students accumulated more MVPA. One school used active transportation to and from the museum, which contributed to significantly more MVPA compared to the other schools. An excursion to a museum significantly reduced sedentary time, but was in itself not sufficient to increase MVPA.......Since children spend a large proportion of their time in institutional settings such as schools, health promotion researchers have identified this as an important setting to promote physical activity (PA). Apart from physical education, PA could be integrated into the school curriculum in other...... consisted of an excursion day to a museum. While an increase in light physical activity and reduction in the amount of sedentary time was observed, students did not spend more time in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during the visit to the museum than on a regular school day. However, over the full excursion...

  11. 30 CFR 18.66 - Tests of windows and lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of windows and lenses. 18.66 Section 18... Tests § 18.66 Tests of windows and lenses. (a) Impact tests. A 4-pound cylindrical weight with a 1-inch-diameter hemispherical striking surface shall be dropped (free fall) to strike the window or lens in its...

  12. Dimensional stability of lathe cut C.A.B. lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, R M

    1978-08-01

    Measurements of the back central optical radius in the course of 336 hours of hydration of lathe cut corneal lenses disclosed changes in curvature which were more rapid and of greater magnitude than those previously reported for poly (methyl methacrylate) lenses.

  13. Influence of protein deposition on bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Borazjani, Roya; Zhu, Hua; Zhao, Zhenjun; Jones, Lyndon; Willcox, Mark D P

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the adhesion of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria onto conventional hydrogel (CH) and silicone hydrogel (SH) contact lens materials with and without lysozyme, lactoferrin, and albumin coating. Four lens types (three SH-balafilcon A, lotrafilcon B, and senofilcon A; one CH-etafilcon A) were coated with lysozyme, lactoferrin, or albumin (uncoated lenses acted as controls) and then incubated in Staphylococcus aureus (Saur 31) or either of two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Paer 6294 and 6206) for 24 h at 37 °C. The total counts of the adhered bacteria were determined using the H-thymidine method and viable counts by counting the number of colony-forming units on agar media. All three strains adhered significantly lower to uncoated etafilcon A lenses compared with uncoated SH lenses (p 0.05). Lactoferrin coating on lenses increased binding (total and viable counts) of Saur 31 (p lenses showed significantly higher total counts (p lenses. Albumin coating of lenses increased binding (total and viable counts) of all three strains (p lenses does not possess antibacterial activity against certain bacterial strains, whereas lactoferrin possess an antibacterial effect against strains of P. aeruginosa.

  14. Biochemical analyses of lipids deposited on silicone hydrogel lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hatou

    2010-07-01

    Conclusions: The quantity of total lipid and cholesterol deposited on the 3 silicone hydrogel lenses tested did not differ. However, there were significant differences in the amounts of phospholipid deposited among the 3 silicone hydrogel lenses, of which clinical significance should be explored in the future study.

  15. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louw, de P.G.B.; Eeman, S.; Siemon, B.; `Voortman, B.R.; Gunnink, J.; Baaren, E.S.; Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, freshwater availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence and

  16. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Louw, Perry G.B.; Eeman, Sara; Siemon, Bernhard; Voortman, Bernard R.; Gunnink, Jan; Van Baaren, Esther S.; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, fresh water availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence

  17. From Spheric to Aspheric Solid Polymer Lenses: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Yung Hung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach in the use of MEMS technology to fabricate micro-optofluidic polymer solid lenses in order to achieve the desired profile, focal length, numerical aperture, and spot size. The resulting polymer solid lenses can be applied in optical data storage systems, imaging systems, and automated optical inspection systems. In order to meet the various needs of different applications, polymer solid lenses may have a spherical or aspherical shape. The method of fabricating polymer solid lenses is different from methods used to fabricate tunable lenses with variable focal length or needing an external control system to change the lens geometry. The current trend in polymer solid lenses is toward the fabrication of microlenses with a high numerical aperture, small clear aperture (<2 mm, and high transmittance. In this paper we focus on the use of thermal energy and electrostatic force in shaping the lens profile, including both spherical and aspherical lenses. In addition, the paper discusses how to fabricate a lens with a high numerical aperture of 0.6 using MEMS and also compares the optical characteristics of polymer lens materials, including SU-8, Norland Optical Adhesive (NOA, and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC. Finally, new concepts and applications related to micro-optofluidic lenses and polymer materials are also discussed.

  18. DYNAMIC SPECTRAL MAPPING OF INTERSTELLAR PLASMA LENSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuntsov, Artem V.; Walker, Mark A. [Manly Astrophysics, 3/22 Cliff Street, Manly 2095 (Australia); Koopmans, Leon V. E. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Bannister, Keith W.; Stevens, Jamie; Johnston, Simon [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Reynolds, Cormac; Bignall, Hayley E., E-mail: Artem.Tuntsov@manlyastrophysics.org, E-mail: Mark.Walker@manlyastrophysics.org, E-mail: koopmans@astro.rug.nl [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research—Curtin University, Perth (Australia)

    2016-02-01

    Compact radio sources sometimes exhibit intervals of large, rapid changes in their flux density, due to lensing by interstellar plasma crossing the line of sight. A novel survey program has made it possible to discover these “Extreme Scattering Events” (ESEs) in real time, resulting in a high-quality dynamic spectrum of an ESE observed in PKS 1939–315. Here we present a method for determining the column-density profile of a plasma lens, given only the dynamic radio spectrum of the lensed source, under the assumption that the lens is either axisymmetric or totally anisotropic. Our technique relies on the known, strong frequency dependence of the plasma refractive index in order to determine how points in the dynamic spectrum map to positions on the lens. We apply our method to high-frequency (4.2–10.8 GHz) data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array of the PKS 1939–315 ESE. The derived electron column-density profiles are very similar for the two geometries we consider, and both yield a good visual match to the data. However, the fit residuals are substantially above the noise level, and deficiencies are evident when we compare the predictions of our model to lower-frequency (1.6–3.1 GHz) data on the same ESE, thus motivating future development of more sophisticated inversion techniques.

  19. Nanoplasmonic lenses for bacteria sorting (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangchao; Yanik, Ahmet A.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate that patches of two dimensional arrays of circular plasmonic nanoholes patterned on gold-titanium thin film enables subwavelength focusing of visible light in far field region. Efficient coupling of the light with the excited surface plasmon at metal dielectric interface results in strong light transmission. As a result, surface plasmon plays an important role in the far field focusing behavior of the nanohole-aperture patches device. Furthermore, the focal length of the focused beam was found to be predominantly dependent on the overall size of the patch, which is in good agreement with that calculated by Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral formula. The focused light beam can be utilized to separate bio-particles in the dynamic range from 0.1 μm to 1 μm through mainly overcoming the drag force induced by fluid flow. In our proposed model, focused light generated by our plasmonic lenses will push the larger bio-particles in size back to the source of fluid flow and allow the smaller particles to move towards the central aperture of the patch. Such a new kind of plasmonic lenses open up possibility of sorting bacterium-like particles with plasmonic nanolenses, and also represent a promising tool in the field of virology.

  20. Can strong gravitational lensing constrain dark energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seokcheon; Ng, K.-W.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the ratio of the angular diameter distances from the source to the lens, D ds , and to the observer at present, D s , for various dark energy models. It is well known that the difference of D s s between the models is apparent and this quantity is used for the analysis of Type Ia supernovae. However we investigate the difference between the ratio of the angular diameter distances for a cosmological constant, (D ds /D s ) Λ , and that for other dark energy models, (D ds /D s ) other , in this paper. It has been known that there is lens model degeneracy in using strong gravitational lensing. Thus, we investigate the model independent observable quantity, Einstein radius (θ E ), which is proportional to both D ds /D s and velocity dispersion squared, σ v 2 . D ds /D s values depend on the parameters of each dark energy model individually. However, (D ds /D s ) Λ -(D ds /D s ) other for the various dark energy models, is well within the error of σ v for most of the parameter spaces of the dark energy models. Thus, a single strong gravitational lensing by use of the Einstein radius may not be a proper method to investigate the property of dark energy. However, better understanding to the mass profile of clusters in the future or other methods related to arc statistics rather than the distances may be used for constraints on dark energy

  1. Tackling The Dragon: Investigating Lensed Galaxy Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, Alexander; Livermore, Rachael

    2018-01-01

    Galaxies have been seen to have a rapid decrease in star formation beginning at a redshift of around 1-2 up to the present day. To understand the processes underpinning this change, we need to observe the inner structure of galaxies and understand where and how the stellar mass builds up. However, at high redshifts our observable resolution is limited, which hinders the accuracy of the data. The lack of resolution at high redshift can be counteracted with the use of gravitational lensing. The magnification provided by the gravitational lens between us and the galaxies in question enables us to see extreme detail within the galaxies. To begin fine-tuning this process, we used Hubble data of Abell 370, a galaxy cluster, which lenses a galaxy know as “The Dragon” at z=0.725. With the increased detail proved by the gravitational lens we provide a detailed analysis of the galaxy’s spatially resolved star formation rate, stellar age, and masses.

  2. The theory of stochastic cosmological lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Pierre; Uzan, Jean-Philippe [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 du CNRS, 98 bis Bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Larena, Julien, E-mail: fleury@iap.fr, E-mail: j.larena@ru.ac.za, E-mail: uzan@iap.fr [Department of Mathematics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa)

    2015-11-01

    On the scale of the light beams subtended by small sources, e.g. supernovae, matter cannot be accurately described as a fluid, which questions the applicability of standard cosmic lensing to those cases. In this article, we propose a new formalism to deal with small-scale lensing as a diffusion process: the Sachs and Jacobi equations governing the propagation of narrow light beams are treated as Langevin equations. We derive the associated Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations, and use them to deduce general analytical results on the mean and dispersion of the angular distance. This formalism is applied to random Einstein-Straus Swiss-cheese models, allowing us to: (1) show an explicit example of the involved calculations; (2) check the validity of the method against both ray-tracing simulations and direct numerical integration of the Langevin equation. As a byproduct, we obtain a post-Kantowski-Dyer-Roeder approximation, accounting for the effect of tidal distortions on the angular distance, in excellent agreement with numerical results. Besides, the dispersion of the angular distance is correctly reproduced in some regimes.

  3. Adaptive lenses using transparent dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shian, Samuel; Diebold, Roger; Clarke, David

    2013-03-01

    Variable focal lenses, used in a vast number of applications such as endoscope, digital camera, binoculars, information storage, communication, and machine vision, are traditionally constructed as a lens system consisting of solid lenses and actuating mechanisms. However, such lens system is complex, bulky, inefficient, and costly. Each of these shortcomings can be addressed using an adaptive lens that performs as a lens system. In this presentation, we will show how we push the boundary of adaptive lens technology through the use of a transparent electroactive polymer actuator that is integral to the optics. Detail of our concepts and lens construction will be described as well as electromechanical and optical performances. Preliminary data indicate that our adaptive lens prototype is capable of varying its focus by more than 100%, which is higher than that of human eyes. Furthermore, we will show how our approach can be used to achieve certain controls over the lens characteristics such as adaptive aberration and optical axis, which are difficult or impossible to achieve in other adaptive lens configurations.

  4. Probing neutrino masses with CMB lensing extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesgourgues, Julien; Perotto, Laurence; Pastor, Sergio; Piat, Michel

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the ability of future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments to measure the power spectrum of large scale structure using quadratic estimators of the weak lensing deflection field. We calculate the sensitivity of upcoming CMB experiments such as BICEP, QUaD, BRAIN, ClOVER and Planck to the nonzero total neutrino mass M ν indicated by current neutrino oscillation data. We find that these experiments greatly benefit from lensing extraction techniques, improving their one-sigma sensitivity to M ν by a factor of order four. The combination of data from Planck and the SAMPAN mini-satellite project would lead to σ(M ν )∼0.1 eV, while a value as small as σ(M ν )∼0.035 eV is within the reach of a space mission based on bolometers with a passively cooled 3-4 m aperture telescope, representative of the most ambitious projects currently under investigation. We show that our results are robust not only considering possible difficulties in subtracting astrophysical foregrounds from the primary CMB signal but also when the minimal cosmological model (Λ Mixed Dark Matter) is generalized in order to include a possible scalar tilt running, a constant equation-of-state parameter for the dark energy and/or extra relativistic degrees of freedom

  5. Probabilistic Cosmological Mass Mapping from Weak Lensing Shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M. D.; Dawson, W. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Ng, K. Y. [University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Marshall, P. J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94035 (United States); Meyers, J. E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bard, D. J., E-mail: schneider42@llnl.gov, E-mail: dstn@cmu.edu, E-mail: boutigny@in2p3.fr, E-mail: djbard@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: jmeyers314@stanford.edu [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720-8150 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    We infer gravitational lensing shear and convergence fields from galaxy ellipticity catalogs under a spatial process prior for the lensing potential. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm with simulated Gaussian-distributed cosmological lensing shear maps and a reconstruction of the mass distribution of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 781 using galaxy ellipticities measured with the Deep Lens Survey. Given interim posterior samples of lensing shear or convergence fields on the sky, we describe an algorithm to infer cosmological parameters via lens field marginalization. In the most general formulation of our algorithm we make no assumptions about weak shear or Gaussian-distributed shape noise or shears. Because we require solutions and matrix determinants of a linear system of dimension that scales with the number of galaxies, we expect our algorithm to require parallel high-performance computing resources for application to ongoing wide field lensing surveys.

  6. CMB lensing constraints on dark energy and modified gravity scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Erminia; Cooray, Asantha; Martinelli, Matteo; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pagano, Luca; Slosar, Anze; Smoot, George F.

    2009-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing leaves a characteristic imprint on the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization angular power spectra. Here, we investigate the possible constraints on the integrated lensing potential from future cosmic microwave background angular spectra measurements expected from Planck and EPIC. We find that Planck and EPIC will constrain the amplitude of the integrated projected potential responsible for lensing at 6% and 1% level, respectively, with very little sensitivity to the shape of the lensing potential. We discuss the implications of such a measurement in constraining dark energy and modified gravity scalar-tensor theories. We then discuss the impact of a wrong assumption on the weak lensing potential amplitude on cosmological parameter inference.

  7. Corneal erosions, bacterial contamination of contact lenses, and microbial keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Mark D P; Naduvilath, Thomas J; Vaddavalli, Pravin K; Holden, Brien A; Ozkan, Jerome; Zhu, Hua

    2010-11-01

    To estimate the rate of corneal erosion coupled with gram-negative bacterial contamination of contact lenses and compare this with the rate of microbial keratitis (MK) with contact lenses. The rate of corneal erosion and contact lens contamination by gram-negative bacteria were calculated from several prospective trials. These rates were used to calculate the theoretical rate of corneal erosion happening at the same time as wearing a contact lens contaminated with gram-negative bacteria. This theoretical rate was then compared with the rates of MK reported in various epidemiological and clinical trials. Corneal erosions were more frequent during extended wear (0.6-2.6% of visits) compared with daily wear (0.01-0.05% of visits). No corneal erosions were observed for lenses worn on a daily disposable basis. Contamination rates for lenses worn on a daily disposable basis were the lowest (2.4%), whereas they were the highest for low Dk lenses worn on an extended wear basis (7.1%). The estimated rate of corneal erosions occurring at the same time as wearing lenses contaminated with gram-negative bacteria was the lowest during daily wear of low Dk lenses (1.56/10,000 [95% CI: 0.23-10.57]) and the highest during extended wear of high Dk lenses (38.55/10,000 [95% CI: 24.77-60.04]). These rates were similar in magnitude to the rates reported for MK of different hydrogel lenses worn on differing wear schedules. The coincidence of corneal erosions during lens wear with gram-negative bacterial contamination of lenses may account for the relative incidence of MK during lens wear with different lens materials and modes of use.

  8. Lenses matching of compound eye for target positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Zheng, Yan Pei; Wang, Keyi

    2012-10-01

    Compound eye, as a new imaging method with multi-lens for a large field of view, could complete target positioning and detection fastly, especially at close range. Therefore it could be applicated in the fields of military and medical treatment and aviation with vast market potential and development prospect. Yet the compound eye imaging method designed use three layer construction of multiple lens array arranged in a curved surface and refractive lens and imaging sensor of CMOS. In order to simplify process structure and increase the imaging area of every sub-eye, the imaging area of every eye is coved with the whole CMOS. Therefore, for several imaging point of one target, the corresponding lens of every imaging point is unkonown, and thus to identify. So an algorithm was put forward. Firstly, according to the Regular Geometry relationship of several adjacent lenses, data organization of seven lenses with a main lens was built. Subsequently, by the data organization, when one target was caught by several unknown lenses, we search every combined type of the received lenses. And for every combined type, two lenses were selected to combine and were used to calculate one three-dimensional (3D) coordinate of the target. If the 3D coordinates are same to the some combine type of the lenses numbers, in theory, the lenses and the imaging points are matched. So according to error of the 3D coordinates is calculated by the different seven lenses numbers combines, the unknown lenses could be distinguished. The experimental results show that the presented algorithm is feasible and can complete matching task for imaging points and corresponding lenses.

  9. The use of genetic programming to develop a predictor of swash excursion on sandy beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Passarella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We use genetic programming (GP, a type of machine learning (ML approach, to predict the total and infragravity swash excursion using previously published data sets that have been used extensively in swash prediction studies. Three previously published works with a range of new conditions are added to this data set to extend the range of measured swash conditions. Using this newly compiled data set we demonstrate that a ML approach can reduce the prediction errors compared to well-established parameterizations and therefore it may improve coastal hazards assessment (e.g. coastal inundation. Predictors obtained using GP can also be physically sound and replicate the functionality and dependencies of previous published formulas. Overall, we show that ML techniques are capable of both improving predictability (compared to classical regression approaches and providing physical insight into coastal processes.

  10. The use of genetic programming to develop a predictor of swash excursion on sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarella, Marinella; Goldstein, Evan B.; De Muro, Sandro; Coco, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    We use genetic programming (GP), a type of machine learning (ML) approach, to predict the total and infragravity swash excursion using previously published data sets that have been used extensively in swash prediction studies. Three previously published works with a range of new conditions are added to this data set to extend the range of measured swash conditions. Using this newly compiled data set we demonstrate that a ML approach can reduce the prediction errors compared to well-established parameterizations and therefore it may improve coastal hazards assessment (e.g. coastal inundation). Predictors obtained using GP can also be physically sound and replicate the functionality and dependencies of previous published formulas. Overall, we show that ML techniques are capable of both improving predictability (compared to classical regression approaches) and providing physical insight into coastal processes.

  11. Excursions in classical analysis pathways to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hongwei

    2010-01-01

    Excursions in Classical Analysis introduces undergraduate students to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research in two ways. Firstly, it provides a colourful tour of classical analysis which places a wide variety of problems in their historical context. Secondly, it helps students gain an understanding of mathematical discovery and proof. In demonstrating a variety of possible solutions to the same sample exercise, the reader will come to see how the connections between apparently inapplicable areas of mathematics can be exploited in problem-solving. This book will serve as excellent preparation for participation in mathematics competitions, as a valuable resource for undergraduate mathematics reading courses and seminars and as a supplement text in a course on analysis. It can also be used in independent study, since the chapters are free-standing.

  12. Paleointensities of the Auckland Excursion from Volcanic Rocks in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, N.; Tsunakawa, H.; Shibuya, H.; Cassidy, J.; Smith, I. E.

    2001-12-01

    Shibuya et al. (1992) reported the Auckland excursion from several basaltic lava flows of monogenetic volcanic centers (Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand. The Auckland excursion was recorded in five centers in three intermediate direction groups of north-down, west and south. We carried out paleointensity and rock-magnetic studies in order to obtain the absolute paleointensities associated with three intermediate geomagnetic fields. Thermomagnetic analyses indicated typical Curie temperatures of 150-200, 450-500 and/or 550-580 oC. The Day plot (Day et al., 1977) showed a linear trend in the pseudo-single-domain range of magnetic carriers. Those results, combined with the reflection microscope observations, identified the magnetic carriers as titanomagnetites with wide variation in titanium content and grain size. First, the Coe's version of the Thellier method (Coe, 1967) was applied to the samples. Several samples seemed to give paleointensities ranging from 3.2 to 6.4 μ T (Shibuya and Cassidy, 1995 AGU fall meeting), but they were often affected by thermal alteration in the furnace even from fairly low temperature steps like 200oC. We were forced to introduce correction for thermal alterations in laboratory heating, using low temperature part of the Arai plot. We, therefore, applied the double heating technique (DHT) of Shaw method (Tsunakawa and Shaw, 1994), which was capable of detecting inappropriate results by the ARM correction, to the samples. The low temperature demagnetization (LTD) was combined with DHT (Yamamoto et al., submitted) before AF demagnetization and samples were heated in a vacuum of 10-100 Pa. Sixty-one samples from the five lava flows were subjected to the LTD-DHT Shaw method. Twenty-three of these samples yielded successful results passing the selection criteria. Five out of six paleointensities from the Crater Hill lava were consistent with each other. A mean paleointensity was given to be 10.9+/- 1.9 μ T (N=5) for the Crater Hill

  13. Limnologic-geologic excursion in the territory of the lower Erft River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, G.; Thome, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    The geography and hydrology of the area of the excursion are described. There is much damage due to brown coal strip mining operations. Ground water was drained through a canal leading to the Erft River. The water in nearby springs is rich in Fe which repels plant life. The canal contains only a few blue algae (Oscillatoria splendida) and filamentous green algae (Ulothrix tenerrima) which tolerate high Fe concentrations. The Erft shore plant population includes Sparganium erectum, Potamogeton natans, P. pectinatus and Ranunculus fluitans. On flowering plants and stones, diatoms, various green algae (Cladophora glomerata, Stigeoclonium tenue, Oedogonium capillare) and the tropical red alga Compsopogon hookeri were found. The macrozoobenthos is composed mainly of snails (Bithynia tenaculata, Lumnaea ovata, Physa fontinalis, P. acuta and worms of North American origin (Dugesia tifrina, Dendrocoelum lacteum and Planaria lugubris). The Isopoda included Asellus coxalis and A. aquaticus. Leeches (Herpobdella octoculata) and insect larvae (Chironomids, Limnephilids) were also found.

  14. The effect of octylglucoside and sodium cholate in Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to soft contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lívia; Rodrigues, Diana; Lira, Madalena; Oliveira, Rosario; Real Oliveira, M Elisabete C D; Vilar, Eva Yebra-Pimentel; Azeredo, Joana

    2007-05-01

    In this study, the effect of the natural surfactants octylglucoside and sodium cholate in inhibiting Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to conventional and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses (CL) was assessed. Hydrophobicity was also evaluated to conditioned and nonconditioned CL. The inhibiting effect of the tested surfactants was determined through "in vitro" adhesion studies to conditioned and nonconditioned CL followed by image acquisition and cell enumeration. Hydrophobicity was evaluated through contact angle measurements using the advancing type technique on air. Sodium cholate exhibits a very low capability to inhibit microbial adhesion. Conversely, octylglucoside effectively inhibited microbial adhesion in both types of lenses. This surfactant exhibited an even greater performance than a multipurpose lens care solution used as control. Octylglucoside was the only tested surfactant able to lower the hydrophobicity of all CL, which can explain its high performance. The results obtained in this study point out the potential of octylglucoside as a conditioning agent to prevent microbial colonization.

  15. The deflection angle of a gravitational source with a global monopole in the strong field limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Hongbo; Man Jingyun

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational lensing effect in the strong field background around the Schwarzschild black hole with extremely small mass and solid deficit angle subject to the global monopole by means of the strong field limit issue. We obtain the angular position and magnification of the relativistic images and show that they relate to the global monopole parameter η. We discuss that with the increase of the parameter η, the minimum impact parameter u m and angular separation s increase and the relative magnification r decreases. We also find that s grows extremely as the increasing parameter η becomes large enough. The deflection angle will become larger when the parameter η grows. The effect from the solid deficit angle is the dependence of angular position, angular separation, relative magnification and deflection angle on the parameter η, which may offer a way to characterize some possible distinct signatures of the Schwarzschild black hole with a solid deficit angle associated with the global monopole.

  16. A simple technique of intraocular lenses explantation for single-piece foldable lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Bhaumik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs are most commonly used in modern-day cataract surgery. Explantation of these IOLs is not frequently encountered, but sometimes extreme situations may demand the same. Commonly explantation is achieved by bisecting the IOL inside the anterior chamber with a cutter and delivering the pieces out one by one. This may require corneal wound extension with associated damage and endothelial loss leading to visual deterioration. We devised a simple, innovative IOL explantation technique utilizing a modified Alcon A cartridge and snare. This can successfully refold the IOL to be explanted inside the eye and deliver it out through the same wound. The device has limitations with very thick optic lenses, multipiece, and silicon IOLs. In conclusion, we describe a simple, innovative, and reproducible technique to explant almost any single piece IOL without compromising the original surgery and yielding very satisfactory outcomes.

  17. The impact of ΛCDM substructure and baryon-dark matter transition on the image positions of quad galaxy lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomer, Matthew R.; Williams, Liliya L. R.

    2018-04-01

    The positions of multiple images in galaxy lenses are related to the galaxy mass distribution. Smooth elliptical mass profiles were previously shown to be inadequate in reproducing the quad population. In this paper, we explore the deviations from such smooth elliptical mass distributions. Unlike most other work, we use a model-free approach based on the relative polar image angles of quads, and their position in 3D space with respect to the fundamental surface of quads (FSQ). The FSQ is defined by quads produced by elliptical lenses. We have generated thousands of quads from synthetic populations of lenses with substructure consistent with Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) simulations, and found that such perturbations are not sufficient to match the observed distribution of quads relative to the FSQ. The result is unchanged even when subhalo masses are increased by a factor of 10, and the most optimistic lensing selection bias is applied. We then produce quads from galaxies created using two components, representing baryons and dark matter. The transition from the mass being dominated by baryons in inner radii to being dominated by dark matter in outer radii can carry with it asymmetries, which would affect relative image angles. We run preliminary experiments using lenses with two elliptical mass components with non-identical axial ratios and position angles, perturbations from ellipticity in the form of non-zero Fourier coefficients a4 and a6, and artificially offset ellipse centres as a proxy for asymmetry at image radii. We show that combination of these effects is a promising way of accounting for quad population properties. We conclude that the quad population provides a unique and sensitive tool for constraining detailed mass distribution in the centres of galaxies.

  18. The quadriceps angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2012-01-01

    : Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...

  19. open angle glaucoma (poag)?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    there is a build up of pressure due to poor outflow of aqueous humor. The outflow obstruction could occur at the trabecular meshwork of the anterior chamber angle or subsequently in the episcleral vein due to raised venous pressure. Such build up of pressure results in glaucoma . Elevated intraocular pressure remains the ...

  20. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  1. At Right Angles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. At Right Angles. Shailesh A Shirali. Information and Announcements Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 920-920. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0920-0920 ...

  2. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  3. DISCOVERY OF THE LARGEST KNOWN LENSED IMAGES FORMED BY A CRITICALLY CONVERGENT LENSING CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom

    2009-01-01

    We identify the largest known lensed images of a single spiral galaxy, lying close to the center of the distant cluster MACS J1149.5+2223 (z = 0.544). These images cover a total area of ≅150 mbox '' and are magnified ≅200 times. Unusually, there is very little image distortion, implying that the central mass distribution is almost uniform over a wide area (r ≅ 200 kpc) with a surface density equal to the critical density for lensing, corresponding to maximal lens magnification. Many fainter multiply lensed galaxies are also uncovered by our model, outlining a very large tangential critical curve, of radius r ≅ 170 kpc, posing a potential challenge for the standard LCDM cosmology. Because of the uniform central mass distribution, a particularly clean measurement of the mass of the brightest cluster galaxy is possible here, for which we infer stars contribute most of the mass within a limiting radius of ≅30 kpc, with a mass-to-light ratio of M/L B ≅ 4.5(M/L) sun . This cluster with its uniform and central mass distribution acts analogously to a regular magnifying glass, converging light without distorting the images, resulting in the most powerful lens yet discovered for accessing the faint high-z universe.

  4. Lensing reconstruction from a patchwork of polarization maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namikawa, Toshiya; Nagata, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    The lensing signals involved in CMB polarization maps have already been measured with ground-based experiments such as SPTpol and POLARBEAR, and would become important as a probe of cosmological and astrophysical issues in the near future. Sizes of polarization maps from ground-based experiments are, however, limited by contamination of long wavelength modes of observational noise. To further extract the lensing signals, we explore feasibility of measuring lensing signals from a collection of small sky maps each of which is observed separately by a ground-based large telescope, i.e., lensing reconstruction from a patchwork map of large sky coverage organized from small sky patches. We show that, although the B-mode power spectrum obtained from the patchwork map is biased due to baseline uncertainty, bias on the lensing potential would be negligible if the B-mode on scales larger than the blowup scale of 1/f noise is removed in the lensing reconstruction. As examples of cosmological applications, we also show 1) the cross-correlations between the reconstructed lensing potential and full-sky temperature/polarization maps from satellite missions such as PLANCK and LiteBIRD, and 2) the use of the reconstructed potential for delensing B-mode polarization of LiteBIRD observation

  5. The effect of weak lensing on distance estimates from supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mathew; Maartens, Roy [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Bacon, David J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Campbell, Heather; D' Andrea, Chris B. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Clarkson, Chris [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Bassett, Bruce A. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Cinabro, David [Wayne State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Finley, David A.; Frieman, Joshua A. [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Galbany, Lluis [CENTRA Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofísica, Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Garnavich, Peter M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Olmstead, Matthew D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Shapiro, Charles [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, La Canada Flintridge, CA 91109 (United States); Sollerman, Jesper, E-mail: matsmith2@gmail.com [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 608 Type Ia supernovae from the SDSS-II and BOSS surveys, combined with a sample of foreground galaxies from SDSS-II, we estimate the weak lensing convergence for each supernova line of sight. We find that the correlation between this measurement and the Hubble residuals is consistent with the prediction from lensing (at a significance of 1.7σ). Strong correlations are also found between the residuals and supernova nuisance parameters after a linear correction is applied. When these other correlations are taken into account, the lensing signal is detected at 1.4σ. We show, for the first time, that distance estimates from supernovae can be improved when lensing is incorporated, by including a new parameter in the SALT2 methodology for determining distance moduli. The recovered value of the new parameter is consistent with the lensing prediction. Using cosmic microwave background data from WMAP7, H {sub 0} data from Hubble Space Telescope and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Baryon acoustic oscillations measurements, we find the best-fit value of the new lensing parameter and show that the central values and uncertainties on Ω {sub m} and w are unaffected. The lensing of supernovae, while only seen at marginal significance in this low-redshift sample, will be of vital importance for the next generation of surveys, such as DES and LSST, which will be systematics-dominated.

  6. Eyelid reanimation with gold weight implant and tendon sling suspension: evaluation of excursion and velocity using the FACIAL CLIMA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the efficacy of static techniques, namely gold weight implant and tendon sling, in the reanimation of the paralytic eyelid. Upper eyelid rehabilitation in terms of excursion and blinking velocity is performed using the automatic motion capture system, FACIAL CLIMA. Seventy-four patients underwent a total of 101 procedures including 58 upper eyelid gold weight implants and 43 lower eyelid tendon suspension with 27 patients undergoing both procedures. The presence of lagophtalmos, eye dryness, corneal ulcer, epiphora and lower lid ptosis/ectropion was assessed preoperatively. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare preoperative versus postoperative measurements of upper eyelid excursion and blinking velocity determined with FACIAL CLIMA. Significance was set at p CLIMA revealed significant improvement of eyelid excursion and velocity of blinking (p CLIMA system is a reliable method to quantify upper eyelid excursion and blinking velocity and to detect the exact position of the lower eyelid. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Weak lensing cosmology beyond ΛCDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sudeep; Linder, Eric V.; Nakajima, Reiko; Putter, Roland de

    2012-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is one of the key probes of the cosmological model, dark energy, and dark matter, providing insight into both the cosmic expansion history and large scale structure growth history. Taking into account a broad spectrum of physics affecting growth — dynamical dark energy, extended gravity, neutrino masses, and spatial curvature — we analyze the cosmological constraints. Similarly we consider the effects of a range of systematic uncertainties, in shear measurement, photometric redshifts, intrinsic alignments, and the nonlinear power spectrum, on cosmological parameter extraction. We also investigate, and provide fitting formulas for, the influence of survey parameters such as redshift depth, galaxy number densities, and sky area on the cosmological constraints in the beyond-ΛCDM parameter space. Finally, we examine the robustness of results for different fiducial cosmologies

  8. Axial nonimaging characteristics of imaging lenses: discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Ronian

    2016-05-01

    At observation planes away from the image plane, an imaging lens is a nonimaging optic. We examine the variation of axial irradiance with distance in image space and highlight the following little-known observation for discussion: On a per-unit-area basis, the position of the highest concentration in image space is generally not at the focal plane. This characteristic is contrary to common experience, and it offers an additional degree of freedom for the design of detection systems. Additionally, it would also apply to lenses with negative refractive index. The position of peak concentration and its irradiance is dependent upon the location and irradiance of the image. As such, this discussion also includes a close examination of expressions for image irradiance and explains how they are related to irradiance calculations beyond the image plane. This study is restricted to rotationally symmetric refractive imaging systems with incoherent extended Lambertian sources.

  9. Microfabrication of hard x-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik

    This thesis deals with the development of silicon compound refractive lenses (Si-CRLs) for shaping hard x-ray beams. The CRLs are to be fabricated using state of the art microfabrication techniques. The primary goal of the thesis work is to produce Si-CRLs with considerably increased structure...... and characterized with respect to their shape. Their optical performances were tested at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Two 1D-focusing Si-CRLs suitable as condensers in hard-XRM were developed utilizing the aforementioned two different strategies. The first Si-condenser showed focusing of a 56...... of space for sample surroundings and ensure low-divergent and wide x-ray beams with narrow waists. Both results are substantial improvements to what was available at the start of this thesis work. The challenge of making x-ray objectives in silicon by interdigitation of lenslets alternately focusing...

  10. Mechanical properties of intra-ocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Klaus; Kim, Eon; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2008-02-01

    Cataract surgery usually involves the replacement of the natural crystalline lens with a rigid or foldable intraocular lens to restore clear vision for the patient. While great efforts have been placed on optimising the shape and optical characteristics of IOLs, little is know about the mechanical properties of these devices and how they interact with the capsular bag once implanted. Mechanical properties measurements were performed on 8 of the most commonly implanted IOLs using a custom build micro tensometer. Measurement data will be presented for the stiffness of the haptic elements, the buckling resistance of foldable IOLs, the dynamic behaviour of the different lens materials and the axial compressibility. The biggest difference between the lens types was found between one-piece and 3-piece lenses with respect to the flexibility of the haptic elements

  11. The Hubble constant estimation using 18 gravitational lensing time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaelani, Anton T.; Premadi, Premana W.

    2014-03-01

    Gravitational lens time delay method has been used to estimate the rate of cosmological expansion, called the Hubble constant, H0, independently of the standard candle method. This gravitational lensing method requires a good knowledge of the lens mass distribution, reconstructed using the lens image properties. The observed positions of the images, and the redshifts of the lens and the images serve as strong constraints to the lens equations, which are then solved as a set of simultaneous linear equations. Here we made use of a non-parametric technique to reconstruct the lens mass distribution, which is manifested in a linear equations solver named PixeLens. Input for the calculation is chosen based on prior known parameters obtained from analyzed result of the lens case observations, including time-delay, position angles of the images and the lens, and their redshifts. In this project, 18 fairly well studied lens cases are further grouped according to a number of common properties to examine how each property affects the character of the data, and therefore affects the calculation of H0. The considered lens case properties are lens morphology, number of image, completeness of time delays, and symmetry of lens mass distribution. Analysis of simulation shows that paucity of constraints on mass distribution of a lens yields wide range value of H0, which reflects the uniqueness of each lens system. Nonetheless, gravitational lens method still yields H0 within an acceptable range of value when compared to those determined by many other methods. Grouping the cases in the above manner allowed us to assess the robustness of PixeLens and thereby use it selectively. In addition, we use glafic, a parametric mass reconstruction solver, to refine the mass distribution of one lens case, as a comparison.

  12. Weak lensing galaxy cluster field reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullo, E.; Pires, S.; Jauzac, M.; Kneib, J.-P.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we compare three methods to reconstruct galaxy cluster density fields with weak lensing data. The first method called FLens integrates an inpainting concept to invert the shear field with possible gaps, and a multi-scale entropy denoising procedure to remove the noise contained in the final reconstruction, that arises mostly from the random intrinsic shape of the galaxies. The second and third methods are based on a model of the density field made of a multi-scale grid of radial basis functions. In one case, the model parameters are computed with a linear inversion involving a singular value decomposition (SVD). In the other case, the model parameters are estimated using a Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain optimization implemented in the lensing software LENSTOOL. Methods are compared on simulated data with varying galaxy density fields. We pay particular attention to the errors estimated with resampling. We find the multi-scale grid model optimized with Monte Carlo Markov Chain to provide the best results, but at high computational cost, especially when considering resampling. The SVD method is much faster but yields noisy maps, although this can be mitigated with resampling. The FLens method is a good compromise with fast computation, high signal-to-noise ratio reconstruction, but lower resolution maps. All three methods are applied to the MACS J0717+3745 galaxy cluster field, and reveal the filamentary structure discovered in Jauzac et al. We conclude that sensitive priors can help to get high signal-to-noise ratio, and unbiased reconstructions.

  13. Constraints on cosmological models from strong gravitational lensing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Shuo; Pan, Yu; Zhu, Zong-Hong; Biesiada, Marek; Godlowski, Wlodzimierz

    2012-01-01

    Strong lensing has developed into an important astrophysical tool for probing both cosmology and galaxies (their structure, formation, and evolution). Using the gravitational lensing theory and cluster mass distribution model, we try to collect a relatively complete observational data concerning the Hubble constant independent ratio between two angular diameter distances D ds /D s from various large systematic gravitational lens surveys and lensing by galaxy clusters combined with X-ray observations, and check the possibility to use it in the future as complementary to other cosmological probes. On one hand, strongly gravitationally lensed quasar-galaxy systems create such a new opportunity by combining stellar kinematics (central velocity dispersion measurements) with lensing geometry (Einstein radius determination from position of images). We apply such a method to a combined gravitational lens data set including 70 data points from Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) and Lens Structure and Dynamics survey (LSD). On the other hand, a new sample of 10 lensing galaxy clusters with redshifts ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 carefully selected from strong gravitational lensing systems with both X-ray satellite observations and optical giant luminous arcs, is also used to constrain three dark energy models (ΛCDM, constant w and CPL) under a flat universe assumption. For the full sample (n = 80) and the restricted sample (n = 46) including 36 two-image lenses and 10 strong lensing arcs, we obtain relatively good fitting values of basic cosmological parameters, which generally agree with the results already known in the literature. This results encourages further development of this method and its use on larger samples obtained in the future

  14. Finding strong lenses in CFHTLS using convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C.; Glazebrook, K.; Collett, T.; More, A.; McCarthy, C.

    2017-10-01

    We train and apply convolutional neural networks, a machine learning technique developed to learn from and classify image data, to Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) imaging for the identification of potential strong lensing systems. An ensemble of four convolutional neural networks was trained on images of simulated galaxy-galaxy lenses. The training sets consisted of a total of 62 406 simulated lenses and 64 673 non-lens negative examples generated with two different methodologies. An ensemble of trained networks was applied to all of the 171 deg2 of the CFHTLS wide field image data, identifying 18 861 candidates including 63 known and 139 other potential lens candidates. A second search of 1.4 million early-type galaxies selected from the survey catalogue as potential deflectors, identified 2465 candidates including 117 previously known lens candidates, 29 confirmed lenses/high-quality lens candidates, 266 novel probable or potential lenses and 2097 candidates we classify as false positives. For the catalogue-based search we estimate a completeness of 21-28 per cent with respect to detectable lenses and a purity of 15 per cent, with a false-positive rate of 1 in 671 images tested. We predict a human astronomer reviewing candidates produced by the system would identify 20 probable lenses and 100 possible lenses per hour in a sample selected by the robot. Convolutional neural networks are therefore a promising tool for use in the search for lenses in current and forthcoming surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  15. Constraints on cosmological models from strong gravitational lensing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Shuo; Pan, Yu; Zhu, Zong-Hong [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Biesiada, Marek [Department of Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Godlowski, Wlodzimierz, E-mail: baodingcaoshuo@163.com, E-mail: panyu@cqupt.edu.cn, E-mail: biesiada@us.edu.pl, E-mail: godlowski@uni.opole.pl, E-mail: zhuzh@bnu.edu.cn [Institute of Physics, Opole University, Oleska 48, 45-052 Opole (Poland)

    2012-03-01

    Strong lensing has developed into an important astrophysical tool for probing both cosmology and galaxies (their structure, formation, and evolution). Using the gravitational lensing theory and cluster mass distribution model, we try to collect a relatively complete observational data concerning the Hubble constant independent ratio between two angular diameter distances D{sub ds}/D{sub s} from various large systematic gravitational lens surveys and lensing by galaxy clusters combined with X-ray observations, and check the possibility to use it in the future as complementary to other cosmological probes. On one hand, strongly gravitationally lensed quasar-galaxy systems create such a new opportunity by combining stellar kinematics (central velocity dispersion measurements) with lensing geometry (Einstein radius determination from position of images). We apply such a method to a combined gravitational lens data set including 70 data points from Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) and Lens Structure and Dynamics survey (LSD). On the other hand, a new sample of 10 lensing galaxy clusters with redshifts ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 carefully selected from strong gravitational lensing systems with both X-ray satellite observations and optical giant luminous arcs, is also used to constrain three dark energy models (ΛCDM, constant w and CPL) under a flat universe assumption. For the full sample (n = 80) and the restricted sample (n = 46) including 36 two-image lenses and 10 strong lensing arcs, we obtain relatively good fitting values of basic cosmological parameters, which generally agree with the results already known in the literature. This results encourages further development of this method and its use on larger samples obtained in the future.

  16. Rapid directional changes associated with a 6.5 kyr-long Blake geomagnetic excursion at the Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Mark; McNiocaill, Conall; Thomas, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Geomagnetic excursions are recognized as intrinsic features of the Earth's magnetic field. High-resolution records of field behaviour, captured in marine sedimentary cores, present an opportunity to determine the temporal and geometric character of the field during geomagnetic excursions...... and provide constraints on the mechanisms producing field variability. We present here the highest resolution record yet published of the Blake geomagnetic excursion (similar to 125 ka) measured in three cores from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1062 on the Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge. The Blake excursion has...... a controversial structure and timing but these cores have a sufficiently high sedimentation rate (similar to 10 cm ka(-1)) to allow detailed reconstruction of the field behaviour at this site during the excursion. Palaeomagnetic measurements of the cores reveal rapid transitions (

  17. Realization of first order optical systems using thin lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Mukunda, N.; Simon, R.

    1983-09-01

    A first order optical system is investigated in full generality within the context of wave optics. We reduce the problem to a study of the ray transfer matrices. The simplest such systems correspond to axially symmetric propagation. Realization of such systems by centrally located lenses separated by finite distances is studied. It is shown that every axially symmetric first order system can be realized using at most three lenses. Among anisotropic systems it is proven that every symplectic ray transfer matrix, and no others, can be realized using lenses and free propagations. Suggestions for further study of the general first order system are outlined. 16 references

  18. Chromatic aberrations of electrostatic axisymmetric lenses produced by circular cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranova, L.A.; Ul'yanova, N.S.; Yavor, S.Ya.

    1989-01-01

    Ion beams both to test material and for technological processes have being used lately in science and technology more and more. Electrostatic lenses are used, as a rule, for such beam production. Coefficients of chromatic aberrration for a wide range of changes in lense parameters are calculated on the basis of analytical expressions to determine the potential in immerse and isolated lenses. The chromatic aberration coefficient is presented as a polynomial according to the degrees of reverse increase, that permits to calculate a circle of blurring of subject arbitrary position

  19. Strong deflection lensing by a Lee–Wick black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We study strong deflection gravitational lensing by a Lee–Wick black hole, which is a non-singular black hole generated by a high derivative modification of Einstein–Hilbert action. The strong deflection lensing is expected to produce a set of relativistic images very closed to the event horizon of the black hole. We estimate its observables for the supermassive black hole in our Galactic center. It is found that the Lee–Wick black hole can be distinguished from the Schwarzschild black hole via such lensing effects when the UV scale is not very large, but the requiring resolution is much higher than current capability.

  20. Disk Disruptions and X-ray Intensity Excursions in Cyg X-2, LMC X-3 and Cyg X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, P. T.; Smale, A. P.

    2001-05-01

    The RXTE All Sky Monitor soft X-ray light curves of many X-ray binaries show long-term intensity variations (a.k.a "superorbital periodicities") that have been ascribed to precession of a warped, tilted accretion disk around the X-ray source. We have found that the excursion times between X-ray minima in Cyg X-2 can be characterized as a series of integer multiples of the 9.8 binary orbital period, (as opposed to the previously reported stable 77.7 day single periodicity, or a single modulation whose period changes slowly with time). While the data set is too short for a proper statistical analysis, it is clear that the length of any given intensity excursion cannot be used to predict the next (integer) excursion length in the series. In the black hole candidate system LMC X-3, the excursion times are shown to be related to each other by rational fractions. We find that the long term light curve of the unusual galactic X-ray jet source Cyg X-3 can also be described as a series of intensity excursions related to each other by integer multiples of a fundamental underlying clock. In the latter cases, the clock is apparently not related to the known binary periods. A unified physical model, involving both an inclined accretion disk and a fixed-probability disk disruption mechanism is presented, and compared with three-body scattering results. Each time the disk passes through the orbital plane it experiences a fixed probability P that it will disrupt. This model has testable predictions---the distribution of integers should resemble that of an atomic process with a characteristic half life. Further analysis can support or refute the model, and shed light on what system parameters effectively set the value of P.

  1. The influence of electrode angle on the minimization of the aberration coefficients of the two electrodes electrostatic immersion lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khashab, M. A.; Ahmad, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with electron optical properties of a set asymmetrical electrostatic immersion lenses with two electrodes which have been designed using different angles (θ) of the outer lens electrodes as well as air gaps (S) between the electrodes of each lens. It was found that the angle of the outer electrode and the air gap have a clear effect on the electron optical performance of such lenses. In addition to that, it was noticed that the better electron optical properties occurred when the angle of the outer electrode equals (θ = O d egree) and the air gap equals (S = 11 mm). the results of the perferable design of the prsent work were compared with those in published papers in terms of the optical properties. It was found that results are in good agreement with each other. (authors).

  2. Small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, G.; Cherubini, G.; Fioravanti, A.; Olivi, A.

    1976-09-01

    A method for the analysis of the data derived from neutron small angle scattering measurements has been accomplished in the case of homogeneous particles, starting from the basic theory without making any assumption on the form of particle size distribution function. The experimental scattering curves are interpreted with the aid the computer by means of a proper routine. The parameters obtained are compared with the corresponding ones derived from observations at the transmission electron microscope

  3. Determination of solid angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, S.; Amano, H.; Kasai, A.

    1988-01-01

    The solid angle in extended alpha source measurement for a series of counting geometries has been obtained by two methods: (1) calculated by means of the Nelson Blachmen series; (2) interpolated from the data table given by Gardner. A particular consequence of the application of the Nelson Blachmen series was deduced which was different from that given by the original author. The applicability of these two methods, as well as an experimentally measured method, is also evaluated. (author)

  4. Geological setting of the Olkiluoto investigation site, Eurajoki, SW Finland. Excursion guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulamaeki, S.

    2009-08-01

    -1250 million years in age. Their geochemical features suggest that they are feeder channels to continental flood basalts, which have not, however, been preserved in the Satakunta area. Lake Saeaeksjaervi, northeast of the Satakunta sandstone, hosts approximately 4.5 km wide impact structure of early Cambrian age (ca. 560 Ma). Below water level it contains unexposed suevite breccia and impact melt breccia. Day 1 of the field excursion introduces the Palaeoproterozoic geology of the Olkiluoto site, with special emphasis to the structural geology. Day 2 presents the Mesoproterozoic history of southern Satakunta area, including the Laitila and Eurajoki rapakivi granites, the Satakunta sandstone and the olivine diabases. The excursion ends to the Lake Saeaeksjaervi, where boulders of impact rocks can be found on the northern shore of the lake. (orig.)

  5. The effect of pipecol angles for the magnetic electron lens on the aberration coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khshab, A. M.; Al-Khshab, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    The symmetric mag etic objective lens of great importance for the electronic microscopes intended for hi g resolution. Such lens is determined, not only by its geometries structure and shape parameters, but also by the influence of the variation of the pole piece angles. the results show that the Objective lens having the pole piece angle of 55 a has a considerable effect on the electron optical Properties. When this pole piece is appropriately and highly saturated, the lens possesses low spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients. This hind of pole piece lens leads to more favourable design than other lenses. (authors). 14 refs., 7 figs.1 table

  6. A most useful manifestation of relativity: gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falco, Emilio E

    2005-01-01

    Gravitational lenses are scarce but extraordinary phenomena that yield a very high rate of return on observational investment. Given their scarcity, it is very impressive that since their discovery in the extragalactic realm in 1979, they have had such an enormous impact on our knowledge of the universe. Gravitational lensing is a manifestation of general relativity that has contributed to a great variety of astrophysical and cosmological studies. In the weak-field limit, lensing studies are based on well-established physics and thus offer a direct approach to study many of the currently pressing problems of astrophysics. Examples of these are the significance of dark matter and the age and size of the universe. I present a brief history of gravitational lensing and describe recent developments in fields such as searches for dark matter and studies of galaxy evolution and cosmology. The approach is non-specialized and emphasizes observational results, to reach the widest possible audience

  7. Focusing lenses for the 20-beam fusion laser, SHIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neal, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    The focus lens design for the 20-beam SHIVA laser fusion facility involves considerations of uniform and normal pellet illumination. The resulting requirements dictate tailored beam intensity profiles and vacuum-loaded thin lenses

  8. 'Colored' and Decorative Contact Lenses: A Prescription Is a Must

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safely Wear Decorative or “Colored” Contact Lenses An entertainment industry artist from American Horror Story and the ... Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos on Flickr FDA Archive Combination ...

  9. Gravitational lenses and the cosmological evolution of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A heuristic model for the effect of gravitational lenses on the apparent cosmological evolution of quasars is considered. The model satisfies the requirement of average flux conservation and has no net mean amplification. This requirement is shown to be numerically important in studying the effect. On the basis of the values of the evolution indicators calculated from the model, it is concluded that it is premature to assert that lensing plays an important role in affecting the apparent evolution. A qualitative, model independent observational test for the effect is suggested. The test estimates the distances where lensing is dominant. An application of this test to a complete sample of quasars indicates that lensing cannot completely account for the apparent evolution, except in an extreme situation

  10. Gravitational lensing of the CMB: A Feynman diagram approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Jenkins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We develop a Feynman diagram approach to calculating correlations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB in the presence of distortions. As one application, we focus on CMB distortions due to gravitational lensing by Large Scale Structure (LSS. We study the Hu–Okamoto quadratic estimator for extracting lensing from the CMB and derive the noise of the estimator up to O(ϕ4 in the lensing potential ϕ. By identifying the diagrams responsible for the previously noted large O(ϕ4 term, we conclude that the lensing expansion does not break down. The convergence can be significantly improved by a reorganization of the ϕ expansion. Our approach makes it simple to obtain expressions for quadratic estimators based on any CMB channel, including many previously unexplored cases. We briefly discuss other applications to cosmology of this diagrammatic approach, such as distortions of the CMB due to patchy reionization, or due to Faraday rotation from primordial axion fields.

  11. Lensing of 21-cm fluctuations by primordial gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Laura; Kamionkowski, Marc; Schmidt, Fabian

    2012-05-25

    Weak-gravitational-lensing distortions to the intensity pattern of 21-cm radiation from the dark ages can be decomposed geometrically into curl and curl-free components. Lensing by primordial gravitational waves induces a curl component, while the contribution from lensing by density fluctuations is strongly suppressed. Angular fluctuations in the 21-cm background extend to very small angular scales, and measurements at different frequencies probe different shells in redshift space. There is thus a huge trove of information with which to reconstruct the curl component of the lensing field, allowing tensor-to-scalar ratios conceivably as small as r~10(-9)-far smaller than those currently accessible-to be probed.

  12. Microstructured gradient-index lenses for THz photoconductive antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Brincker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new type of substrate lens for photoconductive antennas (PCA’s based on sub-wavelength microstructuring is presented and studied theoretically by the use of Greens function integral equation methods (GFIEM’s. By etching sub-wavelength trenches into a flat substrate, the effective dielectric constant can be designed to function like a gradient index (GRIN lens. The proposed GRIN substrate lenses have sub-mm dimension, which is smaller than the dimensions of a typical hyper-hemispherical substrate lens (HSL, and could enable fabrication of arrays of closely packed PCA’s with individual lenses integrated directly into the PCA substrate. The performance of different GRIN lenses is compared to a HSL and shown to be comparable with regards to the terahertz radiation extraction efficiency, and it is shown that the collimating properties of these GRIN lenses can be tailored by changing the parameters used for microstructuring.

  13. Exploring cosmic origins with CORE: Gravitational lensing of the CMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, A.; Allison, R.; Carron, J.; Errard, J.; Feeney, S.; Kitching, T.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Zubeldía, Í.; Achucarro, A.; Ade, P.; Ashdown, M.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Banerji, R.; Bartlett, J.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Baumann, D.; Bersanelli, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonato, M.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.; Boulanger, F.; Brinckmann, T.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Buzzelli, A.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Calvo, M.; Carvalho, C.-S.; Castellano, G.; Chluba, J.; Clesse, S.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Crook, M.; d'Alessandro, G.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; De Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Di Valentino, E.; Diego, J.-M.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Ferraro, S.; Finelli, F.; Forastieri, F.; Galli, S.; Genova-Santos, R.; Gerbino, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Grandis, S.; Greenslade, J.; Hagstotz, S.; Hanany, S.; Handley, W.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Hervías-Caimapo, C.; Hills, M.; Hivon, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamagna, L.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Liguori, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Luzzi, G.; Maffei, B.; Martinez-González, E.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McCarthy, D.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Molinari, D.; Monfardini, A.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Notari, A.; Paiella, A.; Paoletti, D.; Patanchon, G.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Polastri, L.; Polenta, G.; Pollo, A.; Poulin, V.; Quartin, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Roman, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.-A.; Salvati, L.; Tartari, A.; Tomasi, M.; Tramonte, D.; Trappe, N.; Trombetti, T.; Tucker, C.; Valiviita, J.; Van de Weijgaert, R.; van Tent, B.; Vennin, V.; Vielva, P.; Vittorio, N.; Young, K.; Zannoni, M.

    2018-04-01

    Lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is now a well-developed probe of the clustering of the large-scale mass distribution over a broad range of redshifts. By exploiting the non-Gaussian imprints of lensing in the polarization of the CMB, the CORE mission will allow production of a clean map of the lensing deflections over nearly the full-sky. The number of high-S/N modes in this map will exceed current CMB lensing maps by a factor of 40, and the measurement will be sample-variance limited on all scales where linear theory is valid. Here, we summarise this mission product and discuss the science that will follow from its power spectrum and the cross-correlation with other clustering data. For example, the summed mass of neutrinos will be determined to an accuracy of 17 meV combining CORE lensing and CMB two-point information with contemporaneous measurements of the baryon acoustic oscillation feature in the clustering of galaxies, three times smaller than the minimum total mass allowed by neutrino oscillation measurements. Lensing has applications across many other science goals of CORE, including the search for B-mode polarization from primordial gravitational waves. Here, lens-induced B-modes will dominate over instrument noise, limiting constraints on the power spectrum amplitude of primordial gravitational waves. With lensing reconstructed by CORE, one can "delens" the observed polarization internally, reducing the lensing B-mode power by 60 %. This can be improved to 70 % by combining lensing and measurements of the cosmic infrared background from CORE, leading to an improvement of a factor of 2.5 in the error on the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves compared to no delensing (in the null hypothesis of no primordial B-modes). Lensing measurements from CORE will allow calibration of the halo masses of the tens of thousands of galaxy clusters that it will find, with constraints dominated by the clean polarization-based estimators. The 19

  14. Microfabricated rubber microscope using soft solid immersion lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Gambin, Yann; Legrand, Olivier; Quake, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    We show here a technique of soft lithography to microfabricate efficient solid immersion lenses (SIL) out of rubber elastomers. The light collection efficiency of a lens system is described by its numerical aperture (NA), and is critical for applications as epifluorescence microscopy [B. Herman, Fluorescence Microscopy (BIOS Scientific, Oxford/Springer, United Kingdom, 1998). While most simple lens systems have numerical apertures less than 1, the lenses described here have NA=1.25. Better pe...

  15. Phosphorylcholine impairs susceptibility to biofilm formation of hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selan, Laura; Palma, Stefano; Scoarughi, Gian Luca; Papa, Rosanna; Veeh, Richard; Di Clemente, Daniele; Artini, Marco

    2009-01-01

    To compare silicone-hydrogel, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA), and phosphorylcholine-coated (PC-C) contact lenses in terms of their susceptibility to biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Laboratory investigation. Biofilm formation on colonized test lenses was evaluated with confocal microscopy and in vitro antibiotic susceptibility assays. The results of the latter assays were compared with those performed on planktonic cultures of the same organism. For both microorganisms, sessile colonies on silicone-hydrogel and pHEMA lenses displayed lower antibiotic susceptibility than their planktonic counterparts. In contrast, the susceptibility of cultures growing on PC-C lenses was comparable with that for planktonic cultures. In particular, minimum inhibitory concentration for Tazocin (piperacillin plus tazobactam; Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Aprilia, Italy; S. epidermidis) and gentamicin (P. aeruginosa) was identical, either in the presence of PC-C support or in planktonic cultures (Tazocin, aeruginosa) was two-fold higher for PC-C lenses (0.4 mug/ml) with respect to planktonic cultures (0.2 mug/ml). Confocal microscopy of lenses colonized for 24 hours with P. aeruginosa green fluorescent protein-expressing cells revealed a sessile colonization on silicone-hydrogel lens and a few isolated bacterial cells scattered widely over the surface of the PC-C lens. An increase in antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial cultures was associated with diminished bacterial adhesion. Our results indicate that PC-C lenses seem to be more resistant than silicone-hydrogel and pHEMA lenses to bacterial adhesion and colonization. This feature may facilitate their disinfection.

  16. Gravitational lensing by eigenvalue distributions of random matrix models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Alonso, Luis; Medina, Elena

    2018-05-01

    We propose to use eigenvalue densities of unitary random matrix ensembles as mass distributions in gravitational lensing. The corresponding lens equations reduce to algebraic equations in the complex plane which can be treated analytically. We prove that these models can be applied to describe lensing by systems of edge-on galaxies. We illustrate our analysis with the Gaussian and the quartic unitary matrix ensembles.

  17. Separating intrinsic alignment and galaxy-galaxy lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Seljak, Uroš; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Nakajima, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    The coherent physical alignment of galaxies is an important systematic for gravitational lensing studies as well as a probe of the physical mechanisms involved in galaxy formation and evolution. We develop a formalism for treating this intrinsic alignment (IA) in the context of galaxy-galaxy lensing and present an improved method for measuring IA contamination, which can arise when sources physically associated with the lens are placed behind the lens due to photometric redshift scatter. We apply the technique to recent Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) measurements of Luminous Red Galaxy lenses and typical ( ∼ L * ) source galaxies with photometric redshifts selected from the SDSS imaging data. Compared to previous measurements, this method has the advantage of being fully self-consistent in its treatment of the IA and lensing signals, solving for the two simultaneously. We find an IA signal consistent with zero, placing tight constraints on both the magnitude of the IA effect and its potential contamination to the lensing signal. While these constraints depend on source selection and redshift quality, the method can be applied to any measurement that uses photometric redshifts. We obtain a model-independent upper-limit of roughly 10% IA contamination for projected separations of r p ≈ 0.1–10 h −1 Mpc. With more stringent photo-z cuts and reasonable assumptions about the physics of intrinsic alignments, this upper limit is reduced to 1–2%. These limits are well below the statistical error of the current lensing measurements. Our results suggest that IA will not present intractable challenges to the next generation of galaxy-galaxy lensing experiments, and the methods presented here should continue to aid in our understanding of alignment processes and in the removal of IA from the lensing signal

  18. The Master Lens Database and The Orphan Lenses Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, Leonidas

    2012-10-01

    Strong gravitational lenses are uniquely suited for the study of dark matter structure and substructure within massive halos of many scales, act as gravitational telescopes for distant faint objects, and can give powerful and competitive cosmological constraints. While hundreds of strong lenses are known to date, spanning five orders of magnitude in mass scale, thousands will be identified this decade. To fully exploit the power of these objects presently, and in the near future, we are creating the Master Lens Database. This is a clearinghouse of all known strong lens systems, with a sophisticated and modern database of uniformly measured and derived observational and lens-model derived quantities, using archival Hubble data across several instruments. This Database enables new science that can be done with a comprehensive sample of strong lenses. The operational goal of this proposal is to develop the process and the code to semi-automatically stage Hubble data of each system, create appropriate masks of the lensing objects and lensing features, and derive gravitational lens models, to provide a uniform and fairly comprehensive information set that is ingested into the Database. The scientific goal for this team is to use the properties of the ensemble of lenses to make a new study of the internal structure of lensing galaxies, and to identify new objects that show evidence of strong substructure lensing, for follow-up study. All data, scripts, masks, model setup files, and derived parameters, will be public, and free. The Database will be accessible online and through a sophisticated smartphone application, which will also be free.

  19. What is Gravitational Lensing? (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leauthaud, Alexie [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics (BCCP); Nakajima, Reiko [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics (BCCP)

    2009-07-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Gravitational lensing is explained by Einstein's general theory of relativity: galaxies and clusters of galaxies, which are very massive objects, act on spacetime by causing it to become curved. Alexie Leauthaud and Reiko Nakajima, astrophysicists with the Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, will discuss how scientists use gravitational lensing to investigate the nature of dark energy and dark matter in the universe.

  20. Adaptive silicone-membrane lenses: planar vs. shaped membrane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schneider, F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Engineering, Georges-Koehler-Allee 102, Freiburg 79110, Germany florian.schneider@imtek.uni-freiburg.de ABSTRACT We compare the performance and optical quality of two types of adaptive fluidic silicone-membrane lenses. The membranes feature either a...-membrane lenses: planar vs. shaped membrane Florian Schneider1,2, Philipp Waibel2 and Ulrike Wallrabe2 1 CSIR, Materials Science and Manufacturing, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 2 University of Freiburg – IMTEK, Department of Microsystems...

  1. Optical and visual performance of aspheric soft contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, Suzanne; Efron, Nathan; Morgan, Philip B

    2008-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether aspheric design soft contact lenses reduce ocular aberrations and result in better visual acuity and subjective appreciation of clinical performance compared with spherical soft contact lenses. A unilateral, double-masked, randomized and controlled study was undertaken in which ocular aberrations and high and low contrast logMAR visual acuity were measured on myopic subjects who wore aspheric design (Biomedics 55 Evolution, CooperVision) and spherical design (Biomedics 55, CooperVision) soft contact lenses. Ten subjects who had about -2.00 D myopia wore -2.00 D lenses and 10 subjects who had about -5.00 D myopia wore -5.00 D lenses. Measurements were made under photopic and mesopic lighting conditions. Subjects were invited to grade comfort, vision in photopic and mesopic conditions, and overall impression with the two lens types on 100 unit visual analogue scales. There was no significant difference in high contrast or low contrast visual acuity between the two lens designs of either power under photopic or mesopic conditions. Both lens designs displayed lower levels of spherical aberration compared with the "no lens" condition under photopic and mesopic light levels (p designs. There were no statistically significant differences in subjective appreciation of clinical performance between lens designs or lens powers. At least with respect to the brand of lenses tested, the fitting of aspheric design soft contact lenses does not result in superior visual acuity, aberration control, or subjective appreciation compared with equivalent spherical design soft contact lenses.

  2. Polymer Compund Refractive Lenses for Hard X-ray Nanofocusing

    OpenAIRE

    Krywka, Christina; Last, Arndt; Marschall, Felix; Markus, Otto; Georgi, Sebastian; Mueller, Martin; Mohr, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Compound refractive lenses fabricated out of SU-8 negative photoresist have been used to generate a nanofocused, i.e. sub-μm sized X-ray focal spot at an X-ray nanodiffraction setup. X-ray microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques have conceptually different demands on nanofocusing optical elements and so with the application of X-ray nanodiffraction in mind, this paper presents the results of an initial characterization of polymer lenses used as primary focusin...

  3. Bilateral spontaneous subluxation of scleral-fixated intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assia, Ehud I; Nemet, Arie; Sachs, Dani

    2002-12-01

    Two young men with primary ectopic lenses had intracapsular cataract extraction and scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs) using 10-0 polypropylene sutures tied to the IOL eyelets. Three to 9 years after implantation, spontaneous IOL vertical subluxation occurred in all 4 eyes (5 IOL loops), probably because of suture breakage. Late subluxation of a sutured IOL may occur several years after implantation. Double fixation and thicker sutures should be considered, especially in young patients.

  4. MULTIPOLE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING AND HIGH-ORDER PERTURBATIONS ON THE QUADRUPOLE LENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Z.; Lin, W. P. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li, G. L. [Purple Mountain Observatory, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Kang, X., E-mail: chuzhe@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: linwp@shao.ac.cn [Partner Group of MPI for Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2013-03-10

    An arbitrary surface mass density of the gravitational lens can be decomposed into multipole components. We simulate the ray tracing for the multipolar mass distribution of the generalized Singular Isothermal Sphere model based on deflection angles, which are analytically calculated. The magnification patterns in the source plane are then derived from an inverse shooting technique. As has been found, the caustics of odd mode lenses are composed of two overlapping layers for some lens models. When a point source traverses this kind of overlapping caustics, the image numbers change by {+-}4, rather than {+-}2. There are two kinds of caustic images. One is the critical curve and the other is the transition locus. It is found that the image number of the fold is exactly the average value of image numbers on two sides of the fold, while the image number of the cusp is equal to the smaller one. We also focus on the magnification patterns of the quadrupole (m = 2) lenses under the perturbations of m = 3, 4, and 5 mode components and found that one, two, and three butterfly or swallowtail singularities can be produced, respectively. With the increasing intensity of the high-order perturbations, the singularities grow up to bring sixfold image regions. If these perturbations are large enough to let two or three of the butterflies or swallowtails make contact, then eightfold or tenfold image regions can be produced as well. The possible astronomical applications are discussed.

  5. On the insufficiency of arbitrarily precise covariance matrices: non-Gaussian weak-lensing likelihoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellentin, Elena; Heavens, Alan F.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate whether a Gaussian likelihood, as routinely assumed in the analysis of cosmological data, is supported by simulated survey data. We define test statistics, based on a novel method that first destroys Gaussian correlations in a data set, and then measures the non-Gaussian correlations that remain. This procedure flags pairs of data points that depend on each other in a non-Gaussian fashion, and thereby identifies where the assumption of a Gaussian likelihood breaks down. Using this diagnosis, we find that non-Gaussian correlations in the CFHTLenS cosmic shear correlation functions are significant. With a simple exclusion of the most contaminated data points, the posterior for s8 is shifted without broadening, but we find no significant reduction in the tension with s8 derived from Planck cosmic microwave background data. However, we also show that the one-point distributions of the correlation statistics are noticeably skewed, such that sound weak-lensing data sets are intrinsically likely to lead to a systematically low lensing amplitude being inferred. The detected non-Gaussianities get larger with increasing angular scale such that for future wide-angle surveys such as Euclid or LSST, with their very small statistical errors, the large-scale modes are expected to be increasingly affected. The shifts in posteriors may then not be negligible and we recommend that these diagnostic tests be run as part of future analyses.

  6. Complete super-sample lensing covariance in the response approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Alexandre; Krause, Elisabeth; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-06-01

    We derive the complete super-sample covariance (SSC) of the matter and weak lensing convergence power spectra using the power spectrum response formalism to accurately describe the coupling of super- to sub-survey modes. The SSC term is completely characterized by the survey window function, the nonlinear matter power spectrum and the full first-order nonlinear power spectrum response function, which describes the response to super-survey density and tidal field perturbations. Generalized separate universe simulations can efficiently measure these responses in the nonlinear regime of structure formation, which is necessary for lensing applications. We derive the lensing SSC formulae for two cases: one under the Limber and flat-sky approximations, and a more general one that goes beyond the Limber approximation in the super-survey mode and is valid for curved sky applications. Quantitatively, we find that for sky fractions fsky ≈ 0.3 and a single source redshift at zS=1, the use of the flat-sky and Limber approximation underestimates the total SSC contribution by ≈ 10%. The contribution from super-survey tidal fields to the lensing SSC, which has not been included in cosmological analyses so far, is shown to represent about 5% of the total lensing covariance on multipoles l1,l2 gtrsim 300. The SSC is the dominant off-diagonal contribution to the total lensing covariance, making it appropriate to include these tidal terms and beyond flat-sky/Limber corrections in cosmic shear analyses.

  7. LENSING NOISE IN MILLIMETER-WAVE GALAXY CLUSTER SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezaveh, Yashar; Vanderlinde, Keith; Holder, Gilbert; De Haan, Tijmen

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters of the background of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and examine the implications for Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-based (SZ) galaxy cluster surveys. At the locations of galaxy clusters, gravitational lensing modifies the probability distribution of the background flux of the DSFGs as well as the CMB. We find that, in the case of a single-frequency 150 GHz survey, lensing of DSFGs leads both to a slight increase (∼10%) in detected cluster number counts (due to a ∼50% increase in the variance of the DSFG background, and hence an increased Eddington bias) and a rare (occurring in ∼2% of clusters) 'filling-in' of SZ cluster signals by bright strongly lensed background sources. Lensing of the CMB leads to a ∼55% reduction in CMB power at the location of massive galaxy clusters in a spatially matched single-frequency filter, leading to a net decrease in detected cluster number counts. We find that the increase in DSFG power and decrease in CMB power due to lensing at cluster locations largely cancel, such that the net effect on cluster number counts for current SZ surveys is subdominant to Poisson errors

  8. Simulator study of the effectiveness of an automatic control system designed to improve the high-angle-of-attack characteristics of a fighter airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, W. P.; Nguyen, L. T.; Vangunst, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation was conducted to study the effectiveness of some automatic control system features designed to improve the stability and control characteristics of fighter airplanes at high angles of attack. These features include an angle-of-attack limiter, a normal-acceleration limiter, an aileron-rudder interconnect, and a stability-axis yaw damper. The study was based on a current lightweight fighter prototype. The aerodynamic data used in the simulation were measured on a 0.15-scale model at low Reynolds number and low subsonic Mach number. The simulation was conducted on the Langley differential maneuvering simulator, and the evaluation involved representative combat maneuvering. Results of the investigation show the fully augmented airplane to be quite stable and maneuverable throughout the operational angle-of-attack range. The angle-of-attack/normal-acceleration limiting feature of the pitch control system is found to be a necessity to avoid angle-of-attack excursions at high angles of attack. The aileron-rudder interconnect system is shown to be very effective in making the airplane departure resistant while the stability-axis yaw damper provided improved high-angle-of-attack roll performance with a minimum of sideslip excursions.

  9. Two-phase flow and thermal response from nuclear excursions in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, J.S.; Sanchez, L.C.; Taylor, L.L.

    1998-05-01

    Thermal hydrology calculations were performed to predict the geologic thermal and saturation response of a far-field nuclear criticality. The thermal hydrology (THX) calculations used an experimental version of a transient multi-phase fluid and energy simulator, BRAGFLO T. A total of 45 THX calculations were completed using various combinations of initial saturation S 0 , input heat generation zone (HGZ) radii r 0 , input energies E 0 , and input space power density functions (SPDFs). The thermal hydrology calculations were performed as a part the nuclear dynamics consequence analysis (NDCA) study for potential criticality consequences associated with disposal of high-level waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in an underground geologic repository. In the NDCA study it was identified that total fission energy E 0 , integrated from the power-time history, has an expected range of 10 17 --10 20 total fissions per excursion. This range of values is comparable to those reported for aqueous criticality accidents that had occurred in processing plants. The THX results show (using the conservative temperature recycle times) that a criticality frequency between 3 and 30 criticalities/yr is possible. Probability frequencies (generated by probabilistic risk analysis and the THX model) for these consequences indicate that any additional fissions are minor contributions to the biological hazards caused by the disposed fissile materials

  10. Hip strength and star excursion balance test deficits of patients with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Ryan S; Crossett, Ian D; Terada, Masafumi; Kosik, Kyle B; Bolding, Brenn A; Gribble, Phillip A

    2017-11-01

    To examine isometric hip strength in those with and without CAI, and determine the degree of Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) variance explained by isometric hip strength. Single-blinded, cross-sectional, case-control study. Thirty individuals with CAI, 29 lateral ankle sprain (LAS) copers, and 26 healthy controls participated. We assessed dynamic postural control with the SEBT anterior (SEBT-ANT), posteromedial (SEBT-PM), and posterolateral (SEBT-PL) reaches, and isometric hip extension (EXT), abduction (ABD) and external rotation (ER) strength with hand-held dynamometry. The CAI and LAS coper groups' involved limbs and randomly selected limbs in controls were tested. Separate Kruskal-Wallis tests compared SEBT scores and isometric hip strength between groups. Backwards linear regression models determined the degree of SEBT variance explained by isometric hip strength. Statistical significance was set a priori at Phip strength compared to LAS copers and controls. Additionally, the CAI group's isometric hip strength significantly influenced dynamic postural control performance. Future CAI rehabilitation strategies should consider hip muscular strengthening to facilitate improvements in dynamic postural control. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In search of mitochondrial mechanisms: interfield excursions between cell biology and biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, William; Abrahamsen, Adele

    2007-01-01

    Developing models of biological mechanisms, such as those involved in respiration in cells, often requires collaborative effort drawing upon techniques developed and information generated in different disciplines. Biochemists in the early decades of the 20th century uncovered all but the most elusive chemical operations involved in cellular respiration, but were unable to align the reaction pathways with particular structures in the cell. During the period 1940-1965 cell biology was emerging as a new discipline and made distinctive contributions to understanding the role of the mitochondrion and its component parts in cellular respiration. In particular, by developing techniques for localizing enzymes or enzyme systems in specific cellular components, cell biologists provided crucial information about the organized structures in which the biochemical reactions occurred. Although the idea that biochemical operations are intimately related to and depend on cell structures was at odds with the then-dominant emphasis on systems of soluble enzymes in biochemistry, a reconceptualization of energetic processes in the 1960s and 1970s made it clear why cell structure was critical to the biochemical account. This paper examines how numerous excursions between biochemistry and cell biology contributed a new understanding of the mechanism of cellular respiration.

  12. Fixed field alternating gradient accelerator with small orbit shift and tune excursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L. Sheehy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new design principle of a nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator is proposed. It is based on optics that produce approximate scaling properties. A large field index k is chosen to squeeze the orbit shift as much as possible by setting the betatron oscillation frequency in the second stability region of Hill’s equation. Then, the lattice magnets and their alignment are simplified. To simplify the magnets, we expand the field profile of r^{k} into multipoles and keep only a few lower order terms. A rectangular-shaped magnet is assumed with lines of constant field parallel to the magnet axis. The lattice employs a triplet of rectangular magnets for focusing, which are parallel to one another to simplify alignment. These simplifications along with fringe fields introduce finite chromaticity and the fixed field alternating gradient accelerator is no longer a scaling one. However, the tune excursion of the whole ring can be within half an integer and we avoid the crossing of strong resonances.

  13. Towards an Excursion Flora for Austria and all the Eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred A. Fischer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This is on the one hand an announcement of the two-volume Fourth Edition of the Excursion Flora for Austria expanded by also including the remaining parts of the Eastern Alps (chapter 1, and on the other hand a rough survey of the flora of the Eastern Alps in connection with the main vegetation types (chapter 2. The geographical scope includes, besides Austria, the entire Eastern Alps from the Rhine valley in E Switzerland (Grisons to the Vipava valley in SW Slovenia. Volume 1 mainly contains comprehensive introductory chapters like introductions to plant morphology, taxonomy, and nomenclature, as well as a sketch of ecomorphology and habitat ecology, a survey of vegetation types (phytosociology and floristic peculiarities of the different natural regions, a rough history of floristic research, a detailed glossary including the meaning of epithets, etc., and drawings of several plant species characteristic of the flora covered. The structure of the keys concentrated in volume 2 is explained: besides the descriptive traits, they include for each taxon comprehensive ecological and plant geographical data, as well as information about Red Lists of the countries involved, plant uses, and taxonomical problems. Genus names are given not only in German, but also in the Romansh (Rumantsch Grischun, Italian, and Slovenian languages. In chapter 2, some important chorotypes including endemics are characterised, and an overview of floristic diversity (lists of exemplary taxa in accordance with the main and most characteristic vegetation types is presented.

  14. Star Excursion Balance Test Performance Varies by Sport in Healthy Division I Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, Mikel R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Brooks, M Alison; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2015-10-01

    Cross-sectional. To describe performance and asymmetry on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) by sex and sport, and to determine if differences exist within a collegiate athlete population. Performance on the SEBT may differ between sexes and levels of competition, though the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. Investigation of performance and asymmetry differences between sports is limited. Sex- and sport-specific reference values likely need to be determined to best assess SEBT performance. Performance on the SEBT was retrospectively reviewed in 393 healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes from 8 sports. Means, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all variables. Normalized reach distance (percent limb length) and asymmetry between limbs were compared for the anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions and for the composite (COMP) score using a 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of sex by sport, and a 1-way ANOVA to separately compare sports within each sex. Average normalized reach distance ranged from 62% to 69%, 84% to 97%, and 99% to 113% in the ANT, PL, and PM directions, respectively, and from 82% to 92% in the COMP score. Normalized asymmetry ranged from 3% to 4%, 5% to 8%, and 5% to 6% in the ANT, PL, and PM directions, respectively. A significant sex-by-sport interaction (P = .039) was observed in the ANT direction, with a sex effect for soccer players (Psport.

  15. Analysis of hypothetical nuclear excursions in the external core retention system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, R.; Kussmaul, G.; Schmuck, P.

    1976-01-01

    The core catcher system of the SNR 300 is outside the reactor tank. The probability of recriticality phenomena is reduced by its design, but the licensing procedures still call for the analysis of strong recriticality phenomena in the core catcher system outside the reactor tank in order to achieve a better understanding of the possible physical effects and to get to know the safety limits of the system. For their theoretical investigations, the authors used a two-partner model as presented in fig. 1. At the bottom of the core catcher - which consists of depleted UO 2 - there is a fuel cylinder. Another fuel cylinder (with the same axis) is dropped from a height of 250 cm. The two cylindrical masses are immersed in sodium, but a free fall is assumed since the possibility cannot be excluded that the reactor bottom may be empty or only partially filled with sodium. It was found that under these conditions the strongest excursions may be expected in those cases where prompt criticality does not occur until just before the two partners meet. (orig./AK) [de

  16. Accidental nuclear excursion recuplex operation 234-5 facility: Final medical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuqua, P. A.

    1962-04-07

    The April 7, 1962 criticality accident involving human exposures was the first to have occurred in any production facility at Hanford. The accidental nuclear excursion did not result in any mechanical damage or spread of contamination. Three employees received over-exposure to gamma and neutron radiation. None were fatally exposed and in each case the over-exposure was recognized promptly. Following an initial period of medical observation and testing, the men were released to work. They continued to be followed clinically. Clinical studies performed were hematological procedures including leukocyte chromosome aberrations, morphologically aberrant blood cells, bone marrow evaluations, blood chemistry determinations, amino acid excretion studies, seminal fluid, urinary gonadotropins and estrogen excretion studies, testicular biopsies and crystalline lens examinations. These studies, along with a brief description of the accident and of the dosimetry, are summarized in this report by those participating in the studies. In view of the dose ranges received in these cases, both the negative and positive findings are considered to be of unusual interest due to the lack of knowledge of effects following human exposures at these levels.

  17. Concurrent validity of an automated algorithm for computing the center of pressure excursion index (CPEI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Michelle A; Gibbons, Mandi W; Song, Jinsup; Hillstrom, Howard J; Choe, Kersti H; Pasquale, Maria R

    2018-01-01

    Center of Pressure Excursion Index (CPEI), a parameter computed from the distribution of plantar pressures during stance phase of barefoot walking, has been used to assess dynamic foot function. The original custom program developed to calculate CPEI required the oversight of a user who could manually correct for certain exceptions to the computational rules. A new fully automatic program has been developed to calculate CPEI with an algorithm that accounts for these exceptions. The purpose of this paper is to compare resulting CPEI values computed by these two programs on plantar pressure data from both asymptomatic and pathologic subjects. If comparable, the new program offers significant benefits-reduced potential for variability due to rater discretion and faster CPEI calculation. CPEI values were calculated from barefoot plantar pressure distributions during comfortable paced walking on 61 healthy asymptomatic adults, 19 diabetic adults with moderate hallux valgus, and 13 adults with mild hallux valgus. Right foot data for each subject was analyzed with linear regression and a Bland-Altman plot. The automated algorithm yielded CPEI values that were linearly related to the original program (R 2 =0.99; Pcomputation methods. Results of this analysis suggest that the new automated algorithm may be used to calculate CPEI on both healthy and pathologic feet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) Systems Integration Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tracy; Merbitz, Jerad; Kennedy, Kriss; Tri, Terry; Toups, Larry; Howe, A. Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) project team constructed an analog prototype lunar surface laboratory called the Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM). The prototype unit subsystems were integrated in a short amount of time, utilizing a rapid prototyping approach that brought together over 20 habitation-related technologies from a variety of NASA centers. This paper describes the system integration strategies and lessons learned, that allowed the PEM to be brought from paper design to working field prototype using a multi-center team. The system integration process was based on a rapid prototyping approach. Tailored design review and test and integration processes facilitated that approach. The use of collaboration tools including electronic tools as well as documentation enabled a geographically distributed team take a paper concept to an operational prototype in approximately one year. One of the major tools used in the integration strategy was a coordinated effort to accurately model all the subsystems using computer aided design (CAD), so conflicts were identified before physical components came together. A deliberate effort was made following the deployment of the HDU PEM for field operations to collect lessons learned to facilitate process improvement and inform the design of future flight or analog versions of habitat systems. Significant items within those lessons learned were limitations with the CAD integration approach and the impact of shell design on flexibility of placing systems within the HDU shell.

  19. Analysis of fission product release from HTGR core during transient temperature excursion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takao; Yamatoya, Naotoshi; Onuma, Mamoru

    1978-01-01

    The computer program ''FRANC'' was developed to calculate the release activity of fission products from a high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) core during transient temperature excursions such as a hypothetical loss of forced circulation combined with design basis depressurization. The program utilizes a segmented cylindrical core spatial model with the associated values of the prior fuel irradiation history and temperature conditions. The fission product transport and decay chain behavior is expressed by a set of differential equations. This set of equations describes the entire core inventory of fission products by means of calculated parameters based on the detailed spatial core conditions. The program determines the time-dependent amounts of fission product nuclides escaping from the core into the coolant. Coded in Continuous System Simulation Language (CSSL) with double precision, FRANC showed appropriate results for both short- and long-lived fission product nuclides. The sample calculation conducted by applying the program to a large HTGR indicated that it would take about one hour for noble gases and volatile nuclides to be released to the coolant, and several hours for metalic nuclides. (auth.)

  20. Scope Complexity Options Risks Excursions (SCORE) Version 3.0 Mathematical Description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Samberson, Jonell Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shettigar, Subhasini [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jungels, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Welch, Kimberly M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Dean A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the Scope, Complexity, Options, Risks, Excursions (SCORE) model is to estimate the relative complexity of design variants of future warhead options. The results of this model allow those considering these options to understand the complexity tradeoffs between proposed warhead options. The core idea of SCORE is to divide a warhead option into a well- defined set of scope elements and then estimate the complexity of each scope element against a well understood reference system. The uncertainty associated with estimates can also be captured. A weighted summation of the relative complexity of each scope element is used to determine the total complexity of the proposed warhead option or portions of the warhead option (i.e., a National Work Breakdown Structure code). The SCORE analysis process is a growing multi-organizational Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) effort, under the management of the NA- 12 led Enterprise Modeling and Analysis Consortium (EMAC), that has provided the data elicitation, integration and computation needed to support the out-year Life Extension Program (LEP) cost estimates included in the Stockpile Stewardship Management Plan (SSMP).

  1. An Excursion Set Model of the Cosmic Web: the Abundance of Sheets, Filaments And Halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jiajian; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Mo, Houjun; /Massachusetts U., Amherst; Sheth, Ravi; /Pennsylvania U.

    2006-01-11

    We discuss an analytic approach for modeling structure formation in sheets, filaments and knots. This is accomplished by combining models of triaxial collapse with the excursion set approach: sheets are defined as objects which have collapsed along only one axis, filaments have collapsed along two axes, and halos are objects in which triaxial collapse is complete. In the simplest version of this approach, which we develop here, large scale structure shows a clear hierarchy of morphologies: the mass in large-scale sheets is partitioned up among lower mass filaments, which themselves are made-up of still lower mass halos. Our approach provides analytic estimates of the mass fraction in sheets, filaments and halos, and its evolution, for any background cosmological model and any initial fluctuation spectrum. In the currently popular {Lambda}CDM model, our analysis suggests that more than 99% of the mass in sheets, and 72% of the mass in filaments, is stored in objects more massive than 10{sup 10}M{sub {circle_dot}} at the present time. For halos, this number is only 46%. Our approach also provides analytic estimates of how halo abundances at any given time correlate with the morphology of the surrounding large-scale structure, and how halo evolution correlates with the morphology of large scale structure.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of power excursion in RSG-GAS reactor due to reactivity insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinem, Surian; Sembiring, Tagor Malem

    2002-01-01

    Reactor kinetics has a very important role in reactor operation safety and nuclear reactor control. One of the important aspects in reactor kinetics is power behavior as function of time due to chain reaction in the core. The calculation was performed using kinetic equation and feedback reactivity and evaluated using static power coefficient. Analysis was performed for oxide 250 g, silicide 250 g and silicide 300 g fuel elements with insertion of positive reactivity, negative reactivity and reactivity close to delay neutron fraction. The calculation of power excursion sensitivity showed that the insertion of 0,5 % Δk/k, in the fuel element of silicide 300 g is bigger 5 % than the one of oxide 250 g or silicide 250 g. If inserted by - 1,2 % Δk/k, there is no change among three fuel elements. Therefore, in kinetic point of view, it is showed there is no significant influence in the RSG-GAS reactor operation safety is the current core of oxide 250 g is converted to silicide 250 g or to silicide 300 g

  3. Excursions out-of-lane versus standard deviation of lateral position as outcome measure of the on-the-road driving test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The traditional outcome measure of the Dutch on-the-road driving test is the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), the weaving of the car. This paper explores whether excursions out-of-lane are a suitable additional outcome measure to index driving impairment. A literature search was conducted to search for driving tests that used both SDLP and excursions out-of-lane as outcome measures. The analyses were limited to studies examining hypnotic drugs because several of these drugs have been shown to produce next-morning sedation. Standard deviation of lateral position was more sensitive in demonstrating driving impairment. In fact, solely relying on excursions out-of-lane as outcome measure incorrectly classifies approximately half of impaired drives as unimpaired. The frequency of excursions out-of-lane is determined by the mean lateral position within the right traffic lane. Defining driving impairment as having a ΔSDLP > 2.4 cm, half of the impaired driving tests (51.2%, 43/84) failed to produce excursions out-of-lane. Alternatively, 20.9% of driving tests with ΔSDLP < 2.4 cm (27/129) had at least one excursion out-of-lane. Excursions out-of-lane are neither a suitable measure to demonstrate driving impairment nor is this measure sufficiently sensitive to differentiate adequately between differences in magnitude of driving impairment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Gravitational lensing by a regular black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F; Sendra, Carlos M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study a regular Bardeen black hole as a gravitational lens. We find the strong deflection limit for the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and magnifications of the relativistic images. As an example, we apply the results to the particular case of the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy.

  5. Gravitational lensing by a regular black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F; Sendra, Carlos M, E-mail: eiroa@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: cmsendra@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-04-21

    In this paper, we study a regular Bardeen black hole as a gravitational lens. We find the strong deflection limit for the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and magnifications of the relativistic images. As an example, we apply the results to the particular case of the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy.

  6. The influence of flip angle on the magic angle effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurlo, J.V.; Blacksin, M.F.; Karimi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To assess the impact of flip angle with gradient sequences on the ''magic angle effect''. We characterized the magic angle effect in various gradient echo sequences and compared the signal- to-noise ratios present on these sequences with the signal-to-noise ratios of spin echo sequences.Design. Ten normal healthy volunteers were positioned such that the flexor hallucis longus tendon remained at approximately at 55 to the main magnetic field (the magic angle). The tendon was imaged by a conventional spin echo T1- and T2-weighted techniques and by a series of gradient techniques. Gradient sequences were altered by both TE and flip angle. Signal-to-noise measurements were obtained at segments of the flexor hallucis longus tendon demonstrating the magic angle effect to quantify the artifact. Signal-to-noise measurements were compared and statistical analysis performed. Similar measurements were taken of the anterior tibialis tendon as an internal control.Results and conclusions. We demonstrated the magic angle effect on all the gradient sequences. The intensity of the artifact was affected by both the TE and flip angle. Low TE values and a high flip angle demonstrated the greatest magic angle effect. At TE values less than 30 ms, a high flip angle will markedly increase the magic angle effect. (orig.)

  7. The Initial Mass Function in the Nearest Strong Lenses from SNELLS: Assessing the Consistency of Lensing, Dynamical, and Spectroscopic Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Andrew B. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States); Smith, Russell J. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, University of Durham, South Road, Durham (United Kingdom); Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Villaume, Alexa [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter, E-mail: anewman@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We present new observations of the three nearest early-type galaxy (ETG) strong lenses discovered in the SINFONI Nearby Elliptical Lens Locator Survey (SNELLS). Based on their lensing masses, these ETGs were inferred to have a stellar initial mass function (IMF) consistent with that of the Milky Way, not the bottom-heavy IMF that has been reported as typical for high- σ ETGs based on lensing, dynamical, and stellar population synthesis techniques. We use these unique systems to test the consistency of IMF estimates derived from different methods. We first estimate the stellar M {sub *}/ L using lensing and stellar dynamics. We then fit high-quality optical spectra of the lenses using an updated version of the stellar population synthesis models developed by Conroy and van Dokkum. When examined individually, we find good agreement among these methods for one galaxy. The other two galaxies show 2–3 σ tension with lensing estimates, depending on the dark matter contribution, when considering IMFs that extend to 0.08 M {sub ⊙}. Allowing a variable low-mass cutoff or a nonparametric form of the IMF reduces the tension among the IMF estimates to <2 σ . There is moderate evidence for a reduced number of low-mass stars in the SNELLS spectra, but no such evidence in a composite spectrum of matched- σ ETGs drawn from the SDSS. Such variation in the form of the IMF at low stellar masses ( m ≲ 0.3 M {sub ⊙}), if present, could reconcile lensing/dynamical and spectroscopic IMF estimates for the SNELLS lenses and account for their lighter M {sub *}/ L relative to the mean matched- σ ETG. We provide the spectra used in this study to facilitate future comparisons.

  8. Reliability and feasibility of gait initiation centre-of-pressure excursions using a Wii® Balance Board in older adults at risk of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James; Webb, Graham; Shortland, Adam P; Edwards, Rebecca; Wilce, Charlotte; Jones, Gareth D

    2018-04-17

    Impairments in dynamic balance have a detrimental effect in older adults at risk of falls (OARF). Gait initiation (GI) is a challenging transitional movement. Centre of pressure (COP) excursions using force plates have been used to measure GI performance. The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) offers an alternative to a standard force plate for the measurement of CoP excursion. To determine the reliability of COP excursions using the WBB, and its feasibility within a 4-week strength and balance intervention (SBI) treating OARF. Ten OARF subjects attending SBI and ten young healthy adults, each performed three GI trials after 10 s of quiet stance from a standardised foot position (shoulder width) before walking forward 3 m to pick up an object. Averaged COP mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) excursions (distance) and path-length time (GI-onset to first toe-off) were analysed. WBB ML (0.866) and AP COP excursion (0.895) reliability (ICC 3,1 ) was excellent, and COP path-length reliability was fair (0.517). Compared to OARF, healthy subjects presented with larger COP excursion in both directions and shorter COP path length. OARF subjects meaningfully improved their timed-up-and-go and ML COP excursion between weeks 1-4, while AP COP excursions, path length, and confidence-in-balance remained stable. COP path length and excursion directions probably measure different GI postural control attributes. Limitations in WBB accuracy and precision in transition tasks needs to be established before it can be used clinically to measure postural aspects of GI viably. The WBB could provide valuable clinical evaluation of balance function in OARF.

  9. Using Multiple Lenses to Examine the Development of Beginning Biology Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching Natural Selection Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Friedrichsen, Patricia

    2018-02-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has become a useful construct to examine science teacher learning. Yet, researchers conceptualize PCK development in different ways. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to use three analytic lenses to understand the development of three beginning biology teachers' PCK for teaching natural selection simulations. We observed three early-career biology teachers as they taught natural selection in their respective school contexts over two consecutive years. Data consisted of six interviews with each participant. Using the PCK model developed by Magnusson et al. (1999), we examined topic-specific PCK development utilizing three different lenses: (1) expansion of knowledge within an individual knowledge base, (2) integration of knowledge across knowledge bases, and (3) knowledge that explicitly addressed core concepts of natural selection. We found commonalities across the participants, yet each lens was also useful to understand the influence of different factors (e.g., orientation, subject matter preparation, and the idiosyncratic nature of teacher knowledge) on PCK development. This multi-angle approach provides implications for considering the quality of beginning science teachers' knowledge and future research on PCK development. We conclude with an argument that explicitly communicating lenses used to understand PCK development will help the research community compare analytic approaches and better understand the nature of science teacher learning.

  10. High resolution transmission imaging without lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, J M; Hurst, A C; Maiden, A

    2010-01-01

    The whole history of transmission imaging has been dominated by the lens, whether used in visible-light optics, electron optics or X-ray optics. Lenses can be thought of as a very efficient method of processing a wave front scattered from an object into an image of that object. An alternative approach is to undertake this image-formation process using a computational technique. The crudest scattering experiment is to simply record the intensity of a diffraction pattern. Recent progress in so-called diffractive imaging has shown that it is possible to recover the phase of a scattered wavefield from its diffraction pattern alone, as long as the object (or the illumination on the object) is of finite extent. In this paper we present results from a very efficient phase retrieval method which can image infinitely large fields of view. It may have important applications in improving resolution in electron microscopy, or at least allowing low specification microscopes to achieve resolution comparable to state-of-the-art machines.

  11. Antireflective glass nanoholes on optical lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngseop; Bae, Sang-In; Eom, Jaehyeon; Suh, Ho-Cheol; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2018-05-28

    Antireflective structures, inspired from moth eyes, are still reserved for practical use due to their large-area nanofabrication and mechanical stability. Here we report an antireflective optical lens with large-area glass nanoholes. The nanoholes increase light transmission due to the antireflective effect, depending on geometric parameters such as fill factor and height. The glass nanoholes of low effective refractive index are achieved by using solid-state dewetting of ultrathin silver film, reactive ion etching, and wet etching. An ultrathin silver film is transformed into nanoholes for an etch mask in reactive ion etching after thermal annealing at a low temperature. Unlike conventional nanopillars, nanoholes exhibit high light transmittance with enhancement of ~4% over the full visible range as well as high mechanical hardness. Also, an antireflective glass lens is achieved by directly employing nanoholes on the lens surface. Glass nanoholes of highly enhanced optical and mechanical performance can be directly utilized for commercial glass lenses in various imaging and lighting applications.

  12. Modeling CMB lensing cross correlations with CLEFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, Chirag; White, Martin [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vlah, Zvonimir, E-mail: modichirag@berkeley.edu, E-mail: mwhite@berkeley.edu, E-mail: zvlah@stanford.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    A new generation of surveys will soon map large fractions of sky to ever greater depths and their science goals can be enhanced by exploiting cross correlations between them. In this paper we study cross correlations between the lensing of the CMB and biased tracers of large-scale structure at high z . We motivate the need for more sophisticated bias models for modeling increasingly biased tracers at these redshifts and propose the use of perturbation theories, specifically Convolution Lagrangian Effective Field Theory (CLEFT). Since such signals reside at large scales and redshifts, they can be well described by perturbative approaches. We compare our model with the current approach of using scale independent bias coupled with fitting functions for non-linear matter power spectra, showing that the latter will not be sufficient for upcoming surveys. We illustrate our ideas by estimating σ{sub 8} from the auto- and cross-spectra of mock surveys, finding that CLEFT returns accurate and unbiased results at high z . We discuss uncertainties due to the redshift distribution of the tracers, and several avenues for future development.

  13. Efficient lensing element for x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.; Smith, H.I.

    1977-01-01

    An efficient x-ray lens with an effective speed of order less than approximately f/50 for lambda greater than approximately 10 A x-rays is described. Fabrication of this lensing element appears feasible using existing microfabrication technology. Diffraction and refraction are coupled in a single element to achieve efficient x-ray concentration into a single order focal spot. Diffraction is used to produce efficient ray bending (without absorption) while refraction is used only to provide appropriate phase adjustment among the various diffraction orders to insure what is essentially a single order output. The mechanism for ray bending (diffraction) is decoupled from the absorption mechanism. Refraction is used only to achieve small shifts in phase so that the associated attenuation need not be prohibitive. The x-ray lens might be described as a Blazed Fresnel Phase Plate (BFPP) with a spatially distributed phase shift within each Fresnel zone. The spatial distribution of the phase shifts is chosen to concentrate essentially all of the unabsorbed energy into a single focal spot. The BFPP transforms the incident plane wave into a converging spherical wave having an amplitude modulation which is periodic in r 2 . As a result of the periodic amplitude modulation, the BFPP will diffract energy into foci other than the first order real focus. In cases of small absorption such effects are negligible and practically all the unabsorbed energy is directed into the first order real focus

  14. Surface modification of polymethyl methacrylate intraocular lenses by plasma for improvement of antithrombogenicity and transmittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lihua; Wu Di; Chen Yashao; Wang Xiaoli; Zhao Guowei; Wan Haiyan [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Shaanxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Chang' an South Road 199, Xi' an 710062 (China); Huang Changzheng [Able Eye Device Co. Ltd, Zhengzhou 450008 (China)

    2009-05-15

    To improve antithrombogenicity and reduce ultraviolet transmittance, polymethyl methacrylate intraocular lenses (PMMA IOLs) were pretreated with Ar plasma and combined with heparin (Hp), with polyglycol (PEG) and with both Hp and PEG in a plasma atmosphere. The resulting modified PMMA IOLs denoted as PEG-PMMA, Hp-PMMA and Hp-PEG-PMMA were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), contact angle (CA) and platelet adhesion experiments. The results indicated that Hp and PEG had been successfully immobilized onto the surfaces of PMMA IOLs. Antithrombogenicity was improved remarkably and ultraviolet transmittance was reduced as well.

  15. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13 C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system

  16. The museum “La casa encantada” of Briones in the teaching of history: proposed primary education school excursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Molina Puche

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated, in order that the school excursions develop all his didactic potential (this is, in order that they serve to stimulate the “guided discovery” learning, have to be framed in didactic itineraries and with it, to be considered as an integral part of the didactic programming of the course. The curricular integration of the school excursions is one of the principal problems which the teacher meets at the moment of putting in practical this important didactic resource. With this work we claim, beside showing many possibilities that there has the museum of “The Enchanted House” of Briones (section ethnology of the Museum of La Rioja for the learning of the history in Primary Education, to indicate how they can integrate in the curriculum the visits to the museum in each of three cycles that shape this educational level.

  17. Constraints on early dark energy from CMB lensing and weak lensing tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenstein, Lukas; Crittenden, Robert; Sapone, Domenico; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2009-01-01

    Dark energy can be studied by its influence on the expansion of the Universe as well as on the growth history of the large-scale structure. In this paper, we follow the growth of the cosmic density field in early dark energy cosmologies by combining observations of the primary CMB temperature and polarisation power spectra at high redshift, of the CMB lensing deflection field at intermediate redshift and of weak cosmic shear at low redshifts for constraining the allowed amount of early dark energy. We present these forecasts using the Fisher matrix formalism and consider the combination of Planck data with the weak lensing survey of Euclid. We find that combining these data sets gives powerful constraints on early dark energy and is able to break degeneracies in the parameter set inherent to the various observational channels. The derived statistical 1σ-bound on the early dark energy density parameter is σ(Ω e d ) = 0.0022 which suggests that early dark energy models can be well examined in our approach. In addition, we derive the dark energy figure of merit for the considered dark energy parameterisation and comment on the applicability of the growth index to early dark energy cosmologies

  18. Does correcting astigmatism with toric lenses improve driving performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel J; Banton, Thomas; Record, Steven; Grabman, Jesse H; Hawkins, Ronald J

    2015-04-01

    Driving is a vision-based activity of daily living that impacts safety. Because visual disruption can compromise driving safety, contact lens wearers with astigmatism may pose a driving safety risk if they experience residual blur from spherical lenses that do not correct their astigmatism or if they experience blur from toric lenses that rotate excessively. Given that toric lens stabilization systems are continually improving, this preliminary study tested the hypothesis that astigmats wearing toric contact lenses, compared with spherical lenses, would exhibit better overall driving performance and driving-specific visual abilities. A within-subject, single-blind, crossover, randomized design was used to evaluate driving performance in 11 young adults with astigmatism (-0.75 to -1.75 diopters cylinder). Each participant drove a highly immersive, virtual reality driving simulator (210 degrees field of view) with (1) no correction, (2) spherical contact lens correction (ACUVUE MOIST), and (3) toric contact lens correction (ACUVUE MOIST for Astigmatism). Tactical driving skills such as steering, speed management, and braking, as well as operational driving abilities such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and foot and arm reaction time, were quantified. There was a main effect for type of correction on driving performance (p = 0.05). Correction with toric lenses resulted in significantly safer tactical driving performance than no correction (p driving safety from no correction (p = 0.118). Operational tests differentiated corrected from uncorrected performance for both spherical (p = 0.008) and toric (p = 0.011) lenses, but they were not sensitive enough to differentiate toric from spherical lens conditions. Given previous research showing that deficits in these tactical skills are predictive of future real-world collisions, these preliminary data suggest that correcting low to moderate astigmatism with toric lenses may be important to driving safety. Their

  19. Power profiles of single vision and multifocal soft contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sandra; Conrad, Fabian; Bakaraju, Ravi C; Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Holden, Brien A

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the optical zone power profile of the most commonly prescribed soft contact lenses to assess their potential impact on peripheral refractive error and hence myopia progression. The optical power profiles of six single vision and ten multifocal contact lenses of five manufacturers in the powers -1.00 D, -3.00 D, and -6.00 D were measured using the SHSOphthalmic (Optocraft GmbH, Erlangen, Germany). Instrument repeatability was also investigated. Instrument repeatability was dependent on the distance from the optical centre, manifesting unreliable data for the central 1mm of the optic zone. Single vision contact lens measurements of -6.00 D lenses revealed omafilcon A having the most negative spherical aberration, lotrafilcon A having the least. Somofilcon A had the highest minus power and lotrafilcon A the biggest deviation in positive direction, relative to their respective labelled powers. Negative spherical aberration occurred for almost all of the multifocal contact lenses, including the centre-distance designs etafilcon A bifocal and omafilcon A multifocal. Lotrafilcon B and balafilcon A seem to rely predominantly on the spherical aberration component to provide multifocality. Power profiles of single vision soft contact lenses varied greatly, many having a negative spherical aberration profile that would exacerbate myopia. Some lens types and powers are affected by large intra-batch variability or power offsets of more than 0.25 dioptres. Evaluation of power profiles of multifocal lenses was derived that provides helpful information for prescribing lenses for presbyopes and progressing myopes. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. QUANTIFYING THE BIASES OF SPECTROSCOPICALLY SELECTED GRAVITATIONAL LENSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arneson, Ryan A.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bolton, Adam S.

    2012-01-01

    Spectroscopic selection has been the most productive technique for the selection of galaxy-scale strong gravitational lens systems with known redshifts. Statistically significant samples of strong lenses provide a powerful method for measuring the mass-density parameters of the lensing population, but results can only be generalized to the parent population if the lensing selection biases are sufficiently understood. We perform controlled Monte Carlo simulations of spectroscopic lens surveys in order to quantify the bias of lenses relative to parent galaxies in velocity dispersion, mass axis ratio, and mass-density profile. For parameters typical of the SLACS and BELLS surveys, we find (1) no significant mass axis ratio detection bias of lenses relative to parent galaxies; (2) a very small detection bias toward shallow mass-density profiles, which is likely negligible compared to other sources of uncertainty in this parameter; (3) a detection bias toward smaller Einstein radius for systems drawn from parent populations with group- and cluster-scale lensing masses; and (4) a lens-modeling bias toward larger velocity dispersions for systems drawn from parent samples with sub-arcsecond mean Einstein radii. This last finding indicates that the incorporation of velocity-dispersion upper limits of non-lenses is an important ingredient for unbiased analyses of spectroscopically selected lens samples. In general, we find that the completeness of spectroscopic lens surveys in the plane of Einstein radius and mass-density profile power-law index is quite uniform, up to a sharp drop in the region of large Einstein radius and steep mass-density profile, and hence that such surveys are ideally suited to the study of massive field galaxies.

  1. Effects of numerical dissipation and unphysical excursions on scalar-mixing estimates in large-eddy simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Nek; Matheou, Georgios; Dimotakis, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Artificial numerical dissipation decreases dispersive oscillations and can play a key role in mitigating unphysical scalar excursions in large eddy simulations (LES). Its influence on scalar mixing can be assessed through the resolved-scale scalar, Z , its probability density function (PDF), variance, spectra, and the budget of the horizontally averaged equation for Z2. LES of incompressible temporally evolving shear flow enabled us to study the influence of numerical dissipation on unphysical scalar excursions and mixing estimates. Flows with different mixing behavior, with both marching and non-marching scalar PDFs, are studied. Scalar fields for each flow are compared for different grid resolutions and numerical scalar-convection term schemes. As expected, increasing numerical dissipation enhances scalar mixing in the development stage of shear flow characterized by organized large-scale pairings with a non-marching PDF, but has little influence in the self-similar stage of flows with marching PDFs. Flow parameters and regimes sensitive to numerical dissipation help identify approaches to mitigate unphysical excursions while minimizing dissipation.

  2. Shared Responsibility for Type 1 Diabetes Care Is Associated With Glycemic Variability and Risk of Glycemic Excursions in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Arwen M; Noser, Amy E; Clements, Mark A; Patton, Susana R

    2018-01-01

    We examined how parent and youth responsibility for type 1 diabetes (T1D) care is related to adherence and glycemic outcomes, namely, glycemic variability and risk of glycemic excursions. One hundred thirty-five parent-youth dyads (10-16 years old; diagnosed with T1D for at least 6 months) participated in this study. Percent responsibility of T1D care attributed to the youth, parent, or shared was measured using the Diabetes Family Responsibility Questionnaire. We collected youth's hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glucometer downloads to examine relationships between responsibility and HbA1c, frequency of blood glucose monitoring (self-monitoring blood glucose, SMBG), risk of glycemic excursions, and actual glycemic variability using bivariate correlations and path analysis. Participants reported shared responsibility for almost half of T1D self-care tasks. Bivariate correlations showed shared responsibility was associated with less variability, whereas parent responsibility was associated with greater glycemic variability and risk for glycemic excursions. Youth responsibility was associated with lower frequency of SMBG. The path analyses confirmed our correlational findings (pshypothesis that shared T1D responsibility is associated with better diabetes outcomes in youth. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion (TAPSE in a Patient with Pulmonary Emboli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Zawada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 60-year-old male with a history of pulmonary emboli (PE presented to the emergency department with exertional shortness of breath following a ten-hour flight. The patient admitted to recently stopping his previously prescribed rivaroxaban. His electrocardiogram (ECG showed findings consistent with a S1Q3T3 pattern. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS was performed using the curvilinear probe, which revealed a thrombus in the inferior vena cava (IVC. POCUS using the phased array probe demonstrated an abnormal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE and a significantly dilated right ventricle (RV. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA showed evidence of acute emboli within the right and left distal main pulmonary arteries, left lobar, and left proximal segmental artery. Additionally, a thrombus was visualized in the left distal subhepatic IVC. The patient was admitted to telemetry for anticoagulation and monitoring. Right heart catheterization revealed a significantly elevated pulmonary artery pressure of 95/27. Significant findings: Video 1 and Image 1 show a thrombus in the patient’s IVC. Video 2 and Images 2-3 demonstrate a positive TAPSE of less than 17mm (blue arrow length with a significantly dilated RV, indicating abnormal excursion of the tricuspid annulus and right ventricular dysfunction. Discussion: Pulmonary embolism is the third leading cause of death from cardiovascular disease following myocardial infarction and stroke.1 Approximately half of all PEs are diagnosed in the emergency department2 and early detection and treatment have been shown to improve outcomes and survival.3 Pulmonary emboli can present with a wide range of symptoms including dyspnea, chest pain, shock, or sustained hypotension, and can even be asymptomatic, making it a potentially challenging diagnosis.4 Studies show a high specificity of over 80% but low sensitivity of lower than 60%, for echocardiography in the diagnosis of PE

  4. Are U-channels measurements appropriate for reversal or excursion records ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, E. G. H.; Valet, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Sampling of sediment cores by U-channel plastic tubes is a very successful technique that allows to perform measurements of the magnetic remanence and demagnetization of long sections of sediment. This approach made possible the acquisition of detailed records of paleosecular variation, geomagnetic polarity and relative paleointensity over the past million years and yielded significant advances in our knowledge of the geomagnetic field changes. The major pitfall is that the resolution of the signal which is imposed by the deposition rate of the sediment is also attenuated by the response curve of the magnetic sensors used for measurements. This is not so critical to document the dipole field changes, but may have a significant impact to recover fast field changes typical of the non-dipole field that prevail during reversals and excursions. We have investigated possible consequences by comparing 150 successive individual directions of 1 cm side successive single samples with the measurement of the 1.5m equivalent U-channel obtained by placing the same samples adjacent to each other. We compared different transition lengths and generated transitional directions that produce records with similar characteristics as those derived from volcanic records of reversals with a magnetization intensity dropping to 5% of the full polarity value during the transition. The results show that even with transitional intervals as long as 30 cm and therefore associated with deposition rates as high as 10 cm/ka the U-channels considerably smooth all variations with significant consequences on the VGP paths that become more constrained in longitude. Despite little similarity with the global structure of the transition, the U-channels fail to reproduce the complexity of the transitional period. The transitional VGPs never duplicate the variations of the non-dipole field even within several centimeters and generate artificial clusters or periods of apparent fast changes. We are currently

  5. Study of the thermal and hydraulic phenomena occurring during power excursion on a heated test section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyer, M.

    1969-01-01

    The thermal and hydrodynamic phenomena occurring during a power excursion were studied in an out-of-pile loop with a water cooled channel at low pressure (1 to 4 atm. abs. ). Circular and rectangular test sections with electrically heated walls of two different thermal diffusivity materials(aluminium and stainless steel) were used. The rectangular test sections were 600 mm long, 35 mm wide and had a 2, 9 mm gap; they simulate two half plates of the M.T.R. fuel element. Natural or forced convection are possible in the test section; the water height above it can be varied from 2.8 to 8 meters and the maximum allowed pressure at its outlet is 4 atm. abs.The heating source is a series of lead batteries which is able to generate, for short periods of time, 85 volts and 25000 amperes; linear, square or exponential power rise versus time can be realized. A 14 channels tape recorder (0-10 000 Hz bandwidth; is used for the measurements of temperature (8/100 mm diameter thermocouple), pressure ('Statham' pressure transducers) and void fraction (X rays). More than 500 tests have been carried out. The influence of the initial water temperature, flow rate, pressure, water height on the water ejections, pressure variations and void fraction in the test section were studied. Tests with energies up to 3000 W/cm in 50 milliseconds were attempted. The energy above which the instabilities appear was determined. An interpretation of the observed phenomena and a simplified theoretical model are presented [fr

  6. Environmental forcing of terrestrial carbon isotope excursion amplification across five Eocene hyperthermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. J.; Abels, H.

    2015-12-01

    Abrupt changes in the isotope composition of exogenic carbon pools accompany many major episodes of global change in the geologic record. The global expression of this change in substrates that reflect multiple carbon pools provides important evidence that many events reflect persistent, global redistribution of carbon between reduced and oxidized stocks. As the diversity of records documenting any event grows, however, discrepancies in the expression of carbon isotope change among substrates are almost always revealed. These differences in magnitude, pace, and pattern of change can complicate interpretations of global carbon redistribution, but under ideal circumstances can also provide additional information on changes in specific environmental and biogeochemical systems that accompanied the global events. Here we evaluate possible environmental influences on new terrestrial records of the negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) associated with multiple hyperthermals of the Early Eocene, which show a common pattern of amplified carbon isotope change in terrestrial paleosol carbonate records relative to that recorded in marine substrates. Scaling relationships between climate and carbon-cycle proxies suggest that that the climatic (temperature) impact of each event scaled proportionally with the magnitude of its marine CIE, likely implying that all events involved release of reduced carbon with a similar isotopic composition. Amplification of the terrestrial CIEs, however, does not scale with event magnitude, being proportionally less for the first, largest event (the PETM). We conduct a sensitivity test of a coupled plant-soil carbon isotope model to identify conditions that could account for the observed CIE scaling. At least two possibilities consistent with independent lines of evidence emerge: first, varying effects of pCO2 change on photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination under changing background pCO2, and second, contrasting changes in regional

  7. Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion and Its Association with Mortality in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajanana, Deepakraj; Seetha Rammohan, Harish; Alli, Oluseun; Romero-Corral, Abel; Purushottam, Bhaskar; Ponamgi, Shiva; Figueredo, Vincent M; Pressman, Gregg S

    2015-08-01

    Transient left ventricular dysfunction can occur under conditions of extreme emotional or physiological stress. There is little data on right ventricular function in such situations. One hundred twenty patients admitted to an ICU with a noncardiac illness were studied. Those with documented coronary disease, ejection fraction <40%, sepsis, or intracranial hemorrhage were excluded. Echocardiograms were performed within 24 hours of admission. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) was measured to assess right ventricular systolic function. Plasma catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine) were measured on admission. Clinical and demographic data were collected, along with data on ICU length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, and in-hospital and long-term mortality. TAPSE was tested for correlation with adverse outcomes and length of stay. Mean TAPSE for the group was 2.05 ± 0.66 cm. Based on area under the ROC curve analysis, TAPSE <2.4 cm was the best cutoff for predicting in-hospital and long-term mortality. There were 13 in-hospital deaths, 12 in the group with TAPSE <2.4 cm and one among those with TAPSE ≥2.4 cm. On multivariate analysis, TAPSE <2.4 cm was a significant predictor of in-hospital mortality (χ(2)  = 4.6, P = 0.03). When tested against hospital LOS, an inverse correlation was found (P = 0.04). No association was found between TAPSE and catecholamine levels. Right ventricular systolic function, as assessed by TAPSE, has important prognostic value in critically ill patients. Mean values were lower in patients who died in-hospital versus those who survived to discharge. In addition, patients with TAPSE <2.4 cm had a longer hospital length of stay. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cosmological information in Gaussianized weak lensing signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachimi, B.; Taylor, A. N.; Kiessling, A.

    2011-11-01

    Gaussianizing the one-point distribution of the weak gravitational lensing convergence has recently been shown to increase the signal-to-noise ratio contained in two-point statistics. We investigate the information on cosmology that can be extracted from the transformed convergence fields. Employing Box-Cox transformations to determine optimal transformations to Gaussianity, we develop analytical models for the transformed power spectrum, including effects of noise and smoothing. We find that optimized Box-Cox transformations perform substantially better than an offset logarithmic transformation in Gaussianizing the convergence, but both yield very similar results for the signal-to-noise ratio. None of the transformations is capable of eliminating correlations of the power spectra between different angular frequencies, which we demonstrate to have a significant impact on the errors in cosmology. Analytic models of the Gaussianized power spectrum yield good fits to the simulations and produce unbiased parameter estimates in the majority of cases, where the exceptions can be traced back to the limitations in modelling the higher order correlations of the original convergence. In the ideal case, without galaxy shape noise, we find an increase in the cumulative signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2.6 for angular frequencies up to ℓ= 1500, and a decrease in the area of the confidence region in the Ωm-σ8 plane, measured in terms of q-values, by a factor of 4.4 for the best performing transformation. When adding a realistic level of shape noise, all transformations perform poorly with little decorrelation of angular frequencies, a maximum increase in signal-to-noise ratio of 34 per cent, and even slightly degraded errors on cosmological parameters. We argue that to find Gaussianizing transformations of practical use, it will be necessary to go beyond transformations of the one-point distribution of the convergence, extend the analysis deeper into the non

  9. Data mining for gravitationally lensed quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, Adriano; Kelly, Brandon C.; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.

    2015-04-01

    Gravitationally lensed quasars are brighter than their unlensed counterparts and produce images with distinctive morphological signatures. Past searches and target-selection algorithms, in particular the Sloan Quasar Lens Search (SQLS), have relied on basic morphological criteria, which were applied to samples of bright, spectroscopically confirmed quasars. The SQLS techniques are not sufficient for searching into new surveys (e.g. DES, PS1, LSST), because spectroscopic information is not readily available and the large data volume requires higher purity in target/candidate selection. We carry out a systematic exploration of machine-learning techniques and demonstrate that a two-step strategy can be highly effective. In the first step, we use catalogue-level information (griz+WISE magnitudes, second moments) to pre-select targets, using artificial neural networks. The accepted targets are then inspected with pixel-by-pixel pattern recognition algorithms (gradient-boosted trees), to form a final set of candidates. The results from this procedure can be used to further refine the simpler SQLS algorithms, with a twofold (or threefold) gain in purity and the same (or 80 per cent) completeness at target-selection stage, or a purity of 70 per cent and a completeness of 60 per cent after the candidate-selection step. Simpler photometric searches in griz+WISE based on colour cuts would provide samples with 7 per cent purity or less. Our technique is extremely fast, as a list of candidates can be obtained from a Stage III experiment (e.g. DES catalogue/data base) in a few CPU hours. The techniques are easily extendable to Stage IV experiments like LSST with the addition of time domain information.

  10. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Flat liquid crystal diffractive lenses with variable focus and magnification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Pouria

    Non-mechanical variable lenses are important for creating compact imaging devices. Various methods employing dielectrically actuated lenses, membrane lenses, and liquid crystal lenses were previously proposed [1-4]. In This dissertation the design, fabrication, and characterization of innovative flat tunable-focus liquid crystal diffractive lenses (LCDL) are presented. LCDL employ binary Fresnel zone electrodes fabricated on Indium-Tin-Oxide using conventional micro-photolithography. The light phase can be adjusted by varying the effective refractive index of a nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between the electrodes and a reference substrate. Using a proper voltage distribution across various electrodes the focal length can be changed between several discrete values. Electrodes are shunted such that the correct phase retardation step sequence is achieved. If the number of 2pi zone boundaries is increased by a factor of m the focal length is changed from f to f/m based on the digitized Fresnel zone equation: f = rm2/2mlambda, where r m is mth zone radius, and lambda is the wavelength. The chromatic aberration of the diffractive lens is addressed and corrected by adding a variable fluidic lens. These LCDL operate at very low voltage levels (+/-2.5V ac input), exhibit fast switching times (20-150 ms), can have large apertures (>10 mm), and small form factor, and are robust and insensitive to vibrations, gravity, and capillary effects that limit membrane and dielectrically actuated lenses. Several tests were performed on the LCDL including diffraction efficiency measurement, switching dynamics, and hybrid imaging with a refractive lens. Negative focal lengths are achieved by adjusting the voltages across electrodes. Using these lenses in combination, magnification can be changed and zoom lenses can be formed. These characteristics make LCDL a good candidate for a variety of applications including auto-focus and zoom lenses in compact imaging devices such as camera

  12. Consequences of wear interruption for discomfort with contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Eric B; Tilia, Daniel; Tomlinson, Daniel; Williams, Josh; Chan, Eddy; Chan, Jason; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2014-01-01

    To establish whether increased end-of-day discomfort during soft contact lens wear is associated with short-term changes occurring to the lens itself. Twenty-seven subjects wore hydrogel lenses (Focus Dailies; Alcon) bilaterally for 10 hours on two separate days. Comfort was reported using 1-100 numerical rating scales (1 = intolerable discomfort, 100 = lens cannot be felt). Day 1 ratings were taken before lens insertion and at 0.05, 5, and 10 hours post-insertion. Day 2 ratings occurred at similar times, but lenses were removed after the 5-hour assessment and either reinserted (n = 14) or newly replaced (n = 12). An additional rating was taken 5 minutes after re-insertion. Wear then continued to the 10-hour point. In a separate study, 24 different subjects repeated these procedures using a silicone hydrogel lens (AirOptix Aqua; Alcon) with wear taking place on 3 days to permit lens replacement to be with existing as well as new lenses in all subjects. For hydrogel lenses, comfort scores (mean ± 95% CI) reported after 10 hours were 79.4 ± 8.3 when lenses were worn un-replaced, compared with 73.2 ± 9.2 for replacement with the existing lens. When replacement was with a brand new lens, the corresponding values were 72.9 ± 10.9 (un-replaced) versus 69.2 ± 12.8 (new lens replacement). For silicone hydrogel lenses, 10-hour comfort was 90.3 ± 3.2 (un-replaced) versus 92.2 ± 2.9 (replacement with existing lens) versus 90.0 ± 3.3 (replacement with new lens). Differences between replacement conditions were not significant in any case (analysis of variance, p > 0.05). Final comfort was not influenced by replacing lenses midway through the wearing period. Comfort decrements experienced by users of these daily contact lenses towards the later part of the wearing period are not caused by changes occurring to the lenses on this time scale. Possible alternative etiological factors include a fatigue-like response in one or more ocular tissues or stimulation of ocular

  13. THE HALO MASS FUNCTION FROM EXCURSION SET THEORY. I. GAUSSIAN FLUCTUATIONS WITH NON-MARKOVIAN DEPENDENCE ON THE SMOOTHING SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, Michele; Riotto, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A classic method for computing the mass function of dark matter halos is provided by excursion set theory, where density perturbations evolve stochastically with the smoothing scale, and the problem of computing the probability of halo formation is mapped into the so-called first-passage time problem in the presence of a barrier. While the full dynamical complexity of halo formation can only be revealed through N-body simulations, excursion set theory provides a simple analytic framework for understanding various aspects of this complex process. In this series of papers we propose improvements of both technical and conceptual aspects of excursion set theory, and we explore up to which point the method can reproduce quantitatively the data from N-body simulations. In Paper I of the series, we show how to derive excursion set theory from a path integral formulation. This allows us both to derive rigorously the absorbing barrier boundary condition, that in the usual formulation is just postulated, and to deal analytically with the non-Markovian nature of the random walk. Such a non-Markovian dynamics inevitably enters when either the density is smoothed with filters such as the top-hat filter in coordinate space (which is the only filter associated with a well-defined halo mass) or when one considers non-Gaussian fluctuations. In these cases, beside 'Markovian' terms, we find 'memory' terms that reflect the non-Markovianity of the evolution with the smoothing scale. We develop a general formalism for evaluating perturbatively these non-Markovian corrections, and in this paper we perform explicitly the computation of the halo mass function for Gaussian fluctuations, to first order in the non-Markovian corrections due to the use of a top-hat filter in coordinate space. In Paper II of this series we propose to extend excursion set theory by treating the critical threshold for collapse as a stochastic variable, which better captures some of the dynamical complexity of the

  14. Morphology of the Iceland Basin Excursion from a spherical harmonics analysis and an iterative Bayesian inversion procedure of sedimentary records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanci, Luca; Kissel, Catherine; Leonhardt, Roman; Laj, Carlo

    2008-08-01

    Based on 5 published marine high-resolution sedimentary records of the Iceland Basin Excursion [IBE; Channell, J.E.T., Hodell, D.A., Lehman, B., 1997. Relative geomagnetic paleointensity and ∂ 18O at ODP Site 983/Gardar Drift, North Atlantic since 350 ka. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 153, 103-118; Laj, C., Kissel, C., Roberts, A., 2006. Geomagnetic field behavior during the Iceland Basin and Laschamp geomagnetic excursions: a simple transitional field geometry? Geochem. Geophys. Geosystems. 7, Q03004, doi:10.1029/2005GC001122] dated around 186-190 kyr, we present models of the excursional geomagnetic field at the Earth's surface using two different approaches. First a spherical harmonics analysis is performed after synchronization of the records using their paleointensity profiles. Second, we have used an iterative Bayesian inversion procedure, calibrated using the single volcanic data available so far. Both modeling approaches suffer from imperfections of the paleomagnetic signals and mostly from the still poor geographical distribution of detailed records, presently available only from the North Atlantic and the West Pacific. For these reasons, our modeling results should only be regarded as preliminary models of the geomagnetic field during the IBE, susceptible to improvements when including results from future paleomagnetic studies. Nevertheless, both approaches show distinct similarities and are stable against moderate variations of modeling parameters. The general picture is that of a dipole field undergoing a strong reduction, but remaining higher than the non-dipole field all through the excursional process, except for a very short interval of time corresponding to the dipole minimum at the center of the excursion. On the other hand, some differences exist between the results of the two models with each other and with the real data when the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) paths are considered. The non-dipole field does not appear to undergo very significant

  15. Civil and Patriotic Education of Students by Means of Excursion Activities in Russia in the Second Half of XIX – Early XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda V. Tarasova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the problem of civil and patriotic education of students by means of voluntary activity, presents historical and educational analysis of excursion activities as one of the major forms of volunteer work of schoolchildren in Russia in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries, determines its major goals and objectives. The paper, using archive data, attempts to consider excursion activity as one of the major forms of volunteer work, promoting patriotism development in rising generation. The opinions of innovative teachers of the examined period, who considered that excursions had great educational potential are characterized. The position of the Ministry of Education, concerning educational potential of excursions is examined.

  16. Multi-centre evaluation of two daily disposable contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jon; Young, Graeme; Hunt, Chris; Henderson, Terri

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance of two daily disposable contact lenses: 1-DAY ACUVUE (1DA) (etafilcon A, Johnson & Johnson Vision Care) and FOCUS DAILIES with AquaComfort (FD) (nelfilcon A, CIBA Vision, Inc.), which contains a quickly released moisture enhancing agent, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). This was a 1-week, daily wear, subject-masked, bilateral, parallel group study with subjects randomly assigned to one of two daily disposable soft contact lenses. Subjects were existing soft contact lens wearers in the age range 18-39 years with a spherical refraction between -0.50 and -6.00 D. Subjects were assessed at baseline and after 1 week. Assessments included both subjective (symptoms, wearing time, vision) and objective (lens fit and ocular health) outcomes. Twenty clinical sites enrolled 282 subjects (74% female) of whom 276 (98%) successfully completed the study. Significantly more 1DA wearers reported higher mean comfort scores than with FD (3.95 versus 3.41, respectively, Pdisposable lenses highlight that, although both lenses may be considered as clinically acceptable, these lenses should not be regarded as interchangeable.

  17. Bacterial adherence to extended wear soft contact lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswad, M.I.; John, T.; Barza, M.; Kenyon, K.; Baum, J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors studied the adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to extended wear soft contact lenses (EWSCLs) with and without focal deposits using both a radiolabeling technique and electron microscopy. P. aeruginosa showed significant adherence to contact lenses in vitro. In contrast, S. aureus failed to show significant adherence to contact lenses in vitro (i.e., the radioactive uptake was not significantly above background). The extent of adherence of Pseudomonas was proportional to the number of focal deposits on the lenses. Results of electron microscopic examination showed the bacteria to be adherent primarily to large focal deposits (greater than or equal to 150 microns). There was no pseudomonal adherence to the small focal deposits (less than or equal to 50 microns) and little adherence to the areas in between the focal deposits. The authors hypothesize that worn lenses, especially those with large focal deposits, serve as a vehicle for the transport of P. aeruginosa to the cornea. This hypothesis could be a partial explanation for the high incidence of keratitis caused by P. aeruginosa in EWSCL patients

  18. Prescribing prophylactic antibiotics to users of therapeutic contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomé-Campos, J; Quevedo-Junyent, L; Godoy-Barreda, N; Martínez-Salcedo, I; Romero-Aroca, P

    2013-03-01

    To describe the benefits and optimum use of prophylactic antibiotics in users of therapeutic contact lenses (TCL). A microbiological study was carried out on samples from 33 patients who continuously wore TCL. The resistance to antibiotics of bacteria isolated in our health region was also reviewed. An assessment was also made on whether there were microorganisms of a higher pathogenic potential in TCL than conventional contact lenses, as reported in the literature. No bacteria were isolated from 17 (52%) of the 33 lenses studied. From the 16 (48%) remaining lenses, coagulase negative Staphylococci were isolated from 10 (62%), Propionibacterium acnes from 4 (25%), and Corynebacterium from 2 (13%). The high number of negative cultures and the presence of saprophytic bacteria indicate that prophylactic antibiotic treatment is not precise. The most frequent pathogenic bacteria found in contact lenses are strongly resistant to the current commercially available antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison between liquid and solid tunable focus lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago-Alvarado, A; Cruz-Martinez, V M; Vazquez-Montiel, S; Munoz-Lopez, J; Diaz-Gonzalez, G; Campos-Garcia, M

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays more reports in the use of tunable lenses are reported, it is due to the benefits they offer in optical systems design. A tunable lens is an optical system that can focus on a range of positions by changing dynamically one of its geometric parameters. There are several types of tunable lenses, the most known types are the liquid, the solid elastic, with variable refractive index, and lenses that use a dielectric medium. This paper presents the analysis and opto-mechanical design of two tunable lenses, a liquid lens and another Solid Elastic Lens (SEL). Both lenses are made in mounting aluminium and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as refractor medium, the liquid lens use two elastic membranes containing a liquid medium between them while the SEL only use PDMS material as body of the lens (medium refractor). We describe the opto-mechanical performance of both types of lens highlighting the main features of each. Finally, results of a opto-functional comparison between these prototypes are showed.

  20. THE MICROLENSING PROPERTIES OF A SAMPLE OF 87 LENSED QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera, A. M.; Kochanek, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing is a powerful tool for probing the physical properties of quasar accretion disks and properties of the lens galaxy such as its dark matter fraction and mean stellar mass. Unfortunately, the number of lensed quasars (∼90) exceeds our monitoring capabilities. Thus, estimating their microlensing properties is important for identifying good microlensing candidates as well as for the expectations of future surveys. In this work, we estimate the microlensing properties of a sample of 87 lensed quasars. While the median Einstein radius crossing timescale is 20.6 years, the median source crossing timescale is 7.3 months. Broadly speaking, this means that on ∼10 year timescales roughly half the lenses will be quiescent, with the source in a broad demagnified valley, and roughly half will be active with the source lying in the caustic ridges. We also found that the location of the lens system relative to the cosmic microwave background dipole has a modest effect on microlensing timescales, and in theory microlensing could be used to confirm the kinematic origin of the dipole. As a corollary of our study we analyzed the accretion rate parameters in a sub-sample of 32 lensed quasars. At fixed black hole mass, it is possible to sample a broad range of luminosities (i.e., Eddington factors) if it becomes feasible to monitor fainter lenses.

  1. Low Cost DIY Lenses kit For High School Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepnurat, Meechai; Saphet, Parinya; Tong-on, Anusorn

    2017-09-01

    A set of lenses was fabricated from a low cost materials in a DIY (Do it yourself) process. The purpose was to demonstrate to teachers and students in high schools how to construct lenses by themselves with the local available materials. The lenses could be applied in teaching Physics, about the nature of a lens such as focal length and light rays passing through lenses in either direction, employing a set of simple laser pointers. This instrumental kit was made from a transparent 2 mm thick of acrylic Perspex. It was cut into rectangular pieces with dimensions of 2x15 cm2 and bent into curved shape by a hot air blower on a cylindrical wooden rod with curvature radii of about 3-4.5 cm. Then a pair of these Perspex were formed into a hollow thick lenses with a base supporting platform, so that any appropriate liquids could be filled in. The focal length of the lens was measured from laser beam drawing on a paper. The refractive index, n (n) of a filling liquid could be calculated from the measured focal length (f). The kit was low cost and DIY but was greatly applicable for optics teaching in high school laboratory.

  2. Comparison of longitudinal excursion of a nerve-phantom model using quantitative ultrasound imaging and motion analysis system methods: A convergent validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Philippe; El Khamlichi, Youssef; Lamontagne, Martin; Higgins, Johanne; Gagnon, Dany H

    2017-08-01

    Quantitative ultrasound imaging is gaining popularity in research and clinical settings to measure the neuromechanical properties of the peripheral nerves such as their capability to glide in response to body segment movement. Increasing evidence suggests that impaired median nerve longitudinal excursion is associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. To date, psychometric properties of longitudinal nerve excursion measurements using quantitative ultrasound imaging have not been extensively investigated. This study investigates the convergent validity of the longitudinal nerve excursion by comparing measures obtained using quantitative ultrasound imaging with those determined with a motion analysis system. A 38-cm long rigid nerve-phantom model was used to assess the longitudinal excursion in a laboratory environment. The nerve-phantom model, immersed in a 20-cm deep container filled with a gelatin-based solution, was moved 20 times using a linear forward and backward motion. Three light-emitting diodes were used to record nerve-phantom excursion with a motion analysis system, while a 5-cm linear transducer allowed simultaneous recording via ultrasound imaging. Both measurement techniques yielded excellent association ( r  = 0.99) and agreement (mean absolute difference between methods = 0.85 mm; mean relative difference between methods = 7.48 %). Small discrepancies were largely found when larger excursions (i.e. > 10 mm) were performed, revealing slight underestimation of the excursion by the ultrasound imaging analysis software. Quantitative ultrasound imaging is an accurate method to assess the longitudinal excursion of an in vitro nerve-phantom model and appears relevant for future research protocols investigating the neuromechanical properties of the peripheral nerves.

  3. Author Correction: Reliability and feasibility of gait initiation centre-of-pressure excursions using a Wii® Balance Board in older adults at risk of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James; Webb, Graham; Shortland, Adam P; Edwards, Rebecca; Wilce, Charlotte; Jones, Gareth D

    2018-05-12

    In the original publication, the article title was incorrectly published as 'Reliability and feasibility of gait initiation centre-of-pressure excursions using a Wii® Balance Board in older adults at risk of failing'. The correct title should read as 'Reliability and feasibility of gait initiation centre-of-pressure excursions using a Wii® Balance Board in older adults at risk of falling'.

  4. Multi-angle lensless digital holography for depth resolved imaging on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ting-Wei; Isikman, Serhan O.; Bishara, Waheb; Tseng, Derek; Erlinger, Anthony; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    A multi-angle lensfree holographic imaging platform that can accurately characterize both the axial and lateral positions of cells located within multi-layered micro-channels is introduced. In this platform, lensfree digital holograms of the micro-objects on the chip are recorded at different illumination angles using partially coherent illumination. These digital holograms start to shift laterally on the sensor plane as the illumination angle of the source is tilted. Since the exact amount of this lateral shift of each object hologram can be calculated with an accuracy that beats the diffraction limit of light, the height of each cell from the substrate can be determined over a large field of view without the use of any lenses. We demonstrate the proof of concept of this multi-angle lensless imaging platform by using light emitting diodes to characterize various sized microparticles located on a chip with sub-micron axial and lateral localization over ~60 mm2 field of view. Furthermore, we successfully apply this lensless imaging approach to simultaneously characterize blood samples located at multi-layered micro-channels in terms of the counts, individual thicknesses and the volumes of the cells at each layer. Because this platform does not require any lenses, lasers or other bulky optical/mechanical components, it provides a compact and high-throughput alternative to conventional approaches for cytometry and diagnostics applications involving lab on a chip systems. PMID:20588819

  5. Carbon isotopic record from Upper Devonian carbonates at Dongcun in Guilin, southern China, supporting the world-wide pattern of carbon isotope excursions during Frasnian-Famennian transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Two positive δ13C excursions are presented in records from the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) marine carbonate sediments in Europe, America, Africa, and Australia, having been considered as a worldwide pattern, and attributed to enhanced organic carbon burial during the F-F biological mass extinction. However, this worldwide pattern has not been revealed from the well-deposited Late Devonian sequences in southern China. In this paper, a detailed investigation has been made on the Late Devonian section at Dongcun, Guilin, southern China to constrain perturbations in δ13C of carbonates in the F-F deposited sequence. The result from this section also indicates two positive δ13C excursions during the F-F transition. The first excursion with an amplitude of 1.5‰ occurred at the bottom of linguiformis Zone, later than the early excursion existing in the Late rhenana Zone of the Late Devonian profiles in other continents, especially, in central Europe. This difference has been expected to be a result as conodont Palmatolepis linguiformis occurred earlier in southern China than other sites. The second excursion with an amplitude of 2.1‰ is located at the F-F boundary, same as the records from other continents. This result strongly supports the view that two carbon isotope positive excursions during the F-F transition are common in carbonate sediments, resulting from worldwide increases of organic carbon burial intensity.

  6. Free gracilis transfer for smile in children: the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Experience in excursion and quality-of-life changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlock, Tessa A; Malo, Juan S; Cheney, Mack L; Henstrom, Douglas K

    2011-01-01

    Free muscle transfer for facial reanimation has become the standard of care in recent decades and is now the cornerstone intervention for dynamic smile reanimation. We sought to quantify smile excursion and quality-of-life (QOL) changes in our pediatric free gracilis recipients following reanimation. We quantified gracilis muscle excursion in 17 pediatric patients undergoing 19 consecutive pediatric free gracilis transplantation operations, using our validated SMILE program, as an objective measure of functional outcome. These were compared against excursion measured the same way in a cohort of 17 adults with 19 free gracilis operations. In addition, we prospectively evaluated QOL outcomes in these children using the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) instrument. The mean gracilis excursion in our pediatric free gracilis recipients was 8.8 mm ± 5.0 mm, which matched adult results, but with fewer complete failures of less than 2-mm excursion, with 2 (11%) and 4 (21%), respectively. Quality-of-life measures indicated statistically significant improvements following dynamic smile reanimation (P = .01). Dynamic facial reanimation using free gracilis transfer in children has an acceptable success rate, yields improved commissure excursion, and improves QOL in the pediatric population. It should be considered first-line therapy for children with lack of a meaningful smile secondary to facial paralysis.

  7. Improvements to the Root Finding Algorithm in VBBinaryLensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Tyler; Hoag, Ava; Bozza, Valerio; Oberst, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    VBBinaryLensing is the leading code for fitting magnification maps to microlensing events by binary lenses, most especially for exoplanet discoveries. The majority of the code’s runtime is devoted to finding roots of a fifth order complex polynomial arising from the binary lens equation. This is currently accomplished via the ZROOTS subroutine, which employs Laguerre’s method. Skowron and Gould’s (2012) algorithm, which employs a combination of Laguerre’s and Newton’s methods, presents the possibility of faster runtimes. We introduce a C++ translation of Skowron and Gould’s algorithm and test it as a replacement for ZROOTS in VBBinaryLensing. We find that this new implementation both reduces the time spent finding roots and makes the code more robust in extreme regimes.

  8. Incoherently combining logarithmic aspheric lenses for extended depth of field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kaiqin; George, Nicholas; Chi, Wanli

    2009-10-01

    We describe a method for combining concentric logarithmic aspheric lenses in order to obtain an extended depth of field. Substantial improvement in extending the depth of field is obtained by carefully controlling the optical path difference among the concentric lenses so that their outputs combine incoherently. The system is analyzed through diffraction theory and the point spread function is shown to be highly invariant over a long range of object distances. After testing the image performance on a three-dimensional scene, we found that the incoherently combined logarithmic aspheres can provide a high-quality image over an axial distance corresponding to a defocus of +/- 14(lambda/4). Studies of the images of two-point objects are presented to illustrate the resolution of these lenses.

  9. Uptake of trace elements in adult and suckling rat lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Ito, Yoshimasa; Minami, Takeshi; Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of trace elements in the lens was compared in adult and suckling rat lenses. Multitracers, including 15 trace elements, As, Be, Co, Fe, Mn, Rb, Rh, Ru, Sc, Se, Sr, Y, V, Zn, and Zr, were incubated with the lenses for 4 hr and their concentrations in the lens were measured. A high uptake rate of Zn was observed in the lenses of both adult and suckling rats in comparison with those of the other elements, and the Zn concentration in the lens of suckling rats was higher than that of adult rats. The uptake rate of Sr was higher in adult rats than in suckling rats. On the other contrary, Rb and Se concentrations in the lens were higher in suckling rats than in adult rats. The present study suggests that the different mechanisms depending on development serve to transport trace elements into the lens. (author)

  10. Observations of Cluster Substructure using Weakly Lensed Sextupole Moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, John

    2003-08-01

    Since dark matter clusters and groups may have substructure, we have examined the sextupole content of Hubble images looking for a curvature signature in background galaxies that would arise from galaxy-galaxy lensing. We describe techniques for extracting and analyzing sextupole and higher weakly lensed moments. Indications of substructure, via spatial clumping of curved background galaxies, were observed in the image of CL0024 and then surprisingly in both Hubble deep fields. We estimate the dark cluster masses in the deep field. Alternatives to a lensing hypothesis appear improbable, but better statistics will be required to exclude them conclusively. Observation of sextupole moments would then provide a means to measure dark matter structure on smaller length scales than heretofore.

  11. Strong lensing of gravitational waves as seen by LISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, M; Sesana, A; Bleuler, A; Jetzer, Ph; Volonteri, M; Begelman, M C

    2010-12-17

    We discuss strong gravitational lensing of gravitational waves from the merging of massive black hole binaries in the context of the LISA mission. Detection of multiple events would provide invaluable information on competing theories of gravity, evolution and formation of structures and, possibly, constraints on H0 and other cosmological parameters. Most of the optical depth for lensing is provided by intervening massive galactic halos, for which wave optics effects are negligible. Probabilities to observe multiple events are sizable for a broad range of formation histories. For the most optimistic models, up to ≲ 4 multiple events with a signal to noise ratio ≳ 8 are expected in a 5-year mission. Chances are significant even for conservative models with either light (≲ 60%) or heavy (≲ 40%) seeds. Because of lensing amplification, some intrinsically too faint signals are brought over threshold (≲ 2 per year).

  12. Copolymers for soft hydrophilic contact lenses: development and investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwach, G.W.

    1978-05-01

    Low esters of methacrylic acid which may be polymerized by different methods are used predominantly for producing soft hydrophilic contact lenses. Compounds of the vinyl-type often are added to improve the optical and mechanical qualities. Composition as well as possibilities of polymerization by irradiation were tested so long until copolymers were found which finally allowed the production of soft hydrophilic contact lenses. Swelling characteristics and permeability of the different elastomeres are to be investigated in order to guarantee sufficient compatibility of contact lenses. Contamination of the lens materials by microorganisms is also a point of special interest. The effects on the hydrophilic contact lens-copolymers by different substances used for cleaning and storage solutions have been investigated as well. (author)

  13. Parabolic crossed planar polymeric x-ray lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazmov, V.; Reznikova, E.; Mohr, J.; Saile, V.; Vincze, L.; Vekemans, B.; Bohic, S.; Somogyi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The principles of design and manufacturing of the polymer planar x-ray lenses focusing in one and two directions, as well as the peculiarities of optical behaviors and the results of the lens test are reported in this paper. The methods of electron and deep x-ray lithography used in lens manufacturing allow the manufacture of ten or more x-ray lenses on one substrate; the lenses show focal lengths down to several centimeters for photon energies between 5 and 40 keV. The measured focus size was 105 nm for a linear lens with an intensity gain of about 407, and 300 × 770 nm for a crossed lens with an intensity gain of 6470.

  14. Comparison of surface roughness and bacterial adhesion between cosmetic contact lenses and conventional contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yong Woo; Cho, Young Joo; Lee, Chul Hee; Hong, Soon Ho; Chung, Dong Yong; Kim, Eung Kweon; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2015-01-01

    To compare physical characteristics of cosmetic contact lenses (Cos-CLs) and conventional contact lenses (Con-CLs) that might affect susceptibility to bacterial adhesion on the contact lens (CL) surface. Surface characteristics of Cos-CLs and Con-CLs made from the same material by the same manufacturer were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy. To determine the extent and rate of bacterial adhesion, Cos-CL and Con-CL were immersed in serum-free Roswell Park Memorial Institute media containing Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Additionally, the rate of removal of adherent bacteria was evaluated using hand rubbing or immersion in multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPDS). The mean surface roughness (root mean square and peak-to-valley value) measured by AFM was significantly higher for Cos-CL than for Con-CL. At each time point, significantly more S. aureus and P. aeruginosa adhered to Cos-CL than to Con-CL, which correlated with the surface roughness of CL. In Cos-CL, bacteria were mainly found on the tinted surface rather than on the noncolored or convex areas. Pseudomonas aeruginosa attached earlier than S. aureus to all types of CL. However, P. aeruginosa was more easily removed from the surface of CL than S. aureus by hand rubbing or MPDS soaking. Increased surface roughness is an important physical factor for bacterial adhesion in Cos-CL, which may explain why rates of bacterial keratitis rates are higher in Cos-CL users in CL physical characteristics.

  15. Computerized calculation scheme for toric intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbucher, Achim; Seitz, Berthold

    2004-06-01

    While a number of intraocular lens (IOL) power prediction formulae are well established for determination of spherical lenses, no common strategy has been published for the computation of toric IOLs. The purpose of this study is to describe a paraxial computing scheme for tracing an axial pencil of rays through the 'optical system eye' containing astigmatic refractive surfaces with their axes at random. The capabilities of this computing scheme are demonstrated with clinical examples. Based on a schematic model eye with spherocylindric surfaces, we use two alternative notations for description of vergences or prescriptions: (1) standard notation (refraction in both cardinal meridians and axis), and (2) component notation (spherical equivalent and cylindric component in 0 degrees and 45 degrees. Refractive surfaces are added to the vergence in component notation, whereas the transformation of the vergence through media is performed in the standard notation for both cardinal meridians. For calculation of the toric lens implant, a pencil of rays is traced through the spectacle and the cornea to the estimated lens position as well as backwards from the retina to the estimated lens position. For calculation of residual spectacle refraction, a pencil of rays is traced backwards from the retina through the toric lens implant and the cornea to the spectacle plane. In example 1 we calculate a 'thin toric lens' for compensation of a corneal astigmatism to achieve a spherical target refraction. In example 2 we compute a 'thick toric lens', which has to compensate for an oblique corneal astigmatism and rotate the spectacle cylinder to the against the rule position to enhance near vision. In example 3 we estimate the residual refraction at the corneal plane after implantation of a thick toric lens, when the cylinder of the lens implant is compensating the corneal cylinder in part and the axis of implantation is not fully aligned with the axis of the corneal astigmatism. This

  16. In vitro power profiles of daily disposable contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda-Salmerón, Lurdes; Madrid-Costa, David; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; García-Lázaro, Santiago; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate and compare the distribution of refractive power within the optic zone of different soft contact lenses and to investigate the effect of lens decentration on the power profiles. The Nimo TR1504 instrument was used to measure the optical power across different aperture diameters (from 1.5mm to 5.5mm in steps of 0.5mm) of four daily disposable contact lenses: DAILIES TOTAL1, Proclear 1-Day, SofLens daily disposable and 1-DAY ACUVUE MOIST. Measurements were performed using a wet cell. Power data were evaluated when contact lenses were in its centered position and after inducing different amounts of lens decentration (from 0.2mm to 1.0mm in steps of 0.2mm). All contact lenses showed an increase - more negative - in lens power with distance from the lens center. The amount of change varied depending on the lens. It was about 10% of lens power for DAILIES TOTAL1 (-0.29diopters (D)), SofLens daily disposable (-0.36D), and Proclear 1-Day (-0.32D) whereas 1-DAY ACUVUE MOIST showed a percentage variation of 3.3% (-0.10D). After inducing a lens decentration up to 1mm, the power curves were shifted in the negative direction. However, the change obtained in lens power compared with well-centered position was always lower than a quarter of diopter both for all the lenses and aperture diameters. Our results showed a variation of the refractive power from the lens center, becoming more negative toward the periphery, with a negligible effect of the decentration for all disposable contact lenses studied. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Slit lamps and lenses: a potential source of nosocomial infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewska, Bianka; Buhl, Michael; Liese, Jan; Ziemssen, Focke

    2018-01-30

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the bacterial contamination level of contact surfaces on slit lamps and the grip areas of lenses. Within unannounced audits, two regions of the slit lamps (headrest and joystick), indirect ophthalmoscopy devices, and ultrasound probes were obtained with rayon-tipped swab. Non-contact lenses used for indirect fundoscopy were pressed on RODAC (Replicate Organism Detection and Counting) plates. One hundred and eighty-one surfaces were sampled. The total number of colony-forming units was assessed and bacterial species were identified. Spa-typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed from Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Among the total bacterial isolates from ophthalmological equipment (lenses: 51 of 78, slit lamps: 43 of 88, ophthalmoscopy helmets: 3 of 8, ultrasound probes: 2 of 7), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) was most frequently found, followed by Micrococcus spp. (lenses vs. slit lamps: P lenses (76%) was significantly higher than that of slit lamps (54%) (P lenses from residents vs. from consultants (78% vs. 35%, P = 0.01). A total of seven different spa-types of S. aureus were isolated. No correlation was found between S. aureus contamination of different ophthalmological equipments (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, ρ = 0.04, P = 0.75). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was not detected. Bacterial species of the normal skin flora were isolated from the ophthalmological equipment. The bacterial contamination of the portable devices was significantly higher than that of slit lamps. Therefore, proper hygiene of the mobile instruments should be monitored in order to prevent transmission of bacteria in residents and consultants.

  18. The double Brewster angle effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirion-Lefevre, Laetitia; Guinvarc'h, Régis

    2018-01-01

    The Double Brewster angle effect (DBE) is an extension of the Brewster angle to double reflection on two orthogonal dielectric surfaces. It results from the combination of two pseudo-Brewster angles occurring in complementary incidence angles domains. It can be observed for a large range of incidence angles provided that double bounces mechanism is present. As a consequence of this effect, we show that the reflection coefficient at VV polarization can be at least 10 dB lower than the reflection coefficient at HH polarization over a wide range of incidence angle - typically from 20 to 70∘. It is experimentally demonstrated using a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image that this effect can be seen on buildings and forests. For large buildings, the difference can reach more than 20 dB. xml:lang="fr"

  19. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt.) significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52.0% in maltose and sucrose

  20. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumurugan Kavitha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt. significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52

  1. Borneo stalagmites reveal climatic excursions associated with Toba ash layers prior to Greenland Stadial 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, K. M.; Orland, I. J.; Carolin, S.; Adkins, J. F.; Valley, J. W.; Jersild, A.; LeGrande, A. N.; Colose, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Toba super-eruption occurred in close association with an abrupt climate transition from Greenland Interstadial (GI-) 20 to Greenland Stadial (GS-) 20, roughly 74 thousand years ago. However, recent attempts to characterize either the regional or global climate response to Toba have been limited by a lack of age control, geographic proximity, and/or convincing marker of the major eruption in most high-resolution paleoclimate archives. Here, we use a suite of micro-scale analytical techniques to evaluate the oxygen isotopic and geochemical composition of multiple stalagmites that grew across the Toba interval in Gunung Mulu National Park, northern Borneo. New timeseries of stalagmite d18O at 50-micron scales across the Toba horizon revleal a large (>1‰), rapid (<200 yr) increase in d18O values within age-error of the 40Ar/39Ar age of the Youngest Toba Tuff (73.9±0.6 ky BP; Storey et al., 2012). We supplement these traditional mass spectrometric measurements with d18O timeseries made on 9-micron spots using the WiscSIMS CAMECA ims 1280 ion microprobe in time-transgressive segments across the Toba horizon in two well-dated stalagmites previously published in Carolin et al., 2013 and Caroline et al., 2014. The SIMS d18O data reveal high-frequency d18O excursions of +2 and -2 per mil during the transition from GI-20 (warm conditions) to Greenland Stadial GS-20 (cool conditions), suggesting that this period was characterized by large fluctuations in regional hydroclimate in the western tropical Pacific, with potentially profound impacts on global atmospheric circulation. We also present results from synchrotron analyses of ash-related elements (S, P, Si, and Al) to resolve the number and relative magnitude of Toba-related eruptions as recorded in several different stalagmites from Borneo, where ash layers likely exceeded 2cm on the overlying terrain. Together, these results indicate that large, rapid ( 10yr-long) environmental changes with marked effects on both

  2. VENUS-2, Reactor Kinetics with Feedback, 2-D LMFBR Disassembly Excursions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.F.; Nicholson, R.B.; Weber, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: VENUS-2 is an improved edition of the VENUS fast-reactor disassembly program. It is a two- dimensional (r-z) coupled neutronics-hydrodynamics code that calculates the dynamic behavior of an LMFBR during a prompt-critical disassembly excursion. It calculates the power history and fission energy release as well as the space-time histories of the fuel temperatures, core material pressures, and core material motions. Reactivity feedback effects due to Doppler broadening and reactor material motion are taken into account. 2 - Method of solution: The power and energy release are calculated using a point-kinetics formulation with up to six delayed neutron groups. The reactivity is a combination of an input driving function and feedback effects due to Doppler broadening and material motion. An adiabatic model is used to calculate the temperature increase throughout the reactor based on an initial temperature distribution and power profile provided as input data. These temperatures are, in turn, converted to fuel pressures through one of several equation of state options provided. The material motion that results from the pressure buildup is calculated by a direct finite difference solution of a set of two-dimensional (r-z) hydrodynamics equations. This is done in Lagrangian coordinates. The reactivity change associated with this motion is calculated by first-order perturbation theory. The displacements are also used to adjust the fuel densities as required for the density dependent equation-of- state option. An automatic time-step-size selection scheme is provided. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: VENUS-2 is written so that the dimensions of the storage arrays can be readily changed to accommodate a broad range of problem sizes. In the base version, the total number of mesh intervals is restricted such that (NR+3)*(NZ+3) is less than 700, where NR and NZ are the total number of mesh intervals in the r and z

  3. Solutions for implementing time-of-flight techniques in low-angle neutron scattering, as realized on the Low-Q Diffractometer at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P. Jr.; Seeger, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of small-angle (Low-momentum transfer) neutron scattering at pulsed spallation sources, using time of flight methods, has meant the introduction of some new ideas in instrument design, data acquisition, data reduction and computer management of the experiment and the data. Here we recount some of the salient aspects of solutions for implementing time of fight small-angle neutron scattering instruments at pulsed sources, as realized on the Low-Q Diffractometer, LQD, at Los Alamos. We consider, fortlier, some of the problems that are yet to be solved, and take a short excursion into the future of SANS instrumentation at pulsed sources

  4. Probing dark energy with lensing magnification in photometric surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael D

    2014-02-14

    I present an estimator for the angular cross correlation of two tracers of the cosmological large-scale structure that utilizes redshift information to isolate separate physical contributions. The estimator is derived by solving the Limber equation for a reweighting of the foreground tracer that nulls either clustering or lensing contributions to the cross correlation function. Applied to future photometric surveys, the estimator can enhance the measurement of gravitational lensing magnification effects to provide a competitive independent constraint on the dark energy equation of state.

  5. Efficiency of ocular UV protection by clear lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Katharina; Hornauer, Matthias; Buechinger, Ramona; Schoen, Roland; Barraza-Bernal, Maria; Habtegiorgis, Selam; Glasenapp, Carsten; Wahl, Siegfried; Mappes, Timo

    2018-04-01

    Ocular UV doses accumulate all-day, not only during periods of direct sun exposure. The UV protection efficiency of three clear lenses was evaluated experimentally, validated by simulation, and compared to non-UV protection: a first spectacle lens with a tailored UV absorber, a second spectacle lens, minimizing UV back reflections, as well as a third spectacle lens, combining both. A tailored UV-absorber efficiently reduced overall UV irradiance to 7 %, whereas reduction of back-reflections still left UV irradiance at 42 %. Thus, clear lenses with a tailored UV absorber efficiently protect the eye from UV, supplementing sun glasses wear to an all-day protection scenario.

  6. Weak lensing: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Dark Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, Alan

    2009-01-01

    In this non-specialist review I look at how weak lensing can provide information on the dark sector of the Universe. The review concentrates on what can be learned about Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Dark Gravity, and why. On Dark Matter, results on the confrontation of theoretical profiles with observation are reviewed, and measurements of neutrino masses discussed. On Dark Energy, the interest is whether this could be Einstein's cosmological constant, and prospects for high-precision studies of the equation of state are considered. On Dark Gravity, we consider the exciting prospects for future weak lensing surveys to distinguish General Relativity from extra-dimensional or other gravity theories.

  7. Angle Performance on Optima XE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jonathan; Satoh, Shu

    2011-01-01

    Angle control on high energy implanters is important due to shrinking device dimensions, and sensitivity to channeling at high beam energies. On Optima XE, beam-to-wafer angles are controlled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal direction, the beam angle is measured through a series of narrow slits, and any angle adjustment is made by steering the beam with the corrector magnet. In the vertical direction, the beam angle is measured through a high aspect ratio mask, and any angle adjustment is made by slightly tilting the wafer platen during implant.Using a sensitive channeling condition, we were able to quantify the angle repeatability of Optima XE. By quantifying the sheet resistance sensitivity to both horizontal and vertical angle variation, the total angle variation was calculated as 0.04 deg. (1σ). Implants were run over a five week period, with all of the wafers selected from a single boule, in order to control for any crystal cut variation.

  8. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  9. Management of complications associated with lathe-cut soft contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, M I

    1979-06-01

    At the present time, nine lathe-cut lenses are FDA approved and commercially available in the United States. Complications of lathe-cut soft contact lenses cover a wide spectrum of problems. Five significant complications of lathe-cut lenses and their prevention and therapeutic management are discussed.

  10. The effects of two different types of bandage contact lenses on the healthy canine eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braus, Barbara Katharina; Riedler, Daniela; Tichy, Alexander; Spergser, Joachim; Schwendenwein, Ilse

    2018-02-06

    To compare two types of bandage contact lenses on the healthy canine eye. Six healthy Beagles. Two different types of bandage contact lenses (single sized human silicone contact lens 'PureVision 2' (Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, Rochester, NY, USA) and specially designed veterinary hydrogel contact lens 'AcriVet Pat D' (Bausch & Lomb Incorporated) were placed in 12 eyes of healthy Beagle dogs. Retention times and the effects of the lenses regarding irritation of the eye, changes in tear production, impact of contact lenses on tonometric readings, and cytologic and microbiological alterations of the canine eye were investigated. Mean retention times for veterinary hydrogel lenses with special dimensions were significantly shorter (2 days) than for one size human silicon lenses (8.8 days). Irritation scores were overall low for both types of lenses apart from one human lens causing severe irritation and keratoconjunctivitis as a sequel to folding and displacement. Tear production remained stable in human contact lenses. Intraocular pressure readings with a contact lens in place were only slightly altered; the most accurate readings were obtained through a human lens with an applanation tonometer. Cytology revealed a slight, nonsignificant increase in neutrophilic granulocytes with both types of lenses; the microflora did not change significantly. Human silicone lenses have significantly longer retention times and are less expensive than veterinary hydrogel lenses. In regard to irritation, bacterial growth and inflammation, both types of lenses can be recommended for use in canine eyes. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  11. Creating School Change: Discovering a Choice of Lenses for the School Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatea, Ellen S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Proposes a variety of epistemological lenses for viewing the school change process for school administrators' use. Applies these lenses in an actual case study depicting school change, illustrating how administrators can shift focus, position, and mode of inquiry from their usual rational viewpoint. Analyzes implications of using such lenses for…

  12. Fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon during the Lomagundi (2.22 2.1 Ga) carbon isotope excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, A.; Holmden, C.; Beukes, N. J.; Kenig, F.; Eglinton, B.; Patterson, W. P.

    2008-07-01

    The Lomagundi (2.22-2.1 Ga) positive carbon isotope excursion in shallow-marine sedimentary carbonates has been associated with the rise in atmospheric oxygen, but subsequent studies have demonstrated that the carbon isotope excursion was preceded by the rise in atmospheric oxygen. The amount of oxygen released to the exosphere during the Lomagundi excursion is constrained by the average global fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon, which is poorly characterized. Because dissolved inorganic and organic carbon reservoirs were arguably larger in the Paleoproterozoic ocean, at a time of lower solar luminosity and lower ocean redox state, decoupling between these two variables might be expected. We determined carbon isotope values of carbonate and organic matter in carbonates and shales of the Silverton Formation, South Africa and in the correlative Sengoma Argillite Formation, near the border in Botswana. These units were deposited between 2.22 and 2.06 Ga along the margin of the Kaapvaal Craton in an open-marine deltaic setting and experienced lower greenschist facies metamorphism. The prodelta to offshore marine shales are overlain by a subtidal carbonate sequence. Carbonates exhibit elevated 13C values ranging from 8.3 to 11.2‰ vs. VPDB consistent with deposition during the Lomagundi positive excursion. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents range from 0.01 to 0.6% and δ13C values range from - 24.8 to - 13.9‰. Thus, the isotopic fractionation between organic and carbonate carbon was on average 30.3 ± 2.8‰ ( n = 32) in the shallow-marine environment. The underlying Sengoma shales have highly variable TOC contents (0.14 to 21.94%) and δ13C values (- 33.7 to - 20.8‰) with an average of - 27.0 ± 3.0‰ ( n = 50). Considering that the shales were also deposited during the Lomagundi excursion, and taking δ13C values of the overlying carbonates as representative of the δ13C value of dissolved inorganic carbon during shale deposition, a carbon

  13. Automated analysis of angle closure from anterior chamber angle images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Mani; Cheng, Jun; Perera, Shamira A; Tun, Tin A; Liu, Jiang; Aung, Tin

    2014-10-21

    To evaluate a novel software capable of automatically grading angle closure on EyeCam angle images in comparison with manual grading of images, with gonioscopy as the reference standard. In this hospital-based, prospective study, subjects underwent gonioscopy by a single observer, and EyeCam imaging by a different operator. The anterior chamber angle in a quadrant was classified as closed if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen. An eye was classified as having angle closure if there were two or more quadrants of closure. Automated grading of the angle images was performed using customized software. Agreement between the methods was ascertained by κ statistic and comparison of area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). One hundred forty subjects (140 eyes) were included, most of whom were Chinese (102/140, 72.9%) and women (72/140, 51.5%). Angle closure was detected in 61 eyes (43.6%) with gonioscopy in comparison with 59 eyes (42.1%, P = 0.73) using manual grading, and 67 eyes (47.9%, P = 0.24) with automated grading of EyeCam images. The agreement for angle closure diagnosis between gonioscopy and both manual (κ = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI), 0.81-0.96) and automated grading of EyeCam images was good (κ = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.85). The AUC for detecting eyes with gonioscopic angle closure was comparable for manual and automated grading (AUC 0.974 vs. 0.954, P = 0.31) of EyeCam images. Customized software for automated grading of EyeCam angle images was found to have good agreement with gonioscopy. Human observation of the EyeCam images may still be needed to avoid gross misclassification, especially in eyes with extensive angle closure. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  14. Cosmological Studies with Galaxy Clusters, Active Galactic Nuclei, and Strongly Lensed Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Nicholas Andrew

    transitional `green valley' on a color-magnitude diagram. Spectral analysis of the AGN hosts showed that the average host galaxy had either on-going or recent star formation, and was younger than the average galaxy, across all LSS in our sample. We further subdivided our sample in two based on the average evolutionary state of the LSS. The AGN in the more evolved structures had lower X-ray luminosities and longer times since last starburst. These results provide some evidence for merger-based AGN triggering, although other mechanisms, and possibly more than one, could be responsible. In the third study, we probed LambdaCDM cosmology from a different angle. An important part of the model is the cosmological parameters that define our universe. As such, probes that can more accurately and precisely measure these parameters, such as H0 and the dark energy equation of state, w, can allow us to more closely inspect the model. Strongly-lensed quasars provide one such probe, and we sought to perform the first step in using them for cosmological inference, which is to measure the time delays between strongly lensed images. We performed radio monitoring campaigns on six strongly lensed quasars using the Very Large Array. Lightcurves were extracted for each lensed image and analyzed for intrinsic variability. Two lensed quasars showed strong time variations, but the variations were linear in time, preventing precise time delay measurements due to a degeneracy with the magnifications. These results suggest most of the systems should be targeted for followup monitoring, and we estimate that time delays can be measured for the most variable systems with precision of 0.5 to 3.5 days with two more seasons of monitoring. In a joint fit with previously studied systems, these measurements could tighten constraints on H 0 by up to ~1.4.

  15. Measurement of the angle gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Sphicas, P.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA

    1993-12-01

    The angle γ as defined in the Wolfenstein approximation is not completely out of reach of current or proposed dedicated B experiments. This work represents but a first step in the direction of extracting the third angle of the unitarity triangle by study the feasibility of using new decay modes in a hadronic machine. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  16. Nucleation of small angle boundaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal stresses induced by the strain gradients in an array of lattice cells delineated by low-angle dislocation boundaries are partially relieved by the creation of new low-angle boundaries. This is shown to be a first-order transition...

  17. Red nuggets grow inside-out: evidence from gravitational lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldham, Lindsay; Auger, Matthew W.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Treu, Tommaso; Brewer, Brendon J.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Lagattuta, David; Marshall, Philip; McKean, John; Vegetti, Simona

    We present a new sample of strong gravitational lens systems where both the foreground lenses and background sources are early-type galaxies. Using imaging from Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Studies (ACS) and Keck/NIRC2, we model the surface brightness distributions and show that

  18. MAGNIFICENT MAGNIFICATION: EXPLOITING THE OTHER HALF OF THE LENSING SIGNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Eric M. [Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, OH 43210 (United States); Graves, Genevieve J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We describe a new method for measuring galaxy magnification due to weak gravitational lensing. Our method makes use of a tight scaling relation between galaxy properties that are modified by gravitational lensing, such as apparent size, and other properties that are not, such as surface brightness. In particular, we use a version of the well-known fundamental plane relation for early-type galaxies. This modified ''photometric fundamental plane'' uses only photometric galaxy properties, eliminating the need for spectroscopic data. We present the first detection of magnification using this method by applying it to photometric catalogs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This analysis shows that the derived magnification signal is within a factor of three of that available from conventional methods using gravitational shear. We suppress the dominant sources of systematic error and discuss modest improvements that may further enhance the lensing signal-to-noise available with this method. Moreover, some of the dominant sources of systematic error are substantially different from those of shear-based techniques. With this new technique, magnification becomes a useful measurement tool for the coming era of large ground-based surveys intending to measure gravitational lensing.

  19. Antireflection coatings for intraocular lenses of sapphire and fianite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babin, A.A.; Konoplev, Yu.N.; Mamaev, Yu.A. [Inst. of Applied Physics, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Broadband antireflection coatings for intraocular lenses of sapphire and fianite are calculated and implemented practically. Their residual reflectance in the liquid with a refracting index of 1.336 is below 0.2% from each face virtually over the entire visible region. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Replica casting technique for micro Fresnel lenses characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    The available measuring techniques are not always suitable for the characterization of optical surfaces such as Fresnel lenses or polished specimens. A way to overcome these challenges is to reproduce the optical components surface using a polymer casting method and to measure the replicated...

  1. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Troughs in DES Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, D. [Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany). et al.

    2015-09-29

    We measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. Furthermore, the prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. Finally, the lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  2. Ultraviolet radiation for the sterilization of contact lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritz, D.C.; Lee, T.Y.; McDonnell, P.J.; Shih, K.; Baron, N.

    1990-01-01

    Two sources of ultraviolet (UV) radiation with peak wavelengths in the UV-C or UV-B ranges were compared for their ability to sterilize contact lenses infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Acanthamoeba castellani, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. Also examined was the effect of prolonged UV light exposure on soft and rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses. The UV-C lamp (253.7 nm, 250 mW/cm2 at 1 cm) was germicidal for all organisms within 20 minutes but caused destruction of the soft lens polymers within 6 hours of cumulative exposure. UV-C caused damage to RGP lenses in less than 100 hours. The UV-B lamp (290-310 nm, 500 mW/cm2 at 1 cm) was germicidal for all organisms tested (except Aspergillus) with a 180-minute exposure and caused less severe changes in the soft lens polymers than did the UV-C lamp, although cumulative exposure of 300 hours did substantially weaken the soft lens material. RGP materials were minimally affected by exposure to 300 hours of UV-B. Ultraviolet light is an effective germicidal agent but is injurious to soft lens polymers; its possible utility in the sterilization of RGP lenses and lens cases deserves further study

  3. Correction of chromatic abberation in electrostatic lense systems containing quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranova, L.A.; Ul'yanova, N.S.; Yavor, S.Ya.

    1991-01-01

    Possibility of chromatic abberation correction in immersion systems consisting of axysimmetric and quadrupole lenses is shown. Concrete examples are presented. A number of new directions in science and technique, using ion beams are intensively developed presently. When using them accute necessity arises in chromatic abberation correction, while large-scale energy scattering is observed as a rule in such cases

  4. NPR Lenses : Interactive Tools for Non-photorealistic Line Drawings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Petra; Isenberg, Tobias; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2007-01-01

    NPR Lenses is an interactive technique for producing expressive non-photorealistic renderings. It provides an intuitive visual interaction tool for illustrators, allowing them to seamlessly apply a large variety of emphasis techniques. Advantages of 3D scene manipulation are combined with the

  5. Switchable Liquid Crystal Contact Lenses for the Correction of Presbyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bailey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Presbyopia is an age-related disorder where the lens of the eye hardens so that focusing on near objects becomes increasingly difficult. This complaint affects everyone over the age of 50. It is becoming progressively more relevant, as the average age of the global population continues to rise. Bifocal or varifocal spectacles are currently the best solution for those that require near and far vision correction. However, many people prefer not to wear spectacles and while multifocal contact lenses are available, they are not widely prescribed and can require significant adaptation by wearers. One possible solution is to use liquid crystal contact lenses that can change focal power by applying a small electric field across the device. However, the design of these contact lenses must be carefully considered as they must be comfortable for the user to wear and able to provide the required change in focal power (usually about +2D. Progress towards different lens designs, which includes lens geometry, liquid crystal choices and suitable alignment modes, are reviewed. Furthermore, we also discuss suitable electrode materials, possible power sources and suggest some methods for switching the lenses between near and far vision correction.

  6. The experience in production of composite refraction lenses from beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, A. A.; Zabrodin, A. V.; Gorlevskiy, V. V.; Sheverdyaev, M. S.; Lizunov, A. V.; Brylev, D. A.; Anikin, A. S.; Klykov, S. S.; Kozlova, E. V.; Lesina, I. G.; Nebera, A. L.; Morozov, I. A.; Demin, A. V. [Bochvar High-Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (Russian Federation); Buzmakov, A. V.; Dymshicz, Yu. M.; Volkov, V. V.; Zhigalina, O. M.; Konarev, P. V.; Khmelenin, D. N.; Seregin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics,” (Russian Federation); and others

    2017-01-15

    The choice of beryllium-based material for the use in X-ray optics has been substantiated based on electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction data. The first results of applying refraction lenses made of this material are reported.

  7. Galaxy-galaxy lensing estimators and their covariance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhdeep; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Seljak, Uroš; Slosar, Anže; Vazquez Gonzalez, Jose

    2017-11-01

    We study the covariance properties of real space correlation function estimators - primarily galaxy-shear correlations, or galaxy-galaxy lensing - using SDSS data for both shear catalogues and lenses (specifically the BOSS LOWZ sample). Using mock catalogues of lenses and sources, we disentangle the various contributions to the covariance matrix and compare them with a simple analytical model. We show that not subtracting the lensing measurement around random points from the measurement around the lens sample is equivalent to performing the measurement using the lens density field instead of the lens overdensity field. While the measurement using the lens density field is unbiased (in the absence of systematics), its error is significantly larger due to an additional term in the covariance. Therefore, this subtraction should be performed regardless of its beneficial effects on systematics. Comparing the error estimates from data and mocks for estimators that involve the overdensity, we find that the errors are dominated by the shape noise and lens clustering, which empirically estimated covariances (jackknife and standard deviation across mocks) that are consistent with theoretical estimates, and that both the connected parts of the four-point function and the supersample covariance can be neglected for the current levels of noise. While the trade-off between different terms in the covariance depends on the survey configuration (area, source number density), the diagnostics that we use in this work should be useful for future works to test their empirically determined covariances.

  8. Thermal lensing measurement from the coefficient of defocus aberration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bell, Teboho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured the thermally induced lens from the coefficient of defocus aberration using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS). As a calibration technique, we infer the focal length of standard lenses probed by a collimated Gaussian beam...

  9. UK Higher Education Viewed through the Marketization and Marketing Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedbalová, Eva; Greenacre, Luke; Schulz, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the Economic Market mechanisms and the 4P Marketing Mix as lenses to review the context of UK higher education (HE) and to explore the relationship between the market and marketing disciplines and practice. Four Economic Market mechanisms--autonomy, competition, price and information--are contrasted with the four Ps of marketing:…

  10. Active Learning Environment with Lenses in Geometric Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Güner

    2015-01-01

    Geometric optics is one of the difficult topics for students within physics discipline. Students learn better via student-centered active learning environments than the teacher-centered learning environments. So this study aimed to present a guide for middle school teachers to teach lenses in geometric optics via active learning environment…

  11. Galaxy–galaxy lensing estimators and their covariance properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sukhdeep; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Seljak, Uros; Slosar, Anze; Gonzalez, Jose Vazquez

    2017-01-01

    Here, we study the covariance properties of real space correlation function estimators – primarily galaxy–shear correlations, or galaxy–galaxy lensing – using SDSS data for both shear catalogues and lenses (specifically the BOSS LOWZ sample). Using mock catalogues of lenses and sources, we disentangle the various contributions to the covariance matrix and compare them with a simple analytical model. We show that not subtracting the lensing measurement around random points from the measurement around the lens sample is equivalent to performing the measurement using the lens density field instead of the lens overdensity field. While the measurement using the lens density field is unbiased (in the absence of systematics), its error is significantly larger due to an additional term in the covariance. Therefore, this subtraction should be performed regardless of its beneficial effects on systematics. Comparing the error estimates from data and mocks for estimators that involve the overdensity, we find that the errors are dominated by the shape noise and lens clustering, which empirically estimated covariances (jackknife and standard deviation across mocks) that are consistent with theoretical estimates, and that both the connected parts of the four-point function and the supersample covariance can be neglected for the current levels of noise. While the trade-off between different terms in the covariance depends on the survey configuration (area, source number density), the diagnostics that we use in this work should be useful for future works to test their empirically determined covariances.

  12. The cuticular nature of corneal lenses in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Aaron L; Charlton-Perkins, Mark; Buschbeck, Elke K; Cook, Tiffany A

    2017-07-01

    The dioptric visual system relies on precisely focusing lenses that project light onto a neural retina. While the proteins that constitute the lenses of many vertebrates are relatively well characterized, less is known about the proteins that constitute invertebrate lenses, especially the lens facets in insect compound eyes. To address this question, we used mass spectrophotometry to define the major proteins that comprise the corneal lenses from the adult Drosophila melanogaster compound eye. This led to the identification of four cuticular proteins: two previously identified lens proteins, drosocrystallin and retinin, and two newly identified proteins, Cpr66D and Cpr72Ec. To determine which ommatidial cells contribute each of these proteins to the lens, we conducted in situ hybridization at 50% pupal development, a key age for lens secretion. Our results confirm previous reports that drosocrystallin and retinin are expressed in the two primary corneagenous cells-cone cells and primary pigment cells. Cpr72Ec and Cpr66D, on the other hand, are more highly expressed in higher order interommatidial pigment cells. These data suggest that the complementary expression of cuticular proteins give rise to the center vs periphery of the corneal lens facet, possibly facilitating a refractive gradient that is known to reduce spherical aberration. Moreover, these studies provide a framework for future studies aimed at understanding the cuticular basis of corneal lens function in holometabolous insect eyes.

  13. Anisotropic Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing in the Illustris-1 Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, Tereasa G.

    2017-06-01

    In Cold Dark Matter universes, the dark matter halos of galaxies are expected to be triaxial, leading to a surface mass density that is not circularly symmetric. In principle, this "flattening" of the dark matter halos of galaxies should be observable as an anisotropy in the weak galaxy-galaxy lensing signal. The degree to which the weak lensing signal is observed to be anisotropic, however, will depend strongly on the degree to which mass (i.e., the dark matter) is aligned with light in the lensing galaxies. That is, the anisotropy will be maximized when the major axis of the projected mass distribution is well aligned with the projected light distribution of the lens galaxies. Observational studies of anisotropic galaxy-galaxy lensing have found an anisotropic weak lensing signal around massive, red galaxies. Detecting the signal around blue, disky galaxies has, however, been more elusive. A possible explanation for this is that mass and light are well aligned within red galaxies and poorly aligned within blue galaxies (an explanation that is supported by studies of the locations of satellites of large, relatively isolated galaxies). Here we compute the weak lensing signal of isolated central galaxies in the Illustris-1 simulation. We compute the anisotropy of the weak lensing signal using two definitions of the geometry: [1] the major axis of the projected dark matter mass distribution and [2] the major axis of the projected stellar mass. On projected scales less than 15% of the virial radius, an anisotropy of order 10% is found for both definitions of the geometry. On larger scales, the anisotropy computed relative to the major axis of the projected light distribution is less than the anisotropy computed relative to the major axis of the projected dark matter. On projected scales of order the virial radius, the anisotropy obtained when using the major axis of the light is an order of magnitude less than the anisotropy obtained when using the major axis of the

  14. Consumer electronic optics: how small can a lens be: the case of panomorph lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Simon; Parent, Jocelyn; Zhang, Hu; Du, Xiaojun; Roulet, Patrice

    2014-09-01

    In 2014, miniature camera modules are applied to a variety of applications such as webcam, mobile phone, automotive, endoscope, tablets, portable computers and many other products. Mobile phone cameras are probably one of the most challenging parts due to the need for smaller and smaller total track length (TTL) and optimized embedded image processing algorithms. As the technology is developing, higher resolution and higher image quality, new capabilities are required to fulfil the market needs. Consequently, the lens system becomes more complex and requires more optical elements and/or new optical elements. What is the limit? How small an injection molded lens can be? We will discuss those questions by comparing two wide angle lenses for consumer electronic market. The first lens is a 6.56 mm (TTL) panoramic (180° FOV) lens built in 2012. The second is a more recent (2014) panoramic lens (180° FOV) with a TTL of 3.80 mm for mobile phone camera. Both optics are panomorph lenses used with megapixel sensors. Between 2012 and 2014, the development in design and plastic injection molding allowed a reduction of the TTL by more than 40%. This TTL reduction has been achieved by pushing the lens design to the extreme (edge/central air and material thicknesses as well as lens shape). This was also possible due to a better control of the injection molding process and material (low birefringence, haze and thermal stability). These aspects will be presented and discussed. During the next few years, we don't know if new material will come or new process but we will still need innovative people and industries to push again the limits.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of intraocular lenses. Die kernspintomographische Diagnostik der Hinterkammerlinse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosch, U. (Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinik Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany)); Bleckmann, H. (Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinik Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany)); Kaczmarek, U. (Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinik Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany))

    1994-09-01

    Intraocular lenses were investigated by MRI to obtain information about the quality of this method. In experimental studies, seven lenses of between 0 and 30 diopters were visualized. By MRI it was possible to differentiate the various diameters of lenses. It was not possible to discriminate the material of the intraocular lenses. After these first studies the eyes of two corpses and eight patients were investigated. Because of the resolution of MRI it was possible to tell the diopter of implanted lenses. However, by use of MRI in the regular position, a tilting or decentration of the intraocular lens was demonstrated. (orig.)

  16. Multipole lenses with implicit poles and with harmonic distribution of current density in a coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachkov, V.S.

    1984-01-01

    General theory of the multipole lense with implicit poles is presented. The thickness of lense coil is finite. Current density distribution in the coil cross section is harmonic in the azimuth direction and arbitrary in the radial one. The calculation of yoke contribution in the lence field is given. Two particular lense variants differing from each other in the method of current density radial distribution are considered and necessary calculated relations for the lense with and without yoke ar presented. A comparative analysis of physical and technological peculiarities of these lenses is performed

  17. A comparison of cosmological models using time delay lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio, E-mail: jjwei@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: fmelia@email.arizona.edu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-06-20

    The use of time-delay gravitational lenses to examine the cosmological expansion introduces a new standard ruler with which to test theoretical models. The sample suitable for this kind of work now includes 12 lens systems, which have thus far been used solely for optimizing the parameters of ΛCDM. In this paper, we broaden the base of support for this new, important cosmic probe by using these observations to carry out a one-on-one comparison between competing models. The currently available sample indicates a likelihood of ∼70%-80% that the R {sub h} = ct universe is the correct cosmology versus ∼20%-30% for the standard model. This possibly interesting result reinforces the need to greatly expand the sample of time-delay lenses, e.g., with the successful implementation of the Dark Energy Survey, the VST ATLAS survey, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. In anticipation of a greatly expanded catalog of time-delay lenses identified with these surveys, we have produced synthetic samples to estimate how large they would have to be in order to rule out either model at a ∼99.7% confidence level. We find that if the real cosmology is ΛCDM, a sample of ∼150 time-delay lenses would be sufficient to rule out R {sub h} = ct at this level of accuracy, while ∼1000 time-delay lenses would be required to rule out ΛCDM if the real universe is instead R {sub h} = ct. This difference in required sample size reflects the greater number of free parameters available to fit the data with ΛCDM.

  18. Power Profiles of Commercial Multifocal Soft Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eon; Bakaraju, Ravi C; Ehrmann, Klaus

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the optical power profiles of commercially available soft multifocal contact lenses and compare their optical designs. The power profiles of 38 types of multifocal contact lenses-three lenses each-were measured in powers +6D, +3D, +1D, -1D, -3D, and -6D using NIMO TR1504 (Lambda-X, Belgium). All lenses were measured in phosphate buffered saline across 8 mm optic zone diameter. Refractive index of each lens material was measured using CLR 12-70 (Index Instruments, UK), which was used for converting measured power in the medium to in-air radial power profiles. Three basic types of power profiles were identified: center-near, center-distance, and concentric-zone ring-type designs. For most of the lens types, the relative plus with respect to prescription power was lower than the corresponding spectacle add. For some lens types, the measured power profiles were shifted by up to 1D across the power range relative to their labeled power. Most of the lenses were designed with noticeable amounts of spherical aberration. The sign and magnitude of spherical aberration can either be power dependent or consistent across the power range. Power profiles can vary widely between the different lens types; however, certain similarities were also observed between some of the center-near designs. For the more recently released lens types, there seems to be a trend emerging to reduce the relative plus with respect to prescription power, include negative spherical aberration, and keep the power profiles consistent across the power range.

  19. Class B0631+519: Last of the Class Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, Tom; Jackson, N.; Browne, I.W.A.; Koopmans, L.V.E.; McKean, J.P.; Norbury, M.A.; Biggs, A.D.; Blandford, R.D.; de Bruyn, A.G.; Fassnacht, C.D.; Myers, S.T.; Pearson, T.J.; Phillips, P.M.; Readhead, A.C.S.; Rusin, D.; Wilkinson, P.N.; /Jodrell Bank /Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen /UC, Davis /JIVE, Dwingeloo /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NFRA,

    2005-05-31

    We report the discovery of the new gravitational lens system CLASS B0631+519. Imaging with the VLA, MERLIN and the VLBA reveals a doubly-imaged flat-spectrum radio core, a doubly-imaged steep-spectrum radio lobe and possible quadruply-imaged emission from a second lobe. The maximum separation between the lensed images is 1.16 arcsec. High resolution mapping with the VLBA at 5 GHz resolves the most magnified image of the radio core into a number of sub-components spread across approximately 20 mas. No emission from the lensing galaxy or an odd image is detected down to 0.31 mJy (5{sigma}) at 8.4 GHz. Optical and near-infrared imaging with the ACS and NICMOS cameras on the HST show that there are two galaxies along the line of sight to the lensed source, as previously discovered by optical spectroscopy. We find that the foreground galaxy at z=0.0896 is a small irregular, and that the other, at z=0.6196 is a massive elliptical which appears to contribute the majority of the lensing effect. The host galaxy of the lensed source is detected in the HST near-infrared imaging as a set of arcs, which form a nearly complete Einstein ring. Mass modeling using non-parametric techniques can reproduce the near-infrared observations and indicates that the small irregular galaxy has a (localized) effect on the flux density distribution in the Einstein ring at the 5-10% level.

  20. Gravitational lensing of gravitational waves: a statistical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shun-Sheng; Mao, Shude; Zhao, Yuetong; Lu, Youjun

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study the strong gravitational lensing of gravitational waves (GWs) from a statistical perspective, with particular focus on the high frequency GWs from stellar binary black hole coalescences. These are most promising targets for ground-based detectors such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (aLIGO) and the proposed Einstein Telescope (ET) and can be safely treated under the geometrical optics limit for GW propagation. We perform a thorough calculation of the lensing rate, by taking account of effects caused by the ellipticity of lensing galaxies, lens environments, and magnification bias. We find that in certain GW source rate scenarios, we should be able to observe strongly lensed GW events once per year (˜1 yr-1) in the aLIGO survey at its design sensitivity; for the proposed ET survey, the rate could be as high as ˜80 yr-1. These results depend on the estimate of GW source abundance, and hence can be correspondingly modified with an improvement in our understanding of the merger rate of stellar binary black holes. We also compute the fraction of four-image lens systems in each survey, predicting it to be ˜30 per cent for the aLIGO survey and ˜6 per cent for the ET survey. Finally, we evaluate the possibility of missing some images due to the finite survey duration, by presenting the probability distribution of lensing time delays. We predict that this selection bias will be insignificant in future GW surveys, as most of the lens systems ({˜ } 90{per cent}) will have time delays less than ˜1 month, which will be far shorter than survey durations.

  1. A comparison of cosmological models using time delay lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The use of time-delay gravitational lenses to examine the cosmological expansion introduces a new standard ruler with which to test theoretical models. The sample suitable for this kind of work now includes 12 lens systems, which have thus far been used solely for optimizing the parameters of ΛCDM. In this paper, we broaden the base of support for this new, important cosmic probe by using these observations to carry out a one-on-one comparison between competing models. The currently available sample indicates a likelihood of ∼70%-80% that the R h = ct universe is the correct cosmology versus ∼20%-30% for the standard model. This possibly interesting result reinforces the need to greatly expand the sample of time-delay lenses, e.g., with the successful implementation of the Dark Energy Survey, the VST ATLAS survey, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. In anticipation of a greatly expanded catalog of time-delay lenses identified with these surveys, we have produced synthetic samples to estimate how large they would have to be in order to rule out either model at a ∼99.7% confidence level. We find that if the real cosmology is ΛCDM, a sample of ∼150 time-delay lenses would be sufficient to rule out R h = ct at this level of accuracy, while ∼1000 time-delay lenses would be required to rule out ΛCDM if the real universe is instead R h = ct. This difference in required sample size reflects the greater number of free parameters available to fit the data with ΛCDM.

  2. A CFH12k lensing survey of X-ray luminous galaxy clusters - II. Weak lensing analysis and global correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardeau, S.; Soucail, G.; Kneib, J.-P.; Czoske, O.; Ebeling, H.; Hudelot, P.; Smail, I.; Smith, G. P.

    Aims. We present a wide-field multi-color survey of a homogeneous sample of eleven clusters of galaxies for which we measure total masses and mass distributions from weak lensing. This sample, spanning a small range in both X-ray luminosity and redshift, is ideally suited to determining the

  3. Contact lenses purchased over the internet place individuals potentially at risk for harmful eye care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Zidile, Chaya

    2008-01-01

    Individuals are increasingly purchasing contact lenses over the Internet. No studies exist regarding Internet purchase of contact lenses and eye care health practices. One hundred fifty-one college students were surveyed regarding contact lenses purchase category (doctor's office, store, Internet). Pearson chi-square analyses compared purchase category with responses regarding U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations for purchasing contact lenses online. Analysis of variance compared contact lenses purchase category with the Time Pressure Scale (TPS). Also, correlation analyses compared the TPS with Internet eye-health statements. Contact lens purchase categories included doctor's office (43.0%), store (55.0%), and Internet (22.5%), with individuals purchasing at multiple venues. With regard to the FDA recommendations, those who purchased contact lenses at a doctor's office more often adhered to the recommendations, whereas those who purchased contact lenses at a store or the Internet did so less often. Those who purchased contact lenses over the Internet had significantly higher TPS scores. In addition, higher TPS scores were significantly correlated with various statements regarding the Internet. Those who purchase contact lenses via the Internet or store do not follow a number of FDA contact lenses recommendations. Also, those with higher TPS scores trust possible non-evidence-based contact lenses Internet information. Implications with regard to the Fairness to Contact Lens Consumers Act are discussed.

  4. The effect of UV-blocking contact lenses as a therapy for canine chronic superficial keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Nora; Fritsche, Jens; Reese, Sven

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of UV-blocking soft contact lenses in treatment for chronic superficial keratitus (CSK). Twenty six dogs with CSK were treated continuously with UV-blocking contact lenses for 6 months. A contact lens was placed on one eye of each dog; the other eye remained without a lens as a control eye. After this primary study, five of the dogs were further treated and they wore then contact lenses in both eyes. Continuously, all patients were concurrently treated topically with cyclosporine. The contact lenses were changed every 4 weeks and an ophthalmic examination performed. Evaluation criteria included corneal alterations as pigmentation, edema, pannus and vascularization. To determine the transmittance characteristics of the contact lenses before and after use, 32 contact lenses were measured with a UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer. Pigmentation increased in eyes wearing lenses and in control eyes over the evaluation period of 6 months. Corneal edema increased in the eyes wearing lenses, but remained unaffected in the control eyes. A significant difference in the incidence of pannus and the extent of corneal vascularisation could not be evaluated. Adverse effects were noted in six cases (corneal edema and vascularisation, conjunctivitis, blepharospasm). All new lenses studied reduced UV-radiation to a safe level, whereas used lenses did not maintain their transmittance characteristics. No positive effect of UV-blocking contact lenses could be proven with the study design used. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Detections of Planets in Binaries Through the Channel of Chang–Refsdal Gravitational Lensing Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Cheongho [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, In-Gu; Jung, Youn Kil [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Chang–Refsdal (C–R) lensing, which refers to the gravitational lensing of a point mass perturbed by a constant external shear, provides a good approximation in describing lensing behaviors of either a very wide or a very close binary lens. C–R lensing events, which are identified by short-term anomalies near the peak of high-magnification lensing light curves, are routinely detected from lensing surveys, but not much attention is paid to them. In this paper, we point out that C–R lensing events provide an important channel to detect planets in binaries, both in close and wide binary systems. Detecting planets through the C–R lensing event channel is possible because the planet-induced perturbation occurs in the same region of the C–R lensing-induced anomaly and thus the existence of the planet can be identified by the additional deviation in the central perturbation. By presenting the analysis of the actually observed C–R lensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-1319, we demonstrate that dense and high-precision coverage of a C–R lensing-induced perturbation can provide a strong constraint on the existence of a planet in a wide range of planet parameters. The sample of an increased number of microlensing planets in binary systems will provide important observational constraints in giving shape to the details of planet formation, which have been restricted to the case of single stars to date.

  6. The impact of animation on the length of stay and radius of movement of the excursion-recreational tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrić Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hypothesis from which we started in the paper is the claim that animation of visitors has a direct impact on the length and radius of excursion-recreational tourism. The main objective of the research is to define the role of animation in the choice of tourist destination and length of staying. In the area of the City of Belgrade, there are more protected natural areas and one of them is the Great War Island located at the confluence of the River Sava in River Danube. This area has three protected zones. Temporary population that was the subject of the interview, as well as the Association of Tourist Guides of Serbia occupate one of these zones. We concluded that one of the biggest advantages of developing tourism of the Great War Island is the possibility of developing certain forms of tourism, and one of these forms, the excursion-recreational tourism has multiple positive effects on the population. The paper concluded that the animation proportionally affects the length of stay of tourists, as well as the radius of their movement.

  7. Accidental nuclear excursion Recuplex operation 234-5 facility. Final report: Date of incident: April 7, 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-08-01

    On Saturday morning, April 7, 1962, at about 1059 Armed Forces time, an accidental nuclear excursion occurred in the plutonium waste recovery facility (Recuplex) of the 234-5 Building. This excursion did not result in any mechanical damage or spread of contamination. Three employees of the General Electric Company received overexposures to gamma and neutron radiation. None were fatally exposed; in each case the overexposure was recognized promptly, and following medical observation and testing the men were released to return to work. In compliance with AEC Manual Chapter 0703, an AEC-HAPO committee composed of two AEC employees and five General Electric employees was appointed by the Manger, HOO, with the concurrence of the General Manager, HAPO, to conduct an investigation of the incident. The committee`s purpose was to determine the cause, nature, and extent of the incident, and recommend action to be taken by others to minimize or preclude future incidents of this magnitude. A study of operating practices and operating conditions that appeared to exist prior to, during, and subsequent to the accident was made by the committee. The committee believes that this report provides sufficient information to answer questions which may arise as a result of the criticality incident except those relating to its cause.

  8. Relationship between the Angle of Repose and Angle of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The angle of internal friction ... compression chambers. Lorenzen, 1957 (quoted by Mohsenin,. 1986), reported that the design of deep ... tiongiven for lateral pressure in deep bins as presented by Mohsenin. (1986). The presence of moisture ...

  9. Highway driving safety the day after using sleep medication: the direction of lapses and excursions out-of-lane in drowsy drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Mooren, Loes; Bervoets, Adriana C; Roth, Thomas

    2017-10-24

    The primary outcome measure of the on-road driving test is the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position. However, other outcome measures, such as lapses and excursions out-of-lane, also need to be considered as they may be related to crash risk. The aim of this study was to determine the direction of lapses and excursions out-of-lane (i.e. towards/into the adjacent traffic lane or towards/into the road shoulder). In total, data from 240 driving tests were re-analysed, and 628 lapses and 401 excursions out-of-lane were identified. The analyses revealed that lapses were made equally frequently over left (49.4%) and over right (43.3%). In contrast, excursions out-of-lane were almost exclusively directed over right into the (safer) road shoulder (97.3%). These findings suggest that drivers are unaware of having lapses, whereas excursions out-of-lane are events where the driver is aware of loss of vehicle control. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Planck 2013 results. XVII. Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dechelette, T.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Pullen, A.R.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    On the arcminute angular scales probed by Planck, the CMB anisotropies are gently perturbed by gravitational lensing. Here we present a detailed study of this effect, detecting lensing independently in the 100, 143, and 217GHz frequency bands with an overall significance of greater than 25sigma. We use the temperature-gradient correlations induced by lensing to reconstruct a (noisy) map of the CMB lensing potential, which provides an integrated measure of the mass distribution back to the CMB last-scattering surface. Our lensing potential map is significantly correlated with other tracers of mass, a fact which we demonstrate using several representative tracers of large-scale structure. We estimate the power spectrum of the lensing potential, finding generally good agreement with expectations from the best-fitting LCDM model for the Planck temperature power spectrum, showing that this measurement at z=1100 correctly predicts the properties of the lower-redshift, later-time structures which source the lensing ...

  11. Catadioptric lenses in Visible Light Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marquez, J.; Valencia, J. C.; Perez, H.; Topsu, S.

    2015-04-01

    Since few years ago, visible light communications (VLC) have experience an accelerated interest from a research point of view. The beginning of this decade has seen many improvements in VLC at an electronic level. High rates of transmission at low bit error ratios (BER) have been reported. A few numbers of start-ups have initiated activities to offer a variety of applications ranging from indoor geo-localization to internet, but in spite of these advancements, some other problems arise. Long-range transmissions mean a high BER which reduce the number of applications. In this sense, new redesigned optical collectors or in some cases, optical reflectors must be considered to ensure a low BER at higher distance transmissions. Here we also expose a preliminary design of a catadioptric and monolithical lens for a LI-FI receiver with two rotationally symmetrical main piecewise surfaces za and zb. These surfaces are represented in a system of cylindrical coordinates with an anterior surface za with a central and refractive sector surrounded by a peripheral reflective sector and a back piecewise surface zb with a central refractive sector and a reflective sector, both characterized as ideal for capturing light within large acceptance angles.

  12. Ring magnet firing angle control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, M.J.; Lewis, L.G.; Rabe, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    A device is provided for controlling the firing angles of thyratrons (rectifiers) in a ring magnet power supply. A phase lock loop develops a smooth ac signal of frequency equal to and in phase with the frequency of the voltage wave developed by the main generator of the power supply. A counter that counts from zero to a particular number each cycle of the main generator voltage wave is synchronized with the smooth AC signal of the phase lock loop. Gates compare the number in the counter with predetermined desired firing angles for each thyratron and with coincidence the proper thyratron is fired at the predetermined firing angle

  13. Fimbrolide-coated antimicrobial lenses: their in vitro and in vivo effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Kumar, Ajay; Ozkan, Jerome; Bandara, Rani; Ding, Aidong; Perera, Indrani; Steinberg, Peter; Kumar, Naresh; Lao, William; Griesser, Stefani S; Britcher, Leanne; Griesser, Hans J; Willcox, Mark D P

    2008-05-01

    To examine the ability of contact lenses coated with fimbrolides, inhibitors of bacterial quorum sensing, to prevent microbial adhesion and their safety during short-term clinical assessment. A fimbrolide was covalently attached to commercially available high Dk contact lenses. Subsequently Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, or Acanthamoeba sp. were added to the lenses and control uncoated contact lenses. Lenses plus microbes were incubated for 24 h, then washed thoroughly to remove non-adherent microbes. Lenses were macerated and resulting slurry plated onto agar plates. After appropriate incubation, the numbers of colony forming units of bacteria (or numbers of Acanthamoeba trophozoites measured using a hemocytometer) from fimbrolide-coated and uncoated lenses were examined. A Guinea Pig model of lens wear was used to assess the safety of lenses worn on a continuous basis for 1 month. In a separate study, 10 subjects wore fimbrolide-coated lenses for 24 h. The responses of the Guinea Pigs and human volunteers to the lenses were assessed by slit lamp examination. The fimbrolides-coated lenses reduced the adhesion of all bacterial strains tested, with reductions occurring of between 67 and 92%. For Acanthamoeba a reduction of 70% was seen. There were no significant differences in ocular responses to fimbrolide-coated lenses compared with controls in either the 1 month animal model or overnight human trial. Fimbrolide-coated lenses show promise as an antibacterial and anti-acanthamoebal coating on contact lenses and appear to be safe when worn on the eye in an animal model.

  14. The challenge of observation on livings things by employing an ultra small-angle neutron scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Satoshi; Motokawa, Ryuhei; Iwase, Hiroki; Miyamoto, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Masui, Tomomi; Iida, You; Yue, Zhao; Chiba, Kaori; Kumada, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Takeji

    2007-01-01

    To address the question as to how small-angle scattering is effectively applied to the cell, i.e., a hierarchically ordered system comprising multi-components of macro and small molecules, the size of which ranges from 100 μm to several μm, we reconstructed SANS-J (pinhole small-angle neutron scattering spectrometer at research reactor JRR3, Tokai) to focusing and polarized neutron small-angle spectrometer (SANS-J-II), by employing focusing neutron lenses and high resolution photomultiplier. Consequently, an accessible minimum wave number q min was improved from 3x10 -3 A -1 to medium ultra-small angle scattering of 3x10 -4 A -1 . The focusing USANS method, thus developed, is crucial to fill the gap in wave number q between those covered by a double crystal method and by a conventional pin-hole method. (author)

  15. Two Comments on Bond Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    1997-09-01

    Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

  16. Duration of and decoupling between carbon isotope excursions during the end-Triassic mass extinction and Central Atlantic Magmatic Province emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Joyce A.; West, A. Joshua; Corsetti, Frank A.; Berelson, William M.; Rollins, Nick E.; Rosas, Silvia; Bottjer, David J.

    2017-09-01

    Changes in δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg from marine strata occur globally in association with the end-Triassic mass extinction and the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) during the break up of Pangea. As is typical in deep time, the timing and duration of these isotopic excursions has remained elusive, hampering attempts to link carbon cycle perturbations to specific processes. Here, we report δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg from Late Triassic and Early Jurassic strata near Levanto, Peru, where intercalated dated ash beds permit temporal calibration of the carbon isotope record. Both δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg exhibit a broad positive excursion through the latest Triassic into the earliest Jurassic. The first order positive excursion in δ13Corg is interrupted by a negative shift noted in many sections around the world coincident with the extinction horizon. Our data indicate that the negative excursion lasts 85 ± 25 kyrs, longer than inferred by previous studies based on cyclostratigraphy. A 260 ± 80 kyr positive δ13Corg shift follows, during which the first Jurassic ammonites appear. The overall excursion culminates in a return to pre-perturbation carbon isotopic values over the next 1090 ± 70 kyrs. Via chronologic, isotopic, and biostratigraphic correlation to other successions, we find that δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg return to pre-perturbation values as CAMP volcanism ceases and in association with the recovery of pelagic and benthic biota. However, the initiation of the carbon isotope excursion at Levanto predates the well-dated CAMP sills from North America, indicating that CAMP may have started earlier than thought based on these exposures, or that the onset of carbon cycle perturbations was not related to CAMP.

  17. The Mono Lake geomagnetic excursion recorded in loess: Its application as time marker and implications for its geomagnetic nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, U.; Hark, M.; Zeeden, C.; Reddersen, B.; Zöller, L.; Fuchs, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the youngest and worldwide documented geomagnetic excursions in the Brunhes Chron is the Mono Lake excursion (MLE). It has been detected in marine and terrestrial sedimentary archives as well as in lavas. Recent age determinations and age estimates for the MLE centre around an age interval of approximately 31 - 34 ka. Likewise the Laschamp excursion the MLE goes along with a distinct peak in cosmogenic radionuclides in ice cores and sedimentary archives. It provides therefore an additional geomagnetic time marker for various geoarchives to synchronise different climate archives. Here we report on a detailed record of the MLE from a loess site at Krems, Lower Austria. The site is situated on the southern slope of the Wachtberg hill in the vicinity of the old city centre of Krems. The archive comprises Middle to Upper Würmian (Late Pleistocene) loess in which an Upper Palaeolithic (Early Gravettian) cultural layer is embedded. The most spectacular finds are a double infant burial found in 2005 and a single burial discovered in 2006 (Einwögerer et al., 2006). Generally, archaeological findings show an extraordinarily good preservation due to embedding in rapidly sedimented loess (Händel et al., 2008). The about 10 m thick loess pile consists of calcareous sandy, coarse silt which is rich in mica indicating local sources. It is well stratified with brownish horizons representing embryonic soils pointing to incipient pedogenesis. Some of the pedo-horizons show occasionally indications of minor erosion and bedding-parallel sediment transport, but no linear erosional features. Pale greyish horizons are the result of partial gleying under permafrost conditions. No strong pedogenesis including decalcification and clay formation is present. The cultural layer is still covered by more than 5 m of loess, and dated by radiocarbon to ~27 ka 14C BP (Einwögerer et al., 2006). Below this layer up to 2.5 m of loess resting on Lower Pleistocene fluvial gravels are

  18. Reliability of the Star Excursion Balance Test and Two New Similar Protocols to Measure Trunk Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Plaza, Diego; Juan-Recio, Casto; Barbado, David; Ruiz-Pérez, Iñaki; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J

    2018-05-18

    Although the Star Excursion Balance test (SEBT) has shown a good intrasession reliability, the intersession reliability of this test has not been deeply studied. Furthermore, there is an evident high influence of the lower limbs in the performance of the SEBT, so even if it has been used to measure core stability, it is possibly not the most suitable measurement. The aims of this study were to (1) to assess the absolute and relative between-session reliability of the SEBT and 2 novel variations of this test to assess trunk postural control while sitting, ie, the Star Excursion Sitting Test (SEST) and the Star Excursion Timing Test (SETT); and (2) to analyze the relationships between these 3 test scores. Correlational and reliability test-retest study. Controlled laboratory environment. Twenty-seven physically active men (age: 24.54 ± 3.05 years). Relative and absolute reliability of the SEBT, SEST, and SETT were calculated through the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM), respectively. A Pearson correlation analysis was carried out between the variables of the 3 tests. Maximum normalized reach distances were assessed for different SEBT and SEST directions. In addition, composite indexes were calculated for SEBT, SEST, and SETT. The SEBT (dominant leg: ICC = 0.87 [0.73-0.94], SEM = 2.12 [1.66-2.93]; nondominant leg: ICC = 0.74 [0.50-0.87], SEM = 3.23 [2.54-4.45]), SEST (ICC = 0.85 [0.68-0.92], SEM = 1.27 [1.03-1.80]), and SETT (ICC = 0.61 [0.30-0.80], SEM = 2.31 [1.82-3.17]) composite indexes showed moderate-to-high 1-month reliability. A learning effect was detected for some SEBT and SEST directions and for SEST and SETT composite indexes. No significant correlations were found between SEBT and its 2 variations (r ≤ .366; P > .05). A significant correlation was found between the SEST and SETT composite indexes (r = .520; P > .01). SEBT, SEST, and SETT are reliable field protocols to measure postural control. However

  19. Evaluation of antioxidants and argpyrimidine in normal and cataractous lenses in north Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharani K Mynampati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the level of glutathione, thioltransferase, and argpyrimidine in nuclear and cortical cataractous lenses as well as in the clear lenses in the north Indian population. METHODS: Human cataractous lenses were collected from the patients who underwent extracapsular cataract extraction surgery; clear lenses were collected from the freshly donated eye bank eyes. Antioxidant molecules such as glutathione and thioltransferase enzyme activity were measured; simultaneously in these lenses a blue fluorophore argpyrimidine, an advanced glycation end (AGE product level was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. RESULTS: The protein concentration was found to be present at higher levels in the control lenses compared to cataract lenses. A significant decrease in the glutathione level was observed in the nuclear cataractous lenses compared to cortical cataractous (P=0.004 and clear lenses (P≤0.005, but no significant change in the level of antioxidant enzyme thioltransferase was observed. Further, argpyrimidine a blue fluorophore (AGE was found to be significantly higher in the nuclear cataract (P=0.013 compared to cortical cataract lenses. CONCLUSION: Antioxidants such as glutathione significantly decrease in age-related nuclear and cortical cataract and an AGE, argpyrimidine are present at significantly higher levels in nuclear cataract.

  20. Occlusion properties of prosthetic contact lenses for the treatment of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Randall S; McChesney, Megan E; McCluer, Craig A; Schatz, Martha P

    2008-12-01

    The efficacy of opaque contact lenses as occlusion therapy for amblyopia has been established in the literature. Prosthetic contact lenses use similar tints to improve cosmesis in scarred or deformed eyes and may be an alternative in occlusion therapy. To test this idea, we determined the degree of vision penalization elicited by prosthetic contact lenses and their effect on peripheral fusion. We tested 19 CIBA Vision DuraSoft 3 Prosthetic soft contact lenses with varying iris prints, underprints, and opaque pupil sizes in 10 volunteers with best-corrected Snellen distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better in each eye. Snellen visual acuity and peripheral fusion using the Worth 4-Dot test at near were measured on each subject wearing each of the 19 lenses. Results were analyzed with 3-factor analysis of variance. Mean visual acuity through the various lenses ranged from 20/79 to 20/620. Eight lenses allowed preservation of peripheral fusion in 50% or more of the subjects tested. Iris print pattern and opaque pupil size were significant factors in determining visual acuity (p occlusion with prosthetic contact lenses a viable therapy for amblyopia. The degree of penalization can be varied and different iris print patterns and pupil sizes, using peripheral fusion, can be preserved with some lenses. Prosthetic contact lenses can be more cosmetically appealing and more tolerable than other amblyopia treatment modalities. These factors may improve compliance in occlusion therapy.